Stahl Ex magasin 2013

Stahl Ex magasin 2013
Ex-Magazine 2013
Am Bahnhof 30, 746 3 8 Waldenburg | Germany
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S-ExMagazine 39/2013-00-EN-09/2013 · Printed in Germany
For the installers and operators of explosion protected electrical installations
Magazine 2013
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 75
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Ex-Magazine 39/2013 (ISSN 0176-0920)
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Editorial staff
Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Arnhold
Dr.-Ing. Peter Völker
Ingénieur Industriel Roger Peters
Dr. Andreas Kaufmann
Anja Kircher
Kerstin Wolf
Organisation and Design
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OHA-Druck GmbH, 74653 Ingelfingen-Criesbach/Germany
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general catalogue
Produkte für gasexplosionsgefährdete Bereiche und Bereiche mit brennbarem Staub
Products for explosive gas atmospheres and areas with combustible dust
ID 102661 · 2013-03 - 00 · Gedruckt in Deutschland
General catalogue
Basics of Explosion
Competence at a Glance
Annual Report
Where safety knows no
Introduction to explo-
compromise: manufactur-
(Version 2013/01)
sion protection for
ing, system solutions,
Explosion protection
electrical apparatus
products, Ex-certifications,
and installations
service and training
systems and components
15.03.2013 16:33:12
System requirements
> Processor: P IV or later
> Frequency: 1.4 GHz or faster
> Main memory: 1GB RAM
> Graphic card: OpenGL able graphic card
> Resolution: 1280 x 1024 px
distributing &system
Supported operating systems
> Windows Vista
> Windows XP
> Windows 7
Lighting Design Software
Explosion Protection by R. STAHL
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99427 Weimar · Germany
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ID 220122
Version 1.0 Printed in Germany
Distribution &
Camera systems
HMI Solutions
General catalogue
systems and compo-
for hazardous areas
System Solution for
Lighting Design
systems and
all Areas
Software by R. STAHL
We cannot be responsible for manuscripts not requested
by R. STAHL. Persons submitting manuscripts, letters, etc.
consent to editing.
Reproductions only with the Publishers permission!
Page 2 | Ex-Magazine 2013
cd_huelle_2013_01.indd 1
Cover picture: Gdansk, the former Hanseatic town and
today important Baltic port within the EG.
These days, the proposed free trade agreement between the
USA and the European Union strongly influences politics, the public
and the media in two of the largest economic regions. The
comprehensible great public interest is based on, in part the
creation of approximately 2 million jobs, that the aspired transatlantic
movement of goods would make.
In the field of explosion protection we unfortunately are still
far away from free trade between the ATEX area (European Union)
and the USA, even though substantial steps have been taken in the
right direction over the last years. It is still not possible for
manufacturers on either side of the Atlantic to sell their products to
both markets without expensive and time-consuming technical and
standardization of explosion protection at the IEC and the associated
certification scheme IECEx have contributed a lot towards making
international certification easier and have ensured a larger degree
of transparency. Particularly the joint work in the international
committees ensures continuous alignment of the technical product
requirements and builds up mutual trust and understanding. But
despite all the progress, a globally accepted product certificate is
still not on the horizon. The promising efforts that were initially made
at the UNECE (UN organization for the cooperation with the European
Community) seem to now be stuck. For this reason the IECEx system
correctly decided to develop the certification of services and
expertise in the field of explosion protection rather than fight
unpromising battles on the level of product certification. This
decision has been verified by the very pleasing development of the
two IECEx schemes for service providers and expertise. The
certification of service providers is now making the big step from
repair shops to plant designers, installation companies, and
maintenance and test organizations.
In the field certification of expertise, first steps have now been
taken towards certification of training providers. Our article on the
complete shut-down of the PCK Schwedt refinery intends to
demonstrate that observing high safety standards is definitely
compatible with awarding orders for maintenance to international
service providers. The decisive factors for success are
standardization of the operational procedures, good project
management, and effective and efficient training.
This is exactly where the new IECEx schemes fit in and thus
they have closed a gap that existed in the European rules.
R. STAHL, Marketing, Am Bahnhof 30, 74638 Waldenburg | Germany
Fon +49 7942 943 4301, Fax +49 7942 943 40 4301, info.ex @
The authors
04, 10, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Arnhold
28, 38, Vice President Technology,
R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH, Waldenburg
Wolfgang Berner
Managing Director, R. STAHL Ltd.,
Michael Dahmen
Process Control Engineering,
Bayer CropScience Aktiengesellschaft, Dormagen
André Fritsch
Senior Product Manager,
R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH, Waldenburg
Dr. Michal Górny
Head of Explosion Protection,
Experimental Mine ›BARBARA‹, Poland
Dr. Johannes Hesper
Product Manager,
R. STAHL Camera Systems GmbH, Köln
Sebastian Kallenbach
Product Support Manager,
R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH, Weimar
André Klammt
Junior Product Manager
R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH, Weimar
Rob Leussink
General Manager, Thermon Europe BV,
Frank Merkel
Head of Technical Administration / Quality
Management and Head of Ex-Products, Winkler GmbH, Heidelberg
Tobias Popp
Sales Specialist for system solutions,
R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH, Waldenburg
Jürgen Schiemer
Director of Division Shunting Systems,
Vollert Anlagenbau GmbH, Weinsberg
Thomas Schulze
Director Energy and Maintenance, PCK, Schwedt
Piotr Szymanski
ASE-Automatic Systems Engineering, Poland
Sandra Wassink
Marketing, Electromach BV, Hengelo/Netherlands
Mathon Weijers
Sales Support and Business Development
Manager, Thermon Europe BV,
Legislation, Standards and Technology
04 Ex-News
Information about explosion protection
10 Fracking
– technology of the future – also for explosion protection
21 Use of temporary power equipment
equipment for shutdown and maintenance at a petrochemical facility
in Canada
32 History of Explosion Protection in Poland
Application Reports
13 Efficient material transport in hazardous areas
16 25 years Remote I/O
– A success story in automation technology
The new generation is IS1+
28 Innovative products for increasing efficiency in agriculture
The Bayer CropScience multi-purpose plant
38 Planning, preparation and performing complex maintenance projects
in the process industry
After the turnaround is before the turnaround
43 Lighting Planning Using the modern ›ezyLum‹ Lighting Design Software
46 Optimized Heat Tracing Solutions
require economic and flexible control system
50 Special cameras for hazardous areas with DCS-integration
52 Safety Lighting Systems for Hazardous Areas
56 Dust explosion protection in a hard coal-fired power plant in Gdansk
Type and mixture of dust particles affect zone classification
60 Explosion protected containerized control unit for a rig assist
snubbing unit
64 Standard’s Requirements
for Electrical Resistance Trace Heaters according to DIN EN 60079-30-1
Product News
70 Product News
55 A question...
Customers ak – we answer
77 Publications
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 3
Legislation, Standards and Technology
Information about explosion protection
by Thorsten Arnhold (Editorial Board)
IEC TC 31 Equipment for explosive
TC 31 met in April 2012 in Northbrook
(USA) and in October 2012 in Oslo (Norway).
As part of this event, the following working
groups (WG) held meetings:
WG 32 Creepage and clearance distances:
After having prepared and discussed a
first internal working document in the
working group, TC 31 now assigned the task
to prepare an informal document for
distribution to the national committees,
which was issued in January 2013. Further
editing will take place during the coming
spring meeting in Windsor (UK).
Ad Hoc Working Group (AHG) 33: Safety
Devices Related to Explosion Risk:
The management of the AHG was newly
appointed in Oslo: the new rapporteur
(designation for the chairman of an AHG) is
now Otto Walch from Germany. Based on
the European Standards EN 50495 and EN
13463-6, a new working paper is now to be
prepared which is to be presented at the
autumn meeting of IEC TC 31 in New Delhi
AHG 34: Very low ambient temperatures
After the AHG had published a Draft
Technical Specification in the spring of 2012
under the title: ›Equipment intended for use
in explosive atmospheres in climatic regions
of the world with a low value of ambient
temperatures below – 20 degrees Celsius‹, a
decision was taken at the meeting of the TC
31 in Oslo, to establish a new WG 39 with the
title: ›Adverse service conditions‹ under the
convenor Dr. A. Zalogin (Russia), which has
set its constituting meeting for March 2013
Page 4 | Ex-Magazine 2013
in London. The WG has been assigned a
very challenging task as the scope was
extended considerably: ›To investigate the
issues associated with the influence of
environmental factors in adverse service
conditions related to equipment, installation
and maintenance in the IEC 60079 series and
ISO/IEC 80079 series‹. So, we are not only
talking about the range of extremely low
temperatures, but also about numerous
other environmental influences, such as
wind load, humidity, vibration etc. If the
document to be prepared is to offer a
valuable contribution with added practical
benefits, then it will have to differ
considerably from the present document. This contains mainly functional
requirements on 58 (!) pages which are
based on Russian Ghost Standards and
include major overlap with the series IEC 68
(Environmental testing standards).
A ›Call for experts‹ has been published.
AHG 37: Electrochemical cells and batteries
in equipment for explosive atmospheres
The first meeting of the AHG 37 took
place in April 2012 under the leadership of
convenor Dr. Ulrich Johannsmeyer in
Northbrook. Here, the standard
requirements already existing in the
individual standards were collated. With
regard to the terms and definitions, these
were adapted according to the IEV
dictionary to achieve clarity. A listing of
permissible electrochemical systems was
The next objective of the AHG 37 is to
provide unified requirements for the
corresponding chapter of the IEC 60079-7:
›Increased safety‹. This standard was
chosen as it is to be published next of all the
main standards.
AHG 38: Luminaires
According to a resolution by TC 31, the
AHG will be incorporated in the WG 40 with
the following scope: ›To review and develop
requirements for luminaires for explosive
atmospheres‹. The ›Call for experts‹ was
made in November 2012. G. Schwarz from
Germany will be the convenor of the WG.
AHG 41: High voltage
This AHG was newly established in Oslo.
A ›Call for experts‹ was made.
At the TC 31 meeting in Oslo, the WG 22
was also assigned the task to develop
proposals for the individual types of
protection on how to include the tested
products in dust layers at temperature tests
according to IEC 60079. To date, such
supplementary test specifications only exist
for the types of protection ta (IEC 60079-31)
and ma (IEC 60079-18). For example, IEC
60079-31 CDV 2. Ed. section 6.1.2 ›Thermal
Tests‹, states that when determining the
operating temperature, the test specimens
for type of protection ta are to be completely
embedded in a dust layer with 200 mm
thickness on all sides.
A maintenance team, to be headed by Dr.
M. Thedens (Germany), was established for
the new special type of protection standard
IEC 60079-33 (type of protection ›s‹).
The convenor of the MT 60079-15, A.
Engler (USA), was assigned the task to
make proposals on the modification of
Standard IEC 60079-15 after a major portion
of the original content had been
incorporated in the corresponding type of
protection standards as requirements for
the products of the EPL Gc and Dc.
IEC 60079–0: Explosive atmospheres Equipment – General requirements
The 6. edition of the basic standard was
published in 2011. The stability date was
given as 2015. It is expected that revision to
the 7. edition can take place in 2014.
The harmonisation of the European Standard
EN 60079-0:2011 is still delayed due to
technical comments from various European
national committees which were not
admissible according to the statutes. To
avoid such delays, the European national
committees have agreed to cooperate better
in future.
IEC 60079–1: Equipment protection by
flameproof enclosures ›d‹
The FDIS of the 7. edition of the standard
was published in July 2012.
The main modifications to the 6. edition
> Introduction of Equipment Protection
Levels (EPL) ›da‹, ›db‹ and ›dc‹,
> New options for bonded joints,
> To avoid misuse, U-housings may in
future only be marked in the housing
> Housings, where the joint dimensions
differ from the standard values, must be
> Novel Multi Step Joints are now
permissible. In this case there must be at
least two reversals of the joint direction.
> Random testing of pressure resistance is
now possible, if, as part of type testing, a
test was passed at three-fold reference
For EPL ›dc‹, the requirements for type of
protection ›encapsulated switching device‹
from IEC 60079-15, were incorporated.
A novelty was the rejection of the FDIS
by the national committees, as negative
votes are not issued under normal
circumstances at such an advanced stage
of standard preparation. The reason for
rejection is the comprehensive editorial
modification of the text by the IEC
Secretariat without consultation of the MT.
According to IEC rules this resulted in a
downgrading to CD status. It is now being
attempted to avoid technical modifications
to the standard, so that it can pass through
the standards process without further
IEC 60079-2: Equipment protection by
pressurized enclosures ›p‹
The CDV of the 6. edition of the IEC
60079-2 has been published.. The main
novelties compared to the 5. edition of the
standard include:
> Additional requirements for pressurized
> Requirements for dust protection
> New definitions for px, py, pz,
> Additional requirements for built-in
> Modified testing requirements for failsafe containments,
> Modified testing requirements to limit the
maximum pressure in the protective
> a second source for protective gas
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 5
The following weak points are criticised by
> The requirements given in section 5.9 for
housings are deemed insufficient.
> According to section 7.11, signalling with
a signal lamp is possible in case of
overpressure failure. This is left to the
judgement of the operator.
IEC 60079-5: Equipment protection by
powder filling ›q‹
The CDV of the 4. edition was distributed
in October 2012. As the stability date was set
for 2015, publication of the FDIS needs to
wait until 2015. This ›freezing‹ of the new
standard publication is rather regrettable, as
it contains a number of improvements useful
in practice.
IEC 60079-6: Equipment protection by liquid
immersion ›o‹
The previously known ›oil immersion‹ has
become the ›liquid immersion‹, a first
indicator of the fundamental review of the
standard. The CD of the 4. edition was
published in January 2012. As the stability
date was set for 2016 here, ›freezing‹ will
take one year longer than for powder filling.
IEC 60079-7: Increased safety
Work on the 5. edition of the standard
commenced in October 2010 in Seattle. The
CD was published in November 2012. The
main modifications are as follows:
> Introduction of the EPLs ›eb‹ and ›ec‹,
> Requirements of IEC 60079-15 for ›na‹ are
moved to part 7 under ›ec‹,
> New requirements for inverter operation,
adapted to the respective EPL,
> Definition, that U-housings may only be
marked internally.
Page 6 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Furthermore, two ad hoc working groups are
working on the topics ›Modern light sources‹
and ›Requirements for EPL ›ec‹ products‹.
There is general criticism among the
experts to differentiate between
requirements for indoor and outdoor use.
This is regarded as being difficult to put into
practice and would probably lead to
uncertainty among operators and installers.
IEC 60079-11: Intrinsic safety
After the 6. edition was published in 2011
and the stability date set at 2016, the MT has
been collecting topics for the 7. edition
since the meeting in Oslo which will be
continued in March 2013 in Windsor.
IEC 60079-25: Intrinsically safe electrical
The second edition of the standard was
published in 2010. At present the topics for
the 3. edition are being collected. The
stability date has been set for 2015.
Since Seattle, an ad hoc working group
of the sub-committee SC 31G has been
working on modifications to the spark test
apparatus. In particular, the cadmium disc is
to be replaced and an extension of testing
options reached. The work will also be
continued in Winsor.
PT 60079-39
The topic ›Power-i‹ is now also gaining
momentum in the standardisation process:
after a so-called prepublication had already
existed for the members of the working
group as internal working paper, a technical
specification was distributed in November
2012, which is to be discussed in 2013 in
IEC 60079-18: Equipment protection by
encapsulation ›m‹
The CD of the 4. edition was published in
June 2012. The CDV was prepared at the
meeting in Oslo. As the stability date was set
for 2015, there is still sufficient time to
complete work on the new edition of the
This includes the following important
> Monitoring equipment is only required to
maintain the maximum permitted surface
> The temperatures for the temperature
storage tests have been defined more
precisely and simplified.
> The pressure test to determine bubbles
and cavities in the cast is being
IEC 60079-26: Equipment with equipment
protection level (EPL) Ga
The comments on the CD of the 3. edition
were discussed in April 2012 in Northbrook.
The CDV version was published at the
beginning of 2013. The stability date set is
IEC 60079-31: Equipment dust ignition
protection by enclosure
The CDV was published in March 2012.
The following modifications were made to
the previous standard:
> The safety margin for the maximum
surface temperature was reduced from
20°K to 10°K.
> The requirements for overpressure
testing of ta devices were relaxed.
IEC 60079-32-1 and IEC 60079-32-2:
Electrostatic hazards
Part 1 has the status of a Technical
Specification (TS) and includes the
fundamentals. Part 2 describes the test
methods and has CD status. Both papers
were distributed at the end of 2012 for
comments. The DTS 60079-32-1 includes
some contradictions compared with the new
edition of the FDIS IEC 60079-0:2012, in
particular, the TS includes several
restrictions in terms of present practice. In
specific this relates to values in table 2:
›Allowed isolated capacitance in Zones with
explosive atmosphere‹, which do not agree
with the values in table 9 of the FDIS IEC
60079-0: ›Maximum capacitance of
unearthed metal parts‹, as well as the
requirement from CDV IEC 60079-32-1, which
demands a minimum coating thickness of
10 mm for non-conductive coatings on metal
surfaces against propagating brush
discharges. The current IEC 60079-0 only
requires 8 mm.
IEC 60079-33: Equipment protection by
special protection ›s‹
The FDIS of the first edition was
distributed in June 2012. A maintenance
team was established led by Dr. M. Thedens
as convenor.
At the annual meeting of the Management
Committee of the IECEx it was decided to
assign this standard to the responsibility of
the IECEx, as this tends to be more of a
certification document than a specification
IEC 60079-40: Requirements for Process
This new document was published as CD
in November 2012. TC 31 agreed that in
future this would be published as a
technical specification and not as a
This is only to be applied, if a combustible
mixture can enter the electrical system in
the interior of devices in case of leaks. Such
a release can however be excluded under
normal conditions.
The marking requirements for such process
seals were relaxed compared to regular
operating equipment.
TC31 SC31 J Classification of hazardous
areas and installation requirements
IEC 60019-10-1: Classification of areas –
Explosive gas atmospheres
The CD of the 2. edition was distributed in
2011. Over 300 comments were received
from the national committees.
New terms included as a result of the
Buncefield accident (explosion accident in
the year 2005 in England) are ›catastrophe‹
and ›rare fault‹. The trend of using
mathematical models for zone classification
remains unchanged. Using compilations of
examples, which has proven itself in
practice, remains possible.
Also included are the demands on
employees which perform zone
Furthermore, there are attempts to
include elements of functional safety. For
example, this would mean that a specific SIL
classification is assigned to safety functions
to ensure proper operation of the technical
ventilation measures.
IEC 60079-10-2: Classification of areas –
Combustible dust atmospheres
A DC was published in early 2012. A new
maintenance cycle will probably commence
in spring 2013 with the presentation of a CD
for the 2. edition.
IEC 60079-14: Electrical installations in
hazardous areas (other than mines)
The CDV was distributed in summer 2012.
The unrealistic requirement of the CD, that
only products certified in accordance with
the latest standards for ignition protection
types be used in new plants, was
For the first time, requirements for the
qualification and competence of employees
involved in installation work in Ex zones, are
described in an appendix F.
The following amendments and
modifications were also implemented:
> Adoption of the requirements for
installations in zones with dust explosion
hazards from IEC 61214-14.
> Definition of the voltage tolerances for
products to +/- 10%.
> Description of the minimum requirements
for operating instructions (Author's note:
this topic however, ought to be part of
the product standard IEC 60079-0).
> Greater attention to installations under
extreme environmental conditions.
> Definition for the use and temperature
classes of non-certified passive RFIDTAGs: ambient temperatures to 40°C T6
and to 60°C T5 were defined.
> Initial testing was adopted from IEC
> Newly included were the requirements
for protection against ignition through
optical radiation.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 7
> New chapter for electrical installations
at extremely low ambient temperatures.
> New appendix for limited gas passage
through cables.
IEC 60079-17: Electrical installations
inspection and maintenance
The CDV of the 5. edition was published
in June 2012.
The EPL's were introduced in the 5. edition
of the standard and dust explosion
protection was integrated. Here too, the
requirements for qualifications and
experience of the skilled personnel involved
in inspection and service are described.
Also new is the requirement in section ›Verification of unmarked equipment‹,
that in cases of insufficient marking, the
information necessary to conduct a proper
inspection must be added subsequently (i.e.
with a clear identification number on the
New test requirements were also
established for portable equipment.
IEC 60079-19: Equipment repair, overhaul
and reclamation
Work on the 4. edition is to commence in
2013. The objective is to bring out a new
standard in 2015.
SC 31 M Non-electrical equipment and
protective systems for explosive
The sub-committee SC 31 M cooperates
closely with the corresponding ISO
committee and has the task of preparing
standards for non-electrical explosion
Page 8 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Dr. M. Beyer (Germany) was appointed as
chairman of SC 31 M as of 2013 to succeed
Dr. H. Bothe (Germany).
IEC 60079-20-1: Material characteristics for
gas and vapour classification – Test
methods and data
The standard has a stability date of 2014.
The MT, headed by the convenor Dr. M.
Thedens (Germany), was requested to
prepare a new edition of the standard, and a
questionnaire was sent to the national
IEC 60079-20-2: Material characteristics –
Combustible dusts test methods
Following the retirement of the present
convenor, Dave Wechsler (USA), D.W.
Ankele (USA), will head up the MT. A new
edition of the CD is in preparation.
It was decided to keep the existing
numbering of the two standards as they are
quoted in many other standards. (all other
standards for non-electric ignition
protection types have the number range
ISO/IEC 80079-34: Application of quality
systems for equipment manufacture
After the first edition of the standard was
published in April 2011, the next edition is
now being prepared. A maintenance team is
being established and to be headed by
Thierry Houeix (France) as convenor.
ISO 80079-36: Non-electrical equipment for
use in explosive atmospheres – Basic
methods and requirements
The CDV of the first edition of this
standard was published in the summer 2012.
The new convenor is Thierry Houeix
The standard is based closely on the
basic standard IEC 60079-0: ›General
provisions‹. A very useful reference list of
the individual sections of IEC 60079-0 is
given under the scope.
ISO 80079-37: Non-electrical equipment for
use in explosive atmospheres
The CDV of the first edition was
published in summer 2012. K. Brehm
(Germany) is the convenor of the project
team. This standard describes the three
non-electrical types of protection,
constructional safety 'ch', control of ignition
sources 'bh', liquid immersion 'kh'.
IECEx System
The meeting of the Management
Committee (MC), of the IECEx Testing and
Assessment Group IECEx-TAG and various
working groups was held early September
2012 in Calgary/Canada.
A total of 120 delegates from 30 countries
attended. The following are highlights
among the many discussion points and
> Evaluation of a questionnaire sent to the
national committees to clarify the
acceptance of so-called ›non witnessed
tests‹ at the manufacturer. These are
certain type tests conducted at the
manufacturers in accordance with OD
024, where no representatives of the
inspecting authorities are present. Only
15 countries responded, giving diverse
views. Many national committees feared
misuse due to such simplification. It was
decided to move this modification to OD
024 until a greater base of trust has been
> A significant extension of the ›Service
facility scheme‹ IECEx 03 was decided.
After very good experiences with the
certification of repair companies over the
past few years, service providers for the
selection and planning, erection and
initial testing, as well as maintenance
and inspection of equipment for
explosive plants can also be certified in
the future. For the future, it is also
intended to certify service providers for
zone classification. To this purpose, the
responsible Working Group 10, headed
by Theo Pijpker (Netherlands), has
prepared a comprehensive set of
documents which are now being
evaluating by the national committees.
> The first results of the new certification
scheme for personal competencies ExPCC were positive. Over 170 persons had
been certified after just one year. However, it must also be mentioned that approx. 70 % of the certificates were issued
for general basic requirements (Unit 01),
so that one cannot really speak of experts here. Originally it had been intended that this unit was only to be approved
in conjunction with one or more other
units. A corresponding submission has
been made by the German delegation to
avoid a watering down of the new
As the meetings of the CENELEC TC31 are
now only held at 18-month intervals, there is
no additional up-to-date information in this
issue of the Ex-News.
EPL Equipment protection level
DC Document for Comments
Survey at the beginning of a new draft
CD Committee Draft
1. step: publication of the standard's draft
CDV Committee Draft for Voting
2. step: first vote on the standard's draft
FDIS Final Draft International Standard
3. step: final vote on the standard's draft
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 9
Legislation, Standards and Technology
– technology of the future – also for explosion protection
by Thorsten Arnhold
Pioneer USA
The public debate on pros and cons of future exploitation of large resources of socalled shale oil, and in particular shale gas,
has increased significantly in many countries in frequency and intensity. The debate
has mainly been inspired by the impressive
news and information from the USA where
exploitation of unconventional deposits of
fossil fuels started several years ago. The
USA has the largest known shale oil and gas
reserves in the world and these resources
are mainly in sparsely populated areas. In
such areas, large-scale exploitation can be
achieved with relative ease. To be able to
assess the extent of the available resources
and their importance for the US economy,
the following facts should be taken into account:
> As of 2015, the USA will presumably become the world’s largest producer of natural gas through the exploitation of shale
gas deposits, and as of 2017 they will become the largest producer of natural oil
through the exploitation of shale oil.
> As in the past years, energy prices have
plummeted the USA has become an attractive location for energy-intensive industries. As of 2008, gas prices have decreased by more than 80% and the
electricity rates have plummeted similarly.
> According to the estimations of the company IHS (IHS Inc. a leading global
source of information and analytics), in
2012 alone, the addition of 1.7 million new
jobs and 238 billion US dollars to the
gross domestic product could be attributed to the effect of the shale gas and oil
Page 10 | Ex-Magazine 2013
No wonder in Texas people talk about
›game-changer‹ when talking about the new
technology for the exploitation of unconventional deposits. Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) technology is on the other hand not new
at all. For example, in Germany it has been
used for several decades for the exploitation
of deposits that are difficult to access, without public notice and without incident despite opponents more or less well grounded
claims of possible environmental risks that
fracking may cause.
The procedure
During fracking, oil and gas deposits that
are several hundred to more than a thousand metres deep, are tapped first by a vertical drilling, followed by horizontal drilling
(see figure 1). To protect the drinking water
resources that occur mostly in near-surface
depth, the vertical drillings are lined with
steel tubes that are subsequently sealed
with concrete. Then, small openings are
blasted into the shale layers in the horizontal range of the drilling with the help of a socalled perforation gun. Afterwards, several
million litres of fracturing fluid are pumped
into the drilling under high pressure. More
than 98% of this fluid consists of water and
solid filler material like coarse-grained sand.
Two per cent of the fluids are different
chemicals, including antibacterial ones,
ones that are anticorrosive or that decrease
the surface tension of the raw materials that
are exploited and thus make exploitation
easier. With the hydrostatic pressure, the
shale layers are opened and direct access
to the oil or gas fracking is provided. Then,
ca. 40% of the fluids are pumped out again.
The rest that remains consists in large part
of solid particles that now have the task of
keeping the small burst channels in the
shale open during the production process.
The fluid that has been pumped out is recycled at the surface in special wastewater
treatment plants and can be used again later for the exploitation of new deposits.
Why is there strong opposition from different environmental protection organisations
to fracking?
First there is the suspicion that highly
toxic chemicals are introduced into the soil
poisoning the drinking water and cause other long-term damages. However, examinations have shown that with correct sealing
of the vertical drilling and by keeping a distance of several hundred metres between
the drinking water resources and the deposits of the fossil raw material, poisoning of
the drinking water can be avoided. Spectacular videos that can be viewed on the Internet, showing that in Texas the drinking water that flows from the tap can be ignited
with a match have proven to be fraudulent .
Problematic is that the production companies do not completely publish the composition of the chemicals used as they want
to protect their intellectual property. The opponents of the technology consider this to
be a confession that the environment is endangered. Another point of criticism is that
fracking has caused isolated earth tremors.
However, this hazard can be met by careful
seismic surveys before the beginning of the
A more serious argument is the huge water consumption fracking involves. On a
world level, and especially in certain regions, drinking water is a very scarce resource. Particularly in China, who wants to
start fracking on a large scale in the coming
protective seal
vertical drilling
fractured deposite
horizontal drilling
Figure 1: Basic principal of Fracking
years, suffers from chronic water shortage.
An efficient recycling process with largely
closed cycles spares the freshwater reserves and ensures that only a few of the
hydrocarbons in the fracturing fluid that has
been pumped back are released.
Where is explosion protection required during fracking?
In principle, fracking is just a special type
of extraction of flammable hydrocarbons.
Explosion protection is required for production, transport and processing of the raw
materials, i.e. in principle of the same type
and to the same extent as it has been required up to now for the exploitation of conventional deposits. Due to the low yield of
the shale deposits, however, several drill-
ings per deposit are required, which leads to
a multiplication of the drilling equipment.
Storage and recycling of the used fracturing
fluid holds explosion hazards as well, as
there are hydrocarbons in the fluid. If the
majority of the studies on unconventional
deposits and the statements in these studies
on the expected range of the raw material
deposits can be believed, it looks like explosion protection in the oil and gas industry
will have a long future.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 11
Fracking – technology of the future – also for explosion protection
Bill. m3
Latin America
North America
South Africa
Figure 2: Shale gas potential – worldwide known reserves and resources 2010 (Source: Study of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources
(BGR), Germany).
What can be expected of fracking in future?
Aside from the USA, there are numerous
nations that have substantial shale gas and
shale oil deposits. Examples are Argentina,
Mexico, Chile, China, Libya, Algeria and Russia.
In Europe, particularly Poland, Great Britain, France and Germany have noteworthy
reserves. While there is a comprehensive
prohibition of fracking in France, countries
like Great Britain and Poland prepare for an
intensive exploitation of their national deposits. Given that the large Polish reserves
may ensure the national gas supply for
about 300 years and will make Poland independent of the expensive, politically
charged imports, this is more than understandable. In Germany, the government is
now dealing with this technology under the
absolutely essential prerequisite of protecting the environment with strict safety standards while at the same time exploiting the
substantial resources. Independent of the
Page 12 | Ex-Magazine 2013
development of the German exploitation of
uncon-ventional fossil raw material deposits, intensive use of the fracking technology
may in future be expected throughout the
world. The demand for energy and raw materials of the industrial and developing countries, and the temptation to become independent of external suppliers for decades to
come is too great. Taking the optimistic
forecasts into account, the summit of the oil
and gas production, which seemed to be imminent a few years ago, now has been
pushed some decades or even centuries
away on the time axis.
Application Reports
Efficient material transport
in hazardous areas
by Tobias Popp and Jürgen Schiemer
Figure 1: KR 50 EX shunting robot certified according to the ATEX directive
Vollert Anlagenbau GmbH in Weinsberg (Germany) specialises
in shunting and loading systems for railroad sidings. Tailor-made
freight loading solutions guarantee smooth operational processes in a
wide range of industries, such as refineries, steel processing plants,
in the chemical industry, and special application areas. For more than
85 years, renowned global player have relied on the top quality standards, confirmed by the ISO 9001:2000 certification.
Vollert has now expanded its product portfolio with particular
emphasis on the loading of explosive goods. By taking into consideration both the power specifications and track conditions, the company
offers a customised solution that meets the high criteria of the ATEX
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 13
Efficient loading of hazardous material in potentially explosive areas
Conventional loading and transport solutions are costly and require
more maintenance
Since the 1960s, stationary, rope-bound shunting systems have
been used to move railway wagons and trains during loading and unloading procedures. This process involves the precise positioning of
individual wagons on a weighbridge or a loading point, or the automated movement of the whole train at a low constant speed. Since this
loading technology that includes a drive station, cable tensioning station, idler pulleys and ropes is very extensive, the need arose to simplify the complex technology and integrate a movable drive.
The shunting robot was developed by Vollert in 1974 as the first
railbound shunting solution. The primary advantage of having onpremises automated loading of goods instead of the usual rope conveyor systems with wheel-acting or buffer pusher trucks, is the lower
maintenance costs involved. The time consuming re-tensioning and
lubrication of the rope are also no longer necessary. The autonomous
system even cuts down on-site planning and preliminary work for
foundations and power supply. Having no need for assembly work,
such as cable installation and time-consuming commissioning stages,
it is immediately ready for deployment.
Ballast weights ensure good traction and the specially selected
variable frequency converters guarantee a gentle acceleration. Due to
low shunting speeds, the braking procedure of the coupled train is
also done via frequency converters, completely eliminating wear and
tear. Spring loaded disc brakes serve as holding and emergency stop
brakes. Power supply by means of spiral winding cable reels that wind
and unwind the cable. A centre cable power supply within the track
and an automatic shunting coupling assure an efficient shunting
Figure 3: Ex de 8264 coupling cabinet with transformer and main switch
A cost effective solution for loading goods in refineries, tank storage
facilities and in the chemical industry
The majority of liquids and gases produced in the petroleum and
chemical industry are flammable and can generate explosive atmospheres. Shunting and loading operations in such hazardous area
therefore involve strict safety and testing requirements on the system
technology. Within the European Union, all mechanical and electrical
components must be certified and carry the CE marking according to
the ATEX directive. Due to its advantages, the shunting robot was soon
implemented in the loading of bulk goods. Loading procedures in environments with explosive atmospheres remained however unchanged
and were realised using stationary shunting systems. The strong heat
generated by the drive technology posed an explosion risk and was a
difficult issue to resolve. The KR 50 EX shunting robot that was jointly
developed by Vollert and R.STAHL and TÜV Bavaria, proved to be the
first optimal solution to be both technically and economically viable.
Figure 2: Stationary shunting systems are costly and
require more maintenance
Page 14 | Ex-Magazine 2013
KR 50 EX shunting robot certified according to the ATEX directive
The remote-controlled KR 50 EX shunting robot has an electric
all-wheel drive technology with a power output of 15 kW that results
in even a driving force of up to 50 kN. That is enough power to move a
trailing load of 700 t. Acceleration is continuously variable and speeds
of up to 18 m/min under load and 36 m/min at unladen run. Before the
first commissioning, every mechanical and electrical component was
subject to a detailed risk analysis: Vollert engineers defined the requirements for control, motor and cable reels as well as all moving
parts, such as the wheels and shunting coupling. With regard to drive
controls, the system solution competence of R. STAHL proved to essential. Three control units with type of protection Ex d (flame-proof
enclosure) in combination with Ex e (increased safety) were deployed.
These are the coupling cabinet (Figure 3) that safely encapsulates the
coupling transformer together with the load break switch and main
circuit breaker, and the automation cabinet (Figure 4) that contains
both the on-site controls and an Ex certified radio receiver system.
Figure 5 shows the arrangement of the electrical drive components.
The encapsulation of the frequency converter with 15 kW power output was a particular challenge. A matching solution for the specified
driving conditions was however devised by mounting a heat sink onto
the flameproof enclosure to increase its surface area. Thus the power
loss incurred by the frequency converter during operation can be dissipated reliably and safely into the environment.
TUV Bavaria was involved right from the planning phase, which
resulted in a smooth final inspection. All electrical components and
related built-in controls have been certified (EC type examination certificate). The large portfolio of Ex housings as well as the regulatory
strategy of R. STAHL facilitated the implementation phase and turned
it into a technically and economically advantageous solution. The mechanical Ex requirements were achieved constructively. For example,
operation-related friction sparks caused by the robot wheels are prevented by limiting the driving speed.
When used in working areas with explosive atmospheres, the
KR 50 EX shunting robot proves to be an economically attractive alternative to conventional rail vehicles and stationary shunting systems.
This solution is particularly attractive due to the lower investment, cost
of ownership loading highly explosive hazardous substances. Proven
system components ensure a solid construction and resilience in
tough everyday use. By combining Vollert's competence in plant and
machinery construction with R. STAHL's expertise in electrical explosion protection, a perfect solution was achieved in a short period of
Figure 4: Ex de 8264 control cabinet with robot controls for on-site operation
or by radio controller
Figure 5: Ex de 8220 power controls with frequency converter
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 15
Application reports
25 years Remote I/O
– A success story in automation technology
The new generation is IS1+
by André Fritsch
Figure 1: IS1+ zone 1 Remote I/O for Ethernet
Over 25 years ago, R. STAHL presented a new development for
the automation of plants in hazardous areas, which attracted considerable attention among experts as it explored virgin territory: today it
is known as Remote I/O. The signal and control circuits that had been
fed individually to the process control system are now bundled in a bus
line and transmitted serially digitalised. This has resulted in considerable cost savings when laying cables as well as dispensing with conventional input and output modules at the control system. Not surprisingly, this novelty was observed with scepticism by the manufacturers
of distributed control systems (DCS). Users, also, were initially reserved, as many questions needed to be discussed with regards to
coupling the two systems, in specific fault and operational safety.
The further development
However, R. STAHL was not discouraged. One of the first intrinsically safe field busses with special communication was developed
for the first ›Intrinsically safe field bus system ICS MUX‹ in 1987 as a
basis for linking the various control systems (Figure 2). One of the first
industries to discover the advantages of this technology was the offshore industry, largely due to the lower space requirements in the
control room as well as the significantly lower weight due to the dispensing of cables in field installations. Furthermore, the additional options of remote diagnosis made this technology interesting to the off-
Page 16 | Ex-Magazine 2013
shore industry. A good example is the offshore platform ›Heidrun‹ in a
Norwegian gas and oil field, which was equipped with the new technology in the 90's and operates to this day with Remote I/O systems
from R. STAHL.
The increasing popularity of remote I/O technology and the
standardisation of field busses added to the worldwide acceptance of
remote I/O solutions. The 90's saw the development of standardized
field busses such as PROFIBUS DP and PA or Foundation fieldbus H1,
which are operated in many installations today. The vendor-neutral
and intra-operative approach of these field bus solutions played a major role in the acceptance by users. In specific the PROFIBUS DP acts
as basis for field communication in most remote I/O systems. Here too,
R. STAHL took on the role of pioneers, as the PROFBUS DP had not
been conceived for hazardous areas and its intrinsically safe pendant,
the PROFIBUS PA, was far too slow for remote I/O systems. The decision to develop an intrinsically safe PROFIBUS DP as compared with
the alternative of using a bus connection with type of protection ›e‹
›Increased safety‹, was not too difficult. The international acceptance
of this type of protection remains limited to this day as compared with
›intrinsic safety‹. Installations, extensions and maintenance work of
bus segments in hazardous areas are only possible here with significant limitations. The solution conceived by R. STAHL for an intrinsically safe PROFIBUS DP spread quickly and the majority of worldwide
remote I/O installations of various manufacturers are based on this
concept. Finally, this solution was standardised in 2003 by the PROFIBUS user organisation (PNO, today: "PROFIBUS International") with
minor modifications, and is since in use under the name ›RS 485-IS‹. The field bus system ICS MUX was developed further in the mid90's becoming the VOS 200 system. This allowed the realisation of
considerably more compact and thus less expensive field stations,
which could be coupled to most process control systems via standardised, intrinsically safe field busses, the PROFIBUS DP or Modbus RTU,
and which could also manage the now widely used HART protocol in
addition to conventional process data transmission.
The 2. generation – IS1 the easy way
Experience gained from the installations and discussions with
end users and DCS manufacturers proved to be valuable input for the
development of a new remote I/O system. In the year 2000, the IS1 was
launched as a worldwide novelty at the INTERKAMA fair in Germany.
The IS1 Remote I/O system has today become the standard followed
by other developments. With over 1 million installed I/O points worldwide, the IS1 is the most frequently employed zone 1 remote I/O across
the globe (figure 3).
IS1 is based on a system platform with intrinsically safe field
bus, intrinsically safe data transmission and supply of the I/O modules,
as well as connection of both intrinsically safe as well as non-intrinsically safe field devices. For a long time this made the IS1 the only remote I/O system on the market which could operate arbitrarily with a
mixture of Ex i and non Ex i modules. The intrinsically safe system basis
of the IS1 makes it exceptionally easy to use. Working under voltage
(hot work) is possible during installation, maintenance or changes and
extensions to the system, even under explosion risks in zone 1, as well
Figure 2: ICS MUX from 1986
Figure 3: IS1 Remote I/O System
in the year 2000
as on the intrinsically safe field bus. For example, this relates to replacing or adding I/O modules and Ex i field devices, but also the system
supply and gateway ›CPM‹ (CPU & power module) (hot swap).The internal wiring of the system is via a special bus rail and not, as with
other systems, via a relatively expensive and sensitive motherboard,
or a fault-prone and difficult to service module-to-module plug connection. The IS1 bus rail contains the redundant and intrinsically-safe
designed data lines as well as the Ex i supply of the I/O modules. All
connections are incorporated safely in a plastic enclosure, and installation is easy and highly robust, and can be done without tools simply
by snapping into a conventional top-hat rail. Connections allow the bus
rail to be adapted to the required size. For use in zone 1, up to eight I/O
modules, in other words 64 analogue or 128 digital I/O signals, or in
zone 2 up to 16 I/O modules equivalent to 128 analogue or 256 digital
I/O signals, can be operated in one system.The I/O functions support
all sensors and actuators normally used in process automation, including transmission of HART information as well as comprehensive diagnoses. Since 2013, the new IS1+ I/O modules offer even more functions.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 17
25 years Remote I/O – A success story in automation technology
Figure 4: System survey of Remote I/O in zone 1 and zone 2, RS 485 and Ethernet
CPU & power modules are employed for the safe and robust
supply of energy to the intrinsically safe circuits of the system. These
are connected to a 24 V DC or 230 V AC power source. Using these
different IS1 modules, individually designed field stations can be employed in zone 1 and zone 2.
The PROFIBUS DP remains the most frequently used field bus for
remote I/O systems, also in explosive areas. The Modbus RTU continues to be used in various applications due to its simple structure. Ethernet solutions have already established themselves in factory automation and are being increasingly used in process automation. In the
case of Ethernet, the number of protocols is similarly confusing as it
was during the beginning of field bus technology, although a number
of them are gradually coming to the forefront in process automation.
Today, Modbus TCP or Ethernet/IP are usually used. The two major
field bus organisations, Fieldbus Foundation and PROFIBUS International, are already working on solutions on the basis of FF HSE (High
Speed Ethernet) and PROFINET to integrate remote I/O in their structures. Being a pioneer in adapting the PROFIBUS DP for use in explo-
Page 18 | Ex-Magazine 2013
sive areas and remote I/O, R. STAHL can demonstrate one of the best
implementations and considerable experience with the IS1. IS1 PROFIBUS has been tested with all distributed control systems (DCS) as well
as numerous programmable logic controllers (PLC) and is used worldwide. The system is configured and parameterised throughout via the
PROFIBUS DP Master with GSD, no proprietary tools are required.
Both multi-drop connections on RS 485, simple or redundant (so-called
PNO redundance – i.e. without specific drivers), as well as an optical
ring, simple or redundant, are supported. Explosion protection is also
necessary for optical data transmission in hazardous areas. IS1 employs the type of protection optically inherent safety (op is acc. to IEC
60079-28), which offers the same benefits as ›intrinsic safety‹. HART
can be supported, both as diagnostic information or when using the
four HART variables (Multi-Variable Device) in cyclic data traffic, for
all solutions. In addition, IS1 offers a separate service bus which allows access to the system and diagnostic data independent of the
process bus. Incorporation into the asset management systems is optional either via the service bus or directly via PROFIBUS DP, depend-
ing on the control system used. The times of proprietary drivers or
tools are long past; today standardized FDT/DTM technology is used.
Since 2003, a comfortable DTM is available for IS1, which ensures both
the protocol connection COM DTM and the HART transmission (HART_
Gateway DTM) as well as access to all parameters and configuration
data of the IS1 system (Device DTM).With this probably highest performance DTM for remote I/O systems, the user can also use comfort
functions such as Condition Monitoring (polling of HART data in the
background) or Automatic Topology Generation (generation of a system structure at the push of a button) if supported by his application.
The DTM can also be used if the protocol used offers no, or only a few
of its own mechanisms for configuring a remote I/O, as is the case, for
example, with Modbus protocols or EtherNet/IP. Although Ethernet is
relatively recent in process automation, R. STAHL was the first manufacturer in 2010 to launch the IS1 with Ethernet for zone 1 applications,
initially with the Modbus TCP. Since the end of 2011, installations with
EtherNet/IP are also in use.In order to realise Ethernet installations
with as few problems as possible and to ensure trouble-free transmission despite the high data transmission rate of 100 MBit/sec, an IS1
Ethernet, as described above, is based on optical transmission via optical fibres which are optically inherently safe (op is) for explosive areas. In addition to the advantages of robust transmission and independence of shielding or earthing quality, this allows for the covering
of considerably greater distances than that of copper cables. Next to
the above mentioned DTM, the IS1 Ethernet also offers an integrated
web server which provides additional support during installation and
error searches, and opens the system for remote maintenance via the
Internet. In 2010, IS1 Ethernet took the first step into the future of remote I/O technology, the second step followed in 2013 with IS1+.
IS1+, the remote I/O system with built-in future
After developing a new communication module using modern
Ethernet technology, revision of the I/O level was the next step. To
provide users with new and innovative functions, R. STAHL developed
the I/O modules completely new, including design modifications. Since
early 2013, this design has been on the market under the name IS1+.
Some of the new functions have thus far not been available in explosion-protected and even partly not in industrial remote I/O systems.
Two new multifunctional I/O modules now allow mixed operation of
analogue and digital inputs; they replace six of the previous IS1 modules. This results in considerably more compact and inexpensive systems for smaller and non-homogenous signal mixtures, as well as in
savings in stocking spare parts. The Analogue Universal Modul HART
(AUMH) has 8 channels and each channel can be used individually as
4 … 20 mA input for 2-wire HART transmitters or as output for HART
control valves. 3- and 4-wire transmitters are also supported in 4-channel mode. The HART function is included as standard in the new I/O
module at no extra charge. 16 channels are available with the Digital
Input Output Module (DIOM), which can be parameterised in pairs as
Ex i input for NAMUR-sensors or contacts, or as Ex i output for lowpower Ex i solenoid valves. Up to eight channels can be used as frequency input up to 20 kHz, and detection of the direction of rotation is
possible with 4-channel operation. 4- and 8-channel Digital-Output
Modules (DOM) for Ex i solenoid valves are also available, including a
special high power variant for hydraulic valves with high activating
power. This will be followed early 2014 with an 8-channel Temperature
Input Module (TIM), which can be used both with resistance thermometers, such as, for example, the Pt100 or Pt1000, as well as with thermocouples, now also optionally with an external reference junction, or
for operation of up to 4 joysticks or to other fast transducers.
The new I/O modules are available in variants for zone 1 and
zone 2, both with intrinsically safe field circuits for zone 0. Up to 20%
of costs can be saved when using the zone 2 variant compared to the
zone 1 version. So far unrivalled by other systems, the IS1+ allows using the I/O modules in a temperature range of between -40 to +75 °C.
Thus this system can also be used in regions with extreme climates
without requiring additional heating or cooling. Due to this low-power
design the service life of the modules is increased from the typical 10
years to now 15 years. The IS1+ modules also contribute to the current
energy-saving measures in technical process plants. For example, the
energy requirements of the modules were reduced by up to 50 %,
which already leads to positive results in a plant, even with a smaller
number of remote I/O stations.
All zone 1 modules are now equipped with an LED display for the
respective channel status. With the Analogue Universal Module, 8
flashing red LED signal a line fault in the connected power circuit. With
the Digital Input Output Module, 16 red LED are available for reporting
line faults, as well as 16 yellow LED for status reports on the switching
status of the input and output. Besides signal diagnosis, all new IS1+
modules offer additional internal diagnoses. These are based on the
NAMUR recommendation NE107 ›Self-Monitoring and Diagnosis of
Field Devices‹ and signal the conditions ›off spec‹ and ›Maintenance
requirement‹. This makes IS1+ the first remote I/O system to comply
with this specification, and thus offers the user simplified and standardised maintenance information. Particularly conspicuous is the blue
LED as for maintenance display. In permanent mode, the signal lamp
recommends replacement due to damage or wear and tear, and when
the signal lamp flashes this indicates that the system is operating outside its specifications. In this case, the maintenance personnel 
Figure 5: IS1+ – new I/O modules with additional functions
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 19
25 years Remote I/O – A success story in automation technology
can recognise the situation and take corrective measures to remedy
the fault, for example, by activating the cooling system if operating
temperatures are too high, thus returning to the tolerable range. Next
to activation of the blue LED, the module also ensures that a diagnosis
telegram is sent in case maintenance is required. This information can
be evaluated in the DCS or the Asset Management System and be incorporated via IS1+ DTM complying with NE 107. The IS1+ modules not
only offer LED displays according to NE 107, but offer the specific benefit of integrated detection of wear and tear, which results in better
sustainable availability of the plant. Last but not least, this also makes
it easier on the nerves of the operating company and the maintenance
personnel, who need to be mobilised less often due to the more efficient monitoring function, especially at very awkward times such as
nights or weekends. All relevant parameters, i.e. ambient temperature,
loading and switching processes are recorded permanently by the
module during operation. The prospective service life is calculated
depending on these conditions. The NE 107-oriented monitoring function of the IS1+ reports the impending end of service life of a module
12 months in advance. In most cases this allows necessary replacement at the next opportune time during operation. At the same time,
differential diagnosis avoids the prophylactic replacement of modules
that still have a considerable service life left, during rigid maintenance
intervals, thus avoiding unnecessary costs.
In the case of field busses, and having been practiced for a
longer period with FF H1 or PA, the IS1+ modules also provide status
information on the process value, which is also transmitted with the
cyclic data traffic. Next to the process value, the information ›valid‹ or
›invalid‹ value is transferred for each signal via a status bit. This allows
the recognition of faulty process values without requiring additional
diagnostic queries.
As part of the IS1+ market launch, users of the IS1 system were
offered an upgrade to their installed I/O modules to IS1+ at favourable
costs, as long as they have been in use for over 7 years. An optional
upgrade of the communication assembly, the CPM, is also possible.
The new IS1+ modules are absolutely compatible with IS1 modules
and replace these without necessitating changes to the hardware and
software as they operate in compatibility mode. This allows mixing of
new existing modules in the operation of a single system. However, the
user must then do without some of the new functions, i.e. channelwise input/output parameterisation. Using a firmware update in the
CPU assembly, which in the case of Ethernet can be performed remotely via the Ethernet network, and the PROFIBUS DP using a new
GSD, all the new IS1+ functions are then available.Combined operation
Figure 6: IS1+ - I/O modules
with LED status signalling
Page 20 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Figure 7: Demonstration of F-ROM technology in Sao Paulo/Brazil
with IS1 modules remains unaffected as both module generations operate in a compatible mode, as already mentioned.
The combination of Ethernet with the new I/O module generation
IS1+ makes the R. STAHL Remote I/O System one of the most flexible
and future-oriented solutions for process automation in explosive atmospheres. The only thing missing now is the seamless integration
into field bus technology, and this is being worked on.
IS1+ Remote I/O meets Foundation field bus and PROFINET
A few years ago it was still being discussed whether remote I/O
or field bus was the better solution for plants with process automation.
Is remote I/O obsolete with only field bus offering a secure future? At
that time there was no clear-cut answer, but today the answer is clear:
remote I/O and field bus in combination is the best solution. The two
major field bus organisations, Fieldbus Foundation and PROFIBUS International, already recognized the significance of remote I/O technology years ago and are presently working on solutions to integrate remote I/O in their system architectures. The working group ›PROFINET
– DCS Requirements‹ is preparing a specification for the integration of
I/O systems in PROFINET. Even though all the specifications are not
available in detail, i.e. redundance integration or the ›Configuration in
Run‹, R. STAHL, being an active member of the working group, presented the IS1+ system with PROFINET link in early 2013. The Fieldbus
Foundation has largely completed its specifications for linking remote
I/O and wireless systems via their fast FF HSE protocol (High Speed
Ethernet). The first prototypes, including the IS1+ Ethernet as only Exremote I/O so far, are being tested extensively. R. STAHL heads up this
validation group. Furthermore, the Foundation has started to install and
operate this technology worldwide in demonstration plants under the
title F-ROM (Foundation for Remote Operations Management). This
working group is also headed by R. STAHL and the interest of end users in this new solution is extremely high. Between 2013 and 2015 such
installations will take place at Petrobras in Brazil, Reliance in India,
Shell in Europe, Aramco in Saudi Arabia and most likely Mitsubishi
Chemical in Japan. The foundations for the future have been set and
R. STAHL today offers the system platform for the next successful 25
years of explosion protected remote I/O.
Legislation, Standards and Technology
Use of temporary power
equipment for shutdown and maintenance
at a petrochemical facility in Canada
by Wolfgang Berner
Petrochemical facilities depend on
electrical power availability to ensure a safe
and profitable business. Periodic testing of
the installed electrical equipment leads to a
safe and reliable operation. Electrical
apparatus, including switchgear, motor
control centers (MCC) and uninterruptible
power supplies (UPS) must be de-energized
periodically and taken out of service for
maintenance testing, repairs or installation of
additional sections to accommodate growth.
The process is lengthy, with planning starting
years in advance to prepare for extensive
inspection and testing activities.
This article discusses the experience,
findings and lessons learned at one
petrochemical facility during a 70 day
operational turnaround. Significant
investments were made in purchasing mobile
temporary power equipment and hiring
numerous electrical speciality contractors to
perform maintenance testing of electrical
equipment in nine substations, including nine
secondary selective automatic transfer
switchgear line-ups, low voltage MCC's and
I. Introduction
The availability of electrical power and
reliability of the overall power distribution
system is essential to the successful
operation, safety and production of the
facility. Maintenance turnarounds occur
every four years to inspect rotating and static
equipment assets, repair critical systems and
perform maintenance on many types of
equipment. It is during this turnaround
window that inspection, testing and repair of
electrical systems are planned. In planning to
execute a flawless turnaround, the electrical
focal point identified known and potential
flaws in all phases and a mitigation plan to
prevent the flaw from occurring. Mitigation
actions were implemented in work
processes, practices, quality assurance, and
quality control and incorporated into the
integrated plan.
The goal of executing a flawless
turnaround increased the success rate of a
flawless start-up.
II. Plant electrical safety program
A. Training
All electrical persons working at site must
take four hours of site-specific electrical
safety training to become a Qualified
Electrical Person. This is in addition to the 4
hours of general site orientation which
outlines the site hazards, rules, permitting
requirements, lockout tag-out program, PPE
requirements, mustering and alarms, etc. The
Chief Electrical Person at the site maintains
the documentation of training for each
Qualified Electrical Person. Documentation is
necessary to demonstrate that individuals
have met the competency and experience
requirements for the type of work being
performed. The electrical safety training
consists of the following components:
> NFPA 70E Electrical Safety Video
> Overview of owner Electrical Safety
Standard and site Safe Work Practices
> Overview of site Power Distribution
> Test Before Touch
> Metering Safety video
> Shock and Arc Flash videos
> Record of attendance, available PPE and
Testing Equipment
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 21
Use of temporary power equipment for shutdown and maintenance at a petrochemical facility in Canada
B. Safety Meetings
All day and night shifts started with a
safety focus meeting. This meeting, attended
by all electrical contractors and owner
representatives, was used to discuss safety
issues, review safety statistics, incidents and
near misses from the previous day, discuss
PPE requirements, location of work, weather
conditions, other work activities in the area
and overall turnaround issues that may affect
our team.
C. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
All of the electrical contractors were
required to complete an activity based or job
based job hazard analysis, which outlined the
potential hazards, work tasks and
preventative measures for safeguarding.
Owner representatives audited the JHA for
accuracy and completeness.
D. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) &
Testing Equipment
The owner’s standard flame retardant
coverall is adequate for a hazard/risk
category 2 arc flash event. Workers
performing tasks in areas where there are
potential electrical hazards used PPE that is
appropriate for the specific work to be
performed. The electrical tools and
protective equipment were approved, rated,
and tested for the levels of voltage for which
the worker may be exposed.
Electrical protective equipment consisted
of arc flash suits rated for 25 cal/cm2, 40 cal/
cm2 and 140 cal/cm2, face shields 12 cal/
cm2, voltage rated gloves rated Class 0,1,
and 4. All of the required certifications were
made for testing equipment, including hot
sticks, high voltage gloves, meters, testers
Page 22 | Ex-Magazine 2013
and ground chains prior to the turnaround.
Devices such as lift trucks or breaker lifting
devices, breaker test cabinets and
switchgear ground trucks were also
inspected and/or tested in advance of the
E. Equipment Labeling
In accordance with Canadian Electrical
Code Section 2-306, all MCC’s and
switchgear are marked with clearly visible
arc flash and shock warning labels at the
front, sides and rear (where accessible) of all
line-ups. A sample label is shown in Figure 1.
III. Flawless operation
A. Flawless Program
The cost of a turnaround consumes a
substantial portion of a plant’s annual
maintenance budget. Executing turnarounds
efficiently and effectively are necessary to
maximize plant availability and production,
and keep turnaround cost at a minimum at
the same time.
The flawless turnaround approach is
designed to help maintain control and
achieve a step change in reliability and
operational availability by:
> Reducing the time from start-up to steady
plant performance
> Reduce rework and promoting a quality
> Increase confidence in meeting
turnaround targets
> Establish a controlled and repeatable
turnaround process that achieves
sustainable results.
Figure 1: Sample Shock and Arc Flash Warning Label
B. Key Success Areas (KSA)
A list if key success areas and their
champions was created for the turnaround.
Under the integrity key success area, one of
six priority KSA’s for the turnaround, were
focus areas of static, rotating, civil
(scaffolding and insulation), electrical, and
C. Electrical Focal Point
The facility Chief Electrical Engineer
invested 15% of his time for one year in
advance of the turnaround start date to
support the Flawless initiative. The
responsibilities included developing a list of
electrical discipline events from the
identified work scope, identify specific flaws
for the particular event, identify the proposed
mitigation plan for this flaw, risk rank the list
and create action items to prevent or reduce
the likelihood of the flaw from occurring.
D. Flaw list examples
Mitigation actions were implemented in
work processes, practices, quality
assurance/control and incorporated into the
integrated plan.
Maintenance work scopes with
insufficient detail.
Create review process to have work scopes
reviewed by electrical engineering and planning
Damage to mineral insulated electric
heat trace (EHT) cables due to
removal and reinstallation of EHT
around tie points and blind locations.
Awareness training for all contractors on how to
handle mineral insulated EHT in the field and plan
for availability of cable splice materials and
electricians to perform splices.
Poor communication and alignment
between electrical team and
operations group.
Include a full time planner role on the electrical
team to address schedule change and to attend
daily update meetings.
Inability to restart motors after
Add a checklist item for the relay tester to clear
learned motor starting data after motor protection
relay testing is completed.
Unidentified alarm during connection
of electrical back-feeds.
Add a checklist item for the relay tester to clear
learned motor starting data after motor protection
relay testing is completed.
IV. Temporary power equipment
A. Justification
1) Why temporary power?
During plant turnarounds, hundreds of
contractors are hired to inspect pressure
equipment, repair equipment and upgrade
plant systems. There is a need for significant
numbers of power points throughout the
plant to provide power for supplemental
lighting, welders, grinders and other tools.
Having properly distributed power points
available during turnarounds prevents delays
and prevents cost overruns.
2) Why select hazardous (classified) location
rated equipment?
Setting up for a lengthy turnaround
involves considerable pre-work activities,
including installation of temporary piping
systems to pump out and drain vessels and
piping systems. Many pre-work activities
require supplemental power, including
additional lighting.
The majority of the site process areas are
Class I, Zone 2 rated. At this facility, there are
two process trains connected with some
common equipment. Shutting down one
process train with the second train still at full
production results in a period where the
plant area cannot be de-classified to a nonhazardous area. Thus, all temporary power
equipment must be rated for the areas in
which it is installed. Similarly, during the
start-up of a process train after the shutdown
and with post turnaround work activities, it is
evident that the plant area is to be classified
as a hazardous area.
While the supply of general-purpose
temporary power equipment is readily
available on a rental basis, it is the
experience that the supply of hazardous
(classified) location rated temporary power
equipment such as distribution panels and
cords are not.
For this reason, a decision was made to
invest in Class I, Zone 2, Group IIC rated
temporary power equipment for the
turnaround. A further reason to invest in the
hazardous (classified) location rated
equipment was to have it available for future
maintenance work and on-the-run repair
3) Safety:
Plant shutdowns can be one of the most
prone times for accidents. During the
turnaround, the plant is populated with a
large number of outside contractors, not as
intimately familiar with the facility and its
processes as the owner’s site personnel or
long term contractors.
Therefore, one of the main questions
when planning and executing the plant
turnaround was ›how do we maintain a safe
work environment for the influx of
contractors and site personnel?‹
General key components to ensure a safe
electrical system during turnarounds are:
> Awareness of hazardous and nonhazardous areas
> Equipment design and selection – nonhazardous versus and hazardous location
rated equipment
> Adequate lighting
> Ground fault protected circuits for
personnel protection
> Proper cable and extension cord
> Tested equipment and cord sets providing
proper safe grounding
> Good housekeeping
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 23
Use of temporary power equipment for shutdown and maintenance at a petrochemical facility in Canada
Electricity is needed to provide power to
equipment and to light the interior and
exterior of shutdown work areas. In many
shutdowns, only portions of the plants are
down, while others are still operational. In
these cases, area classification might not
change even during the shutdown. Therefore
temporary power systems can be dangerous
if they are not adequately addressed. A lot of
times inadequate general purpose temporary
and mobile power equipment and so called
›cheater‹ cords are used to power the tools
and supplemental lighting needed for the
maintenance and turnaround shutdown. It
also typically provides poor and unsafe cable
management which looks like spaghetti
For this reason it was decided to use
approved hazardous (classified) location
rated temporary power products throughout
the process areas. The temporary power
equipment and cords selected and used
during the turnaround were designed and
tested to meet Canadian Electrical Code
requirements and the relevant safety
All temporary power panels throughout
the facility included ground fault circuit
interrupters providing personnel protection.
Ground-fault protection was also provided on
all temporary-wiring circuits, including all
extension cords, used on the site.
A single cord assembled incorrectly has
the potential to seriously injure personnel or
start a dangerous and costly fire. Therefore it
was important to use properly tested high
grade cords like SOOW, where every cord
has been tested for polarity, insulation
resistance, ground bond and ground to case.
It was also important to select properly
designed products and accessories for cable
and cord management which kept the work
Page 24 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Figure 2: Basic Plant Shutdown Temporary Power Layout
Figure 3: Main Power Distribution Center, One-Welder and Four-Welder Receptacle Version
area uncluttered, and increased productivity
and safety.
One key learning was to consider lighting
equally important in non-process areas
where the maintenance work does not occur
by auditing the area lighting. One individual
tripped in a poorly lit area when returning to
a food trailer on a night shift.
4) Product Technologies/Advantages:
The work place demanded that the
temporary power products met Canadian
Electrical Code requirements as well as
safety standards, and could be used many
times over during the turnaround and future
maintenance work and shutdowns.
Therefore, temporary power equipment is
really not an accurate description for the
product – it is actually more ›mobile power‹,
used in a variety of challenging plant
applications, including those such as the
described shutdown and maintenance
A typical temporary power electrical
distribution system consists of main
distribution, primary distribution and
secondary distribution temporary power
equipment. The equipment was provided with
transformers, circuit breakers, disconnect
switches, ground fault circuit interrupters
and various configurations of receptacles.
The equipment was conveniently
positioned throughout the work site on the
ground or securely mounted to scaffold
providing electrical outlets for various hand
tools, lighting, equipment and machines. The
scaffold is a temporary structure of metal
pipes and platforms used to support people
and material in a facility.
The combination of the panel assemblies
distributed around the work areas greatly
reduced the number of cords throughout the
site. There was also a significant reduction in
the number of extension cords used under a
hot work permit, creating a safer working
environment and reducing the number of
tripping hazards in the units.
A basic temporary power plant layout is
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 3 shows an example of a main
power distribution unit specified as
weatherproof type 4X enclosure and Class I,
Zone 2, Group IIC hazardous location rated.
This unit was supplied by either a welding
receptacle or 600V area MCC. It houses up to
twelve 3-phase, 208V receptacles to connect
power to primary power distribution units,
one welding receptacle and up to six
1-phase, 120V receptacles for local area
tools and lighting.
The main panel of the power distribution
center is shown in Figure 4. It consists of a
main bus, and all outgoing 3-phase, 208V
receptacles are protected with a molded
case circuit breaker and all outgoing
1-phase, 120V receptacles are protected with
a ground fault circuit interrupter unit.
A secondary power distribution unit
specified as weatherproof type 4X enclosure
and Class I, Zone 2, Group IIC hazardous area
rated is shown in Figure 6. This unit plugs
directly into the primary distribution panel or
the main power distribution center. Three
1-phase, 120V receptacles are provided for
tools and lighting.
As mentioned earlier, lighting is also an
important part of the maintenance activities.
It included flood lighting, task lighting as well
as emergency lighting and was temporarily
mounted to scaffolds using quick secure
scaffold brackets, or more permanently with
a scaffold maintainable swivel light
assembly. Class I, Zone 2, Group IIC
hazardous rated lighting was also
Figure 4: Main Panel of Power Distribution Center
with internal Bus and Molded Case Circuit Breakers
and Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Units
Figure 5: Primary Distribution Panel, Scaffold mountable
Figure 6: Secondary
Distribution Panel
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 25
Use of temporary power equipment for shutdown and maintenance at a petrochemical facility in Canada
Figure 7: Fluorescent Lighting Fixture for Rugged Use
Figure 8: Receptacle / Disconnect Interconnection Cord and Cord Sets
used inside of static equipment for inspection
purposes. Figure 7 shows a rugged Class I,
Zone 2, Group IIC rated fluorescent lighting
All power distribution equipment was
inter-connected using designed and tested
cord sets assembled with harsh duty cable;
each used specific gauges of wire,
connectors and plugs as needed to meet the
varying demands of the site. Figure 7
illustrates this.
Scaffold mount cable management
systems as shown in an example in Fig. 8
were used in order to achieve the best level
of site safety.
The advantages of having mobile power
products include:
> Eliminate the costly inconvenience of onsite equipment fabrication which cannot
be used in hazardous areas
> Easily move the power source to different
areas within the work site or install it
Page 26 | Ex-Magazine 2013
> Complete projects efficiently and safely
> Save money in reduced downtime
> Use equipment again for recurring shutdowns and maintenance turnarounds
> Decreased the number of cords throughout the units
> No concerns whether the equipment is
properly rated for the areas that it is installed
5) Auditing installations in the field:
An audit of the installation of temporary /
mobile power equipment prior to the start of
the turnaround was performed. Key findings
included grounding and bonding deficiencies
such as using cable clamps too big for the
ground conductor, bonding to aluminum tray
instead of structural steel and cutting strands
from bonding conductors to make it fit into a
lug. Further findings included equipment
mounted at grade and installation of unprotected cables.
Additional audits were performed every
shift. Findings included non-hazardous location rated ›cheater‹ cords used inappropriately and standard extension cords tapped to
steel or run along steel grating, leading to
tripping hazards.
A key lesson learned is to be more involved with the contractor in the placement and
installation methods of the equipment.
IV. Conclusions
The availability of electricity at petrochemical facilities is critical to uptime of production equipment. It is important from a reliability standpoint that inspection, testing and
repair activities are being performed during
plant turnarounds to ensure that protective
devices operate when required.
Likewise, a thorough inspection and test
plan will validate the performance criteria
used to calculate arc flash levels. Failure to
sufficiently maintain electrical equipment negates the validity of arc flash studies and
may result in equipment failures or safety incidents.
Planning and up-front work activities
should take place months or even years before the turnaround start date. Contractor selection well in advance allows time to agree
upon the inspection and test plan, discussion
of equipment operation and isolation, grounding points, format of deliverables and test
The hazardous location mobile temporary
power equipment provided safe, durable,
versatile and ready to use power throughout
the shutdown areas, helping to minimize overall downtime and costs. The equipment was
used in rigorous abuse applications, and
functioned reliable and safe. It also eliminated the inconvenient and costly on-site fabrication of traditionally available and used
temporary power equipment.
The turnaround experience was invaluable in providing training and hands-on experience for site electrical personnel on equipment that is usually energized and
inaccessible. A lesson learned session was
completed at the end of the turnaround to
capture improvement opportunities for future
maintenance turnarounds.
Figure 9: Slave Distribution Panel with Disconnect Interconnection Cord
[1] NFPA 70E, 2009, Standard for Electrical
Safety in the Workplace, Quincy, MA
[2] Kenneth Crawford, N. Kent Haggerty, IEEE
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 2006, PCIC, Test Before Touch, IEEE
[3] C22.1-09, Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1,
Safety Standard for Electrical Installations.
[4] ANSI/NETA MTS-2007 Standard for
Maintenance Testing Specifications for
Electrical Power Distribution Equipment and
[5] NFPA 70B, 2010, Recommended Practice for
Electrical Equipment Maintenance, Quincy,
[6] CSA Z462, 2008, Workplace Electrical Safety
[7] Ron Derworiz, Nic Leblanc, Wolfgang Berner,
IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry
Conference, 2011, PCIC, Experiences and
Learnings in Executing a Flawless Turnaround at a Petrochemical Facility, IEEE
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 27
Application reports
Innovative products for increasing
efficiency in agriculture
The Bayer CropScience multi-purpose plant
by Thorsten Arnhold and Michael Dahmen
Figure 1: Multi-purpose plant in Dormagen/Germany
When the world market prices for important food commodities
exploded in the years 2007 and 2008, for example, wheat, rice and
maize, this was accompanied by hunger revolts in over 40 countries
across the globe and startled the Western population for a short period of time. Although the worldwide financial crisis, the European
debt crisis, the democratic movement of the Arab Spring and other
global events have since masked these social protests with a veil of
forgetfulness, one must today conclude that the root causes have
not changed [1].
Page 28 | Ex-Magazine 2013
> Increase in world population: whereas in 1950 we counted 2.5
billion earth inhabitants, with roughly 0.52 ha of arable land per
capita, by 2000 the world population had increased to 6.1 billion
with 0.25 ha of arable land per capita, and by 2050, the number is
expected to grow to 9.1 billion people. Statistically this means, the
available arable land will then shrink to 0.16 ha per capita.
> Increasing wealth and a change in eating habits: the growing
middle classes in major emerging markets, such as China, India
or Brazil, are consuming more and more high quality foods. A
considerable increase in the consumption of meat has been registered in industrial nations, but also recently in emerging markets. In the feeding of livestock, only 10% of grain feed is converted into actual meat.
> Increasing use of arable land for the production of bio-fuels.
> Climatic changes: appalling floods, like in northern Australia, and
exceptionally long droughts, like in the Midwest of the USA, destroyed a number of harvests in the past years and are likely to be
more frequent in the future than they are currently.
> Global networking of the food industry: whereas developing
countries are being forced to open their markets to foreign foods
as part of free trade agreements, the industrialised countries are
massively subsidizing their agricultural industry and thus substantially promoting the export of excess production.
These and other reasons have led to a considerable increase
in world hunger over the past years. Whilst some 822 million people
were assumed to suffer from hunger in 1990, this assumed number
rose to approximately one billion people worldwide in 2009 [1].
When considering the above mentioned reasons for increasing hunger, especially in the poor areas of the world, one comes to the conclusion that there is no readily available answer to solving this gigantic humanitarian problem.
An extremely realistic approach was presented by Olivier de
Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, in December
2010 in a study of the United Nations, ›Agroecology and the Right to
Food‹ [4]. According to his words it should be possible to double food
production in the developing countries within the next ten years with
the methods suggested in the paper. This involves resource-saving
increases in harvest yield with subsequent local marketing in the respective countries. This increase in yield is based on sophisticated
ecological methods of crop rotation on the one hand, and targeted
soil improvement, seed management, pest control and organic fertilisation on the other.
Crop Science – a highly innovative discipline
The German company Bayer CropScience is a worldwide leading supplier of products and solutions for solving these tasks. Their
broad and innovative portfolio spans from optimised seeds which
give high yields, optimised utilisation of nutrients, and high resistance to stress factors, such as extreme environmental effects and
plant diseases, as well as to agents for the treatment of seeds, socalled mordants, which provide a good supply of nutrient as well as
resistance against pests such as insects or fungi directly on the
Chronic hunger: According to the definition of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), chronic hunger
is a state of a person which occurs as soon as their energy supply
chronically drops below 1800 Kcal/day. Next to a lack of energy
and protein, malnutrition can occur due to the lack of individual
nutrients, i.e. vitamins or minerals [2].
Bayer CropScience - the company
Bayer CropScience, which belongs to Bayer AG, is one of the
world's leading suppliers of seeds and compounds for treatment,
innovative pesticide solutions on a chemical and biological basis,
as well as solutions for establishing and maintaining hygienic habitats for humans, pets and farm animals. In 2012, the company
generated a turnover of 8.383 billion euros with 20,800 employees.
As mentioned initially, many regions in the world continue to have
food supply difficulties, with a large demand for solutions to secure and increase harvest yields.
With its products, Bayer CropScience has contributed to an increase in local harvest yields for many years in more than 120
countries across the globe, and thus have helped to secure and
improve provisions for the world’s population.
The pesticides include herbicides for weed control, insecticides to protect plants against harmful insects, as well as fungicides
to prevent fungal attack. Here the trend is towards using the lowest
possible, most effective but also eco-friendly application doses.
The pressure on innovation is further increased in that the pests and
disease pathogens follow similar adaptation abilities as bacterial
pathogens. Similar to how strains of bacteria are able to adapt to
antibiotics, rendering them useless in the end, the plant pests are
able to develop resistance to pesticides in a relatively short period of
Due to market and environmental requirements, the growing
resistance of pests, and international competition, Bayer CropScience is forced to continuously develop new and innovative products
as well as improving the effectiveness and manufacturing processes
of existing products. For example, in the year 2012, some 0.8 billion
euros was spent on research and development.
A decisive step in the innovation cycle is the transition of laboratory
solutions to large-scale technical plants.
As a rule, the entire development process for a new product
takes between 8 to 10 years. This is spread over the main areas of
development, realisation and market launch. Development input includes specific customer requirements as well as the result of own
research, all of which is thoroughly checked for market acceptance
and environmental tolerability prior to starting development. If a
positive decision is taken on the basis of these criteria, then the de
velopment of new substances on a laboratory scale follows.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 29
Innovative products for increasing efficiency in agriculture
After successful completion of the development phase, the results
are passed to Industrial Operations, who are responsible for process
development and initial production.
The multi-purpose plant in the Chemistry Park Dormagen, Germany
A so-called VZ plant was erected for these development stages in 2002 in the Chemistry Park Dormagen of Bayer AG. This plant,
which presently employs 190 people, is a self-contained, highly flexible small production operation with an office, a production building,
tank and packaging store, measuring station and laboratories, embedded in the infrastructure of the Chemistry Park.
The main tasks of the VZ plant include:
> the realisation of chemical syntheses in a technical production
process from the laboratory to a production scale,
> the scale-up process by a factor of approx. 10,000. Scale-up is
used to describe the process of increasing dimensions as practised in chemical or biochemical process development. The objective is to build a technical production plant.
> the pilot process procedure, where the developed processes are
converted to operational processes,
> the production of product samples (100 – several 1,000 kg) for formulation, authorisation procedures, eco-toxicological investigation, etc.,
> the initial production of active substances
> the coordination of all activities, from the laboratory through to
> the improvement of existing active substances
The plant is designed so that the existing partial equipment
and apparatus, such as driers, centrifuges, distillation equipment,
stirrer vessels and other reactors, can be combined and operated
flexibly in a number of configurations. The desired material flow is
realised using pipelines adapted by our own pipeline engineering department, and where the process control system is divided into 67
automation systems (PNK) based on R. STAHL remote I/O technology
for flexible adaptation of process control.
The modular design of the plant allows the realisation of up to
30 chemical steps (total chemical reactions) per annum, which is
quite an astounding performance considering that only a few steps
are performed per year in conventional chemical plants.
Due to the operational use of inflammable liquids, the frequent
change in processes and the numerous interfaces and access points
necessary in process development, the entire plant has been classified concerning explosion risk as zone 1.
On-site control with state-of-the-art HMI-technology by R. STAHL
Next to the described high level of flexibility in plant design,
the start-up of new processes requires direct access to the plant in
the immediate vicinity of the respective equipment, to vary process
parameters and formulas, and to directly follow the results of these
interventions. This is why, right from the start, the option of performing process control and fine adjustment on site via remote PC was
Page 30 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Figure 2: EXICOM operating stations in the multi-purpose plant
included next to a central control station. The equipment, mounted
on special trolleys for this purpose, is connected to the process control system via optical fibres.
As part of the conversion to a new remote PC generation, the
flexibility in communication between HMI and the process control
system was to be further improved. At this point the plant only had
six permanently installed plug devices for the optical fibres, which
often placed limitations on being close to the monitored process.
For this reason, the 12 WLAN access points already installed
in the plant were to be used for communication with the new remote
PC's. These access points are integrated in housings with type of
protection ›Flameproof enclosure‹ (II 2G Ex d IIC T4). To facilitate the
recurring inspections required by the Operational Safety Regulation
§ 15, the feed of the signals and the power supply are provided by
small flameproof plug devices, type 8591 MiniClix by R. STAHL, which
can be separated under voltage as the contacts remain in ›Flameproof enclosure‹ during the separation process.
So far, the access points had only been used to input process
data via scanners. Measurements on the plant had shown that the
quality of the signals in the areas used is very good ranging between
80 to 90%. With this high signal strength, the WLAN access points
allow permanent and fast data connection to the process control
system via the RDP protocol. Access via RDP is being use more and
more frequently as it allows highly flexible data access to various
systems and networks. Further in-house software safety data is fed
into the system to increase transmission safety.
The new service trolleys are equipped with modern 24‹ WU
Displays (1.920 x 1.200) and represent the largest possible display
size for such explosion-protected plants. This display size allows optical visualisation of the entire new functionality of the PLC system
and ensures safe, flexible process control. Next to the excellent
quality of the images, the ecological assessment – all displays are
completely free of lead, cadmium and mercury – was a further criterion for the choice of this display type.
All EXICOM operating stations of the ET-500 series are designed as Thin Clients, so that they can be integrated into various
networks via an Ethernet connection as easily as possible. This ensures maximum flexibility in accessing the MES / PLT networks and
other information sources for process operation.
The previously used operating system, Windows Embedded
2009, has been replaced by R. STAHL REMOTE HMI firmware, which
allows extremely easy IP addressing as well as other work-saving
assets. The Remote HMI firmware combines various methods for the
remote control of computers as a matter of principle, namely KVM,
VNC, RDP and [email protected], in a closed system under a unified operating
concept. An optionally activated password system meets even the
highest demands on security. Several users can receive differing access authorizations and the features in the OSD can be secured with
different passwords. This firmware protects every operating terminal
against external virus attacks and makes it virtually impossible to
gain unauthorised access to the operating stations. As a consequence, this modern WLAN operating concept guarantees maximum
flexibility and extremely secure data communication across the entire plant.
R.STAHL HMI Systems GmbH, based in Cologne/Germany, is a
100% subsidiary of R.STAHL AG Waldenburg/Germany. The
service portfolio includes the development, production and
marketing of explosion-protected and industrial human-machineinterfaces for operating and monitoring production processes.
Market leadership in the field of ›explosion-protected HMI's‹ is
based on the combination of 80 year's experience in explosion
protection and 25 years of HMI technology. The product portfolio
ranges from small 5’’-machine terminals to state-of-the-art
24’’-wide screen terminals for explosive areas, zone 1, 2, 21, 22.
All HMI's can be equipped ready-to-run with corresponding
operating software and intelligent software, which saves work
and costs on-site.
[3] United Nations General Assembly Document A/66/262: The right to food;
4. August 2011
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 31
Legislation, Standards and Technology
History of Explosion
Protection in Poland
by Michal Górny
Figure 1: Methane burning by flame
This paper is an overview of the history
of explosion protection in Poland. Similar to
other industrial countries, the initial scope
of explosion protection goes back to the
twenties of the 20th century. The first area
where explosion protection was established
was the mining industry. In the pre-war
years, other industrial sectors referred to
the experience and expertise of the mining
industry. Progress and development of explosion protected equipment were initially
based on the flameproof enclosure method.
This paper refers to historical documents
(standards, regulations) and information
from the laboratory mine ›BARBARA‹ archives – the only available and reliable test
stand in Poland, which is described later.
The fast and dynamic industrial expansion in the 18th century lead to the consequential increase in demand of energy
(coal). The result being an increase in the
number of mines.
One of basic natural hazard in mines
(mining industry) is methane release. The
risk of firedamp (methane) explosion was always the one of the greater fears of the miners. Initially hazards were reduced by burning the firedamp. Figure 1 shows burning of
firedamp by flame.
Page 32 | Ex-Magazine 2013
In 1815 Sir Humphry Davy, an English
chemist and inventor, developed a mine
lamp, capable of working safely in fire damp.
He invented a device which encapsulated
the open flame by a special wire mesh enclosure. The mine lamps were protected effectively as there were no risk of ignition of
fire damp (methane). Similar constructed
safety lamps were utilized for a longer period in the mines.
A comparison of Davy’s lamp to the current technical level, shows the similarity of
the construction lamp to flame-proof enclosures where the active source of ignition is
isolated from the surrounding explosive atmosphere to ensure no flame transmission
occurs to the external explosive environment (flameproof enclosure).
Radical changes came about due to the
introduction of electrical equipment in the
mine shafts, this took place around the time
of 1870. After 1882 electrical lighting was installed in the mines and the year also saw
the first use of the electrical motor (3 kW,
DC) in the Trafalgar Colliery. The threephase electrical system was invented by
Galileao Ferraris in 1885 and the first squirrel cage induction motor was built by Michael Dolivo-Dobrowolski in 1888.
The first research into the essential parameters decisive for firedamp ignition was
carried out in Germany by Lehman and Wülner in the period 1884-1885. However, the
first tests concerning constructional parameters of flameproof enclosure were carried
out by Statham and Wheeler (Sheffield University) and Carl Beyling (Berggewerkschaftliche Versuchsstrecke Dortmund, Germany).
This work led to the issuance of official
regulations and standards in Germany and
Great Britain. In 1912 the Verband Deutscher
Elektrotechniker, VDE (association of electro-engineering Germany) issued a standard
VDE 0170 containing regulations for equipment intended for use in fire damp endangered mines. In 1929 the British Standards
Institution issued a flameproof equipment
standard BS 229-1929. The first expert evidence (the certificates of today) for flameproof equipment were issued among others
by Sheffield University. In the years 19221931 approximately 285 reports were issued.
A result of the international standardization development, was the founding of the
International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) in 1906. Within this organisation the
Technical Committee TC31 (Equipment for
explosive atmospheres) was established in
Figure 2: Electrical motor in an improved explosion
protected version– approx. 1950 (CELMA INDUKTA,
In Poland the first standards for explosion proof equipment were issued in 1929 by
the Polish Electricians Association (SEP) :
PNE-17:1929. The standards were developed
in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Electrotechnicians Association and were issued
in 1930 and revised and issued in 1937 and
directly after the war in 1946.
When researching into the development
of test methods for explosion protected systems and the relevant standards it becomes
clear that explosion protection has its origins in mining. The technical solutions for
explosion protection applied in mining became the basis for similar solutions developed in the chemical industry. This general
assumption is confirmed by the fact that the
first Polish standard for the chemical industry in regard to explosion protection was issued in 1963.
The electrical motors illustrate clearly
the development of explosion protected
equipment, albeit other equipment constructed could portray a similar history (e.g.
transformers, switchgears and others).
With the introduction in 1963 of the first
explosion protection standards for the
chemical industry in Poland a lot of further
information about explosion protection in
this industry became available. Prior to this
time there were a number of developments
in the chemical industry concerning testing
processes and state regulations, however
reference was always made to the standards from the mining industry.
In 1934 a statutory regulation for acetylene systems was published as well as the
standard for lights ›lighting installation
should be made according to standard
Test methods
Parallel to the growing awareness of explosion hazards, there was a rise in development of explosion protected equipment test
methods. Subsequent to gas mixture property research, processes for testing electrical
equipment and at a later point for installation of explosion protected systems were introduced. Initially statutory regulations were
published and at a later stage substituted by
standards for installation and testing methods.
The first standards did not contain precise requirements. Instead, referred to ›a reliable testing station‹, where all relevant
tests and assessments were to be made.
The standard PNE-17:1929 instructed the
following; ›all machines, equipment, cable
etc. should be constructed, mounted, protected, and maintained in a way that under
normal working conditions do not produce
sparks in surrounding atmosphere.‹ It is interesting, that there was no reference made
to failure analysis, and safety was limited
only to normal work conditions. There were
no inspection and maintenance methods
specified. Today’s methods based on ignition probability (e.g.. intrinsically safe circuits Ex i) were only mentioned in connection with workplace design
The selection of construction systems
listed below, should be done based on following method: Ignition probability of an explosive mixture by electrical spark in a mine
is the result of the following 2 factors:
> formation of such a mixture and
> the simultaneous formation of an electrical spark at the same time in the same
Figure 3: Flameproof electrical motor – about 1950.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 33
History of Explosion Protection in Poland
Figure 4: Explosion protected switch with flame proof
enclosure Poland (approx. 1930).
For sites with a high probability of factor
1 more reliable electrical constructions
should be implemented i.e.. flameproof enclosures. Further-more, to reduce the risk
attached to factor 1 electrical equipment
should be placed in sites where a fresh air
From the start a flameproof enclosure
was considered to be the most reliable
method for explosion protection.
A flameproof enclosure was defined as
follows: Enclosure which prevents transmission of fire eventually formed inside to the
The first standard was issued in 1930 and
revised versions in 1946 and in 1957 were replaced by PN-57/E-08101. The differences in
the revised standard were mainly in scope.
In over more than 40 pages definitions, constructional requirements, drawings, characteristics and descriptions of documentation
for testing all known types of protection
(flameproof enclosure, lamellar enclosure,
increased safety , oil filling and special construction) were recorded. This standard defined two degrees of equipment tests: type
test for new construction and routine tests
for each serial produced item.
Page 34 | Ex-Magazine 2013
For the type test of flameproof enclosures a pressure test and a methane explosion test were defined. For the first time a
test was defined to cover requirements to
ensure there was no external transmission
of internal explosion. The pressure test was
based on defined standard pressure values
(there was no statutory test to measure a
maximum explosion pressure) because the
non-transmission test was based on applying 6 times the explosion tests in the test rig.
The next important standard was the PN63/E-08102 – the first standard related to the
chemical industry (non-mining) equipment.
Remarkable was the fact that there was no
relevance made to intrinsically safe circuits.
This standard introduced ignition groups
(G1 – G5), and divided the equipment into
explosion classes (I, II, III, IV) and regulated
the ex-marking together with types of protection symbols.
In 1972 common requirements for all Ex-
equipment, mine and non-mine equipment,
were collected into one (!) standard. For
each type of protection one additional
standard was issued. 1972 standards introduce a division in groups: Group I mining
and Group II chemical industry. Group II was
subdivided in group IIA, IIB and IIC and in
temperature classes T1-T6.
The next and the last original Polish
standards were the 1983 standards. From
this year there were common marking rules,
symbols marking types of protection the
same like in other countries. The most interesting was introducing a requirement of
testing in short circuit condition. A short circuit test was obligatory for some high voltage mining equipment. The tests were made
in a methane-air mixture and were similar to
the explosion pressure tests and non-transmission tests. Typical short circuit parameters were 1000V and 10kA and 100ms duration.
Figure 5: First Polish standard regarding to non-mine industry (group II) and corresponding French regulation.
The requirement of short circuit testing
was stopped with introducing EN 50014 series standards in Poland in 1997. But short
circuit tests are still important in countries
where mining industry is present and developed.
The European standards should be complemented accordingly. These requirements
outside the international standards organizations ISO and IEC were seen as national
level standards and as suspected from the
beginning there was a ›dead end‹.
In 2006 EN standards were replaced by
international IEC standards.
The last 20 years were trouble-some for
Polish manufacturers of explosion protected
equipment. Standard changes require numerous changes of equipment design. In
former times there was one standard
change in each 10 years in the average, but
from 1993 manufactures need to comply
with requirements of:
> PN-83/E-08110,
> PN-EN 50014:1997,
> PN-EN 50014:2002,
> PN-EN 50014:2004,
> PN-EN 60079-0:2006,
> PN-EN 60079-0:2009.
In the same time manufacturers within
the European Community countries were
›experienced‹ only with the changes required by introducing new IEC standards. Typical changes in Polish standardization
were collected in Table 1.
First Polish standard. Only mine’s equipment. Government regulation
and scope of Ex safety frequently relates to it. Re-issued in 1930 and
PN-57 / E-08101
Mines equipment’s only. Defines flameproof and lamellar enclosures
(marked BM) and increased safety and oil filling enclosure (marked
PN-63 / E-08102
First standards for non-mine equipment. Introduce ignition groups
(G1-G5) and explosion classes regarding to flameproof joint parameters.
Ex marking together with symbol of type of protection (national symbol).
PN-72 / E-08110
Common group I (mine) and group II (chemical industry) standard.
Group II was subdivided into IIA, IIB and IIC groups. Separate marking
of group I and group II equipment.
Additional standard for each type of protection.
PN-83 / E-08110
Introduces a common Ex marking for all (mine and chemical) equipment. Introduces international type of protection symbols.
For some high voltage group I equipment requirement of short circuit
tests (in methane-air mixture).
PN-EN 50014:1997
Introduces an EEx marking, stops short circuit test requirements.
PN-EN 60079-0
Back to Ex marking.
Table 1: Polish Standardization in Ex scope
Development of test methods and of Laboratory Mine ›BARBARA‹
In Poland the development of test methods was a similar to the development in other countries in which coal production has a
significant contribution to economy. Like in
Great Britain and Germany an independent
testing station was established. The first
testing station was only dealing with mine
In 1925 a Laboratory Mine ›BARBARA‹
was constituted. Based on a resolution of
the parliament, an Institute of mine safety
was established in Mikołów (near Katowice)
in an old inoperative coal mine. The main
field of activity of this Institute was scientific
research of methane and coal dust explosion and colliery rescue work.
Although there were no standards for the
chemical industry in the beginning, equipment for Group II was also tested and assessed (Figure 8).
The development of testing method is interesting and similar to the development in
other countries. It is worth to note that the
first testing was based on defined explosion
pressure (defined in standards). Requirements for the experimental determination of
the explosion pressure appeared about
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 35
History of Explosion Protection in Poland
Also the first testing was without safety
margins – non-transmission tests were
made in the mixture of the same flammable
gas in which equipment should operate. Detailed development of test methods for
flameproof enclosures – see table 2.
In Poland the development of explosion
protection and the awareness for safety in
explosive areas, as well as the development
of the legal and technical requirements
were similar to those in other industrialized
countries. Also in Poland the origin of explosion protection was the mining industry.
The development of tests methods,
standards changes and new regulations is
closely connected with the Laboratory Mine
›BARBARA‹, which up to 1997 was defined in
the Polish standard as ›the one reliable testing station‹.
A big achievement in 2010 of KDB staff
(KDB stands for Laboratory Mine ›BARBARA‹) was the joining to the IECEx scheme
and testing a large number of Ex d equipment for the use in low temperatures.
Figure 6: Laboratory Mine ›BARBARA‹ in 1920 years.
Figure 7: Ex d motor 65kW, 500V) testing in Experimental Mine ›BARBARA‹ (1951, CELMA INDUKTA,
Page 36 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Figure 8: Low temperature group IIC Exd motor testing, weight about 6000 kg (ZME ›EMIT‹).
Figure 9: Advertising folder of explosion protected
induction motors of a Polish company (for chemical
industry) (ZME ›EMIT‹).
A 8 bar overpressure test for over 1 litre enclosures and 3 bar for
smaller ones. Flameproof gaps checking, but requirements only for
flanged joints and for shaft joints. Minimum length of shaft joint is
50 mm
PN-57 / E-08101
Static overpressure test. 6 bars for enclosures 0,05 – 0, 1 dm3 and
8 bars for over 0,1 dcm3 enclosures.
Explosion test: non-transmission test using methane air mixture
(about 9% CH4). Test makes 6 times.
PN-63 / E-08102
Determination of explosion pressure required. Test is made by using a
proper gas mixture (different for each explosion class I, II, III, IVa, IVb,
IVc, IVn). Test makes 5 times. Pressure test using maximum explosion
10 times non-transmission test, using the same gas mixtures.
PN-72 / E-08110
Common standard for group I and group II equipment. Determination
of explosion pressure for equipment’s of each safety class (I, IIA, IIB,
IICa, IICb). Determination (except class IICa and IICb) by using
3 components mixtures (methane + hydrogen + air). Test made 3 times.
In case of scattering results – 2 additional tests.
Overpressure test using 1,5 times maximum explosion pressure.
Non-transmission test – using the same mixtures. For electrical motors
tests in running and stalled motor. Test makes 10 times.
PN-83 / E-08110
Determination of maximum explosion pressure using characteristic
gas mixtures for each group (and subgroup):
group I 9.8% methane + air
group IIA 4.6% propane + air
group IIB 8,0% ethylene + air and in case of pressure pilling
20.4% hydrogen + 3.6% methane + air
group IIC 31,0% hydrogen + air and 8% acetylene + air.
Test made 3 times. For some group I equipment additional short circuit
tests (in methane air mixture). Non transmission tests using gas mixtures with safety margins. Test makes 5 times. For some group I
equipment additional short circuit tests (in methane air mixture).
PN-EN 50018:2000
Short circuit test waved.
PN-EN 60079-1
Additional requirements for tests in low (below -20°C) and high
(above +60°C) temperatures.
Table 2: Development of test methods for Ex d
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 37
Application Reports
Planning, preparation and
performing complex maintenance
projects in the process industry
After the turnaround is before the turnaround
by Thorsten Arnhold and Thomas Schulze
Figure 1: Start OPTIMIX 13: safety is topic number 1
As with all technical consumable products, the process plants
of the chemical and petrochemical industry are subject to permanent wear caused by the process conditions themselves and by the
prevailing ambient conditions. The influence of aggressive media inside the apparatuses and pipelines, high process temperatures and
pressures or vibration loads are examples of process-related wear.
Environmental factors that can wear down the process plants in a
particularly strong way include atmospheric precipitations, wind and
storm loads, UV radiation as well as major fluctuations in temperature.
Maintenance measures are supposed to counter act these deteriorations and ageing processes.
Maintenance is defined in the German Standard DIN 31051
›Fundamentals of maintenance‹. The fundamentals of maintenance
are defined as a ›combination of all technical and administrative
measures as well as measures of the management during the life cycle of an item in a plant, a plant component or electrical equipment
intended to retain an item in functioning state, or restore it to a state
in which it can perform a required function‹ [1].
Page 38 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Maintenance includes a preventive and corrective component.
Preventive maintenance includes all maintenance and inspection activities, corrective maintenance comprises all repair activities, e.g. repairs and elimination of faults.
Process plants are characterized not only by an extremely
complex combination of equipment, piping, chemical substances,
process parameters and control actions by operators [2], but in many
cases also by very high safety requirements for staff and environment due to dangers that are inherent to the process.
Therefore, a carefully planned and exactly implemented maintenance concept must take into account the high degree of complexity and the existing hazards caused, e.g. by processing flammable
substances, high pressures and temperatures, or electric energy.
Particularly for plants in hazardous areas, the European Directive 1999/92/EC 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council on minimum requirements for improving the safety and
health protection of workers potentially at risk from Explosive atmospheres, Annex II, Section 2.5 stipulates:
›All necessary measures must be taken to ensure that the
workplace, work equipment and any associated connecting
device made available to workers have been designed, constructed,
assembled and installed, and are maintained and operated, in such a
way as to minimise the risks of an explosion and, if an explosion does
occur, to control or minimise its propagation within that workplace
and/or work equipment. For such workplaces appropriate measures
must be taken to minimise the risks to workers from the physical effects of an explosion.‹ [3].
The German ›Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health (BetrSichV)‹, which represents the transposition of the Directive 1999/92/
EC into national German law, stipulates under § 15: ›Recurrent inspections‹ that installations subject to monitoring and plants in hazardous areas shall be subjected to recurrent inspections, e.g. at certain intervals to ensure their proper condition. Intervals for inspecting
installations in hazardous areas are maximum three years [4].
To this effect, the definition of maintenance defined above can
be confirmed for these plants as a task with the goal to check and
substantiate a sufficiently high level of protection against explosion
hazards or to restore it to this level.
In the process industry maintenance work can generally not
be considered in isolation for only securing and maintaining the explosion protection, but it must be embedded in a comprehensive
concept, which on the one hand considers other hazards caused by
provided working equipment (e.g. pressure tanks or lift systems), and
on the other hand serves for maintaining and improving the productivity of the process plant.
Requirements concerning proper preparation and performance of maintenance of plants that are within the scope of the ›Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health (BetrSichV)‹ are described in
Germany in the Technical rules for operating safety TRBS 1112 [6].
TRBS 1112 Part 1 provides details of the requirements concerning
hazard assessment and the safety measures that must be taken in
the presence of explosion hazards during maintenance work and
hazards caused by it [7].
Figure 2: Over 3000 service provider employees are working for OPTIMIX 13,
also from abroad
Figure 3: The column is being lifted over the pipe bridge
In the following, the PCK refinery in Schwedt (Brandenburg)
will be used as an example to show how a correct, efficient comprehensive maintenance concept can be implemented on the basis of
these directives and regulations.
The refinery in Schwedt was built between 1959 and 1964 as
one of the largest process plants for oil processing in the former
German Democratic Republic (GDR). In 1970 the name was changed
to ›Petrochemisches Kombinat (PCK)‹, and has since 1996 been renamed to PCK Raffinerie GmbH. After German reunification, the company, which was initially taken over by the German ›Treuhandanstalt‹
(escrow agency), continuously developed into one of the most modern and efficient refineries in Europe. This continuous increase of efficiency was facilitated by well qualified and committed employees
along with modernization and qualified maintenance of the plant. Already in 1996, the international Solomon refinery ranking rated the
PCK as the refinery with the lowest processing costs in Western Eu
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 39
Planning, preparation and performing complex maintenance projects in the process industry
Today, the PCK Raffinerie GmbH is a contract processing refinery for international petroleum companies.
The shareholders are:
> Ruhr Oel GmbH with 37.5 % (BP and Rosneft)
> Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH with 37.5 %
> AET-Raffineriebeteiligungsgesellschaft mbH with 25 %
(Eni and TOTAL)
The shareholders ensure delivery of crude oil to PCK and then
market the products produced in the refinery.
Over the past 20 years, these shareholders have invested 2 billion euros in PCK, primarily for cutting-edge technologies and for environmental protection [5].
For many years, the so-called major turnarounds took place
every three years. During this time, about 50% of the plant stops for
about three to four weeks and the relevant parts of the plant and
equipment are comprehensively cleaned, maintained and inspected.
As the refinery in Schwedt has two crude oil distillation plants and
only one of them is stopped during the maintenance period, the operation can be continued in the other part of the plant. This eases
considerably the restarting of the maintained parts of the plant, but it
also causes some special requirements which will be explained below.
The major turnarounds are extremely challenging for the planning and performing divisions. All employees of the refinery are involved in the preparation, performing and post-processing of these
turnarounds. One could recognise the outstanding events in the operation of the plant already by their individual names. The turnaround
in 2007 was denominated ›007‹, the next in 2010 was named ›Start 10‹,
and the turnaround at the beginning of 2013 named ›OPTIMIX 13‹ indicates the last preparation phase.
A special challenge for the employees in Schwedt is to use the
major turnarounds on a regular basis also for major plant expansions
and for replacing obsolete parts of the plant. During ›Start 10‹, e.g.
one of the two crude oil distillation columns that had been in service
since 1964 was replaced with a new 200 ton column.
Considering the complexity of such comprehensive maintenance work and measures for expanding the plant, it is easy to understand that the planning of the turnaround, that takes place three
years later, starts directly after the completion of the current turnaround.
The advantage of using the three-year maintenance cycle is
that the organisation and every employee involved maintain their
skills and gather considerable wealth of experience over the years.
Preparation for the forthcoming complete maintenance, which
traditionally began during the first week after Easter 2013, started already in summer 2010. Since that time, the turnaround team, consisting of all company divisions, structures and all persons responsible
for the plant (plant engineers), meets every 2 months, preparing and
improving the plan for the forthcoming turnaround, and creating a report on it.
Page 40 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Figure 4: The column is approaching its final position in the crude
oil distillation unit
Figure 5: The FCC reactor is in the right position at its location
TRBS 1112 in section 3.2 stipulates the following steps for
preparation of maintenance in process plants:
> ›Define type, scope and sequence of the maintenance work,
> identify and assess hazards, and define the required measures,
> Before awarding the contract to external firms, define the safety
requirements and requirements in regard to the qualification of the
maintenance personnel.‹
The German ›Law on the occupational safety and health‹ requires in § 5 that the employer performs a hazard assessment and
documents the results prior to commissioning of the plant. The ›Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health‹ in section 3 provides detailed
explanation for plants subject to monitoring, e.g. hazardous areas. This hazard assessment is a living document and must be
adapted to the changes in the companies on a continuous basis. The
results must be documented in the relevant plant documentation,
e.g. in the explosion protection document. Major interventions, e.g.
modifications and extensions of the plant make it absolutely necessary to repeat the hazard assessment and to update the accompanying documentation accordingly.
The technical rules for operating safety TRBS 1112: Maintenance in section 4 define that hazard assessment must be carried
out and documented for every activity performed and for every workplace under maintenance. Special hazards posed by plant parts to
be maintained and the work equipment used require special attention. Subsequently, measures required for eliminating the identified
hazards must be defined. Annexe 2 of TRBS 1112 contains a detailed
list of hazards and proposals for avoiding them. In terms of explosion
protection and hazards that must be considered during installation
work, technical regulation for operating safety TRBS 1112-1 must be
Due to a lack of time during turnaround of the plant, the hazard
assessment and definition of appropriate countermeasures are performed in PCK Schwedt to a large extent during the planning phase.
The comprehensive safety concept is documented in the so-called
turnaround manual, which is available to all internal and external
persons involved.
One of the special challenges in Schwedt, aside from the
scope of the maintenance and expansion work, is also a high share
of external firms. While during normal operating time about 1200 predominantly refinery own employees work in the refinery, during the
turnaround over 2500 additional external employees of cleaning and
maintenance companies and different specialized firms work there.
The TRBS 1112 requires the operator of the plant to provide
close coordination of different internal and external organizational
units; the operator thus ›has the immediate responsibility for the operation ... of the plant‹ [6]. The operator is also responsible for comprehensive training and instructing of all employees.
During the turnaround phase, the planning staff meets every
day and discusses the progress of the maintenance and installation
work. The responsible maintenance engineer is assigned to every
part of the plant as a part project manager who is responsible for the
correct performance of the maintenance work, and work coordination of the internal and external employees. Central project management runs expansion and modernization projects. Cooperation of
partner firms with many years of PCK experience and new external
firms and their employees also results in close organizational interdependencies.
The turnaround manual contains the required training and instruction content. Before starting work, any external firm is obliged
to properly train its own employees and provide written proof thereof. The manual is available online via a portal for external firms. On
the one hand, it allows a widespread, but nevertheless an intensive
training, on the other hand, it saves valuable working time during the
plant shutdown. The compulsory ›gate training‹ on entering the refinery, for example, is completed in advance and the reception of external firm employees is thus limited to handing out passes.
The refinery's own employees are also trained in due time be-
fore the start of the maintenance work on the basis of documentation
in the turnaround manual.
To optimise the scope of the maintenance work, the results of
the permanent plant monitoring between the turnaround periods are
also taken into account. The pipelines, for example, are regularly
checked in a non-destructive way; this measure makes it possible to
decide prior to the turnaround whether the entire pipeline must be
replaced as will be done during the maintenance action
›OPTIMIX 13‹. As it is not possible to exactly plan the entire maintenance requirements in advance, all shut down parts of the plant are
fully opened within the first week. At this early stage, additional
spare parts can still be ordered if they are required. As the remaining
few weeks are definitively too short to first project and then order
special electric equipment, e.g. explosion-protected distributions or
control stations from the manufacturer, the most important products
have been specified and standardized in advance with selected
manufacturers. R. STAHL, for example, has defined in a principle offer specifications for standard control units including complete technical documentation (specification, assembly drawing, circuit diagram) and respective prices. These units can be supplied at very
short notice if required.
As already mentioned, many parts of the plant continue to operate, which means that hazards caused by these operating parts
must be considered and separated from the maintenance work by
means of appropriate technical and organizational measures. In PCK
Schwedt, conventional gas alarm equipment is distributed around
the active plants and, in addition, laser-based infrared gas detectors
type Searchline Excell by Honeywell are used.
They monitor very accurately border zones between stopped
and active parts of the plant. Coordinated organisation plans regulate fast cessation of activities and evacuation of personnel in case
of alarm by gas alarm equipment.
Before performing maintenance work in the stopped plants,
the combustible media are completely removed and incoming lines
are separated using sliders. This allows maintenance work to be
performed under safe conditions, which leads to considerable improvement and facilitation of work (special protective equipment is
no longer required, conventional mobile phones can be used, etc.).
Conventional construction sites and workshops can be placed in the
immediate vicinity of the maintained parts of the plant, allowing very
effective work processes.
All explosion-protected equipment is maintained and, if required, replaced or repaired by specially trained qualified personnel.
The Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health stipulates in section
14.6: ›Where equipment, protective systems, or safety devices, controlling devices and regulating devices ... on which explosion protection depends, has been repaired it shall not be put back into service
unless the approved body has determined that the essential features
of explosion protection comply with the requirements of this Ordinance... The inspections pursuant to the 1st sentence may also be
performed by competent persons of an enterprise if these per- 
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 41
Planning, preparation and performing complex maintenance projects in the process industry
sons have been recognized by the competent authority…‹. During
the extensive maintenance and repair work, the refinery in
Schwedt deploys both an approved body (ZüS) in the form of TÜV
Rheinland and in-house recognized experts (recognized persons
according to §14 [6] of BetrSichVO). The TUV specialists inspect,
among other things, approx. 1200 pressure containers, 600 safety
valves and the effectiveness of the lightning protection equipment.
As mentioned above, the turnarounds in Schwedt are also
used for extension and modernization of the complete parts of the
plant. Due to a very narrow time frame, certain assembly work is
performed in advance, if possible. For example, the complete lighting, consisting of 140 Zone 1 linear fluorescent luminaires 36 watts,
is installed in advance by R. STAHL on the new oven in the aromizer part of the plant. The comprehensive inspection of the explosion protection concept according to section 15 of the Ordinance
on industrial safety and health and the first operation of the new
plants are generally performed during the turnaround of the plant.
This ensures that the new plants can immediately operate at full
capacity when the maintenance phase is complete.
The stop of the refinery for a four-week intensive and complex maintenance means that all persons involved are under extreme physical and mental stress. Besides performing the work in
a safe way, meeting the deadlines is top priority.
Not all developments during the turnaround phase can be foreseen even with the most thorough planning and preparation.
The management of the PCK Raffinerie GmbH is therefore
certain that the deciding factor for the success of the maintenance projects is an effective, flexible and well-trained team, directed during the work process by professional project management. A large celebration for all persons involved, including the
employees of external firms, traditionally completes the project.
One of the highlights of this event is a documentary film, which
contains the highlights of the recent weeks. The next day, the employees continue their normal work and begin already the first
preparations for the next turnaround in 2016, because:
After the turnaround is before the turnaround…
Page 42 | Ex-Magazine 2013
[1] DIN 31051 Fundamentals of Maintenance
[2] Maintenance and Changes: in Plants with High Safety Requirements;
ISSA Prevention Series No. 2054 (G)
[3] Directive 1999/92/EU of the European Parliament and Council dated
16 December 1999 on the Minimum requirements for improving the
safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive
[4] Ordinance concerning the protection of safety and health in the provision
of work equipment and its use at work, concerning safety when operating
installations subject to monitoring and concerning the organization of
industrial safety and health at work (Betriebssicherheitsverordnung –
Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health – BetrSichV)
[5] Homepage of the PCK Raffinerie GmbH
[6] Technical Regulation for Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health
TRBS 1112 Maintenance; Issued October 2010 GMBl. No. 60, dated
14 October 2010
[7] Technical Regulation for Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health
TRBS 1112 – Part 1: Explosion hazards during and caused by maintenance
work – assessment and protective measures, issued March 2010
GMBI No. 29, dated 12 May 2010
Application reports
Lighting Planning Using
the modern ›ezyLum‹
Lighting Design Software
by Sebastian Kallenbach
Figure 1: Excerpt from the plug-in catalogue from R. STAHL for lighting planning
using the DIALux software
During the planning of a building project or the modernisation of
industrial plants, the focus on lighting becomes more and more important. Lighting is subject to certain standards and regulations. Its aim is
to provide assistance to human activities and, in doing so, it must fulfil
safety functions.
To provide optimum lighting, the luminaire types required must
be defined in the planning process. This requires the use of suitable
lighting software. In 2011 R. STAHL decided to work together with
DIAL GmbH in Luedenscheid/Germany [1]. The acronym DIAL stands
for Deutsches Institut für Angewandte Lichttechnik (German Institute
for Applied Light Technology). DIAL was established in 1989 with the
aim of developing knowledge on light. DIAL host seminars on the topic
of lighting planning and provide users with their free-of-charge
›DIALux‹ software.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 43
Lighting Planning Using the modern ›ezyLum‹ Lighting Design Software
Figure 2: 3D display using the ›ezyLum‹ lighting planning software
Since its first release in 1994 ›DIALux‹ software continues to be
developed. A team of 20 developers together with users and manufacturers of luminaires use forums to exchange information and experience. This guarantees that the software is always up-to-date in terms
of practical requirements.
In April 2012, R. STAHL Schaltgeräte GmbH decided to engage in
a premium partnership with DIAL GmbH. Intensive co-operation has
led to the release of a plug-in catalogue in just half a year. It integrates
approximately 100 of the most important luminaires from R. STAHL and
is available for lighting planning using DIALux.
The luminaires contained in the plug-in catalogue are shown as
true-to-scale 3-D models along with light distribution curves and the
most important technical data in German and English. French, Spanish
and Russian will also be available in the future. The integrated product
photos show the users the selected luminaires in a three-dimensional
view. Light distribution curves, other technical data and output reports
document the lighting planning.
The simple structure of the plug-in catalogue allows the user to
quickly select products in accordance with their application. Moreover, the plug-in catalogue contains hyperlinks that provide access to
the technical data sheet and the operating instructions at R. STAHL.
The hyperlink ›Photometry‹ allows you to export the light distribution
curves as IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America)
or EULUMDAT (Europe) file.
During each program start, an update check of the plug-in catalogue will be carried out. It informs you about whether the plug-in
catalogue is up-to-date or whether an update should be carried out.
The plug-in catalogue will be constantly updated with the final aim of
integrating the complete portfolio of more than 800 luminaire types
from R. STAHL.
In January 2013, the OEM version of the "DIALux" software was
published under the name ›ezyLum‹. This software and the plug-in
catalogue are available for download on the STAHL homepage www. It can also be ordered as CD-ROM.
Page 44 | Ex-Magazine 2013
The ›ezyLum‹ software has an adapted start screen, and the output reports are provided with the relevant company logo. Moreover, it
offers first-time users and lighting planners all options of realistic project simulation.
The light version included with deliveries guides the user
through the program by means of a wizard and assists inexperienced
users in only six steps in lighting planning for indoor applications. Rectangular and L-shaped rooms can be planned. The wizard guides the
user through the complete planning process of standard projects. It
will query the basic conditions, such as the room dimensions, degrees
of reflection of surfaces, luminaire type and desired lighting level.
Within a few minutes, the result for the planned room is obtained.
The full version of ›ezyLum‹ offers the experienced user all tools
for detailed lighting planning for indoor and outdoor installations and
for street lighting. For each of these areas, the relevant standards EN
12464-1:2011 [2], EN 12464-2:2007 [3] and EN 1838:2013 are applied [4].
A library of shading objects integrated into the software facilitates integration of these objects into the user's project. If a certain object is
not yet available, it can be created and saved to the library. The library
also contains textures and colour information for adjusting all surfaces
to reality. An import allows the users to create their own textures.
›ezyLum‹ can be used to place luminaires in a single, line, field
or circular arrangement, thus allowing different luminaire types to be
incorporated easily and quickly in the project. By using lighting scenarios, different lighting levels can be calculated by individual selection. The simulation of normal lighting and emergency lighting can also
be calculated by displaying lighting scenes.
By using several calculation surfaces, different luminous intensities can be incorporated in the planning. This is the case, for example, when traffic areas and work surfaces are present in a room.
For detailed planning close to reality, AutoCAD drawings can be
imported. On the basis of these drawings, rooms or exterior surfaces
can be reproduced with precision. This allows planning close to reality, giving realistic calculation results. The results are given in queried
data, they contain graphics with isolines and field sections with a coloured background in grey steps or in pseudo colour.
What the output report will ultimately look like is up to the user.
Either the user selects the output report from the standard templates
or selects the report pages.
›ezyLum‹ works with 24 languages and can thus be used worldwide, offering the user a ›translation function‹, so that planning can
take place, for example, in English and the output report can be in
Spanish. If description texts are not available in a language version,
they will be automatically displayed in English.
To get an even clearer idea of the future project, ›ezyLum‹ can
be used to create video sequences and photorealistic outputs.
The DIALux lighting planning software is currently being used
worldwide by more than 500,000 users in more than 180 countries. At
least 150 luminaire manufacturers offer the planning of their luminaires
with DIALux via their plug-in catalogues. They include 50 premium
partners, who design their catalogue according to the requests and
requirements of their customers.
After the plug-in catalogue from R. STAHL had been published,
it was downloaded from the homepage more than 1,000 times in the
first three months.
Modern, user-friendly and professional lighting planning software lowers the planning costs and gives quicker, better and more
accurate results.
[1] Homepage DIAL GmbH,
[2] EN 12464-1:2013, Light and lighting - Lighting of work places –
Part 1: Indoor work places;
[3] EN 12464-2:2007, Light and lighting - Lighting of work places – Part 2: Outdoor work places
[4] EN 1838:2013, Lighting applications - Emergency lighting
Figure 3: Output report of the ›ezyLum‹ lighting software
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 45
Application Reports
Optimized Heat Tracing Solutions
require economic and flexible control system
by Rob Leussink and Mathon Weijers
Figure 1: Trace heating in a modern process plant
Since the start of industrialisation scientists and engineers
have been striving for optimization of products and processes. In all
types of industries you can find the same on-going effort to develop
and enhance performances. Typically in industries like food processing, (petro) chemical, pharmaceutical, On- and Off-Shore Industries
etc. the main goal is to enhance the quality and production or to produce new high quality performing products. Becoming market leader, decrease manufacturing cost, increase the service level and taking care of our environment are the other drivers everybody is
focussing on as much as possible.
Page 46 | Ex-Magazine 2013
We all know that today the windows (the accuracy) the scientists and the engineers are dealing with are getting more precise,
e.g. ›parts per million‹ a few years ago, now we talk about ›parts per
billion‹ (or even smaller)! Another example ›keep this process between 20°C and 50°C‹ becomes now ›this process needs to stay exactly on 35°C and we need to monitor that it does‹. These developments in all types of industry are increasingly bringing production
capacity to either a higher level at a higher quality or contribute to
lower production costs.
We are also seeing trends that production locations are moving towards areas with more extreme ambient temperatures. Ambient temperatures far below zero degree Celsius down to -60°C but
also ambient temperatures that are even up to +75°C, this means that
products which are an integral part of the production processes still
need to be fully functional when exposed to these extreme temperatures.
Nowadays there are many requirements manufacturers have
to comply with such as RoHS, WEEE, REACH etc. All these requirements especially IEC and EN standards are contributing to a higher
level of protection of human health and environment.
Now that more and more remote locations and even arctic areas are
being developed, much more examination and information is gathered to investigate the hazards, risks and safety measures associated with shipping, offshore drilling, transportation and production in
these areas.
25% of all known oil and gas resources are located in extremely cold and demanding regions and therefore ships and platforms
servicing these areas, or rigs that are based there, require varying
levels of heat tracing systems in order to retain and replace heat
losses. Offshore platforms, FPSOs (floating production storage and
off-loading), FSOs (floating storage and offloading), ships and drilling
rigs are all subject to heat loss during operation - heat tracing technology is essential for maintaining smooth production.
The onshore and offshore oil and gas industry require heat
tracing products for the following reasons: freeze protection of piping, valves, fittings and instrument tubing, and for oil and gas products themselves such as crude oil, product tanks or anti condensation on gas pipelines. Last but not least many measures need to be
taken to warrant personal safety of the operator crews at platforms
and ships. In these cases heat tracing is typically used for helidecks,
handrail, escape routes, stairs, doors and hatches, working areas on
decks etc.
Thermon produces a range of industrial electric heat tracing,
steam heat tracing, instrument tubing bundles and commercial electric heat tracing facilities, with self-regulating heat cables being one
of the greatest innovations the company has incorporated in its long
history. The products and technologies applied on constructions,
rigs, vessels etc. in these regions, must absolutely be reliable, rugged and durable.
In response to the disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, much more
emphasize is put on the safety and environmental requirements for
offshore drilling. All these requirements are forcing oil and gas producers to stay innovative and to be more receptive for sustainable
Figure 2: Explosion protected temperature control device
use of materials and reduce the energy consumption required to
produce and operate systems.
It is not always easy for manufacturers in the supply chain to
keep pace with the requirements of the markets and the authorities.
Therefore it is very often a must to invest a significant portion of the
operations revenue into research and development.
To develop new products the companies have to think many years
ahead and before bringing new developments to the market, it will
take one to two years to accomplish all the (hazardous area) approvals and finalize all related tests successfully.
For example at Thermon they are developing products now
that will be needed in about 3-5 years’ time or even later. For this
development you need a team of people who understand the strategic directions the company is heading for and have the creativity
and drive to think out of the box. Another aspect of this is to have the
vision to team up with carefully selected companies, like Thermon
did with the company R. STAHL AG and its daughter company Electromach. Combining the knowhow and merge the capabilities of top
niche companies one can anticipate and meet the highest possible
standards in the market. Only with this special dedication it is possible to develop successful products setting higher standards for reliability, durability and sustainability.
When focussing more specifically on heat tracing or heat
management, we notice that temperature control and monitoring is
getting more and more important in the whole production and process industry. We notice that the process temperature windows are
narrowing down. For many chemical products it is mandatory to
keep maintenance temperatures very close to the design temperatures. Even for winterizing purposes switching 1 to 2 degrees too late
can mean that the system is energized too long or on too short,
which can cause a lot of additional costs on the process side. Our
goal is to switch on/off as precise as possible to secure the process
and to save energy simultaneously.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 47
Optimized Heat Tracing Solutions
Figure 3: Electronic control module – Terminator ECM
Figure 4: Terminator ECM in offshore version
Since 1954, Thermon has aimed to be at the forefront of engineering excellence. The electrical heating cable as we know today
was not commercially available at that time. During the 50, 60 and
70ties the majority of all heat tracing needs were met with Steam
Tracing. Already in the early 70ties Thermon started the development
of selfregulating electrical heating cables. During that process a lot
of knowhow was gathered. New production technologies and the
use of more advanced raw materials over the years motivated to improve the products continuously.
Owing to the wide product range and alliances with partners,
Thermon is able to guide clients to the most appropriate heat tracing
options based on lowest cost of ownership. Offering design optimisation, budget estimates, insulation system comparisons and long
line, steam, as well as electric and finite element analysis gives the
company a one-stop-shop ability.
Page 48 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Control and Monitoring
For many years, mechanical thermostats were widely used in
the industry to switch heat tracing systems. The reason for selecting
this type of control was mostly the economic short term benefit and
not the total cost of ownership.
The lower accuracy of a mechanical thermostat is nowadays
mostly no longer acceptable. Moreover a feedback or signal is required that has to be fed back to the DCS system of the plant for central reading, monitoring and controlling.
Heat tracing systems for production plants are mostly designed in such a way that either centralized control is applied or no
control at all.In order to install and compile a system that is operator
friendly and has the lowest total cost of ownership, the amount of
power points as well as resistor temperature detector (RTD) wiring
has to be minimized.
For advanced heat tracing systems as well as complex piping
applications, either a centralized multi point control systems with remote I/O units can be selected or a local, on the pipe switching, control unit, that can be daisy chained and connected to the centralized
DCS system in the plant, such as the Terminator ECM. The newly developed and recently launched Terminator ECM controller fulfils
these tasks and combines the features of local control with remote
monitoring capabilities (Figure 3).
The high load switching capability (30 A) of the ECM controller
reduces the amount of power points in the heat tracing design. The
electronics of the unit combine accurate switching with capability of
providing a huge number of outgoing alarms which can be communicated via the RS485, CANBUS or 4-20 mA connections.
With the features the Terminator ECM provides the highest
available standard in the market. Despite its comprehensive design
and extensive capabilities, the reliable, sustainable and multifunctional Thermon ECM controller is very sophisticated, cost effective
and has almost the same price as a simple straight forward on/off
mechanical thermostat.
In practice this means that when a new heat tracing system is
designed using the Terminator ECM, the total solution might even be
much more cost effective when considering the total cost of ownership. Significant savings can be achieved if the wiring, power cabling and maintenance cost are taken into consideration.
The Terminator ECM controller is part of the TraceNet control
systems and has therefore also the capability to be connected to the
TraceView Network explorer software package. This package provides the capability to provide history and trending information as
well as defining different alarm settings rather than just a common
alarm notice on the DCS system (Figure 5).
Next to providing heat tracing solutions for plant expansions
or small maintenance or operational repairs, Thermon is mostly involved in providing the solution for green and brown field developments.
Certainly on projects/investments that start from this stage,
the design and solution for the heat tracing system as well as the
control and monitoring package, has a very big influence on the thermal management investment.
Hazardous area heat trace designs with limiters in the field
It is important that the maximum operating temperature of the
trace heater is accurately determined for all applications in explosive atmospheres. The process is in general controlled via thermostats and/or temperature controllers, whereas the maximum allowable temperatures for preventing an explosion have some additional
requirements. According to ATEX directives a normal regular thermostat measurement only is not sufficient.
One of the possibilities to prevent an ignition temperature from
occurring, is the use of a temperature limiter. A temperature limiter/
control device shall prevent the trace heater from exceeding the
high limit temperature (T-class rating) by typically sensing the temperature of the application, or the temperature of the trace heater.
It must be assured in case of an malfunction that the ›device‹
will de-energize. This can be malfunction in the device itself, or the
sensors connected to it. Another important requirement is the manual reset function of a limiter device.
A manual reset function can ensure in case of a fault condition
that the control device will not be switched on without manual interference of any personnel.
The way a limiter needs to be implemented in the process system is described in the standard IEC 60079-30-2 Electrical resistance
trace heating - Application guide for design, installation and maintenance.
Specific requirements for controlled designs are found in the standard IEC 60079-30-1 Electrical resistance trace heating - General and
testing requirements, paragraph 4.4.3.
Due to the manual reset requirement (by hand only) the regular
mechanical thermostats can cause difficulties when installed in locations not easy to reach.
In situations like this, very often an automatic resetting device
will be chosen erroneously. But this does not comply with the safety
regulations and ATEX directives.
The Terminator ECM can be reset manually as required by the
IEC standard, but also can be reset by removing the power from the
unit. This removing of power can be considered as a manual reset
when it is performed via a non-automated system and if the situation
is monitored properly.
The ECM is equipped with a monitoring system which can supply alarm conditions and temperatures readouts, and can be connected to a DCS system via different communication protocols.
The limiter function within the Terminator ECM unit is programmed in a different way than the controller capability within the
unit. In order to comply to the IEC standard, the limiter functionality
should be switching by using a negative temperature differential.
This means that the differential value is always lower than the set
point temperature. This is opposite to the controller function which
always uses a positive temperature differential to the set point temperature.
Real safety can only be achieved by the use of real limiter devices, which are designed and certified according the relevant
standards and directives.
Figure 5: Heat trace circuit controller – Trace Net
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 49
Application Reports
Special cameras for hazardous
areas with DCS-integration
by Johannes Hesper
Figure 1: The compact camera EC-710-081 has been approved for hazardous areas
Even the most advanced measurement and analysis technology
cannot solve all problems related to the monitoring of reactors in
chemical plants. Many processes, even those in highly automated installations, still require the human eye and personal interpretation.
This is the case, for example, in fermentation reactors, where foaming
may give an indication of the production quality, or during start-up of
a production process. It must be visually checked on a regular basis.
This function could also be performed with the help of a camera. Cameras can also increase operator safety in workflows under difficult
conditions. This can be done advantageously using a video surveillance system (CCTV system), whose video signals can also be integrated in a user-friendly way into process images and displayed and
operated at different workstations.
Keeping an eye on pictures everywhere
In conventional surveillance systems, the operating personnel
must keep an eye on the surveillance monitor placed in the control
room as well as on other screens and displays. This may become impractical - especially when cameras must be controlled, their pictures
observed, processes monitored and other systems in the installation
operated, all at the same time. It becomes even more problematical
when the camera pictures can only be viewed on special monitors, but
would actually also be useful or even urgently required at other stations in the installation.
Page 50 | Ex-Magazine 2013
If the surveillance system is integrated into the distributed control system (DCS) of the installation, the work of the personnel becomes much easier. This makes the video signals from the cameras
available on any HMI workstation as well as in the control room and
the signals can be simply embedded in process images on these
screens. When required, they can even be controlled directly from the
central control room.
DCS integration of camera pictures
Basically, DCS integration relies on project-specific implementations by programmers. In common visualization systems, the requirements vary widely. One way of integrating the video signals is via ActiveX control. If you want to use this to assign a camera view to a
window, all you need to do is create a drag&drop object and assign it
a parameter value. However, in contrast to the embedding of pictures,
the control of camera movements via ActiveX is clearly more complicated. Many control systems interfere in the data exchange. This can
be achieved more efficiently via the manufacturer-independent interface OPC (OLE for process control) based on the Microsoft technologies COM and DCOM for distributed applications. This standard has
the great advantage of being supported by all common automation
systems and being implemented in them consistently as a uniform I/O
interface. Moreover, a series of very comfortable tools for control
functions, such as pans, are available for this solution.
Figure 2: The camera
EC-740-PTZ can simply
be integrated into
existing CCTV systems
Nitrogen filling
Gas-tight / waterproof
Which camera where?
The basic modules of a CCTV system (CCTV stands for Closed
Circuit Television) for hazardous areas are cameras certified according to the ATEX directives, and thus according to European standards
for electric equipment. This allows their use in Zones 1 and 2.
A specialist for narrow installation spaces, such as those encountered on reactors, pipelines, etc., is the spherical camera EC-710,
whose diameter is only 55 mm. Despite its Ex design and stainless steel
enclosure, this very compact camera reaches a weight of only 435
grams. Nevertheless, the camera is so robust that it is resistant not
only to aggressive chemical substances in the environment, but also
to substantial mechanical stress and temperatures of minus 40 °C to
plus 75 °C. Its optics has fixed viewing angles and is protected by a
hardened front pane. For inspection window assembly on reactors, the
81° FOV version (FOV stands for Field Of View) is often used, in order
to monitor the reactor inside.
Apart from looking inside the reactor, cameras also control the
installation surroundings, including the supply lines and pumps, in order to prevent possible leaks or accidents. To this end, pan/tilt/zoom
cameras (PTZ) monitor the relevant area over a large surface area.
Depending on the local situation, the dome camera EC-750 or a traditional PTZ camera EC-740-PTZ is used for this. Both camera types have
been developed for use in hazardous areas. Due to their high temperature range and their high IP protection they are ideally suited to
rough ambient conditions, such as those often encountered in chemical plants or in climatically critical regions.
For example, the PTZ camera EC-740-PTZ with an aluminum enclosure has dust and water protection IP69K and can be used at temperatures from minus 40 °C to plus 75 °C. This model is also available
as a pure zoom camera (EC-740-AFZ) made of stainless steel.
IP69K enclosure
Pressure monitoring
Figure 3: The SNF camera (Sensor controlled Nitrogen Filling) technology with a
special version of the type of protection pressurization ›p‹.
Until a few years ago, video surveillance systems were uncommon at sites with hazardous areas because their high expenditure was
often a point against camera installations. In general, conventional
cameras had to be housed in large and heavy metal enclosures of the
type of protection flameproof enclosure ›d‹.
With the introduction of SNF cameras (SNF stands for Sensor
controlled Nitrogen Filling) R. STAHL Camera Systems has found a new
approach. In the EC-740 and EC-800 series, explosion protection is
guaranteed by static pressurization (SNF technology). The camera interior is under a constant overpressure, which prevents explosive gas
mixtures from the ambient atmosphere entering the camera. Unlike
conventional pressurization, no repeated or constant flushing is required: The enclosures for the cameras have been manufactured to
such exact tolerances that a single nitrogen filling allows safe operation over the entire service life of the camera.
In addition to Ex cameras and the matching Ex installation material, R. STAHL Camera Systems also supplies project-specific video
components such as video software and terminals for observing and
controlling operating processes in Zone 1 and Zone 2 (HMI panels).
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 51
Application reports
Safety Lighting Systems for
Hazardous Areas
by André Klammt
Figure 1: Front view of a WFZB cabinet, including all protective, switching and control devices and emergency
power batteries (height 1,800 mm, width 800 mm, depth
600 mm, installation outside the hazardous area)
Power failures can even occur in the heavily industrialized European power supply grid. As a result of the turnaround in the energy
policy, experts expect an increase in power supply interferences at
least for Germany. This makes it necessary to install a reliable emergency power supply for permanent establishments, usually effected by
means of a battery-supported system. Such a unit is also included in
the R. STAHL safety lighting system of the WFZB type. The requirements of the corresponding work directives and standards for assembly and operation are all fulfilled without exception.
Page 52 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Over the last few years, a significant development in the technology of our safety lighting systems has taken place, as a result of
which they now exceed the highest standards.
The structure of these systems has been designed with 3 cabinet sizes, depending on the number and power of the luminaire circuits. We have thus achieved to solve the problem of the chronic lack
of space in our customer's electrical compartments, without having to
impose restrictions on their functionality.
Their compact design has been achieved by means of 19-inch
technology in combination with a pivoting frame. The readily accessible connection terminals are located behind the pivoting frame, thus
allowing convenient wiring without any problems.
The intelligent light control, integrated into the ›address module‹
of the Type 6048 ILS, allows safety luminaires and escape sign luminaires to be connected and operated in a common output circuit of the
safety lighting system. This standard-compliant connection type reduces the number of the otherwise required output circuits. In the best
case scenario, the number can be cut in half, thus minimizing the installation work.
The address module allows each individual luminaire to be addressed by the central computer and to be programmed accordingly.
When programming the system, each connected luminaire is
assigned the desired switching type. The safety luminaires are set to
stand-by mode, but can also be switched together with the general
lighting via the switching contact on the address module.
The escape sign luminaires are usually operated in maintained mode.
By using the existing switching input on the address module, the complicated line installation from the contactor of the general lighting to
the safety luminaire device and the otherwise necessary switching
module in the device can be omitted.
Software based on MS Windows allows the lighting systems to
be programmed at the office and the file created to be subsequently
transferred to the control center.
A central computer makes it possible to program up to 64 luminaire
circuits at a single location, thus allowing them to be controlled and
monitored. Integration takes place either via their own bus line or via
the company network.
Safety Lighting Project from Clariant
Through the consistent use of characteristics of our address
modules of the 6048/131-02 Type with intelligent lighting control (ILS),
we have managed, in cooperation with Clariant's planning department,
to assemble a safety lighting system for hazardous areas that fulfils all
customer specifications and requirements.
The objective was to replace the outdated safety lighting system. The safety luminaires used to be supplied with power by two supplies. One supply took place via the safety luminaire device and the
second supply via the general lighting network, switched via an already installed on-site photoelectric twilight switch.
Since our WFZB systems require only one supply line from the
safety luminaire device for supplying the safety luminaires, the customer's request was to use the supply of the general lighting network
also for switching the safety luminaires. Another request by the planners was to obtain an autonomous power supply of the safety lumi-
Figure 2: Rear view of the WFZB cabinet, showing the extended device frame
Figure 3: Address
module 6048/131-02 ILS
naires via the second supply line. A removal of the existing second
supply line was rejected by the customer. This is why we had to answer the following questions:
1. Is it possible to program the safety luminaire device in a way to
meet the specifications?
2. How does the wiring has to be designed?
The newly designed software makes it possible to implement all
switching modes of the safety luminaires customary in safety lighting.
In addition to that, the switching input of the address module
provides a further switching option. This made it possible to fulfill the
customer's specifications. This makes the structure of the safety luminaires a little bit more complicated, as we were able to implement the
customer's specifications only by incorporating two ballasts and 
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 53
Safety Lighting Systems for Hazardous Areas
one address module. In addition, this requires two separate switch-off
devices in the luminaire.
In cooperation with our Design Department, a suitable wiring
diagram for the luminaire EXLUX 6000 was developed. The enclosure
of this luminaire equipped with different fastening options for the components allowed the developed wiring diagram to be implemented. By
using a terminal strip in cage clamp design, we were able to provide
the 8 connection terminals required for this.
The commissioning of the system and the associated programming carried out after installation of the luminaires and of the safety
luminaire device thus modified did not give rise to any complaints. The
first system was followed last year by two further systems of similar
Figure 4: Central computer for controlling and monitoring up to 64 CBS
The development of our central battery systems will progress
also in the future.
A revision of the ECS control device is near completion. This will
allow to monitor and program the system from any internet-capable
computer via a web browser, without having to install any special software on your computer. Of course a special access authorization is
The ECS control device will also receive a USB interface. This
will allow a quick data exchange between the computer and the central battery system.
The necessity of achieving energy saving for lighting systems
will also be unavoidable in safety lighting. Accordingly, energy-saving
LED technology will also be adopted there. This will lead to the use of
batteries with smaller capacity, which will result in cost saving and a
more compact design.
The customers' request of central control and monitoring of
general lighting will result in integrating into this monitoring also the
monitoring of escape sign luminaires and safety luminaires. This can
be achieved by installing a DALI-based bus system.
In hazardous areas, safety is of particular importance. Accordingly, it is expected that different safety devices will be merging more
and more. Thus, for example, in the event of an alarm, dynamic guiding
on escape routes in connection with the function of the fire alarm system will gain in importance.
The integration of light guided systems at floor level (according
to BGR 216, Rules of the Employer's Liability and Insurance Association) into the safety lighting control can save lives during a fire with
heavy smoke formation and will very significantly increase personal
Page 54 | Ex-Magazine 2013
circuit 1
circuit 2
circuit 3
ILS circuit 4
safety luminaire with ILS module
control signal line
general lighting
switching contact ›L‹
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of a WFZB safety lighting system with safety
luminaires and escape sign luminaires using the address module 6048 ILS
A question ...
Customers ask – we answer
›What is the significance of classifying explosion-protected, electrical equipment into three groups?
First of all one must distinguish between:
> Equipment groups according to Directive
94/9/EC (ATEX) and
> Groups according to Standard
IEC 60079-0 resp. EN 60079-0
The Directive 94/9/EC recognises two equipment groups:
> Equipment group I applies to equipment
intended for use in underground parts of
mines, and those parts of surface installations of such mines, liable to be endangered by firedamp and/or combustible
> Equipment group II applies to equipment
intended for use in other places to be endangered by explosive atmospheres.
Until its revision in 2007, the Standard
IEC 60079-0 was divided into two groups:
Group I for equipment which could be used
in firedamp mining operations, and Group II
for intended operation in the other areas
where explosive atmospheres can be encountered. Group II is also subdivided into
sub-groups IIA, IIB and IIC.
In the IEC 60079-0 of 2007, a group III
has been created for dusts. Three subgroups are also proposed here:
> IIIA, combustible flyings
> IIIB, non-conductive dusts
> IIIC, conductive dusts
The division of the Directive into two
equipment groups however remains unaffected by this. Equipment group II continues
to apply to equipment in gas and dust explosive atmospheres.
This has led to the symbol ›II‹ having different meanings in the ATEX-labelling (Part
1) and the labelling according to the IECStandard (Part 2).
What do I need to observe when combustible gases or vapors and combustible dusts
could possibly occur simultaneously in my
These are so-called hybrid mixtures.
Caution should be exercised here. Hybrid
mixtures are a fuel combination of air and
combustible materials with different aggregate conditions. Knowledge of the explosive
technical properties of the prevailing hybrid
mixture is a precondition for a solid evaluation of its hazard. In general, the explosive
behaviour of a hybrid mixture will differ from
that of the individual components. A dust
will demonstrate a faster increase in pressure and generate higher explosive forces
when a combustible gas, mist or vapour is
added. The explosion limits are also shifted
and the minimum ignition energy is reduced. All this is essential for evaluating the risk
of the hazard, the risk of ignition, the use of
suitable operating equipment and the design
of constructive protective measures.
It is therefore highly recommended that
experts in the technical safety evaluation of
hybrid mixtures be consulted and the risk
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 55
Application reports
Dust explosion protection in a hard
coal-fired power plant in Gdansk
Type and mixture of dust particles affect zone classification
by Thorsten Arnhold and Piotr Szymanski
Figure 1: The EDV Wybrzeze power plant in Gdansk/Poland
The incidence and development of explosive hazards are usually described by the so-called explosion triangle. However, it is often
overlooked that beyond the three factors: inflammable material, oxygen and an effective source of ignition, a further necessary condition
of a specific mixture of oxygen and inflammable material must be
given, in order to reach ignition or explosion.
Page 56 | Ex-Magazine 2013
With regard to the distribution of combustible material in an
oxygen-containing atmosphere there is a basic difference between
combustible dusts on the one hand, and gases, vapours or mists in the
air on the other hand: due to the high specific weight of dust particles,
these collect on the floor or on the surface of objects after a short
period where they form layers of dust. If these layers cover hot surfaces or if exothermic chemical reactions occur in their interior, this
can lead to smouldering fires which remain undetected for a long time.
A dangerous explosive atmosphere can only occur if a sufficiently
strong flow of air (wind, storm, pressure wave, draught) whirls up the
dust layer and thus causes a mixing of the combustible material with
oxygen. This specific property of combustible dust often leads to an
underestimation of the explosive risk. If the formation of extensive dust
layers is allowed in plants, then a single strong airflow can provoke the
risk of explosion. A closed dust layer of less than 1 mm in thickness
may be sufficient for this. If no adequate measures are taken to prevent sources of ignition, then it may easily come to an explosion. The
particular danger of dust explosions is, that the pressure wave generated by the initial explosion causes whirling of neighbouring dust layers and may then cause a dangerous mixture with subsequent ignition.
In the past, dust explosions, virtually in the form of chain reactions,
occurred frequently and destroyed entire plants.
The risk can certainly be reduced and possibly even eliminated
by thorough and regular cleaning of the plant areas concerned through
the removal of easily visible layers of dust on the floors and surfaces
of equipment. Moistening poorly accessible sections together with
cleaning measures are also probate means of minimising risks.
But dusts also differ from combustible gases, vapours or mists and in
other ways. Whereas these can be characterised relatively clearly via
physical and chemical parameters, for example, the flash point, the
lower and upper explosion limits or their density in terms of their explosive behaviour, this is not the case for most dusts. Although there
are key parameters for dusts, such as the minimum ignition tempera-
ture of a dust cloud or the lower explosion limit, it already becomes
difficult to safely determine the upper explosion limit in practice, albeit with great imprecision. The concrete behaviour of dust in the formation of dangerous explosive atmospheres depends strongly on the
grain size of the dust particles and the grain size distribution in the
dust. As these two values are generally process-related, it is very difficult to predict the characteristic behaviour of a dust in relation to
generating dangerous explosive atmospheres.
In the past few years, this was also an experience made in several hard coal-fired power plants in Poland. The hazard of hard coal
dust in mining has been well known for years. In the power plants, the
hard coal is transported to the furnaces on long conveyor belts (Figures 2 and 3). The coal is largely so coarse-grained that there is no
immediate risk of dust explosion. However, unavoidable abrasion
across the whole transportation path, from conveying to the power
plant and onwards to the combustion process, leads to fine coal dust
in dangerous amounts. Therefore, the areas in the immediate access
surroundings (mainly open conveyor belts) have been declared as
zone 22 for years.
As part of the exploitation of bio-fuels, finely ground bio-mass
consisting of wood waste and other dried bio-products have, for several years now, been added to the hard coal in Poland to increase the
efficiency of energy production. Investigations were conducted in the
Polish power plants of the EDF Wybrzeze company in Gdansk and EDF
Rybnik prior to changing the process, with the objective of adapting
protective measures to prevent explosions in the new conditions. As
there were no clear key parameters for the new bio-mass powder, an
investigation was commissioned by the Polish inspection authorities
for explosion protection, Glówny Instytut Górnictwa (KDB), and a Warsaw-based materials research institute. The test methods applied
have been internationally recognised and established for a few years,
and are also described in the international standard IEC 60079-20-2
Material characteristics – Combustible dusts test methods.
Figure 2: Explosion protected, optical-acoustic signal equipment (YODALEX)
above the conveyor belt
Figure 3: Explosion protected cable-operated switch for emergency stop of the
conveyor belts
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 57
Dust explosion protection in a hard coal-fired power plant in Gdansk
Electric filters, desulphurisation
Pump rooms, pipelines
Fuel supply lines
Shafts, feed
Coal bunker
Ignition oil tanks
Fuel mill
Turbine room
Figure 4: Schematic Diagram of a coal fired power plant (Electrical equipment of the sections, see below)
Fuel supply lines
> Lighting and emergency lighting
> Terminal boxes and distribution boards,
> Control stations
> Power outlets
> Audiovisual display devices
> Visual monitoring
> Electric motors for conveyor belts and fans
> Electric heating for the water mist system
Shafts, feed
> Electric motors
> Positioning switches
> Lighting and emergency lighting
Coal bunker
> Visual monitoring
> Audiovisual monitoring
Fuel mill
> Electric motor for coal mill
> Visual monitoring
> Lighting and emergency lighting
> Terminal boxes and distribution boards
Page 58 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Electric filters, desulphurisation
> Electric heating
Pump rooms, pipelines
> Audiovisual display devices
> Visual monitoring
> Lighting and emergency lighting
> Terminal boxes and distribution boards
> Control stations
> Electric motors for pumps
Turbine room
> Audiovisual display devices
> Visual monitoring
> Lighting and emergency lighting
> Terminal boxes and distribution boards
> Control stations
Ignition oil tanks
> Heating of tanks – immersion heaters
> Heating of pipelines – heating cables
> Visual monitoring
> Audiovisual monitoring
> Terminal boxes
> Lighting
> Heating and protection of electrical equipment and automation
systems (heating cables, housing with heating units)
The investigations showed that the determined key parameters,
such as ignition temperature of the dust cloud, Kst value and derived
dust explosion class, resulted in a higher risk level than for the previous exclusive processing of hard coal. As the grain sizes of the bioparticles and their distribution allowed the conclusion of a considerably higher probability of generating dangerous, explosive
atmospheres, it was decided to modify zoning. The immediate vicinity
of the conveyor belts and adjacent stairs, paths and working platforms,
were now classified as Zone 21, and only the more remote parts of the
plant remain as Zone 22.
This reclassification of the Ex zones resulted in a major reconstruction
of most of the plant, as not only did the electrical installation and lighting need to be replaced with Category 2 products (Figure 4), but also
the large drive engines.
Despite the high level of expenditure, EDF and the Polish engineering company ASE, who developed and implemented the explosion
protection concept, are convinced that the effort was absolutely necessary to ensure continued safe and reliable operation of the power
Figure 5: Socket distribution board with type of protection ›tD‹
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 59
Application Reports
Explosion protected containerized
control unit for a rig assist
snubbing unit
by Sandra Wassink
Pressurized container with integrated heating and cooling (HVAC) and explosion
protected battery box
Snubbing – Most advanced drilling technology
For the exploitation of new oil and gas reserves as well as for
the optimal extraction out of existing wells safe and advanced drilling
technologies are used with the help of sophisticated methods, systems
and devices. Snubbing is a method for inserting and pulling out tools
and tubulars into or out of wells under pressure (live wells). Snubbing
is a type of heavy well intervention operation performed on oil and gas
wells for which a Hydraulic WorkOver rig (HWO) is used.
The rig assist snubbing unit is operated by a reliable control
system. So the required tasks can be performed safely against the
wellbore pressure. Rig assist snubbing units have a small size and are
powerful and flexible for all operations (Figure 1). Because of these
advantages snubbing units have become the chosen resource for
these types of applications. One of the leading suppliers of these
Page 60 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Safe area
Hazardous area
Safe area
by pressurization
Traveling Slipbowls
Figure 2: Principle of a pressurized container in hazardous area
Hydraulic Jack
Work Basket
Rotating Control
Device (RCD)
Figure 3: Control and monitoring system installed in a transportable container with
type of protection pressurization ›pz‹
Blow Out Preventer(BOP)
Containerized Solution
For the control and monitoring of snubbing units and to ensure
explosion protection a transportable container with the installed
technical equipment is an excellent solution (Figure 2). Electromach
B.V. in Hengelo, a member of R. STAHL AG, Germany has been
specialized in these containerized solutions for hazardous areas and
developed a containerized control unit of the rig assist snubbing unit
for Balance Point Control BV (BPC).
Explosion protection is mainly achieved by type of protection
Pressurised Enclosure ›pz‹. A safe atmosphere is achieved inside the
container by ventilating clean air into the container and reliably
monitoring the overpressure (Figure 3). This technology offers the
advantage to use normal industrial devices and apparatus and allows
all types of work inside the container without any additional measures
of protection.
The complete control system for the snubbing unit, developed by
BPC, is integrated in the container as well as the operating and
monitoring HMIs. The container has been equipped with an explosion
protected HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) unit and an
explosion protected battery system (Figure 4). A complete flameproof
fire and gas system is incorporated and the power distribution 
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a rig assist snubbing unit (Source: BPC)
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 61
HVAV supply
duct along roof
Control Room
Figure 4: Interior of the container with electric and hydraulic equipment
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of a CCTV monitoring system (explosion protected) on a rig with image transmission into the container (standard, for safe area)
Page 62 | Ex-Magazine 2013
system. Above the door of the container flashing lights will warn the
platform employees if a malfunction of the system occurs. Also all used
junction boxes (8146, 8150 series), lighting (6000 series), emergency
lighting (6008 series) and signalling equipment (6161 series) are from
the R. STAHL product portfolio.
Due to a 15 meter long fresh air-intake hose which has been
mounted on the side of the container, fresh air will be drawn out of the
safe area for ventilation (Figure 6).
The HVAC used in the container has an integrated purge and
pressurization unit, which has been placed within the container.
Usually the HVAC will be placed on the top side of the container.
However in this case, it was necessary to build as compact as possible,
and more important the Norsok Standard (Z-015) was applicable,
which does not allow any protruding parts.
The container was equipped with a Battery Box from
Electromach, as a back-up for the BPC installation, based on a 24VDC
circuit. In case of a power loss, the Battery Box will maintain the power
for about half an hour so the operator can make sure that a controlled
shut-down can be performed.
Explosion protected containerized control unit for a rig assist snubbing unit
Figure 6: 15 Meter long fresh air-intake hose (yellow) mounted on the left-side of the container (left).
At the back hydraulic connections and R.STAHL junction boxes (right).
Figure 7: Interior of an explosion protected (pressurized) container with
monitoring and operating terminals for controlling and monitoring a rig assist
snubbing unit
On the platform rig multiple explosion protected cameras from
R. STAHL have been installed for monitoring the safety of the situation
(Figure 5). The container has been equipped with a complete operating
and monitoring system. In the container 6 big screens will display the
operating process and a real-live image can be monitored using 4
Dome Cameras (EC-750) and 1 Compact Camera (EC-710) (Figure 7). All
cameras are implemented and configured by Electromach.
The containerized solution for BPC is developed for a zone 2
hazardous area and classified as Ex II 3G Ex de pz [ia] IIB T3. It will be
used on an offshore rig and has been built according to the Norsok
standard Z-015.
Containerized Solutions
Containerized solutions are often used on drilling rigs, as they
are very mobile and can be re-used on different locations. Containerized
solutions are ideal for applications as this, because all different kinds
of techniques, also non-ex, can be used inside the container in a
hazardous environment: Ex-monitoring equipment, Ex-cameras and all
kind of control units, a complete package in one solution.
All Electromach containerized solutions, both zone 1 and zone 2
installation, are fully tested on functionality and explosion protection
in accordance with all necessary certification requirements. Aside
from assuring compliance with the necessary guidelines, the
containerized solutions will drastically reduce the costs of installation
at the production facility.
The containers are engineered to reduce the costs of ownership
and to allow an ergonomically designed workspace and energy
efficient design.
Electromach’s experience in the past 50 years as system integrator
enables to build the complete system including:
> Engineering electrical and (3D) mechanical
> Software and programming
> Procurement of material
> Construction and services
> Extended FAT (Factory Acceptance Test)
> System certification
> Documents services, transport and insurance
> Commissioning support (SAT – Site Acceptance Test)
These comprehensive services enable minimized project costs,
shortened turn-around, one-stop-shopping, and clear certified
responsibility for explosion protection.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 63
Application reports
Standard’s Requirements
for Electrical Resistance Trace Heaters according to DIN EN 60079-30-1
by Frank Merkel
Figure 1: Heating cable cross-section
Electrical resistance trace heaters are used for heating fittings,
conduits and tanks. Resistance trace heaters (hereinafter referred to
as ›resistance heaters‹) are understood as meaning, according to the
standard DIN EN 60079-30-1, the ›use of electrical trace heaters, trace
heater pads or trace heater panels and auxiliary components applied
from outside, in order to increase or maintain the temperature of the
contents of pipe networks, tanks and associated equipment.‹ [1]
The functional principle is very simple: A cable-like heating element produces and transmits heat based on Ohm's law (P=U x I=U2/
R=I2xR). The field of application ranges from frost protection to the
prevention of condensation in gas analysis and to the heating of media
for production and processing.
This is where electrical resistance heaters are more suitable
than the previously frequently used vapour-operated trace heaters as
they work extremely economically and more accurately in terms of
temperature. In practice, electrical resistance heaters are often the
basis for an optimum process sequence and have become indispensable in many areas and applications in today's industry.
Page 64 | Ex-Magazine 2013
It is not always easy to find the right trace heater solution for
special applications, since the electrical resistance heaters available
on the market (for example, heating cables, heat traces, parallel heat
traces, self-limiting heat traces, etc.) have widely differing heating
characteristics and only give the desired result when suitably selected
and properly applied. The fields of application for resistance heaters
are as varied as the quotations on the market. A good overview and
extensive practice-related information on this specialist area are given in the VIK recommendation (Association of the Industrial Energy
and Power Industry, Germany) ›VE 25 Electrical Trace Heaters‹ [2]. This
recommendation was compiled by an ad-hoc study group ›Electrical
Trace Heaters‹, a joint VIK and NAMUR (NAMUR is an international
user association of automation technology in process industries) commission, and published in 2003. Representatives from renowned manufacturers for electrical trace heating systems and ›notified bodies‹
have contributed their expert knowledge and created a very extensive
and practice-oriented composition.
When electrical resistance heaters are used in hazardous areas, apart from the technical component, the basic requirements and
safety specifications of the corresponding Ex standards must also be
observed. Not every resistance heater is suitable or admissible for use
in hazardous areas, but each one must always be carefully selected
and considered from two sides during planning and construction. On
the one hand, a basic feature is its suitable application in the process
and, on the other hand, the inclusion of type-specific properties of the
electrical resistance heater a) when operated in accordance with its
intended use and b) during malfunction.
If the electrical resistance heater can be used in stabilized design (DIN EN 60079-30-1 [3]), an additional protective system for temperature limitation can be omitted, as design and operation ensure that
the temperature will always stay below the critical limiting temperature of the corresponding temperature class in the hazardous area
even under unfavourable operating conditions.
If, however, the application requires a higher heating power,
making a stabilized application no longer possible, due to the resulting
higher operating temperature, it is no longer possible to do without an
additional temperature limiting device. The critical limiting temperature will be exceeded in normal operation as well as in case of error,
thus becoming a source of danger in the hazardous area.
These and further basic process property requirements and safetyrelevant protective measures must be taken into account when planning an electrical resistance heater for operation according to its intended use in hazardous areas.
Many directives, European and international standards and recommendations deal with this topic and must be taken into account
when planning and designing electrical resistance heaters.
Two important and basic standards for electrical resistance
heaters for use in hazardous areas are:
> DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 ›Explosive atmospheres
– Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing requirements‹
> the draft version of DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):05-2012
›Hazardous areas – Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating General requirements, type tests and design requirements‹
Figure 2: Structure of a self-limiting heating tape
> and DIN EN 60079-30-2 (VDE 0170-60-2):12-2007 ›Explosive atmospheres – Part 30-2: Electrical resistance trace heating – Application
guide for design, installation and maintenance ‹
> and the draft version of DIN EN 60079-30-2 (VDE 0170-60-2):08-2012
›Hazardous areas – Part 30-2: Electrical resistance trace heating
– Application guide for design, installation and maintenance‹
These European standards give a comprehensive overview of
the minimum requirements and test requirements (Part 1), and the application guidelines for design, installation and maintenance (Part 2) of
electrical resistance heaters that may be used in explosive atmospheres. They are divided into two independent standards, but must be
applied together. Part two contains supplementary information for
practical application.
Both standards apply to the use of electrical resistance heaters
in zones 1 and 2, but not for zone 0, since a frequently or constantly
occurring explosive atmosphere is to be expected there, and is why
more rigorous requirements apply there.
These standards also contain additional information about the requirements of connection components and about control methods required
for safe operation in accordance with the intended use.
The manufacturers of resistance heaters must carry out extensive tests and certifications on their products, before they receive
certification in the form of an EC Type Examination Certificate from a
›notified body‹, which makes them suitable for use in explosive atmospheres, and allows them to be marketed.
When selecting the proper resistance heater, particular attention must be paid to any possible limitations or predefined operating
conditions for use in hazardous areas. They can have a significant
effect on safe operation (e.g. maximum heat conductor load in W/m,
maximum operating and use temperatures, special installation re
quirements or mounting information, etc.).
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 65
Standard’s Requirements for Electrical Resistance Trace Heaters according to DIN EN 60079-30-1
Figure 3: Example of an EC Type Examination Certificate (front page): with
certification number and X marking
Figure 4: Example of an EC Type Examination Certificate (back page):
chapter 17 Special conditions
A general basic safety requirement of the standard DIN EN
60079-30-1 is as follows: ›Electrical resistance trace heating within the
scope of this standard shall be designed and constructed so as to
ensure electrical, thermal and mechanical durability and reliable performance. Electrical resistance trace heaters and integral components shall comply with or be excluded from the requirements of IEC
60079-0, as listed in Table 1‹ [4].
The following requirements are listed in this standard: [4]
> Resistance heaters must be provided with a metal braid or jacket
covering at least 70% of the surface.
> The mechanical protection of the insulation layers must be demonstrated by means of an impact and deformation test.
> The highest permissible operating temperature in degrees centigrade must be given. All materials used in the test must withstand
at least the highest operating temperature stated by the manufacturer + 20 Kelvin.
> If resistance heaters are fitted with additional mechanical protection, in order to satisfy the requirements of the standard, a label
must be affixed to the product indicating that this protection may
not be removed on site or that the product may not be operated
without it.
Terminations and connections of resistance heaters can be
identified as integrated part of a trace heater or identified separately.
Integrated components of a resistance heater must be checked according to DIN EN 60079-30-1 and applied according to DIN EN 6007930-2. Separate components are regarded as Ex equipment or independent Ex components, according to DIN EN 60079-0 [5].
Terminations and connections must be in general subjected to
the same tests as the resistance heaters, because they are also used
together and thus are subjected to the same environmental and operational conditions. Exceptions are possible, but require special
mounting and installation instructions, and possible restrictions for
operating the resistance heater. This is indicated in the EC Type Examination by the marking X appended to the certification number (e.g.
TPS 11 ATEX 29587 011 X) and in paragraph 17 – Special conditions
(see Figures 3 and 4).
A further minimum requirement is that it must be possible to isolate all line conductors from the supply, and that an over-current protection and an earth fault protection must be present. Particularly
when operated in TT and TN systems, a protective device must be
fitted that guarantees immediate isolation in the event of a high-impedance earth fault and short-circuit faults. An earth-fault protective device, (FI trip level = 30 mA) shall be used for this.
Temperature monitoring of the resistance heater
A trace heating system shall be designed so that the sheath
temperature of the trace heaters under standard conditions and in the
case of a foreseeable error is limited to the temperature classification
(T1 – T6) or ignition temperature. The standard also requires certain
safety margins from the maximum operating temperature, which are
minus 5 K at temperatures below or equal to 200 °C and minus 10 Kelvin at temperatures above 200 °C.
Page 66 | Ex-Magazine 2013
This requirement can be satisfied either by means of a stabilized
design or by using a temperature monitoring system at the resistance
A stabilized design is available when the maximum surface temperature of the resistance heater is stabilized under the limiting temperature without an additional temperature limiter even under unfavourable operating conditions.
The controlled design includes a temperature controller or limiting device. External temperature sensors shall be used with intrinsically safe circuits (Ex i). The temperature controller or limiting device
shall de-energize the resistance heater in sufficient time before it exceeds the maximum permissible operating temperature.
The temperature limiter must have the following characteristics:
> Resetting possible only by hand
> Resetting possible only after the normal operating conditions have
been returned, or if the switching state is monitored continuously
> Reset only possible by tool or key
> Secured and locked temperature setting to prevent unauthorized
access or manipulations
> A safety function that de-energizes the circuit if the temperature
sensor malfunctions
Maximum permissible
surface temperature of
the equipment °C
Ignition temperatures
of the combustible
materials °C
> 450
> 300 ≤ 450
> 200 ≤ 300
> 135 ≤ 200
> 100 ≤ 135
> 85 ≤ 100
If the temperature monitoring system is not delivered by the
same manufacturer that delivered the resistance heater, sufficient information and specifications for the selection and installation of the
latter must be provided, in order to give the user the opportunity to
procure compatible systems.
Type test of resistance heaters
According to the standard DIN EN 60079-30-1, the following very
extensive tests are required, and must be carried out not only on the
actual resistance heater, but also on the terminations and connections, since the latter must be considered integrated parts of the resistance heater. [6]
Required tests:
> Dielectric test [chapter 5.1.2]
> Electrical insulation resistance test [chapter 5.1.3]
> Flammability test [chapter 5.1.4]
> Impact test [chapter 5.1.5]
> Deformation test [chapter 5.1.6]
> Cold bend test [chapter 5.1.7]
> Water resistance test [chapter 5.1.8]
> Water resistance test of integrated components [chapter 5.1.9]
> Verification of rated output [chapter 5.1.10]
> Thermal stability of electric insulating material [chapter 5.1.11]
> Thermal Performance Test [chapter 5.1.12]
> Determination of maximum sheath temperature [chapter 5.1.13]
- Systems method Design verification procedures [chapter]
- Product classification method [chapter]
> Verification of start-up current [chapter 5.1.14]
> Verification of the electrical resistance of electrically conductive
covering [chapter 5.1.15]
Table 1: Temperature classes
Figure 5: System-certified analyser heating line
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 67
Standard’s Requirements for Electrical Resistance Trace Heaters according to DIN EN 60079-30-1
Due to their safety-critical application range in explosive atmospheres, where safety is the top priority, the extensive requirements
and inspections parameters of resistance heaters are very rigorous.
Resistance heaters must withstand the mechanical requirements during mounting/installation reliably and without defects.
Figure 6: System-certified heating jacket
Marking of resistance heaters
The resistance heaters shall be clearly and permanently surface
marked in accordance with DIN EN 60079-0. [7]
For resistance factory-fabricated heaters, the following information is
> Type of protection increased safety ›e‹ and, where appropriate,
other types of protection
> Serial or batch number
> Operating or rated voltage
> Output power of the operating or rated voltage
> Month and year of manufacture
> Applicable ambient conditions (example IP degree of protection /
application range)
System documentation (Instructions for installation)
For safe operation in accordance with the intended use, it is
essential that detailed and comprehensive installation and operating
instructions in the language of the operator are enclosed. The installer/operator must find the following information clearly stated in these
> Information on the intended purpose, the so-called operation in accordance with the intended use
> Information on any additional components that may be used
> Statement that ›Earth fault equipment protection is required for
each circuit‹
> Information on important installation and maintenance modalities
> Statement that ›The electrically conductive covering of this trace
heater must be connected to a suitable earthing terminal‹.
> Statement that ›The presence of the trace heaters shall be made
evident by the posting of caution signs or markings at appropriate
locations and/or at frequent intervals along the circuit‹
Figure 7: Heating hose with resistance trace heater
Page 68 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Although a resistance heater is a relatively simple and manageable piece of equipment that follows a basic physical law (Ohm's law)
its application in explosive atmospheres requires extensive planning
because of the legal regulations, standards and provisions for safe
operation in accordance with its intended use.
When energized, the electric resistance of the heat conductor
producing heat and could cause a potential source of danger (source
of ignition). Therefore it is necessary to carefully select and plan the
resistance heater. When connecting the heat lead with the cold lead,
risks of ignition (sparks) must be taken into account. The top priority
when using electric resistance heaters in hazardous areas is to avoid
any potential source of ignition. Therefore, no danger may be caused,
not only in normal operation, but also in a foreseeable case of error or
multiple foreseeable cases of error, as they may have serious consequences in extreme cases, for example in an explosion. This means
that, in addition to the required electro-technical expert knowledge,
extensive and especially current knowledge in the area of explosion
protection are required. By way of example, DIN EN 60079-14 (VDE
0165-1) Explosive atmospheres – Part 14: Electrical installations design, selection and erection may be mentioned. In Appendix F of that
document, the knowledge and competences of the responsible persons, craftsmen and planners are listed [8].
Manufacturers who have their whole product line subjected to
a basic and extensive certification by a ›notified body‹, in order to obtain an EC Type Examination Certificate, and include in their delivery
extensive system documentation for operation in accordance with the
intended use, will have great opportunities in the future in the increasingly unclear market of electric resistance heaters. They are referred
to as system-certified explosion protected products (see Figures 5 and
6), for which the manufacturer only receives an EC Type Examination
Certificate instead of a separate certificate for each ex-relevant component.
The aim of all these efforts in the area of electric resistance
heaters is epitomized by the European Directive 94/9/EC:
›Member States shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the
equipment, protective systems and devices referred to in Article 1 (2)
to which this Directive applies may be placed on the market and put
into service only if, when properly installed and maintained and used
for their intended purpose, they do not endanger the health and safety
of persons and, where appropriate, domestic animals or property‹ [9].
In brief: Safety is the top priority.
[1] DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing
requirements. Chapter 3.38, page 9
[2] VIK recommendation: VE 25 ›Electrical Trace Heaters‹ VIK Association of
the Energy and Power Industry (Version 07/2003)
[3] DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing
requirements. Chapter 3.28, page 8
[4] DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing
requirements. Chapter 4.1, pages 9 to 10
[5] DIN EN 60079-0 (VDE 0170-1):03-2010 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 0: Equipment - General requirements (Chapter 13, page 38)
[6] DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing
requirements (Chapter 5, page 11)
[7] DIN EN 60079-30-1 (VDE 0170-60-1):12-2007 Explosive atmospheres –
Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating – General and testing
requirements (Chapter 6, page 23)
[8] DIN EN 60079-14 (VDE 0165-1) Explosive atmospheres – Part 14:
Electrical installations design, selection and erection, Appendix F
[9] Directive 94/9/EC of the European Parliament and Council dated 23
March 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
concerning equipment and protective systems intended for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres. Article 2, Paragraph 1
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 69
Product News
Product News
Figure 1: A new DTM for the Remote I/O-system from
R. STAHL offers full access to the new module
functions for more precise and faster diagnose
Convenient management of extended remote I/O functions: New DTM fully exploits
the wide functional range of new IS1+ modules
R. STAHL has augmented its combined Com/
Device/HART DTM for the explosion protected remote I/O system IS1+, thus allowing for
convenient access to the whole range of
new functions in the most recent modules.
The DTM is suitable for Profibus DP environments as well as Ethernet-based systems
such as Modbus TCP and EtherNet/IP. The
enhanced functional range of IS1+ provides
users with many new options: the new AI/AO
and DI/DO mixed modules for instance now
feature channel-by-channel I/O parameterisation and extended diagnostic options. For
each module, individual channels can now
be configured as inputs or outputs as required. In addition to line faults, IS1+ modules now also report excessive temperatures and the need for maintenance. This
enables users to prevent device failures
through prompt measures, thereby also
averting possible plant shutdowns. The DTM
clearly visualises such maintenance messages by means of symbols according to NE
107 recommandations.
In addition to these new features, the
performance has also been increased. Due
to an optimised integrated HART gateway
DTM, data transfer is now much faster. This
has a positive effect on most frames during
Page 70
68 | Ex-Magazine 2013
parameterisation of HART devices and during condition monitoring. Instead of HART
telegrams with a maximum of 71 Bytes, up to
234 Bytes can be transferred. Such long telegrams are especially used by high-performance new HART 7 devices. Featuring full
Windows 7 support and Unicode support e.g.
for Japanese Windows versions, the new
DTM version provides even better usability
than previous models. Proven features such
as condition monitoring, HART Life List and
automatic topology generation are maintained. A demo version of the new DTM is
available for download at
Fieldbus technology for maritime applications: ISbus now with DNV approval
While Fieldbus Foundation and PROFIBUS
PA technology are already well-established
on shore, the fieldbus market is also growing
at a considerable rate in offshore plants and
aboard ships. R. STAHL has therefore had its
complete range of ISbus fieldbus technology
inspected and certified by the DNV (Det Norske Veritas) for use in maritime environments and on board. The approval comprises field device couplers for installation in
zone 1 and zone 2, for both intrinsically safe
and non-intrinsically safe bus devices. The
couplers were subjected to tests according
to the strict requirements for ›open deck‹ installation.
The units had to prove their suitability for
an extended temperature range (-­25…+70 °C)
and fulfil very demanding EMC requirements.
In addition to suitability for ships, the approval also attests the suitability of ISbus
couplers for being installed in other areas
with especially rugged conditions. Fieldbus
power supply units with an integrated advanced physical layer diagnosis and the diagnosis communication module that enables
the integration of diagnosis data into asset
management systems remain limited to the
somewhat less demanding below-deck areas. These devices are used at temperatures
from +5 to +70 °C. Providing a wide range of
Figure 2: DNV approve that R. STAHL's ISbus fieldbus
technology program is suitable for marine use under
extreme environmental conditions
various ISbus housings and accessories,
R. STAHL ensures practicable solutions for
fieldbus applications under all kinds of extreme conditions – from very high or very
low temperatures to salt mist atmospheres
and extreme mechanical stress through permanent vibrations.
Central battery systems - freely
programmable and versatile
Installed in safe areas, central battery stations from R. STAHL's WFZB series serve to
supply emergency lights both in hazardous
and safe environments. With this technology
users are able to economically fulfil increasingly strict safety requirements and complying with current standards. The versatile
systems are easy to install and can be optimally adapted to all circuit options. They enable battery maintenance and the programming of more than 600 light points from one
central location. Their 19” housing with
swivel frame ensures optimal ease of service as well as minimal space requirements.
Thanks to pluggable, freely programmable
final circuit modules and redundant charger
units, the central battery systems provide
excellent operating safety. Furthermore, operating safety is increased by bus-connected sensors that monitor up to three channels
(outside temperature, temperature inside the
housing, temperature inside the battery
compartment). An address module with a
control input enables users to switch safety
lights without any additional module, thus
minimising wiring efforts.
One central battery system can control
up to 60 circuits. Combined with a central
computer, up to 64 WFZB installations can be
networked and controlled. Optionally, they
can also be connected to existing company
networks. The WFZB units feature an integrated control and monitoring module with
an LCD display and a PC interface for easier
programming. Further features include, a
switching module, a module for data transfer
to building automation technology, a staircase lighting timer, and a GSM remote transfer module, to name a few. Depending on the
battery capacity and the number of lighting
circuits, central battery systems are available in different sizes. Equipment options that
can be chosen by customers include various
interfaces, programmable escape route scenarios, monitoring possibilities, and connectivity. In addition to the central battery systems, R. STAHL also offers substations.
PROFINET in hazardous areas – enabled by
Remote I/O IS1+
IS1+ from R. STAHL is now one of the world’s
first remote I/O systems to feature PROFINET
support for standard industrial as well as
hazardous areas in process automation applications. This new capability gives users
another option for Ethernet applications
alongside the existing protocol support for
Modbus TCP and Ethernet/IP communica-
tion. In all cases, ›Ex op is‹ fibre optic cables
ensure explosion protection in zones 1 and 2.
A member of the Profibus & Profinet International (PI) working group ›DCS requirements‹,
R. STAHL has implemented this pioneering
solution, which is even suitable for use in
hazardous areas very quickly after the specification of the PROFINET requirements for
remote I/O and the presentation of the
System integration is carried out via
PROFINET GSDML (GSD Markup Language).
Compared with PROFIBUS GSD (General
Station Description), this markup language
allows for considerably more comfortable
and highly automated integration of IS1+
functions into engineering systems. Similar
to PROFIBUS PA, module functions are
mapped via transducer and function blocks
that allow for diagnostics as well as, for example, scaling with units. Mode handling allows for setting signal transfer to ›AUTO‹ (cyclical updates), ›MANUAL‹, or ›O/S‹ (Out of
Service) operation. Conforming with NAMUR
recommendation NE 107, the new status information options provide operators with a
quick and easy overview of signal quality regardless of specific causes of errors. The PI
status format (condensed status) supports
preventive maintenance messages, which
allow users to e.g. analyse the new IS1+
self-diagnoses. Service staff will find comprehensive alarm and diagnostic data at
their disposal. An integrated web server provides additional diagnoses for commissioning and maintenance. Of course, the new AI/
AO and DI/DO mixed modules featuring
channel-by-channel I/O parameterisation
are also supported. Current PROFINET I/O
controllers do not yet provide PROFINET
slave redundancy or online changes to configuration and parameters. However, as draft
specifications for these features are already
available, implementations can be expected
in 2013.
Figure 3: Central battery system from R. STAHL
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 71
Product News
and US division 2, and are available with
plastic or stainless steel housings, which
can be tailored to customer requirements.
Zone 1 isolating device couplers from
R. STAHL were recently chosen by the Indian
oil company IOCL for their huge PARADIP refinery. Nearly 7,000 of these devices in customised stainless steel enclosures have
been supplied for this project to date.
Figure 4: R. STAHL's explosion-protected remote I/O
system IS1+ is among the first Ethernet-capable
solutions that also support PROFINET for PA
Fieldbus Foundation registration for isolating field device couplers
R. STAHL has obtained a formal Fieldbus
Foundation registration for series 9411/21
and 9411/24 isolating device couplers. Soon
after the FF-846 test specification became
available, these couplers were among the
first to be tested and registered by the Foundation. The device couplers are designed for
economic fieldbus installations in zone 1 and
zone 2. The user-friendly products feature a
unique power management: during start-up
of a fieldbus segment, each coupler’s softstart feature energizes one spur after the
other. This reduces the inrush current on a
segment by up to 50 %, which means that
less spare energy is required, and longer
segment lengths become possible. In case
of multiple short circuits per coupler, short
circuit handling limits the current flow to no
more than a single spur to prevent an overload of the segment. Signal and error status
are displayed via clearly laid-out, multi-coloured LEDs.
The 8-spur variants of the isolating couplers are the same size as commonly available 4-spur models. Two 8-spur couplers will
suffice for typical fieldbus segments with up
to twelve devices, but will require about 30
% less space and lower costs. Giving a total
of 16 connections, this compact and cost-efficient two-coupler solution also provides
four spare spurs for future extensions, ready
to be used at any later time without additional measures or investments. The couplers allow users to choose between the different
grounding and shielding concepts as described in FF AG-181, such as single point,
multiple point and capacitive grounding.
They are suitable for use in zone 1, zone 2,
Page 72 | Ex-Magazine 2013
Ex-factory hygiene – cleanroom-compatible
HMI systems Standard and explosion-protected operating and visualisation solutions
R. STAHL HMI Systems are offering a variety
of operating and monitoring systems for installation in cleanrooms in the pharmaceutical sector as well as in other industries.
Suitable solutions covering various performance classes range from simple operating
equipment for machine control to Remote
HMIs and Thin Clients with large displays,
which support process control with complex
plant visualisation requirements. All models
can be installed in cleanroom environments
without any special provisions. The products
have no detrimental effect on the cleanroom
classifications under relevant regulations,
e.g. standardised procedures according to
VDI standard 2038, the European GMP directive, ISO 14644-1, or other market-specific
and industry-specific standards. These systems are all available either in standard industrial design or as versions suitable for
hazardous areas (zones 2/22 or 1/21).
Sealed pharmaceutical and cleanroom
HMIs with ingress protection up to IP66 can
be supplied either as stand-alone solutions
or as complete wall-panel mountable elements. Wall-panel versions are recommended for installation in cleanrooms of the highest category, so that the operating systems
will not affect air circulation and particles
will not settle on them. All enclosures are
made of conductive materials, making static
charges impossible. The devices are designed for easy cleaning, with smooth lines
and without any dead spaces or dirt traps.
The HMIs are available with stainless steel
surfaces or with a dirt-repellent polyester
membrane surface for display and keyboard.
Both these materials can withstand powerful
jets of water as well as most solvents or
cleaning agents. The stainless-steel surface
is polished to a very low surface roughness
of 0.8 µm (N6). Alternative options are anodised front frames and electropolished enclosures.
Given R. STAHL’s comprehensive HMI portfolio, cleanroom operators can easily select a
product that perfectly suits a specific application. For example, the compact ET-3x6 /
MT-3x6 devices are designed for simple operating and monitoring tasks and are particularly suitable for direct integration into
equipment. They communicate directly with
PLC systems and, if required, can be integrated in industrial Ethernet environments.
Their proprietary operating system and integrated visualisation system greatly simplify
project engineering and reduce runtime licensing costs. For complex process visualisation achieved through KVM or Thin Client
technology, R. STAHL provides larger systems with displays ranging from 15" to 24".
Featuring screen resolutions from 1024x768
to 1920x1200 pixels, this line-up includes 4:3
as well as widescreen aspect ratio HMIs.
WLAN versions of these powerful systems
are also available for users seeking to minimise the number of cable entries.
Preventing condensation in polar regions:
Self-regulating enclosure heaters for explosive atmospheres and maritime applications
Introducing the TEF 9206 and TEF 9207 series, TRANBERG, a R. STAHL subsidiary, presents two new enclosure heater types for
climate control on ships and oil rigs. The
units are available with a performance between 100 W and 1,000 W. They maintain the
temperature in the enclosure within a defined target range, thereby preventing condensation. Optionally, TEF heaters are deliv-
Figure 5: The Fieldbus Foundation has recently
tested and registered the series 9411 isolating
device couplers for fieldbus installations
Figure 6: R. STAHL HMI Systems are offering a wide
range of operating and monitoring solutions for
cleanrooms – even in hazardous areas
Figure 7: The new heaters for hazardous areas keep
the temperature in enclosures at a constant level
ered with a flying lead, a junction box, and a
thermostat – the latter switches the heater
on when the ambient temperature falls below 5 °C, and switches it off as soon as 15 °C
is reached, thus preventing overheating. The
heaters are manufactured from robust stainless steel, and certified according to IECEx
and ATEX (Ex II 2 G, Ex e mb IIC T3 Gb or T5
Gb). Thanks to a low profile, they can be easily integrated into control cabinets. TEF 9206
models are designed for use in enclosures
with IP54 protection or better.. TEF 9207
heaters are designed for IP66 protection.
Approximately 25% of all known oil and
natural gas reserves are located within the
arctic climate zone, most of them in sub-seabed deposits. In order to continuously ensure smooth operation and work safety for
crews, mining and transportation of these
resources in and near the polar region require offshore plants and ships that reliably
withstand extremely low temperatures and
adverse climatic conditions (wind, seawater,
ice formation). Explosion protection is a major factor in these applications, as explosive
atmospheres regularly occur on oil rigs and
aboard oil and gas tankers. TRANBERG combines know-how in these two areas of expertise: the Norwegian expert for marine applications has been a part of the R. STAHL
group since 2006, offering customers a comprehensive range of equipment for drilling
platforms and ships with explosive atmospheres in extreme climate conditions. In addition to de-icing systems and heaters. The
product portfolio also comprises lighting solutions including lights for helideck systems,
terminal boxes, and enclosures with installation material and accessories such as cable
glands. Intrinsically safe isolators and re-
mote I/O devices as well as operating and
monitoring technology including complete
explosion-protected IPCs are also available.
Compact explosion protected control panels
for machine and panel builders
R. STAHL implements the electrical construction of machines and plant requirements, creating individual, explosion-protected compact solutions for hazardous
areas. As a competent partner, the company
supports customers at every stage from the
first electrical design to the engineering and
commissioning of the control station. In
many cases, a compact controller is sufficient for the operation of machines and
plants. R. STAHL's compact control panels
are optimised for quick installation and connection of the main and control power loops.
They enable efficient start-up and maintenance procedures. The customer’s existing
wiring diagram and, if required, PLC program
can be used without large modifications. A
window can be inserted in the Ex d cover to
show the operating status or measured values. The complete solution includes all documentation required by ATEX. It also usually
consists of industrial-grade equipment and
switchgear that machine and plant engineers already use for electrical design in
safe areas. These components are engineered and wired as specified by the customer wiring diagram, and the complete
control panel is tested according to ATEX
and EN requirements before shipping. In relation to the relevant explosion protection
rules (IEC/EN 60079 et seq.), R. STAHL observes the basic electrotechnical standards
during planning and construction, as con-
firmed by the declaration of conformity,
which is part of the documentation. Cable
connection areas are wired through connection chambers with the suitable Ex e (›increased safety‹) type of protection. If specified, direct Ex d cable entries are a possible
alternative that requires no connection
chambers. Units from the GUBox series
(8265) serve as Ex d housings (›flameproof
enclosure‹). Available in four sizes, the enclosures enable optimal integration of the
control panels into the available space in
machines. Thanks to numerous international
certifications, the completed machines can
be exported and operated in many countries
– with its many subsidiaries, R. STAHL is
available for support and service worldwide.
Offering a wide range of installation equipment as well as operating and visualisation
solutions, R. STAHL also allows users to facilitate planning and procurement processes, thereby minimizing delivery times and
costs. With decades of experience in prototype construction and the production of
small lot sizes as well as large batches, the
company is an ideal partner for the on-time,
compliant implementation of explosion-protected control panels for machines and
FOUNDATION for Remote Operations Management: HSE remote I/O prototype and project participation from R. STAHL
R. STAHL presented a FF HSE remote I/O prototype for use in zone 1 at ACHEMA 2012 exhibition, emphasising its role as a major supporter of the new FOUNDATION for Remote
Operations Management (ROM) technology.
This standardised infrastructure for higherlevel remote plant control and asset management is being developed by the Fieldbus
Foundation consortium. The oil and gas industries, for instance, are increasingly building tank farms, pipelines, and offshore platforms in remote regions, some of which have
extreme climatic conditions. FOUNDATION
for ROM aims at providing reliable state-ofthe-art solutions for centralised cross-locational asset management for users from the
oil and gas sectors, but also from water and
wastewater management, the chemical in
dustry, and the mining industry.
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 73
Product News
Figure 9: R. STAHL's FF HSE remote I/O prototype on the FF demonstration
Figure 8: R. STAHL provides complete compact
control panel solutions for hazardous areas,
including Ex d housings and connection chambers
R. STAHL takes a leading role in the responsible Fieldbus Foundation boards, for
example on the validation team and in the
project group for end user technology demonstrations. The latest FOUNDATION for
ROM specification available to manufacturers for direct implementation covers conventional wired and HART field devices as
well as wireless I/Os according to the Wireless HART and ISA 100.11a standards. The
FOUNDATION project aims at seamless,
complete integration of process and diagnostic data from these technologies by
means of fast HSE (High Speed Ethernet)
networks with high data throughput. The
comprehensively networked ROM solution is
designed to replace previously common,
plant-specific, mutually incompatible remote
terminals that are hard to configure. While
Page 74 | Ex-Magazine 2013
these usually do not allow for continually updated, centralised field data acquisition and
management, FOUNDATION for ROM creates new possibilities for more precise and
efficient production control and monitoring.
With the F-ROM-capable prototype of the
IS1 remote I/O system, R. STAHL will join
other host, gateway, and remote I/O manufacturers in the upcoming months, significantly contributing to a range of practical
demonstrations with end users all over the
Ex-Magazine 2013 | Page 75
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Ex-Magazine 39/2013 (ISSN 0176-0920)
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Editorial staff
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(example R_STAHL (D):)\0000_STAHL_HOME.pdf).
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Am Bahnhof 30
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general catalogue
Produkte für gasexplosionsgefährdete Bereiche und Bereiche mit brennbarem Staub
Products for explosive gas atmospheres and areas with combustible dust
ID 102661 · 2013-03 - 00 · Gedruckt in Deutschland
General catalogue
Basics of Explosion
Competence at a Glance
Annual Report
Where safety knows no
Introduction to explo-
compromise: manufactur-
(Version 2013/01)
sion protection for
ing, system solutions,
Explosion protection
electrical apparatus
products, Ex-certifications,
and installations
service and training
systems and components
15.03.2013 16:33:12
System requirements
> Processor: P IV or later
> Frequency: 1.4 GHz or faster
> Main memory: 1GB RAM
> Graphic card: OpenGL able graphic card
> Resolution: 1280 x 1024 px
distributing &system
Supported operating systems
> Windows Vista
> Windows XP
> Windows 7
Lighting Design Software
Explosion Protection by R. STAHL
Nordstraße 10
99427 Weimar · Germany
T +49 03643 4324
ID 220122
Version 1.0 Printed in Germany
Distribution &
Camera systems
HMI Solutions
General catalogue
systems and compo-
for hazardous areas
System Solution for
Lighting Design
systems and
all Areas
Software by R. STAHL
We cannot be responsible for manuscripts not requested
by R. STAHL. Persons submitting manuscripts, letters, etc.
consent to editing.
Reproductions only with the Publishers permission!
Page 2 | Ex-Magazine 2013
cd_huelle_2013_01.indd 1
Cover picture: Gdansk, the former Hanseatic town and
today important Baltic port within the EG.
These days, the proposed free trade agreement between the
USA and the European Union strongly influences politics, the public
and the media in two of the largest economic regions. The
comprehensible great public interest is based on, in part the
creation of approximately 2 million jobs, that the aspired transatlantic
movement of goods would make.
In the field of explosion protection we unfortunately are still
far away from free trade between the ATEX area (European Union)
and the USA, even though substantial steps have been taken in the
right direction over the last years. It is still not possible for
manufacturers on either side of the Atlantic to sell their products to
both markets without expensive and time-consuming technical and
standardization of explosion protection at the IEC and the associated
certification scheme IECEx have contributed a lot towards making
international certification easier and have ensured a larger degree
of transparency. Particularly the joint work in the international
committees ensures continuous alignment of the technical product
requirements and builds up mutual trust and understanding. But
despite all the progress, a globally accepted product certificate is
still not on the horizon. The promising efforts that were initially made
at the UNECE (UN organization for the cooperation with the European
Community) seem to now be stuck. For this reason the IECEx system
correctly decided to develop the certification of services and
expertise in the field of explosion protection rather than fight
unpromising battles on the level of product certification. This
decision has been verified by the very pleasing development of the
two IECEx schemes for service providers and expertise. The
certification of service providers is now making the big step from
repair shops to plant designers, installation companies, and
maintenance and test organizations.
In the field certification of expertise, first steps have now been
taken towards certification of training providers. Our article on the
complete shut-down of the PCK Schwedt refinery intends to
demonstrate that observing high safety standards is definitely
compatible with awarding orders for maintenance to international
service providers. The decisive factors for success are
standardization of the operational procedures, good project
management, and effective and efficient training.
This is exactly where the new IECEx schemes fit in and thus
they have closed a gap that existed in the European rules.
R. STAHL, Marketing, Am Bahnhof 30, 74638 Waldenburg | Germany
Fon +49 7942 943 4301, Fax +49 7942 943 40 4301, info.ex @
Ex-Magazine 2013
Am Bahnhof 30, 746 3 8 Waldenburg | Germany
Fon + 49 7942 943 -0
Fax + 49 7942 943 -4333
ID 223132
S-ExMagazine 39/2013-00-EN-09/2013 · Printed in Germany
For the installers and operators of explosion protected electrical installations
Magazine 2013
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