null  User manual
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
Introduction
The MFJ-989C roller inductor tuner is a 3000 watt PEP input, 1500 watt PEP output antenna tuner.
These power ratings are for load impedances of 35-500 ohms. The MFJ-989C is designed to match 50
ohm output amplifiers, transmitters or transceivers to virtually any antenna. Peak and average forward
power, reflected power, and SWR are displayed on the MFJ-989C's illuminated cross-needle meter.
The MFJ-989C uses a roller inductor "T" matching network. It continuously tunes all frequencies from
1.8 through 30 MHz. It will match dipoles, inverted-vee's, verticals, mobile whips, beams, random wires,
and many other antennas. The MFJ-989C has rear panel connectors for coaxial and single or two wire
feedlines. The built-in balun will work with balanced open wire, twinlead, or twin-axial feedlines.
An internal six position antenna-selector switch selects a built-in 50 ohm dummy load, two coaxial line
outputs, or a single wire line-balanced line output. The coaxial line outputs can be selected in tuned
(with tuner's matching network in line) or direct (no matching circuit) configurations.
Understanding Power Ratings
There are no standardized power rating systems for tuners. The names used (i.e. 3 kW Tuner) carry over
from the time when amplifiers were rated by peak power input, and not the true RF power output. For
example, the one thousand watt Johnson Matchbox was rated to handle a 1000 watt plate modulated AM
transmitter (four kilowatts PEP transmitter input and 3000 watts PEP RF output). The Heathkit SB-220
was called a two kilowatt amplifier, and the rated CW output was approximately 600 watts. Matching
tuners were called 2 kilowatt tuners, and these tuners safely handled 600 watts of CW power and 1200
watts PEP SSB.
The FCC has changed the power rating system of amplifiers, and tuners no longer follow amplifier
power ratings. Most typical 1500 watt tuners remain able to safely handle 400-600 watts CW, and 600900 watts PEP SSB.
Load conditions and control settings also greatly affect the power handling capability of the tuner. Tnetworks typically handle more power on higher frequency bands into higher load impedances. The
worst operating condition for T network tuners are low impedance capacitive reactance loads. Tnetwork tuners always handle the least power when operated on 160 meters into low impedance
capacitive reactive loads.
Follow the guidelines in this manual to avoid exceeding the ratings of this tuner.
Peak Reading SWR/Wattmeter
The cross-needle meter measures the peak or average FORWARD power, REFLECTED power, and
SWR. The illuminated cross-needle meter operates with the antenna tuning circuit in or out of line. The
wattmeter can be used without the tuning network by setting the ANTENNA SELECTOR to either of
the two COAX DIRECT positions of the antenna selector. The wattmeter is active in all positions of
the ANTENNA SELECTOR.
The meter's full scale forward and reflected power range is controlled by the left POWER switch that
selects 2000W (HI) or 200W (LO). If your transmitter runs more than 200 watts of output power, set
this switch to the 2000W HI (in) position. If your transmitter has less than 200 watts of output, set this
switch to the 200W LO switch position (out).
1
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
Peak envelope power (PEP) is measured when the PEAK or AVG POWER push button (right-hand
side) in placed in the PEAK (in) position. Peak power and average power values are equal with steady
unmodulated carriers, FSK, or FM. The meter reading on these modes will be the same whether the
PEAK / AVG button is pressed or released. On SSB, the PEP meter reading should be twice the
average power with two tone test modulation.
On SSB, the ratio of PEP to average power varies with different voice characteristics. With most voices,
the PEP reading is three to five times higher than the average voice power reading. The most accurate
peak envelope power readings are obtained only with sustained carrier, voice or two tone test
modulation. During normal voice modulation the wattmeter will typically indicate only 70% of the true
peak envelope power.
Forward power is displayed on the left-hand FORWARD meter scale. This scale is calibrated from 0 to
200 watts and is read directly in the 200 watt position. Each picket (scale mark) represents 5 watts
below 40 watts and 10 watts between 40 and 200 watts. In the 2000W (HI) position the forward power
scale must be multiplied by 10. Each picket represents 50 watts below 400 watts and 100 watts from
400 to 2000 watts.
The reflected power is read on the right-hand REFLECTED meter scale. This scale indicates 50 watts
full scale when the 200W power sensitivity is selected, and 500 watts full scale when the 2000W power
scale is selected. This scale has a picket every watt below 20 watts and every 5 watts above 20 watts.
This scale is also multiplied by 10 when using the 2000W power position.
The most accurate power readings occur in the upper half of the meter scales. When trying to measure
power with a less than perfect match, the reflected power should be subtracted from the forward power
reading.
The SWR is read directly from eleven red SWR curves that range from 1:1 to infinity. SWR is
measured by observing the point where the forward and reflected power needles cross. The SWR is
indicated by the red curve closest to the needle crossing point. No cumbersome or time consuming
SWR sensitivity adjustments are required with this meter.
The wattmeter has an internal lamp that backlights the meter scale. The lamp circuit requires power
from an external 12 Vdc source, such as the optional MFJ-1312B power supply. The rear panel jack
accepts a 2.1 mm coaxial plug with the center conductor positive (+) and the sleeve negative (-). The
negative lead is grounded inside the tuner. The METER LAMP ON / OFF switch turns the meter lamp
off and on.
Antenna Selector
The ANTENNA SELECTOR allows you to select 2 rear panel SO-239 coaxial connectors either direct
or through the tuner, a 50 ohm dummy load, and single wire or balanced feedline antennas.
2
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
Installation
CAUTION: Locate the tuner so the rear is not accessible during operation.
1.
Locate the tuner in a convenient location at the operating position. If random wire or balanced line
operation is used, the ceramic feed through insulators may have high RF voltages. These voltages
can cause serious RF burns if the terminals are touched when transmitting. Be sure to locate the
tuner so these terminals can not be accidentally contacted during operation.
2.
Install the tuner between the transmitter and the antenna. Use a coaxial cable (such as RG-8/U) to
connect the transmitter (or amplifier) to the connector marked TRANSMITTER on the rear of the
tuner.
3.
Connect the antenna(s) to the tuner as follows:
A. Coaxial feedlines connect to the coax connectors 1 and 2 coax lines (fed directly or through
matching circuit as selected by the ANTENNA SELECTOR switch.
B. Random wire or single wire line antennas should be connected to the WIRE connector on the
back of the unit.
Note: Route all single and random wire antennas to prevent RF burn hazard.
4.
C. Any balanced feedline (open wire, twinlead, or twin-axial lines) is connected to the
BALANCED LINE terminals. Also, connect a jumper wire where indicated.
A ground post is provided for an RF ground connection.
Block Diagram
Figure 1
Operation
The roller inductor has maximum inductance at about 000 and minimum inductance at 125 on the
reference counter. The capacitors have maximum capacitance at 0 and minimum capacitance at 10. In
simple language, as the frequency is increased, the normal control positions rotate clockwise just like on
other equipment.
Note: Always use the most capacitance (settings closest to 0) for the most power handling and the least
loss. Use the smallest possible inductance (the lowest number possible) also.
Note: The MFJ Air Core™ Roller Inductor is designed with an exclusive Self-Resonance Killer™ that
keeps potentially damaging self-resonances away from your operating frequency. This feature is
switched in and out of the circuit with a built-in switch in the roller. Therefore, as you turn the
roller up and down, you may feel a bump. This is normal and you should not be alarmed.
Increase the number the controls are set at (on a given frequency) to INCREASE the matching range.
Remember, this LOWERS the efficiency and power handling capability of the tuner.
3
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
1.
Tune the exciter into a dummy load (most solid state transmitters are "pre-tuned" to 50 ohms and do
not require adjusting with the dummy load).
2.
Select the desired antenna with the ANTENNA SELECTOR.
3.
Position the ANTENNA and TRANSMITTER controls at the following settings:
160 M:
0
20 M:
4
80 M:
1
17 M:
6
75 M:
2
15 M:
7
40 M:
3
12 M:
8
30 M:
3-1/2
10 M:
8-1/2
Then place the POWER switch in the LO and AVG meter positions.
4.
Starting from the minimum INDUCTOR position (highest number), turn the INDUCTOR control
counter-clockwise (adding more inductance) while applying a slight amount of power (less than 25
watts). Tune for the lowest reflected power and maximum forward power (lowest SWR). The
lowest reading should occur somewhere above the following recommended inductor positions.
Recommended Tuning Chart
Frequency (MHz)
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.0
3.5
3.5
3.75
3.75
4.0
4.0
7.15
7.15
10.1
10.1
14.2
14.2
18.1
18.1
21.2
21.2
24.9
24.9
28.5
28.5
Transmitter
0
0
0
0
1
3
1 1/2
4
2
5
3
7
3 1/2
8
4
8
6
8
7
8
8
8 1/2
8 1/2
9
Inductor (counter indicator)*
48
29
59
43
93
85
95
86
97
87
110
106
115
113
118
117
119
118
119
118
119
119
120
120
Antenna
0
0
0
0
1
0
1 1/2
0
2
0
3
0
3 1/2
0
4
0
6
0
7
0
8
4
8 1/2
5
Load (ohms)
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
50
600
*Gear drive model.
4
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
5.
In this order, adjust the ANTENNA control, INDUCTOR, and TRANSMITTER control for
lowest reflected power (and SWR). Repeat this step a few times until the reflected power is zero.
6.
If the SWR did not reach 1:1 in step 5, turn the INDUCTOR control counter clockwise (to a higher
number) again and repeat Step 5. For maximum power handling and efficiency, always adjust the
capacitors to the lowest front panel number (highest capacitance) that allows proper antenna
matching. This insures maximum power handling and lowest power loss in the tuner.
7.
Advance the power (do not exceed 100 watts) and, if necessary, touch up the ANTENNA and
TRANSMITTER controls for minimum reflected power and maximum forward power (lowest
SWR). Remove the power.
8.
After adjusting the tuner for minimum SWR, the amplifier may be turned on. The METER switch
should be placed in the HI position, and the amplifier tuned according to the manufacturer's
instruction.
9.
For quick retuning of the tuner, record the INDUCTOR and CAPACITOR settings for each band.
Note: Maximum power handling occurs when both the TRANSMITTER and ANTENNA
capacitors and the INDUCTOR are set at the lowest front panel numbers that permit
matching the antenna. Following this guideline will insure maximum power handling
capability and efficiency, and the least critical tuning adjustments.
Operating Notes
1.
While this tuner is designed to have as large a tuning range as possible, there are limits to the tuning
range of the capacitors. Some antennas may require more or less capacitance than the controls have.
In these cases, the SWR may not be reduced to 1:1. If the SWR is higher than the limits on your rig,
try changing the length of the antenna or feedline to bring the impedance within the tuning range of
the tuner.
2.
When adjusting the tuner, use the lowest number on the TRANSMITTER, ANTENNA, and
INDUCTOR controls that produces a good SWR. This will reduce tuner losses and increase the
power rating of the tuner.
3.
If the INDUCTOR counter slips out of calibration, turn the INDUCTOR fully counter clockwise.
Then, with a small screw driver or pencil, push the reset button through the hole to the right of the
counter. This resets the counter to "000".
WARNING:
1. Never operate the tuner with the top removed. Contact with the components inside the tuner while
transmitting will result in painful RF burns.
2. Never rotate the ANTENNA SELECTOR switch while transmitting. Doing so may permanently
damage the switch.
3. Locate the tuner so that the rear terminals ARE NOT accessible during operation. The single wire
and balanced line connections may have high voltage while being used.
4. Disconnect all antennas from the tuner during lightning storms.
5. Always tune with low power (i.e. less than 100 watts). Apply maximum power only after tuning up.
6. Be sure to adjust the SWR before transmitting at high power (above 100 watts). Do Not transmit
with a high SWR for extended periods of time.
5
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
In Case Of Difficulty
If the tuner fails to tune, please double check all connections and follow the tuning procedures again.
Be sure you are using enough inductance (low enough inductance number) and have the capacitors open
far enough (higher front panel numbers).
If the tuner arcs at the rated power levels, please double check all connections and follow the tuning
procedures again. The power rating of this tuner is 1500 watts PEP RF power. Be sure you are using the
least amount of inductance (highest number) and the greatest capacitance (lowest number) possible that
still allows matching the load on the operating frequency.
Note: If this tuner arcs when operating on the 160 meter band, it may be necessary to reduce transmitter
output power.
If you are still unsuccessful, but the tuner does adjust and operate when switched to a dummy load or
another antenna, please read the Antenna System Hints section.
Grounding Hints
To minimize RFI, single wire feedlines (such as used with Windom or longwire antennas) should be
kept away from other wiring. Radiation will be minimized if the single wire feeder runs parallel and
reasonably close to the wire that connects the tuner to the outdoor ground. The antenna feed wire should
be adequately insulated to prevent arcing or accidental contact.
For safety, please use good dc and RF grounds. It is particularly important to have a good RF ground
while using a single wire feeder. When using a single wire feeder, the tuner needs something to "push"
against in order to force current into the single wire feedline. If a good RF ground is not available, RF
will usually find it's way back into the power line (RFI), transmitter audio circuits (RF feedback), or the
operator (RF burns).
Water pipes and ground rods provide good dc and ac safety grounds, but they are often inadequate for
RF grounding because they are single conductors. Ground rods by themselves are almost useless for
dependable RF grounding.
RF grounds work much better when "spread out" over a large area, especially when they employ
multiple connections directly to the equipment ground point. Water pipes, heating ducts, and fences may
work (especially if they are connected together with multiple wires), but the best RF grounds are radial
systems or multi-wire counterpoises. Radials and counterpoises provide large, low resistance surfaces
for RF energy.
RF and lightning travels on the surface of conductors. Braided or woven conductors have high surface
resistance to lightning and RF. Ground leads for RF and lightning should have wide smooth surfaces.
Avoid the use of woven or braided conductors in RF and lightning grounds unless the lead needs to be
flexible.
CAUTION: For operator safety, a good outside earth ground or water pipe ground should always be
installed and connected to the case of the MFJ-989C. Make certain the safety ground
also connects to the transmitter and other station accessories. A wing nut post marked
GROUND is provided for ground connection(s).
6
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
Antenna System Hints
For operator safety, a good outside earth ground or water pipe ground should always be installed and
connected to the case of the MFJ-989C. Make certain the safety ground also connects to the transmitter
and other station accessories. A wing nut post marked GROUND is provided for ground connection(s).
Location
For the best performance, an end-fed longwire wire antenna should be at least one quarter-wavelength
long at the operating frequency. Horizontal dipole antennas should be at least a half-wavelength long
and located as high and clear as possible. While good RF grounds help the signal in almost any
transmitting installation, it is extremely important to have good RF grounds with long wire or other
Marconi style antennas.
Matching Problems
Most matching problems occur when the antenna system presents an extremely high impedance to the
tuner. When the antenna impedance is much lower than the feedline impedance, an odd quarterwavelength feedline converts the low antenna impedance to a very high impedance at the tuner. A
similar problem occurs if the antenna has an extremely high impedance and the transmission line is a
multiple of a half-wavelength. The half-wavelength line repeats the very high antenna impedance at the
tuner. Incorrect feedline and antenna lengths can make an otherwise perfect antenna system very
difficult or impossible to tune.
One example where this problem occurs is on 80 meters when an odd quarter-wave (60 to 70 foot) open
wire line is used to feed a half-wave (100 to 140 foot) dipole. The odd quarter-wave line transforms the
dipole's low impedance to over three thousand ohms at the tuner. This is because the mismatched
feedline is an odd multiple of 1/4 wavelength long. The line inverts (or teeter-totters) the antenna
impedance.
A problem also occurs on 40 meters with this same antenna example. The feedline is now a multiple of
a half-wave (60 to 70 foot) and connects to a full-wave high impedance antenna (100 to 140 foot). The
half-wave line repeats the high antenna impedance at the tuner. The antenna system looks like several
thousand ohms at the tuner on 40 meters.
This places enormous strain on the balun and the insulation in the tuner, since voltages can reach several
thousand volts. This can cause component arcing and heating.
7
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
The following suggestions will reduce the difficulty in matching an antenna with a tuner:
1.
Never center feed a half-wave multi-band antenna with a high impedance feedline that is close to an
odd multiple of a quarter-wave long.
2.
Never center feed a full-wave antenna with any feedline close to a multiple of a half-wave long.
3.
If this tuner will not "tune" a multi-band antenna, add or subtract 1/8 wave of feedline (for the band
that won't tune) and try again.
4.
Never try to load a G5RV or center fed dipole on a band below the half-wave design frequency. If
you want to operate an 80 meter antenna on 160 meters, feed either or both conductors as a longwire
against the station ground.
To avoid problems matching or feeding any dipole antenna with high impedance open wire lines, keep
the lines around these lengths. [The worst possible line lengths are shown in brackets]:
160 meters dipole: 35-60, 170-195 or 210-235 feet
80 meters; dipole: 34-40, 90-102 or 160-172 feet
40 meters; dipole: 42-52, 73-83, 112-123 or 145-155 feet
[Avoid 130, 260 ft]
[Avoid 66, 135, 190 ft]
[Avoid 32, 64, 96, 128 ft]
Some slight trimming or adding of feedline may be necessary to accommodate the higher bands.
WARNING:
To avoid problems, a dipole antenna should be a full half-wave on the lowest band. On 160 meters, an
80 or 40 meter antenna fed the normal way will be extremely reactive with only a few ohms of feedpoint
resistance. Trying to load an 80 meter halfwave dipole (or shorter) antenna on 160 meters can be a
disaster for both your signal and the tuner. The best way to operate 160 meters with an 80 or 40 meter
antenna is to load either or both feedline wires (in parallel) as a longwire. The antenna will act like a "T"
antenna worked against the station ground.
Technical Assistance
If you have any problem with this unit first check the appropriate section of this manual. If the manual
does not reference your problem or your problem is not solved by reading the manual, you may call MFJ
Technical Service at 601-323-0549 or the MFJ Factory at 601-323-5869. You will be best helped if you
have your unit, manual and all information on your station handy so you can answer any questions the
technicians may ask.
You can also send questions by mail to MFJ Enterprises, INC., 300 Industrial Park Road, Starkville, MS
39759; by Facsimile (FAX) to 601-323-6551; or by email to [email protected] Send a
complete description of your problem, an explanation of exactly how you are using your unit, and a
complete description of your station.
8
MFJ-989C VersaTuner V
Instruction Manual
Logged Tuning Chart
Use the chart below to log values for your station. You may want to copy this chart and post it by your
tuner.
Frequency (MHz)
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.75
3.75
3.75
4.0
4.0
4.0
7.15
7.15
10.1
10.1
14.2
18.1
18.1
21.2
21.2
24.9
28.5
Transmitter
Inductor (counter indicator)
Antenna
10
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement