Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards

Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
New Jersey State Department of Education
Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
2014
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The New Jersey Department of Education would like to extend its sincere appreciation to State
Board of Education member Dr. Dorothy Strickland of Rutgers University; Dr. Herb Ginsberg of
Teachers College, and Dr. Marilou Hyson, who reviewed the revised preschool standards in
English Language Arts, Mathematics, and Approaches to Learning.
HISTORY
In April 2000, the Department of Education first developed and published Early Childhood
Program Expectations: Standards as guidance for adults working with young children. In July
2004, the State Board of Education adopted a revised version of this work, Preschool Teaching
and Learning Expectations: Standards of Quality. Then, in 2007, the Department embarked on
the ambitious project of revising the latter work and aligning the preschool standards directly
with New Jersey’s K-12 Core Curriculum Content Standards. In 2009, after extensive review
by education experts, stakeholders, and the public, the State Board adopted the Preschool
Teaching and Learning Standards, with additional revisions. In 2013, the standards were
modified to directly align with the Common Core Standards, and Approaches to Learning was
added.
ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT
The first four sections of Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards present information on
the theoretical background, development, and use of the preschool standards. This information
is essential to effectively using the preschool standards to support the particular needs of all
young children in a high-quality preschool program.
Next, the preschool standards, along with optimal teaching practices, are provided for the
following content areas: Social/Emotional Development, Visual and Performing Arts, Health,
Safety, and Physical Education, English Language Arts, Approaches to Learning, Mathematics,
Science, Social Studies, Family, and Life Skills, World Languages, Technology
The document concludes with a bibliography of books, articles, and periodicals that are
valuable resources for any professional library.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
The Numbering of the Preschool Standards
Each of the preschool standards and indicators is assigned two numbers. First, each is numbered
as part of this document, Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards. Second, all preschool
indicators are included in the P-12 database, where they are numbered using a five-digit code, as
follows:
X.X.
X.


content area/standard grade
X.

strand
X

indicator
Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards presents both numbers for every preschool
indicator: (1) the preschool indicator number is in a column to the left of each indicator, and (2)
the P-12 database indicator number is in a column to the right of each indicator.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
ARCELIO APONTE ……….………………………………………
President
Middlesex
JOSEPH FISICARO ………………………………………………..
Vice President
Burlington
MARK W. BIEDRON ......................................................................... Hunterdon
RONALD K. BUTCHER …………………………………………..
Gloucester
CLAIRE CHAMBERLAIN ………… ……………………………..
Somerset
JACK FORNARO….………………………...…………………….
Warren
EDITHE FULTON …………………………………………………. Ocean
ROBERT P. HANEY ………………………………………………
Monmouth
ERNEST P. LEPORE ……..………………………….…………….
Hudson
ANDREW J. MULVIHILL ………………………………………… Sussex
J. PETER SIMON ………………………………………………….
Morris
DOROTHY S. STRICKLAND …………………………….………. Essex
David Hespe, Acting Commissioner
Secretary, State Board of Education
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .........................................................................................................1
HISTORY ..................................................................................................................................1
ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT ....................................................................................................1
The Numbering of the Preschool Standards ........................................................................1
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION ..........................................................................................3
BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................5
HOME, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS .........................................................9
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT .....................................................................................................12
THE DOCUMENTATION/ASSESSMENT PROCESS...............................................................15
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT ..................................................................................20
VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS ...............................................................................................26
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION ...............................................................33
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ....................................................................................................37
APPROACHES TO LEARNING ..................................................................................................60
MATHEMATICS ..........................................................................................................................69
SCIENCE .......................................................................................................................................78
SOCIAL STUDIES, FAMILY, AND LIFE SKILLS ....................................................................85
WORLD LANGUAGES ...............................................................................................................89
TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................................................91
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................................................95
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
BACKGROUND
The 2013 preschool teaching and learning standards are grounded in a strong theoretical
framework for delivering high quality educational experiences to young children. The
Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards document:
•
Defines supportive learning environments for preschool children.
•
Provides guidance on the assessment of young children.
•
Articulates optimal relationships between and among families, the community, and
preschools.
•
Identifies expected learning outcomes for preschool children by domain, as well as
developmentally appropriate teaching practices that are known to support those outcomes.
The preschool standards represent what preschool children know and can do in the context of a
high quality preschool classroom. Childhood experiences can have long-lasting implications for
the future. The earliest years of schooling can promote positive developmental experiences and
independence while also optimizing learning and development.
The Standards and the Classroom Curriculum
As with the K-12 content standards, the preschool standards were written for all school
districts in the state. They are intended to be used as:
•
A resource for ensuring appropriate implementation of the curriculum
•
A guide for instructional planning
•
A framework for ongoing professional development
•
A framework for the development of a comprehensive early childhood education
assessment system
The curriculum is defined as an educational philosophy for achieving desired educational
outcomes through the presentation of an organized scope and sequence of activities with a
description and/or inclusion of appropriate instructional materials. The preschool standards are
not a curriculum, but are the learning targets for a curriculum. All preschool programs must
implement a comprehensive, evidence-based preschool curriculum in order to meet the
preschool standards.
Developmentally appropriate teaching practices scaffold successful achievement of the
preschool standards. Such practice is based on knowledge about how children learn and
develop, how children vary in their development, and how best to support children’s learning
and development. It is important to note, therefore, that although the preschool domains are
presented as discrete areas in this document, the program must be delivered in an integrated
manner through the curriculum’s daily routines, activities, and interactions.
Preschool educational experiences are intended to stimulate, assist, support, and sustain
emergent skills. Preschools aim to offer experiences that maximize young children’s learning
and development, providing each child with a foundation for current and future school success.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Issues of Implementation
This document was developed for implementation in any program serving preschool children.
To ensure that all students achieve the standards, the preschool environment, instructional
materials, and teaching strategies should be adapted as appropriate to meet the needs of
individual children. The needs of preschool learners are diverse. Many learners need
specialized and focused interventions to support and sustain their educational progress. In
addition, they come from many different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and in some cases,
the dominant language spoken in these homes and communities is not English.
Special Education Needs
Careful planning is needed to ensure the successful inclusion of preschoolers with disabilities
in general education programs. The focus should be on identifying individual student needs,
linking instruction to the preschool curriculum, providing appropriate supports and program
modifications, and regularly evaluating student progress.
The preschool standards provide the focus for the development of Individualized Education
Plans (IEPs) for preschool children ages three and four with disabilities. Providing appropriate
intervention services to such students is in accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities
Act Amendments of 2004, which guarantee students with disabilities the right to general
education program adaptations, as specified in their IEPs and with parental consent. These
federal requirements necessitate the development of adaptations that provide preschool
children with disabilities full access to the preschool education program and curriculum. Such
adaptations are not intended to compromise the learning outcomes; rather, adaptations provide
children with disabilities the opportunity to develop their strengths and compensate for their
learning differences as they work toward the learning outcomes set for all children.
Preschoolers with disabilities demonstrate a broad range of learning, cognitive,
communication, physical, sensory, and social/emotional differences that may necessitate
adaptations to the early childhood education program. Each preschooler manifests his or her
learning abilities, learning style, and learning preferences in a unique way. Consequently, the
types of adaptations needed and the program in which the adaptations are implemented are
determined individually within the IEP.
The specific models used to develop adaptations can range from instruction in inclusive
classrooms to instruction in self-contained classrooms; specific adaptations are determined by
individual students’ needs. Technology is often used to individualize preschool learning
experiences and help maximize the degree to which preschool children with disabilities are
able to participate in the classroom.
Supporting Diversity – English Language Learners (ELL) and Multiculturalism
In public schools throughout the United States, the population of English language learners
(ELL) has shown steady growth over the last decade. English language learners are comprised of
many different ethnic and linguistic groups. In New Jersey schools, the vast majority of English
language learners are native Spanish speakers. However, there are over 187 languages spoken in
the public schools throughout the state, presenting both challenges and opportunities. Students
who speak other languages at home, especially those students with limited English proficiency,
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
have specific linguistic needs that must be addressed, that supports their optimal learning and
development to ensure that they are provided a quality educational experience.
It is important that administrators and teachers acquire knowledge of the stages of second
language development; and developmentally appropriate strategies, techniques and assessments
to maintain, develop and support the home language, and proficiency in English. Effective
instructional practices that provide young English language learners with linguistic and cognitive
support must be embedded within the context of age-appropriate classroom routines, hands-on
activities and lessons. Strategies for working with English language learners can be found in
each section of the standards.
A strong home, school, community connection built on mutual respect and appreciation increases
opportunities for learning and collaboration. Sensitivity to and support for diversity in culture,
ethnicity, language and learning must be woven into the daily activities and routines of the early
childhood classroom. It is essential for teachers to understand cultural variations and practices
and to create a child-centered classroom that celebrates the diversity of all the children in the
classroom. Various aspects of culture can have a direct affect on verbal and non-verbal
communication, and it is vital for teachers to understand, embrace and celebrate the background
and variations of all their students, particularly their culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Young children are developing their sense of self and of others, within their families, classrooms
and communities. The early childhood program must provide a variety of diverse materials,
books, activities and experiences that increase young children’s awareness of similarities and
differences in self and others. In order to facilitate a culturally responsive classroom, that
nurtures, supports and enhances the learning of all students, it is critical that administrators and
teachers engage in self-reflection and dialogue to understand their personal attitudes, uncover
their biases, and develop cultural sensitivity and a willingness to learn about the variety of
students and families within the early childhood program.
Professional Development
Implementation of the curriculum to meet the preschool standards is a continuous, ongoing
process. Full understanding of the curriculum, and familiarity with the developmentally
appropriate practices necessary for its implementation, can be fostered through a wellorganized and consistent plan for professional development geared to each stakeholder group.
For such a plan to be successful:
•
District boards of education and boards of private provider and local Head Start agencies
need to make professional development a priority and support it by allocating necessary
resources.
•
Administrators need to provide curriculum support, resources, materials, and opportunities
for staff to improve their teaching practices. Preschool directors, principals, education
supervisors, and directors of special education must actively pursue and provide
professional development activities, as well as time for teachers to reflect on and refine
their practice in light of these activities. Teachers, in turn, must actively engage in the
professional development activities.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Early childhood teachers and assistants, special education teachers, bilingual educators,
principals, supervisors, master teachers, support staff, preschool intervention and referral
teams, child study team members, and related service providers need to review and develop
the professional development plan together.
•
Families should be introduced to developmentally appropriate practices and have access to
resources that promote their children’s learning and development. They also need
opportunities to participate in the early childhood education program.
•
Colleges and universities should include the preschool standards in their coursework for early
childhood educators.
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HOME, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS
Introduction
Supportive preschool partnerships help create the kind of environment in which families,
schools, and the community work together to achieve and sustain shared goals for children. A
well-defined preschool education plan should incorporate a wide range of family involvement
and family educational opportunities to foster such partnerships.
Trust and respect are essential to building collaborative relationships between school staff and
families. An integral component of the partnership is recognition of families as the experts
about their children. The program and its staff must always show respect for the child, the
family, and the culture of the home.
In addition, ongoing communication helps ensure that appropriate and effective learning
opportunities are available to children at home and in school. The give and take inherent in
these relationships promotes both the school’s and the family’s understanding of the child. The
family involvement guidelines of the National Association for the Education of Young
Children guidelines emphasize the importance of the family/school partnership, particularly
when it comes to acquiring knowledge of young learners:
“The younger the child, the more necessary it is for professionals to acquire this
knowledge through relationships with children’s families.”
Outlined below is a well-defined plan for establishing and nurturing reciprocal relationships
with families and the community.
Governance and Structure
The preschool program design provides structure and policies that encourage and support
partnerships between the home and school. In particular:
•
Family members are involved in aspects of program design and governance (e.g., advisory
councils and school leadership/management teams).
•
Opportunities are provided for preschool staff and families to develop the skills necessary
to actively and effectively participate in the governance process (e.g., workshops offered
by the program, seminars sponsored by the Department of Education, speakers and
activities sponsored by colleges and universities and/or child advocacy organizations).
•
Advisory council meetings and parent programs are held at times that are conducive to
family participation (i.e., activities are not always scheduled during the day, when most
people are at work).
•
Program policies actively encourage and support family involvement (e.g., family members
are welcomed as volunteers in the classroom and other areas of the program, family
members are encouraged to observe in classrooms, family members see and interact with
program administrators formally and informally).
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Culture and Diversity
The preschool program design ensures recognition and respect for culture and diversity. In
particular:
•
Classroom materials reflect the characteristics, values, and practices of diverse cultural
groups (e.g., books are available in a variety of languages; artwork reflects a broad
spectrum of races, cultures, and ages, both boys and girls, and diverse lifestyles, careers,
locations, and climates).
•
Cultural and religious practices are acknowledged and respected throughout the year (e.g.,
absences for religious holidays are allowed, dietary restrictions are respected, culturally
driven reasons for nonparticipation in some school activities are honored).
•
The uniqueness of each family is recognized and respected by all members of the school
community (e.g., language, dress, structure, customs).
•
Cultural traditions are shared in the classroom and throughout the program (e.g., pictures of
specific cultural activities that children participated in are displayed in the classroom).
Communication
The preschool program design provides a two-way system of communication that is open and
easily accessible, and in which families and community representatives are valued as resources
and decision-makers. In particular:
•
All program information is provided to families in lay terms, in the language most
comfortable for each family, and using multiple presentation strategies (e.g., handbooks,
videos, email, websites, television, and newspapers).
•
Ongoing information concerning program/classroom standards and activities is provided to
families and the community (e.g., a regular newsletter, a program website) and includes
strategies family members can use to assist their children with specific learning activities or
to extend their children’s classroom learning through activities at home and in the
community.
•
Educational opportunities for family members are based on the needs and interests of
children’s families and include information on such topics as child development,
supporting learning at home, and positive methods of discipline. Family members play an
integral role in developing the family education program.
•
Information about the child and family is solicited before enrollment and at regular
intervals throughout the school year, using home visits, home-school conferences, informal
chats, phone calls, emails, and notes.
•
Documentation of each child’s progress is provided for families, and understanding of the
documentation is guided by written and verbal communications in the language most
comfortable for the family. Instructional staff hold conversations with family members to
better understand each family’s goals for their children so that decisions about the most
appropriate ways to proceed are made jointly.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Pertinent information regarding individual children’s progress (e.g., child portfolios,
teacher annotations) is provided to receiving schools when children transition from one
program to another.
•
Registration procedures and documents capture essential information about each child (e.g.,
family contacts, immunization records, special health needs).
Community Resources and Partnerships
The preschool program design ensures opportunities for building community partnerships and
accessing community resources. In particular:
•
Information about and referrals to community resources (e.g., employment opportunities,
health services, and adult education classes) are provided to families.
•
Large corporations, small businesses, and other organizations are invited to collaborate in
supporting children and families (e.g., through the creation of a community resource
board).
•
Collaborations with community agencies help to ensure delivery of services to families
who may benefit from them (e.g., a program can offer a meeting space for families to
interact with community agencies).
Family Support
The preschool program design recognizes families as the experts about their children. In
particular:
•
Resources are provided to help families enhance the social, emotional, physical, and
cognitive development of their children (e.g., a newsletter with ideas for educational trips,
such as local museums and libraries; a listing of books to support the development of
emergent literacy and numeracy skills; discussion sessions at which families share
information about activities).
•
Opportunities are developed to facilitate the creation of support networks among families
with children enrolled in the program (e.g., monthly potluck dinners, game days for adults,
fairs and craft shows to promote and support the talents of families, babysitting
cooperatives).
•
Family activities are planned at varying times of the day and week to encourage the
participation of as many families as possible (e.g., at breakfast, at the end of the work day,
in the evening, and on weekends).
•
Family members are encouraged to visit the program when it is most convenient for them
(e.g., to observe their child, volunteer during play, participate at meals and special events).
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LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
A supportive preschool learning environment promotes the development of children’s critical
thinking skills; fosters awareness of diversity and multiculturalism; and supports enthusiasm
and engagement as the cornerstones of approaches to learning. The environment must nurture
children’s capacity to engage deeply in individual and group activities and projects. Such an
environment is created through interactions with indoor and outdoor environments that offer
opportunities for children to set goals and persist in following through with their plans while
acquiring new knowledge and skills through purposeful play. Carefully planned instruction,
materials, furnishings, and daily routines must be complemented by an extensive range of
interpersonal relationships (adults with children, adults with adults, and children with
children). In this setting, each child’s optimal development across every domain (e.g.,
language, social, physical, cognitive, and social-emotional) will be supported, sustained,
extended and enhanced.
While the adults in the preschool environment provide the conditions and materials that
influence how children play and scaffold learning so that more sophisticated levels of
interaction and expression are realized, it is the child who determines the roles and the rules
shaping the play. The learning environment must, therefore, accommodate planned and
unplanned, as well as structured and unstructured experiences. Unstructured play should take
up a substantial portion of the day. Structured activities include daily routines that provide
young children with needed stability and familiarity (e.g., circle time, small-group time, and
lunch), as well as learning activities that integrate preschool content and achieve specific goals
planned by adults. For both structured and unstructured activities, the learning environment
must be welcoming, safe, healthy, clean, warm, and stimulating.
Preschool learning materials are arranged to invite purposeful play and thus facilitate learning.
They provide opportunities for children to broaden and strengthen their knowledge through a
variety of firsthand, developmentally appropriate learning experiences. Inviting preschool
materials also help children acquire symbolic knowledge, which allows them to represent their
experiences through a variety of age-appropriate media, such as drawing, painting,
construction of models, dramatic play, and verbal and written descriptions.
Through its principles of child development and learning that inform developmentally
appropriate practice, the National Association for the Education of Young Children provides
the foundation for creating learning environments that foster optimal development of young
children. Two of these principles hold special significance:
•
Development proceeds in predictable directions toward greater complexity, organization,
and internalization.
•
Play is an important vehicle for, as well as a reflection of, the social, emotional, and
cognitive development of all preschool children, including children with disabilities.
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2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
A rich and supportive preschool learning environment grows from attention to elements in the
physical environment and daily routines. Both of these elements are elaborated in the sections
that follow.
Learning Environment
An inviting and supportive learning environment that:
•
Provides well-defined, accessible learning centers that encourage integration of multiple
content areas (e.g., a library center that includes a range of materials, including child-made
books, big books, picture books, books with words for adults to read, books on many
topics, headsets with audiotapes, stories on the computer, and so on; a block center that
includes many different kinds of building materials, such as large unit blocks, hollow
blocks, cardboard vehicles, street signs, dolls, audio tapes, pencil, paper, tape measures,
rulers, architectural images).
•
Accommodates active and quiet activities (e.g., the library area may be for children that
want to read alone, quietly listen to a book read by an adult, or listen to music through
headsets, while the block area may encourage movement and discussion related to the
planning and completion of projects).
•
Provides materials that deepen knowledge of diversity and multiculturalism (e.g., dolls of
different ethnicities and races, musical instruments from a variety of cultures, stories that
show how one event is interpreted differently by different cultural groups, costumes and
props for dramatic play, foods that represent diverse backgrounds).
•
Offers individualized adaptations and modifications for preschool children with disabilities.
•
Allows children easy access to an ample supply of materials.
•
Includes ongoing opportunities for children to help, share and cooperate in a variety of
activities, routines and group configurations.
•
Offers space and opportunities for solitary, parallel, and small- and large-group play
indoors and outdoors and in view of an adult.
•
Displays classroom materials at children’s eye level.
•
Creates a literacy-rich environment through a variety of print, audio, video, and electronic
media.
•
Includes materials and activities appropriate to a range of developmental levels and interests
that encourage children’s engagement and persistence.
Daily Routines
Engaging daily routines that:
•
Encourage the development of self-confidence by offering children multiple opportunities
to make choices, such as deciding projects, selecting centers, or inviting classmates to be a
part of an activity.
•
Encourage curiosity, problem-solving, and the generation of ideas and fantasy through
exploration.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Are implemented flexibly to meet individual needs and provide opportunities for the
success of all children (e.g., younger children with short attention spans are not forced to
remain for long periods of time in a whole-group activity, dual language learners can
demonstrate their abilities in their home language, as well as in English, children with
disabilities are offered modifications and adaptations to meet their individualized needs).
•
Provide opportunities for conversation and self-expression in English and in the child’s
home language, if other languages are spoken at home.
•
Encourage and model the use of language in different social groups and situations.
•
Stimulate questioning and discussion during all activities.
•
Include the use of technology, such as computers and smart toys with age-appropriate
software, to enhance the development of critical thinking skills.
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THE DOCUMENTATION/ASSESSMENT PROCESS
Introduction
Assessment of young children is an ongoing process which includes identifying, collecting,
describing, interpreting, and applying classroom-based evidence of early learning in order to
make informed instructional decisions. This evidence may include records of children’s
conversations, their drawings and constructions, as well as photographs of and anecdotal notes
describing their behaviors.
Documentation, a preliminary stage in the assessment process, focuses on identifying,
collecting, and describing the evidence of learning in an objective, nonjudgmental manner.
Teachers of young children should take the time to identify the learning goals, collect records
of language and work samples, and then carefully describe and review the evidence with
colleagues. Documentation of children’s learning should be directly linked to a set of clearly
defined learning goals. Furthermore, the documentation/assessment process should consist of
materials that are culturally and linguistically appropriate, especially when using such
materials to assess English language learners. In addition, when using assessment data to
inform the instruction of all young children, which includes English language learners as well
as children with disabilities, teachers must be sure to use multiple age-appropriate methods
over time.
Careful documentation and assessment can increase the teacher’s understanding of child
development, assist in understanding the needs of the children in a specific class, and enhance
the teacher’s ability to reflect on the instructional program. Such reflections also assist teachers
in articulating assessment purposes with appropriate community members and communicating
assessment results with parents.
Major Purpose of Assessment in Early Childhood
The primary purpose of the assessment of young children is to help educators determine
appropriate classroom activities for individuals and groups of children.
The documentation/assessment process should:
•
Build on multiple forms of evidence of the child’s learning.
•
Take place over a period of time.
•
Reflect the understanding of groups, as well as of individual children.
•
Show sensitivity to each individual child’s special needs, home language, learning style,
and developmental stage.
The information collected in the documentation/assessment process should:
•
Connect to developmentally appropriate learning goals.
•
Add to understanding of the child’s growth and development.
•
Provide information that can be applied directly to instructional planning.
•
Be communicated to the child’s family and, to the extent appropriate, to the child.
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Achievement Tests
Individual- and group-administered norm-referenced achievement tests are usually
inappropriate tools for assessing young children’s development. Such instruments are not
typically designed to provide information on how children learn, how they might apply their
learning to real-life situations, or how the test results relate to the teacher’s instructional goals
and planning.
Developmental Screening Measures
Developmental screening measures are administered to each child individually and are used as
the first step in identifying children who may demonstrate developmental delay with language
or motor skills, or problems with vision or hearing. In such cases, the results of the screening
measures should be used to determine whether a child needs further comprehensive diagnostic
assessment. Information received from a single developmental assessment or screening should
never serve as the basis for major decisions affecting a child’s placement or enrollment.
Developmental screenings should be viewed as just one component in a comprehensive early
childhood education assessment system. Assessment should be tailored to a specific purpose
and should be used only for the purpose for which it has consistently demonstrated reliable
results.
Referral for an Evaluation
When a parent or teacher has a concern about a child’s development and suspects a potential
disability, the parent or teacher may submit a written request for a special education evaluation
to the district’s child study team. The written request (also called a referral) must be submitted
to the appropriate school official. This may be the principal of the neighborhood school, the
director of special education, or the child study team coordinator for the district in which the
child resides.
The parent, preschool teacher, and the child study team (school psychologist, school social
worker, learning disabilities teacher-consultant, speech-language specialist) then meet to
determine the need for evaluation, and if an evaluation is warranted, to discuss the assessments
to be completed. If, after completion of the evaluation, a determination of eligibility is made,
an Individualized Education Program (IEP) is developed for the child by the IEP team (a
parent, a child study team member, a district representative, the case manager, a general
education teacher, a special education teacher, and/or private provider). To the maximum
extent appropriate, preschoolers with disabilities receive their early childhood education with
their nondisabled peers. The IEP team determines modifications, interventions, supports, and
supplementary services necessary to ensure the child learns.
The Importance of the Process for Teachers’ Professional Development
The documentation/assessment process enhances the teacher’s ability to:
•
Identify the most appropriate learning experiences for children.
•
Make more productive instructional planning decisions (e.g., how to set up the classroom,
what to do next, what questions to ask, what resources to provide, how to stimulate each
child’s development, and what external support systems to use).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Teach more effectively, using interactive experiences that enhance children’s development.
•
Meet more of some children’s special needs and interests within the classroom. (The
ongoing process of identifying, collecting, describing, interpreting, and applying
classroom-based evidence can help the teacher to become more aware of and develop a
broader repertoire of instructional strategies.)
•
Respond more easily and effectively to demands for accountability.
The documentation/assessment process can also help young children to perceive learning to be
important and worthwhile, as they see their teachers actively engaged in documenting their
learning.
Portfolio Assessment
Portfolio assessment is the systematic and intentional collection of significant samples of each
child’s work, together with the teacher’s comments on how the work samples and records of
language serve as evidence of the child’s movement toward established learning goals. The
portfolio process should clearly indicate the learning goals, should illustrate and document
each child’s development over a period of time, should actively involve children, and should
reflect each child’s individual development.
Some Strategies for Portfolio Assessment
•
Determine the developmental area or areas to be assessed (e.g., spoken language, art, early
literacy, symbolic play, motor skills, math concepts, creativity, peer relationships).
•
Identify the documents that best demonstrate development (e.g., drawings, paintings, other
artwork, photos, dictated stories, book choices, teacher’s notes, audiotapes, graphs,
checklists).
•
Regularly create a collection of samples with children’s input (e.g., record what the
children tell you about a variety of things).
•
Develop a storage system for the samples of children’s work.
•
Describe the documents with colleagues in order to gain additional perspectives on each
child’s development (e.g., study groups of teachers can be formed to collect and describe
samples of children’s work).
•
Connect the children’s work to the learning goals.
•
Make sure the samples show the full range of what each child can do.
•
Collect data that tells a clear story to the audience.
Observation
Observation of young children is crucial to appropriate documentation and assessment.
However, observation is a skill that must be developed and perfected by the teacher over time.
In the process of observing children, teachers can make use of the following techniques: rating
forms, photography, narrative description, anecdotes, videotaping, journals, and recording of
children’s conversations and monologues.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Observation must be intentional. As part of the daily classroom routine, it is probably the most
authentic form of assessment. Observing what children do every day is the best place to start
when creating a real-life profile of each child.
What to Observe
•
Patterns in behavior reflecting motivation to learn, explore, or investigate a particular thing.
These patterns are evidence that a child consistently exhibits these behaviors.
•
Problem-solving strategies.
•
Patterns of social interaction (i.e., determine individual preferences for large-group, smallgroup, or solitary play in the classroom and on the playground).
•
Key attributes of the child (i.e., identify and list recurring interests).
How to Observe
•
Observe regularly with a specific purpose.
•
Observe children at different times of the day.
•
Observe children in different settings throughout the school or center.
•
Observe the usual demeanor of the child, not unusual behavior or bad days.
•
Observe for new possibilities (e.g., if a child is having trouble, could the environment or
circumstances be changed to assist the child?).
How to Involve Parents
Parents should be partners in the accurate and sensitive assessment of young children. The
following practices help encourage parental involvement in child assessments:
•
Accentuate the positive when assessing children.
•
Build assessment comments about how a child is doing into everyday conversations with
parents.
•
Explain assessment approaches at a parent meeting or workshop. Be clear about the
differences between standardized tests and authentic assessment.
•
Write about assessment in a newsletter or a special letter home.
•
Demonstrate that parents are valued as respected partners in the behavior and progress of
their children.
•
Support assessment comments with documentation showing what the child has
accomplished over time.
How to Involve Children
Everyone has a view of each child’s abilities, preferences, and performances, including the
child. To effectively involve the children in their own assessment:
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Observe and document things the children say and do. Often random statements such as, “I
was this big on my last birthday, now I’m THIS big,” are evidence that children are capable
of assessing what they can do and how they are changing.
•
Ask children about themselves. Children will tell you what they do and do not like to do.
Some children may prefer a private, intimate setting in which they have your undivided
attention, while some children may respond to more informal discussions in busier settings.
•
Ask children to assess their work. Ask children to help decide which work should be
included in their portfolios. Respect their choices and responses about their work.
•
Let children take pictures of their most prized work from time to time. They can make a
bulletin board display of their specially chosen pictures or collect them in a portfolio.
- 19 -
SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Introduction
Young children’s social/emotional growth and learning occurs as a result of their interactions
with others and is interconnected with their development in the physical and cognitive
domains. Relationships with adults and children in the preschool environment exert a powerful
positive influence on children’s social/emotional development. A high quality preschool
program requires dedicated and qualified teaching staff, working in partnership with children’s
families, to systematically assist children in developing social competence and confidence.
As children move through the preschool day, their teachers carefully observe and listen to them
and adapt their responses to suit individual children’s social and emotional needs. Preschool
teachers support young students’ developing self-concepts and self-esteem by talking with
them about their actions and accomplishments and by always showing respect for their feelings
and cultures. Throughout the day, teachers coach and guide children as they interact with each
other, and they support children’s social skills and problem-solving abilities. Within this
community of learners, children develop the social and emotional competencies they need to
fully immerse themselves in the preschool day and become successful learners.
There are five preschool standards for social/emotional development:
Standard 0.1:
Children demonstrate self-confidence.
Standard 0.2:
Children demonstrate self-direction.
Standard 0.3:
Children identify and express feelings.
Standard 0.4:
Children exhibit positive interactions with other children and adults.
Standard 0.5:
Children exhibit pro-social behaviors.
Each of these five standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
Standard 0.1:
Children demonstrate self-confidence.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide materials and activities to further learning at the child’s developmental level and to
foster feelings of competence (e.g., knobbed and regular puzzles, looped scissors, openended art materials, child-sized manipulatives).
•
Make adaptations to the classroom environment to support individual children’s needs
(e.g., sensory table, quiet spaces, appropriately-sized furnishings, and visuals at eye level).
20
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Adapt materials and activities to support English and non-English language speakers (e.g.,
use labels with pictures to help children negotiate the classroom and make picture-word
associations, dramatize actions while providing words for the actions in multiple
languages, provide simple directions in multiple languages, offer books, music, and
computer software in multiple languages).
•
Use children’s ideas and interests to inspire activities and to engage students in discussions
(e.g., tire tracks made by bicycle wheels on the playground can lead to an exploration and
discussion of the different kinds of tracks made by an assortment of wheeled vehicles).
•
Use open-ended questions to begin a discussion with individual children or groups of
children (e.g., “What might happen if ...?” “What would you do if ...?” or “How would you
feel if …”).
•
Model verbal descriptions of children’s actions and efforts (e.g., “Anna used the paintbrush
to make squiggles.”).
•
Ask questions that encourage children to describe their actions and efforts (e.g., “Joseph,
will you tell Maria how you used the computer mouse to change your drawing?”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
0.1.1
Express individuality by making independent decisions about
which materials to use.
0.1.P.A.1
0.1.2
Express ideas for activities and initiate discussions.
0.1.P.A.2
0.1.3
Actively engage in activities and interactions with teachers
and peers.
0.1.P.A.3
0.1.4
Discuss their own actions and efforts.
0.1.P.A.4
Standard 0.2:
Children demonstrate self-direction.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Organize the classroom environment and establish a daily routine that enables children to
independently choose materials and put them away on their own (e.g., keep supplies on low
shelves, use child-sized utensils, organize centers so that children can maneuver easily).
•
Facilitate open-ended and child-initiated activities to encourage independence and selfdirection (e.g., Jorge’s interest in trains might lead a small group of children to build a train
station from materials found in the classroom).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Use songs, rhymes, movement, and pictures to reinforce independent functioning in the
classroom (e.g., post pictures that represent the daily schedule, sing songs to cue transition
times).
•
Limit whole-group activities to short periods of time with interactive involvement (e.g.,
body movement, singing, finger-plays).
•
Keep transitions short to adapt to children’s limited attention spans, and conduct daily
routines (e.g. toileting and washing hands) individually or in pairs to avoid whole-group
waiting times and to support independence. Limit whole-group transitions and use them as
learning times (e.g., “Children who ride the #4 bus may get their coats.” or “Children in the
Armadillo group may go wash their hands.”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
0.2.1
Make independent choices and plans from a broad range of
diverse interest centers.
0.2.P.A.1
0.2.2
Demonstrate self-help skills (e.g., clean up, pour juice, use
soap when washing hands, put away belongings).
0.2.P.A.2
0.2.3
Move through classroom routines and activities with minimal
teacher direction and transition easily from one activity to the
next.
0.2.P.A.3
0.2.4
Attend to tasks for a period of time.
0.2.P.A.4
Standard 0.3:
Children identify and express feelings.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Develop children’s awareness of a wide range of feelings with appropriate vocabulary
during discussions and storytelling (e.g., “The three little kittens lost their mittens. How do
you think they felt?”).
•
Provide literature, materials, and activities (e.g., drawing, writing, art, creative movement,
pretend play, puppetry, and role-playing) that help children interpret and express a wide
range of feelings related to self and others with appropriate words and actions.
•
Model appropriate language for children to use when expressing feelings such as anger and
sadness during social interactions (e.g., “James, tell John how it made you feel when he
pushed you. Did it make you angry?” “I felt angry when you pushed me. I didn’t like it!”).
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New Jersey Department of Education
•
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Provide specific techniques children can learn to use to channel anger, minimize fear, and
calm down (e.g., taking three deep breaths, using calming words, pulling self out of play
to go to a “safe spot” to relax, listening to soft music, or working with clay).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
0.3.1
Recognize and describe a wide range of feelings, including
sadness, anger, fear, and happiness.
0.3.P.A.1
0.3.2
Empathize with feelings of others (e.g., get a blanket for a
friend and comfort him/her when he/she feels sad).
0.3.P.A.2
0.3.3
Channel impulses and negative feelings, such as anger (e.g.,
taking three deep breaths, using calming words, pulling self
out of play to go to “safe spot” to relax, expressive
activities).
0.3.P.A.3
Standard 0.4:
Children exhibit positive interactions with other children and adults.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Comment on specific positive behavior instead of giving empty praise (e.g., “Shadeen, you
helped Keisha with her coat. Now she will be warm and cozy.”).
•
Encourage nurturing behavior through modeling, stories, and songs.
•
Encourage the use of manners through modeling and role-playing (e.g., holding the door
for a friend, using “please,” “thank you,” and “excuse me”).
•
Demonstrate and involve children in respecting the rights of others (e.g., “Devon, first
Sheila will take a turn, and then it will be your turn.”).
•
Encourage expressing needs verbally by modeling appropriate language (e.g., “Ask Nancy
if she can please pass the juice to you.”).
•
Involve children in solving problems that arise in the classroom using conflict resolution
skills (e.g., talk about the problem, and the feelings related to the problem, and negotiate
solutions).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
0.4.1
Engage appropriately with peers and teachers in classroom
activities.
0.4.P.A.1
0.4.2
Demonstrate socially acceptable behavior for teachers and
peers (e.g., give hugs, get a tissue, sit next to a friend/teacher,
hold hands).
0.4.P.A.2
0.4.3
Say “thank you,” “please,” and “excuse me.”
0.4.P.A.3
0.4.4
Respect the rights of others (e.g., “This painting belongs to
Carlos.”).
0.4.P.A.4
0.4.5
Express needs verbally or nonverbally to teacher and peers
without being aggressive (e.g., “I don’t like it when you call
me dummy. Stop!”).
0.4.P.A.5
0.4.6
Demonstrate verbal or nonverbal problem-solving skills
without being aggressive (e.g., talk about a problem and
related feelings and negotiate solutions).
0.4.P.A.6
Standard 0.5:
Children exhibit pro-social behaviors.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Pair or group children to foster friendship (e.g., partners, buddies, triads).
•
Provide toys and plan activities to encourage cooperative play (e.g., provide two telephones
so children can talk to each other in dramatic play).
•
Collaborate with children on activities while modeling language and pretend skills as
needed for play (e.g., teacher pretends to be mother or father in housekeeping corner and
soothes her crying baby; teacher and children build a block structure; teacher and children
make a cave out of a box; teacher pretends to be a mama bear and the children are bear
cubs).
•
Identify strategies to enter into play with another child or group of children (e.g., bring
materials into play, give a play suggestion, be helpful, give a compliment).
•
Gauge and provide the appropriate amount of support necessary for children to be
successful during activities and play (e.g., teacher demonstrates pretend play skills, and as
children become involved in meaningful interaction with other children, the teacher adjusts
the level of support).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Provide opportunities to take turns (e.g., “Maria gets to pull the wagon one time around the
yard, and then it is Jack’s turn.”).
•
Provide opportunities that encourage children to share toys and materials (e.g., “There is
one basket of markers for Christen and Jameer to share.”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
0.5.1
Play independently and cooperatively in pairs and small
groups.
0.5.P.A.1
0.5.2
Engage in pretend play.
0.5.P.A.2
0.5.3
Demonstrate how to enter into play when a group of children
are already involved in play.
0.5.P.A.3
0.5.4
Take turns.
0.5.P.A.4
0.5.5
Demonstrate understanding the concept of sharing by
attempting to share.
0.5.P.A.5
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VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS
Introduction
The creative arts are children’s first language, used to communicate thoughts, ideas, and
feelings. Some of the most effective means children have for explaining and understanding
their world is through the arts. For young children, the critical component of the arts is the
creative process rather than the end result or product. In the creative process, approaches to
learning such as initiative, curiosity, engagement, persistence, reasoning, and problemsolving are reinforced through concrete, hands-on, individualized, and group learning
experiences.
Environments that stimulate creativity through visual art, music, dramatic play, and creative
movement and dance support all aspects of development and learning. In many instances,
creative arts in the preschool classroom are inextricably linked to other curriculum areas and
can be used as a strategy for learning about local communities, different cultures, and other
content. When integrated in a developmentally appropriate way, the creative arts promote
memory, cognition, observation, inquiry, and reflection. The arts also help children
appreciate beauty in the environment, in their everyday world, and in works of art.
Sometimes feelings or understandings that cannot be expressed well in words can be well
expressed through the arts. It is vitally important to provide children with the materials and
time necessary to explore, experiment, and create in their own way throughout the day,
integrating the arts into all domains and subject areas. Providing children with the freedom to
create does not preclude the teacher from supporting children’s artistic development by using
strategies such as describing, modeling, and providing feedback to scaffold their learning.
The teacher should be knowledgeable about artistic traditions of different cultures and should
integrate aspects of such cultures throughout the classroom environment and activities.
There are four preschool visual and performing arts standards:
Standard 1.1:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
creative movement and dance.
Standard 1.2:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
music.
Standard 1.3:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
dramatic play and storytelling.
Standard 1.4:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of the
visual arts (e.g., painting, sculpting, and drawing).
Each of these four standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
26
New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 1.1:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
creative movement and dance.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide opportunities for children to participate in both structured and unstructured
dance/movement activities that help build motor control and body relationships and that
strengthen self-regulation and memory (e.g., provide music and props and encourage children
to make up their own dance movements, play musical “freeze” and other games).
•
Participate in all movement and dance activities with the children.
•
Model different dance movements (e.g., twist, bend, leap, slide).
•
Use correct vocabulary when referring to movements (e.g., gallop, twist, stretch).
•
Provide opportunities for children to experience creative movement and dance performances
(e.g., performances by peers, family members, or professional artists in the classroom) and
encourage children to observe, listen, and respond.
•
Connect movement and dance to curriculum themes and to other content areas and domains
throughout the day, especially fine- and gross-motor skills, coordination, and other areas of
physical development.
•
Observe and encourage children’s approaches to learning dance and movement.
•
Provide a range of music from different cultures and genres for dance and movement
activities (e.g., classical, jazz, rock, salsa, reggae, rap, and others).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
1.1.1
Move the body in a variety of ways, with and without music.
1.3.P.A.1
1.1.2
Respond to changes in tempo and a variety of musical rhythms
through body movement.
1.3.P.A.2
1.1.3
Participate in simple sequences of movements.
1.3.P.A.3
1.1.4
Define and maintain personal space, concentration, and focus
during creative movement/dance performances.
1.3.P.A.4
1.1.5
Participate in or observe a variety of dance and movement
activities accompanied by music and/or props from different
cultures and genres.
1.3.P.A.5
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
1.1.6
Use movement/dance to convey meaning around a theme or to
show feelings.
1.3.P.A.6
1.1.7
Describe feelings and reactions in response to a creative
movement/dance performance.
1.4.P.A.1
1.1.8
Begin to demonstrate appropriate audience skills during
creative movement and dance performances.
1.4.P.A.5
Standard 1.2:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
music.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide opportunities for children to play musical instruments (e.g., flute, triangle, drums,
maracas, instruments from other cultures, homemade instruments) in their own way.
•
Model what children can do with instruments (e.g., echoing, creating different levels of
sound by striking different places on instruments).
•
Use appropriate musical terminology (e.g., the correct names of instruments, terms such as
rhythm and melody).
•
Connect music to curriculum themes, other subject areas, and domains throughout the day.
•
Introduce children to a wide variety of music that is appropriate in content for classroom
activities and that reflects different cultures and genres (e.g., classical, jazz, rock, reggae,
rap).
•
Provide opportunities for children to experience musical recordings and/or performances
(e.g., by peers, family members, or professional artists in the classroom) and encourage
children to observe, listen, and respond.
•
Observe and encourage children’s approaches to playing instruments.
•
Incorporate music and singing throughout the day, including during transitions (e.g., rhymes,
steady beats, chanting songs such as Miss Mary Mack).
•
Intentionally plan for daily musical experiences that encourage children to experiment with
songs and musical instruments during free play and group activities.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
1.2.1
Sing a variety of songs with expression, independently and with
others.
1.3.P.B.1
1.2.2
Use a variety of musical instruments to create music alone and/or
with others, using different beats, tempos, dynamics, and
interpretations.
1.3.P.B.2
1.2.3
Clap or sing songs with repetitive phrases and rhythmic
patterns.
1.3.P.B.3
1.2.4
Listen to, imitate, and improvise sounds, patterns, or songs.
1.3.P.B.4
1.2.5
Participate in and listen to music from a variety of cultures and
times.
1.3.P.B.5
1.2.6
Recognize and name a variety of music elements using
appropriate music vocabulary.
1.3.P.B.6
1.2.7
Describe feelings and reactions in response to diverse
musical genres and styles.
1.4.P.A.2
1.2.8
Begin to demonstrate appropriate audience skills during
recordings and music performances.
1.4.P.A.6
Standard 1.3:
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
dramatic play and storytelling.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide props and materials that promote children’s active participation in dramatic play and
storytelling (e.g., dress-up clothes, objects from different cultures, storybooks, flannel
boards, puppets), and rotate them on a regular basis by theme.
•
Create a dramatic play area that is clearly defined, with space to play and for organized
storage.
•
Provide a variety of locations, indoors and outdoors, and times throughout the day for
children to engage in dramatic play and storytelling in their own way (e.g., reenact a story
during circle time, in the block area, or during outside time).
•
Schedule daily dramatic play experiences during free play and group activities.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Join in dramatic play to promote the development of cooperation and self-regulation skills,
such as managing emotions, focusing attention, solving problems, and developing empathy.
•
Encourage children to sustain and extend play by providing ideas for more complex roles
(e.g., scaffold children’s ideas about playing ‘restaurant’ by suggesting that everyone in the
restaurant has an important job to do).
•
Expose children to stories from multiple cultures (e.g., at circle time, informally, during
choice times) and provide props to represent diversity.
•
Connect dramatic play to curriculum themes, content areas, and domains, and use stories and
field trips to enrich play.
•
Observe and encourage children’s approaches to engagement in dramatic play.
•
Provide opportunities for children to experience storytelling and/or performances (e.g., by
peers, family members, or professional artists in the classroom) and encourage children to
observe, listen, and respond.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
1.3.1
Play roles observed through life experiences (e.g., mom/dad,
baby, firefighter, police officer, doctor, mechanic).
1.3.P.C.1
1.3.2
Use memory, imagination, creativity, and language to make up
new roles and act them out.
1.3.P.C.2
1.3.3
Participate with others in dramatic play, negotiating roles and
setting up scenarios using costumes and props.
1.3.P.C.3
1.3.4
Differentiate between fantasy/pretend play and real events.
1.3.P.C.4
1.3.5
Sustain and extend play during dramatic play interactions (i.e.,
anticipate what will happen next).
1.3.P.C.5
1.3.6
Participate in and listen to stories and dramatic performances
from a variety of cultures and times.
1.3.P.C.6
1.3.7
Describe feelings and reactions and make increasingly informed
responses to stories and dramatic performances.
1.4.P.A.3
1.3.8
Begin to demonstrate appropriate audience skills during
storytelling and performances.
1.4.P.A.7
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New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 1.4:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children express themselves through and develop an appreciation of
the visual arts (e.g., painting, sculpting, and drawing).
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide children with access to a variety of developmentally appropriate art materials (e.g.,
crayons, paint, clay) and emphasize open-ended, process-oriented activities (e.g., the teacher
provides children with watercolor paints, paper, and brushes and encourages them to paint
rather than to all make a dinosaur puppet with the same materials).
•
Plan art activities that extend children’s understanding of art techniques and art media (e.g.,
demonstrate how to roll a coil out of clay or how to use the side of a crayon to make a rubbing).
•
Introduce children to vocabulary used in the visual arts (e.g., line, color, shape, sculpture,
collage) during hands-on activities and explorations (not just during teacher-directed largegroup time).
•
Facilitate firsthand experiences that encourage children to develop art concepts and art
expression (e.g., going outside to observe and draw a tree during each season).
•
Extend children’s use of art tools by asking questions during activities (e.g., when a child is
using a marker to create squiggly lines, “What other kinds of lines can you invent?”).
•
Use children’s work as a springboard to explore and discuss concepts individually and in
small groups (e.g., highlighting patterns, helping children problem-solve how to modify a
sculpture so that it stands up).
•
Help a child who is stuck break a task into steps (e.g., if the child says, “I don’t know how to
draw a puppy,” ask, “What part would you like to start with first? The head? The body?” and
then guide the child with an appropriate shape).
•
Develop a visual reference library (e.g., photos, museum postcards and prints, books, calendar
art, Websites, videos) or provide actual objects that children can refer to for more accurate
representation (and as a way to avoid imposing adult solutions on or drawing for the child).
•
Make specific, nonjudgmental observations about the qualities of children’s work (e.g., “I see
you used long, thin lines for the leaves in your painting.” instead of “I like the pink flower
you painted; it’s pretty.”).
•
Observe and encourage children’s approaches to learning during the process of creation,
including initiative, curiosity, problem-solving, and especially persistence (e.g., “You worked
so carefully for a long time to figure out how to make a print without smearing the paint.”).
•
Connect the visual arts to curriculum themes, other content areas, and domains, including
fine-motor skills and eye-hand coordination.
•
Expose children to the visual arts from their own communities as well as from different
cultures, and introduce different types of artists (e.g., illustrators, mural artists, sculptors,
painters, architects, photographers).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Create an environment that is conducive to creativity by rotating and introducing new
materials regularly, making materials easily accessible, keeping them organized, and
minimizing commercially purchased decorations.
•
Display children’s artwork at eye level, accompanied by children’s explanations about their work.
•
Change displays frequently, allowing children to choose artwork for display in the classroom,
in the school, or for a project (e.g., a personal book, a class book, or a portfolio).
•
Encourage children to react to works of art and to reflect on art experiences (e.g., by
encouraging a variety of responses to questions such as, “How many things can you think of
that are made from clay?” or “What shapes do you see in this painting?”).
•
Provide storage space for art projects that children work on over time so that they can revisit
and reflect on their work, and if desired, revise or make changes.
•
Model the safe and appropriate use and care of art materials and tools.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
1.4.1
Demonstrate the safe and appropriate use and care of art
materials and tools.
1.3.P.D.1
1.4.2
Create two- and three-dimensional works of art while exploring
color, line, shape, form, texture, and space.
1.3.P.D.2
1.4.3
Use vocabulary to describe various art forms (e.g.,
photographs, sculpture), artists (e.g. illustrator, sculptor,
photographer) and elements in the visual arts.
1.3.P.D.3
1.4.4
Demonstrate a growing ability to represent experiences,
thoughts, and ideas through a variety of age-appropriate
materials and visual art media using memory, observation, and
imagination.
1.3.P.D.4
1.4.5
Demonstrate planning, persistence, and problem-solving skills
while working independently, or with others, during the
creative process.
1.3.P.D.5
1.4.6
Create more recognizable representations
coordination and fine-motor skills develop.
eye-hand
1.3.P.D.6
1.4.7
Describe feelings and reactions and make increasingly
thoughtful observations in response to a variety of culturally
diverse works of art and objects in the everyday world.
1.4.P.A.4
- 32 -
as
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Introduction
Health, safety, and physical education in the preschool classroom encourage children’s sense
of self and support their emerging independence. Physical development impacts how children
navigate the physical environment. Therefore, the preschool environment should be
organized to support both indoor and outdoor activities that maximize each child’s
opportunities to develop gross- and fine-motor skills as well as health and safety awareness.
Teachers should provide a wide range of concrete, developmentally appropriate, indoor and
outdoor experiences each day to assist in the development of each child, including planned
and spontaneous interactions promoting healthy habits that enhance lifelong well-being.
There are four preschool health, safety, and physical education standards:
Standard 2.1:
Children develop self-help and personal hygiene skills.
Standard 2.2:
Children begin to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to make
nutritious food choices.
Standard 2.3:
Children begin to develop an awareness of potential hazards in their
environment.
Standard 2.4:
Children develop competence and confidence in activities that require
gross- and fine-motor skills.
Each of these four standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
Standard 2.1:
Children develop self-help and personal hygiene skills.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Explain how germs are spread and instruct children in techniques to limit the spread of
infection (e.g., there are germs on our drinking glasses, which is why we don’t share
drinks).
•
Model appropriate hand-washing and supervise children’s hand-washing (e.g., before and
after meals, after toileting, after blowing their noses, after messy play).
•
Promote the habits of regular tooth-brushing and bathing.
•
Provide opportunities for children to pour and serve themselves and others, using a variety
of appropriately sized utensils, during meal and snack time.
•
Follow consistent routines regarding washing hands and utensils before and after preparing
food and eating.
33
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
2.1.1
Develop an awareness of healthy habits (e.g., use clean
tissues, wash hands, handle food hygienically, brush teeth,
and dress appropriately for the weather).
2.1.P.A.1
2.1.2
Demonstrate emerging self-help skills (e.g., developing
independence when pouring, serving, and using utensils and
when dressing and brushing teeth).
2.1.P.A.2
Standard 2.2:
Children begin to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to
make nutritious food choices.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide opportunities for children to experience a variety of nutritious food choices.
•
Encourage families to share foods common to their cultures.
•
Make learning materials and activities (e.g., books, play food, food guide pyramid for
young children, cooking experiences) available to reinforce nutritious food choices.
•
Inform parents about nutritious food choices (e.g., parent conferences, family nights,
newsletters) to extend and reinforce children’s classroom learning.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
2.2.1
Explore foods and food groups (e.g., compare and contrast
foods representative of various cultures by taste, color,
texture, smell, and shape).
2.1.P.B.1
2.2.2
Develop awareness of nutritious food choices (e.g.,
participate in classroom cooking activities, hold
conversations with knowledgeable adults about daily
nutritious meal and snack offerings).
2.1.P.B.2
- 34 -
New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 2.3:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children begin to develop an awareness of potential hazards in their
environment.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Monitor the indoor and outdoor environment daily to ensure it is safe and hazard-free.
•
Ensure that chemicals, medications, and other hazardous materials are appropriately stored
and locked away from children.
•
Incorporate information about potential hazards into the curriculum (e.g., using seat belts
and car seats, crossing the street safely, staying away from strangers, recognizing the
poison symbol).
•
Make a mural or chart of things that are and are not safe to touch.
•
Practice emergency evacuation procedures with the children.
•
Invite community representatives of health, fire, and police departments to visit the class to
teach about how to follow health and safety precautions.
•
Promote children’s understanding of safety within the context of everyday routines (e.g.,
clean up spills to prevent falling), as well as through intentionally planned activities (e.g.,
provide books, set up streets and crosswalks in the classroom to practice safety, role-play
safe play behavior in various situations).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
2.3.1
Use safe practices indoors and out (e.g., wear bike helmets,
walk in the classroom, understand how to participate in
emergency drills, and understand why car seats and seat belts
are used).
2.1.P.D.1
2.3.2
Develop an awareness of warning symbols and their meaning
(e.g., red light, stop sign, poison symbol, etc.).
2.1.P.D.2
2.3.3
Identify community helpers who assist in maintaining a safe
environment.
2.1.P.D.3
2.3.4
Know how to dial 911 for help.
2.1.P.D.4
- 35 -
New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 2.4:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children develop competence and confidence in activities that
require gross- and fine-motor skills.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Facilitate activities that promote specific movement skills (e.g., crawling through a play
tunnel, moving around the classroom without bumping into one another, jumping from a
block and landing securely on two feet).
•
Guide and support children in the development of gross-motor skills (e.g., starting,
stopping, turning, leaping, marching).
•
Provide classroom learning centers stocked with a wide variety of materials that promote
fine-motor skills (e.g., puzzles, pegs and peg boards, zippers, snaps, buttons, clay).
•
Plan individual and small-group activities and materials that promote the development of
gross- and fine-motor skills (e.g., movement games, dancing, and outdoor play; large
tongs for picking up and sorting items; tools for working with clay; cutting materials with a
wide range of resistance for cutting such items as tissue paper, wall paper, fabric, and
cardboard).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
2.4.1
Develop and refine gross-motor skills (e.g., hopping,
galloping, jumping, running, and marching).
2.5.P.A.1
2.4.2
Develop and refine fine-motor skills (e.g., complete gradually
more complex puzzles, use smaller-sized manipulatives during
play, and use a variety of writing instruments in a
conventional matter).
2.5.P.A.2
2.4.3
Use objects and props to develop spatial and coordination
skills (e.g., throw and catch balls and Frisbees, twirl a hulahoop about the hips, walk a balance beam, lace different sized
beads, and button and unbutton).
2.5.P.A.3
- 36 -
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
Introduction
The updated and aligned preschool standards provide teachers with a common platform for
teaching and learning in English Language Arts (ELA) from preschool through 3rd grade and
include emergent reading, emergent writing, listening and speaking, foundational skills and
language. The ELA preschool standards are grounded in a strong theoretical framework for
delivering high quality educational experiences to young children with sample teaching practices
and expected learner outcomes.
ELA preschool standards and teacher practices are to be used within a context of the multiple
domains of learning and are focused on the development of the “whole child”, including their
Mathematics Skills, Social Skills, Physical Development, and Approaches to Learning, among
other areas. They are not meant to be isolated into a single domain of learning or within a
segmented part of the day. ELA teacher practices are intentionally embedded in an integrated
and play-based approach to learning. All preschool environments, activities, and interactions
should be designed to encourage speaking and listening, literacy exploration, and emergent
reading and writing activities.
The ELA standards are expected learner outcomes for children when they exit a four-year-old
program. Children will need time and exposure to the appropriate literacy environments and
interactions to reach the learner outcomes.
Preschool teachers are responsible for knowing the entire developmental continuum in language
and literacy for the young child and require thorough professional development on a stateapproved curriculum and assessment model in order to meet the language and literacy needs of
all children. Guidance for preschool environments and teaching and assessment models is
available on the New Jersey Division of Early Childhood website:
http://www.nj.gov/education/ece/guide/impguidelines.pdf
Like the standards for K-3, the preschool ELA standards have six strands: Reading Literature,
Reading Informational Text, Reading Foundations, Writing, Speaking and Listening and
Language. These six strands are followed by the Sub-Headings (e.g., Key Ideas and Details).
The Sub-Headings are followed by a set of grade and topic- specific standards. The ELA
standards framework is consistent throughout PK-3 and provides a common language for
articulation across the grades. For a further explanation of how to read the Common Core ELA
standards, please see:
http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/introduction/how-to-read-the-standards
The following preschool document is organized by identifying the strand (e.g., Reading
Literature), the Sub-Heading (e.g., Key Ideas and Details), then offers sample preschool
teaching practices followed by the accompanying preschool standards with the P-12 Database
numbers (e.g., RL.PK.1).
37
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
PRESCHOOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS STRANDS AND SUB-HEADINGS
Reading: Literature




Key Ideas and Details
Craft and Structure
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Range and Level of Complexity
Reading: Informational Text




Key Ideas and Details
Craft and Structure
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Range and Level of Complexity
Reading: Foundational Skills*




Print Concepts
Phonological Awareness
Phonics and Word Recognition
Fluency
Writing




Text Type and Purposes
Production and Distribution of Writing
Research to Build Knowledge
Range of Writing
Speaking and Listening


Comprehension and Collaboration
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Language



Conventions of Standard English
Knowledge of Language
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
*K-12 Sub-Headings are in bold
- 38 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Reading Literature
Key Ideas and Details
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Create cozy, comfortable reading areas with a variety of age-appropriate printed materials
(e.g., at least 15- 20 books in a display case, changed every two weeks, along with
magazines, catalogs, newspapers).
•
Read aloud to each child individually and in small and large groups two or more times a
day in different settings using age-appropriate high-quality books and texts (e.g., picture
storybooks including the Caldecott medal books, picture information books, traditional
literature including folktales, fantasy, poetry and rhyming books, big books, books that
are predictable and repetitive, culturally diverse books and an assortment of alphabet
books and number books).
•
Organize routines of the day with children to ensure that children are aware of their
opportunities for read alouds with the teacher in whole, small group or one-on-one as
well as times of the day that they can use the classroom library and self- select books for
their reading enjoyment.
•
Prepare children for listening to a new book during read alouds by building on
background knowledge (e.g., make appropriate connections to children’s work and
interests, predict topic by looking at front cover illustration, look at a few illustrations
throughout the book to build anticipation, identify title, author, and illustrator and the
roles of each).
•
Read aloud the entire book with few interruptions and use motivating expression
appropriate to story line.
•
Read and reread favorite books followed with a discussion guided by the particular
objectives for reading the book with higher level questioning techniques (e.g., What was
the problem? How did he solve the problem? Did he learn something new or a lesson?
Tell me more.). Refer back to story to clarify difficult parts.
•
Follow up a read aloud and discussion with a range of auditory, visual, movement and
role play opportunities in multiple contexts throughout the day to guide beginning
understanding of main events, topics, setting, and characters (e.g., model story retelling
and role-playing with props and dialogue in dramatic play, sing songs related to stories,
use flannel board and puppets to reenact characters and plot, prepare recipes related to
stories, read other books during the day related to stories).
- 39 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Place books to extend center play in different centers (e.g., a book about bridges in the
block area).
•
Create displays that focus on classroom studies and projects (e.g. during a project on
“How Plants Grow” a bookcase was dedicated to children’s individual pots of growing
plants, samples of garden tools that could be used in dramatic play, children’s fiction and
non-fiction books on growing plants, a class book titled Growing Grass, children’s
science journals that included week-by-week observational drawings of potted plants and
an experience story with shared writing and pictures by the teacher and the children titled
“Our Trip to the Garden Store”.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
RL.PK.1
With prompting and support, ask and answer key elements in a
familiar story or poem.
RL.K.1
RL.PK.2
With prompting and support, retell familiar stories or
poems.
RL.K.2
RL.PK.3
With prompting and support, identify characters, settings,
and major events in a familiar story.
RL.K.3
Craft and Structure
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Embed ongoing strategies to clarify new word meanings during read alouds, small group
activities, conversations, play, or writing (e.g., use props, gestures and voice to
emphasize meaning, pair a similar and familiar word to define the unfamiliar word, point
to the illustration that gives clues to new word).
•
Encourage children’s questions about unfamiliar words and their meanings.
•
Model and encourage use of new and interesting words read in books by using new
words frequently throughout the day in conversations, songs, rhymes, activities, and
discussions.
•
Compare and contrast examples of favorite and familiar story or poetry books by
identifying each type as either a story or a poetry book and discuss simple characteristics
- 40 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
of each. When children are familiar with a few characteristics of each genre, discuss how
the examples (story and poetry book) are alike and how they are different. Begin to let
children identify the genre (story or poetry) on their own.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RL.PK.4
RL.PK.5
RL.PK.6
Preschool Standards
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about
unfamiliar words in a story or poem read aloud.
Recognize common types of literature (storybooks and
poetry books).
With prompting and support, identify the role of author and
illustrator in telling the story.
Kindergarten
Number
RL.K.4
RL.K.5
RL.K.6
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Follow up a discussion of illustrations in favorite books with offering similar art
materials at the art center (e.g., after reading Kitten’s Full Moon [Henkes, ‘06] make the
connection between the work of the artist/ illustrator and the child’s own art work by
offering black and white pastels with black markers to explore night drawings at the art
center).
•
Connect the role of author and illustrator of a book read aloud to the work of the
child in the writing and art centers (e.g., after reading A Snowy Day [Keats, ’64]
“There are many blank books and interesting papers at the writing table. Let’s
look at the winter books on display at the writing center and look closely at the
illustrations and see how we can draw and write about winter too.”).
•
Compare and contrast the major elements of an adventure of two familiar storybook
characters. Discuss how the main characters or their adventures are alike and how they
are different (e.g., In the books My No, No, No Day [Patterson, ‘12] and Alexander and
the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day [Viorst, ‘72] How are the adventures in
these two stories similar? How is the day that Alexander is having like Bella’s day? How
is Alexander’s day different?”
- 41 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RL.PK.7
RL.PK.8
RL.PK.9
Preschool Standards
With prompting and support, using a familiar storybook,
tell how the illustrations support the story.
(Not applicable to literature)
With prompting and support using a familiar storybook,
tell how adventures and experiences of characters are alike
and how they are different.
Kindergarten
Number
RL.K.7
RL.K.8
RL.K.9
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Select high quality literature that, when read aloud, engages individual, small groups or
large groups of children. Books should be selected based on a child’s familiarity with the
topic, background knowledge, interest, complexity of sentences, difficulty of vocabulary,
and length of the story.
o Provide preschoolers who have had minimal exposure to reading, shared reading
and read alouds, short books of high interest that include language, words, and
topics with engaging rhythm or rhyme, high predictability and simple illustrations
in order to develop the willingness and motivation to listen to stories (e.g., Brown
Bear, Brown Bear [Carle, ‘70]).
o As children gain experience with book read alouds, add more challenging
language, length, illustrations, and appropriate topics that are not immediately
present or familiar (Blackout [Rocco, ’12]).
•
Invite children’s participation in rich, supportive conversations about stories read to
increase engagement and provide the requisite skills and background information to
comprehend the story.
o Encourage back and forth exchanges, ask open-ended questions, scaffold, repeat
and expand vocabulary (e.g., after reading The Mitten [Brett, ‘89], “Yes, his
winter mittens are many different colors. They are multi-colored.”).
o Encourage problem solving, comparisons, and connections that can be related to
personal experience (e.g., after reading Olivia and the Missing Toy, [Falconer,
‘03], “What is the biggest challenge or the problem Olivia is having now? How
do you think she’ll solve the problem? Have you ever had a day like Olivia’s?”).
- 42 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
o Analyze illustrations and make predictions (e.g., “I see a clue in the picture that
helps me guess what will happen on the next page. Do you see it?”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RL.PK.10
Preschool Standards
Actively participate in read aloud experiences using age
appropriate literature in individual, small and large
groups.
Kindergarten
Number
RL.K.10
Reading Informational Text
Key Ideas and Details
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Compare and contrast favorite story books and favorite informational texts and discuss
which book is fiction (e.g., tells a story) and which book is information (explains or
shares real information).
•
Integrate opportunities for read aloud experiences using both literature and informational
texts throughout the day followed by rich discussions (e.g., morning circle, small group
time, center-time, naptime, closing circle) to extend and make connections between key
concepts in science, social studies, math, music, art, movement, and social and emotional
development (e.g., “In our read aloud today, we read about earthworms. Last week we
read many books about snakes. Who can tell me how an earthworm and a snake are
similar? Yes, both the earthworm and the snake are long and squiggly and crawl on their
stomachs”).
•
Read and reread favorite informational texts. Give children hand-held props for
unfamiliar words that prompt new information. During the follow-up discussion have
children identify the name of their prop and an accompanying fact (e.g., from The Tiny
Seed, [Carle, ‘00] children respond, “It’s a bean plant. First, you plant a bean seed in dirt
so it grows. Then it grows beans.”).
•
Model and encourage using new and interesting topical words from informational text
throughout the day in conversations, songs, rhymes, activities and discussions.
- 43 -
New Jersey Department of Education
•
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Encourage informational book discussions that includes questions, conversations and
discussions about topical book information. Refer back to original text to cite evidence
or to clarify difficult or new information.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
RI.PK.1
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about
key elements in a familiar text.
RI.K.1
RI.PK.2
With prompting and support, recall important facts from a
familiar text.
RI.K.2
RI.PK.3
With prompting and support, make a connection between
pieces of essential information in a familiar text.
RI.K.3
Craft and Structure
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Model and encourage questions about unfamiliar words in a text and point out context
clues (e.g., “Great catch Abby! Abby always asks me when she hears an unfamiliar word
that she doesn’t understand. Let’s look at the pictures and read the words again around
the new word to see if we can find clues to help us understand the new word.”).
•
Connect experiences with actual objects and props to identify positional phrases such as
in back of, in front of, under, on, over, etc. Identify front and back of book when reading
and begin to have children identify the front and back cover of books.
•
Connect the role of author and illustrator (or photographer) of children’s favorite
informational books to children’s writing activities (e.g., after reading Colors Everywhere
[Hoban ‘95] children discuss Tana Hoban’s role of author and photographer/illustrator.
Following the discussion, children took photographs of familiar school objects to create
an informational class book Colors at School).
- 44 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RI.PK.4
RI.PK.5
RI.PK.6
Preschool Standards
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about
unfamiliar words in informational text.
Identify the front and back cover of a book.
With prompting and support, identify the role of author and
illustrator in presenting ideas in informational text.
Kindergarten
Number
RI.K.4
RI.K.5
RI.K.6
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Read and reread several informational books on topics of interest to children. Compare
and contrast books and illustrations (e.g., “Both books My Big Truck Book [Priddy, ‘11]
and Trucks and Cars and Things that Go [Scarry, ‘98] are books about cars and trucks.
Mr. Priddy’s book uses pictures or illustrations from photographs for his book. These
pictures are like the photographs we take. Mr. Scarry’s book has pictures or illustrations
that are painted. These illustrations are like the paintings we make at the easel.”).
•
Create information class books and discuss how each information book is alike or
different than other information books in the classroom library. Discuss how pictures or
illustrations in information books describe the writer’s words. Connect classroom library
books to children’s book-making. With teacher support, ensure that children have an
opportunity to write (dictation, drawings, scribble-writing, letter-strings, or invented
spellings) and illustrate (drawings, paintings, photographs) topics of their own choosing
for class books.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RI.PK.7
RI.PK.8
Preschool Standards
With prompting and support, tell how the illustrations
support the text (information or topic) in informational text.
(Begins in kindergarten)
- 45 -
Kindergarten
Number
RI.K.7
RI.K.8
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Select high quality informational text and books that engage individual or groups of
children at their level for read alouds. Books should be selected based on a child’s need
and familiarity with the topic, background knowledge, interest, complexity of sentences,
difficulty of vocabulary, and length of the story.
o Provide children who have had minimal exposure to books or read aloud
experiences, first experiences with high interest topics that include engaging
photographs and illustrations in order to develop the willingness and motivation
to attend to the topic. Adjust language, length of text, and interactions between
child and text if needed.
o As children gain experience with preschool informational books, continue to add
more challenging topics, language, and length including topics that are not
immediately present or familiar.
•
Invite children’s participation in rich discussions of informational books to guide
comprehension and make connections to a topic (e.g., after reading What Lives in a
Shell? [Zoehfeld, ‘03] “Why does the hermit crab have a shell? Does their shell grow
with their body? How are the hermit crabs in the classroom aquarium like the snails Ms.
Green brought in today? How are they different?”).
•
Stock new and interesting manipulatives and props throughout centers to extend concepts
from informational books read aloud. Demonstrate and role-play their use (e.g. after
reading and discussing 26 Letters and 100 Cents [Hoban, ‘87], children match alphabet
props to printed letters in the fine motor/manipulatives center).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
RI.PK.10
Preschool Standards
Actively participate in read aloud experiences using age
appropriate information books individually and in small
and large groups.
- 46 -
Kindergarten
Number
RI.K.10
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Reading: Foundational Skills
Print Concepts
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Draw children’s attention to the functions and features of print during read aloud
discussions, small group activities, and incidentally throughout the day (e.g., point out
that the person whose name is on the helper chart starts with an uppercase letter “R,” or
during a read aloud discussion point out that the words in the title of the book are
separated by spaces).
•
Display printed labels and other print examples throughout the classroom environment
that has meaning to children during their daily activities. Draw attention to the print
(e.g., center labels, rebus labels and stories, picture recipes, traffic signs) and encourage
activities and interactions where children interact with the displayed print (e.g. “Yes, the
label in the hat has the word for Tyrek’s name. Can you put it in Tyrek’s cubby
please?”).
•
Ensure authentic opportunities for reading and rereading environmental print during the
day and while reading track the print with finger to ensure understanding of left to right
and top to bottom progression.
•
Display relevant print and writing examples at children’s eye level.
•
Provide relevant, topical literacy props that include print throughout the classroom (e.g.,
empty food and household containers, menus, recipe cards, phone books, order pads,
signs and labels, office forms).
- 47 -
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
RF.PK.1,a,b,c,d
Begin to demonstrate understanding of basic features of
print.
a) Follow words from left to right, top to bottom,
page by page.
b) Recognize that spoken words can be written and
read.
c) Recognize that words are separated by spaces.
d) Recognize and name many upper and lower case
letters of the alphabet.
RF.K.1a,b,c,d
Phonological Awareness
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Use rhythm sticks, claps, snaps, or body motions to segment the syllables in children’s
names and other words.
•
Engage children in activities, read storybooks and poems, sing songs and chants that have
repetitive patterns, alliterations, rhymes, and refrains that are engaging and playful (e.g.,
sing, “Liz, Liz, bo-biz, banana-fana fo-fiz, fee-fi-mo-miz, Liz! Liz can get her coat.”).
•
Read and reread rhyming books and texts to children. Encourage children to make up
their own rhymes and alliterations.
•
Draw children’s attention to the sounds children hear in words (e.g., by asking for the
children whose names start with the “m,m,m…” “M” sound to go wash their hands for
snack).
•
Provide activities where children sound match (e.g., show a picture of snake, a dog, or a
house and ask children which one starts with the “s-s-s…” “S” sound).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
RF.PK.2,a,b,c,d,e
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words and begin
to understand syllables and sounds (phonemes).
Kindergarten
Number
RF.K.2,a,b,c,d,e
a) Recognize and produce simple rhyming
words.
b) Segment syllables in spoken words by
clapping out the number of syllables.
c) Identify many initial sounds of familiar words.
d) (Begins in kindergarten)
e) (Begins in kindergarten)
Phonics and Word Recognition
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Integrate activities throughout the day that draw attention to the printed letter and the
sounds letters make (e.g., at the writing center, “I see you and Sabir pointing to the letters
that your names begin with on the alphabet chart. Can you also make the sound for the
first letter ‘S’ in your name? Yes, S-s-s-sabir.”).
•
Encourage participation with materials that promote identification of the letters of the
alphabet including alphabet books, charts, blocks, games, and puzzles.
•
Provide name game activities (e.g., recognize child’s name with and without graphic
support, differentiate among names, visually match specific letters) throughout the day
for children to learn to recognize their names and the letters in their name.
•
Find opportunities to read and write children’s names daily. While writing the name,
spell each letter aloud and invite children to read the name and spell each letter with you.
•
Encourage children to discuss and interact with functional print materials (labels, signs,
directions with pictures) and child-generated writing samples (class books, signs on block
buildings, notes to teacher, labels with pictures on shelves and drawings that incorporate
children’s writing).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
RF.PK.3,a,b,c,d
Demonstrate an understanding of beginning phonics and
word skills.
a) Associates many letters (consonants and
vowels as ready) with their names and
their most frequent sounds.
b) (Begins in kindergarten)
c) Recognize their name in print as well as other
familiar print in the environment.
d) (Begins in kindergarten)
RF.K.3a,b,c,d
Fluency
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Share reading and rereading favorite books giving children the opportunity to read along
the parts of the story they remember. Choose some books based on the use of repeated
phrases, refrains, and strong patterns and predictability so children can participate with
the reading.
•
Engage children in conversations about their favorite books and texts. Ensure that
individual children’s favorite topics are well represented in the classroom library (e.g.,
books about trains, sharks, animals). Update books frequently and use information about
individual preferences to extend the reader’s engagement to new and more challenging
literature and informational text.
•
Ensure ample time for individual and group use of the library and books (e.g., before the
day begins, at center time, before, during or after naps, after outdoor play, before and
after transitions).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
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Kindergarten
Number
New Jersey Department of Education
RF.PK.4
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Begin to engage in a variety of texts with purpose and
understanding.
RF.K.4
WRITING
Text Types and Purposes
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Model teacher writing in a variety of genres throughout the day and encourage children’s
writing (e.g., guide children to write their names on their work, share writing lists,
messages, charts, forms, signage, labels, invitations, letters, and model pretend roles in
dramatic play activities that include writing such as a doctor in the doctor’s office
charting patient health information, etc.).
•
Provide shared writing opportunities (e.g., the children volunteer the ideas and letters or
words and the teacher elaborates on the ideas and writes the words). Display interactive
examples of writing (including pictures) at children’s eye level for intentional follow-up
activities.
•
Take dictation for a child by writing exactly what the child says and making sure the
child can see what you are writing. Read the dictation back to the child tracking their
words with a finger.
•
Encourage individual and small groups of children’s writing at the writing center and
other centers independently or with teacher support (e.g., provide exciting writing and
book making materials, provide examples at the writing center of printed letters, words,
names, and phrases that children frequently use in their writing, encourage writing notes
to a family member, model or share writing signs for the block and manipulatives centers,
model and support recording and making observations at the science center, model and
encourage writing numbers at the math center and during other activities).
•
Model the process of classroom bookmaking by using different sizes and shapes of paper,
varied and interesting colors, etc. Ensure exciting bookmaking materials are readily
available at the writing and art centers. Make classroom book topics simple and
predictable. Frequently share classroom books and display in library and throughout the
room. Have children share or buddy-read with a partner and take a copy home to share or
“read” with families.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
W.PK.1
Use a combination of drawings, dictation, scribble writing,
letter-strings, or invented spelling to share a preference or
opinion during play or other activities.
W.K.1
W.PK.2
Use a combination of drawings, dictation, scribble writing,
letter-strings, or invented spelling to share information
during play or other activities.
W.K.2
W.PK.3
W.K.3
(Begins in kindergarten)
Production and Distribution of Writing
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Encourage children to share their writing or teacher dictation at all developmental levels
with a partner, small-group, class and family.
•
Respond positively to all writing efforts at all levels (e.g., dictation, scribble-writing,
letter strings, and invented spellings) and display children’s writing samples on the wall
at children’s eye level.
•
Provide a variety of writing tools (e.g., pencils, crayons, chalk, markers, and keyboards)
and surfaces (e.g., paper, writing easels, and computer surfaces) throughout the
classroom.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
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Kindergarten
Number
New Jersey Department of Education
W.PK.4
W.PK.5
W.PK.6
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
W.K.4
(Begins in grade 3)
With guidance and support, share a drawing with
dictation, scribble-writing, letter-strings, or invented
spelling to describe an event real or imagined.
With guidance and support, use digital tools to express
ideas (e.g., taking a picture of a block structure to
document or express ideas, etc.).
W.K.5
W.K.6
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Expand, elaborate, and guide children’s ideas and interests to create projects or studies
where children ask questions, brainstorm, problem solve, plan, learn new vocabulary,
investigate a topic, and produce documentation (e.g., after an investigation where
children and teacher researched the topic of a class pet by visiting a pet store, the library,
and children’s sites online, the classroom documented their observations and experiences
by producing Bubbles the Betta class book. The children drew pictures and with teacher
assistance and support “wrote” about their experience and shared “reading” the book with
the other preschool classrooms and their families.).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
W.PK.7
With guidance and support, participate in shared research and shared
writing projects.
W.K.7
W.PK.8
With guidance and support, recall information from experience or
familiar topic to answer a question.
W.K.8
W.PK.9
(Begins in grade 4)
W.K.9
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Speaking and Listening
Comprehension and Collaboration
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Read and reread favorite books and texts so that children can become familiar enough
with the story or text to be successful in identifying important information with some
detail (e.g., after reading and rereading A Sick Day for Amos McGee [Stead ‘11], the
children were able to discuss the questions who, what, when, where, and why with simple
detail and were able to connect experiences in the story to their own experiences).
•
Create a climate of discourse that values conversations, dialogue, questions, and
reflections, including “wait-time” (e.g., at least once a day, the teacher has personal
conversations with each child to build relationships and encourage multiple back-andforth exchanges).
•
Provide activities and props throughout the classroom that encourage interactions,
conversations and support connections to concepts learned (e.g., in dramatic play, the
“auto service shop” provides children the opportunity ask and answer questions about
pretend roles, use topic vocabulary, “write” service orders at various developmental
levels, and creatively act-out roles).
•
Revisit classroom rules that support classroom discussions (e.g., “Boys and girls, we have
a classroom rule about one person talking at a time. Why did we make that rule?”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
SL.PK.1.a,b
Preschool Standards
Participate in conversations and interactions with peers and
adults individually and in small and large groups.
a) Follow-agreed upon rules for discussions during
group interactions.
b) Continue a conversation through several back and
forth exchanges.
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Kindergarten
Number
SL.K.1.a,b
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
SL.PK.2
Ask and answer questions about a text or other information
read aloud or presented orally.
SL.K.2
SL.PK.3
Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or
follow directions.
SL.K.3
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide opportunities for discussions that include details of familiar people, places, and
things and events with individual children, and in small and large-groups (e.g., after the
read aloud No, David! [Shannon ‘98], children discuss with detail each of David’s
experiences and why David’s mother said “No, David!”).
•
Offer individual, small and large group opportunities throughout the day to express and
share activities, ideas, feelings, or other information in a classroom climate that values
discourse (e.g., discussions, project development, brain storming and predicting, book
conversations, discussing and learning names for feelings, conflict resolution and show
and tell).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
SL.PK.4
Begin to describe familiar people, places, things, and events
and sometimes with detail.
SL.K.4
SL.PK.5
Use drawings or visual displays to add to descriptions to
provide additional detail.
SL.K.5
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New Jersey Department of Education
SL.PK.6
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
With guidance and support, speak audibly and express
thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
SL.K.6
LANGUAGE
Conventions of Standard English
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Respond to children using their words (“reflect back”) with the correct plural forms,
tenses, prepositions and in complete sentences. Also, add new and rich vocabulary to the
response when appropriate.
•
Ensure that children have interesting opportunities to practice language using plural
forms, prepositions, complete sentences, and question sentences by using props and toys
in engaging individual, small and large-group opportunities (e.g., the use of props to
identify positional phrases such as in back of, in front of, under, on).
•
Provide individual support to each child to write their name on their work throughout the
day. Allow children who need it ample time to move through the developmental stages of
writing (e.g., teacher dictation, scribble-writing, letter-like forms, a combination of upper
and lowercase letters).
•
Encourage children to use their emergent writing skills independently or with teacher
support by providing ongoing and motivating up-to-date materials and activities at the
writing center based on individual and group interests including written models of the
alphabet and printed words with pictures that children currently use and request for
writing projects (e.g., “Mom,” “no,” “love” “Save!”). Support children during the
writing process by referring to the letter construction chart and prompting with letter
construction and letter sounds when needed.
•
Build oral language and writing skills through read aloud extension activities in
classroom centers (e.g., after reading a collection of Thomas and Friends [Awdry, 1975]
brainstorm ideas for props for a train station in the dramatic play area. Share writing a
list with children of materials and supplies needed).
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New Jersey Department of Education
•
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Draw children’s attention to examples of written words with pictures at eye level
including children’s drawings and writing, teacher and child-generated writing, classgenerated books that exemplify varied purposes of writing and provide written models for
children to refer to if needed during writing activities.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Standards
Kindergarten
Number
L.PK.1,a,b,c,d,e,f
Begin to understand the conventions of standard
English grammar when speaking during
interactions and activities.
a) Print many alphabet letters.
b) Use frequently occurring nouns and
verbs.
c) Form regular plural nouns.
d) Understand and use question words (e.g.,
who, what, where, when, why, how).
e) Use frequently occurring prepositions
(e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, by,
with).
f) Begin to speak in complete sentences.
g) Understands and can follow simple
multi-step directions.
L.K.1,a,b,c,d,e,f
L.PK.2,a,b,c,d
Begin to understand the simple conventions of
standard English grammar during reading and
writing experiences throughout the day.
a) (Begins in kindergarten)
b) (Begins in kindergarten)
c) Attempt to write a letter or letters by
using scribble-writing, letter-like forms,
letter-strings, and invented spelling
during writing activities throughout the
day.
d) (Begins in kindergarten)
L.PK.3
(Begins in grade 2)
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L.K.2,a,b,c,d
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Use new vocabulary introduced in conversations, reading, projects and studies and other
activities in context multiple times throughout the day.
•
Match visual and auditory prompts with gestures to reinforce the meaning of a word or
phrase (e.g., there is an enormous din in here [hands over ears and eyes closed tight]. It is
so noisy!).
•
Model excitement and the playful use of new words (e.g., “What the frog said was
ridiculous! The toad had never heard of anything so preposterous.”).
•
Sort words, props, topics, materials, etc. into categories (e.g., “Gallop is an action word
like crawl, walk, or jump. It is the movement that a horse makes when it wants to go fast.
Let me show you how to gallop.”).
•
Use props and other visuals with oral language to compare and contrast and describe
simple opposites (e.g., colored cards that illustrate black and white, objects that are big
and little, placements on wall that are high and low, voices that are loud and soft).
•
Make connections between a child’s experience and the meaning of new vocabulary and
how it is used (e.g., “This is my very loud voice that I use outside and this is my very
quiet voice that I use during rest time.”).
•
Provide opportunities for finding out the meaning of words and phrases through
connecting information (e.g., after a read aloud, “Looking at these two pages in the book
Anansi the Spider [McDermott ‘73] what do the words ‘he fell into trouble’ mean? What
happens to Anansi on the next few pages to help us understand what ‘he fell into trouble’
means?”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
L.PK.4,a,b
Preschool Standards
Begin to determine the meaning of new words and
phrases introduced through preschool reading and
content.
a) With guidance and support, generate words that
are similar in meaning (e.g., rock/stone,
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Kindergarten
Number
L.K.4,a,b
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
happy/glad).
b) (Begins in kindergarten)
L.PK.5,a,b,c,d
With guidance and support, explore word relationships.
a) Begin to sort familiar objects (e.g., sort a
collection of plastic animals into groups: dogs,
tigers, and bears).
b) Begin to understand opposites of simple and
familiar words.
c) Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., “Tell me the name of a place
in the classroom that is noisy or quiet.”).
d) (Begins in kindergarten)
L.K.5,a,b,c,d
L.PK.6
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations,
activities and read alouds.
L.PK.6
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
APPROACHES TO LEARNING
Introduction
Approaches to learning, such as initiative and persistence, are behaviors and attitudes that show
how children learn, not just what they learn. The National Education Goals Panel identified
“Approaches Toward Learning” as one of five dimensions of school readiness for early learners
along with physical development, social and emotional development, language development, and
cognition.
The approaches to learning standards build on the preschool social emotional development
standards and the New Jersey 21st Century Life and Careers standards, reflecting an
understanding of what we know from recent studies and current brain development research
about how children learn. Children with higher levels of attentiveness, task persistence,
eagerness to learn, learning independence, flexibility, and organizational skills do better in both
literacy and math at the end of the kindergarten school year, at the beginning of their first grade
year, and even in later grades (Conn-Powers, 2006: McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006).
The way a child approaches learning is a strong predictor of later success in school. School
readiness includes the ability to tackle and persist at challenging or frustrating tasks with
flexibility, follow directions, take risks, make and learn from mistakes, and work as a part of the
group. Young children develop these skills by engaging in playful learning experiences, which
strengthen cognitive capacities such as paying attention, remembering rules, and inhibiting
impulses to achieve a larger goal (Tomlinson, 2012). Both child-initiated and teacher-guided
play, along with other intentional teaching strategies, combine to support children’s approaches
to learning (Epstein, 2007).
Environments for young children promote positive approaches to learning when they are
carefully designed to embrace diverse learners by offering them many avenues for developing
physical, social, emotional, and cognitive skills. For example, research shows that children who
engage in complex forms of socio-dramatic play have greater language skills than non-players,
better social skills, more empathy and imagination, and show greater self-regulation and higher
levels of thinking (Miller, 2009).
Children develop positive approaches to learning within well-organized environments that offer
independence, choice, predictable routines, and opportunities for social interactions in small
group activities. Children’s engagement is deepened when materials and activities are relevant
to their interests, offer the right level of challenge, and provide many options such as long term
projects or studies, making it more likely that they will understand and remember relationships,
concepts, and reach higher levels of mastery, especially with teacher support.
Teachers play an important role in nurturing positive approaches to learning. An important
starting point is to develop caring and respectful relationships with children and their families.
Children who feel valued and receive the message that they are capable learners become engaged
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
and excited about learning. When children are given ample time and support to deeply engage
in developmentally appropriate, challenging learning experiences, they more easily master new
skills, making rewards and other incentives to learn and behave unnecessary. The intentional
teaching practices outlined in this document, such as listening, observing, providing specific
feedback, asking thought-provoking questions, providing verbal and emotional support,
encouraging effort and teamwork, modeling flexibility, noticing children’s interests, and helping
them make connections, will provide teachers with strategies for reinforcing positive approaches
to learning throughout the day.
There are four preschool standards for approaches to learning:
Standard 9.1
Children demonstrate initiative, engagement, and persistence.
Standard 9.2
Children show creativity and imagination.
Standard 9.3
Children identify and solve problems.
Standard 9.4
Children apply what they have learned to new situations.
Each of these four standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
Standard 9.1:
Children demonstrate initiative, engagement, and persistence.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Listen closely, respond to, and take pleasure in children’s curiosity. Nurture children’s
curiosity by modeling excitement and providing interesting hands-on experiences that
motivate them to apply their developing skills and prior knowledge (e.g., “Jose, you
and Nazeer found so many different kinds of leaves on the playground today! Let’s put
them on the light table and have a closer look at the shapes and colors of each.”)
•
Offer individual, small and large group opportunities throughout the day to express and
share ideas and feelings, creating a climate of discourse that values conversations,
dialogue, questions, and reflections (e.g., at least once a day, the teacher has personal
conversations with each child to build relationships and encourage multiple back-andforth exchanges about what children are learning).
•
Are fully present with children, identifying and minimizing distractions that detract
from working intentionally with individuals and small groups. Help children learn to
wait while you are working with another child, and help children listen respectfully to
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
one another (e.g., “Let’s find something interesting for you to do while I help Anna with
her problem. Then I’ll be able to concentrate on what you want to tell me.”)
•
Engage children in prior planning but be flexible enough to change plans or modify an
activity if children are not actively engaged. Gradually lengthen the time children are
expected to remain engaged in activities or experiences, and guide children toward
deeper levels of engagement (e.g., encourage children not just to spend more time
looking at the leaves from the playground, but trying different ways to organize them).
•
Help children focus their attention on relevant information while ignoring or filtering
out irrelevant information. Play games in which children must listen carefully and
follow more than one direction (e.g., “Simon says, stand on one foot and touch your
nose”).
•
Encourage children’s engagement in a task by specifically acknowledging their efforts
(e.g., “You spent a long time mixing the right color”) rather than vaguely praising them
(“good job ”) or giving them rewards like stickers or prizes. When supporting children’s
efforts, it is important to make sure the task is developmentally appropriate and
“challenging but achievable.” Let children know that it is alright to invite other children
to help them (e.g. Shayla and Riyad are working on a tangram puzzle together on the
computer and having trouble finishing. They, ask Jaquan, the classroom tangram
expert, if he could please help them.)
•
Solicit children’s ideas about what to do and how to do it (e.g. “It’s raining outside.
How will we need to dress so we can keep dry?” or “What can we do inside instead?”)
•
Provide physical, verbal, or emotional support to a child who is unfocused or
discouraged (e.g., sitting close to a child struggling to accomplish a task,
acknowledging their frustration, and helping them figure out what to do). Honor the
pace of every child, knowing that some children need more time to complete a task, and
that there may be cultural differences in how children approach tasks.
•
Provide children with time, space, and opportunities to make choices from among
interesting materials and activities that are familiar and challenging. Rotate materials
regularly to maintain children’s interest and to connect with children’s experiences and
cultures. Provide extended periods of time to allow children to get deeply involved in
learning experiences that they initiate or that build on class topics.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
9.1.1
Preschool Indicator
Make plans and decisions to actively engage in
learning (e.g., two children greet each other as
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P-12 Database
Number
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
they arrive to school and decide that they will
finish counting all the bottle caps they collected
during choice time.)
9.1.2
Show curiosity and initiative by choosing to
explore a variety of activities and experiences
with a willingness to try new challenges (e.g.,
choosing harder and harder puzzles).
9.1.3
Focus attention on tasks and experiences, despite
interruptions or distractions (e.g., working hard
on a drawing even when children nearby are
playing a game).
9.1.4
Show persistence when faced with challenging
tasks and uncertainty, seeking and accepting help
when appropriate (e.g., saying to a friend, ‘This is
hard. Can you help me figure it out?).
9.1.5
Bring a teacher-directed or self-initiated task,
activity or project to completion (e.g., showing
the teacher, “Look—I finished it all by myself!”).
Standard 9.2:
Children show creativity and imagination.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Model open-mindedness and flexibility by demonstrating that when you have new
information, you sometimes change your mind or adjust your plans and that there may
be more than one way to do things or to solve problems. Help children to generate
alternatives and weigh the options (e.g., “Since we had a fire drill this morning, I didn’t
have a chance to finish the story I was reading. Would you like me to finish reading the
story during rest time today or should we finish it tomorrow?”)
•
Observe children closely in order to find ways to see, value, and extend children’s ideas
(e.g., The teacher notices that while Xander is painting at the easel, he is telling a story
about his picture. She listens as Xander narrates his painting and writes in her
observation notes that Xander is painting a picture of his new baby sister. Using rich
vocabulary, she reflects Xander’s language back to him and asks him clarifying
questions.).
•
Provide opportunities for imaginative play and creative storytelling. Read or write
stories in which children change or make up their own endings. Take note when
imaginative play is becoming more complex (e.g., children are taking on more diverse
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
roles and are using a wider variety of props or creating their own) and support children
in extending their abstract/symbolic thinking.
•
Support multiple means of creative expression. The visual arts (e.g., drawing, collage,
painting, sculpture), the performing arts (e.g., puppets, music, dramatic play, and creative
movement), writing (e.g., encouraging illustrations and developmental levels of writing to
create books using different media and interesting sizes, shapes and colors of paper or
technology) offer many opportunities for all children, regardless of their abilities, personal
experiences, language and cultural background, to communicate what they feel, think,
know, and understand. It is important to give children who still have limited verbal
fluency—dual language learners or some children with disabilities—other ways of
expressing their ideas.
•
Emphasize the creative process over replication of a teacher-made product (e.g. “a small
group of children at the writing table make a card with their own words and illustrations to
cheer up a classmate who is in the hospital).
•
Have lots of “I wonder” conversations, prompted by everyday happenings or experiences
children talk about (e.g., “Kia said that it looks like the clouds are flying fast today. I
wonder what it would be like to be a cloud. Where would you want to fly? How would
you move?”)
•
Expand, elaborate, and guide children’s inventive ideas and interests to create multidisciplinary projects or studies where children ask questions, brainstorm, problem solve, plan,
learn new vocabulary, investigate a topic, and produce documentation (e.g., after an
investigation where children and teacher researched the topic of a class pet by visiting a pet
store, the library, and children’s sites online, the classroom documented their observations and
experiences by producing a class book. The children drew pictures and with teacher assistance
and support “wrote” about their experience and shared “reading” the book with the other
preschool classrooms and their families.).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
9.2.1
Show flexibility in approaching tasks by being open to new
ideas (i.e., doesn’t cling to one approach to a task, but is
willing to experiment and to risk trying out a new idea or
approach).
9.2.2
Use the imagination to solve problems, use materials, role
play, write stories, move the body, or create works of art (e.g.,
create pretend spinach out of torn green construction paper to
serve for dinner).
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P-12 Database
Number
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
9.2.3
Use multiple means of communication to creatively express
thoughts, ideas, and feelings (e.g., sing a song and act out the
story of the life cycle of a butterfly).
Standard 9.3:
Children identify and solve problems.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Stretch children’s thinking and use interesting language and vocabulary in conversations,
while keeping the needs of dual language learners in mind. (e.g., “Alejandra, I noticed that
you found the book about butterflies in the science area. Were you able to find a picture of a
butterfly that is yellow with black designs like the one you drew? Do you know the words
that go with the picture? Let’s look at the pictures and read the words again to see if we can
find clues to help us learn the name of your butterfly. Then, maybe we can write them down
in English and in Spanish so we can remember how to write the words to go with your
drawing.”)
•
Have conversations devoted to topics that are interesting to children and that offer
challenging, relevant problems to solve. Give children time to come up with thoughtful
solutions on their own (e.g. During a study of buildings, the teacher points out photos
they took of important buildings while on a neighborhood walk. The teacher discusses
the characteristics of the buildings they saw, asks children which materials would be
best for constructing the buildings and encourages children to work collaboratively in
small groups to construct a building using classroom supplies and recycled materials
the teacher has provided, with the photos as a reference. Although the teacher is
present to offer support, she allows the children to work out their own solutions for
making buildings strong enough to stand and adding details.)
•
Help children to break down a problem into manageable pieces, consider what
information is needed and apply strategies for solving problems (e.g., The children
return from playing outside and report that one of the girls has found a dollar on the
playground. Everyone has a different idea about what she should do with the dollar.
At circle time, the teacher listens to the children’s ideas and asks the children what they
think they should do? Although many children think she should buy something for the
classroom, one child says they should find out if anyone has lost a dollar. Children
brainstorm ideas to identify the owner of the dollar. The teacher makes a list of their
ideas and helps them decide on the next steps to take.).
•
Show children that when you make a mistake, you figure out a way to keep from
repeating the mistake by developing strategies to help you. Encourage children to learn
from their mistakes (e.g., Amber forgets that it is library day. When she begins to cry and
then to blame her mom for not reminding her to bring the book, the teacher helps Amber
think of what she can do to remember to bring her library book to school on library day.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
She tells Amber that she would sometimes forget her lunch bag at home, but now she
puts her lunch bag by her car keys so she won’t forget. The teacher brainstorms
strategies with Amber and invites her to try out one of the strategies for remembering to
bring back the book on the next library day and makes sure she follows up with Amber to
see how the strategy worked. )
•
Help children see themselves as thinkers. Infuse the words think and thinking when
talking with children. Give children time to think before responding. Model thinking by
using self-talk (e.g., “Adriana, Tamika, and Henry are not here today. Let’s think about
out how many places we need to set for snack.”). Notice that this teaching practice
strengthens approaches to learning while at the same time addressing math competencies.
•
Offer specific feedback (e.g., “You used every unit block to build a strong, tall tower.”
Avoid vague words, such as “nice work” and exaggerated praise, such as, “You are the
best builder in the class.”). Supplement verbal feedback with gestures and facial
expressions for children who are just learning a second language.
•
Build on what children are learning by asking open-ended questions (e.g., “What do
you think would happen if you…?” “What else could you do with…?” “Can you think
of another way to…?” In science and math, the teacher might help children to conduct
investigations, gather and analyze data, identify common patterns and rules, test the
rules, then make predictions. In language arts, the teacher might help children analyze
illustrations and make predictions (e.g., “I see a clue in the picture that helps me guess what
will happen on the next page. Do you see it?”)
•
Give children many opportunities for rehearsal and practice in learning new concepts or
skills and give them strategies to recall information (e.g., “This spring we will draw a
picture of the apple tree that we observed outside so that we can compare it to the one
you drew in fall and winter.”)
•
Encourage effective teamwork. Create investigations or projects where children can
problem-solve interdependently. Encourage conversations between children, guiding
them in listening to one another, sharing ideas, and welcoming the input and perspective
of others. Help them understand that because what they do and say affects others, they
need to consider the impact of their words and choices. Help children think about their
thinking (metacognition) by giving them many opportunities to become more aware of
their own thoughts, feelings, intentions, and actions. Help children critically evaluate
their own and other’s ideas and decide which ones are worth exploring.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
9.3.1
Recognize a problem and describe or demonstrate ways to solve
it alone or with others (e.g., “I know! Jamar and I can work
together to clean off the table so that we can have a place to eat
lunch.”)
9.3.2
Use varied strategies to seek or recall information and to find
answers (e.g., questioning, trial and error, testing, building on
ideas, finding resources, drawing, or thinking aloud).
9.3.3
Predict what will happen next based on prior experience and
knowledge and test the prediction for accuracy (e.g., raising the
height of the ramp to see if the ball will roll farther than when
the ramp was lower).
9.3.4
Reflect on, evaluate, and communicate what was learned (e.g.,
children in the class demonstrating and explaining their project
to children in a younger group).
Standard 9.4:
P-12
Database
Number
Children apply what they have learned to new situations.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide time for children to revisit and reflect on their experiences and learning through a
variety of methods (e.g., discussion, conversation, journaling, art activities, music) and apply
what they learn to new experiences. Multiple modes of expression can allow all children
(dual language learners; children with disabilities) to participate in this process.
•
Give children ample opportunities to use their prior experiences in socio-dramatic role play,
so that they can master their own feelings and develop empathy for others (e.g., when taking
on the role of a doctor wrapping a broken leg in the dramatic play area, a recentlyhospitalized child uses comforting words to console the patient with the broken leg).
•
Link the new to the familiar by helping children connect stories and activities with their own
life experiences and prior knowledge (e.g., stories about babies after a sibling is born, stories
about buildings and photos of construction from the neighborhood in the block area, and
authentic music and food from another country to celebrate a recent immigrant classmate’s
birthday).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Give children opportunities to see connections and apply knowledge in fun, playful ways.
Tap into children’s passion and enthusiasm and build on it (e.g., a child who is interested in
spiders can read about them, play games about them, observe them, draw them, and write
stories about them).
•
Provide activities and props throughout the classroom that encourage interactions,
conversations and support connections to concepts learned (e.g., in dramatic play, the “auto
service shop” provides children the opportunity to ask and answer questions about pretend
roles, use topic vocabulary, “write” service orders at various developmental levels, and
creatively act-out roles).
•
Give children feedback on their thinking to help them make new connections and
applications (e.g., “Emily, you said that you saw the Olympics on TV and think you can
jump as far as the gold medal winner in the long jump. When we go to the playground
today, let’s measure how far you can jump! What can we use to measure the distance?”)
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
9.4.1
Use prior knowledge to understand new experiences or a
problem in a new context (e.g., after learning about snakes,
children make comparisons when finding a worm on the
playground).
9.4.2
Make connections between ideas, concepts, and subjects (e.g.,
children take pictures from a field trip or nature walk, and use
them to write and illustrate classroom books).
9.4.3
Demonstrate understanding of what others think and feel
through words or actions (e.g., children act out a story that the
teacher has told them, mirroring the characters’ emotions).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
MATHEMATICS
Introduction
A preschool classroom’s physical and teaching environments should capitalize on children’s
natural, spontaneous interactions with math in the world around them by featuring a wide variety
of ongoing mathematical opportunities. Possibilities for learning across all the math domains
(identified in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics as counting and cardinality,
operations and algebraic thinking, number and operations in base ten, measurement and data,
and geometry) should be available, daily, in classroom activity/interest areas, during small and
large group teacher-child interactions, and out of doors.
While providing a wide array of opportunities for engaging with math, in conjunction with the
Common Core State Standards, New Jersey’s preschool standards for mathematics call attention
to the fact that:
Early childhood mathematics should emphasize:
•
•
•
number;
spatial relations and measurement; and
geometry;
with a top priority of developing:
•
children’s sense of number as quantity
and underscoring the importance of:
•
mathematical practice skills.
Mathematics Practice Skills in Preschool
The Common Core addresses mathematical process skills through eight standards for
mathematical practice used for kindergarten through twelfth grade. Based, in part, on the
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Curriculum Focal Points – for Prekindergarten
through Grade Eight Mathematics the eight practice standards describe the skills necessary for
thinking mathematically.
Young children need ongoing opportunities to develop their mathematical thinking. In
addition to daily opportunities for independent choice and exploration, preschool classroom
time should be regularly allotted for in depth, small group math experiences that encourage
children to interact, pursue problem solving strategies and reflect. Teachers should facilitate a
supportive learning environment by continuously observing, listening and scaffolding
children’s mathematical thinking in everyday contexts. Teachers should also recognize and
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
plan short- and long-term projects based on the strong opportunities for mathematical thinking
and problem solving that occurs when mathematics is combined with other curriculum content
areas.
The preschool mathematics practices, aligned with the Common Core Mathematical Practice
Standards (and found in the chart, below) do not stand alone. Rather they are to be taught
within and across each of New Jersey’s preschool mathematics standards. The following chart
describes the mathematical processes that should be occurring in preschool classrooms every
day so that young children have ongoing opportunities to explore and develop their
mathematical thinking.
Common Core Standards for
Mathematical Practice
New Jersey Preschool Mathematical
Practices
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
•
•
•
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
•
•
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of
others.
•
Model with mathematics.
•
•
•
Use appropriate tools strategically.
•
Attend to precision.
•
•
•
•
Look for and make use of structure.
•
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
•
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Teachers model for and work with children to think
about, make plans, and follow through to solve a
mathematical problem using objects or pictures.
Children informally experiment with math problem
solving strategies using objects or pictures.
Teachers model for and work with children to solve
number stories using objects or pictures (to ten).
Teachers introduce number symbols to describe
number stories (to five).
Children draw pictures to begin to represent simple
number stories (to five) and may begin to use
number symbols in their drawings.
Teachers use objects, drawings and actions while
modeling mathematical thinking.
Children begin to use objects, drawings and actions
to represent how they approached a mathematical
problem.
Teachers point out math in everyday situations and
model using math to solve everyday problems.
Children begin to use objects, pictures, words (and
may begin to use number symbols [to five]) to solve
simple everyday problems (to ten).
Teachers model and use tools (e.g., a clock, paper
and pencil, dice, two- and three-dimensional
geometric shapes) and standardized objects (e.g.,
Unifix® cubes, unit blocks).
Teachers use mathematics vocabulary during
classroom activities and routines.
Teachers model data collection for authentic
purposes (e.g., attendance, lunch choices).
Children begin to use mathematics vocabulary
during classroom activities and routines.
Children organize information by collecting and
entering data on charts and graphs (e.g., conduct
simple surveys, record results of a science activity).
Children use materials that give them experience
with parts and wholes (e.g., filling egg cartons,
combining shapes [tangrams, puzzles, pattern
blocks], combining two groups to make one group
[combining a group of plastic zoo animals with a
group of plastic farm animals]).
Teachers model for and work with children to
develop simple patterns (e.g., ab, abb, abc) using
objects, pictures, actions and words.
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
•
Children identify, repeat and extend simple patterns
started by the teacher.
Children begin to intentionally make their own
simple patterns using objects, pictures, actions and/or
words.
The Preschool Mathematics Standards
New Jersey’s Preschool Standards for Teaching and Learning in Mathematics mirror the
Common Core’s goals for mathematics (sometimes referred to as ‘big ideas’) and the learning
trajectories, or pathways, that children will follow from preschool through grade 12 to reach
these goals. The preschool standards are ordered according to the domains used in the
Common Core State Standards for mathematics:
Preschool
Standard
Standard 1
Preschool Standard Content
Standard 1 is about number sense:
Common Core Domain
Alignment
Counting and Cardinality
-children’s understanding of numbers and
quantities.
Standard 2
Standard 2 is about number sense:
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
-children’s understanding of number
relationships and operations.
Standard 3
Standard 3 is about children’s ability to:
Measurement and Data
-compare,
-order; and
-begin to measure.
Standard 4
Standard 4 is about:
Geometry
-children’s ability to identify and use
geometric shapes; and
-children’s understanding of position in
space.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
In a high-quality preschool classroom, preschoolers are intentionally introduced to and engage
in the ‘big ideas’ of mathematics. Teachers note children’s interests and strengths in addition
to assessing each child’s prior experience and informal knowledge, effectively integrating
differentiated math experiences into children’s daily routines and transitions.
With a comprehensive preschool curriculum as the vehicle, continuous (performance based)
formative assessment of what each child in the class knows and is able to do translates into
purposefully planned, standards based teaching practices. The teaching practices section of the
preschool mathematics standards provides samples of activities and explorations for each of
the learning outcomes.
There are four preschool mathematics standards:
Standard 4.1:
Children begin to demonstrate an understanding of number and
counting.
Standard 4.2:
Children demonstrate an initial understanding of numerical operations.
Standard 4.3:
Children begin to conceptualize measurable attributes of objects and
how to measure them.
Standard 4.4:
Children develop spatial and geometric sense.
Each of these four standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
Standard 4.1:
Children begin to demonstrate an understanding of number and
counting.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Preschool teachers will:
•
Encourage and support attempts to learn to count numbers to 20 or higher.
•
Include and refer by name to written numbers in the classroom environment during daily
routines and in the context of large and small group experiences.
•
Intentionally refer to the symbol and number name when discussing numbers (quantities)
of objects.
•
Provide manipulatives and materials (e.g., print and digital material, sand molds, tactile
numeral cards, puzzles, counting books, hand-held devices such as tablets, interactive
whiteboards) and activities (e.g. tracing numbers in sand, forming numbers with clay,
recording data) that feature number names and number quantities.
•
Provide a wide variety of writing materials for children to informally explore writing
numbers along with meaningful contexts for children to write numbers on charts and
graphs.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Make materials and books that promote exploration of number quantities (e.g., collections
of small objects, cash registers with money, number puzzles, counting books and games in
print and digital formats, egg cartons and plastic eggs) accessible to children.
•
Integrate purposeful counting experiences throughout the school day, indoors and
outdoors (e.g., taking attendance, following the rule to stay three steps behind another
person, climbing the ladder of the slide, pulling the paper towel holder lever twice. Play
board games that involve arranging and counting objects and identifying small quantities
of objects with small groups of children).
•
Encourage children to compare numbers frequently through questions (e.g., “Are there
more people riding in the bus or in the airplane?”) and graphing (e.g., favorite colors,
pets).
•
Foster one-to-one correspondence throughout the day (e.g., ask a child to put out just
enough bowls and spoons for each stuffed animal seated at the table, ask a child to arrange
just enough cars so that each garage space has one car in it).
•
Model how to represent and describe data (e.g., display daily attendance on a graph and
discuss “how many,” “more,” “less,” “fewer,” “equal to.”).
•
Work with children in small groups to help them organize (classify) objects, describe their
work, and represent the results (e.g., children use a series of graphs to represent the results
of experiences in sorting buttons by various attributes – size, color, number of holes, etc.).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
4.1.1
Count to 20 by ones with minimal prompting.
K.CC.1
4.1.2
Recognize and name one-digit written numbers up to 10 with
minimal prompting.
K.CC.2
4.1.3
Know that written numbers are symbols for number quantities
and, with support, begin to write numbers from 0 to 10.
K.CC.3
4.1.4
Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities
(i.e., the last word stated when counting tells “how many”):
K.CC.4
(a)Accurately count quantities of objects up to 10, using one-to
one-correspondence, and accurately count as many as 5 objects
in a scattered configuration.
(b)Arrange and count different kinds of objects to demonstrate
understanding of the consistency of quantities (i.e., “5” is
constant, whether it is a group of 5 people, 5 blocks or 5
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
pencils).
(c)Instantly recognize, without counting, small quantities of up
to 3 or 4 objects (i.e., subitize).
4.1.5
Use one to one correspondence to solve problems by matching
sets (e.g., getting just enough straws to distribute for each juice
container on the table) and comparing amounts (e.g., collecting
the number of cubes needed to fill the spaces in a muffin tin
with one cube each).
K.CC.5
4.1.6
Compare groups of up to 5 objects (e.g., beginning to use terms
such as “more,” “less,” “same”).
K.CC.6
Standard 4.2: Children demonstrate an initial understanding of numerical operations.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Preschool teachers will:
•
Model addition for children by using counting to combine numbers (e.g., “Maria has two
blocks and Justin has three. There are five blocks altogether: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.”).
•
Model subtraction for children by using counting to separate quantities of objects (e.g.,
“There are five cars on the carpet: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. I am putting two cars in the basket. There
are three cars left on the carpet.”).
•
Engage informally with children during center time to explore joining and taking apart
small quantities of concrete objects.
•
Provide opportunities for children to independently explore addition and subtraction (e.g.,
using small manipulatives with egg cartons, muffin tins and story mats; interacting with
children using computer software and handheld device applications).
•
Develop addition and subtraction stories with small groups of children using story mats
and flannel board scenes with small quantities of objects and pictures/drawings.
•
Using fingers, chalk, wipe-off markers and/or whiteboard technology, tell and draw
addition and subtraction stories with small groups of children.
•
Provide writing materials and/or handheld devices with appropriate applications in
classroom centers so that children can choose to view, solve and create addition and
subtraction stories.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
4.2.1
Represent addition and subtraction by manipulating up to 5
objects:
(a) putting together and adding to (e.g., “3 blue pegs, 2 yellow
pegs, 5 pegs altogether.”); and
(b) taking apart and taking from (“I have four carrot sticks.
I’m eating one. Now I have 3.”).
K.OA.1
4.2.2
Begin to represent simple word problem data in pictures and
drawings.
Standard 4.3:
K.OA.2
K.OA.3
K.OA.4
Children begin to conceptualize measurable attributes of objects.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Preschool teachers will:
•
Provide standard and nonstandard measurement materials both indoors and outdoors (e.g.,
unit blocks, inch cubes, rulers, cups, buckets, balance scales, water and sand tables).
•
Invite children to compare and order objects according to measurable attributes (e.g., length,
height, weight, area).
•
Listen for and extend children’s conversations about long and short, longer and shorter,
short and tall, shorter and taller, etc.
•
Provide materials for children to sort, classify, order, and pattern (e.g., buttons, beads,
colored craft sticks, bowls, trays).
•
Use digital photography to record children’s measurement activities so that students can
revisit, think more about, and discuss their strategies with adults and classmates.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
4.3.1
Sort, order, pattern, and classify objects by non-measurable
(e.g., color, texture, type of material) and measurable attributes
K.MD.3
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New Jersey Department of Education
4.3.2
4.3.3
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
(e.g., length, capacity, height).
Begin to use appropriate vocabulary to demonstrate awareness
of the measurable attributes of length, area, weight and capacity
of everyday objects (e.g., long, short, tall, light, heavy, full).
Compare (e.g., which container holds more) and order (e.g.,
shortest to longest) up to 5 objects according to measurable
attributes.
Standard 4.4:
K.MD.1
K.MD.2
Children develop spatial and geometric sense.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Use positional words (e.g., over, under, behind, in front of) to describe the relative
position of items and people, and encourage the children to use them (e.g., “Michael is
sitting next to Ana.” “I see that you used yellow paint under the blue stripe on your
painting.” “Are you in front of or behind me?” “The car is on the right.”).
•
Dramatize stories that make use of positional words (e.g., Rosie’s Walk by Pat Hutchins).
•
Use everyday experiences to foster understanding of spatial sense (e.g., talk about
locations in the school, map the classroom by learning/interest area, invite children to use
blocks to create simple scenes or locations [e.g., the park, the zoo] ask children to describe
and/or draw how to get from the classroom block area to the easel).
•
Provide materials that can be put together and taken apart indoors and outdoors that help
children to develop spatial and geometric sense (e.g., puzzles of varying complexity, items
to fill and empty, fit together and take apart, or arrange and shape; materials that move;
tunnels to crawl through).
•
Introduce vocabulary describing two- and three-dimensional shapes and constructions
(e.g., circle, sphere, square, cube, triangle, rectangular prism, pyramid; side, point, angle)
and use that vocabulary when interacting with children and materials in learning centers,
small groups, and individual settings.
•
Provide opportunities for children to compose and decompose pictures and designs with
two-dimensional shapes (e.g., tangrams, in collage arrangements, two-dimensional
manipulative shapes, computer and interactive whiteboard software, handheld device
[such as a tablet] applications).
•
Provide opportunities for children to compose and decompose with three-dimensional
shapes (e.g., unit blocks, hollow blocks, three-dimensional manipulative shapes, boxes,
balls, three-dimensional styrofoam shapes).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Provide opportunities for children to talk about their two- and three-dimensional designs
with other children and with adults.
•
Provide opportunities for children to explore and describe the differences and similarities
between attributes of two- and three-dimensional shapes (e.g., “It’s like a can.” “It has 3
sides and 3 points, so it’s a triangle.”) and constructions (e.g., faces of attribute blocks,
balls, blocks of all shapes, boxes, beads).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
4.4.1
Preschool Indicator
Respond to and use positional words (e.g., in, under, between,
down, behind).
P-12 Database
Number
K.G.1
4.4.2
Use accurate terms to name and describe some two-dimensional
shapes and begin to use accurate terms to name and describe
some three-dimensional shapes (e.g., circle, square, triangle,
sphere, cylinder, cube, side point, angle).
K.G.2
4.4.3
Manipulate, compare and discuss the attributes of:
K.G.4
K.G.5
(a) two-dimensional shapes (e.g., use two dimensional shapes
to make designs, patterns and pictures by manipulating
materials such as paper shapes, puzzle pieces, tangrams;
construct shapes from materials such as straws; match
identical shapes; sort shapes based on rules [something that
makes them alike/different]; describe shapes by
sides/angles; use pattern blocks to compose/decompose
shapes when making and taking apart compositions of
several shapes).
(b) three-dimensional shapes by building with blocks and with
other materials having height, width and depth (e.g., unit
blocks, hollow blocks, attribute blocks, boxes, empty food
containers, plastic pipe).
__________________________________________________________________________
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SCIENCE
Introduction
Young children first construct scientific knowledge by using their senses to interact with their
environment and make sense of the world around them. Their science understanding is facilitated
and extended by adults whose own sense of wonder is a match for their curiosity. Children are
more inclined to observe, question, and reflect about their investigations when encouraged by
teachers who are also invested in the process. Thus, throughout the preschool years, children
develop and refine their scientific abilities through observing, inquiring, and experimenting
during rich and inviting opportunities for open-ended exploration and focused inquiry.
Preschool teachers intentionally encourage science investigations and inquiry based on their
observations of children’s interests and experiences, as well as based on their professional
understanding of appropriate science content and learning outcomes for young children.
Teachers actively encourage sustained exploration of a particular topic over as long as four to
five weeks of focused inquiry. Teachers understand that purposefully planned experiences within
children’s immediate environment and daily surroundings provide the best context for science
learning. In addition, preschool teachers seize opportunities for enhancing children’s learning
during exploration that naturally integrates math and science concepts. They purposefully
introduce materials, techniques, and technologies that provide natural avenues to science
learning.
Families should always be invited to observe and participate in classroom science activities.
Teachers can stress the importance of modeling a positive attitude about science by providing
activity extensions for families to explore at home. Community partnerships and resources
should be valued and used as much as possible. Science centers, working farms, public gardens,
and children’s museums often have science exhibits or programs that are developmentally
appropriate for preschoolers and that expand upon concepts children are exploring in their
classrooms. Local businesses, including nurseries, fruit and vegetable markets, and pet stores are
all valuable resources for enhancing classroom science investigations.
There are five preschool science standards:
Standard 5.1:
Children develop inquiry skills.
Standard 5.2:
Children observe and investigate matter and energy.
Standard 5.3:
Children observe and investigate living things.
Standard 5.4:
Children observe and investigate the Earth.
Standard 5.5:
Children gain experience in using technology.
Each of these five standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
78
New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 5.1:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children develop inquiry skills.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide a supportive classroom climate that encourages children to pursue ideas through the
use of science inquiry skills. The environment should encourage children to wonder, observe,
ask questions, and investigate as they solve problems, engage with phenomena, and make
decisions during daily activities both indoors and outdoors. Science preparation and planning
should reflect intentionality, with the teacher thinking about how to best develop science
concepts in the context of children’s everyday classroom lives and experiences.
•
Prepare the classroom with open-ended nature/science objects and materials that children can
explore and use independently and that are linked to ongoing classroom explorations (e.g.,
collections of rocks, pinecones, and seed pods during a study of the local environment;
nature/science books; nature sequence cards that support an investigation of life cycles;
magnifying glasses; collections of measuring tools at the sand table; items that water can flow
through at the water table; plants grown from seed; journals for recording; audio-visual
materials; computer software).
•
Plan intentionally for children’s conceptual learning during small-group science experiences
that include a series of related, simple experiments and experiences (e.g., freezing and melting
to expose children to states of matter; blowing through straws and hollow tubes on common
objects to explore energy and motion; sprouting seeds with and without light to better
understand the needs of living things; exploring chemical changes that occur when ingredients
are mixed and cooked in an oven; using the senses to explore, compare, and describe variations
in textures of various rocks).
•
Provide opportunities for focused inquiry over longer time periods (e.g., investigating flow at the
water table; exploring light and shadow indoors and out; pursuing a study involving observations
of growing things, using a variety of plants grown indoors and out; exploring sound; exploring
simple machines, such as wheels, levers, and inclined planes, in everyday classroom contexts).
•
Facilitate individual and small-group discussions based on open-ended science explorations
and focused inquiry to encourage children to share, discuss, reflect on, and form explanations
about their emerging ideas.
•
Help children identify and refine questions that can be explored through science investigations.
•
Pose questions that lead to making predictions (e.g., “What do you think will happen if …?”).
•
Provide regular opportunities for children to collect, measure, record, and represent science
experiences and data (e.g., collecting natural items that are signs of fall, using lengths of yarn
to measure how far a ball rolls, using simple charts).
•
Facilitate children’s acquisition and use of basic science terms and topic-related science
vocabulary along with access to nonfiction books, audio and video materials, and Website
photographs and information.
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
5.1.1
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and
longer-term investigations in progress (e.g., ask who, what,
when, where, why, and how questions during sensory
explorations, experimentation, and focused inquiry).
5.1.P.A.1
5.1.2
Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects,
and phenomena during classroom activities indoors and
outdoors and during any longer-term investigations in progress.
Seek answers to questions and test predictions using simple
experiments or research media (e.g., cracking a nut to look
inside; putting a toy car in water to determine whether it sinks).
5.1.P.B.1
5.1.3
Use basic science terms (e.g., observe, predict, experiment) and
topic-related science vocabulary (e.g., words related to living
things [fur, fins, feathers, beak, bark, trunk, stem]; weather
terms [breezy, mild, cloudy, hurricane, shower, temperature];
vocabulary related to simple machines [wheel, pulley, lever,
screw, inclined plane]; words for states of matter [solid, liquid];
names of basic tools [hammer, screwdriver, awl, binoculars,
stethoscope, magnifier]).
5.1.P.B.2
5.1.4
Communicate with other children and adults to share
observations, pursue questions, make predictions, and/or
conclusions.
5.1.P.C.1
5.1.5
Represent observations and work through drawing, recording
data, and “writing” (e.g., drawing and “writing” on observation
clipboards, making rubbings, charting the growth of plants).
5.1.P.D.1
Standard 5.2:
Children observe and investigate matter and energy.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide a variety of interesting materials and objects (e.g., solids and liquids) in learning
centers to encourage children to observe, manipulate, sort, and describe physical properties
(e.g., size, shape, color, texture, weight) using their five senses as well as simple tools (e.g.,
magnifiers, balance scales).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Provide opportunities for children to explore changes in matter (e.g., liquids and solids) when
substances are combined, heated, or cooled (e.g., when mixing ingredients for cooking, mixing
paint colors, preparing recipes that involve heating or cooling, exploring water as a solid and a
liquid), including projects or studies over an extended period of time (e.g., an in-depth
investigation of water that includes how water moves, what happens when things are mixed
with water, and the behavior of drops of water).
•
Facilitate children’s investigations of forms of energy (sound, heat, and light).
•
Provide opportunities for children to explore motion (e.g., objects can move in many ways) and
the forces that affect motion (e.g., natural phenomena and mechanical forces) in projects or
studies over an extended period of time.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
5.2.1
Observe, manipulate, sort, and describe objects and materials
(e.g., water, sand, clay, paint, glue, various types of blocks,
collections of objects, simple household items that can be taken
apart, or objects made of wood, metal, or cloth) in the classroom
and outdoor environment based on size, shape, color, texture,
and weight.
5.2.P.A.1
5.2.2
Explore changes in liquids and solids when substances are
combined, heated, or cooled (e.g., mixing sand or clay with
various amounts of water; preparing gelatin; mixing different
colors of tempera paint; and longer term investigations, such as
the freezing and melting of water and other liquids).
5.2.P.B.1
5.2.3
Investigate sound, heat, and light energy through one or more of
the senses (e.g., comparing the pitch and volume of sounds made
by commercially made and homemade instruments, recording
how shadows change during the course of a day or over time,
using flashlights or lamp light to make shadows indoors).
5.2.P.C.1
5.2.4
Investigate how and why things move (e.g., slide block, balance
structures, push structures over, use ramps to explore how far and
how fast different objects move or roll).
5.2.P.E.1
Standard 5.3:
Children observe and investigate living things.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Provide opportunities for children to observe and investigate the characteristics of plants and
animals in their natural habitats and in the classroom over time.
•
Facilitate children’s observations of similarities and differences (e.g., discussing the physical
needs of a bird and a dog) in the needs of various living things and their observations of
differences between living and nonliving things (e.g, classifying living and nonliving things
found in water or on land).
•
Encourage children to explore available outdoor habitats (e.g., the trees or a patch of ground
outside the classroom) and to participate in caring responsibly for living things during and
outside of school time (e.g., fish tank, plants, hermit crabs, ladybugs, butterflies).
•
Provide opportunities for children to investigate changes in living things over time (e.g., the
life cycles of plants or mealworms).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
5.3.1
Investigate and compare the basic physical characteristics of
plants, humans, and other animals (e.g., observing and
discussing leaves, stems, roots, body parts; observing and
drawing different insects; sorting leaves by shape; comparing
animals with fur to those with feathers).
5.3.P.A.1
5.3.2
Observe similarities and differences in the needs of living
things, and differences between living and nonliving things
(e.g., observing and discussing similarities between animal
babies and their parents; discussing the differences between a
living thing, such as a hermit crab, and a nonliving thing, such
as a shell).
5.2.P.A.2
5.3.3
Observe and describe how natural habitats provide for the basic
needs of plants and animals with respect to shelter, food, water,
air, and light (e.g., digging outside in the soil to investigate the
kinds of animal life that live in and around the ground or
replicating a natural habitat in a classroom terrarium).
5.3.P.C.1
5.3.4
Observe and record change over time and cycles of change that
affect living things (e.g., monitoring the life cycle of a plant,
using children’s baby photographs to discuss human change
and growth, using unit blocks to record the height of classroom
plants).
5.3.P.D.1
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New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 5.4:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children observe and investigate the Earth.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide opportunities for exploring the natural environment, indoors and outdoors (e.g., soil,
rocks, water, and air).
•
Provide opportunities for exploring the natural energy of sunlight through its connection with
living and nonliving things (e.g., a plant’s need for sunlight or the effects of light and shadow
on objects).
•
Provide opportunities for investigating weather phenomena (e.g., recording daily changes in
weather, observing cycles of seasonal change, discussing characteristics of different kinds of
weather).
•
Use classroom experiences to assist children in developing an awareness of conservation and
respect for the natural environment in everyday contexts (e.g., conserving resources, recycling).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
5.4.1
Explore and describe characteristics of soil, rocks, water, and air
(e.g., sorting rocks by shape and/or color, observing water as a
solid and a liquid, noticing the wind’s effect on playground
objects).
5.4.P.C.1
5.4.2
Explore the effects of sunlight on living and nonliving things
(e.g., growing plants with and without sunlight, investigating
shadows that occur when the sun’s light is blocked by objects).
5.4.P.E.1
5.4.3
Observe and record weather (e.g., chart temperatures
throughout the seasons or represent levels of wind by waving
scarves outdoors).
5.4.P.F.1
5.4.4
Demonstrate emergent awareness of the need for conservation,
recycling, and respect for the environment (e.g., turning off
water faucets, collecting empty yogurt cups for reuse as paint
containers, separating materials in recycling bins, re-using clean
paper goods for classroom collage and sculpture projects).
5.4.P.G.1
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New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 5.5:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Children gain experience in using technology.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide and assist students with identifying and using appropriate tools and technology in
support of their science investigations (e.g., computers; video, audio, and camera equipment;
cooking equipment; measuring tools; writing and painting tools; tools that extend sensory
exploration; simple machines; woodworking tools).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
5.5.1
Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration
in conjunction with science investigations (e.g., writing, drawing,
and painting utensils, scissors, staplers, magnifiers, balance
scales, ramps, pulleys, hammers, screwdrivers, sieves, tubing,
binoculars, whisks, measuring cups, appropriate computer
software and website information, video and audio recordings,
digital cameras, tape recorders).
5.1.P.B.3
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SOCIAL STUDIES, FAMILY, AND LIFE SKILLS
Introduction
The teaching of social studies, family, and life skills in the preschool classroom begins with
cultivating all children’s understanding of themselves and their place in the family and moves to an
understanding of social systems in ever widening circles: from the family to the classroom
community, the neighborhood, and the world. Preschool teachers provide a wide range of concrete,
developmentally appropriate activities and field trips that offer opportunities to explore and celebrate
similarities and differences among children, lifestyles, and cultures. However, teachers understand
that young children classify and make concrete connections that sometimes lead to statements that
may sound biased. At these times, teachers take the opportunity to discuss racial, culture, and gender
biases with children. These discussions help build a foundation for understanding and appreciating
diversity.
Social studies, family, and life skills are integrated throughout the preschool day, as teachers
endeavor to establish a caring community life based on respect and appreciation of individual
differences. The classroom environment is organized to provide opportunities for children to develop
independent behaviors and to act out real-life situations. The environment reinforces those skills and
concepts that encourage good citizenship and that develop each child’s capacity to participate in a
culturally diverse, democratic society in an increasingly interdependent world.
Families should be given ongoing opportunities to visit the classroom and share their cultural
traditions and experiences throughout the school year. Celebrating cultural diversity should not
be limited to holidays.
There are four preschool social studies, family, and life skills standards:
Standard 6.1:
Children identify unique characteristics of themselves, their families, and
others.
Standard 6.2:
Children become contributing members of the classroom community.
Standard 6.3:
Children demonstrate knowledge of neighborhood and community.
Standard 6.4:
Children demonstrate awareness of the cultures within their classroom and
community.
Each of these four standards is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For each standard,
effective preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that
develop as a result of those practices.
Standard 6.1:
Children identify unique characteristics of themselves, their families, and
others.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
85
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Engage in one-on-one and small-group conversations about similarities and differences of
children (e.g., eyes, hair, skin tone, talents, interests, food preferences, gender).
•
Encourage children to appreciate individual differences by providing diverse materials,
literature, and activities (e.g., mirrors, graphs, height charts; multicultural paints, papers,
and crayons).
•
Incorporate books, materials, and activities that support diversity with respect to race,
ethnicity, culture, age, abilities, gender, and nonstereotypic roles (e.g., music, literature,
dramatic play props, puzzles, displays).
•
Incorporate materials, photos, artifacts, and props from diverse families that reflect
family roles and traditions.
•
Invite family members to come to the classroom to share foods, talents, and traditions.
•
Support and recognize differences in family structures, routines, and traditions through
discussions, literature, and activities (e.g., placing diverse articles of clothing in
housekeeping area).
•
Use language to identify family members, roles, traditions, and artifacts (e.g., “Your
Uncle Leo is your daddy’s brother.” “Rabiye’s mother wears a burka.” “Some
grandmothers go to work, just like Tony’s. Others stay at home and work.”).
•
Encourage children to use materials and supplies in a nonstereotypical manner (e.g., “Both
men and women cook and wear aprons.”).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
6.1.1
Describe characteristics of oneself, one’s family, and others.
6.1.P.D.1
6.1.2
Demonstrate an understanding of family roles and traditions.
6.1.P.D.2
6.1.3
Express individuality and cultural diversity (e.g., through
dramatic play).
6.1.P.D.3
Standard 6.2:
Children become contributing members of the classroom community.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Involve children in developing a few simple rules with an emphasis on positive rules
(e.g., “walking feet” instead of “no running”).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Establish classroom routines and involve children in the upkeep of the classroom (e.g.,
taking care of the pet, cleaning up, watering plants, washing hands before using the water
table to avoid spreading germs).
•
Model appropriate behaviors during family-style meals (e.g., sitting during meals,
engaging in conversation, asking to be excused from the table when finished eating).
•
Plan activities and routines that encourage cooperation and collaboration (e.g., classroom
murals, pair-painting, buddy system).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
6.2.1
Demonstrate understanding of rules by following most
classroom routines.
6.1.P.A.1
6.2.2
Demonstrates responsibility by initiating simple classroom
tasks and jobs.
6.1.P.A.2
6.2.3
Demonstrate appropriate behavior when collaborating with
others.
6.1.P.A.3
Standard 6.3:
Children demonstrate knowledge of neighborhood and community.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Provide materials, literature, and activities that explore different types of homes (e.g.,
apartment buildings, motels, single-family houses, multi-family houses).
•
Involve children in first-hand experiences in their community (e.g., field trips in the
school or neighborhood) and discuss and involve children in mapping its physical features.
•
Invite visitors with community service roles into the class (e.g., business owner, nurse,
doctor, postmaster, firefighter, police officer, veterinarian, teacher, secretary.
•
Furnish learning centers with literature, activities, and materials for play based on
children’s experiences with their community (e.g., visit the supermarket then create a
classroom store; visit the school office then create a classroom office).
•
Involve children in discussions about the homes they live in and the different types of homes
in the community (e.g., by taking neighborhood walks).
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
6.3.1
Develop an awareness of the physical features of the
neighborhood/community.
6.1.P.B.1
6.3.2
Identify, discuss, and role-play the duties of a range of
community workers.
6.1.P.B.2
Standard 6.4:
Children develop an awareness of the cultures within their classroom and
their community.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Explore cultures represented in the classroom and community and integrate information
about these cultures into the daily curriculum as well as into classroom literature,
activities, and play materials.
•
Invite families and other community members to tell stories about and provide activities
(e.g., share foods, clothing, and traditions with teachers and peers) that engage children in
their cultures and traditions.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
6.4.1
Learn about and respect other cultures within the classroom and
community.
6.1.P.D.4
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WORLD LANGUAGES
Introduction
The diverse nature of our society necessitates that children develop an understanding of
languages other than their own. The world languages standard addresses this need by
describing what all preschool children should learn and what teachers should teach to
encourage awareness of different languages.
In preschool, children are just beginning to learn about language and how it works. Some of
their language learning will focus on the languages spoken in their homes, and some of this
learning will focus on the languages they encounter in their community. With the growing
number of young children in New Jersey who speak and understand different home languages,
preschool teachers and classrooms must be equipped to support children’s learning in more
than one language. Being bilingual can be an asset for all children. Teachers can integrate
words from languages other than English into the classroom through songs, daily routines, and
storybooks. Labels written in languages other than English can be used to identify items within
the classroom. Parents and community members who speak languages other than English can
be valuable resources in helping children both understand and respect the linguistic diversity
present in our culture, and they should be invited to share these languages with the children.
Special consideration must be given to preschool children who already know more than one
language. Materials should be available that represent and support the native languages and
cultures of the children and adults in the class. Teachers should understand that all languages
are learned in context as children interact with and explore their world. In addition, teachers
should plan opportunities to extend children’s language throughout the day and across all
content areas.
There is one preschool world languages standard:
Standard 7.1:
Children know that people use different languages (including sign
language) to communicate, and will express simple greetings, words, and
phrases in a language other than their own.
This standard is further elaborated in the sections that follow. For this standard, effective
preschool teaching practices are listed, followed by the preschool competencies that develop as
a result of those practices.
Standard 7.1:
Children know that people use different languages (including sign
language) to communicate, and will express simple greetings, words,
and phrases in a language other than their own.
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
89
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
•
Provide opportunities for children to hear simple greetings, words, or phrases in a language
other than their own (including sign language) in appropriate contexts (e.g., during dramatic
play, in stories, when greeting visitors).
•
Expose children to words or phrases in a language other than their own, particularly language
related to the following topics: family, friends, home, school, community, wellness, leisure
activities, basic needs, and animals.
•
Begin to expose children to language for topics that extend beyond the self, such as simple
geography and weather.
•
Provide conversations and stories in different languages using a variety of media (e.g.,
teachers, peers, visitors, songs, videos, computers).
•
Identify languages spoken by classmates, parents, or visitors and explain that people use
different languages.
•
Put written labels on some items in the room using various languages.
•
Use visual aids available in the classroom (e.g., props, pictures, and photos of daily routines)
to enhance comprehension of world languages.
•
Read and display children’s books in different languages.
•
Provide rhymes and songs for children in different languages.
•
Give simple commands or instructions in a language other than English.
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
7.1.1
Acknowledge that a language other than their own is being
spoken or used (e.g., in a story, rhyme, or song).
7.1.P.A.1
7.1.2
Say simple greetings, words, and phrases in a language other
than their own.
7.1.P.A.2
7.1.3
Comprehend previously learned simple vocabulary in a
language other than their own.
7.1.P.A.3
7.1.4
Communicate effectively with adults and/or classmates who
speak other languages by using gestures, pointing, or facial
expressions to augment oral language.
7.1.P.A.4
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TECHNOLOGY
Using Technology with Preschool-Age Children
Like blocks, books, and crayons, technology in a preschool classroom offers versatile learning
tools that can support children’s development in all domains. For example, there are electronic
storybooks that can “read” stories to children in multiple languages, adventure games that foster
problem-solving skills, story-making programs that encourage literacy and creativity, mathrelated games that help children count and classify, and science activities that promote inquiry
and an understanding of the world through the lens of a child. When preschoolers are encouraged
to work together with electronic devices and computers, social skills are tapped as children
negotiate turn-taking. However, technology should never be used to replace the concrete, reallife experiences that are critical to a young child’s learning; it must always be used in balance
with other meaningful activities and routines. Technology should be embedded into children’s
centers and should be used to enhance their learning and development during choice time as well
as during small-group experiences.
The number and type of developmentally appropriate technology-based play options for
preschool-age children are increasing on a daily basis. While some of these experiences involve
“traditional” desktop computers of the mouse-and keyboard-variety, others take new and
sometimes unexpected forms. They may include a toy that talks or responds to a child’s touch, an
electronic storybook, or a pen-like stylus that can, with a tap, read a word in a variety of
languages. There are game consoles that can convert a large screen into a gross-motor game or
easel, and a variety of technology-based tools that can enhance a child’s exploration or
representation, including audio recorders, digital cameras, TV microscopes, or video capture
devices.
By the end of preschool, children with technology experience can use pull-down menus to
launch programs, can negotiate menus and interfaces, and feel comfortable using computers,
digital cameras, smart toys, handheld devices, and game consoles for simulations, art projects,
creating stories, and looking up facts. The behaviors listed in the standards below are indicative
of these understandings and should never be used as a formal measure of a child’s knowledge. In
addition, because technology is continually evolving, it is important to use this list in principle
and add skills or concepts that reflect the state of the art.
There are five preschool standards for technology:
Standard 8.1:
Navigate simple on screen menus.
Standard 8.2:
Use electronic devices independently.
Standard 8.3:
Begin to use electronic devices to communicate.
Standard 8.4:
Use common technology vocabulary.
Standard 8.5:
Begin to use electronic devices to gain information.
These standards are further elaborated in the sections that follow. First, effective preschool
teaching practices that may apply to multiple standards are listed, followed by the preschool
competencies that develop as a result of those practices.
91
New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Teaching Practices
Effective preschool teachers:
•
Never formally “teach” technology skills and competencies. Instead, set the stage for
successful experimentation by providing the materials, introducing them, and being
available to lend support.
•
Let children pretend with the types of gadgets they see their parents using. Stock the
dramatic play area with a nonworking mouse and keyboard, cell phone, and/or electronic
music device.
•
Look for activities that give children ways to “accidentally succeed,” providing instant
feedback and fostering feelings of control. Avoid poorly designed interactive media
experiences with long stretches of uninterrupted animation or narration that might frustrate
children or cause them to lose interest.
•
Keep a camcorder or digital camera handy to capture and display children’s work.
•
Set the stage for highly social, active learning by choosing activities that encourage more
than one child to play together (e.g., place two to three chairs around computers, place
multiple headsets around electronic books, select logic and problem-solving activities that
children can work on together).
•
Offer technology options in each center of the room during choice and small-group times.
•
Model common technology vocabulary, such as email, Internet site, software, hardware,
computer, mouse, digital camera, and printer.
•
Encourage children to record their activities and projects using digital cameras.
•
Introduce new technology during circle time, prior to placing it in a center, and while
modeling how to care for the technological device.
•
Use strategies to teach children how to monitor their computer usage.
•
Mark the left mouse button with a sticker to help children know which button to press.
•
Research software, toys, and gadgets before buying by reading reviews, as you would with
any other classroom materials.
•
Use computers to conduct Internet searches for subjects of interest. Let children participate
in the process of coming up with search words, and allow them to see the results in ways
they can understand (e.g., as a set of images rather than as text).
•
Make technology accessible to all children, including English Language Learners, and use it
as an accommodation for an individual child with special needs. Assistive technologies can
take the form of low-tech, mid-tech, and high tech devices (e.g. visual schedule, touch
screens, single switch toys).
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Preschool Learning Outcomes
Standard 8.1:
Navigate simple on screen menus.
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
8.1.1
Use the mouse to negotiate a simple menu on the screen (e.g.,
to print a picture).
8.1.P.A.1
8.1.2
Navigate the basic functions of a browser, including how to
open or close windows and use the “back” key.
8.1.P.F.1
Standard 8.2:
Use electronic devices independently.
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
8.2.1
Identify the “power keys” (e.g., ENTER, spacebar) on a
keyboard.
8.1.P.A.3
8.2.2
Access materials on a disk, cassette tape, or DVD. Insert a disk,
cassette tape, CD-ROM, DVD, or other storage device and
press “play” and “stop.”
8.1.P.C.2
8.2.3
Turn smart toys on and/or off.
8.1.P.A.6
8.2.4
Recognize that the number keys are in a row on the top of the
keyboard.
8.1.P.A.4
8.2.5
Operate frequently used, high quality, interactive games or
activities in either screen or toy-based formats.
8.1.P.C.1
8.2.6
Use a digital camera to take a picture.
8.1.P.B.1
Standard 8.3:
Begin to use electronic devices to communicate.
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
8.3.1
Use electronic devices (e.g., computer) to type name and to
create stories with pictures and letters/words.
8.1.P.A.2
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New Jersey Department of Education
Standard 8.4:
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Use common technology vocabulary.
Children will:
Preschool
Number
8.4.1
Preschool Indicator
Use basic technology terms in conversations (e.g. digital
camera, battery, screen, computer, Internet, mouse, keyboard,
and printer).
Standard 8.5:
P-12 Database
Number
8.1.P.A.5
Begin to use electronic devices to gain information.
Children will:
Preschool
Number
Preschool Indicator
P-12 Database
Number
8.5.1
Use the Internet to explore and investigate questions with a
teacher’s support.
8.1.P.E.1
- 94 -
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The following standards informed our Approaches to Learning Standards:
Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: Minnesota’s Early Learning Standards. (2005).
Good Start Grow Smart: Approaches to Learning. South Carolina Early Learning Standards
for 3, 4 & 5 Year –Old Children. (Revised 2009).
Head Start Approaches to Learning (Domain 7).
Iowa Early Learning Standards. Approaches to Learning. pp. 61-66.
Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages 3 to 5. (Revised 2005)
New Jersey Birth to Three Early Learning Standards. (Draft 2012.)
Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood. (Revised 2009)
Rhode Island Early Learning Standards. (2003)
Organizations and Agencies
The American Academy of Pediatrics
141 Northwest Point Boulevard
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
http://www.aap.org/default.htm
Association Montessori
Internationale Koninginneweg 161
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
1075 CN Amsterdam
The Netherlands
http://www.montessori-ami.org
The Center for the Child Care Workforce
733 15th Street, NW Suite 1037
Washington, DC 20005-2112
http://www.ccw.org/index.html
The Center for Early Childhood Leadership, National-Louis University
6310 Capitol Drive
Wheeling, IL 60090
http://www2.nl.edu/twal/index.htm
Child Care Bureau
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
The Administration for Children and Families
Regional Office
26 Federal Plaza, Room 4114
New York, NY 10278
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/
Children’s Defense Fund
25 E Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
http://www.childrensdefense.org/
Children’s Resources International, Inc.
5039 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite One
Washington, DC 20008
http://www.childrensresources.org/
New Jersey Department of Education
Division of Early Childhood Education
P.O. Box 500
Trenton, NJ 08625-0500
http://www.state.nj.us/njded/ece/
The Future of Children
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
300 Second Street, Suite 200
Los Altos, CA 94022
http://www.futureofchildren.org
Generations United
122 C Street, NW Suite 820
Washington, DC 20001
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
http://www.gu.org/
National Association for the Education of Young Children
1509 16th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036-1426
http://www.naeyc.org
National Association for Family Child Care
5202 Pinemont Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84123
http://www.nafcc.org/
National Center for Early Development and Learning
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8185
http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~ncedl/
The National Child Care Information Center
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
The Administration for Children and Families
243 Church Street, NW 2nd Floor
Vienna, VA 22180
http://nccic.acf.hhs.gov/
National Head Start Association
1651 Prince Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
http://www.nhsa.org/
National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education
Office of Educational Research and Improvement
U.S. Department of Education
555 New Jersey Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20208
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/ECI/index.html
New Jersey Center for Professional Development for Early Care and Education
Kean University
East Campus, Room 204
1000 Morris Avenue
Union, NJ 07083
http://www.njpdc.org/pages/mainpage.html
New Jersey Department of Education
100 River View Plaza
P.O. Box 500, Trenton, NJ 08625-0500
http://www.state.nj.us/education/
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
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New Jersey Department of Education
2014 Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards
Washington, DC 20202-0498
http://www.ed.gov/
Urban Institute
2100 M Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
http://www.urban.org/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, DC 20201
http://www.hhs.gov/
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