SIOS Protection Suite for Linux MySQL Recovery Kit v8.3.0 Administration Guide

SIOS Protection Suite for Linux MySQL Recovery Kit v8.3.0 Administration Guide
SIOS Protection Suite for Linux
MySQL Recovery Kit
v8.3.0
Administration Guide
July 2014
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SteelEye® Technology, Inc.) and all unauthorized use and reproduction is prohibited. SIOS Technology
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Address correspondence to:
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Copyright © 2014
By SIOS Technology Corp.
San Mateo, CA U.S.A.
All rights reserved
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
MySQL Recovery Kit Documentation
1
1
SIOS Protection Suite Documentation
1
MySQL Documentation
1
Requirements
Kit Hardware and Software Requirements
1
1
Chapter 2: Configuration Considerations
3
Configuration Considerations for MySQL
3
Client Configuration Considerations
5
Configuration Requirements
5
Configuration Examples
6
Active - Standby Configuration
6
Active - Active Configuration
8
Multiple Database Server Environment
12
Using mysqld Groups with LifeKeeper
12
my.cnf File
12
mysqld_multi Commands
15
Using Network Attached Storage
15
Use the NAS Recovery Kit
15
Possible Error Message
15
MySQL 5.0
15
MySQL 5.5
16
Solution
Chapter 3: Installation
Installing/Configuring MySQL with LifeKeeper
16
20
20
LifeKeeper Configuration Tasks
20
Creating a MySQL Resource Hierarchy
21
Deleting a Resource Hierarchy
24
Extending Your Hierarchy
26
Unextending Your Hierarchy
30
Chapter 4: Administration
Testing Your Resource Hierarchy
33
33
Performing a Manual Switchover from the GUI
33
Performing a Manual Switchover from the GUI
33
Recovery Operations
33
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
34
Common Error Messages
34
MySQL Specific Error Messages
34
Chapter 1: Introduction
MySQL Recovery Kit Documentation
The SIOS Protection Suite for Linux MySQL Recovery Kit provides an easy way to add LifeKeeper
fault-resilient protection for MySQL resources and databases. This enables a failure on the primary database
server to be recovered on a designated backup server without significant lost time or human intervention.
SIOS Protection Suite Documentation
The following SPS product documentation is available from SIOS Technology Corp.:
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SPS for Linux Release Notes
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SPS for Linux Technical Documentation (also available from the Help menu within the
LifeKeeper GUI)
This documentation, along with documentation associated with optional LifeKeeper Recovery Kits, is
available on the SIOS Technical Documentation website.
MySQL Documentation
The following is a list of reference documents associated with the MySQL application and the MySQL
Recovery Kit:
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MySQL Reference Manual
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MySQL, Paul DuDois, New Riders Publishing, 2000, 2008
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My SQL & mSQL, Randy Jay Yarger, George Reese, and Tim King, O’Reilly &
Associates, Inc. 1999
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SQL in a Nutshell, Kevin Kline with Daniel Kline, Ph.D., O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.
2000, 2004, 2008
Requirements
Kit Hardware and Software Requirements
Before you can install and set up the recovery software, your server must meet certain hardware and software
requirements. You should refer to the SPS for Linux Installation Guide for specific instructions on how to
install or remove the LifeKeeper MySQL Recovery Kit.
Be sure that your configuration meets the following requirements:
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Kit Hardware and Software Requirements
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Servers. The Recovery Kit requires two or more LifeKeeper supported computers configured in
accordance with the requirements described in SPS for Linux Technical Documentation and the SPS
for Linux Release Notes.
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LifeKeeper software. You must install the same version of LifeKeeper software and any patches on
each server. Please refer to the SPS for Linux Technical Documentation and the SPS for Linux
Release Notes for specific LifeKeeper requirements.
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LifeKeeper IP Recovery Kit. This kit is required if remote clients will be accessing the MySQL
database. You must have the same version of this Recovery Kit on each server.
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IP network interface. Each server requires at least one Ethernet TCP/IP-supported network interface.
In order for IP switchover to work properly, user systems connected to the local network should
conform to standard TCP/IP specifications.
Note: Even though each server requires only a single network interface, you should use multiple
interfaces for a number of reasons: heterogeneous media requirements, throughput requirements,
elimination of single points of failure, network segmentation and so forth.
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TCP/IP software. Each server also requires the TCP/IP software.
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MySQL software. Each server must have the MySQL software installed and configured prior to
configuring LifeKeeper and the LifeKeeper MySQL Recovery Kit. The same version should be installed
on each server. Consult the SPS for Linux Release Notes or your sales representative for the latest
release compatibility and ordering information.
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Chapter 2: Configuration Considerations
This section contains definitions and examples of typical LifeKeeper MySQL configurations and information
you should consider before you start to configure MySQL.
Please refer to the Resource Hierarchies section of the SPS for Linux Technical Documentation for
instructions on configuring your LifeKeeper Core resource hierarchies.
Configuration Considerations for MySQL
Below are some specific considerations you need to think about concerning your LifeKeeper MySQL
environment.
To operate MySQL database services on the primary and backup servers, file systems and disk partitions
must be accessible from each server. Before you can begin configuring the MySQL Recovery Kit, be sure you
have completed the following preliminary steps and have tested/run the databases on each server. In the
instructions below, the user “mysql” refers to the operating system user that will start the MySQL server.
1. Install the MySQL server and client components on all servers. Be sure that all of the servers are
running the same version of the MySQL client and server components. The MySQL executables can
be located on a local or shared drive.
Note:If you use Red Hat Software Collections and need to export the X_SCLS environment variable in
order to run a specific version of MySQL with LifeKeeper, then set the X_SCLS environment variable
via /etc/default/LifeKeeper by adding the line X_SCLS=VERSION to the file (i.e. X_
SCLS=mysql55). This is typically only the case if you want to enable MySQL 5.5 which is included in
RHEL 5.10 (MySQL 5.0 is enabled as the default).
2. If mysqld is running on any of the servers on the socket and/or port where you wish to run the
LifeKeeper protected MySQL database server, stop each MySQL server using the mysqladmin
command.
3. Move the contents of the MySQL data directory to a shared location. By default, the MySQL data
directory is installed on a local drive. This location depends on the distribution mechanism. The binary
RPM installs the data directory at /var/lib/mysql. (Be sure that only the contents are moved and the
directory remains intact. This allows the MySQL database server to write logs in this directory, if
necessary. Make sure that the “mysql” user described in step 4 has permissions to write the logs to
this location.)
4. If the installation process did not create the Linux user “mysql”, create this user. For security reasons,
the MySQL server should not be run as “root.” (Refer to the MySQL Administration Guide for a full
discussion of the security issues.) Make sure that “mysql” is the only user with read/write permissions
in the database directories. The “mysql” user and group should be created on all servers. The user ID
and group ID must be the same on all servers.
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Configuration Considerations for MySQL
5. IMPORTANT: A server started by /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql cannot be under LifeKeeper protection. In
addition, the server can not use the same port number or socket as a server under LifeKeeper
protection.
6. It is recommended that the socket be written to the data directory on the shared disk. If the socket will
be written to a local disk, make sure the path exists on all LifeKeeper servers where your hierarchy will
exist. Make sure that the user “mysql” has permissions to write the socket to this location.
7. Start the MySQL server using the mysql daemon startup command appropriate for your
configuration. For configurations defining a single instance in the my.cnf file, use the command:
<start command> --user=mysql --socket=<socket> --port<port number>
--datadir=<path to the data directory> --log &
The <start command> for mysql versions 3.x is safe_mysqld, and the command for version 4.x is
mysqld_safe.
For configurations using the mysqld Group feature in the my.cnf file, use the command:
mysqld_multi start <group number>
The <group number> represents the numerical instance defined in the my.cnf file for the mysqld
Group. For more information on using mysqld groups with LifeKeeper, see: Using mysqld Groups with
LifeKeeper.
8. Create a MySQL database user named “mysql”. Give this user a password and grant the user
“shutdown” permissions. This only has to be done on one server. (Refer to the MySQL Administration
Guide for details on creating users and granting permissions).
9. Copy the sample my.cnf configuration file to the desired location (/etc or /<datadir>). This file contains
options for the database server and for client programs.
The file can be located in either the MySQL data directory or the /etc directory. The /etc/my.cnf file
contains global options. Place the my.cnf file in /etc if only one database will run on the machine at any
given time (i.e. an Active/Standby configuration) or if you are using the mysqld Group feature (see
Using mysqld Groups with LifeKeeper). If the file is located in /etc, you must copy it to each LifeKeeper
backup server. The my.cnf file in the data directory should contain server-specific options. For multiple
servers and Active/Active configurations, this file must be stored in the data directory for each
resource instance unless you are using the mysqld Group feature (see Using mysqld Groups with
LifeKeeper).
Note: The my.cnf file should not exist in both the /etc and /<datadir> locations if both copies will
contain server specific options. If a my.cnf file containing server specific options is located in /etc
along with a protected my.cnf file installed in the /<datadir> potential conflicts may result. Refer to the
MySQL documentation on configuring global settings and server specific options.
Add or edit the following entries:
a. In the “client” section of the file, specify the user and the password that should be used for connections.
[client]
user =clientuser
password =password
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Client Configuration Considerations
.
.
.
b. In the “mysqld” section of the file, specify the socket and port that should be used for connections, as
well as the pid-file location for the mysqld process. The user variable should specify the operating system user that will start the mysqld process.
[mysqld]
socket =/home1/test/mysql/mysql.sock
port =3307
pid-file =/home1/test/mysql/mysqld.pid
user =osuser
Note: Make sure this file is properly protected and owned by the user “mysql.”
Note: Once the MySQL hierarchy is created, if you need to change any of the information in the
my.cnf file, you must stop the mysql server instance by taking the hierarchy out-of-service (i.e.
the OSU state) before making changes. Note: The above example my.cnf configuration describes a single database instance mysqld. See Using mysqld Groups with LifeKeeper for configuration examples using mysqld groups.
Client Configuration Considerations
Following are some configuration considerations for MySQL database clients:
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If clients will connect from remote hosts, create an IP address under LifeKeeper to be used for client
connections.
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Clients must be configured to connect to the database server through a LifeKeeper-protected IP
address.
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If the clients will connect through a domain name instead, create an entry in each client’s hosts file for
the protected IP address, or configure the name in DNS. Test the protected IP address by pinging it
from all clients and all LifeKeeper servers in the cluster.
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Although each user can have a my.cnf file in the home directory of their machine, LifeKeeper only uses
the my.cnf file located in the /etc directory or the data directory. The my.cnf file stores the client
connection information (i.e. the port, socket identification, user and password).
Configuration Requirements
Each of the examples involves one or two database instances: databaseA and databaseB. The Database Tag
names are arbitrary names that describe these database instances to LifeKeeper. The word on and the
system identifier that follows provide clarification but are not required. The default tag name suggested by
LifeKeeper is mysql or mysql<group number> for configurations using mysqld Groups (see Using mysqld
Groups with LifeKeeper). To understand the configuration examples, keep these configuration requirements in
mind:
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Configuration Examples
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LifeKeeper hierarchy. When performing LifeKeeper administration, the primary hierarchy refers to the
hierarchy being built on the server you are administering. For the configuration diagrams, the
information entered in the first administration screen is from the perspective of Server 1. When a
second screen is shown, it refers to the hierarchy being built while administering the second server. In
the configuration examples, the second server is Server 2.
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Shared disk locked by one server. When you use LifeKeeper, one server reserves shared storage
resources that are under LifeKeeper protection for use. This is done using SCSI reservations. If the
shared device is a disk array, an entire LUN is reserved; if a shared device is a disk, then the entire
disk is reserved. This prevents inadvertent corruption of the data by other servers in the cluster. When
a server fails, the highest priority backup server breaks the old reservation and establishes its own
reservation, locking out all other servers.
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Data Directory on shared disk. In order for the LifeKeeper MySQL Recovery Kit to function properly,
the data directory (datadir) of the database instance must always be on a shared disk. The data
directory must be on a file system. The file system must be mountable from both the primary and
backup servers. The data directory (datadir) can also exist on replicated or network attached storage.
Configuration Examples
The examples in this section show how MySQL database instances can be configured. Each diagram shows
the relationship between the type of configuration and the MySQL parameters. Each configuration also
adheres to the configuration rules and requirements described in this documentation that ensure compatibility
between the MySQL configuration and the LifeKeeper software.
This section describes the configuration requirements and then provides these configuration examples:
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Active/Standby
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Active/Active
The examples in this section are only a sample of the configurations you can establish, but understanding
these configurations and adhering to the configuration rules will help you define and set up workable solutions
for your computing environment.
Configuration Requirements
Example 1 - Active/Standby Configuration
Example 2 - Active/Active Configuration
Active - Standby Configuration
This section provides an example of an active/standby configuration. In this configuration, Server 1 is
considered active because it has exclusive access to the database. Server 2 does other processing. If Server
1 fails, Server 2 gains access to the database, and LifeKeeper re-establishes the database operations.
Figure 1. Active/Standby Configuration, Example 1
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Active - Standby Configuration
Configuration Notes:
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Both servers use the MySQL data directory (which includes the database (databaseA)) on a shared
disk.
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The path to the MySQL data directory is the same on both servers.
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The my.cnf configuration file is located on a local disk in /etc.
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The MySQL executables are located on a local drive on each server in /usr/bin.
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Server 2 cannot access files and directories on the shared disk while Server 1 is active.
Creating a resource hierarchy on Server 1: Server:
Server1
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag
mysql-on-server1
Extending a resource hierarchy to Server 2:
Template Server:
Server1
Tag to Extend
mysql-on-server1
Target Server
Server2
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Active - Active Configuration
Target Priority:
10
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag
mysql-on-server2
Active - Active Configuration
An active/active configuration consists of two or more servers actively running a different database instance
with each serving as a backup for each other. The database instances must be on different shared physical
disks. For LifeKeeper configurations supporting multiple MySQL database instances (of the same or different
versions), SIOS recommends that the mysqld Group feature be used for versions of MySQL that support this
feature. For these configurations, the my.cnf configuration file will reside in /etc. For MySQL versions that do
not support the mysqld Group feature, the my.cnf configuration file must reside in the MySQL data directory
shared file system for each database instance (e.g. in Figure 2 below, /shr1/mysql and /shr2/mysql).
Figure 2. Active/Active Configuration, Example 2
Configuration Notes:
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Each server uses a different MySQL data directory (which includes the database instances (database
A and database B) on different shared disks
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The path to the MySQL data directory is different for each instance defined on the server.
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Active - Active Configuration
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The my.cnf configuration file is located in /etc and contains mysqld group sections for each database
instance. Each section defines a unique MySQL data directory, port and socket for that database
instance. The my.cnf configuration file must be kept in sync on all nodes in the cluster. For systems
running versions of MySQL that do not support mysqld Groups, the my.cnf configuration file for each of
the database instances is located on the shared drive in the data directory for the database
instance. Each configuration file defines a unique MySQL data directory, port and socket definition for
that database instance.
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The MySQL executables are located on a local drive on each server in /usr/bin.
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Initially, Server 1 runs databaseA and Server 2 runs databaseB. In a switchover situation, one server
can run both databases.
Creating the first resource hierarchy on Server 1:
Server:
Server1
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of my MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Extending the first resource hierarchy to Server 2:
Template Server:
Server1
Tag to Extend:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Target Server:
Server2
Target Priority:
10
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of my MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Creating the second resource hierarchy on Server 2:
Server:
Server2
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
Extending the second resource hierarchy to Server 1:
Template Server:
Server2
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Active - Active Configuration
Tag to Extend:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
Target Server:
Server1
Target Priority:
10
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /usr/bin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
Figure 3. Active/Active Configuration, Example 2
Configuration Notes:
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Each server uses a different MySQL data directory (which includes the database instances (database
A and database B) on different shared disks
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The path to the MySQL data directory is different for each database instance defined on the server.
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The my.cnf configuration file is located in /etc and contains mysqld group sections for each database
instance. Each section defines a unique MySQL data directory, port and socket for that database
instance. The my.cnf configuration file must be kept in sync on all nodes in the cluster. For systems
running versions of MySQL that do not support mysqld Groups, the my.cnf configuration file for each of
the database instances is located on the shared drive in the data directory for the database. Each
configuration file defines a unique MySQL data directory, port and socket definition for that database
instance.
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There is a copy of the MySQL executables on each of the shared disks that contains the data
directories.
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Active - Active Configuration
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Initially, Server 1 runs databaseA and Server 2 runs databaseB. In a switchover situation, one server
can run both database instances.
Creating the first resource hierarchy on Server 1:
Server:
Server1
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /shr1/mysqlbin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Extending the first resource hierarchy to Server 2:
Template Server:
Server1
Tag to Extend:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Target Server:
Server2
Target Priority:
10
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /shr1/mysqlbin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance1
Creating the second resource hierarchy on Server 2:
Server:
Server2
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /shr2/mysqlbin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
Extending the second resource hierarchy to Server 1:
Template Server:
Server2
Tag to Extend:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
Target Server:
Server1
Target Priority:
10
Directory of my.cnf File Location:
/etc
Directory of MySQL Executables Location: /shr2/mysqlbin
Database Tag:
mysql-shared.example.instance2
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Multiple Database Server Environment
Multiple Database Server Environment
Following are some configuration considerations if you have multiple MySQL database servers and
databases:
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If running active/active or muliple MySQL instances (of the same or different versions), please
consider using the mysqld Group feature if possible. SIOS recommends using mysqld Groups
(mysqld_multi) for multiple MySQL database server configurations.
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If running active/active or multiple instances of MySQL, do not mount a shared file system as
/var/lib/mysql. This causes unexpected shutdown of MySQL servers by the mysql startup command
(safe_mysqld or mysqld_safe).
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The my.cnf file must be stored in the data directory for each of the active/active or multiple servers if
not using the mysqld group feature. For configurations using mysqld Groups, the my.cnf file should be
stored in /etc and not in the data directory. For more information on LifeKeeper and the mysqld Group
feature, see Using mysqld Groups with LifeKeeper.
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Additional port numbers for MySQL must be specified in the /etc/services file.
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Each MySQL database server must be configured to run on a different port and access a different
socket file. These configuration options are specified in the my.cnf file in the data directory.
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Each server must be configured to access data from a different shared location (i.e. each server must
use a different data directory).
Using mysqld Groups with LifeKeeper
The MySQL Application Recovery Kit supports my.cnf files using the mysqld group feature managed via
mysqld_multi. This MySQL feature allows multiple MySQL instances to be easily configured via a single
my.cnf file (typically stored in /etc.) The kit now detects a my.cnf file using the mysqld group format and
prompts the administrator to select the number of the mysqld group to be protected. The choice list provided to
the administrator is determined by the group numbers defined in the my.cnf file minus any group numbers
already being protected by the kit. In general, it is easier to set up and control multiple MySQL instances using the mysqld group feature, and
SIOS recommends that this approach be used when setting up active/active or multiple instance
configurations.
my.cnf File
When using the mysqld group feature, the following are imperative:
a. A single my.cnf file should be used for defining mysqld groups for the database instances.
b. The my.cnf file should NOT be placed on shared storage.
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my.cnf File
c. An exact copy of the my.cnf file needs to exist on each cluster node (/etc/my.cnf is ideal).
d. Any changes made to the my.cnf file must be propagated to every node in the LifeKeeper cluster.
The recovery kit uses mysqld_multi commands when it detects the my.cnf file is using mysqld groups. Based
on this, you should be able to use mysqld_multi to test your MySQL instance before placing it under control of
LifeKeeper.
The following is a relatively complex my.cnf file using mysqld groups that describes two database instances
controlled by mysqld_multi. The mysqld_multi command (and the MySQL LifeKeeper recovery kit) gives
the administrator a lot of options on how things get set up. In the example below, [mysqld1] defines a
relatively simple MySQL instance that uses most of the default locations for various MySQL directives. The
second example [mysqld55] moves things around more. The comments will help describe what each
section is doing in terms of LifeKeeper's interaction with MySQL.
# The following client section defines which username/password combination
will be used for
# LifeKeeper connections. The username/password combination needs to be
defined in each MySQL
# Database instance that will be d escribed in this my.cnf file.
[client]
user = steeleye
password = password
# This next section describes the default version of mysqld and mysqldadmin
that mysqld_multi
# will use when processing mysqld_multi commands. The username/password combo
defines the
# MySQL account that mysqld_multi will use when working with the database
instances. This
# username and password combo needs to be d efined in each MySQL Database
instance that will be
# controlled by mysqld_multi. See how to set up the multi_admin account in the
MySQL Reference
# Manual, by issuing "mysqld_multi --example".
[mysqld_multi]
mysqld = /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin = /usr/bin/mysqladmin
user = multi_admin
password = password
# The next section defines the first of two MySQL Database instances in this
my.cnf file. Note
# that each section starts with a [mysqldNN] where NN is the mysqld group number (or instance).
# Each group name must have a number. There are a number of directives that
the LifeKeeper MySQL
# Recovery Kit will be looking for in these sections.
[mysqld1]
datadir = /s11/mysql-data5077 # Defines where the data files for the
instance will live. For
# LifeKeeper, this directory must be on LifeKeeper protected
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my.cnf File
# (shared or replicated) storage.
mysqld = /usr/bin/mysqld_safe # Defines specifically which mysqld command
will be used for
# starting the instance. This one is using the
# default mysqld_safe that came with the distribution.
socket=/s11/mysql-data5077/moe.socket # Defines the location of the socket for
this instance.
# If the socket is not on LifeKeeper protected storage, it
# needs to be defined in exactly the same place on each
# node in the cluster and be owned by the "user" defined # below.
port = 3307 # Each instance needs its own, unique TCP/IP port.
pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid # The pid-file can be on LifeKeeper protected or
# non-LifeKeeper protected storage.
log-error= /var/log/mysqld.log # Location of the MySQL error log for this
instance. Can be
# on LifeKeeper protected or non-LifeKeeper protected
# storage.
user = mysql # The Linux user name that will run the MySQL processes.
# The next section defines the more complicated of the two MySQL instances.
Instance "55" is not
# using the default MySQL that came with the Linux distribution as it is
using the 5.5.12 version
# of MySQL that was installed from source. The binaries for this version were
installed onto shared
# storage, and the binary directory is LifeKeeper protected.
[mysqld55]
datadir = /s11/mysql-data5512 # Same as above; this instance uses a different
data
# d irectory, and this directory is on LifeKeeper
# protected storage.
mysqld =/s11/mysql5512/bin/mysqld_safe # For this instance, a different version of mysqld_safe
# is used; the one that is included with 5.5.12.
socket=/s11/mysql-misc5512/larry.socket # This instance has the socket on
LifeKeeper protected
# storage, but not in the default location (datadir).
port = 3308 # This instance has a unique TCP/IP port as well.
pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld55.pid # This instance's pid-file is not on
LifeKeeper protected
# storage.
log-error = /var/log/mysqld55.log # This instance's log-error (error log) is
not on
# LifeKeeper protected storage.
log-bin = /s11/mysql-log5512/larry # The log-bin directive specifies where
the binary
# transaction logs are located for this instance.
# These logs must be on LifeKeeper protected storage
# (the recovery kit will enforce this). By default,
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mysqld_multi Commands
#
user
these logs are in the datadir.
= mysql # The Linux user name that will run the MySQL processes.
mysqld_multi Commands
For this example, issuing the mysql command
#
mysqld_multi start 1
would start the mysqld group 1 instance defined in my.cnf as [mysqld1], assuming all of the LifeKeeper
protected resources that it depends on were in service on one of the LifeKeeper nodes.
Issuing the mysql command
# mysqld_multi report 1
would report on the status of this instance (e.g. running or not running). Once this instance is running, creating
a resource for it in LifeKeeper should be easy.
To get more information on setting up a mysqld_multi style my.cnf file, issue the command
# mysqld_multi --example
Using Network Attached Storage
There are a couple of special considerations to take into account when configuring LifeKeeper to use an NFS
file server (Network Attached Storage) as cluster storage.
Use the NAS Recovery Kit
The optional Network Attached Storage (NAS) recovery kit is required when using an NFS server as a shared
storage array with LifeKeeper for Linux. Install the NAS recovery kit (and a license) on each cluster node.
See the NAS Recovery Kit documentation for more details.
Possible Error Message
When using Network Attached Storage (NAS) with MySQL, you may experience MySQL instances not
restarting following a failover due to a system crash. The MySQL error log should indicate the cause of the
error.
MySQL 5.0
110523 22:10:58 mysqld started
InnoDB: Unable to lock ./ibdata1, error: 11
InnoDB: Check that you do not already have another mysqld process
InnoDB: using the same InnoDB data or log files.
110523 22:10:58 InnoDB: Retrying to lock the first data file
InnoDB: Unable to lock ./ibdata1, error: 11
InnoDB: Check that you do not already have another mysqld process
InnoDB: using the same InnoDB data or log files.
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MySQL 5.5
MySQL 5.5
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
InnoDB: Unable to lock ./ibdata1, error: 11
InnoDB: Check that you do not already have another mysqld process
InnoDB: using the same InnoDB data or log files.
110524 10:52:20 InnoDB: Retrying to lock the first data file
InnoDB: Unable to lock ./ibdata1, error: 11
InnoDB: Check that you do not already have another mysqld process
InnoDB: using the same InnoDB data or log files.
This indicates that the MySQL mysqld process has set an NFS lock on the file "ibdata1" on the NFS file
system that is being controlled by LifeKeeper. The lock was not cleared by the system crash, so LifeKeeper is
unable to bring the MySQL instance back into service. MySQL thinks that some other process is using the
ibdata1 file.
Solution
To fix this, mount the NFS file system that will hold ibdata1 with the "nolock" NFS option before the File
System resource is created. By default, NFS allows file locks to be set. If the "nolock" option is used before
resource creation, LifeKeeper will pick up this option and use it each time it brings the file system resource in
service. Since LifeKeeper will be controlling access (from the cluster nodes) to the file system containing
ibdata1, the lock is not typically critical. The NFS mount options used during testing were
"rw,sync,tcp,nfsvers=3,nolock".
It is not necessary to use the "nolock" on other file systems used by the MySQL resource hierarchy such as
the file system where the MySQL binaries are located.
If the NAS File System resource has already been created without the "nolock" option set, use the following
procedure to change the mount option:
1. Using the LifeKeeper GUI, take the file system resource that needs to be changed out of service. This
can be done from the LifeKeeper GUI putting the pointer on the file system resource and doing a right
mouse click, and select Out of Service from the drop-down menu. This action may take parent
resources out of service as well.
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Solution
2. Confirm the Out of Service action and allow the process to complete.
3. Once the file system resource is out of service, you can put the pointer on the resource and do another
right mouse click, and from the drop-down menu select Change Mount Options.
4. In the popup window, add nolock to the line of options, and click Set Value. You will need to repeat
steps 3 and 4 for each node in the cluster.
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Solution
5. Bring the NAS File System resource back in service by doing a right mouse click, and selecting In
Service.
6. The File System resource's property panel should now reflect that "nolock" is one of the current mount
options.
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Solution
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Chapter 3: Installation
Installing/Configuring MySQL with LifeKeeper
LifeKeeper Configuration Tasks
You can perform the following configuration tasks from the LifeKeeper GUI. The following four tasks are
described in this section, as they are unique to a MySQL resource instance, and different for each Recovery
Kit.
l
Create a Resource Hierarchy. Creates an application resource hierarchy in your LifeKeeper cluster.
l
Delete a Resource Hierarchy. Deletes a resource hierarchy from all servers in your LifeKeeper cluster.
l
Extend a Resource Hierarchy. Extends a resource hierarchy from the primary server to a backup
server.
l
Unextend a Resource Hierarchy. Unextends (removes) a resource hierarchy from a single server in the
LifeKeeper cluster.
The following tasks are described in the Administration section within the SPS for Linux Technical
Documentation because they are common tasks with steps that are identical across all Recovery Kits.
l
Create a Resource Dependency. Creates a parent/child dependency between an existing resource
hierarchy and another resource instance and propagates the dependency changes to all applicable
servers in the cluster.
l
Delete a Resource Dependency. Deletes a resource dependency and propagates the dependency
changes to all applicable servers in the cluster.
l
In Service. Brings a resource hierarchy into service on a specific server.
l
Out of Service. Takes a resource hierarchy out of service on a specific server.
l
View/Edit Properties. View or edit the properties of a resource hierarchy on a specific server.
Note: Throughout the rest of this section, we explain how to configure your Recovery Kit by selecting certain
tasks from the Edit menu of the LifeKeeper GUI. You can also select each configuration task from the toolbar.
You can also right-click a global resource in the Resource Hierarchy Tree (left-hand pane) of the status
display window to display the same drop-down menu choices as the Edit menu.
You can also right-click a resource instance in the Resource Hierarchy Table (right-hand pane) of the status
display window to perform all the configuration tasks, except Creating a Resource Hierarchy, depending on
the state of the server and the particular resource.
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Creating a MySQL Resource Hierarchy
Creating a MySQL Resource Hierarchy
IMPORTANT:
In a LifeKeeper cluster environment where the MySQL data directory (datadir) files are on a shared disk,
you must make sure that the shared file system is mounted on the primary/template server. If the file
system resource is created first, the shared file system MUST be mounted on the same mount point on
each server. It is also important to remember that a working communication path (i.e. heartbeat) is required
before you can create your resource. The MySQL data directory can exist on shared, replicated or network
attached storage.
To create a resource instance from the primary server, you should complete the following steps:
1. From the LifeKeeper GUI menu, select Edit, then Server. From the drop-down menu, select Create
Resource Hierarchy.
If you wish to change a selection you have already entered or encounter an error message during any
step in the creation of your MySQL resource hierarchy, you will generally be able to back up and
change your selection or make corrections (assuming the Back button is enabled).
Important: The MySQL database server daemon (mysqld) for the MySQL instance you want to protect
must be running when you create the resource.
A dialog box will appear with a drop-down menu listing all recognized Recovery Kits installed within the
cluster. Select MySQL Database from the drop-down menu.
Click Next.
If you click the Cancel button at any time during the sequence of creating your hierarchy, LifeKeeper
will cancel the entire creation process.
2. Select the Switchback Type. This dictates how the MySQL instance will be switched back to this
server when it comes back into service after a failover to the backup server. You can choose
either intelligent or automatic. Intelligent switchback requires administrative intervention to switch
the instance back to the primary/original server. Automatic switchback means the switchback will
occur as soon as the primary server comes back on line and reestablishes LifeKeeper communication
paths.
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Creating a MySQL Resource Hierarchy
The switchback type can be changed later, if desired, from the General tab of the Resource
Properties dialog box.
Click Next.
3. Select the Server where you want to place the MySQL database instance (typically this is referred to
as the primary or template server). All the servers in your cluster are included in the drop-down menu.
Click Next to proceed to the next dialog box.
4. Select or enter the Location of my.cnf. This is the full path name (excluding the file name) where the
MySQL configuration file (my.cnf) is located.
Click Next to proceed to the next dialog box.
5. Select the Protection Instance Number if you have a mysqld_multi style my.cnf file. If you are using
a more traditional style my.cnf file, you will not see this screen.
6. Select or enter the Location of MySQL executables location. This is the full path name of the
binaries used to start and monitor the MySQL database server daemon.
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Creating a MySQL Resource Hierarchy
Note: At this point, LifeKeeper will validate that you have provided valid data to create your MySQL
resource hierarchy. If LifeKeeper detects a problem with either of this validation, an ERROR will
appear on the screen. If the directory paths are valid, but there are errors with the MySQL configuration
itself, you may pause to correct these errors and continue with the hierarchy creation.
Click Next to proceed to the next dialog box.
7. Select or enter the Database Tag. This is a tag name given to the MySQL hierarchy. You can select
the default or enter your own tag name.
When you click Create, the Create Resource Wizard will create your MySQL resource.
Note: The MySQL resource hierarchy should be created successfully at this point.
8. Another information box will appear explaining that you have successfully created an MySQL resource
hierarchy, and you must Extend that hierarchy to another server in your cluster in order to place it under
LifeKeeper protection.
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Deleting a Resource Hierarchy
When you click Continue, LifeKeeper will launch the Pre-Extend Wizard that is explained in the next
section.
If you click Cancel now, a dialog box will appear warning you that you will need to come back and
extend your MySQL resource hierarchy to another server at some other time to put it under LifeKeeper
protection.
9. Click Done to exit.
Deleting a Resource Hierarchy
To delete a resource hierarchy from all the servers in your LifeKeeper environment, complete the following
steps:
1. From the LifeKeeper GUI menu, select Edit, and then Resource. From the drop-down menu,
select Delete Resource Hierarchy.
2. Select the name of the Target Server where you will be deleting your MySQL resource hierarchy.
Note: If you selected the Delete Resource task by right-clicking from the right pane on an individual
resource instance, or from the left pane on a global resource where the resource is on only one server,
this dialog box will not appear.
Click Next.
3. Select the Hierarchy to Delete. Identify the resource hierarchy you wish to delete, and highlight it.
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Deleting a Resource Hierarchy
Note: If you selected the Delete Resource task by right-clicking from either the left pane on a global
resource or the right pane on an individual resource instance, this dialog will not appear.
Click Next.
4. An information box appears confirming your selection of the target server and the hierarchy you have
selected to delete.
Click Delete.
5. Another information box appears confirming that the MySQL resource was deleted successfully.
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Extending Your Hierarchy
6. Click Done to exit.
Extending Your Hierarchy
After you have created a hierarchy, you will want to extend that hierarchy to another server in the cluster.
There are three possible scenarios to extend your resource instance from the template server to a target
server. The first scenario is when you “Continue” from creating the resource into extending that resource to
another server. The second scenario is when you enter the Extend Resource Hierarchy task from the edit
menu as shown below. The third scenario is when you right-click on an unextended hierarchy in either the left
or right pane. Each scenario takes you through the same dialog boxes (with a few exceptions, which are
clearly detailed below).
1. If you are entering the Extend wizard from the LifeKeeper GUI menu, select Edit, then Resource.
From the drop-down menu, select Extend Resource Hierarchy. This will launch the Extend
Resource Hierarchy wizard.
2. The first dialog box to appear will ask you select the Template Server where your MySQL resource
hierarchy is currently in service. It is important to remember that the Template Server you select now
and the Tag to Extend that you select in the next dialog box represent an in service resource
hierarchy. An error message will appear if you select a resource tag that is not in service on the
template server you selected. The drop-down box in this dialog provides the names of all the servers in
your cluster.
Note: If you are entering the Extend Resource Hierarchy task immediately following the creation of a
MySQL resource hierarchy, this dialog box will not appear, since the wizard has already identified the
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Extending Your Hierarchy
template server in the create stage. This is also the case when you right-click either the MySQL
resource icon in the left pane or right-click on the MySQL resource box in the right pane the of the GUI
window and choose Extend Resource Hierarchy.
It should be noted that if you click Cancel at any time during the sequence of extending your hierarchy,
LifeKeeper will cancel the extension process to that particular server. However, if you have already
extended the resource to another server, that instance will continue to be in effect until you specifically
unextend it.
For example, let us say you have created your resource on Server 1 and extended that resource to
Server 2. In the middle of extending the same resource to Server 3, you change your mind and
click Cancel inside one of the dialog boxes. This will cancel only your action to extend the resource to
Server 3, not the extension you created to Server 2. If you want to remove Server 2 from this hierarchy,
you must unextend the resource from Server 2.
Click Next to proceed to the next dialog box.
3. Select the Tag to Extend. This is the name of the MySQL instance you wish to extend from the
template server to the target server. The wizard will list in the drop-down menu all the resources that
you have created on the template server, which you selected in the previous dialog box.
Note: Once again, if you are entering the Extend Resource Hierarchy task immediately following the
creation of a MySQL resource hierarchy, this dialog box will not appear, since the wizard has already
identified the tag name of your MySQL resource in the create stage. This is also the case when you
right-click either the MySQL resource icon in the left hand pane or on the MySQL resource box in the
right hand pane of the GUI window and choose Extend Resource Hierarchy.
Click Next.
4. Select the Target Server where you are extending your MySQL resource hierarchy. The drop-down
box provides the names of the servers in your cluster that are not already in the selected hierarchy.
Click Next.
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Extending Your Hierarchy
5. Select the Switchback Type. This dictates how the MySQL instance will be switched back to this
server when it comes back into service after a failover to the backup server. You can choose
either intelligent or automatic. Intelligent switchback requires administrative intervention to switch
the instance back to the primary/original server. Automatic switchback means the switchback will
occur as soon as the primary server comes back online and reestablishes LifeKeeper communication
paths.
The switchback type can be changed later, if desired, from the General tab of the Resource
Properties dialog box.
Click Next.
6. Select or enter a Template Priority. This is the priority for the MySQL hierarchy on the server where it
is currently in service. Any unused priority value from 1 to 999 is valid, where a lower number means a
higher priority (1=highest). The extend process will reject any priority for this hierarchy that is already in
use by another system. The default value is recommended. Note: This selection will appear only for
the initial extend of the hierarchy.
Click Next.
7. Select or enter the Target Priority. This is the priority for the new extended MySQL hierarchy relative
to equivalent hierarchies on other servers. Any unused priority value from 1 to 999 is valid, indicating a
server’s priority in the cascading failover sequence for the resource. A lower number means a higher priority (1=highest). Note that LifeKeeper assigns the number “1” to the server on which the hierarchy is
created by default. The priorities need not be consecutive, but no two servers can have the same priority for a given resource.
Click Next.
8. An information box will appear explaining that LifeKeeper has successfully checked your environment
and that all the requirements for extending this MySQL resource have been met. If there were some
requirements that had not been met, LifeKeeper would not allow you to select the Next button, and
the Back button would be enabled.
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Extending Your Hierarchy
If you click Back, you can make changes to your resource extension according to any error messages
that may appear in the information box.
If you click Cancel now, you will need to come back and extend your MySQL resource hierarchy to
another server at some other time to put it under LifeKeeper protection.
When you click Next, LifeKeeper will launch you into the Extend Resource Hierarchy configuration
task.
9. This dialog box is for information purposes only. You cannot change the Location of my.cnf that
appears in the box. The MySQL instance acquired the location information from its configuration file.
Click Next.
10. Select or enter the Location of MySQL executables.This is the full path name of the binaries used to
start and monitor the MySQL database server daemon.
Click Next.
11. Select or enter the Database Tag. This is a tag name given to the MySQL hierarchy. You can select
the default or enter your own tag name.
Click Extend.
12. An information box will appear verifying that the extension is being performed.
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Unextending Your Hierarchy
Click Next Server if you want to extend the same MySQL resource instance to another server in your
cluster. This will repeat the Extend Resource Hierarchy operation.
If you click Finish, LifeKeeper will verify that the extension of the MySQL resource was completed
successfully.
13. If you clicked Finish, the following screen appears.
14. Click Done in the last dialog box to exit.
Note: Be sure to test the functionality of the new instance on both servers.
Unextending Your Hierarchy
1. From the LifeKeeper GUI menu, select Edit, and Resource. From the drop-down menu,
select Unextend Resource Hierarchy.
2. Select the Target Server where you want to unextend the MySQL resource. It cannot be the server
where the MySQL resource is currently in service.
Note: If you selected the Unextend task by right-clicking from the right pane on an individual resource
instance, this dialog box will not appear.
Click Next.
3. Select the MySQL Hierarchy to Unextend.
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Unextending Your Hierarchy
Note: If you selected the Unextend task by right-clicking from either the left pane on a global resource
or the right pane on an individual resource instance, this dialog will not appear.
Click Next.
4. An information box appears confirming the target server and the MySQL resource hierarchy you have
chosen to unextend.
Click Unextend.
5. Another information box appears confirming that the MySQL resource was unextended successfully.
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Unextending Your Hierarchy
6. Click Done to exit.
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Chapter 4: Administration
Testing Your Resource Hierarchy
You can test your MySQL resource hierarchy by initiating a manual switchover. This will simulate a
failover of a resource instance from the primary server to the backup server.
Performing a Manual Switchover from the GUI
Performing a Manual Switchover from the GUI
You can test your MySQL resource hierarchy by initiating a manual switchover. This will simulate a failover of
a resource instance from the primary server to the backup server.
Performing a Manual Switchover from the GUI
You can initiate a manual switchover from the LifeKeeper GUI by selecting Edit, Resource and In Service
from the drop-down menu. For example, an In-Service request executed on a backup server causes the
application hierarchy to be placed in service on the backup server and taken out of service on the primary
server. At this point, the original backup server is now the primary server and original primary server has now
become the backup server.
If you execute the Out-of-Service request, the application is taken out of service without bringing it in service
on the other server.
LifeKeeper does not regulate or control internal operations such as rollbacks and backing up archives. Tape
archiving and restoration are the responsibility of the application administrator.
Recovery Operations
When the primary server fails, the MySQL Recovery Kit software performs the following tasks:
l
Mounts the file system(s) - shared or replicated - on the backup server
l
Starts the daemon processes related to MySQL
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Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
Common Error Messages
This section provides a list of messages that you may encounter while creating and extending an SPS
MySQL resource hierarchy or removing and restoring a resource. Where appropriate, it provides an additional
explanation of the cause of an error and necessary action to resolve the error condition.
Messages from other SPS components are also possible. In these cases, please refer to the Message
Catalog (located on our Technical Documentation site under “Search for an Error Code”) which provides a
listing of all error codes, including operational, administrative and GUI, that may be encountered while using
SIOS Protection Suite for Linux and, where appropriate, provides additional explanation of the cause of the
error code and necessary action to resolve the issue. This full listing may be searched for any error code
received, or you may go directly to one of the individual Message Catalogs for the appropriate SPS
component.
MySQL Specific Error Messages
Note: In the Error Message column, a word in quotations and all capital letters refers to the name of a resource
on the server (for example, “SERVER” might actually be a server named “Server1”).
Error
Number
Error Message
102001
Usage: “SCRIPT NAME” sysname dbvarname cnfpath exepath instance
102002
Usage: “SCRIPT NAME” cnfpath
102003
Usage: “SCRIPT NAME” exepath cnfpath
102004
Unable to obtain a valid value for the “socket” variable in “PATH”/my.cnf
Action: There must be an entry for the “socket” in the 'mysqld' section of the my.cnf
configuration file
102005
Unable to obtain a valid value for the “port” in “PATH”/my.cnf
Action: There must be an entry for the “port” in the 'mysqld' section of the my.cnf
configuration file
102006
Unable to obtain the data directory location "PATH"
Action: Please make sure that the database is running using the socket and port specified.
102007
Must specify the absolute path to the my.cnf configuration file
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MySQL Specific Error Messages
Error
Number
Error Message
102008
Must specify the absolute path to the MySQL executables
102009
The file my.cnf does not exist in the path specified
102010
The MySQL executables do not exist in the path specified
102011
LifeKeeper was unable to start the MySQL database server
102012
LifeKeeper successfully started the MySQL database server
102013
LifeKeeper was unable to stop the MySQL database server
102014
LifeKeeper successfully stopped the MySQL database server
102015
The port “PORT NUMBER” is in use on the target server “SERVER”
102016
The MySQL database server is not running on server “SERVER”
102017
Unable to open the configuration file “PATH”/my.cnf
102018
Unable to get the Data Directory information for resource "TAG" on server "SERVER"
102019
Unable to get the configuration file location information for resource "TAG" on server
"SERVER"
102020
Unable to get the executable location information for resource "TAG" on server "SERVER"
102021
The argument for the configuration file path is empty
102022
The argument for the executable path is empty
102023
The path “PATH” for directive "DIRECTIVE" is not on a shared filesystem
102024
Unable to get the information for resource "TAG" on system “SYSTEM”
102025
The MySQL data directory “DATADIR” is already under LifeKeeper protection
102026
The port variables in the file /etc/my.cnf on “SERVER1” and “SERVER2” do not match
102027
The socket variables in the file /etc/my.cnf on “SERVER1” and “SERVER2” do not match
102028
Unable to obtain a valid value for the “user” variable in “PATH”/my.cnf
Action: There must be a valid entry for the “user” variable in the 'client' section of the my.cnf
configuration file
102029
Unable to obtain a valid value for the “password“ variable in “PATH”/my.cnf
Action: There must be a valid entry for the “password” variable in the 'client' section of the
my.cnf configuration file
102030
The user variables in the file /etc/my.cnf on “SERVER1” and “SERVER2” do not match
102031
The password variables in the file /etc/my.cnf on “SERVER1” and “SERVER2” do not match
102032
Unable to obtain the pid file location
Action: There must be an entry for the “pid-file” variable in the ‘mysqld’ section of the my.cnf
configuration file
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MySQL Specific Error Messages
Error
Number
102033
Error Message
Unable to obtain a valid value for the "user" variable in “PATH”/my.cnf
Action: The OS user must be specified using the "user" variable in the 'mysqld' section of the
my.cnf configuration file
102034
WARNING: A my.cnf file exists at "PATH", which may override the values specified in the
file at "PATH"/my.cnf.
102035
The mysql system user "USER" does not exist on target server "SERVER"
102036
The mysql system user "USER" uids are different on target server "SERVER1" and template
server "SERVER2"
102037
The mysql system user "USER" gids are different on target server "SERVER1" and template
server "SERVER2"
102038
LifeKeeper was unable to stop the MySQL database server using a graceful shutdown.
Issuing kill for pid(s): "PROCESS ID LIST".
102039
LifeKeeper will ignore failed connection as possible max connections error, due to existence
of process pid "PROCESS ID".
102040
The mysql action for resource tag :TAG" returned: "COMMAND OUTPUT".
102041
LifeKeeper was unable to start the MySQL database server using the defaults-file option. Retrying with individual options.
102042
The LifeKeeper "ACTION" action detected the flag "FLAG", and will exit.
102043
END of "ACTION" action on due to a(n) "SIGNAL" signal.
102044
The file my.cnf does not exist in the stored path "PATH".
102045
"DIRECTIVE" path "PATH" is on a shared filesystem.
102046
Starting mysqld daemon with databases from "PATH".
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