Omron - RF MEMS Switching: What You Need to Know

Omron - RF MEMS Switching: What You Need to Know
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RF MEMS Switching: What You Need to Know
Structure and Usage of OMRON MEMS Switch 2SMES-01
MEMS RF Switch
Type: 2SMES-01
White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
1
Outline
In this application note, the basic operation principle and driving method for OMRON’s MEMS switch
(2SMES-01), that has an electrostatic actuator, will be described.
2
Features
• Enable mechanical ON/OFF switching with MEMS technology
• Low insertion/return loss and high isolation for GHz signal
• Superb endurance (more than 100M switching operations)
• Small size (5.2 x 3.0 x 1.8 mm, LGA12)
• Low power consumption (less than 10μW)
3
Structure
3.1
Basic Structure of MEMS Switch (SPDT)
OMRON’s MEMS switch has a SPDT(Single Pole Double Throw) contact configuration. Two MEMS
chips that have a SPST (Single Pole Single Throw) contact configuration are installed on the ceramic
package using the flip chip bonding method as shown Fig.1.
Fig.1 SPDT Package Structure
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3.2
Basic Structure of MEMS Switch (bare CHIP)
The basic structure of MEMS switch consists of three layers which are Glass-Silicon- Glass, as shown
Fig. 2. It has a SPST contact configuration, “1a”, normally open type. The top glass part is used for
protecting the actuator and hermetic sealing. The middle silicon section contains the actuator and
movable electrode. A capacitor is built up between the fixed electrode and movable electrode. The
signal line and fixed electrode are made on a glass base. When applying the voltage between Fixed
Electrode and Movable Electrode, an electrostatic force is generated and it pulls in the Movable
Electrode (actuator). When the driving voltage becomes OFF, the electrostatic force will disappear, and
then the actuator will go back to the original position because of a self-restoring force. The signal line
and the movable contact consist of pure metal wiring, and serve as a mechanical switch which can
handle DC to High Frequency signals.
When applying the voltage, electrostatic
force “F” is generated, Movable Electrode
is pulled to Fixed Electrode.
F
F
Fig.2 Internal Structure of MEMS Switch (CHIP)
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
4
Operating Principle
4.1
Operating principle and Structure of Electrostatic Actuator
This electrostatic actuator’s basic structure is a parallel plate type capacitor. The electrostatic force
generated between the two electrodes is represented by the following equation. Where F is the
electrostatic force, ε0 and εr are the dielectric coefficients for a vacuum and a surrounding gas,
respectively, and S is the area of the electrode. V is the applied voltage, and d is the average gap
between the two electrodes. The MEMS switch can be operated by using this electrostatic force.
F=
ε 0ε r SV 2
2d 2
S
d
εr
F
V
Fig. 3 Parallel Plate Type Capacitor
4.2
Internal Equivalent Circuit of MEMS Switch (SPST)
The internal equivalent circuit of this switch is the combination of the variable capacitor that is made
between the movable electrode and fixed electrode and the internal resistance that the silicon actuator
has. Those variable capacitor and internal resistance elements are series-connected. The capacitance
value between electrodes changes from several pF to 20pF according to the electrode gap at the time
of operation. The internal resistance value of actuator is about 10K ohm.
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
MEMS Switch (SPST)
+V
Input Side
Variable C
(several pF
Output Side
(Normally Open)
Internal R
GND
(≒10kΩ)
Fig. 4 Internal Equivalent Circuit
The internal equivalent circuit after packaging is a SPDT structure that has a common terminal on input
side and output side. Each GND terminal on input side and one half (RF-COM) of the RF ports on
output side are connected, as shown Fig. 5.
MEMS Switch
RF1
+V1
(Internal R)
GND
RF-COM
(Internal R)
RF2
+V2
Fig. 5 Internal Equivalent Circuit (SPDT)
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
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Dimensions (2SMES-01)
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Specifications
Item
Description
Actuator Ratings
Driving System
Electrostatic Force Driving
(Input Side)
Rated Operating Voltage
34VDC±5%
Pickup Voltage
90% max. of Rated Voltage
Release Voltage
10% min. of Rated Voltage
Absolute Maximum Voltage
40V
Power Consumption
Max. 10μW
Signal Side
Contact Configuration
SPDT
(Output Side)
Contact Resistance (initial)
Typ. 1.0Ω
Operating / Release Time
Max. 100μs
Max. Peak Power
Max. Carry Power
Copyright © 2013 OMRON Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
+36dBm
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
Rated Load
+30dBm
DC0.5V0.5mA / Resistive
High Frequency
Characteristics Impedance
Performance
Insertion Loss
Isolation
Return loss
-3dB Roll Off Frequency
50Ω
Typ. 1.0dB@10GHz
Typ. 30dB@10GHz
Typ. 10dB@10GHz
Min. 12GHz
Durability
Electrical : DC0.5V0.5mA / Resistive
100,000,000 (cycles)
Note. Please confirm most current specifications with the Omron online data sheet.
7
Usage
7.1
Precautions for Driving Circuit Design of MEMS Switch (SPDT)
Please note below when designing the driving circuit for MEMS switch.
DC34V±5%
Fig. 6 Example of Drive Circuit for MEMS Switch (SPDT)
(1) This Switch uses an integrated structure for the DC-GND (pin 9) on the input side and the RF-GND
(pins: 1, 2,4,5,7, and 11) on the output side. For a relay drive circuit, first be sure to ground the
GND pins and then use a high-side switch (Vcont_1 & Vcont_2, not ground) to turn the operating
voltage ON and OFF.
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
(2) This Switch is an electrostatic drive type. To turn OFF the switch, the charge accumulated on the
primary side must be discharged. Install a discharge circuit in the switch drive circuit. The
resistance value for the discharge circuit must be 1 MΩ or less. If there is no discharge circuit, the
switch will not turn OFF. This may result in contact sticking.
(3) This Switch is designed so that the electrostatic actuator operates at a high speed. Because of this,
the time constant of the drive waveform may affect the operating characteristics and life
performance of the Switch. Therefore, the drive circuit must be designed so that the square wave
time constant (τ) in the vicinity of the operating input pins (Vcont_1 and Vcont_2) is greater than
0.5 μs and less than 10 μs.
(4) The operating voltage must be kept in the range of 34V±5% including ripple.
7.2
Precaution for parallel connection of MEMS Switch
As shown in Fig. 7, when connecting N pieces of electrostatic actuators in parallel, set the value of the
discharge resistance to 1Mohm/N. When each capacitance of an electrostatic actuator is C, the total
capacitance in parallel connection will be "N x C". In this case, if discharge resistance is 1Mohm, the
time constant of electric discharge of all the actuators is τ=N x C x1 Mohm, so N times discharge time is
needed. The actuation speed of an electrostatic actuator is affected by the electric charge accumulated
in the actuator. If the time constant of electric discharge becomes long, actuation speed of an
electrostatic actuator becomes slow and contact durability may degrade. Please set the value of
discharge resistance so that the time constant of the drive waveform near the input terminal (8pin,
10pin) is between 0.5μs and 10μs.
Driver IC
Control
DC-PS
DC34V±5%
MEMS
(C=20pF,
Discharge Resister
Switch
R=10kΩ)×
・・・
1MΩ/N
Fig. 7 Equivalent Circuit of Parallel Connection of Electrostatic Actuator
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
7.3
Circuit Design Example of 34V Power Supply (For Reference)
Figure 8 shows the reference circuit design using LT3494/LT3494A DC-DC converter for making a 34V
power supply which is needed to drive the MEMS switch. In addition, please refer to the data sheet
from Linear Technology’s HP for the detailed specification and the detailed directions for use of
LT3494/LT3494A.
Fig. 8 Circuit Diagram of Step-up Power Supply using LT3494
Table1. Parts List of Step-up Power Supply using LT3494
Part Name
Step-up
U1
converter
Manufacture
Type name
Specifications
Linear
LT3494
DD8 package, 8-lead plastic DFN
Technology
(LT3494A)
Resistor
R1/R3 Rohm
MCR01
1MΩ, 50V, 1005(0402)
Resistor
R2
Rohm
MCR03
5.1MΩ, 50V, 1608(0603)
Capacitor
C1
TDK
C2012JF1C475Z 4.7uF, 16V, 2125(0805)
Capacitor
C2
TDK
C2012JF1H225Z 2.2uF, 50V, 2125(0805)
Capacitor
C3
TDK
C2012JB1H224Z 0.22uF, 50V, 2125(0805)
Inductor
L1
TDK
GLF1608T200M 22uH, 3Ω, 60mA, 1608(0603)
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch

Selection Guide of Inductor
If the following formula is used as a standard in the case of selecting an inductor, the inductor value of the
estimate for LT3494 is computable.
L = (VOUT – VIN(MIN) + 0.5V) ×0.66 (μH)
Where VOUT is the needed output voltage, VIN(MIN) is the minimum input voltage. Please use a standard
inductor near the calculated value.

Selection Guide of Input/Output Capacitor
When the transient response and the stability of this power supply needs to be improved, it is suitable to
attach a 4.7μF input capacitor (C1) and a larger output capacitor (C2) from 2.2 μF to 10 μF to the VOUT
node. In addition, a capacitor with a sufficient voltage rating should be used. When the power supply
circuit using LT3494 is constructed based on the above circuit diagram, as shown in Fig. 9, it generally
becomes a mounting space less than a 10mm square. This circuit configuration can output a current of
approximately 1mA. NOTE, this is an example of a step up converter design, please be sure to carry out
a sufficient initial evaluation for the actual application in use.
Approx. 10 mm x 10mm
Fig.9 Parts Mounting Image
7.4
Precaution for selection of Driver IC
Please take careful design consideration regarding the “Current Capacity” and “Withstand Voltage”
when selecting a suitable Driver IC. As described before, when driving MEMS switch, it has an
equivalent circuit of a series connection of Capacitance and Resistance. So, if an electrostatic actuator
is turned ON, it needs the electric charge of Q expressed as follows.
Q=C×V ・・・①
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
Roughly speaking, since the actual time of inrush current is decided by the time constant “τ” depending
on CxR expressed as follows.
τ=C×R ・・・②
So, inrush current to Driver IC would be about 3.4mA depending on the ratio of input voltage “V” and
internal resistance “R”.
I = dQ / dt = (CxV) / (CxR) = V / R=34 / 10k = 3.4mA ・・・③
On the other hand, when connecting nth MEMS switches, total inrush current would be 3.4×N (mA)
that is proportionate to the parallel connection number of MEMS switch.
Ex.) N=64
inrush current = 3.4 x 64 = 217.6mA
When selecting a Driver IC, a device with enough current capacity against above inrush current and
withstand voltage should be selected. Fig.10 shows the reference circuit design that has a boost
converter and several Photo-MOS (ex.G3VM-61PR1) as the Driver IC. Several MEMS switches can be
operated by using below configuration.
Boost Converter
(DC34V)
If connecting in parallel
Driver IC
MEMS Switch
Fig .10 Configuration Example of Boost Converter and Driver IC for MEMS switch
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Glossary
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
What is MEMS?
MEMS is written as “Micro Electro Mechanical Systems”, it is the technology of very small devices that
are fabricated by semiconductor device fabrication technologies. Some micro scale mechanical
components, sensors, actuators or electrical circuits are integrated on one silicon substrate, glass
substrate, organic substrate and so on.

Electrostatic Force Driving MEMS Switch
An ultra-small mechanical switch that has an electrostatic force driving system fabricated by MEMS
technologies.

Peak Power
The maximum amount of power that a device can handle for an instant without damage.

Carry Power
The maximum amount of power that a device can handle continuously without damage.

Rated Load
The load conditions for guaranteeing the contact durability. The load is electrically connected to the
signal line and ON/OFF switching can be performed in the active state.

Insertion Loss
The loss of the electric power spread from one terminal to another in a high frequency circuit which
consists of 2 terminal-pair networks after the circuit has been closed.
It is usually expressed in decibels (dB).

Isolation
The loss of the electric power spread from one terminal to another in a high frequency circuit which
consists of 2 terminal-pair networks after the circuit has been opened.
It is usually expressed in decibels (dB).

Return Loss
The ratio between the input power and the reflected power at one terminal in the high frequency circuit.
It is usually expressed in decibels (dB).

Cut-off Frequency
The frequency of the point that the insertion loss usually falls by 3 dB rather than the nominal value in
the high frequency circuit.
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White Paper: 2SMES-01 MEMS RF Switch
More Information
 OMRON Electronic Components Web
http://www.components.omron.com/

Contact Us
For further inquiries such as delivery, price, sample and/or specification, please contact
your local Omron authorized distribution partner or Omron sales representative.

Americas Sales Office
http://www.components.omron.com/components/web/webfiles.nsf/contactus.html

Mail Contact
[email protected]

Phone
Tel: (847) 882-2288
Fax: (847) 882-2192
55 Commerce Drive, Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA
* Data and specifications are subjected to change without notice.
* Refer online for full Terms & Conditions
http://www.components.omron.com/components/web/webfiles.nsf/sales_terms.html
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