JF - Part 8 - cd3wd408.zip - Offline

JF - Part 8 - cd3wd408.zip - Offline
reject of Volunteers
in Asia
Painting Inside and ci:.~
by Science and Education A
Published by:
USDA
(publication no.
Available from:
Superintendent of
Consumer Informati
Box 100
Pueblo, Colorado 810
USA
Reproduced by permission.
Reproduction of this microfiche docum
form is subject to the same restrictions
of the original document.
as those
On January 24, I!&%, four USE)
(ARS), C’oopcrative State Rescarc
and the National Agricultural
Lib
A~~i~i~t~~ti~)t~ ~~~A).
orgiinization,
the Scicnctr an8 Education
Dcpartmcnt of Agriculture.
‘l’his publication
was prspard
by the Science a
~~~~~~ti~~~Ad
tration’s Federal Research staff. which was formerly t
Service.
--For solo by the Suporintondont of Doc~mx~t~, U.S. Corernmcnt Printing 01&o
Washington, D.C. mO3
Stock No. 0014xm-0387~5
ii
U.S.
Information
ftbr this publication
was compiled under the
Robert Ci. Ycck, Staff Scientist. SEA-FR, National f’rogri
Milrylilnd, 20’705; ‘I’.!:. IL,nd. Research Isadcr. SEA-F
RCSCi~rCllIJnit, C’lcmson. S.C’. 296.31; and Glcndu Pifcr. f-lo
SEA-E, Washington, I 1.C’. 20250. Manuscripl materials for
wcrc’ c(~nst)~idiltcd und Frcparcd in final form by Rrtbcrt Ii.
writer-editor,
SEA-l;R.
Information
IXvision. f’ubti~~~ti~~~~ l4r;rnch.
ttsvillc. M;lryliind 20782. Most gri)tcf‘uI iIcknowicdgmctlt is
‘aint and C’(ji\tings Association.
I500 Rhode Islard
A\c
ington, I).<‘. 20005, f’or many constructive contributions
to
Appreciation must ills0 hc cxprcsscd to I)r. William C. F;eist,
Forc‘st Scrvicc, Forest Products l.;Iboratory,
Madiso
Willii~m I’. C’ox, Agrlcultur;\l Engineer, SEA-E. WUS
their rcvicw iltld iISSiStiltlW.
Mention of a proprietnry product
in this publication does not constitute
i\ gU;\Pi\lltCC
or Wi\rrillIty
01’ the
product by the U.S. Ikpurttl~cnt
01
Agriculture and dots not imply its
i1pprt1Vibl by thC Ih!pibl-tilWllt
to t hC
exclusion Of other products t hiit Illil\r
alSo bc suitiiblc.
Page
Acknowledgments
...................
Introduction
........................
Surface Preparation ..................
General ..........................
Plaster. Drywall and Masonry
Surfaces ........................
Wood Surfaces ....................
Metal Surfaces ....................
Paint Selection ......................
General ..........................
Kinds of Paint ....................
Paints for barn walls .............
Paints for wood siding ...........
Paints for woodtrim, windows,
shutters, and doors ............
Paints for masonry ..............
Paints for galvanized iron .........
Paints for aluminum .............
Paints for concrete or wood porches
and steps .....................
Choosing Colors .....................
Estimating Quantity ..................
Application .........................
General ..........................
Equipment ........................
When to Paint ....................
Number of Coats ..................
Safety Precautions ...................
How to Paint .......................
Page
.
111
I
I
I
9
9
9
10
IO
IO
IO
II
ll
II
I2
12
I3
I4
Interior ...........................
Exterior ..........................
Using Natural Finishes and Stains .....
Interior ...........................
Exterior ..........................
Whitewashing .......................
General ..........................
Surface Preparation ................
Mixing ...........................
For general woodwork ...........
For brick, concrete, or stone ......
For plaster walls .................
Coloring ..........................
Application .......................
Cleanup ............................
Paint Failures .......................
Blistering and Peeling ..............
Prevention and correction
........
Cross-grain cracking ...............
Prevention and correction
........
Mildew ...........................
Prevention and correction
........
Intercoat Peeling ..................
Prevention and correction
........
Excessive Chalking ................
Prevention and correction
........
Related Publications .................
Table I .............................
Table 2.. ...........................
I4
I5
I7
I7
I8
I9
19
I9
I9
I9
I9
I9
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
22
22
23
23
23
24
24
6
8
This publication supersedes Home and Garden Bulletins No. 155, “Exterior
Painting,” and No. 184, “Interior Painting in Homes and Around the Farm.”
Washington,
D.C.
Issued October
1978
Some people enjoy painting the
house; for others it’s a chore. But it
must be done occasionally.
One
reason is for appearance.
Another
important one is for protecti,on of the
surface.
Delay, when repainting is needed,
can mean extra work when you
finally do paint. Old paint that blisters, cracks, and peels will have to be
removed before the new paint can be
applied.
If you wait too long, there could be
costly damage. Moisture may reach
the interior where it can cause damage. Some metals rust when not protected; others develop a corrosive
wash that stains surrounding
surfaces.
Take time to do a good job when
you paint. For an attractive, longlasting paint job, you need to-Properly prepare the surface for
painting. Even the best paint won’t
last on a poorly prepared surface.
Read the paint
ose the correct
proper surface.
container label!
coating for the
Use good quality paint. It gives
longer and better protection.
Apply the paint correctly.
Improper application can be as damaging as a poorly prepared surface.
RATIO
General
Preparation
of the surfacecleaning and patching-may
take the
most time in painting, because it is of
major importance in the job. Even
the best paint will not adhere well to
an excessively dirty or greasy surface
or hide large cracks or scratches. It is
especially desirable to scrape peeling
paint and cover it in old homes where
original paints may have had a leadbase and as such are a hazard for
small children who naturally sometimes put these chips in their mouth
and eat them. Ingesting lead-base
paints can be very harmful or even
fatal.
In general, a surface that is to be
painted should be firm, smooth, and
clean. With oil=-base paint, it must
also be completely dry. If necessary,
latex or water-base
paint can be
applied to a damp-but
not wetsurface. Ideal conditions, though, are
Check the paint-can
dry surfaces.
label
for additional
or special
instructions
for preparing the surfaces.
1
BN-3361X
Scrape off-or
otherwise
remove -all
Grease or grime must be removed
for good paint adhesion.
Oil and
grime may be removed by washing
surfaces, other than drywall, with a
detergent
solution,
ammoniated
cleansers, or mineral spirits.
Kitchen walls and ceilings are usually covered with a film of grease
from cooking that may extend to the
walls and ceilings just outside the
entrances to the kitchen.
Bathroom walls and ceilings may
have excessive grime.
asonry Surfaces
Clean and dust all surfaces thoroughly before you apply the first coat
of primer or paint. On masonry surfaces, remove dirt, loose particles, or
effloresence with a wire brush. “Effloresence” is a white powdery condition
that sometimes occurs on masonry or
brick as a leachate from water seepage.
2
loose paint before you repaint.
Newly plastered walls should not
be painted with oil-base paint until
they are thoroughly
cured-usually
about 2 months. Then, a primer coat
should be applied first.
If it is necessary to paint uncured
plaster,
apply one coat of a latex
paint or primer. Latex, or water-base,
paint will not be affected by the alkali
in new plaster and will allow water to
escape as the plaster dries. Subsequent coats of paint-either
oilbase or latex-can
be added when the
plaster is dry.
Unpainted plaster readily picks up
and absorbs dirt and is difficult to
clean. The one coat of latex paint or
primer will protect it.
For new drywall, a latex primer or
paint is recommended
for the first
coat. Solvent-thinned
paints tend to
cause a rough surface. After the first
coat of latex paint, subsequent coats
can be of either type.
New concrete should weather for
several months before being painted.
Fresh concrete may contain considerable moisture and alkali, so it is
best to use specially formulated coatings which are alkali-resistant.
Portland cement masonry paint may also
be used.
Patch any crack or other defects in
masonry
surfaces.
Pay particular
attention to mortar joints.
On old plaster and drywall surfaces, the first step is to inspect the
surface for cracks and chips. Fill
small hairline cracks with spackling
compound
an.d larger cracks with
special patching plaster. Follow the
directions
on the container
label
when using the patching material.
When the patch is completely dry,
sand it smooth and flush with the
surrounding surface.
Nailheads tend to “pop out” in drywall and ceilings. Countersink
the
projecting heads slightly and fill the
hole with spackling compound. Sand
the patch smooth when it is dry. It is
desirable to prime all newly spackled
or patched spots, particularly if you
are applying only one coat.
On all masonry
surfaces
it is
especially important to remove dirt,
loose particles, and effloresence with
a wire brush. Loose, peeling,
or
heavily
chalked
paint
may be
removed by sandblasting.
If the old
paint is moderately chalked and otherwise “tight” and nonflaking, coat it
with a recommended sealer or conditioner before you repaint with a
water-base paint.
The finish on kitchen and bathroom walls and ceilings is usually a
gloss or semigloss. It must be “cut” so
that the new paint can get a firm
hold. For best results, rub the surface
with fine sandpaper or steel wool.
00
ui rfaces
New wood siding and window
woodwork,
doors, and baseboard
preferably
should not contain resinous knots or pitch streaks. But if
they do, clean the knots and streaks
with turpentine and seal with a good
knot sealer. The knot sealer will seal
in oily extractives and reduce staining
and cracking or the paint in the knot
area.
If there are any bare spots in the
wood, prime them with an undercoater.
To prevent future staining by rusty
nails, set nailheads below the surface,
prime them, and caulk the hole.
Loose wood siding should be fastened with nonrusting-type
nails.
Prime and caulk all cracks. Sand the
area smooth
after the compound
dries.
Remove all rough, loose, flaking,
and blistering paint. Spot-prime the
bare spots before repainting. Where
the cracking or blistering of the old
paint extends
over a large area,
remove all old paint down to bare
wood. Prime and repaint the old surface as you would a new wood surface. Sand or “feather” the edges of
the tight old paint before repainting.
Smooth
any rough spots in the
wood with sandpaper or other abrasive. Before applying paint, wipe off
any dust or residue that is left on the
surface from cleaning
or surface
preparation.
Old paint may be removed
by
sanding, scraping, or burning, or with
chemical paint remover. Scraping is
the simplest
but hardest method.
Sanding is most effective on smooth
surfaces. Chemical paint remover can
be expensive for large areas. Burning
is not recommended.
3
e
N
Correct the condition that caused
the blister, cracking, or peeling of the
old paint before you repaint. Otherwise, the same trouble may reoccur.
It may be a moisture problem. See
“Paint Failures,” page 20.
New galvanized
steel surfaces
should weather for about 6 months
before
being painted.
If ear!ier
painting is necessary, first wash the
There are a number of different
types of paint. Selection need not be
too much of a problem, however.
First consider whether you need an
exterior (exposed to weather) or an
interior paint. Then consider the surface you are painting: wood, metal,
or masonry? Some paints can be used
on all three; others on only two.
Many are formulated for one particular surface material. Condition of
the surface is important
also. Old
chalky surfaces, for example, are not
generally a sound base for latex or
water-base paints.
Next consider any special requirements. For example,
nonchalking
paint may be advisable where chalk
rundown
would discolor
adjacent
brick or stone surfaces.
Perhaps
mildew is a problem. If so, mildew
should be removed and efforts made
4
surface with a very mild and dilute
acid such as vingegar, or a commercially avaiable compound, and rinse
it thorr,li,ghly. This will remove any
manufacturing
residue and stain
inhibitors.
Apply a special metall’i: zinc dust
primer or other specially for-mulated
primers before painting.
Rust and loose paint can usually be
removed from old surfaces with sandpaper or with a stiff wire brush.
Chipping may be necessary in severe
cases. Chemical
rust removers are
also available.
Oil and grease may be removed
with a solvent such as mineral spirits.
Rinse the surface thoroughly.
to correct its cause-excess
moisture
is the major culprit. Mildew-resistant
paints are available for use where
such problems occur.
Many different kinds and formulations of paints and other finishes
are available for interior and exterior
use. New ones frequently appear on
the market. Use the tables on pages 6
and 8 as a general guide in making
your selection. For a more specific
selection consult your paint dealer.
Reputable paint dealers keep abreast
of the newest developments
in the
paint industry and stock the newest
formulations.
Paint may be categorized as solvent-thinned
or water-thinned.
Solvent-thinned
paints are most commonly
oil-base
paints but some
I
~
specialty coatings such as catalyzed
epoxies, polyesters, and urethanes are
also solvent-thinned
but are not oilbase paints. Enamels which are made
with a varnish, or resin, base instead
of the usual linseed-oil vehicle, are
included under the broad oil-paint
grouping. Water-thinned
paints aie
most commonly
latex paints but
there are non-latex paints that are
water-thinned.
Oil-base paints are very durable,
are highly resistant to staining and
damage,
can withstand
frequent
scrubbings, and give gourd one-coat
coverage.
Many latex paints are
advertised as having similar properties.
The main advantages of latex paint
are easier application,
faster drying,
and simpler
tool cleanup.
The
brushes, rollers, and other equipment
can be easily cleaned with soap and
water.
Paints usually come in three finishes; gloss, semigloss or flat. Glossy
finishes look shiny and clean easily.
Flat finishes reduce glare but more
readily become dirty. Semigloss finishes have properties of both glossy
and flat finishes. Both oil-base and
latex paints are available in gloss,
semigloss, and flat finishes.
Because enamel is durable and easy
to clean,
semigloss
or full-gloss
enamel is recommended
for woodwork and for the walls of kitchens,
bathrooms, and laundry rooms. For
the walls of nurseries and playrooms,
either oil-base or latex semigloss
enamel paint is suggested. Flat paint
is generally
used for the walls of
living rooms, dining rooms, and
other non-work or non-play rooms.
Penetrating sealers are available as
a finish for other wood used in the
home such as paneling or furniture. It
is easy to apply and penetrates into
the surface with little buildup. It
avoids the high gloss to which some
people object.
“House paint” is the commercial
term for exterior paints. Generally it
refers to paint v+nich is applied to
siding and other large exterior wall
surfaces.
Trim paint is the terminology that is usually used for baseboard, window sills, etc., jobs. There
are paints specifically formulated for
a particular
requirement,
such as
rust-preventative
for metal.
House paint comes in both oil-base
and latex (water-base)
paint. The
vehicle of oil-base paint consists usually of alkyd resin with turpentine or
mineral spirits as the thinner. Latex
paint vehicle consists of fine particles
of resin emulsified
(held in suspension) in water.
Again, the advantages
of latex
paints include easier application,
faster drying,
usually better color
retention,
resistance
to alkali and
blistering. “Bone dry” surfaces are
ideal for painting. But if it is impossible to attain this condition, some
latex paints
will perform
satisfactorily on slightly damp surfaces.
Brush and tool cleanup is simpler
with latex because it can be done
with soap and water and doesn’t
require the purchase of paint thinner.
Use tables I and 2 as a guide in
selecting paint. Your paint dealer can
help you also. Here are some specific
suggestions:
Paints for barn walls
Walls in farm-service
buildings
must withstand almost constant rubbing by animals and frequent wash5
Table l.-Interior
-
-ii
E
2
al
3
a
MASONRY
X
x
I1
8,
Brick
L!
Cement Block
x
I1
-
Ceramic Tile
Flooring
Concrete
x
11
7
-11
Concrete
--Flooring
Drywall
4x
-i
-i
4
-1
-i
6
8x
Ii
x
4.
-7
-
x
4,
-11
-
5
6,:
x
X
_1
X
1
x
14
x
I.5
-
-
-
3
E
2
a
s
0
L
Y
52
-6
B
.3
-
x
11
x
11
-
x
-11
-
-
x
6
-
Plaster
Paint Selection Chart’
5
5
c
.z
5
3
Ei,
Lri
-
5
G
z
2
SURFACE
-
62
x
x
fi
;‘i
x
x
6
6
x
6
x
6
-
s
g
.c
.s
iz
E
2
az
.c
.’
5
s
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Ahunin!AL
Galvanized
Steel
Iron and Steel
-
Steel Flooring
-
WOOD
Flooring
-
-
l:
ii
-1,:
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1”1
-
Trim
and Paneling
x
3
-
4
1)
-
11
::
-
-
x
11
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
9,
I!
X
6,:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
x
II
’ X = Paint Choice and Numbers = Primer Choice; code on next page.
6
11
x11
x
11
Wallpaper
x
-
-
MISCELLANEOUS
‘Accoustical
Tile
vinyl Wallcovering, Smooth,
with Design
Vinyl Wallcover- ing, Smooth,
without Design
Mnvl Wallcovering. Textured
X
11
-
-
-
-
Accoustical surfaces often require only a thin coating that will lend decorative properties
but that will not affect the surface’s sound-proof
characteristics.
Almost every new or bare surface will require the use of a primer or prime
coat before application of the topcoat. Often this primer is a product specially
formulated to protect the surface, as well as provide a coating to which the
topcoat can tightly adhere. In some situations the topcoat material can be
applied as a prime coat, according to manufacturer’s directions, after which a
second, and possible third, topcoat would be apllied.
Below is a list of primers used with topcoats applied to surfaces found in a
home’s interior. Each primer has a key number which appears on the chart.
Remember these primer-topcoat
combinations are general recommendations.
For specific priming instructions, consult the container label.
Interior Primers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
7.
Alkyd Metal Primer
Alkyd Primer
Enamel Undercoater
Exterior Masonry Paint
Latex Metal Primer
Latex Primer
Masonry Block Filler
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Masonry Surface Conditioner
Oil-Base Primer
Portland Cement Metal Primer
Topcoat Material Used as Primer
Wood Filler
Wood Sealer
Zinc-Rich Metal Primer
rable 2.-Exterior Paint Selection Chart’
z
.d
k
E
.g
2
d
MASONRY
Asbestor Cement
Brick
Cement and Cinder
Block
Cement Porch Floor
stuccc-
X
X
X
-
METAL
Aluminum Windows
Galvanized Surfaces
Iron Surfaces
Siding (Me lal)
Steel Windows
and Doors
-
WOOD
Ilrame Windows
Natural Siding
and Trim
Porch Floor
Shingle Roof
Shutters & Other
Trim
Siding
X
-
MISCELLANEOUS
Canvas Awnings
Coal Tar Felt Roof
.
’ X = Paint Choice and
8
= Primer or Sealer May Be Required, Check Container
Label.
ings to remove manure and dirt; and
storage
building
walls after: also
suffer hard use. Durable
paint is
required. However, lead-base paint
should not be used around animals
because the animals may lick the
paint.
A catalyzed enamel, epoxy, polyester, or urethane type may cost more
than ordinary paint, but are more
durable and washable. The ingredients usually come in two containers
Label
must
be mixed.
and
instructions should be followed carefully for mixing and using the paint.
aints for wood siding
Either latex or oil-base house paint
may be used. An oil-base primer is
recommended
for use over resinous
woods such as pine and those that
tend to bleed such as redwood and
western red cedar.
Penetrating semi-transparent
stains
are preferred by many homeowners
who wish to preserve the beauty of
thz wood. See page 17 for more
information on stains.
aints for trim,
and doors.
indows, shutters,
Because
wood trim is usually
treated with a water repellent preservative before finishing, any form
of latex or oil-base paint or stain can
be used. Latex trim enamels are good
choices.
Their properties
include
rapid drying, high gloss, good color
and gloss retention,
and good
durability. Regular house paint may
not retain its gloss as long. Chalking
paints should be avoided wherever
there is concern about discoloration
of adjacent surfaces.
Pa/fits for masonry
Exterior latex masonry paint is a
standard paint for masonry. Cementbase paint may be used on nonglazed
brick, stucco, cement, and cinder
block.
For an inexpensive,
attractive
masonry paintMix 1 part of hyilrated lime with 5
parts of white Porti%.: :d cement. Add
water until the mixttire has the consistency of condensed
milk. Highgrade mineral coloring may be added
to obtain light tinting. (Add 2 parts
of fine sand to the mix if you will
need to completely fill the pores of
rough cinder block. Excellent block
fillers are available in paint stores
also.)
Dampen
the surface
before
applying the paint. Brush or spray
the paint on. A short, stiff-bristled
brush will help fill pores.
The paint should dry slowly for
proper curing. After it becomes firm,
keep it damp with sprayed water for
about 48 hours. Surfaces painted
with this paint will require a sealer
before they can be repainted with
other types of paint.
aints for galvanized iron
Ordinary house or trim paints may
be used for the finish coats on gutters, downspouts,
and hardware or
grilles. A specially
recommended
primer must be used on each. For
instance, a metallic zinc dust primer
is recommended
on galvanizing and
red lead or zinc chromate primer on
iron. There are other surface preparation techniques available for metal
9
too. Carefully follow instructions for
their use. Specific formulations
of
enamel
are available
for ferrous
window screens.
Paints for aluminum
Aluminum
normally
requires no
paint for protection but there may be
a need to “touch-up”
or otherwise
repaint factory applied finishes. See
tables 1 and 2 for alternatives.
CHOOSING
Color is mostly a matter of personal preference.
Remember
that
light colors will repel heat while dark
tones absorb heat. Chalking paints
should be avoided where the chalking
may discolor adjacent surfaces.
Paints are available in a wide range
of colors and shades. Some are ready
mixed; others the dealer has to mix
by adding or combining different colors. Dealers
usually carry color
charts showing the different possibilities. Here are some points to keep
in mind in selecting your colors.
l Light colors make a small room
seem larger. Conversely, dark colors
make an overly large room appear
smaller.
* Ceilings
appear
lower when
darker
than the walls and higher
when lighter than the walls.
l Paint generally
dries to a slightly
different color or shade. For a fast
preview of the final color, brush a
ESTIMATING
For large jobs, paint is usually
bought by the gallon. The label usually indicates the number of square
feet a gallon will cover when applied
as directed. To determine the number
of gallons you will need:
10
Paints for concrete or wood
porches and steps
Porch-and-deck
paint may be used
on both concrete
and wood. On
wood, an oil-base primer is applied
after first treating the w.ood with a
water repellent preservative solution
that is suitable for future covering
with a regular paint.
COLORS
sample swatch of the paint on a piece
of clean, white blotting paper. The
blotting
paper
will immediately
absorb the wet gloss, and the color
on the paper will be about the color
of the paint when it dries on the wall.
l Colors
often change under artificial lighting. Look at color swatches
both in daylight and under artificial
lighting.
l The type of artificial
lighting cz :.i
also make a difference. For instaxe,
incandescent
lighting casts a warm,
yellow glow. On the other hand, fluorescent lighting usually gives off a
cooler, blue hue, unless a warm white
fluorscent tube is used.
l Keep in mind
that most paint
stores use fluorescent
lighting, and
consequently a color that looks ‘one
shade in the paint store may look
another shade in your home. Adjacent colors also affect the appearance.
QUANTITY
1. Find the area of the walls in
square feet by multiplying the length
of each wall by its height.
2. Subtract from this figure onehalf the total area-in
square feettaken up by doors and windows. This
is done simply by muitipiying the
height and width of each unit, adding
the results, and dividing by 2.
3. Divide the figure obtained in
step 2 into th: number of square feet
a gallcn of paint will cover. Then
multiply that figure by the number of
coats to be applied. This wil! determine the number of gallons needed.
Ceilings are often painted a different shade than the walls, and need
to be figured separately. To find the
eneral
Read the paint can label carefullvv
before starting to paint. It will contain general application
instructions
as well as any special instructions and
directions for applying the paint, and
drying requirements. Do not become
careless and ignore safety practices.
For speed and convenience,
homeowners usually prefer to use a
roller on walls, ceilings, and other
large surfaces, and then use a brush
at corners, along edges, and in other
places a roller cannot reach. Rollers
work well on masonry and metal surfaces. Proper depth of the pile or nap
on the roller covers is important and
varies from one surface to another.
Foliow the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Rectangular applicators are available that offer the speed and convenience
of rollers.
They too are
desirable
to use on large surfaces.
square-foot area of the ceiiing, simply
multiply the length by the width.
Remember that unpainted plaster
and wallboard soak up more paint
than previously painted walls and will
require more paint or primer. Extra
paint may also be required to cover
old colors if there is much change
involved.
It is more desirable
to
slightly overestimate
the amount of
paint needed in order to avoid the
risk of having to buy a
second
batch later that might not exactly
match the original batch.
smdl
These applicators
are available
through most retailers. Again, follow
the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Special shaped rollers and other
applicators are available for painting
woodwork, corners, edges, and other
close places. Some may work fine;
others not so well. A small brush may
still be best for such work.
Woodwork is usually painted with
a brush. A brush will usually give
better penetration
on wood than
rollers or spray painting.
Keep in mind that different kinds
of brushes and rollers are recommended for use with different kinds
of paint. The characteristics
of the
bristle affect how well paint is transferred to the painting surface. Y’our
paint dealer should be able to furnish
sound advice on what kind of brush
or roller to buy.
Indoor spray painting is not generally done by the homeowner, except
for small jobs using pressurized cans
of paint. On outside jobs, spraying is
often the fastest method. But, you
11
may not get proper penetration
on
wood surfaces. On masonry surfaces,
voids that are difficult to fill with a
brush or roller can be coated adequately by spraying. On any spray
job-large
or small-take
care that
spray doer not drift to surrounding
surfaces-particularly
parked cars.
Other
equipment
needed
for
painting includes a stepladder, protective coverings to avoid splash or
spillage
on the wrong surfaces
(needed outside as well as inside) and
wiping rags.
For best results with either oil-base
or latex paint, and for an easier 2nd
better paint jobPaint when the weather is mild and
dry. The less humidity in the air, the
quicker paint will dry. Never apply
an oil-base
paint when the temFerature
is below 10” F. Freezing
temperatures sholiid be avoided with
any paint. Temperatures above 90” F
are not only uncomfortable
to the
painter but they may cause paint to
dry t. o quickly.
Consult label for
temperature limitations.
@ Start outside painting after the
morning dew has evaporated.
Stop
outside painting in late afternoon or
early evening on cool fall days. This
is more important with latex paint
than with oil-base paint.
Paint surfaces after they have
been exposed to the sun and are in
the shade. A good rule is to “follow
the sun around the house.” Painting
in sunlight will cause the paint to dry
more quickly and especially in hot
weather, this may cause brush “lap”
marks
to appear
in the freshly
painted surface.
12
Do not paint in windy or dusty
weather
or when insects may get
caught in the paint. Insects are usually the biggest problem during fall
evenings. Don’t try to remove them
from wet paint; brush them off alter
the paint dries.
ber of Coats
Three coats cf gaint are recommended for new wood surfacesone
primer and two finish coats. Two
coat sy~-;;ns will last only about half
as loi-,&as a three coat system.
On old paint surfaces in good condition,
one top coat may be sufficient. But if the paint is very thin,
apply two top coats, especially on
outside surfaces
areas exposed to
weather or any surface exposed to
heavy use.
On bare surfaces or surfaces with
very little paint left on them, apply a
primer and two top coats. Remove
heavy chalk
before
repainting,
especially when repainting with latex.
Allow the primer
coat to dry
according to the manufacturer’s label
instructions.
Allow longer drying
time in humid weather. Apply the
finish coats as soon as the primer has
dried sufficiently.
Usually
it is
desirable
to allow about 48 hours
drying time between oil-base finish
coats. Two coats of latex paint may
be applied in one day. If you must
wait a month or more, clean the surface thoroughly
before applying the
top coats.
On metal surfaces, prime both new
metal and old metal from which the
paint
has been removed.
Good
primers usually contain zinc dust, red
lead, zinc yellow, or some rustinhibiting
pigment
as one of the
ingredients.
After the primer has
dried sufficiently, apply one or two
finish coats of paint.
The Forest Products
Laboratory
recommends applying a water- repellent preservative before priming new
wood that has not been so treated.
For a safer paint jobNever paint in a completely
closed room, nor in a room where
there is an open flame or fire. Solvent
paints give off fumes that can be
flammable,
and also dangerous to
breathe. Good cross ventilation not
only helps to remove fumes and
odors, but can shorten paint drying
time.
Some fumes can be especially
I to infants, children, canaries,
and other delicate
pets. Avoid
sleeping in a freshly painted room
until the fumes subside.
@ Use a sturdy stepladder or other
support when painting high places.
Make sure the ladder is not defective.
Check the rungs and side rails carefully. Check any ropes and pulleys
also to make sure they are securely
fastened and work properly.
Be sure the ladder is positioned
firmly,
both on the ground and
against the wall. Set the foot of the
ladder away from the wall one-fourth
of the distance of the height to be
climbed. If you use scaffolding, make
sure it is secure.
Always
face a ladder when
climbing up or down. Hold on with
both hands. Carry tools and supplies
in your pocket or haul them up with
a line.
Some preservatives need to dry for
two warm, sunny days before the
primer is applied.
Ask your paint
dealer about the recommendations
of
the paint manufacturer.
See Home
and Garden Bulletin llo. 203, “Wood
Siding-Installation,
Finishing,
Maintaining,*’ (see p. 24).
Be sure the paint bucket, tools,
and other objects are secure when
you are on a ladder or scaffolding.
Falling
objects can injure persons
walking below.
Lean toward the ladder when
working. Keep one hand free-ready
to grab the ladder just in case. Do
not overreach when painting. A good
rule is not to let your belt buckle
extend beyond the side rails.
Move the ladder frequently
rather than risk a fall. Take a few sec-
BN-33620
A wire across the top of the paint can or
paint bucket is convenient tar holding
the brush.
13
onds to remove the paint from the
ladder before ycu move it.
Avoid
any electrical
wiring
within the area of work. This is
especially important if you are using
a metal ladder.
* When you finish painting, dispose of used rags by putting them in
a covered
metal can. If left lying
around, the oily rags could catch fire
by spontaneous combustion.
f3 Store paint in a safe, well-ventilated place where children and pets
cannot get to it-well away from furnaces or other sources of ignition that
might cause an expiosion. It is better
not to store in the house. Some
paints cannot
withstand
freezing.
Unless needed for retouching, small
quantities of paint may not be worth
saving.
HOW TO PAINT
Interior
Preferably, remove all furnishings
from a room to be painted. Otherwise, cover the furniture, fixtures,
and floor with drop clothes or newspapers. No matter how careful you
are, there will always be some spill,
drip, or splatter of paint.
If you do not wish to paint lightswitch and wall-plug plates, remove
them before painting. Guard against
shock. Otherwise they can be painted
along with the rest of the wall.
Stir or shake paint thoroughly
before starting to paint. Stir it frequently while painting.
If using a gallon of paint, transfer
it to a larger container or pour about
half into another
container. There
will be less chance of spillage or drip.
Dip your brush about one-third the
length
of the bristles.
A wire
stretched across the top of the can is
I_l.~efni
irz
iPmr?vin,P
eXCeSS
Paint
from
the brush, or use the inside of the can
for this purpose. Do not scrape the
brush across the rim of the can.
Wipe up spilled,
splattered,
or
dripped paint as you go along. Usu14
ally paint splatter or spillage is easier
to clean up when wet.
When using latex paint, wash your
brush or roller occasionally
with
water. A buildup of the quick-drying
paint in the nap of the roller or at the
base of the bristles of the brush can
cause excessive dripping.
Do not let the paint dry out in the
can or in brushes or rollers between
jobs or during long interruptions in a
job. During long interruptions
in a
job, replace the can lid, and either
clean brushes or rollers, or suspend
them in water.
Paint a room’s ceiling first. Don’t
try to paint too wide a strip at a time.
The next strip should be started and
lapped into the previous one before
the previous one dries. Paint strips
across the narrow width of the room.
“Cut in” at the junction
with the
walls before painting the walls, even
when applying two coats on the ceiling.
Start painting a wall at the upper
left corner and work down toward
the floor. If left-handed,
start at
upper right corner. See illustration on
page 16.
To retain the natural color, hardwood floors should be refinished with
varnish, penetrating sealer, or shellac.
To change the color, stain may be
applied-preferably
on the raw
wood. Oil stains are the easiest to
work with.
One or more coats of wax will help
protect your new floors.
Paint
dealers
generally
have
instruction
pamphlets
on re-doing
floors.
Concrete floors can be painted, but
it is important to use an enamel that
has good alkali resistance. There are
good rubber-based,
epoxy, and urethane types available. Also available
and recommended
are latex paints
made
for concrete Boors.
Clean dirt and grease from concrete floors before you paint them.
Trisodium
phosphate
is a good
cleaner to use.
Slick concrete
floors should be
roughened
slightly before they are
painted.
To roughen
or etch the
floor, treat it with a solution of 1
gallon of muriatic acid mixed with 2
gallons of water. After treating, rinse
the floor thoroughly and allow it to
dry completely before painting. Protect yourself and other surfaces from
direct contact with the acid.
especially
Set the ladder at a safe angle
paint.
when you
You may want to refinish your
wood floors to complement
your
paint job. This should be done before
you paint.
Complete
renewal of the floors
requires complete removal of the old
finish. This can be done by sanding
or with paint and varnish remover.
Sanding is probably the fastest and
easiest method. Electric sanders can
be rented. Be sure to sand with the
grain of the wood until you have a
clean, smooth surface.
Exterior
On the exterior start painting at a
high point of the house-at
a corner
or under the eave. Paint from top to
bottom.
Complete one wall before
starting another.
Apply paint to an unpainted area
and work into the wet edge of the
previously painted portion. Use long,
sweeping arm strokes,
keeping an
even pressure on the brush or roller.
Apply both sides of each brushfull.
15
r
Painting wails with a roller: (1) Starting at the upper left-hand corner, brush a strip just
below the ceiling line for a width of 2 feet. Also paint a strip along the left edge from
the ceiling to the floor. (2) Starting in an unpainted area, roil upward toward the
painted area. (3) Complete an area about 2 feet wide and 3 feet deep at a time. (4) At
the bottom of the wail, “cut in” with the brush where you couldn’t reach with the roller.
Use a cardboard guard to protect the woodwork.
End each stroke with a light, lifting
motion.
Paint along the grain of
wood. When you finish an area, go
over it with light, quick strokes to
smooth
any minor marks and to
recoat any unnoticed thin spots.
On windows,
paint
the wood
dividing the giass first. Then paint the
frame, trim, sill, and apron. Follow
the order shown in the drawing on
page 17.
Shutters and storm sash are easier
to paint if removed from the house
and laid flat on supports. Clean off
16
dust and dirt before painting them.
Shrubbery might need to be covered
with drop cloths.
Some people prefer to paint the
windows after the walls have been
completed. Some people prefer the
opposite. In any event, be sure whichever is painted first IS completely dry
before painting the other.
Windows are easier to paint and to
clean afterward if the glass is masked.
One simple way to protect the glass
is to cover it with a piece of wet
newspaper. The moisture will paste it
'3
1'
A4
5
2,
/
Paint windows in this order: (1) Mullions,
(2) horizontal of sash, (3) verticals of
sash, (4) verticals of frame, (5) horizontal frame and sill.
to the glass and also prevent paint
from soaking
into the absorbent
paper. When you strip the paper
from the glass after painting, the
paint will come with it. Another
method is to wipe a light layer of
petroleum
jelly such as Vaseline
around the edges of the glass with
your finger. After the paint has dried,
the jelly and paint can be cleaned
away
with any ordinary
glass
cleaning compounds or formulations.
USING
NATURAL
Both masking
tape and liquid
masking are available at hardware
and paint stores.
Masking tape is
applied around all edges of the glass,
bordering
all wood areas to be
painted. When the paint is dry to the
touch, remove the masking tape.
Waiting too long may result in dried
paint cracking upon removal of the
tape, causing damage to the new
paint job.
If so desired, no masking need be
applied. However, paint smeared on
the glass may be removed with a single-edged razor blade or other suitable scraper. After the paint is set but
before it hardens, cut through the
paint where the giass meets the wood.
Then, starting at one corner, carefully
scrape up a section of the paint. and
slowlj lift it off the glass. If this strip
of paint breaks. again carefully peel
up a section large enough to grasp
with your fingers. and continue to
citrcfully lift it away from the glass.
Other drips or splatters of paint inadvcrtcntly applied to the glass may be
CilSily SClXpCd
Off ilt tiic WlllC time.
As noted earlier, flush doors can be
painted
with a roller. On paneled
doors, some parts can be painted
with a roller, others will require a
brush. If you prefer your doors and
other trim in natural color, see below.
FINISHES
Interior
Some doors, particularly
flush
doors, and other inside woodwork
can be quite attractive with the natural wood grain expossed. However,
they will discolor
and soil easily
unless protected. For such protection,
AND STAINS
many kinds of products are now on
the market
and new ones often
appear. Your paint dealer should be
able to offer suggestions on how to
finish inside woodwork.
The first step is to be assured of the
proper color tone. To help you make
17
a decision, you can experiment on
scrap pieces of wood-preferably
the
same kind of wood.
The next step is sealing. One coat
of shellac is usually adequate. When
the shellac is dry, the surface should
be sanded smcoth, wiped free of dust,
and varnished. Rubbing the surface
with linseed oil, as is done in furniture finishing, provides a nice soft
finish, but requires more work. Linseed oil finishes also tend to collect
dust more readily.
Penetrating
sealers are useful.
Sometimes no staining is requiredthe clear finish alone is enough to
bring out the desired color tone. This
finish is useful for doors, paneling,
framing, or furniture.
For a natural
finish on interior
trim, you n, ;d to specify the desired
kind and grade of wood at time of
construction
but this can add substantially to construction costs.
Exterior
Natural finishes come as surfacecoating finishes and as penetrating
finishes. An exterior varnish is not
very durable. It may have to be refinished every 1 or 2 years.
Penetrating
stains do not fail by
peeling.
The U.S. Forest Service
developed “Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) Natural Finish” is one of
the more durable types. It has a linseed oil vehicle and contains ingredients to protect against mildew and
excess&r water entry at siding joints.
It also contains enough durable pigment to provide
color,
but not
18
Repaint Only When
Necessary
Too frequent repainting with an
oil-base paint builds up an excessively thick film that is more sensitive
to the deteriorating
effects of the
weather.
Ordinarily,
every 4 years
will be often enough to repaint a
house.
Sheltered areas, such as eaves and
porch ceilings, may not need painting
every time the body of the house is
painted; every other time may be sufficient.
enough to hide the grain of the wood.
One initial brush application should
last about 3 years on a smooth surface, but 2 coats applied to a rough
surface will last about 10 years. Penetrating stains are especially recommended as a finish for exterior plywood.
Good penetrating
stains are inexpensive,
more durable
than clear
coatings, and are easily maintained.
Stains penetrate and color the wood.
Common
colors are dark brown,
green, red, and yellow; however,
almost any color or shade is possible
except white. The most natural of all
exterior finishes are the water-repellent preservatives or penta solutions.
These prevent greying of wood by
mildew
and permit the wood to
weather to a light brown color. They
do need to be refurbished, however,
about every 2 years. Pigmented stains
or paints can be applied over the preservative type finishes at any time.
General
Whitewashing is a relatively simple
and inexpensive way to brighten the
interior of livestock and other service
buildings.
The whitewash
may be
applied with either a brush or a spray
gun.
reparation
Remove all dirt, scale, and loose
material by scraping or brushing with
a wire brush. Many whitewashing
jobs have been quite satisfactory
without further surface preparation.
However, for the best job, wash off
as much of the old coat of whitewash
as possible with hot water and vinegar or weak hydrochloric acid solution.
Dampen the wails before applying
whitewash. Unlike most paints, the
application and adherence of whitewash are improved when the surface
is slightly damp.
ixing
Lime paste is the basis of whitewash. Protect your eyes and skin
during mixing. It may be prepared by
either:
(a) Soaking 50 pounds of hydrated
lime in 6 gallons of water. Refined
limes such as chemical hydrate, agricultural spray hydrate, finishing lime,
and pressure
hydrated
lime, have
fewer
lumps
and will make a
smoother paste.
(b) Slaking 25 pounds of quicklime in 10 gallons of boiling water.
Cover and allow to slake at least 4
days.
Each of these preparations
makes
about 8 gallons of paste.
Different whitewash mixes are suggested for different surfaces. Smaller
batches of whitewash may be prepared by reducing the ingredients by
an equal proportion
in the formulas
given below.
For general woodwork
Dissolve 15 pounds of salt in 5 gallons of water. Add this solution to
the 8 gallons of paste, stirring constantly. Thin the preparation
to the
desired consistency with fresh water.
To reduce chalking, use 5 pounds
of dry calcium chloride instead of the
salt.
For brick, concrete, or stone
Add 25 pounds of white Portland
cement and 25 pounds of hydrated
lime to 8 gallor‘s of water. Mix thoroughly to a thick slurry. Thin to the
consistency of thick cream. Mix only
enough for a few hours use.
To reduce chalking, add 1 to 2
pounds of dry calcium chloride dissolved in a small amount of water to
the mix just before using.
For plaster walls
Either of three formulas are recommended:
(a) Soak 5 pounds of casein in 2
gallons of water until thoroughly
softened-about
2 hours. Dissolve 3
pounds of trisodium phosphate in I
gallon of water, add this solution to
the lime, and allow the mixture to
dissolve. When the lime paste and the
casein are thoroughly
cool, slowly
add the casein solution to the lime,
stirring constantly.
Just before use, dissolve 3 pints of
formaldehyde
in 3 gallons of water,
and add this solution to the white19
wash batch, stirring constantly and
vigorously.
Do not add the formaldehyde too rapidly. If the solution is added too fast, the casein may
form a jelly-like mass, thus spoiling
the batch.
(b) Dissolve 3 pounds of animal
glue in 2 gallons of water. Add this
solution to the lime paste, stirring
constantly.
Thin the mixture to the
desired consistency.
The first formula, or mix, given for
use on plaster walls, above, is a timetested, long-life mix also suitable for
general use. The following is also:
Dissolve 6 pounds of salt in 3 gallons of boiling water. Allow the solution to cool, and then add it to the
lime paste. Stir 3 pounds of white
Portland cement into the mix.
Black: Magnetic black oxide of iron
B!ue: Ultramarine or cobalt blue
Brown:
Pure precipitated
brown
oxide of iron or mixtures of black
oxide or iron with turkey
or
Indian red
Green: Chromium oxide, opaque, or
chromium oxide, hydrated
Red: Indian red made from pure
ferric oxide
Violet: Cobalt violet and mixtures of
reds, white, and blues
White: Lime itself
Yellow: Precipitated
hydrated iron
oxides.
Application
Pigments may be added to whitewash to provide color. The following
ha*le proven satisfactory:
Some surfaces
may require two
coats of whitewash. Two coats are
better than one coat that is too thick.
Strain the mix through three layers
of cheesecloth before using a spray
gun.
After each job, replace the can lid,
making
sure that it is on tight.
Brushes, rollers, and other equipment
should be cleaned as soon as possible
after use.
Equipment used to apply oil-base
paint may be a little harder to clean.
Soak brushes in turpentine or thinner
long enough to loosen the paint.
Then work the bristles against the
bottom of the container to release the
paint. To release the paint in the
center of the brush, squeeze or work
the bristles between the thumb and
forefinger. Rinse the brush in the turpentine or thinner again, and, if necessary, wash it. in mild soapsuds.
Rinse in clear water.
Coloring
T FAILURES
Some paint failures can be avoided
by simply following the directions on
the paint can label. In fact, some of
the new paints are guaranteed against
20
specific failures if applied according
to directions. The following are some
of the more common paint failures.
eelin
Excessive wetting of the paint from
behind or from the front will cause
blistering, peeling, and discoloration
problems. Water from rain, melted
snow behind ice dams. or condensed
water vapor may be getting in behind
the paint.
revention and correction
Correct possible problems before
painting.
Some searching
may be
required to detect the source. Check
for leaks in roofs and sidewalls. Is the
cause related to a damp basement?
Are insulation, vapor barriers, and
ventilation
adequate?
Make sure
moisture from such appliances as a
clothes drier is vented to the outside.
Check for leaky plumbing.
Blistering
Remove all loose paint. Apply a
water-repellent
preservative to joints
that show damage; al:a?!j them to dry
2 days, or as directed on the container label. Prime bare surfaces and
repaint. Use blister-resistant paint.
Cross-grain
cracking
may be
caused by too-frequent
repainting
with oil-base paint. ‘The thick paint
coating built up by many paintings
becomes too hard to stand the constant expansion and contraction
of
the wood and eventually cracks.
Prevention and correction
Repaint only when necessary.
Remove all of the paint, down to
the bare wood. Prime the bare wood
properly and repaint.
paint.
Mildew.
Mildew
Mildew may occur where continuous warm and damp conditions
prevail.
Prevention and correction
If possible, correct moisture condition that promotes mildew. Use mildew-resistant paint or add a mildew
resistant compound to the paint.
Thoroughly
remove all signs of
mildew before repainting. To remove
mildew, mix one quart househo!d
bleach and three quarts warm water.
Scrub the mildewed
surface thoroughly with this solution. Next, give
the surface a thorough rinsing with
fresh water. Be sure to wash your
hands and arms well when you are
through.
22
WARNING
Cuution against mixing ammonia
M,ith bleach. Mixed together, the two
are a lethal combination,
similar to
mustard gas. There have been several
instances
of people
dying from
breathing the fumes from such a mixture. Many household cleaners contain ammonia, so consumers must be
extremely careful rn what types of
cleaners with which they mix bleach.
AVOID MIXlNG BLEACH WITH
ANY
AMMONIA
OR
DETERGENTS
OR CLEANSERS
CONTAINING
AMMONIA! Such a
combination
can be lethal if the
fumes are breathed.
The household bleach solution will
kill the mildew growth and remove it.
Usually, dirt will be removed by this
treatment also. If dirt remains on the
surface, wash with a detergent recommended for cleaning painted surfaces.
Rinse the area well with clear water
and allow it to dry thoroughly before
paint application.
Wear rubber gloves when applying
bleach solution, and protect plants.
People
with a known allergy to
bleach or especially
sensitive skin
should avoid all skin contact with
this solution
llntercoat Peeling
lntercoat peeling is usually caused
by lack of adhesion between the top
and under coats. The primer and top
coats of oil-base paint are incompatible because of too long a delay
between coats or the surface was too
smooth, hard, glossy, or oily. Latex
paint will separate from old paint
surfaces which are excessively chalky
because latex paint system> will not
penetrate well.
Prevention and correction
To provide for good wetting anri
adhesion, apply primer and top coats
within 2 days to 2 weeks of each
other. Remove gloss with a strong
detergent, steel wool, or fine sandpaper. Remove oil or grease with
mineral spirits or a household cleaner
that contains ammonia.
Remove chalk materials
before
painting with latex and test for adhesion of paint by seeing how well existing paint resists being pulled off by
tape such as is used for mending torn
paper. Remove all loose paint, sand
the edges, properly prime the bare
surfaces, and repaint.
Excessive Chalking
Chalking or other characteristics
that might cause discoloration
of
adjacent surfaces should be considered when choosing paint. Chalking
may occur where poor quality paint
was used, the paint was improperly
applied,
or the paint was thinned
excessively.
BN-33617
Chalking.
23
e the Painting
one
You may prefer to have all or part
of your painting
done by a professional
painter.
Painting
contractors usually offer three grades of
paint jobs: premium, standard, and
minimum. The difference is in the
quality and cost of the work. When
you hire a contractor,
it is a good
idea to get a signed agreement specifying:
The specific price for the job.
Exactly what areas or surfaces
to be painted.
The types, brands, and quality of
paints to be used and the number of
Prevention and correction
Use non-chalking paint.
Remove the chalky materials by
brushing the surface or washing it
The following related publications
are available
as indicated
below.
Please be sure to include your full
name, address, and ZIP Code when
ordering any publications.
For sale only, and may be obtained
by writing directly
to the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D. C. 20402:
Wood Deca-v in Houses: How to Prevent and Control It. USDA Home
and Garden Bulletin No. 73, 1969.
24
coats, including primer coats, to be
applied.
The measures to be taken to protect the floors, furnishings, and other
parts of the house.
A complete cleanup guarantee.
A completion date (allowing for
possible
delays--because
of bad
weather for example).
Check the contractor’s work with
friends or neighbors who may have
hired him in the past. Be sure that he
is adequately insured as required by
pertinent local regulations; otherwise,
you could be held liable for accidents
that might occur on your property.
with mineral spirits or a good household cleanser.
Apply two coats of
good quality
paint. Allow 3 days
time between coats
drying
A limited number of single free
copies of the following publication
may be obtained by writing directly
to the Office of Governmental
and
Public Affairs, U.S. Department of
Agriculture,
Washington,
D. C.
20250:
Wood Siding: I’mtaIling, Finishing,
USDA Home &
Maintaining.
Garden Bulletin No. 203. 1973.
Single free copies of the following
publications
may be obtained
by
writing directly to the U.S. Forest
Products
Laboratory,
U.S. Fores{
Service, U.S. Department of AgrlJture, P. 0. Box 5130, Madison, Wisconsin 53705:
Forest Products Laboratory Natural
Finish, Note FPL G46, 1975.
Inorganic Surface Treatments
of
Weather- Resistant Natural Finishes, Research Paper FPL-232, 1974.
Water- Repellent Preservatives, Note
FPL-0 124, 1975.
Weathering of Wood, Note FPL0135, 1966.
USDA policy does not permit discrimination
because of race, color,
national i)rigin, sex, or religion. Any
person who believes he or she has
been discriminated
against in any
IJSDA-related
activity should write
immediately to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250.
26
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING
OFFICE : 1933
O-275-858
U.S.
DEPARTMENT
AGRICULTURAL
HYATTSVILLE.
AGRICULTURE
SERVICE
MARYLAND
OFFICIAL
PENALTY
OF
RESEARCH
FOR
20782
U.
BUSINESS
PRIVATE
USE.
POSTAGE
8300
AND
FEES
S. DEPARTMENT
AGRICULTURE
AGR
101
Department
publications contain
public information.
They are not
copyrighted and may be reproduced
in whole or in part with or without
credit.
PAiD
OF
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