Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations, 14th Annual Report, 2008

Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations, 14th Annual Report, 2008
ZERO – 14th Annual Report 2008
14 th Annual Report 2008
National Environmental Research Institute
Aarhus University
ZACKENBERG ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OPERATIONS
14th Annual Report 2008
AU
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Data sheet
Title: Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations
Subtitle: 14th Annual Report 2008
Editors: Lillian Magelund Jensen and Morten Rasch
Department: Department of Arctic Environment
Publisher: National Environmental Research Institute©
Aarhus University – Denmark
URL: http://www.neri.dk
Year of publication: 2009
Please cite as: Jensen, L.M. & Rasch, M. (eds.) 2009: Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations, 14th Annual
Report, 2008. National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark. 116 pp.
Reproduction permitted provided the source is explicitly acknowledged.
Layout and drawings: Tinna Christensen
Front cover photo: Charlotte Sigsgaard checking the climate station in Store Sødal, April 2008. Photo: Henrik
Spanggård.
Back cover photos: Students in action during the first on-site combined research project and student course at
Zackenberg, August/September 2008. The project focused on permafrost characteristics,
including temperature in upper permafrost, and did several drillings in the upper part of the
permafrost. Photos: Bo Elberling and Hanne H. Christiansen.
ISSN: 1397-4262
ISBN: 978-87-7073-124-9
Paper quality: Paper 80 g Cyclus offset
Printed by: Schultz Grafisk A/S
Number of pages: 116
Circulation: 800
Internet version: The report is available in electronic format (pdf) at Zackenberg’s website http://www.zackenberg.dk/Publications and at NERI’s website http://www.dmu.dk/pub/ZERO_09.pdf
Supplementary notes: This report is free of charge and may be ordered from
National Environmental Research Institute
Aarhus University
P. O. Box 358
Frederiksborgvej 399
DK-4000 Roskilde
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: +45 46301917 • Fax: +45 46301114
Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations (ZERO) is together with Nuuk Ecological Research
Operations (NERO) operated as a centre without walls with a number of Danish and Greenlandic institutions involved. The two programmes are gathered in the umbrella organization
Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM). The following institutions are involved in ZERO:
Asiaq - Greenland Survey: ClimateBasis programme
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland: GlacioBasis programme
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources: BioBasis and MarineBasis programmes
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University: GeoBasis, BioBasis and
MarineBasis programmes
University of Copenhagen: GeoBasis programme
The programmes are coordinated by a secretariat situated at National Environmental Research Institut, Aarhus University, and it is financed with contributions from:
The Danish Energy Agency
The Danish Environmental Protection Agency
The Government of Greenland
Private foundations
The participating institutions
Contents
Executive Summary 5
Charlotte Sigsgaard, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Michele Citterio, Niels Martin Schmidt, Mikael K. Sejr, Søren Rysgaard
and Morten Rasch
1
Introduction 9
Morten Rasch
2
ZACKENBERG BASIC: The ClimateBasis and GeoBasis programmes 12
Charlotte Sigsgaard, Kisser Thorsøe, Mikhail Mastepanov, Ann-Luise Andersen, Julie Maria Falk, Mikkel P.
Tamstorf, Birger Ulf Hansen, Lena Ström and Torben Røjle Christensen
3
ZACKENBERG BASIC: The GlacioBasis programme 36
Michele Citterio, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm and Robert S. Fausto
4
ZACKENBERG BASIC: The BioBasis programme 40
Jannik Hansen, Lars Holst Hansen, Martin Ulrich Christensen, Anders Michelsen and Niels Martin Schmidt
5
ZACKENBERG BASIC: The MarineBasis programme 66
Mikael K. Sejr, Søren Rysgaard, Ditte Marie Mikkelsen, Morten Hjorth, Egon R. Frandsen, Kunuk Lennert,
Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Peter Bondo Christensen and Paul Batty
6
Research projects 80
6.1 Climate change and glacier reaction in Zackenberg region 80
Wolfgang Schöner, Daniel Binder, Bernhard Hynek, Gernot Weyss, Jakob Abermann, Marc Olefs and
Ulrike Nickus
6.2 FERMAP: Effects of climate change on terrestrial and fresh-water ecosystems in Greenland.
Subproject “Description of glacial microbial communities” 81
Birgit Sattler, Michaela Panzenböck, Alexandre Anesio and Andreas Fritz
6.3 The sensitivity of polar permafrost landscapes to climate changes 83
Bo Elberling and Hanne H. Christiansen
6.4 CO2 and CH4 balance for a high arctic fen 84
Torbern Tagesson and Lena Ström
6.5 Establishment of GLORIA monitoring sites at Zackenberg 85
Siegrun Ertl, Christian Bay, Christian Lettner, Ditte Katrine Kristensen and Karl Reiter
6.6 Plant and soil responses in ecosystem manipulation experiments 88
Kristine Boesgaard, Kristina Mathiesen, Kristian Albert, Helge Ro-Poulsen, Niels Martin Schmidt and
Anders Michelsen
6.7 Return rates, mate fidelity and territory size of sanderlings Calidris alba in Zackenberg 89
Jeroen Reneerkens and Kirsten Grond
6.8 Satellite tracking of common eider 91
Anders Mosbech, Morten Bjerrum, Kasper Johansen and Christian Sonne
6.9 Impacts of musk oxen on the vegetation: foraging ecology and dispersal of nutrients 91
Ditte Katrine Kristensen
6.10 MANA Project 93
Philippe Bonnet and Kirsten Christoffersen
6.11 Breeding and foraging ecology of seabirds on Sandøen 2008 94
Carsten Egevang, Iain J. Stenhouse, Lars Maltha Rasmussen, Mikkel Willemoes Kristensen and Fernando
Ugarte
6.12 ­­Walrus studies on Sandøen 2008 97
Erik W. Born, Carsten Egevang, Fernando Ugarte, Lars Maltha Rasmussen and Mikkel Willemoes Kristensen
6.13 GeoArk: Coast, Man and Environment in Northeast Greenland 98
Bjarne Grønnow, Bjarne Holm Jacobsen, An-ne Birgitte Gotfredsen, Marianne Hardenberg, Hans Christian
Gulløv, Aart Kroon, Jørn Torp Petersen and Mikkel Sørensen
6.14 The battle of the climate – archaeological and historical investigations of the German
Wehrmacht weather stations in North-east Greenland, 1941-1944 98
Jens Fog Jensen
7
Disturbance in the study area 100
Jannik Hansen
8
Logistics 102
Henrik Spanggård Munch and Lillian Magelund Jensen
9
Personnel and visitors 103
Lillian Magelund Jensen, Henrik Spanggård Munch and Morten Rasch
10 Publications 107
Compiled by Lillian Magelund Jensen
11 References 111
Appendix 115
5
14th Annual Report, 2008
Executive Summary
Charlotte Sigsgaard, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Michele Citterio, Niels Martin Schmidt, Mikael K. Sejr,
Søren Rysgaard and Morten Rasch
Summary
2008 was a busy year at Zackenberg with a
field season from 13 March to 2 November,
81 scientists visiting the station and the
number of bed nights totalling 1712.
In May 2008, the book ‘High-Arctic Ecosystem Dynamics in a Changing Climate. Ten
years of monitoring and research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast Greenland.’
was published as Volume 40 in Advances
in Ecological Research (Elsevier, Academic
Press). The book was released at the conference ‘After the Melt’ at Aarhus University, Denmark, on 5 May.
In December 2008, a story about late
autumn methane emission from the tundra at Zackenberg (Mastepanov et al.
2008) was published in Nature (see section
10). This was the second publication of Zackenberg research in ‘Nature’, and it gave
plenty of public attention, including press
coverage in a large number of Danish and
International news media.
ClimateBasis and GeoBasis
Compared to earlier seasons, the field
season in 2008 was warm and wet and
characterized by a record high amount
of snow during winter and also a record
high amount of rain during summer. All
the summer months (June, July and August) and September had the highest mean
monthly temperatures since registration
began in 1996. Hence, the mean monthly
temperature of June beat the record of
2007 by 1.9 °C, whereas July and August
had mean monthly temperatures that
were respectively 1.0 °C and 0.3 °C higher
than previously seen. For the first time,
no freezing degree days were registered
during the summer. The maximum temperature of the summer was 18.4 °C (28
July), and the minimum temperature was
–35.3°C (6 March).
The total amount of precipitation during summer 2008 was 60 mm which was
only exceeded in 1997 and 1998. Most of
the rain (49 mm) fell in August during the
largest rain event that has been measured
so far. Also in September a large rain/
snow event took place and all together
the amount of rain in 2008 resembled the
amount in 1998 which is twice the average
amount (1996-2008) and almost five times
as much as what have been observed during the last five years.
The winter 2007/2008 was extraordinary in amounts of snow, with an early
first occurrence of a continuous layer of
snow and with a the long duration of
a snow cover above 1.2 m. Snow depth
was above 0.1 m from 26 October, and
the maximum snow depth measured was
1.3 m, which is similar to 1998/1999 and
2001/2002. However, while the maximum
snow depth in the preceding years only
lasted for a few days, the maximum snow
depth in 2008 lasted for a long period.
Snow melt started around 24 May and
was complete below the snow depth sensor mast on 25 June, resembling the very
fast snow melt in 2002. 2008 had, despite
the large amounts of snow at the end of
winter, a snow cover by 10 June of 72 %,
which is very close to the mean for the entire 1995-2008 period.
The thaw rate of the soil at the two active layer plot ZEROCALM-1 and ZEROCALM-2 showed a very fast thaw progression in July which levelled out after the
first week of August. The average active
layer depth at the end of the season for
both sites were among the deepest ever
measured.
In 2008, Zackenbergelven broke up on
7 June and water was running until 10
October. From late September, the river
started to freeze, and at the hydrometric
station there was ice below the sensor
from 24 September. The total amount of
water drained from the catchment from 8
6
14th Annual Report, 2008
June until 20 October was approximately
185 million m3 which is close to the average observed since 1996. During the 2008
summer season no floods were observed.
However, a large flood event took place
during the winter in Zackenbergelven on
26 November 2008 (long after the river
stopped running) and a fan of water
reached several km out on the fiord ice.
The large amount of water originated from
an outburst of a glacier-dammed lake in
the north-western part of the Zackenberg
drainage basin.
Two major peaks in sediment concentration were observed during the season.
The first one in early July during a period
of increased discharge, and the second and
highest peak with concentrations of up to
7,713 mg l-1 was measured during the rain
induced flood in late August. Unfortunately, the final discharge data were available at a very late stage this year. The total
transport of suspended sediment from
Zackenbergelven drainage basin to Young
Sund will therefore not be reported before
the next edition of the annual report.
The fjord ice off Zackenbergdalen broke
up 9 July and a few days later Young Sund
was ice free. New ice started to form in
early October covering most of Young
Sund by mid October.
In 2008, the flux measurements at the
heath-site were initiated 12 April and lasted
until the 27 October. In the early season
only very small CO2 fluxes were measured.
As the vegetation developed the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 started and by 6 July,
the ecosystem switched from a net source
of CO2 to a net sink of CO2. The period
with a net uptake lasted 48 days which is in
line with other snow rich years. The maximum uptake of CO2 (1.45 g C m-2 d-1) was
measured 21 July and is the highest daily
uptake ever measured at this site. Despite
the relatively short period, the total uptake of CO2 in this period was 36.4 g C m-2
which is the highest assimilation measured
since monitoring began in 2000. The net
emission in autumn was measured to be 6.6
g C m-2. This is not enough to balance the
uptake during summer, and for the entire
measuring season we end up with a total
accumulation of 30.4 g C m-2.
In 2008, the flux measurements in the
fen began 13 April and lasted until the 30
August. The net uptake period started 7
July - just one day later than at the heath
site - and lasted until 21 August. Maximum emission was measured 5 July (1.29
g C m-2 d-1). When measurements stopped
30 August emission rates were still relatively high. Both daily emissions and daily
uptake rates are much larger in the fen
than at the heath. The total CO2 uptake
during the net uptake period is measured
to be 100.2 g C m-2 which is about three
times the amount at the heath site. Both
sites are net sinks of CO2.
After the normal summer monitoring
of methane in 2007, the run of the methane station was continued for two more
months, September and October 2007.
After a gradual decrease in CH4 fluxes
during August an unexpected burst was
registered, peaking in the first quarter
of October, when the soil was freezing
in. Freeze-in emissions were much more
variable than summer emissions. Peak
emissions during the freeze-in period in
individual chambers reached levels of
112.5 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. The integral of CH4
emissions during the freeze-in period in
2007 amounts to approximately the same
as the methane emitted during the entire
summer season.
The 2008 monitoring season started as
soon as the snow melted enough to start
the chambers, i.e. 23 June. A very slow
increase of the fluxes progressed until the
end of July, when the emission level finally
met the values of previous years. One of
the possible explanations for such low
mid-seasonal fluxes may be a thinning of
a subsurface gas pool as a consequence
of the previous autumn squeezing burst;
suggesting that during 2009 a major part
of the CH4 production was used to regenerate this in-soil pool. The system was
successfully operated until a storm 25
August, when the site was flooded and the
instrument was damaged by sucked water.
GlacioBasis
The primary aim of the GlacioBasis monitoring programme at Zackenberg Research
Station is to produce a record of high quality glaciological observations from the A.P.
Olsen ice cap and its outlet glacier in the
Zackenbergelven drainage basin. This is of
great scientific interest given the scarceness
of glacier mass balance measurements from
glaciers and local ice caps in East Greenland, and given the strong impact that local
glaciers and ice caps outside the ice sheet
are expected to exert on sea level rise in the
present century. The first field campaign
7
14th Annual Report, 2008
was carried out in March-April 2008. Therefore, most results, including the first glacier
mass balance, will not be available before
the next field campaign, which is planned
to take place in May 2009.
During 2008, a network of ablation
stakes was setup on the glacier, and the
stake positions were determined by GPS
methods to allow estimation of the glacier
surface velocity field from repeated GPS
surveys. Snow depth has been measured
by ground penetrating radar (GPR), and
snow density profiles have been obtained
from snow pits. The winter balance gradient with elevation, for 2008 was 0.3 mm
(water equivalent m-1). To quantitatively
analyse and model the physical processes
governing surface melt, two automatic
weather stations (AWS) have been setup.
Satellite data telemetry from the main
AWS is producing an uninterrupted time
series, which shows that the station itself
is still fully functional. Remote sensing
imagery from the Terra/ASTER sensor
has been acquired on demand through the
GLIMS project throughout the 2008 summer season, but most scenes are affected
by severe cloud cover. Further acquisitions
have been scheduled for 2009.
BioBasis
Compared to previous years, the snow
melted a little later than average in the
permanent monitoring plots in 2008, and
this was reflected in a generally late flowering. However, some plots were earlier
than average for the previous seasons. The
dates of open seed capsules exhibited no
clear pattern, with some species being later than average, while others were earlier
than average. The total number of flowers
produced in 2008 was low, and with new
minima for several plots.
Vegetation greening (NDVI) inferred
from satellite images revealed that landscape NDVI was a little higher than
average for the previous years. In the
permanent plant plots (NDVI) culminated
relatively late in the season as compared
to previous years. The NDVI transects
showed that the vegetation peaked around
DOY 230 along the ZERO line, and on the
lowland transect the vegetation peaked
around DOY 208.
The CO2 flux measurements showed
that the ecosystem respiration in the Salix
dominated heath tended to be higher in
warmed than control plots, but warming
also lead to a stronger increase in Gross
Ecosystem Respiration, and the net carbon
balance was therefore generally affected
by warming. In Cassiope dominated heath
the pattern was less clear, and warming
seemingly did not affect the CO2 fluxes
here. CO2 fluxes in the UV-B exclusion
and filter controls showed that removal of
UV-B may promote Gross Ecosystem Production. Leaf fluorescence in the UV plots
showed only limited and non-significant
response to the exclusion of UV-B on the
performance of Salix arctica and Vaccinium
uliginosum leaves.
In July 2008, the international monitoring programme Global Observation Research
Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA)
was implemented at Zackenberg as an integrated part of the BioBasis programme.
In 2008, high numbers of arthropods
were caught in the window traps and the
pitfall traps. Numbers varied markedly
between arthropod species/groups, and
especially the Chironomids constituted
the bulk of the arthropods caught. Depredation on Dryas flowers by Sympistris
zetterstedtii larvae was higher than usual in
2008, and four of six plots had record high
depredation percentages.
The breeding bird census revealed
relatively high numbers of Sanderling and
Dunlin territories, whereas territories of
Ruddy turnstone were found in average
numbers. The number of Red knot territories was around the average for the previous seasons. Despite the relatively late
snow-melt, wader nest initiation in 2008
was around average or a little later, and
median first egg dates were also around
average in all four species. Wader nest
success, however, was extremely low, and
most nests were depredated. The number
of long-tailed skua territories was found in
near-average numbers, and with a median
nest initiation date around the average,
but with a nest success well below average. Average numbers of barnacle goose
broods were observed, and with a relatively high mean brood size early in the
season and low late in the season.
Collared lemming winter nest density
in 2008 was the third lowest recorded
so far. As in the last years, no nests were
found depredated by stoats. The pattern
of musk oxen occurrence in June through
August within the musk ox census area
resembled that of the previous years, but
the extended season showed that musk
8
14th Annual Report, 2008
oxen utilise the valley heavily far into the
autumn and also in the late winter. More
bulls than usual were observed in 2008,
whereas only very few calves were observed. Breeding by arctic foxes was verified in five dens. A minimum of 24 arctic
fox pups were registered in 2008. This is
the highest monitored number recorded so
far. Arctic hares were observed in intermediate numbers.
The two lakes monitored melted free
around the average for the previous seasons. The lake samples are still being processed, and the results will be reported in
the 2009 annual report.
MarineBasis
In Young Sund, the 2008 field season was
characterised by a long ice free season. The
ice in the fjord disappeared in early July
compared to late July in 2006 and 2007.
Reports from the Sirius Patrol indicate that
fast ice did not form until November, and
the ice-free period could thus approach
the record of 131 days from 2002. This will
be confirmed when data from the ice camera is retrieved in August, 2009.
The oceanographic mooring deployed in
2007 was checked in 2008. All instruments
had been working as planned providing
information on annual variability of temperature and salinity and the vertical flux of
particles. Temperature and salinity at two
depths showed the typical annual pattern
with most variability during the summer
and very constant conditions during the
winter. From 2007 to 2008 a small increase in
salinity was observed. The annual vertical
flux of particles was 207 g m-2 y-1 of which
3.2 g were organic carbon. The distribution
of salinity, temperature and fluorescence in
the fjord during the field campaign reflected
the calm conditions. The surface water was
well stratified and the surface water was
warm compared to previous years with an
average at the main station of 4.1 °C (0-5 m
depth) and a maximum of 9.1 °C. Nutrient
conditions also reflected the calm conditions
with very low concentrations in the photic
zone due to uptake by phytoplankton.
In the water column the zooplankton
community has showed a trend of increasing relative abundance of the Atlantic
copepod Calanus finmarchicus compared
to the Arctic species C. hyperboreus. This
trend continued in 2008 with a ratio of
1.6 C. hyperboreus to every C. finmarchicus.
In 2003 this ratio was 56:1. In the benthic
community an increase in abundance of
the bivalve Propeamussium groenlandicus
has occurred since 2003 with maximum
abundance observed in 2008 (total of 182
specimens). Since 2006, the spatial variation in the surface water content of CO2
(partial pressure, pCO2) has been conducted. The data show significant variation within the fjord but also between
years. However, the general trend is that
the surface water is under saturated with
CO2 and therefore takes up atmospheric
CO2. This under-saturation tends to be
most pronounced at the glacial input in
Tyrolerfjord. In March 2008 it was possible
to supplement with measurements of CO2
during the winter campaign of the ISICaB
project. Results from the winter showed a
small flux of CO2 from the sea ice to the atmosphere. The flux to the atmosphere increased during the production of new ice
during field experiments. But, the major
flux during ice formation is through brine
rejection into the water column resulting
in sea ice that - when melting - is highly
under saturated with CO2. Thus formation and melting of sea ice seem to play an
important role for the air-sea flux of CO2
in addition to the biological processes. Although based on very poor seasonal data,
the best available estimate is an annual
uptake of 1.5 to 2 mol CO2 m-2 in Young
Sund. This is high compared to global estimated suggesting the influence of the sea
ice to be significant.
Research projects
A total of 14 research projects were carried out at Zackenberg Research Station
in 2008. Of these, five projects were part
of the Zackenberg Basic monitoring. Nine
projects used Zackenberg Research Station
as a base and five projects used Daneborg
as a base.
9
14th Annual Report, 2008
1 Introduction
Morten Rasch
Despite the fact that we finished the extension and restoration of Zackenberg Research Station in 2007, we still experienced
a very busy season at Zackenberg in 2008,
mainly due to increased research activities
as a result of extended funding to polar
research during the International Polar
Year. The field season started on 13 March
and lasted until 2 November. In total 81
scientists visited the station during that
period (as compared to 31 in 2005, 33 in
2006 and 48 in 2007) and the total number
of bed nights at Zackenberg was 1712 (as
compared to 1,091 in 2005, 1,694 in 2006
and 1,684 in 2007).
Major highlights during the 2008 field
season were: (i) The publication of the
book ‘High Arctic Ecosystem Dynamics in
a Changing Climate. Ten years of monitoring
and research at Zackenberg Research Station,
Northeast Greenland.’ in May, (ii) the start
up of the new GlacioBasis programme in
May, (iii) a visit to the station in August
by a delegation from the Greenland Home
Rule, Aage V. Jensen Charity Foundation, the Danish Ministry of Environment
and the Danish Ministry of Climate and
Energy; and (iv) the publication in the December in ‘Nature’ of an article based on
monitoring data from Zackenberg.
1.1 Closing of Danish Polar
Center
In 2008 it was finally decided to close Danish Polar Center. For this reason it was
necessary to find another institution to
house the Zackenberg Research Station
Secretariat and the Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations Secretariat. The
National Environmental Research Institute
at Aarhus University offered to accommodate the secretariats together with the
Nuuk Ecological Research Operations
Secretariat, and in late 2008 an agreement
was made between the National Environmental Research Institute at Aarhus Uni-
versity and the Danish Agency for Science,
Technology and Innovation concerning the
future run and financing of Zackenberg
Research Station. This made it possible
to close the Zackenberg Research Station
Secretariat at Danish Polar Center by 31
December 2008 and to open it at the National Environmental Research Institute at
Aarhus University on 1 January 2009.
1.2 International Polar Year
The International Polar Year (IPY) started
on 1 March 2007 and will continue until 28
February 2009. For Zackenberg Research
Station, IPY resulted in increased research
activity at the station (more Danish and
International research projects due to
increased funding opportunities) in both
2007 and 2008, and an extension of the
field season in the same years (see section
1.7).
1.3 Nuuk Basic
Nuuk Basic, the West Greenland low arctic
equivalent to Zackenberg Basic, was initiated in 2005 (MarineBasis programme)
and in 2007 (ClimateBasis, GeoBasis and
BioBasis programmes). Nuuk Basic is now
more or less fully implemented. A summary of the 2008 Nuuk Basic field season, including results from the sub-programmes,
has been published in Nuuk Ecological
Research Operations, 2nd Annual Report
(Jensen and Rasch 2009).
In 2008 it was decided by the Danish
Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, Helge Sander, to establish a Climate Research Centre at Greenland Institute of Natural Resources in Nuuk. In the
Terms of References for this new centre,
it is stated that the Centre shall establish
cooperation with the existing research/
monitoring activities at Zackenberg and in
Nuuk.
10
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 1.1 In 2008,
Greenland Ecosystem
Monitoring (GEM), was
established as an umbrella
organisation encompassing Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations
(ZERO) and Nuuk Ecological Research Operations
(NERO).
1.4 Greenland Ecosystem
Monitoring
In 2008 Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring
(GEM) was initiated, mainly as an umbrella organisation for Zackenberg Ecological
Research Operations and Nuuk Ecological
Research Operations (figure 1.1). A Terms
of References for GEM was completed in
2008 in cooperation between the different
partners in the GEM cooperation, and in
late 2008 a steering committee and a coordination group was established.
Figure 1.2 The book ‘HighArctic Ecosystem Dynamics
in a Changing Climate. Ten
years of monitoring and
research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast
Greenland’ summarises the
results from ten years of
monitoring and research
at Zackenberg Research
Station.
1.5 ‘High-Arctic Ecosystem
Dynamics in a Changing
Climate’
The book ‘High-Arctic Ecosystem Dynamics
in a Changing Climate. Ten years of monitoring and research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast Greenland’ (figure 1.2) was
published in May
as Volume 40 in
Advances in Ecological Research
(published by Elsevier, Academic
Press). The final
publication
ended a long
cooperation
between 63
Zackenberg
scientists on
writing the
21 chapters for
the book.
The book was released at the conference
‘After the Melt’ at Aarhus University on 5
May, and the publication was celebrated
at a reception in Aarhus on 5 May and at
a more formal celebration and banquet at
Danish Polar Center in Copenhagen on 22
November. After the publication, three of
the editors have decided to also synthesize the results from the first ten years of
monitoring and research at Zackenberg
in a Danish book with the general public as target group. This book is planned
for publication in late 2009 – just before
United Nations Climate Conference in Copenhagen (COP15).
1.6 Extended field season
In 2008, IPY means made it possible to extend the field season at Zackenberg. The
field season started on 13 March, when
two logisticians and four scientists arrived
at the station (figure 1.3), and it continued
until 2 November 2008, when the last four
scientists left the station together with a
logistician from Danish Polar Center. It
is our hope to be able to continue with
extended field seasons at Zackenberg.
The extended ‘spring’ season is important
for our monitoring of especially ecosystem dynamics related to snow cover
and depth, and it is mandatory for the
accomplishment of our newly established
GlacioBasis programme. The extended
‘autumn’ season is important, mainly
because it seems that carbon exchange during this season might have a significant
but unknown effect on the overall carbon
budget.
1.7 Zackenberg in ‘Nature’
In December 2008 a story about late autumn methane emission from the tundra at
Zackenberg (Mastepanov et al. 2008) was
published in ‘Nature’ (see section 10). This
was the second publication of Zackenberg
research in Nature, and it gave a lot of public attention, including press coverage in a
large number of Danish and International
news media. The paper demonstrates the
need for research in the Arctic beyond the
summer period, to which field work traditionally has been confined.
11
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 1.3 The Twin Otter
arriving at Zackenberg
in March 2008 with the
first team of scientists and
logistics. Photo: Henrik
Spanggård Munch.
1.8 Plans for the 2009 field
season
In 2009 it is also our plan to have an extended field season at Zackenberg, starting
at around 1 May and ending at around 1
November. Many Danish and International projects have already booked their stay
at the station, and it is our impression that
2009 will be as busy as 2008.
In 2009, Denmark will host United
Nations Climate Change Conference
(COP15), and we expect to contribute with
different public outreach activities in relation to the conference.
1.9 Further information
Further information about Zackenberg Research Station and the work at Zackenberg
are collected in previous annual reports
(Meltofte and Thing 1996, 1997; Meltofte
and Rasch 1998; Rasch 1999; Canning and
Rasch 2000, 2001, 2002; Rasch and Canning 2003, 2004, 2005; Klitgaard et al. 2006,
2007; Klitgaard and Rasch 2008), and in
2008 in a newly published book about the
first ten years of monitoring and research
at Zackenberg (Meltofte et al. 2008).
Much more information is available at
Zackenberg’s website, www.zackenberg.
dk, including the ZERO Site Manual,
manuals for the different monitoring programmes, a database with data from the
monitoring, up-to-date weather information, a Zackenberg bibliography and an
extensive collection of public outreach
papers in PDF-format.
The Zackenberg Research Station address is:
The Zackenberg Research Station Secretariat
National Environmental Research Institute
Aarhus University
P.O. Box 358
Frederiksborgvej 399
DK-4000 Roskilde
Phone: +45 46301917
Cell: +45 23227109
Fax: +45 46301114
E-mail: [email protected]
12
14th Annual Report, 2008
2 ZACKENBERG BASIC
The ClimateBasis and GeoBasis programmes
Charlotte Sigsgaard, Kisser Thorsøe, Mikhail Mastepanov, Ann-Luise Andersen, Julie Maria
Falk, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Birger Ulf Hansen, Lena Ström and Torben Røjle Christensen
ClimateBasis and GeoBasis provide long
term data of climate, hydrology and physical landscape variables describing the environment at Zackenberg. ClimateBasis is run
by Asiaq - Greenland Survey, operating and
maintaining the climate station and the hydrometric station. ClimateBasis is funded
Figure 2.1 Map of ClimateBasis and GeoBasis plots.
The climate station is
marked by an asterisk.
H = Hydrometric station.
Rectangles = Eddy towers.
Circles = Snow and micrometeorological stations.
Triangles = Water sampling
sites. N = Nansenblokken.
Crosses = Soil water sites.
Squares = TinyTag temperature sites. Open square =
Methane site.
by the Greenland Home Rule. GeoBasis is
operated by the Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research
Institute, Aarhus University, in collaboration with Department of Geography and
Geology, University of Copenhagen. In
2008, GeoBasis was funded by the Danish
13
14th Annual Report, 2008
Environmental Protection Agency as part
of the environmental support programme
DANCEA – Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic. However, during
winter the responsibility for the contract
has now been transferred to the Danish
Ministry for Climate and Energy.
The monitoring of the two programmes includes climatic measurements, seasonal and spatial variations in snow cover
and local microclimate in the Zackenberg
area, the water balance of the river Zackenbergelven, the sediment, solute and
organic matter yield of Zackenbergelven,
carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)
fluxes from a well drained heath area and
a fen area, the seasonal development of
the active layer, temperature conditions
and soil water chemistry in the active
layer, and the dynamics of selected coastal
and peri-glacial landscape elements (figure 2.1).
More details about the GeoBasis programme, i.e. sampling procedures, instrumentation, locations and installations, are
given in the GeoBasis Manual which can be
downloaded from www.zackenberg.dk. All
validated data from the Zackenberg Basic
monitoring programme are also accessible
from this website or can be ordered from
Asiaq (ClimateBasis, [email protected]) and the
Department of Geography and Geology
(GeoBasis, [email protected]), respectively.
This section reports the 2008 field
season of the ClimateBasis and GeoBasis
programmes along with the findings of
the IPY project The influence of snow and ice
on the winter functioning and annual carbon
balance of a high-arctic ecosystem (ISICaB
– an externally funded project – allowing us to keep Zackenberg open for an
extended season from March to October
2008) that are closely related to the GeoBasis programme. Remaining results from
the ISICaB project are reported in section 4
(BioBasis), 5 (MarineBasis) and 6 (Research
projects). In 2008, the field season started
13 March and lasted until 2 November.
2.1 Meteorological data
The meteorological station at Zackenberg was installed during summer 1995.
Technical specifications for the station
are described in Meltofte and Thing
(1996). Once a year the sensors are calibrated and checked by technicians from
Asiaq - Greenland Survey. In the sum-
mer 2005 a satellite modem was installed
on the eastern mast from which data are
transferred once a day. Selected up-todate weather parameters can be viewed
on www.zackenberg.dk/Weather.
In this section data from 2008 are presented. Data from the period 1 November
to 31 December 2008 are only from the
eastern mast, and accordingly the validation is provisional. Some parameters
are only measured at the western mast
(e.g. precipitation) and they will not be
presented before the next annual report.
The provisional climate data presented in
the13th Annual Report, covering the period
29 October to 31 December 2007, are reevaluated in this report.
In 2008, the annual mean air temperature measured 2 m above terrain
was –8.1°C, the maximum temperature
was 18.4°C (28 July), and the minimum
temperature was –35.3°C (6 March) (table
2.1). The summer was extremely warm
compared to earlier years and all summer
months had significantly higher mean
air temperatures than registered before
(figure 2.3 and table 2.3). September was
the warmest measured so far and the period with frequent temperatures above
0°C lasted until 22 September. The sum
of positive degree days shows that the
summer 2008 has been by far the warmest
measured and for the first time no freezing
degree days were registered during the
summer months; June, July and August
(table 2.2). On 31 October a Föhn-wind
occurred with change in wind direction,
increase in air temperature and a rapid
decrease in relative humidity. From 8:00
to 10:00 the temperature increased from
-8.4°C to +10.8°C and the relative humidity dropped from 80% to 30%.
The annual mean relative humidity was
72%, and the relative humidity was highest
during August and September (figure 2.2).
The annual mean air pressure was 1008 hPa
and generally more stable during summer
than winter. Monthly mean net radiation
was positive from May to August and
negative for the rest of the year (table 2.3).
Annual mean wind speed 7.5 m above
the ground was 3.5 m s-1 and highest 10
minute mean value was 28.9 m s-1 (28
February). The wind speeds are generally
higher during winter than summer (table
2.4). The annual wind statistic for 2008 is
in good agreement with the years 1997
to 2007. In 2008, the winds were coming
from N and NNW 38% of the time, mainly
14
1025
1000
975
Relative humidity Air temperature
(%)
(°C)
0
500
400
300
200
100
0
–100
Wind speed
(m s–1)
Outg. SW rad.
(W m–2)
Inc. SW rad.
(W m–2)
Snow depth
(m)
1.2
Net radiation
(W m–2)
Air pressure
(hPa)
20
10
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
100
80
60
40
20
0
1050
0.8
Wind direction
(degree)
Figure 2.2 Variation of selected climate parameters
during 2007 and 2008.
From above: Air temperature, relative humidity, air
pressure, snow depth, net
radiation, incoming short
wave radiation, outgoing
short wave radiation, wind
speed and wind direction.
Wind speed and direction
are measured 7.5 m above
terrain; the remaining parameters are measured 2
m above terrain. Data from
1 November to 31 December 2008 are preliminary,
i.e. not validated.
14th Annual Report, 2008
0.4
800
600
400
200
0
800
600
400
200
0
30
20
10
0
360
270
180
90
0
1 Jan
2007
1 Apr
2007
1 July
2007
1 Oct
2007
during the winter period, and from ESE
to SSE 21% of the time, mainly during the
summer period (tables 2.3 and 2.5).
The total amount of precipitation during summer was 60 mm which is only
exceeded by 1997 and 1998 (table 2.3).
Most of the rain (49 mm) fell in August
during one major rain event lasting from
23 August 02:00 until 26 August 02:00. It
is the heaviest rain event that has been
measured so far. Also in September a large
rain/snow event took place. During the
period from 17 to 20 September precipitation corresponding to 37 mm water was
measured at the climate station. Typically,
the precipitation in September will fall as
snow, but this year September was warmer than usual (figure 2.3 and table 2.3) with
a mean monthly air temperature (MMAT)
1 Nov
2007
1 Apr
2008
1 July
2008
1 Oct
2008
above 0°C. Similar events have only been
observed in 2002 and 2003 (figure 2.3). In
total the amount of rain in 2008 resembled
the amount in 1998 which is twice the
average amount and almost five times as
much as what have been observed during
the last 5-6 years.
2.2 Climate gradients, snow,
ice and permafrost
In order to increase the spatial resolution
of meteorological data and to look at gradients (both altitudinal and coast/inland),
several smaller weather station have been
installed in the area. In 2003, the stations
M2 and M3 were installed (figure 2.1)
(Rasch and Caning 2004) and in 2006, the
15
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.1 Annual mean, maximum and minimum values of climate parameters from 1996 to 2008. Data for 2008 are preliminary. Some of the
figures differ from earlier publications due to re-evaluation of data. *Validated data only available until 1 November 2008.
Annual mean values
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2008
Air temperature, 2 m above terrain (°C)
–9.0 –10.1 –9.7
–9.5 –10.0 –9.7
Air temperature, 7.5 m above terrain (°C)
–8.4
–9.3
–9.1
–8.9
–9.4
67
68
73
70
70
Relative air humidity 2 m above terrain (%)
Air Pressure (hPa)
–8.6
–9.2
–8.5
–7.7
–8.1
–8.7
–8.1
–9.2
–
–8.7
–7.9
–6.9
–7.6
–8.2
–6.5*
71
72
71
72
71
72
69
72
1009 1007 1010 1006 1008 1009 1009 1008 1007 1008 1007 1006
1008
Incoming shortwave radiation (W m )
113
104
101
100
107
112
105
104
99
101
107
107
107
Outgoing shortwave radiation (W m–2)
52
56
55
56
52
56
54
49
42
43
54
45
52
–2
Net Radiation (W m )
16
9
6
4
14
13
–
8
–
–
10
13
8
Wind Velocity, 2 m above terrain (m s–1)
2.7
3.0
2.6
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.8
2.6
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.9
Wind Velocity, 7.5 m above terrain (m s–1)
3.1
3.4
3.2
3.7
3.3
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.2
3.5
Precipitation (mm w.eq.), total
223
307
255
161
176
236
174
263
253
254
171
209
161*
Air temperature, 2 m above terrain (°C)
16.6
21.3
13.8
15.2
19.1
12.6
14.9
16.7
19.1
21.8
22.9
16.4
18.4
Air temperature, 7.5 m above terrain (°C)
15.9
21.1
13.6
14.6
18.8
12.4
–
16.7
18.5
21.6
22.1
15.6
18.2*
99
99
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
99
99
99
–2
Annual maximum values
Relative air humidity 2 m above terrain (%)
Air Pressure (hPa)
99
1042 1035 1036 1035 1036 1043 1038 1038 1033 1038 1038 1037
1043
Incoming shortwave radiation (W m–2)
857
864
833
889
810
818
920
802
795
778
833
769
747
Outgoing shortwave radiation (W m )
683
566
632
603
581
620
741
549
698
629
684
547
563
Net Radiation (W m–2)
609
634
556
471
627
602
–
580
–
–
538
469
565
Wind Velocity, 2 m above terrain (m s )
20.2
22.6
25.6
19.3
25.6
20.6
21.6
20.6
22.2
19.9
20.8
27.6
24.5
Wind Velocity, 7.5 m above terrain (m s–1)
23.1
26.2
29.5
22.0
23.5
25.0
25.4
23.3
25.6
22.0
22.8
29.6
28.9
–2
–1
Annual minimum values
Air temperature, 2 m above terrain (°C)
–33.7 –36.2 –38.9 –36.3 –36.7 –35.1 –37.7 –34.0 –34.0 –29.4 –38.7 –33.9 –35.3
Air temperature, 7.5 m above terrain (°C)
–31.9 –34.6 –37.1 –34.4 –34.1 –33.0
–
–32
–32.1 –27.9 –37.2 –32.5 –33.9*
Relative air humidity 2 m above terrain (%)
20
18
31
30
19
22
23
21
17
22
21
18
24
Air Pressure (hPa)
956
953
975
961
969
972
955
967
955
967
968
969
963
Incoming shortwave radiation (W m–2)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Outgoing shortwave radiation (W m–2)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
–98
–
–
–99
–99
–104
Net Radiation (W m )
–86
–2
–165 –199 –100 –129 –124
Wind Velocity, 2 m above terrain (m s )
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Wind Velocity, 7.5 m above terrain (m s–1)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
–1
Table 2.2 Positive degree days calculated on a monthly basis as the sum of daily mean air temperatures above 0°C. Calculations are based on air
temperatures from the climate station.
Degree days
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
January
2005
2006
1.5
2007
2008
3.6
February
March
April
May
1.1
1.3
0.1
3.6
0.5
0.5
18.2
0.2
1.1
3.3
4.1
2.9
5.4
3.1
10.0
June
63.7
74.6
32.5
52.9
71.8
68.2
81.8
74.2
73.9
84.6
37.2
99.7
155.0
July
181.0
115.4
147.36
192.7
164.4
152.0
175.6
237.2
222.2
214.7
205.3
182.2
270.8
140.5
154.2
143.6
89.2
127.3
181.2
152.5
203.2
169.4
141.5
171.5
204.5
213.7
15.3
4.5
11.3
19.7
5.7
31.1
41.2
42.5
41.4
17.7
15.7
10.1
63.1
0.3
1.8
433.2
471.1
560.6
514.8
466.4
435.7
500.1
712.6
August
September
11.7
October
1.5
November
December
Sum
11.7
401.7
351.5
334.8
358.0
369.7
16
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 2.3 Monthly mean
air temperatures from
September 1995 to October 2008.
Mean monthly air temperature (°C)
15
10
July
Aug
5
0
June
Sep
–5
May
–10
–15
Oct
Feb
Nov
–20
Apr
Jan
Dec
Mar
–25
–30
1994
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
Year
03
04
05
06
07
08
2009
Table 2.3 Climate parameters for June, July and August, 1996 to 2008. 1 Wind velocity max is the maximum of 10 minutes mean values.
Year
Month
2006
Jan
Air temperature
(°C)
2.0 m
7.5 m
–13.4
–12.7
Rel. humidity
(%)
Air press.
(hPa)
Net rad.
(W m–2)
72
991.2
–18
Shortwave rad.
(W m–2)
Wind velocity1
(m s–1)
Dominant
wind dir.
In
Out
2.0 m
7.5 m
7.5 m
0
0
4.4
5.4
N
2006
Feb
–21.2
–20.0
65
1013.3
–20
7
5
3.1
3.8
N
2006
Mar
–19.3
–18.4
68
1020.8
–16
56
45
3.1
3.7
N
2006
Apr
–9.0
–8.4
73
1001.5
–4
137
114
3.6
4.4
NNW
2006
May
–2.5
–2.4
76
1015.5
11
260
207
2.4
3.1
N
2006
Jun
1.0
0.7
82
1003.8
54
312
208
1.3
1.7
SE
2006
Jul
6.6
5.9
77
1004.5
131
256
28
2.1
2.5
SE
2006
Aug
5.5
5.3
75
1008.2
61
158
21
2.2
2.6
SE
2006
Sept
–0.7
–0.7
76
1007.4
6
75
13
2.4
3.1
N
2006
Oct
–11.0
–9.9
72
1017.2
–28
15
7
2.8
3.5
N
2006
Nov
–15.9
–14.8
60
1001.0
–30
0
0
3.2
3.8
NNW
2006
Dec
–18.0
–16.7
66
995.5
–26
0
0
3.0
3.5
NNW
2007
Jan
–20.6
–19.2
64
997.2
–24
0
0
3.2
3.8
NNW
2007
Feb
–20.1
–18.5
70
1012.4
–23
7
5
3.1
3.7
N
2007
Mar
–17.6
–16.6
67
1000.3
–17
56
45
3.0
3.5
NNW
2007
Apr
–13.1
–12.0
62
1007.0
–11
167
133
2.2
2.7
NNW
2007
May
–5.2
–5.1
76
1011.8
7
262
202
2.3
2.8
SE
2007
Jun
3.3
3.0
79
1012.4
116
287
86
1.8
2.2
SE
2007
Jul
5.9
5.3
79
1010.5
124
251
32
1.8
2.2
SE
2007
Aug
6.6
6.1
72
1007.1
56
149
20
2.1
2.7
SE
2007
Sept
–1.2
–1.3
68
1007.1
5
75
12
2.3
3.0
NNW
2007
Oct
–10.1
–9.7
62
1002.7
–26
18
8
3.3
4.1
NNW
2007
Nov
–14.9
–14.0
59
1005.7
–26
0
0
2.9
3.4
NNW
2007
Dec
–17.8
–16.8
69
999.5
–25
0
0
3.3
3.9
NNW
2008
Jan
–20.5
–19.9
73
1002.2
–15
0
0
3.1
3.7
NNW
2008
Feb
–14.2
–13.7
77
996.2
–15
5
4
4.7
5.6
NNW
2008
Mar
–21.8
–20.6
67
1010.4
–20
65
52
2.8
3.5
NNW
NNW
2008
Apr
–15.7
–15.2
66
1020.1
–12
172
139
2.3
2.9
2008
May
–4.6
–5.0
75
1019.3
6
271
210
1.6
2.1
N
2008
Jun
5.2
4.7
74
1014.8
74
284
145
1.4
1.9
ESE
2008
Jul
8.7
8.0
72
1010.1
126
260
32
2.2
2.8
SE
2008
Aug
6.9
6.2
78
1006.0
51
141
19
2.7
3.3
SE
2008
Sept
0.7
0.3
81
1002.6
–2
60
15
3.2
3.8
NNW
2008
Oct
–10.7
–10.1
62
1002.4
–38
18
10
4.0
4.9
N
2008
Nov
–16.1
62
1007.5
–32
0
0
2.9
3.3
NNW
2008
Dec
–15.4
71
999.8
–24
0
0
4.0
4.6
NNW
17
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.4 Monthly mean values of climate parameters from 2007 and 2008. Data for 2008 are preliminary. Some of the figures differ from earlier
publications due to re-evaluation of data. 1)´Wind velocity max´ is the maximum of 10 minutes mean values.
Year Month Shortwave Rad.
(W m–2)
Jun
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Net Rad.
(W m–2)
PAR
(µmol m–2 s–1)
Air temperature
(°C)
Precipitation
(mm)
Wind velocity
(m s–1)
Vind
direction
mean
in
mean
out
mean
mean
mean
2m
min.
2m
max
2m
total
mean
7.5 m
max1)
7.5 m
dominant
7.5 m
332
133
113
–
1.9
–3.7
13.6
4
1.8
9.9
ESE
Jul
238
24
145
–
5.8
–1.5
16.6
7
2.7
12.1
SE
Aug
162
23
74
–
4.4
–4.0
14.1
2
2.9
12.5
SE
Jun
222
111
85
–
2.2
–4.4
12.0
23
2.4
14.1
ESE
Jul
225
23
130
–
3.7
–1.0
15.3
28
2.7
13.8
SE
Aug
159
20
74
–
5.0
–3.0
21.3
16
2.8
13.3
SE
Jun
270
172
51
–
0.9
–3.0
9.6
5
1.6
8.1
SE
Jul
204
20
125
–
4.7
–2.6
13.8
33
2.3
12.1
SE
Aug
114
12
64
–
4.6
–1.8
11.5
55
2.4
12.2
ESE
Jun
294
206
33
–
1.5
–4.5
10.4
2
2.3
15.0
–
Jul
212
32
123
–
6.2
–0.7
15.1
21
2.6
14.8
–
Aug
143
16
73
–
2.9
–2.7
15.2
11
2.5
14.9
SE
Jun
294
103
126
–
1.9
–6.2
11.7
10
2.1
15.1
SE
Jul
228
27
141
–
5.3
–1.2
19.1
13
2.9
15.9
SE
SE
Aug
153
19
82
–
4.0
–3.5
11.6
0
2.3
13.4
Jun
293
168
67
–
2.1
–4.9
11.9
26
2.1
13.3
–
Jul
231
27
146
–
4.9
–1.5
11.8
7
2.9
13.1
–
Aug
180
20
84
–
5.8
–0.8
12.6
21
2.9
14.4
–
Jun
344
151
113
–
2.6
–2.8
14.9
1
1.6
6.8
SE
Jul
205
23
105
424
5.7
–0.9
13.8
11
2.6
9.9
SE
Aug
129
16
51
272
4.9
–3.1
11.6
15
2.8
12.9
SE
Jun
294
108
106
612
2.2
–4.8
14.7
7
1.6
5.4
SE
Jul
210
26
96
431
7.7
1.8
16.7
6
2.8
14.2
SE
Aug
151
20
56
313
6.6
–0.5
15.4
3
2.5
10.1
SE
Jun
279
73
111
571
2.5
–3.4
19.1
3
2.3
13.6
SE
Jul
225
30
95
464
7.2
–0.7
19.0
10
2.8
10.5
SE
Aug
150
20
62
302
5.6
–1.4
17.2
4
2.4
12.6
SE
SE
Jun
261
53
–
519
2.7
–3.5
13.4
6
2.4
11.8
Jul
215
29
–
428
6.9
–0.6
21.8
28
2.9
13.3
SE
Aug
153
21
51
321
4.6
–2.7
14.0
4
3.2
10.9
SE
Jun
312
208
54
675
1.0
–4.4
9.5
0
1.7
6.9
SE
Jul
256
28
131
550
6.6
–1.2
22.8
12
2.5
11.3
SE
Aug
158
21
61
336
5.5
–4.5
16.3
2
2.6
12.0
SE
Jun
287
86
116
609
3.3
–2.4
15.8
9
2.2
14.8
SE
Jul
251
31
124
531
5.9
–1.8
16.4
8
2.2
6.5
SE
Aug
149
20
56
318
6.6
–2.6
13.6
3
2.7
12.3
SE
Jun
284
145
74
608
5.2
–1.5
12.8
3
1.9
11.7
ESE
Jul
260
32
126
547
8.7
0.0
18.4
8
2.8
14.2
SE
Aug
141
19
51
295
6.9
0.2
16.6
49
3.3
16.9
SE
station M6 was installed on top of Dombjerg (Klitgaard et al. 2007).
In 2008, a new automatic weather station (M7) was installed in Store Sødal
in the western end of Store Sø approximately 500 m west of the lake delta (UTM:
8269905 N, 496815 E, elevation: elevation:
145 m a.s.l.). The mast is placed in an almost flat open area with sparse vegetation
(grasses and Salix) and a thin soil layer
between big boulders (figure 2.4). Several
smaller streams cut through the area.
Besides air temperature, the station also
measure relative humidity, wind speed,
wind direction, surface temperature and
short wave radiation at 30 minutes interval and snow depth at 3 hour interval.
Data are logged by a CR1000 data logger
18
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.5 Mean wind statistics based on wind velocity and direction measured 7.5 m above terrain in 1997, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
2006 and 2007. Due to re-evaluation of the figures for 2003, differences can be seen when compared to earlier publications. Furthermore, wind
statistics for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. Calm is defined as wind speed below 0.5 m s-1. Max speed is the maximum of 10 minutes mean
values. Mean of maxes is the mean of the annual maxima. The frequency for each direction is given as percent of the period for which data exist.
Missing data amount to less than 8% of potential data for the entire year and less than 20 days within the same month.
Year
Direction
Mean
Frequency
%
N
15.5
2006
Velocity (m s–1)
mean mean of
maxs
4.4
24.5
2007
2008
Frequency Velocity (m s–1) Frequency Velocity (m s–1) Frequency Velocity (m s–1)
max
%
mean
max
%
mean
max
%
mean
max
29.6
20.8
5.0
22.3
17.2
4.5
29.6
18.2
5.0
21.5
NNE
3.6
2.6
17.7
25.4
3.9
2.6
17.8
3.8
2.2
17.6
3.8
3.0
28.9
NE
2.5
2.3
14.4
19.4
2.5
2.2
12.1
2.5
1.7
14.9
2.6
2.7
23.2
ENE
2.7
2.4
12.8
17.4
2.5
2.2
11.3
2.7
1.8
9.6
2.8
2.2
13.7
E
3.9
2.1
9.2
10.7
3.5
2.1
8.5
3.8
1.9
7.8
3.9
1.9
8.4
ESE
6.8
2.2
9.0
10.3
6.4
2.3
9.4
6.8
2.1
7.6
6.6
2.2
8.8
SE
8.7
2.4
9.7
18.1
8.8
2.4
9.8
10.5
2.4
7.6
7.6
2.4
8.1
SSE
5.8
2.4
9.4
16.2
5.9
2.5
8.4
6.7
2.4
7.8
5.3
2.5
9.6
S
4.0
2.5
8.1
9.9
4.0
2.6
8.0
4.2
2.3
7.7
3.5
2.5
8.3
SSW
2.9
2.3
8.7
13.4
2.8
2.4
6.9
3.0
2.1
8.6
3.0
2.3
8.4
SW
2.6
2.1
8.2
12.2
2.7
2.1
8.2
2.6
1.9
6.5
2.8
2.1
7.5
WSW
2.9
2.4
10.3
15.9
3.3
2.3
7.8
2.9
2.2
14.6
3.1
2.2
7.3
W
2.9
2.5
16.9
23.5
2.8
2.2
6.5
2.9
2.4
16.2
3.2
2.4
17.9
WNW
3.3
2.6
16.6
19.3
3.1
2.3
11.7
3.6
2.5
17.1
3.3
2.5
19.8
NW
6.4
3.6
19.6
25.1
5.9
3.4
19.8
6.3
3.1
16.8
6.6
3.7
16.9
NNW
22.2
5.0
23.4
26.2
19.4
4.9
22.8
18.9
4.8
26.2
21.5
5.1
22.1
Calm
3.4
1.7
from Campbell Scientific Instruments and
the station is powered by solar panels.
Daily mean values from the weather
stations are shown in figure 2.5. Especially,
the wind shows a significant increase with
altitude. Heavy winds 24 October 2008
caused much damage to the weather station on top of Dombjerg (1282 m a.s.l.).
When visiting the station 27 October, the
mast measuring snow depth was blown
down and wind sensors (anemometer and
wind wane) were ripped of the main mast.
Monthly values from the automatic
weather stations are shown in table 2.6.
Both June and July were warmest in Store
Sødal (M7) and coldest on top of Dombjerg (M6). However, air temperatures
were warmer half way up Aucellabjerg
(M3) than in the valley (M2).
During winter, a warm spell was registered in the valley, on 6 and 7 October
2007, when positive temperatures were
registered at the climate station for six
consecutive hours and at M3 for 12 hours.
Another episode took place 19 November
2007, when positive temperatures were
registered at higher elevations. At M6 on
top of Dombjerg and at M3 on Aucella-
1.6
1.9
bjerg the warm spell lasted 22 hours and
3 hours, respectively. At the main climate
station in the valley, no positive temperatures were registered during this event.
The last warm spell took place 18 April
2008 and was only registered on top of
Dombjerg (M6). All these sudden warm
periods during winter are of special concern because they might result in massive
layers of ice in the snow which may cause
severe impact on the animal’s ability to
dig way to the vegetation during the winter. When arriving in March, no ice layers
were present in the snow in the valley (see
section about snow density).
Snow depth
The winter 2007/2008 was extraordinary
in amounts of snow, the early timing of
a continuous layer of snow, and the long
period with a snow cover of more than 1.2
m. Snow depth was above 0.1 m from 26
October 2007 to 24 June 2008 (Table 2.7).
The maximum measured snow depth was
1.3 m, which is similar to 1998/1999 and
2001/2002 (figure 2.6 and table 2.7) but
for the first time, large depths of snow occurred early (4 March) and were not just
19
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 2.4 The new automatic weather station
in Store Sødal (M7), 21
March 2008.
Photo: Charlotte Sigsgaard.
a peak value. The snow mainly fell during five events and after 4 March no more
measurable snow fall took place. Snow
melt started around 24 May and had completed below the snow mast on 25 June.
This almost resembles the very fast snow
melt in 2002.
The large amounts of snow covered the
micrometeorological station M2. From 9
February, the snow sensor was covered
with snow and from 24 February all other
sensors were covered. First glimpse of the
mast was 11 May 2008 and the last snow
melted around the mast 7 July. The heavy
burden of snow caused severe damage to
the station; several sensors were broken,
the centre pole was bend and the cross arm
bended downward (figure 2.7). Finally, the
total covering of the solar panel by snow
caused loss of power (figure 2.6). On 15 August, the centre pole was replaced and the
cross arm moved back to a horizontal position. However, replacement of damaged
sensors was postponed until 2009.
Also, at M3 (420 m a.s.l.) more snow
was present than during previous years.
From late February to the end of May the
ground was covered by half a meter of
snow (figure 2.5). By 10 June snow melt
was completed at this site.
On top of Dombjerg (M6) the snow accumulation was very limited due to the
exposed location and often the snow only
stayed for a few days. A maximum snow
depth of 30 cm was measured in the end
of August during the period with heavy
Figure 2.5 Daily mean
values of selected parameters from snow- and
micrometeorological stations; M2 (17 m a.s.l.),
M3 (420 m a.s.l.) and M6
(1282 m a.s.l.) during the
period 1 September 2007
to 30 September 2008.
20
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.6 Monthly mean values of selected meteorological parameters from M2 (17 m a.s.l.), M3 (420 m a.s.l.) M6 (1282 m a.s.l.) and M7 (145 m
a.s.l.). Data from the M3 station (2007) have been corrected as there were errors in the reporting in the last annual report.
M2
Month
Year
Wind speed
(m s–1)
Rel. hum
%
Air temp.
(°C)
2.5 m
2.5 m
2.5 m
Soil temp.
(°C)
–1 cm
–10 cm
Soil temp.
(°C)
–30 cm
–60 cm
Soil moist
(%)
–10 cm
–30 cm
Aug
2006
2.4
77.0
5.0
7.3
6.5
4.8
1.5
21.6
16.8
Sep
2006
2.7
78.3
–1.2
0.2
0.7
0.9
0.4
16.8
14.5
Oct
2006
3.0
74.2
–11.2
–6.3
–5.5
–3.8
–1.7
6.9
4.7
Nov
2006
3.0
63.3
–15.9
–9.4
–8.8
–7.5
–5.4
6.4
4.0
Dec
2006
2.9
69.2
–18.2
–11.7
–11.0
–9.7
–7.6
6.0
3.6
Jan
2007
3.3
68.6
–21.0
–12.1
–11.6
–10.7
–9.0
5.8
3.5
Feb
2007
2.8
74.4
–20.9
–10.7
–10.4
–9.8
–8.7
5.8
3.5
Mar
2007
2.9
71.8
–18.4
–10.0
–9.8
–9.3
–8.5
6.0
3.6
Apr
2007
2.2
68.3
–13.8
–9.5
–9.3
–9.0
–8.3
6.0
3.6
May
2007
2.2
79.7
–5.7
–7.4
–7.5
–7.7
–7.7
6.3
3.7
Jun
2007
1.9
81.8
2.5
4.2
2.8
0.4
–2.5
21.8
17.1
Jul
2007
2.0
81.6
4.9
9.9
8.5
6.0
1.2
21.6
16.9
Aug
2007
2.4
73.7
5.7
7.9
7.1
5.3
1.9
18.2
15.8
Sep
2007
2.6
71.1
–1.8
–0.3
0.4
0.7
0.3
13.5
13.6
Oct
2007
66.0
–10.6
–10.4
–8.5
–6.0
–2.8
6.4
4.6
Nov
2007
62.6
–15.3
–12.4
–11.1
–9.3
–6.6
5.9
3.9
Dec
2007
71.9
–18.4
–11.9
–11.0
–9.9
–8.1
5.9
3.8
Jan
2008
76.2
–21.3
–10.3
–9.8
–9.2
–8.1
6.0
3.9
Feb
2008
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
Mar
2008
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
Apr
2008
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
May
2008
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
Jun
2008
77.2
4.1
1.0
0.2
–0.6
–2.9
18.1
7.9
Jul
2008
75.5
7.2
9.9
8.1
4.8
0.6
31.1
21.9
Aug
2008
79.9
5.9
8.1
7.2
5.4
2.0
23.2
18.9
Sep
2008
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
Wind speed
(m s –1)
Rel. hum.
(%)
Air temp.
(°C)
2.5 m
2.5 m
2.5 m
M3
Month
Year
Aug
2006
Soil temp.
(°C)
–1 cm
–10 cm
Soil temp.
(°C)
–30 cm
–60 cm
Soil moist
(%)
–10 cm
–30 cm
Sep
2006
2.9
70.7
–2.2
–1.4
0.1
0.4
0.2
25.2
33.3
Oct
2006
3.3
62.2
–9.8
–10.9
–7.8
–5.3
–2.8
10.7
16.9
Nov
2006
3.8
53.1
–15.1
–17.1
–14.9
–13.4
–11.2
8.4
13.6
Dec
2006
3.3
57.6
–15.2
–17.2
–15.6
–14.6
–13.0
8.1
13.2
Jan
2007
3.9
53.1
–17.8
–21.0
–19.7
–18.6
–16.9
7.9
12.8
Feb
2007
3.4
60.7
–16.2
–18.6
–17.9
–17.3
–16.4
7.9
12.8
Mar
2007
4.2
60.2
–16.0
–17.4
–17.0
–16.6
–15.9
7.6
12.4
Apr
2007
2.9
53.6
–11.4
–14.5
–15.1
–15.1
–15.0
8.3
12.7
May
2007
2.6
71.2
–5.4
–2.6
–5.2
–6.7
–8.5
11.8
15.2
Jun
2007
1.9
70.5
4.1
9.0
5.7
2.0
–1.4
36.8
33.5
Jul
2007
1.8
70.4
6.6
11.1
9.1
6.7
3.3
31.0
33.5
Aug
2007
2.7
66.7
5.1
6.2
5.9
4.9
3.1
35.1
37.9
Sep
2007
3.0
67.3
–3.9
–2.7
–0.8
0.1
0.1
20.2
31.5
Oct
2007
4.5
56.9
–11.2
–12.0
–8.8
–6.6
–4.0
11.4
17.7
Nov
2007
4.2
50.1
–13.9
–16.7
–14.7
–13.2
–11.0
9.2
15.2
Dec
2007
3.8
61.2
–16.3
–18.1
–16.4
–15.2
–13.6
8.5
14.5
Jan
2008
Feb
2008
Mar
2008
3.1
60.3
–18.8
–15.3
–14.7
–14.3
–13.6
8.9
14.6
Apr
2008
2.5
56.6
–14.0
–14.6
–14.5
–14.3
–13.9
9.0
14.5
May
2008
2.6
64.2
–4.7
–9.2
–10.4
–11.1
–11.6
10.5
15.4
Jun
2008
2.4
64.7
5.2
9.2
5.3
1.3
–2.2
36.6
33.4
Jul
2008
2.6
64.5
8.4
11.4
9.5
6.7
3.3
39.0
40.9
Aug
2008
3.4
72.6
5.1
6.9
6.2
5.1
3.3
37.0
38.5
Sep
2008
2.9
78.9
–1.5
1.1
1.5
1.3
0.9
38.6
40.2
21
14th Annual Report, 2008
M6
Wind speed
(m s–1)
Rel. hum.
(%)
Air temp.
(°C)
Soil temp.
(°C)
–1 cm
Month
Year
2m
2m
2m
Aug
2006
3.9
62.9
2.2
4.4
Sep
2006
4.7
67.9
–5.4
–5.2
Oct
2006
5.0
60.8
–12.0
–14.2
Nov
2006
6.8
57.1
–17.9
–20.6
Dec
2006
4.2
63.4
–16.4
–19.4
Jan
2007
6.4
57.6
–19.4
–22.5
Feb
2007
5.2
66.3
–17.0
–20.9
Mar
2007
3.9
66.1
–16.8
–19.0
Apr
2007
6.0
50.5
–13.2
–13.1
May
2007
4.7
63.9
–6.8
–3.5
Jun
2007
3.5
59.0
3.0
6.9
Jul
2007
2.8
63.2
4.6
8.3
Aug
2007
3.7
68.9
1.8
4.2
Sep
2007
3.8
72.0
–8.5
–7.6
Oct
2007
7.20
79.6
–14.2
–19.5
Nov
2007
8.43
86.4
–16.7
–16.5
Dec
2007
MD
87.1
–17.2
–20.5
Jan
2008
MD
62.0
–18.5
–26.2
Feb
2008
MD
85.6
–17.0
–17.5
Mar
2008
MD
53.5
–19.6
–19.0
Apr
2008
MD
36.4
–13.7
–8.9
May
2008
MD
89.6
–6.0
3.8
Jun
2008
MD
95.1
2.1
0.9
Jul
2008
MD
44.9
5.9
10.3
Aug
2008
MD
24.3
2.0
3.7
Sep
2008
MD
82.5
–3.8
–11,0
Wind speed
(m s–1)
Rel. hum.
(%)
Air temp.
(°C)
Soil temp.
(°C)
M7
Month
Year
2m
2m
2m
0 cm
Apr
2008
4.9
63.0
–15.9
–19.8
May
2008
4.8
71.6
–5.3
–8.0
Jun
2008
5.4
66.6
5.7
7.7
Jul
2008
6.9
61.5
9.7
10.9
rain in the valley. During winter the maximum snow depth was only 10 cm.
As part of the ISICaB project extensive
measurements of snow depths were carried out from 16 to 19 March 2008 in
transects throughout the valley by use of a
GPR Ground Penetrating Radar (500 MHz
shielded antenna with a Ramac X3M Unit,
Malå GeoScience, Sweden). The equipment
was mounted in a sledge after a snowmobile or a person on skis, and distance from
snow surface to the frozen ground was
determined with a small horizontal spacing
between measuring points (20 cm). Using
this method to determine snow depth assume a homogenous snow pack with equal
snow density. Several manual measurements were carried out along the transect
and comparison with the GPR indicate that
the assumption was valid.
Snow depths were also measured all the
way into the A.P. Olsen Glacier and towards
the water divide in Lindemansdalen (figure
2.8). Snow depths on the A.P. Olsen Glacier
were also measured by this method (see
section 3). Only small amounts of snow fell
after this campaign was carried out and the
results are therefore considered as the end of
winter accumulation.
As part of the GeoBasis monitoring,
snow depths were measured along two
main transects, i.e. one transect (SNM)
running from Lomsø into the valley and
another (SNZ) running along the ZEROline from the old delta up to 420 m a.s.l.
In 2008, the Ground Penetrating Radar
(GPR) was used to measure snow depths
along these transect in order to estimate
the end of winter accumulation. The same
measurements were repeated a few times
during the ablation period. The GPR was
also used to measure snow depth in the
two grid nets, ZEROCALM-1 and ZEROCALM-2.
22
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.7 Key figures describing the amount of snow in 10 winters, i.e. the maximum snow depth during the winter and the date at which it was
reached, the date when the snow depth reaches 0.1 m in the beginning of the winter, and the date in spring when the depth goes below 0.1 m
due to melting.
Winter
Max. snow depth, meter
1997/
1998
1998/
1999
1999/
2000
2000/
2001
2001/
2002
2002/
2003
2003/
2004
2004/
2005
2005/
2006
2006/
2007
2007/
2008
0.88
1.30
0.49
0.68
1.33
0.60
0.69
0.73
1.10
0.48
1.30
29 Apr 11 Mar 19 May 25 Mar 15 Apr
13 Apr
13 Apr
12 Feb
26 Apr
4 May
4 Mar
Snow depth exceeds 0.1m from
19 Nov
27 Oct
1 Jan
16 Nov 19 Nov
6 Dec
24 Nov 27 Dec
19 Dec
12 Jan
26 Oct
Snow depth is below 0.1m from
25 Jun
3 Jul
14 Jun
24 Jun
14 Jun
13 Jun
1 Jul
8 Jun
24 Jun
Snow depth
Figure 2.6 Daily mean soil
temperatures and snow
depth from the climate station. In August 2006, soil
temperature sensors were
replaced. *Due to sensor
malfunction there are small
periods of data fallout.
20 Jun
20
3.5
10
3.0
0
2.5
–10
2.0
–20
1.5
–30
1.0
–40
0.5
–50
0
1 June 1 June 1 June 31 May 1 June 1 June 1 June 31 May 1 June 1 June 1 June 31 May
1997
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
2008
Date
Snow density
An earlier start of the field season at Zackenberg than in previous years, made it possible
to follow variations in snow density from
mid-March to the end of June. A slight increase in density was observed as the snow
pack sets. Until 20 May, no ice lenses or
layers were observed in the snow pits and
the snowpack was relatively homogenous.
Figure 2.7 The M2 after it
was buried in the snow.
The centre pole was replaced and sensors mounted in right positions 15
August 2008. Wind sensors were damaged and
needed to be replaced.
Photo: Charlotte Sigsgaard.
7 Jun
Snow depth (m)
Groundtemp, 0 cm
Groundtemp, 0 cm*
Groundtemp, –40 cm
Groundtemp, –80 cm
Groundtemp, –130 cm
Temperature (°C)
Max. snow depth reached
Then, during the following week, several
significant ice layers developed. In a one
meter deep snow pit near the climate station
three significant layers were found 33, 63
and 82 cm from the snow surface, respectively. Accordingly, care should be taken
when interpreting the ice layers we observe
during normal fields seasons when we arrive in late May or early June. The ice lay-
23
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 2.8 Snow depth
transects covered with the
Ground Penetrating Radar
(GPR). All measurements
were carried out from 16
to 19 March 2008 and
can be regarded as endof-winter snow depths, as
no significant snowfall occurred after this date.
ers we see do not necessarily reflect warm
episodes during winter but may just have
been created as the snow begins to melt in
the spring.
A five m deep snow pit was made in
ZEROCALM-2. Besides temperature and
density measurements throughout the
profile, snow samples were collected from
various depths and analysed for chemical
composition.
Snow cover
Unfortunately, problems with the software for ortho-rectification of photos from
the digital cameras still exist and snow
depletion curves for the entire area can
therefore not be presented. In order to facilitate analyses building on the extent of
snow cover we have instead estimated the
snow cover on 10 June from un-processed
photos. The classification of snow directly
from the oblique camera photos has been
done on photos from 10 June in all years
from 1999-2008. A linear regression between the total area snow cover values
from the ortho-rectified photos (1999-2005)
and similar for the oblique photos showed
a significant relation (n=7, R2=0.85,
P=0.003). This relation has therefore been
used to transform the snow cover values obtained from the oblique photos to
values that are comparable with values
Figure 2.9 The GPR was
set up with the 500 MHz
shielded antenna and batteries in a sledge hooked
to a snow mobile. The
Ramac X3M screen was
attached on the steer of
the snow mobile to enable
the driver to control the
instrument. Manual snow
depth measurements were
made at regular intervals.
24
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.8 Area and snow cover on 10 June of 13 bird and mammal study sections in Zackenbergdalen and on the slopes of Aucellabjerg 19992008 and mean for the period 1995-2008 (see Fig. 4.1 in Caning and Rasch 2003 for map of sections). Photos were taken from a fixed point
477 m a.s.l. on the east facing slope of Zackenbergfjeldet within +/- 3 days of 10 June and extrapolated according to the methods described by
Pedersen and Hinkler (2002). Further, the proportions areas not visible from the photo point are given. Data from 1995 and 1996 are from satellite images taken on 9 and 11 June, respectively. * Partly cloud covered, giving too high snow cover. † Snow cover of sections estimated without
ortho-rectification from the combined area of the 13 sections with linear regression. See text for further explanation. ‡ Values missing due to
missing significance.
Section
Area
(km2)
Area
hidden
(%)
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006†
2007†
2008†
Mean
(1995-2008)
1 (0–250 m)
3.52
3.5
91
60
73
77
68
48
31
79
49
68
67
2 (0–250 m)
7.97
1.2
91
57
87
87
92
49
25
90
49
75
75
3 (50–2150 m)
3.52
0.0
94
51
89
82
83
51
35
87
51
74
74
4 (150–2300 m)
2.62
0.0
86
33
79
56
73
39
28
74
38
61
61
5 (300–2600 m)
2.17
0.0
85
31
56
36
49
16
25
‡
‡
‡
44
6 (50–2150 m)
2.15
75.3
98
55
84
78
74
56
50
84
57
74
75
7 (150–2300 m)
3.36
69.3
97
54
84
74
90
56
46
87
56
75
75
8 (300–2600 m)
4.56
27.5
84
37
45
52
66
30
29
‡
‡
‡
52
9 (0–250 m)
5.01
6.2
97
54
96
96
100
58
23
98
52
81
80
10 (50–2150 m)
3.84
2.9
98
60
97
93
100
56
47
97
60
83
83
11 (150–2300 m)
3.18
0.2
96
77*
97
88
100
66
61
96
71
87
85
12 (300–2600 m)
3.82
0.0
89
65
73
65
98
53
70
‡
‡
‡
71
13 (Lemmings)
2.05
1.0
87
58
83
83
89
46
25
86
48
72
72
Total area
45.70
12.9
92
54
82
77
83
49
37
84
51
72
71
Figure 2.10 Snow cover in
Zackenbergdalen 2 June
2008. View from Nansenblokken 477 m a.s.l.
obtained from the ortho-rectified photos.
Further, to obtain estimates for each subsection of the bird and muskoxen census
area the new values were converted by
another linear regression. The conversion
was based on the relations between the
total area snow cover and the sub-section
snow cover from the period 1999-2005
(n=7, R2>0.90, P<0.001). However, snow
cover extent of the sub-sections above 300
m a.s.l. (Section 5, 8 and 12) did not correlate significantly with the snow cover extent for the total area and they have therefore been excluded. An update on snow
cover extent for 2006-2008 will follow as
soon as the problems with the ortho-rectification software have been solved.
The three most recent years (2006, 2007
and 2008) have very different snow cover
(table 2.8). While 2006 had the highest
snow cover extent on 10 June since 1999,
2007 had relatively low snow cover extent. 2008 had, despite the large amounts
of snow at the end of winter, a snow
cover by 10 June that was very close to
the mean for the entire 1995-2008 period
(figure 2.10).
Active layer depth
Development of the seasonal active layer
starts when snow disappears from the
ground and air temperatures become
positive. The thaw rate of the soil was
monitored throughout the season at two
grid-plots; ZEROCALM-1 grid (ZC-1)
covering a 100x100 meter area and ZEROCALM-2 grid (ZC-2) covering a 120x150
meter area. For a detailed description of
the two ZEROCALM sites, see Meltofte
and Thing (1997).
In ZC-1, the first grid node was free of
snow approximately 20 June. It is a quite
homogenous and flat site covered by almost the same amount of snow, and within a week all snow at the site melted away.
A large seasonal snow patch in ZC-2 caus-
25
14th Annual Report, 2008
0
ZC-2
ZC-1
Active layer depth (cm)
–10
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250
Day of year
150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250
Day of year
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
es a large spread in the timing of when the
individual grid nodes melt free of snow
and hence on the onset of soil thaw. By 1
June, when the first grid node in the north
eastern corner was free of snow, part of
the site was still covered by more than
five meters. The large heterogeneity of the
snow cover at this site results in a slower
average thaw progression at ZC-2 (figure
2.11) as compared to ZC-1. The last snow
in ZC-2 disappeared in the first week of
August.
The thaw progression at both sites was
very fast in July (figure 2.11) but levelled
out after the first week of August. Air
temperatures stayed positive until 22 September with only a short episode of frost
in early September. However, a further
increase in thaw depth would probably be
minimal based on the shape of the curve
for August (figure 2.11) and the fact that
the air temperature is damped at these soil
depths.
The average thaw depth at the end of
the season for ZC-1 was just as deep as in
2005 which are the deepest registered so
far (table 2.9). Also in ZC-2, the average
depth in late August was among the deepest measured.
Data from the two ZEROCALM-sites
are reported to the circumpolar monitoring programme CALM (Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring-Network-II (20042008) maintained by the University of
Delaware, Centre for International Studies
(www.udel.edu/Geography/calm)
Temperature in different settings and
altitudes
In 2008, several boreholes of varying
depth were made for monitoring temperature changes in the upper permafrost
and in the active layer (see section 6.3).
The deepest borehole is located approximately hundred meters north of the
climate station adjacent to the soil- and
micro-meteorological station M4. This
borehole was equipped with both a separate temperature string from GeoPrecision
(see section 6.3) and five thermocouples
from Campbell Scientific. The five thermocouples were installed at depth of 125, 150,
250, 300, 325 cm and connected to the data
logger at the soil and micrometeorological
station M4. before this project based installation, the deepest continuous temperature
measurements at Zackenberg were 130 cm.
GeoBasis operates a total of 40 mini
temperature data loggers (TinyTag) for
year-round temperature monitoring in different altitudes and different geomorphological settings in the landscape around
Zackenberg. Positions and a short description of the sites are given in the GeoBasis
manual. Finally, soil temperatures are
logged at the climate station and at the
two automatic weather stations M2 and
M3 (figure 2.5 and table 2.6).
Table 2.9 Maximum thaw depth in ZEROCALM-1 and ZEROCALM-2 measured late August, 1997-2008.
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
ZEROCALM-1
61.7
65.6
60.3
63.4
63.3
70.5
72.5
76.3
79.4
76.0
74.8
79.4
ZEROCALM-2
57.4
59.5
43.6
59.8
59.7
59.6
63.4
65.0
68.6
67.6
67.1
67.5
Figure 2.11 Thaw
depth progressions in
ZEROCALM-1 and ZEROCALM-2, 1997-2008.
Thaw depth progression is
based on eight and nine
re-measurements during
the season in ZC-1 and
ZC-2, respectively.
26
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.10 Visual estimates for dates of 50 % ice cover on selected ponds. Break up of Zackenbergelven and ´rivulets´ (the streams) draining the
slopes of Aucellabjerg through Rylekærene. Break up of ice in Young Sund is divided between break up of the fjord ice off Zackenbergdalen,
´Young Sund (Zac.)´ and in the fjord in general ´Young Sund (all) ´. The 50% ice cover date for Lomsø is visually estimated from the research station.
West pond
East pond
South pond
Lomsø
1996
1997
1998
4 Jun
Dry
5 Jun
3 Jun
Dry
<3 Jun 30 May
1999
2000
10 Jun 30 May
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
8 Jun
2 Jun
9 Jun
<26 May
Dry
3 Jun
<25 May
5 Jun
28 May
22 May
6 Jun
25 May
6 Jun
<26 May <21 May
8 Jun
31 May
5 Jun
28 jun
6 Jun
16 Jun
1 Jun
6 Jun
3 Jun
12 Jun
7 Jun
12 Jun
1 Jun
8 Jun
3 Jun
8 Jun
4 Jul
2 jul
8 jul
10 Jul
1 Jul
4 Jul
30 Jun
29 Jun
22 Jun
17 Jun
3 Jul
24 Jun
Rivulets
<6 Jun
11 Jun
11 Jun
15 Jun
4 Jun
10 Jun
4 Jun
3 Jun
31 May
4 Jun
13 Jun
31 May
5 Jun
Zackenbergelven
3 Jun
4 Jun
10 Jun
20 Jun
8 Jun
8 Jun
4 Jun
30 May
1 Jun
3 Jun
12 Jun
2 Jun
7 Jun
Young Sund
(Zac.)
13 Jul
19 Jul
14 Jul
14 Jul
8 Jul
13 Jul
1 Jul
5 Jul
1 Jul
3 Jul
14 Jul
10 Jul
9 Jul
Young Sund
(all)
13 Jul
22 Jul
22 jul
24 Jul
17 Jul
23 Jul
8 Jul
8 Jul
8 Jul
7 Jul
23 Jul
17 Jul
11 Jul
Stage (h, m above sealevel)
13.8
made 14 October 2007. By that time the ice
thickness was 44 cm.
Q/h-relation
Measurements used in Q/h-relation
13.6
Ice in Young Sund
13.4
13.2
13.0
Q = 31.49(h–12.36)2.0030
12.8
12.6
12.4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Discharge (m3 s–1)
Figure 2.12 Water level – discharge relation curve (Q/h-relation) for Zackenbergelven
at the hydrometric station after 18 June 2008. The coefficient of correlation (R2) for
the curve is 0.996.
100
Discharge ( m3 s–1)
160
60
120
40
80
20
40
0
1 June
13 July
24 Aug
2.3 River water discharge and
chemistry
200
Accumulated discharge (mill. m3)
80
Manual discharge measurements
Discharge
Acc. discharge
The fjord ice off Zackenbergdalen broke
up 9 July and a few days later Young Sund
was ice free (table 2.10). Almost no drift ice
was present in Young Sund during the rest
of the summer. In the end of September, the
fjord was still almost ice-free. New ice started to form in early October and by midOctober ice covered most of Young Sund.
0
5 Oct
Date
Figure 2.13 Discharge from Zackenbergelven during 2008.
Ice on ponds and lakes
The ground penetrating radar was used
to measure ice thickness on the two lakes,
Sommerfuglesø and Langemandssø, where
lake dynamics measurements are carried
out by the BioBasis monitoring programme.
Values were calibrated against the actual
ice thicknesses measured in drill holes. In
March 2008, the ice was 180 cm thick. The
last measurement from autumn 2007 was
Zackenbergelven
The hydrological measurements started
at Zackenbergelven in 1995. The drainage
basin for Zackenbergelven includes Zackenbergdalen, Store Sødal, Lindemansdalen and
Slettedalen. The basin covers an area of 514
km2, of which 106 km2 are covered by glaciers (Klitgaard, Rasch and Canning 2006).
The first hydrometric station was established at the west bank near the river
mouth (Meltofte and Thing 1996). In 1998
the hydrometric station was moved to the
eastern bank of the river, due to problems
with the station being buried each winter
beneath a thick snowdrift. In 2005, the station was flushed away in a flood and on 5
August the same year it was re-build, still
on the eastern side of the river.
At the station, the water level, water temperature, air temperature, suspended sediment content (OBS) and conductivity are
logged automatically every 15th minute. The
water level is measured with a sonic range
sensor. The measured water level is recalculated to meter above sea level and trans-
27
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 2.11 Total discharge from Zackenbergelven 1996-2008, corresponding water loss for the drainage area (514 km2) and precipitation measured at the climate station. 1) The hydrological year is set to 1 October previous year to 30 September present year. *) For 2005, no data are
available during the flood from 25 July 05:00 until 28 July 00:00. After this date and until the new hydrometric station was set up on 5 August,
the discharge are estimated from manual readings of the water level from the gauge.
Hydrological year1)
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Total Discharge (mill. m3)
132
188
232
181
150
137
338
189
212
>185*
172
183
185
Water loss (mm)
257
366
451
352
292
267
658
368
412
>360
335
356
360
Precipitation (mm)
239
263
255
227
171
240
156
184
279
266
206
133
219
formed to a discharge using an established
relation between water level and discharge
(a Q/h-relation).
In 2008, Zackenbergelven broke up 7
June (table 2.10) and water was running
until 10 October. From late September, the
river started to freeze and at the hydrometric station there was ice below the sensor
from 24 September.
Q/h-relation
The flood in 2005 changed the river cross
profile and different Q/h-relations have
been established from august 2005 to end
of 2006 and for the 2007 season. The hope
for 2008 was that the river cross profile was
stable, and would allow us to improve the
preliminary Q/h-relation for 2007 to also
include higher water levels. Unfortunately,
it was still impossible to carry out measurements at high water levels. Further, the
discharge measurements carried out in
2008 did not fit the measurements from
2007, indicating that the river profile is still
unstable. Therefore a new Q/h-relation
was established for the 2008 season. In 2008
eleven discharge measurements ranging
from 5.3 to 23.4 m3 s-1 have been carried out,
all under ice-free conditions. Two measurements were made on the same day at two
different cross-sections and only a few
hours apart. The mean of the two measurements were used when establishing the
Q/h-relation valid from June 2008 (figure
2.12). As there still is a lack of measurements at high water levels, the Q/h-relation is still preliminary. The Q/h-relation
is only valid when the riverbed and -banks
are ice and snow free; because snow covering the banks changes the cross profile of
the river and ice layers at the bottom of the
river gives a false water level.
When the river dries out under the
sonic range sensor there are still water
running at the western side of the river.
The aim for 2009 is to carry out measurements during floods and to make a
thorough investigation of the river condi-
tions. For this purpose the Danish Energy
Agency has funded a grant for purchase of
an Acustic Doppler Current Profiler of the
type Q-liner.
River water discharge
The water discharge in Zackenbergelven
for 2008 is shown in figure 2.13. During
the first period – from the river started
flowing on 8 June and until 18 June – the
river bed and river banks were covered
with ice and/or snow and the Q/h-relation is therefore not valid. Instead the discharge during this period is approximated
by interpolation between zero and the first
discharge measured when it was assumed
that the Q/h-relation was valid on 18 June.
From pictures of the river and daily mean
air temperature it is assumed that the
Q/h-relation is valid until 23 September.
It is assumed that the water stops flowing 20 October. The discharge is therefore
approximated by letting the discharge decrease linearly from 23 September to zero
discharge on 20 October. The total amount
of water drained from the catchment area
from 8 June until 20 October was approximately 185 million m3.
During the 2008 season no floods were
observed. The measured water levels
under ice-free conditions were between
12.69 and 13.62 m a.s.l. The discharge
measurements were carried out at water
levels between 12.77 and 13.21 m a.s.l.,
and the calculated discharges are therefore
extrapolated beyond the range of manual
discharge measurements with the resulting uncertainties. Total annual discharges
in Zackenbergelven1996-2008 are listed in
table 2.11.
In early July, the water level increases
and likewise the amount of suspended
sediment (figure 2.14). This rise in water
level was not triggered by any precipitation event and the temperature in the valley was not at all extreme before or during
this increase. However, temperature data
from the climate stations in 420 and 1280
°C
28
14th Annual Report, 2008
15
10
5
0
–5
–10
–15
a
M3
M2
b
m3 s–1
80
60
40
20
0
mg l–1
800
c
7.713 mg l–1
20:00
600
400
200
0
ppm
4
8:00
d
3
2
8:00
1
0
µS cm–1
80
e
8:00
60
40
20:00
20
0
10
f
°C
8
20:00
6
4
8:00
2
0
1 June
15 June
Figure 2.14 a) Daily mean
air temperatures at M3
(420 m a.s.l.) and at M2
(17 m a.s.l.), b) water discharge, c) concentration
of suspended sediment, d)
dissolved organic carbon e)
conductivity and f) water
temperature in Zackenbergelven 2008.
29 June
13 July
27 July
10 Aug
24 Aug
m a.s.l. show very high temperatures
during this period. Accordingly, melt
water input from the glaciers at higher
elevations is a likely explanation of the
observed rise in water level (see variation
in diurnal temperatures between 17 and
420 m a.s.l. (figure 2.14). By mid-August
a dramatic decline in the water level was
registered, probably due to decline of
snow and melt water in the drainage basin
and lower temperatures in general. But
then it started to rain and during the period 23-26 August (section 2.1) heavy rain
caused Zackenbergelven to rise and sediment concentration to peak. During the
two days the water level increased by 60
cm and then gradually declined over the
next week. The smaller peaks in mid-September are also triggered by precipitation.
The increase registered after 23 September
is ice and snow building up below the sensor at the hydrometric station.
No water was running and the river
bed was totally covered with ice when the
station was left 3 November 2008. Surprisingly, radar satellite data show that a
large flood event took place 26 November
2008 (Kaufmann, 2008). Radar data from
the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)
show a large outburst of water from Zackenbergelven and a fan of water reaching
several km out on the fjord ice (figure 2.15).
Laura R. H. Kaufmann from DMI contacted
the Sirius Patrol, the only people present in
this remote area during this time of year.
Two soldiers from the patrol went to Zackenberg on 30 November to capture photos
showing the result of the event. At that
time there was still some running water even after 4 days in -20 ºC. We appreciate
the effort and help from both DMI and the
Sirius Patrol. The daily photos captured as
part of the snow cover monitoring is of no
use at this time of year due to the very limited light conditions at this latitude.
The large amount of water originates
from an outburst of a glacier dammed
lake in the north-western part of the Zackenberg drainage basin. This lake has
drained at several occasions during the
monitoring period. With the new GlacioBasis programme we hope to collect
more information on and to understand
better the dynamics of these events (see
section 3).
A digital camera, like the ones that are
used for snow cover monitoring from
Nansenblokken (section 2.2), was installed
on a large rock on the mountain slope on
the western side of the lake (figure 2.16)
(UTM: 8284444 N, 487814 E, elevation: 755
m a.s.l.). The camera points toward the
lake and captures a daily photo of the area
where the lake and the glacier front meets
(figure 2.16). In April, when the camera was
mounted everything was frozen and covered by snow, but hopefully we will be able
to download photos from the camera in
May 2009. Preferably, a pressure transducer
should be installed in the lake, but due to
logistic constraints related to the transport
to the lake in 2008, this has been postponed.
Suspended sediment and river water
chemistry
The total transport of suspended sediment
from Zackenbergelven drainage basin to
Young Sund presented in this report is
made on preliminary discharge data. The
29
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 2.15 The Zackenberg delta after the late
flood event 26 November
as seen on an ENVISAT
ASAR image from 26
November 2008 22:36
UTC (courtesy Laura R. H.
Kaufmann, Danish Meteorological Institute).
next annual report will report any changes
to the data shown here.
Water samples were collected both in
the morning 8:00 and in the evening 20:00
in order to determine suspended sediment
concentrations. During the rain induced
flood 23-26 August, water was sampled
every second hour and likewise water
samples were collected every second hour
during a diurnal observation campaign
19-20 July. Two major peaks in sediment
concentration were observed during the
season. The first in early July during a
period of increased discharge and the second and highest with concentrations up
to 7,713 mg l-1 was measured during the
rain induced flood in late August. From 1
September to 10 October sampling from
the river was carried out once a week.
Daily water samples collected in the
morning are also being analyzed for chemical composition (conductivity, pH, alkalinity and major anions and cations) and
at a lower frequency (approximately once
a week) for DOC (figure 2.14 d), NH4-N,
DTN and DON.
In 2008, water was sampled at several
occasions throughout the season in order
to analyse both the sediment and water
fraction for mercury. Sampling took place
at high and low water levels, early and
late in the season and during and after a
flood situation etc. The results will be used
to determine the sampling strategy for
2009 when this project will be implemented in the GeoBasis programme.
Suspended sediment and water
discharge in Lindemanselven
A CTD diver, capable of measuring water
level, water temperature and conductivity, was installed approximately 300
m upstream from the junction between
Lindemanselven and Store Sødal (UTM:
511662 E, 8269094 N, elevation: 82 m
a.s.l.). The diver was installed 28 June
when the riverbed and banks were free of
snow, and data were logged continuously
every 15 minutes until 25 August. Runoff
peaked in the afternoon 5 July when the
water level in Lindemanselven suddenly
increased by 45 cm (figure 2.17). On 12
Figure 2.16 Camera installation at the ice dammed
lake in the western part of
Zackenbergelven’s drainage basin. a) Location
of the camera. b) Photo
from the camera looking
towards the glacier front.
Photo from 17 April 2008.
c) The camera mounted
at the steep slope looking
south to cover the glacier
dammed lake. Photo:
Charlotte Sigsgaard
30
14th Annual Report, 2008
Water discharge (m3 s–1)
25
trient budgets. Snow samples collected
from a 5 m deep snow pit has also been
analysed for chemical composition.
The precipitation for the hydrological
year 2007, which is set to 1 October 2007 30 September 2008, was 219 mm, which is
the same as the mean for the years 19952007 (table 2.11).
Lindemanselven
20
15
10
Soil moisture and soil water
5
0
21 June
5 July
Figure 2.17 Discharge
from Lindemanselven during 2008.
19 July
2 Aug
Date (2008)
16 Aug
30 Aug
July, there were several indications of
the former high water level such as mud
depositions along the banks and vegetation on top of the stage level. The increase
in water level was also registered at the
hydrometric station in Zackenbergelven
(figure 2.13). As mentioned above, the
higher input of water is probably a result of high temperatures in the elevated
glacier areas during this period. Another
large peak was registered during the rain
23-26 August.
2.4 Precipitation and soil water chemistry
Precipitation
Rain water samples for chemical analysis
were collected 26 June, 29 June, 23 July
and 26 August.
By measuring concentrations together
with water flow it is possible to calculate
loads and fluxes of ions in relation to nu-
Figure 2.18 Soil moisture
content for 2007 and
2008 at depths of 10, 20,
30 and 50 cm at the M4
soil micrometeorological
station located in the Cassiope heath area north of
the main climate station.
Seasonal variation in soil moisture content is measured at several sites. Data
from the two automatic weather stations
M2 and M3 are shown in figure 2.5 and
table 2.6. The most detailed data are obtained from the Cassiope heath site/area
at the M4 station. Here, soil moisture is
mea-sured continuously throughout the
year at four depths and with corresponding soil temperature measurements. The
seasonal variation in 2008 is very different from 2007 (figure 2.18). In 2008, rain
episodes during July and August were
recognized as increasing peaks through
the profile with the largest increase at 50
cm indicating that water piles up near the
permafrost table where drainage is impeded. Even in September precipitation
increases the soil moisture, and freezing
of the soil takes place at a high soil moisture content compared to the previous
year.
Throughout the season, soil water was
collected from the various depths at five
characteristic soil water regimes covered
by the dominating plant communities in
the valley (Caning and Rasch 2000, and
Rasch and Caning 2004). The water has
been analysed for all major anions and
cations as well as for dissolved organic
carbon content.
60
10 cm
20 cm
30 cm
50 cm
50
30
20
2008
30 Oct
2 Oct
16 Oct
18 Sep
4 Sep
21 Aug
7 Aug
24 July
10 July
26 June
29 May
1 May
15 May
30 Oct
2 Oct
16 Oct
18 Sep
4 Sep
12 June
2007
21 Aug
7 Aug
24 July
10 July
26 June
12 June
29 May
0
1 May
10
15 May
Vol (%)
40
31
14th Annual Report, 2008
Heath 2007
13 Apr 3 May 23 May 12 June 2 July 22 July 11 Aug 31 Aug 20 Sep 10 Oct
0.75
Flux
0.50
Air temperature (diurnal)
20
15
10
0.25
0
5
–0.25
0
–0.50
–5
–0.75
–10
–1.00
–15
–1.25
–20
Temperature (°C)
NEE (g C m–2 day–1)
Figure 2.19 Temporal
variation in Net Ecosystem
Exchange (NEE) and daily
mean air temperature
at the heath site during
2007. Please notice that
due to a re-evaluation of
data (see text) this figure
differs from the one presented in the 13th Annual
report 2007.
–25
–1.50
103 113 123 133 143 153 163 173 183 193 203 213 223 233 243 253 263 273 283 293
Day of year
2.5 Gas fluxes
Carbon dioxide flux
The exchange of CO2 between the terrestrial environment and the atmosphere is
measured in Zackenberg using eddy covariance technique. In 2008, measurements
were carried out at two similar stations; one
located in the well drained Cassiope heath
site where measurements have been carried
out since 2000, and one located in the wet
fen area. For maintenance, a new micrometeorological station replaced the old one at
the heath site in September 2007. For details
of the new instrumentation see Klitgaard
and Rasch (2008) and for the old instrumentation see Rasch and Caning (2003).
The temporal variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) and mean daily air
temperature for the 2007 and 2008 field
seasons are shown in figures 2.19-2.22.
NEE refers to the sum of the two processes, i.e. uptake of CO2 by plants from
photosynthesis and loss due to microbial
decomposition in the soil. The uptake is
controlled by the climatic conditions during the growth season with solar radiation
and temperature being the key factors
whereas the respiratory process is controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil
moisture. The sign convention used in the
figures is the standard for micrometeorological measurements; fluxes directed
from the surface to the atmosphere are
Table 2.12 Summary of the field season environmental variables and CO2 exchanges measured during 2000-2008 at the heath site. As the field
seasons in 2007 and 2008 are longer than in previous years the total NEE’s are based on values from 28 May to 28 August and therefore comparable to previous years. An extra row has been added and shows the total NEE for the entire measuring season. *) Re-calculated compared to 13th
Annual Report 2007 (see text).
Year
Site
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007*
2008
2008
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Heath
Fen
Start of Net uptake period
25 June
6 July
2 July
28 June
23 June
17 June
10 July
16 June
6 July
7 July
End of Net uptake period
11 Aug
18 Aug
16 Aug
20 Aug
21 Aug
18 Aug
23 Aug
19 Aug
23 Aug
21 Aug
47
43
45
53
59
63
45
64
48
46
Beginning of measuring
season
6 June
8 June
3 June
5 June
3 June
21 May
27 May
27 May
12 Apr
12 Apr
End of measuring season
25 Aug
27 Aug
27 Aug
30 Aug
28 Aug
25 Aug
27 Aug
28 Oct
28 Oct
31 Aug
80
81
86
86
86
97
93
153
200
142
NEE for Net uptake period
(g C m–2)
(–) 22.7
(–) 19.1
(–) 18.2
(–) 30.4
(–) 29.7
(–) 33.4
(–) 26.1
(–)32.3
(–) 36.4
(–)100.2
NEE for measuring season
(g C m–2)
(–) 19.1
(–) 8.7
(–) 9.5
(–) 23
(–) 22.4
(–) 29.6
(–) 21.6
(–) 28.3
(–) 32.4
(–) 77.6
(–) 24.3
(–) 30.4
(–)1.28
(–) 1.45
Length of Net uptake
period (days)
Length of measuring
season (days)
NEE for long measuring
season (g C m–2)
Max. daily accumulation
(g C m–2 d–1)
(–) 0.92
(–) 0.94
(–) 1.00
(–) 1.40
(–) 1.30
(–) 1.15
(–) 1.25
(–) 4.2
32
14th Annual Report, 2008
Heath 2008
NEE (g C m–2 day–1)
9 Oct
–10
–15
–1.0
–20
–1.5
–25
–2.0
103 113 123 133 143 153 163 173 183 193 203 213 223 233 243 253 263 273 283 293
Day of year
In 2008, the flux measurements were initiated 12 April and lasted until the 27 October. During this (6 ½ month) period a little
more than 1% of data were lost due to
malfunction, maintenance and calibration.
The eddy mast was placed on top of 110
cm snow and the snow cover in the fetch
area was 100 % when measurements started. Early in the season only very small
CO2 fluxes were measured (figure 2.20).
From the end of May, the snow started to
melt and small daily net emissions took
place throughout entire June with a diurnal maximum emission of 0.25 g C m–2 d–1
measured on 26 June.
As the vegetation developed, the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 started, and by
6 July, the ecosystem switched from a net
source of CO2 to a net sink of CO2. The
period with a net uptake lasted 48 days
which is in line with other snow rich years.
It is mainly the onset of the net uptake
period that varies from year to year due to
the timing of the snow melt whereas the
5
–5
–0.5
Heath site
10
0
0
positive whereas fluxes directed from the
atmosphere to the surface are negative.
In the 13th Annual Report 2007, the daily
fluxes from the new station (Klitgaard and
Rasch 2008) were by mistake calculated
with a programme made for a sonic anemometer of the old type which resulted in
incorrect data. In this report, data from the
autumn 2007 have been re-calculated and
are presented in figure 2.19 and table 2.12.
The re-calculation of CO2 fluxes were made
by the program “Alteddy” (see http://
www.climatexchange.nl/projects/alteddy/
index.htm) and this program will now be
used for all our flux calculations from the
two micrometeorological stations.
15
Temperature (°C)
Figure 2.20 Temporal
variation in Net Ecosystem
Exchange (NEE) and daily
mean air temperature
at the heath site during
2008.
12 Apr 2 May 22 May 11 June 1 July 21 July 10 Aug 30 Aug 19 Sep
1.0
Flux
Air temperature
0.5
(diurnal)
–30
end of the period is more stable as it is determined by decreasing solar radiation and
leaf senescence (table 2.12).
During the net uptake period, respiration only exceeded the photosynthesis one
day due to windy and cloudy weather and
a low level of incoming solar radiation. The
maximum uptake of CO2 (1.45 g C m-2 d-1)
was measured 21 July and is the highest
daily uptake measured at this site (table
2.12). Despite the relatively short period,
the total uptake of CO2 du-ring this period
was 36.4 g C m-2 which is the highest assimilation measured since monitoring began
in 2000. The high uptake is probably caused
by the unusually high summer temperatures. The mean temperature during the net
uptake period in 2008 was 2.5 ºC warmer,
than the same period in 2007. By 23 August,
respiration gradually exceeded the fading
photosynthesis and the system returned
to a net source of CO2. In the beginning of
this period, the ground is still unfrozen and
allows the microbial decomposition and
respiration to run, which releases CO2. The
highest release/emission was measured
23 August (0.5 g C m-2 d-1), just after the
systems had returned to become a carbon
source. A significant drop in emission was
observed in late September when diurnal
temperatures dropped below zero and the
soil started to freeze. The net emission in
autumn was measured to 6.6 g C m-2. This
is not enough to balance the uptake during summer and for the entire measuring
(field) season we end up with a total accumulation of 30.4 g C m-2. The net emission
for the autumn period in 2007 was 7.1 g C
m-2 which is a little more than in 2008. This
might be somehow surprising as the soil
was much warmer in 2008 than in 2007 (figures 2.19 and 2.20).
33
14th Annual Report, 2008
Fen 2007
3 Oct
6 Oct
9 Oct
12 Oct
15 Oct
18 Oct
20
0.50
15
0.25
10
0
5
–0.25
0
–0.50
–5
–0.75
–10
–1.00
–15
–1.25
264
266
268
270
272
Figure 2.21 Temporal
variation in Net Ecosystem
Exchange (NEE) and daily
mean air temperature at
the fen site during autumn 2007.
–20
Flux
Air temperature (diurnal)
–1.50
Temperature (°C)
NEE (g C m–2 day–1)
21 Sep 24 Sep 27 Sep 30 Sep
0.75
–25
274
276 278 280
Day of year
Fen site
In 2007, one month of flux data was obtained from the fen site (21 September – 20
October). When the measurements were
initiated the net uptake period was over
and respiration was again the dominant
process. A stable and small CO2 emission
was measured, with a mean of 0.2 g C m-2
d-1 and a total emission for the measuring
period of 5.4 g C m-2 (figure 2.21).
In 2008, the flux measurements in the
fen site began 13 April and lasted until 30
August by when the system was moved
back to the heath site in order to secure an
unbroken/continuous time series at the
main site. Until early June, only very small
fluxes were measured (figure 2.22). In the
end of June and early July, when snow
melted, some accumulated CO2 was released. Maximum emission was measured
5 July (1.29 g C m-2 d-1) (figure 2.22). The
net uptake period started 7 July - just one
day later than at the heath site and lasted
until 21 August when respiration gradually exceeded the fading photosynthesis and
282
284
286
288
290
the system returned to a source of CO2.
When measurements stopped 30 August
emission rates were still relatively high.
Both daily emissions and daily uptake
rates are much larger in the fen site than at
the heath site. The fen site is a much more
productive area, - primarily due to the
denser vegetation. The total CO2 uptake
during the net uptake period is measured to
be 100.2 g C m-2 which is about three times
the amount at the heath site, table 2.12).
In general for the two sites, maximum
diurnal uptake reaches levels that are
three to four times the maximum emission levels. And, for both sites, the uptake
is larger than the emission. Thereby, they
both act as net sinks of CO2.
Methane flux
After the summer monitoring 2007 (Klitgaard and Rasch 2008) the methane measurements were continued for two more
months, September and October 2007,
with surprising results. After the gradual
decrease in CH4 fluxes during August an
Fen 2008
13 Apr
2.0
23 May
12 June
2 July
22 July
11 Aug
12
Flux
Air temperature (diurnal)
7
2
0
–3
–1.0
-8
–13
–2.0
–18
–3.0
–23
–28
–4.0
–5.0
104
–33
–38
114
124
134
144
154
164 174 184
Day of year
194
204
214
224
234
Temperature (°C)
NEE (g C m–2 day–1)
1.0
3 May
Figure 2.22 Temporal
variation in Net Ecosystem
Exchange (NEE) and daily
mean air temperature at
the fen site during 2008.
Measurements stopped
in late August when the
station was moved to the
heath site.
34
14th Annual Report, 2008
25
20
15
10
5
0
17 June
7 July
Figure 2.23 Methane (CH4)
emission from the fen
(Tørvekæret) during summer and autumn 2007.
Dots: hourly averages
between six chambers,
error bars: their standard
deviations.
16 Aug
5 Sep
Date
25 Sep
15 Oct
4 Nov
unexpected burst was registered, peaking
in the first quarter of October (figure 2.23),
when the soil was freezing in. Freeze-in
emissions were much more variable than
summer emissions. Peak emissions during
the freeze-in period in individual chambers
reached levels of 112.5 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. The
phenomenon was described in (Mastepanov et al. 2008), in which a squeezing out
of the gas accumulated during the summer
season from the soil profile through frost
action was suggested as the most probable
explanation. The integral of CH4 emissions
during the freeze-in period amounts to approximately the same as the methane emitted during the entire summer season.
The 2008 monitoring of methane emission started 23 June. However, we did not
observe increases in CH4 emission similar
to what was seen in 2006 and 2007 (Klitgaard and Rasch 2007, and Klitgaard and
Rasch 2008); instead a very slow increase
of the fluxes progressed until the end of
July, when the emission level finally met
the previous years values (figure 2.24).
This notable difference in seasonal patterns can hardly be explained by the
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CH4 emission
2008
2007
2007
20 June
dynamics of active layer and water table
(see below) and the climate conditions
during the summer were not dramatically
different from previous years (see section
2.1 above). One of the possible explanations for the low mid-season fluxes may
be a thinning of the sub-surface gas pool
as a consequence of the previous autumn
burst; so during the following summer the
major share of the production is used for
regenerating the pool. We have, however,
as yet no hard data in support of this hypothesis. An interesting consequence of
this speculation could be that an autumn
burst is not an every-year feature, and it
probably did not take place in 2005-2006
(as there were no summertime flux suppressions in 2006-2007).
Another possible explanation of the difference between summer emissions 20062007 and 2008 can be a change of the site
water regime. As the water table level was
not unique this year (see below), it was
remarkable that water was flowing fast
through the site. One can speculate that
this movement could carry CH4 out of the
soil and cause release to the atmosphere in
streams under turbulent conditions.
The system was successfully operated
until a storm 25 August, when the site was
flooded and the instrument was damaged.
Active layer depth dynamics at the site
were more or less the same as 2006-2007
(figure 2.24); see also Klitgaard and Rasch
2007, and Klitgaard and Rasch 2008). The
maximum registered active layer depth
was approximately 55 cm (50.5 cm in 2007,
48 cm in 2006).
The difference between 2007 and 2008
in water table dynamics was significant
(figure 2.24), and the difference between
the previous two years (2006 and 2007)
30 June
10 July
20 July
30 July
Date
10
0
2008 –10
Water table level
–20
–30
–40
Active layer depth
–50
–60
–70
9 Aug
19 Aug
29 Aug
Depth (cm)
Figure 2.24 Methane
(CH4) emissions during
summer 2008 (black
circles with error bars)
compared to 2007 values
(open circles); right axis.
Water table level and active layer depth are given
on the right axis (dash
lines are the correspondent 2007 values).
27 July
Methane emission
(mg CH4 m–2 h–1)
Methane emission (mg CH4 m–2 h–1)
30
35
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 2.25 Map showing
the detailed coastal measurements that were carried out in 2008 by Aart
Kroon and Jørn Torp. Topographic profiles of the
central part of the delta
and along the shore, high
water line, salt marsh line,
coastal cliff line, coastal
cliff pegs, sounding markers, five m depth contour, and Zackenbergelven
profiles. Shades of gray (•)
indicates different profiles
that were covered. See
Kroon et al. 2009 for further details.
was even bigger (see Klitgaard and Rasch
2008). However, as it was seen last year,
the seasonal CH4 emission pattern does
not seem directly influenced by the water
table dynamics.
Aerosol monitoring
For the first time, particle deposition was
measured at Zackenberg. This was carried
out using a passive sampler (SIGMA-2)
placed 2 m above ground. The sampler
was installed at our arrival to Zackenberg
in mid-March and weekly deposition
was collected until September. The mast
was installed a few km east of the station
(UTM: 8265149 N, 513741 E, elevation: 44
m a.s.l.). The place was chosen in order
to diminish influence from the research
station, and to obtain realistic wind conditions (dominating wind from south and
east during the summer). At the moment
the collected filters are being analyzed at
Deutscher Wetterdienst (Freiburg, Germany). The sampling is part of a larger
monitoring network with similar equipment placed around Europe.
2.6 Geomorphology
Landscape monitoring based on photos of
different dynamic landforms such as talus
slopes, rock glaciers, mud slides, frost
boils, gullies, thermo karsts, beach ridges,
coastal cliffs, snow patches and ice wedges
are part of the GeoBasis monitoring programme.
Coastal geomorphology
Besides a re-survey of the two cross-shore
profiles P1 and P2 and the coastal retreat
rates at the southern coast of Zackenbergdalen that are part of the annual
monitoring, a more detailed survey of the
coastal area was carried out with differential GPS equipment (Kroon et al. 2009).
Several profiles were measured in the
old and the new delta and along the shore
of Zackenbergelven (figure 2.25). Especially, the erosion along the delta cliff on
the western side of the Zackenbergelven
outlet has been significant. Due to block
slumping, retreats of up to 125 m has taken place at some parts of the cliff within
the last six years. But major changes have
also occurred at the curved sandy spit. In
the last six years the spit has extended 125
m to the west and migrated a bit further
inland (Kroon et al. 2009). In the future,
we hope to be able to carry out detailed resurveys of the coastal area in order to gain
much more information of the dynamics
than we get from the limited annual measurements included in the monitoring programme.
36
14th Annual Report, 2008
3 ZACKENBERG BASIC
The GlacioBasis programme
Michele Citterio, Andreas P. Ahlstrøm and Robert S. Fausto
Figure 3.1 Map of the
investigated sector of A.P.
Olsen Ice Cap (shaded
area), showing the location of the ablation stakes
(circles), of the AWS’s
(triangles), and the tracks
of the GPR snow depth
surveys (solid lines). The
boundary of the Zackenberg river basin is marked
by the dashed line. Height
intervals between contour
lines is 50 m.
This chapter reports the results from the
first field season of the GlacioBasis programme. The primary aim of the GlacioBasis monitoring programme at Zackenberg is to produce a record of high quality
glaciological observations from the A.P.
Olsen Ice Cap and its outlet glacier in the
Zackenberg river basin.
This is of scientific interest given the
scarceness of glacier mass balance measurements from glaciers and local ice caps
in East Greenland, the strong impact that
local glaciers and ice caps outside the Ice
Sheet are expected to exert on sea level
rise in the present century (Meier et al.
2007), and the warming expected to occur
in the Arctic (IPCC 2007).
GlacioBasis is conceptually linked to
the other monitoring programmes in the
Zackenberg river basin through the contribution of glacier melt water discharge
to the river. Furthermore, the study site offers opportunities to extend investigations
to and also include a glacier dammed lake
on the eastern side of the studied outlet
glacier (which is regarded as the source
of several floods recorded downstream
in the past years), and to the formation of
superimposed ice, which is expected to be
significant at this site.
1389
1337
1416
1249
N
0
2
4 km
37
14th Annual Report, 2008
The first field campaign was carried out
in March and April 2008. Therefore, most
results, including the first glacier mass balance, will only be available after the next
field campaign, which is planned to take
place in May 2009.
Study site
The A.P. Olsen Ice Cap is located at 74°
39’ N and 21° 42’ W. The summit reaches
an elevation of 1425 m and the terminus
of the outlet glacier contributing to the
Zackenberg river basin is at 525 m (figure
3.1). Zackenberg Research Station is located SE of the site, approximately 35 km
downstream. The most direct access to the
glacier terminus is through Store Sødal.
The need to measure winter accumulation
requires fieldwork to be carried out during springtime, immediately before the
onset of significant snow melt. This timing is also dictated by snow-mobile use,
which greatly simplify access to the glacier
and transport of equipment and instrumentation. Fieldwork must be carried out
every year in order to maintain the stakes
network operational and to service the
automatic weather stations (AWS) on the
glacier.
Ablation and velocity stakes
Fieldwork started in spring 2008 with
the construction of a network of 14 ablation and surface velocity stakes distributed along the central flow line of the
A.P. Olsen outlet glacier and along three
transects at elevations of approximately
675, 900 and 1300 m (figure 3.1) respectively. Each 6 m long stake was assembled
from 2 m lengths of aluminium tube. A
Kovacs drill was used with success, allowing very fast drilling operations.
In order to measure the average surface
velocity over time, between setup and revisit, the position was of every stake were
surveyed by GPS. Unfortunately, no differential GPS position could be obtained
with the equipment available and the velocities will consequently be affected by a
large uncertainty. Better suited GPS equipment will be used in May 2009 during the
re-survey of the stakes. This will ensure
the desired accuracy to be achieved.
The glacier surface mass balance is
obtained from repeated surveys of the
ablation stakes network described above
to estimate the summer balance, and from
snow cover depth and snow density measurements to estimate the winter balance.
Ground penetrating radar and snow
pits
Depth of the snow cover was surveyed
by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using
a Malå Geoscience instrument equipped
with a 500 MHz shielded antenna towed
by a snow-mobile. Positioning of the radar
tracks was done by GPS, and the spacing
of the radar traces was based either on distance travelled or on time. Several control
measurements were made using a snow
probe to calibrate the radar signal velocity.
The reflections from the snow-ice interface
were always clearly defined below the
equilibrium line altitude (ELA). Above the
ELA, the previous summer surface separates snow from firn and the lower signal
velocity contrast results in a weaker and
more confuse GPR signal, but interpretation was nevertheless generally easy. Close
to the ELA, several firn layers separated
by summer surfaces could still be recognized in the radargrams (figure 3.2).
A snow density profile across the snow
cover is necessary to calculate the water
equivalent corresponding to an observed
depth of the snow cover. Several snow
pits were therefore dug at various elevations on the glacier, and snow density was
measured. These snow density measurements are also fundamental for calculating
the water equivalent of the snow surface
levels measured at the automatic weather
stations.
Preliminary result for the winter balance gradient for 2008 was 0.3 mm (water
equivalent) m-1. Data from more than one
year are needed to assess how representative this value is.
Figure 3.2 A sample GPR
line from a location immediately below the ELA. The
previous summer surface
at the base of the snowpack is very well defined,
and occurs at 18 to 30 ns
TWT (two-way traveltime).
38
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 3.3 The main AWS
at an elevation of 675 m,
with the complete suite
of sensors. The tripod
supports the logger and
most instruments and is
resting freely on the surface, while the stakes to
the left are drilled into the
ice and support the sonic
ranger sensor measuring
ice ablation.
Automatic weather station data
Meteorological observations from automatic weather stations (AWS) on a glaciated surface allow modelling the surface
energy balance at the AWS location which,
after calibration against observed mass
balance, may be used to evaluate the
sensitivity of the glacier to future climate
scenarios. Two AWS’s were set up in the
ablation zone during late March 2008,
at elevations of 675 and 880 m a.s.l., respectively (figure 3.1). The lower AWS
(figure 3.3) measures air temperature
and humidity within an aspirated shield,
barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave
radiation, incoming and outgoing long
wave radiation and ice temperature at
eight levels in the ice down to 10 m below
the surface. Snow depth and ice ablation
are also measured. Additional parameters
are measured and stored, such as the tilt
of the weather station, which is useful in
correcting the raw data. In addition to local storage in a memory card, data is also
transmitted to the Geological Survey of
Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) in Copenhagen by an Iridium satellite modem.
These AWS units, deployed in March 2008,
implement a new hardware and software
design based on the Campbell CR1000
data logger instead of the CR10X data logger that was used in previous GEUS stations. The system has proved very reliable,
with uninterrupted operation and a 100
% re-liability of transmissions during the
first year of deployment.
Figure 3.4 provides an overview of the
first year of raw measurements (April 2008
to March 2009) based on data transmitted
through the satellite link. Final processing will be carried out on the 10 minutes
records retrieved from the memory card
upon the re-visit of the station in May
2009. These data show that air temperature peaks can occasionally exceed 10
°C during summer and approach -30 °C
during winter (figure 3.4 a). Close to the
surface, the glacier wind is blowing from
northwest (figure 3.4 f).
The second AWS measures air temperature and relative humidity (in an aspirated
radiations shield), wind speed and direction, snow depth and ice ablation. It provides data for calculating the temperature
lapse rate, and provides an additional
record of snow depth and ice ablation.
Remote sensing
GEUS serves as regional centre for Greenland within the framework of the GLIMS
project (Global Land Ice Measurements
from Space) and we have requested satellite images from the Terra/ASTER sensor
over the study area. Unfortunately, most
of the relevant images were affected by
dense cloud cover. Hopefully, better images will be obtained in 2009.
39
14th Annual Report, 2008
20
15
100
A
80
Relative humidity (%)
Air temperature (°C)
10
B
5
0
–5
–10
–15
–20
60
40
20
–25
–30
27 Mar
2008
970
7 June
2008
18 Aug
2008
29 Oct
2008
9 Jan
2009
22 Mar
2009
500
C
950
940
930
920
910
900
890
27 Mar
2008
7 June
2008
18 Aug
2008
29 Oct
2008
9 Jan
2009
22 Mar
2009
18 Aug
2008
29 Oct
2008
9 Jan
2009
22 Mar
2009
7 June
2008
18 Aug
2008
29 Oct
2008
9 Jan
2009
22 Mar
2009
D
200
100
0
–100
27 Mar
2008
F
16
Wind speed (m s–1)
14
12
9
6
12
10
8
6
4
3
0
27 Mar
2008
300
18
E
15
Wind speed (m s–1)
7 June
2008
400
Net radiation flux (W m–2)
Barometric proessure (hPa)
960
18
0
27 Mar
2008
2
0
7 June
2008
18 Aug
2008
29 Oct
2008
Plans for the 2009 field season
Building on the successful establishing
phase accomplished during the first year
of GlacioBasis in 2008, future work will
focus on re-surveying and maintaining
the stakes network, on servicing the two
existing weather stations, on building a
third one at the top of the Ice Cap, and
on repeating the GPR measurements of
snow depth. Besides these activities snow
pits will be dug to obtain snow density
profiles. Given the potential of the glacier
dammed lake to produce large floods in
the glacier river, as the one that occurred
9 Jan
2009
22 Mar
2009
0
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
Wind direction (degrees)
in November 2008, 25 MHz and 100 MHz
GPR surveys will be carried out to image
any englacial conduit that may still exist
in the proximity of the glacier-dammed
lake. If possible, the bottom topography
of the drained lake will also be surveyed
by differential-GPS techniques to provide
an estimate of the amount of water it can
store.
Figure 3.4 The first year
of measurements from
the lower AWS on the
outlet glacier of the A.P.
Olsen Ice Cap, as received
through the satellite data
link. The first five panels
show time series of air
temperature (a) and relative humidity corrected
for saturation over ice for
sub-freezing conditions
(b), barometric pressure
(c), net radiation (d), and
wind speed (e). The last
panel shows the pattern
of wind speed vs. wind
direction (f).
40
14th Annual Report, 2008
4 ZACKENBERG BASIC
The BioBasis programme
Jannik Hansen, Lars Holst Hansen, Martin Ulrich Christensen, Anders Michelsen and Niels
Martin Schmidt
This chapter reports the 2008 field season
of the BioBasis programme and relevant
findings of the IPY project ‘The influence of
snow and ice on the winter functioning and
annual carbon balance of a high-arctic ecosystem (ISICaB)’. More results from the ISICaB project are reported in section 2.5, 5.5
and 6.4. The BioBasis programme at Zackenberg is carried out by the Department of
Arctic Environment at the National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University. BioBasis is funded by the Danish
Environmental Protection Agency as part
of the environmental support programme
‘Danish Cooperation for Environment in the
Arctic (DANCEA)’, while ISICaB is funded
by the Commission for Scientific Research
in Greenland (KVUG). The authors are
solely responsible for all results and conclusions presented in the report, which do
not necessarily reflect the position of the
Danish Environmental Protection Agency
or KVUG.
Detailed information on the BioBasis
methods and updated sampling protocols
are available at http://www.zackenberg.dk
4.1 Vegetation
The weekly records of snow-cover, plant
flowering and reproduction were conducted by Martin Ulrich Christensen from 10
May to 30 May and Lars Holst Hansen
Table 4.1 Inter- and extrapolated Day of Year of 50 % snow-cover for white arctic bell-heather Cassiope tetragona, mountain avens Dryas integrifolia/
octopetala, arctic poppy Papaver radicatum, arctic willow Salix arctica, purple saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia and moss campion Silene acaulis plots
1996-2008. Brackets denote extrapolated dates.
Plot
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Cassiope 1
166
160
164
Cassiope 2
171
172
178
178
154
158
164
157
<155
143
164
155
164
185
<156
172
171
164
168
158
183
167
174
Cassiope 3
167
172
Cassiope 4
172
166
171
184
165
171
171
158
159
148
179
158
172
171
185
165
172
168
158
159
158
174
164
174
Dryas 1
<155
<147
(143)
157
<156
<151
<150
(155)
<154
<140
(150)
<145
147
Dryas 2 / Salix 7
178
178
185
193
173
184
179
173
173
168
192
170
182
Dryas 3
158
<147
158
170
<156
157
157
157
<155
<140
151
<145
147
Dryas 4
153
154
164
172
<156
158
157
(151)
<153
(118)
164
152
162
Dryas 5
158
151
155
165
<156
156
157
157
<153
<140
177
<145
152
Dryas 6 / Papaver 4
173
185
186
192
172
179
181
170
173
165
191
164
184
Papaver 1
172
169
172
184
153
171
169
163
166
152
179
162
169
Papaver 2 / Salix 5
172
171
172
185
166
172
171
172
163
158
183
161
178
Papaver 3
173
166
171
184
165
172
170
165
160
158
174
163
174
Salix 1
<155
<147
<147
<152
<155
<151
<150
(151)
<155
<140
(145)
<145
137
Salix 2
166
171
174
182
165
172
165
165
161
156
178
160
169
Salix 3
159
159
163
175
<155
158
158
(153)
<155
(138)
160
151
163
Salix 4
172
156
172
173
159
162
161
164
157
150
165
154
161
173
166
186
165
182
Salix 6
Saxifraga / Silene 1
<155
<147
<147
<152
<155
<151
<150
(152)
<154
<140
<146
<145
<131
Saxifraga / Silene 2
<155
<147
<147
(147)
<155
<151
<150
(151)
<154
<140
<146
<145
<131
–
<147
147
157
<155
(147)
<150
(152)
<154
(128)
158
152
145
176
179
171
187
173
179
176
170
170
163
186
164
176
Saxifraga / Silene 3
Silene 4
41
14th Annual Report, 2008
from 31 May to 26 August, while Niels
Martin Schmidt assisted during the season. Torbern Tagesson made additional
sampling and measurements in September
and October. Kristina Mathiesen and Kristine S. Boesgaard conducted fluorescence
and carbon-flux measurements in July.
Reproductive phenology and flowering
The field season began 9 May. Compared
to previous years, snowmelt was a bit
later than average in 2008. Dates of 50 %
snow-cover in 15 of 22 plant plots were
late compared to previous years (table
4.1). The later snowmelt resulted in later
50 % flowering in 12 of 28 plots (table 4.2).
However, three of four Silene-plots and
five of six Dryas-plots were earlier than the
1996-2007 average.
Dates of 50 % open seed capsules are
listed in table 4.3. For arctic poppy Papaver
radicatum, dates were early for three of
four plots. For arctic willow Salix arctica,
dates were late for four of seven plots for
which previous data exists. For purple
saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia, dates were
relatively early for one of the three plots.
The season of 2008 generally had very
low numbers of flowers produced (table
4.4). In 31 of 43 plots the number of flowers were less or equal to the 1996-2007 average, and new minima occurred for one
mountain avens Dryas sp. plot, one arctic
poppy Papaver radicatum plot, one arctic
willow Salix arctica plot (new minima for
the female and male flowers), two purple
saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia plots and
one moss campion Silene acaulis plot.
Table 4.2 Inter- and extrapolated Day of Year of 50 % open flowers (50/50 ratio of buds/open flowers) for white arctic bell-heather Cassiope
tetragona, mountain avens Dryas integrifolia/octopetala, arctic poppy Papaver radicatum, arctic willow Salix arctica, purple saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia and moss campion Silene acaulis, 1996-2008. Brackets denote interpolated dates based on less than 50 buds + flowers.
Plot
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Cassiope 1
184
187
187
194
(180)
185
184
178
175
167
185
178
186
Cassiope 2
188
201
(202)
(207)
–
193
188
184
187
173
201
186
193
Cassiope 3
191
199
(200)
(207)
–
192
190
183
182
173
200
185
194
Cassiope 4
197
196
(202)
(207)
–
200
188
186
185
183
200
186
195
Dryas 1
171
173
177
184
178
173
176
181
173
164
177
173
172
Dryas 2
195
216
220
–
206
213
210
200
200
198
215
192
204
Dryas 3
184
177
187
194
179
187
179
180
175
164
180
177
174
Dryas 4
179
187
(190)
195
178
187
179
174
174
164
187
178
186
Dryas 5
182
186
182
188
174
186
179
179
172
164
172
171
175
Dryas 6
201
221
(219)
231
203
210
213
198
199
194
214
191
206
Papaver 1
196
201
205
214
186
193
193
186
193
185
206
(188)
195
Papaver 2
196
204
207
211
197
195
194
189
190
190
208
188
204
Papaver 3
196
200
207
213
192
198
194
192
187
187
201
(187)
199
Papaver 4
197
219
223
227
(202)
(208)
214
198
194
194
214
(192)
204
Salix 1
158
157
163
165
163
159
160
168
156
155
165
161
161
Salix 2
173
180
191
198
180
180
179
179
173
165
196
177
187
Salix 3
172
176
(179)
186
163
175
167
166
159
157
174
165
174
Salix 4
181
174
183
184
169
179
177
174
173
164
180
170
174
Salix 5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
186
175
164
194
174
193
Salix 6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
197
184
200
179
194
Salix 7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
187
187
202
182
195
Saxifraga 1
–
151
156
158
158
159
154
165
157
144
(151)
(160)
(159)
Saxifraga 2
–
153
158
165
161
159
157
165
157
152
157
158
158
Saxifraga 3
157
152
160
167
159
160
158
165
<154
146
172
165
(159)
Silene 1
172
175
172
179
178
179
174
182
173
165
170
173
172
Silene 2
175
180
182
181
184
181
178
185
181
166
182
179
173
Silene 3
182
177
174
187
180
185
179
185
172
166
194
(179)
173
Silene 4
208
222
232
–
210
210
209
201
201
197
194
193
207
42
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.3 Inter- and extrapolated Day of Year of 50 % open seed capsules for arctic poppy Papaver radicatum, arctic willow Salix arctica and purple
saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia 1995-2008. Brackets denote interpolated dates based on less than 50 flowers + open capsules.
Plot
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Papaver 1
217
228
–
242
>238
222
228
232
213
219
212
232
223
(211)
Papaver 2
227
228
236
–
>238
(230)
228
229
215
219
215
234
221
226
Papaver 3
218
226
231
–
241
227
230
232
218
216
212
223
220
215
Papaver 4
232
–
>239
–
(>238)
(229)
236
(238)
222
227
220
(239)
(222)
(222)
Salix K1S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(223)
Salix K2S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(221)
Salix K3S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(223)
Salix K4S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(222)
Salix K5S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(221)
Salix W1S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(232)
Salix W2S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(>234)
Salix W3S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(225)
Salix W4S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(>234)
Salix W5S
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(>234)
Salix 1
220
221
220
217
225
225
214
210
214
208
201
219
218
(211)
Salix 2
224
222
231
242
237
233
230
223
215
218
215
231
220
227
Salix 3
214
221
228
(231)
228
225
226
217
209
209
206
223
215
225
Salix 4
224
230
226
233
228
226
225
224
215
219
210
223
219
225
Salix 5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
216
220
219
>240
221
229
Salix 6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
223
223
226
>240
222
234
Salix 7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
225
223
226
>240
224
234
Saxifraga 1
–
202
222
223
225
222
220
216
219
205
203
(217)
218
195
Saxifraga 2
–
205
228
236
227
228
226
213
223
209
212
217
216
205
Saxifraga 3
–
220
221
235
228
220
225
224
221
205
212
225
221
188
Fungus infection in Salix arctica
Fungus infected pods were recorded in four
out of the 17 Salix plots. Peak ratios were in
line with previous years except for one plot
having a very high rate of 18 % (table 4.5).
Vegetation greening
The greening index data (NDVI) inferred
from an ASTER satellite image from 24 July
2008 are presented in table 4.6. Means for
2008 are compared with data from previous
years after extrapolation to simulate 31 July
each year (table 4.7). Landscape NDVI in
all sections were a little above average compared to previous years (table 4.7).
Based on the NDVI calibration experiments performed during the 2007 season,
values of NDVI from the previous seasons
obtained by means of RVI measurements
were recalculated to reflect the measurements conducted using Crop Circle in
2007 onwards. Table 4.8 lists the peak
dates (as Day of Year - DOY, see Appendix) of the recalculated values along with
peak dates for measured values from 2007
and 2008 for the 26 vegetation plots in
addition to the peak NVDI values (recalculated and measured) themselves. NDVI
in the plots generally peaked late in 2008,
which may be due to the late snow melt,
but also to two rainstorms on Day of Year
204 and Day of Year 236 to 238 which may
have affected the NDVI.
Figure 4.1 summarises the two main
NDVI transects measured throughout the
2008 season. On the ZERO line, NDVI
peaked around Day of Year 230 on the
higher parts whereas there was an increase
late in the lower parts with very high
NDVI values by the end of the season. In
the lowland, NDVI peaked around Day
of Year 208. However, the final planned
transect in the lowland was not made
due to snow, and the actual NDVI peak is
therefore uncertain.
ITEX temperature chamber plots
Open top chambers in the two ITEX sites
were established during mid and late June
for Salix and Cassiope respectively, and
43
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.4 Area size (m2) and pooled numbers of flower buds, flowers and senescent flowers of white arctic bell-heather Cassiope tetragona,
mountain avens Dryas integrifolia/octopetala, arctic poppy Papaver radicatum, arctic willow Salix arctica, purple saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia,
moss campion Silene acaulis, arctic cotton-grass Eriophorum scheuzerii, ‘dark cotton-grass’ Eriophorum triste in 1995-2008. Numbers in brackets
have been extrapolated from 1995 and 1996 data to adjust for enlargement of plots (see Meltofte and Rasch 1998).
Plot
Area
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Mean
2008
Cassiope 1
2
1321
1386
1855
322
312
28
1711
1510
851
2080
1392
973
435
1090
1183
Cassiope 2
3
1759
550
19
16
8
1353
952
1001
1745
1203
593
300
792
958
Cassiope 3
2
256
844
789
35
18
0
771
449
817
791
862
432
92
474
704
Cassiope 4
3
456
1789
391
24
6
3
578
164
1189
1274
1857
520
223
652
1340
Cassiope 5
2.5
–
–
1224
455
474
50
3214
3208
2708
2006
2648
1238
–
1723
–
Cassiope 6
2
–
–
>350
16
3
1
544
736
134
2796
3938
610
–
913
–
Dryas 1
4
(936)
(797)
138
223
852
607
1016
627
744
444
391
321
150
557
190
Dryas 2
60
534
1073
230
42
49
46
172
290
552
1174
519
521
577
445
806
Dryas 3
2
603
522
123
255
437
266
577
235
294
273
198
134
92
308
92
Dryas 4
6
(325)
(164)
155
69
356
55
301
187
224
218
143
168
191
197
141
Dryas 5
6
(654)
(504)
123
191
655
312
506
268
589
351
233
123
125
356
103
Dryas 6
91
809
1406
691
10
25
140
550
430
627
1854
878
1324
1144
761
1606
Dryas 7
12
–
–
787
581
1355
574
1340
1483
1543
1026
599
363
–
965
–
Dryas 8
12
–
–
391
240
798
170
403
486
545
229
243
119
–
362
–
Papaver 1
105
302
337
265
190
220
197
237
277
278
286
207
153
108
235
80
Papaver 2
150
814
545
848
316
315
236
466
456
564
402
682
416
334
492
500
Papaver 3
90
334
238
289
266
183
240
259
301
351
221
316
234
236
267
190
Papaver 4
91
196
169
192
80
30
35
65
59
56
37
68
71
29
84
71
Salix 1 mm.
60
–
807
959
63
954
681
536
1454
1931
1127
375
303
184
781
0
Salix 1 ff.
60
520
1096
1349
149
1207
900
1047
1498
2159
1606
386
223
241
952
0
Salix 2 mm.
300
–
790
1082
132
416
55
803
1206
967
1276
737
654
317
703
758
Salix 2 ff.
300
617
1376
1909
455
418
95
1304
1816
1638
1862
1089
1076
386
1080
506
Salix 3 mm.
36
239
479
412
32
52
330
1196
344
621
693
285
204
169
389
492
Salix 3 ff.
36
253
268
237
38
68
137
1009
315
333
476
188
129
154
277
332
Salix 4 mm.
150
–
1314
831
509
718
965
680
1589
1751
1984
1317
1508
1108
1190
1894
Salix 4 ff.
150
1073
1145
642
709
880
796
858
1308
1418
1755
1038
905
827
1027
1768
Salix 5 mm.
150
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
494
844
945
1052
414
750
831
Salix 5 ff.
150
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
371
1314
1333
1365
525
982
1209
Salix 6 mm.
150
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2162
2445
591
525
1431
1565
Salix 6 ff.
150
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1145
2736
2010
947
1085
1585
2401
Salix 7 mm.
60
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
612
621
746
286
351
523
515
Salix 7 ff.
60
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
839
512
705
180
266
500
570
Saxifraga 1
7
–
(1010)
141
163
584
1552
558
542
1213
463
159
36
190
551
124
Saxifraga 2
6
–
513
387
432
158
387
515
617
561
584
522
167
313
430
99
Saxifraga 3
10
–
529
322
288
707
403
558
318
509
609
241
150
394
419
90
Silene 1
7
–
(251)
403
437
993
1327
674
766
1191
1187
312
430
94
672
171
Silene 2
6
–
493
524
440
400
692
568
1094
917
1406
740
540
285
675
267
Silene 3
10
–
348
211
127
313
274
348
480
1000
719
503
739
379
453
170
Silene 4
1
466
270
493
312
275
358
462
470
794
509
483
312
423
433
373
E. scheuz. 1
10
–
395
423
257
309
229
111
582
843
780
201
302
533
414
310
E. scheuz. 2
6
–
537
344
172
184
201
358
581
339
956
597
540
142
413
193
E. scheuz. 3
10
–
392
545
482
587
38
367
260
237
359
67
44
31
284
37
E. scheuz. 4
8
–
260
755
179
515
117
121
590
445
176
57
23
55
274
74
E. triste 1
10
–
0
3
1
1
1
0
3
11
12
0
0
1
3
1
E. triste 2
6
–
98
59
21
16
43
56
67
39
117
44
49
13
52
14
E. triste 3
10
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
E. triste 4
8
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
44
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.5 Peak ratio (%) of female Salix pods infested by fungi in Salix plots in 1996-2008, ‘+’ indicates non-quantified fungi infestation.
Plot
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Salix 1
5
4
0
22
4
1
3
+
2
0
0
0
0
Salix 2
0
1
2
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
Salix 3
0
0
0
6
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
7
5
Salix 4
16
3
0
6
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
Salix 5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
4
0
2
4
Salix 6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
1
0
0
0
Table 4.6 Area size (km2) and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values for 13 sections of the bird and
musk ox monitoring areas in Zackenbergdalen together with the lemming monitoring area based on an ASTER
satellite image from 24 July 2008 (for position of the snow sections, see Meltofte et al. 2008). The image has been
corrected for atmospheric (humidity, aerosols, and solar angle) and terrain effects. All negative NDVI values, i.e.
from water and snow-covered areas, have been replaced by zeros.
Section
Area
Min.
Max.
Mean
Std. dev.
1 (0–50 m)
3.52
0.00
0.86
0.37
0.17
2 (0–50 m)
7.97
0.00
1.00
0.49
0.17
3 (50–150 m)
3.52
0.00
0.90
0.53
0.17
4 (150–300 m)
2.62
0.00
0.83
0.46
0.17
5 (300–600 m)
2.17
0.00
0.85
0.38
0.21
6 (50–150 m)
2.15
0.00
0.83
0.47
0.15
7 (150–300 m)
3.36
0.00
0.86
0.47
0.17
8 (300–600 m)
4.56
0.00
0.86
0.38
0.22
9 (0–50 m)
5.01
0.00
1.00
0.53
0.15
10 (50–150 m)
3.84
0.00
0.86
0.55
0.15
11 (150–300 m)
3.18
0.00
0.93
0.51
0.19
12 (300–600 m)
3.82
0.00
0.93
0.45
0.24
13 (Lemmings)
2.05
0.00
0.86
0.48
0.15
Total Area
45.72
0.00
0.89
0.47
0.18
Table 4.7 Mean NDVI values for 13 sections of the bird and musk ox monitoring areas in Zackenbergdalen together with the lemming monitoring
area based on Landsat TM, ETM+ and SPOT 4 HRV and ASTER satellite images 1995-2008 (for position of sections, see Meltofte et. al 2008). The
data have been corrected for differences in growth phenology between years to simulate the 31 July value, i.e. the approximate optimum date for
the plant communities in most years. Data from 2003 are not available due to technical problems.
Section
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
1 (0–50 m)
0.37
0.43
0.44
0.44
0.30
0.41
0.34
0.34
–
0.42
0.41
0.39
0.37
0.37
2 (0–50 m)
0.43
0.5
0.5
0.51
0.41
0.48
0.43
0.44
–
0.50
0.49
0.47
0.44
0.49
3 (50–150 m)
0.54
0.53
0.54
0.53
0.41
0.51
0.47
0.49
–
0.54
0.53
0.48
0.46
0.53
4 (150–300 m)
0.46
0.45
0.46
0.44
0.31
0.43
0.36
0.38
–
0.41
0.40
0.38
0.35
0.46
5 (300–600 m)
0.36
0.35
0.38
0.38
0.22
0.37
0.26
0.26
–
0.31
0.30
0.28
0.24
0.38
6 (50–150 m)
0.48
0.48
0.47
0.46
0.33
0.44
0.39
0.41
–
0.46
0.45
0.43
0.40
0.47
7 (150–300 m)
0.48
0.46
0.48
0.45
0.32
0.43
0.38
0.39
–
0.45
0.44
0.40
0.37
0.47
8 (300–600 m)
0.42
0.38
0.41
0.42
0.25
0.35
0.28
0.29
–
0.33
0.32
0.32
0.28
0.38
9 (0–50 m)
0.42
0.5
0.52
0.51
0.39
0.50
0.44
0.45
–
0.52
0.51
0.47
0.44
0.53
10 (50–150 m)
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.52
0.40
0.52
0.48
0.48
–
0.55
0.54
0.49
0.46
0.55
11 (150–300 m)
0.47
0.45
0.46
0.42
0.26
0.41
0.35
0.36
–
0.45
0.44
0.39
0.38
0.51
12 (300–600 m)
0.42
0.42
0.44
0.45
0.28
0.32
0.34
0.33
–
0.41
0.40
0.39
0.33
0.45
13 (Lemmings)
0.42
0.49
0.5
0.49
0.40
0.47
0.41
0.43
–
0.48
0.47
0.45
0.42
0.48
Total
0.45
0.46
0.48
0.47
0.32
0.43
0.38
0.38
–
0.45
0.44
0.42
0.39
0.47
45
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.8 Peak NDVI recorded in 26 plant plots 1999-2008 together with Day of Year of maximum values. NDVI values from 1999-2006 are
based on data from hand held RVI measurements, and have been recalculated to account for varying incoming radiation that otherwise affects
the measurements. Note that the greening measured accounts for the entire plant community, in which the taxon denoted may only make up a
smaller part. Data from 2004 are not included due to instrumental error.
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2005
2006
2007
2008
Plot
NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY NDVI DOY
Cassiope 1
0.39
203
0.39
211
0.40
203
0.40
224
0.37
210
0.37
217
0.36
220
0.35
218
0.36
239
Cassiope 2
0.39
210
0.41
204
0.41
203
0.39
210
0.39
217
0.40
217
0.38
220
0.37
218
0.39
239
Cassiope 3
0.34
203
0.35
204
0.37
203
0.34
210
0.34
217
0.38
210
0.35
224
0.41
218
0.34
239
Cassiope 4
0.41
203
0.42
204
0.41
203
0.38
217
0.40
210
0.44
210
0.41
220
0.39
218
0.45
239
Dryas 1
0.47
203
0.42
204
0.44
203
0.43
210
0.43
189
0.39
190
0.37
220
0.35
218
0.41
239
Dryas 2/Salix 7
0.46
231
0.47
211
0.47
203
0.51
217
0.47
203
0.48
217
0.46
220
0.49
218
0.49
239
Dryas 3
0.50
203
0.49
204
0.51
203
0.51
210
0.50
203
0.46
196
0.45
220
0.42
190
0.43
206
Dryas 4
0.41
203
0.38
204
0.42
203
0.40
210
0.38
203
0.41
210
0.38
212
0.36
211
0.40
239
Dryas 5
0.36
203
0.34
204
0.37
203
0.36
210
0.34
196
0.33
210
0.30
212
0.26
176
0.35
239
Dryas 6/
Papaver 4
0.43
238
0.46
204
0.46
203
0.47
217
0.45
203
0.47
210
0.44
220
0.43
218
0.47
250
Eriophorum 1
0.57
210
0.58
196
0.61
203
0.61
210
0.59
189
0.60
196
0.60
220
0.51
190
0.57
219
Eriophorum 2
0.54
210
0.54
204
0.56
203
0.54
210
0.53
203
0.52
196
0.52
220
0.47
218
0.51
206
Eriophorum 3
0.53
231
0.53
204
0.52
203
0.53
210
0.50
203
0.47
196
0.47
220
0.43
218
0.50
206
Eriophorum 4
0.67
217
0.69
204
0.69
203
0.70
217
0.71
189
0.72
210
0.72
220
0.68
197
0.64
206
Papaver 1
0.40
210
0.41
204
0.42
203
0.45
210
0.42
203
0.42
217
0.41
220
0.41
218
0.42
239
Papaver 2/
Salix 5
0.41
210
0.43
204
0.44
203
0.45
210
0.43
203
0.46
210
0.44
220
0.45
218
0.44
239
Papaver 3
0.41
203
0.42
204
0.43
203
0.42
210
0.42
203
0.45
210
0.41
212
0.40
218
0.46
239
Salix 1
0.57
203
0.54
204
0.56
203
0.56
210
0.57
189
0.52
196
0.51
220
0.51
197
0.53
206
Salix 2
0.52
210
0.52
204
0.54
203
0.55
210
0.53
189
0.52
196
0.53
220
0.48
197
0.50
211
Salix 3
0.45
203
0.44
204
0.46
203
0.46
210
0.43
189
0.41
210
0.41
220
0.38
197
0.41
206
Salix 4
0.51
203
0.49
204
0.51
203
0.52
210
0.50
189
0.49
196
0.49
220
0.47
218
0.48
206
Salix 6
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
0.48
212
0.48
210
0.46
220
0.47
218
0.44
239
Saxifraga/
Silene 1
0.30
203
0.27
204
0.29
203
0.26
210
0.27
196
0.24
210
0.24
212
0.20
218
0.22
250
Saxifraga/
Silene 2
0.37
203
0.38
204
0.40
203
0.37
210
0.39
189
0.37
190
0.34
212
0.35
218
0.37
206
Saxifraga/
Silene 3
0.29
203
0.29
204
0.32
182
0.29
210
0.29
203
0.27
210
0.27
212
0.25
218
0.27
239
Silene 4
0.36
203
0.38
196
0.37
203
0.37
217
0.35
196
0.39
210
0.35
224
0.39
218
0.38
239
Mean of all
0.44 208.9 0.44 203.9 0.46 202.2 0.45 212.0 0.44 199.8 0.44 205.8 0.43 218.5 0.41 210.7 0.43 227.8
Figure 4.1 Interpolated
NDVI isoclines along two
transects during the 2008
season. Measurements
over snow have been substituted with zero.
46
800
Net Ecosystem Production
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
Ecosystem Respiration
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
600
Gross Ecosystem Production
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
Figure 4.2 CO2 flux in
the ITEX chambers and
controls during the summer of 2008. Two sites
were monitored: (a) a
Salix arctica dominated
heath, and (b) a Cassiope
tetragona dominated
heath. By convention,
the CO2 flux is negative
when carbon is released
from the ecosystem and
positive when carbon is
accumulated in the ecosystem.
14th Annual Report, 2008
A
Control
Warming
400
800
B
600
400
200
200
0
0
–200
–200
–400
–600
–400
–800
800
–600
800
600
600
400
200
400
0
200
–200
0
–400
–600
800
–200
800
600
600
400
400
200
200
0
0
21 June 3 July 17 July 26 July 14 Aug
3 July
16 July
26 July
14 Aug
Date
they were taken down again in late August. The ITEX chamber that was left during winter 2007-2008 revealed a marked
accumulation of snow within the chamber
which resulted in a delay in snow melt-off
compared to the control sites. Consequently, from now on, the chambers will be
taken down by the end of the field season.
During the growing season, ecosystem
respiration was measured in dark chambers, and net ecosystem production was
measured in transparent chambers using
an EGM-4 infrared gas analyser. The data
show that Salix arctica dominated heath is a
more productive vegetation type than the
Cassiope tetragona dominated heath (figure
4.2). All ecosystems showed increasing net
ecosystem production from spring to late
summer, with positive values in late summer, showing that carbon accumulates in
the ecosystem during this period.
In the Salix dominated heath (figure 4.2
A), the ecosystem respiration tended to
be higher in warmed plots than in control
plots. However, warming also leads to an
even stronger increase in Gross Ecosystem
Respiration, and the Net Carbon Balance is
therefore slightly facilitated by warming,
with the exception of the measurement in
mid-June, when the leaves of the deciduous
Salix are not yet fully expanded. In Cassiope
dominated heath (figure 4.2 B), the pattern
is less clear, probably because the vegetation
is more patchy and sparse, and the Cassiope
shows low productivity. Warming does not
seem to influence the CO2 fluxes there.
UV-B exclusion plots
In July 2008, metal frame bases for the
measurements of carbon fluxes were
established in all plots at the UV-B monitoring site. Net Ecosystem Exchange and
respiration was measured during the
remaining part of the field season. Removal of UV-B seems to promote Gross
Ecosystem Production compared to filter
47
14th Annual Report, 2008
control plots with similar microclimate as
the UV-B filtered plots (figure 4.3). Current
UV-B levels may therefore be harmful to
high arctic plant production.
Leaf fluorescence measurements were
conducted late July and early August
(figure 4.4). Though the exclusion of UV-B
had a positive effect on the Fv/Fm index
as expected for both Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum (figure 4.4), the effect was
not significant. The lack of significant response was unexpected as previous studies at Zackenberg have reported marked
effects (Albert et al. 2005). This may however be due to inter-annual variation in
light and UV-B dose, as well as the short
duration of the treatments.
800
Ecosystem Respiration
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
400
200
0
–200
–400
–600
800
600
Net Ecosystem Production
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
GLORIA
In July 2008, the international monitoring
programme Global Observation Research
Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA)
was implemented at Zackenberg as an integrated part of the BioBasis programme.
More information on the location of the
field sites and the base line data can be
found in section 6.5.
400
200
0
Gross Ecosystem Production
(mg CO2 m–2 h–1)
–200
800
4.2 Arthropods
All five pitfall trap stations, each now with
four subplots (see Klitgaard and Rasch
2008), and one window trap station (with
four trap chambers) were open during the
2008 season. Sampling procedures were the
same as in previous seasons. Field work
was carried out by Lars Holst Hansen with
assistance from Martin Ulrich Christensen
and Jannik Hansen. Samples were sorted
by personnel at the Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental
Research Institute, Aarhus University. The
0.90
Open control
Filter control
UV-B exclusion
600
600
400
200
0
17 July
27 July
Date
14 Aug
Figure 4.3 CO2 flux in the UV-B exclusion plots, filter controls and controls during
summer 2008. By convention, the CO2 flux is negative when carbon is released from
the ecosystem and positive when carbon is accumulated by the ecosystem.
Vaccinium uliginosum
Salix arctica
Control
Filter
0.75
Fv/Fm (a.u.)
UV-B
0.60
0.45
0.30
0.15
0
201
206
209
212
214
201
Day of year
206
209
212
214
Figure 4.4 The leaf fluorescence measure Fv/Fm in
UV-B exclusion plots; filter
controls and controls in
2008.
48
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.9 Date of 50 % snow-cover (ice-cover on pond at Station 1) in the arthropod plots 1996-2008. *0 % snow, **<1 % snow, ***7 % ice cover.
Station no.
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Arthropod 1
155
Dry
157
167
153
157
154
163
<153***
<140
156
148
154
Arthropod 2
<155*
148
149
159
<156*
<1515*
<151*
152
<153*
<140*
<147
<146*
147
Arthropod 3
166
170
169
178
161
170
165
171
156
154
174
158
172
Arthropod 4
166
173
177
183
159
172
171
162
158
156
179
161
174
Arthropod 5
156
<149*
153
163
<156*
159
154
156
<153*
<140
154
<176**
150
Arthropod 7
–
–
–
<154
<156*
<150
<151*
153
<153*
<140
<147
<176**
144
material is stored in 70 % ethanol at the
Museum of Natural History, Aarhus University. Please contact the BioBasis manager
regarding access to the collection.
The total number of arthropods collected in 2008 was 31,002. Dates for ice
and snow melt at the arthropod trap
stations were near to average in 2008
(table 4.9).
Window traps
Figure 4.5 Numbers
of chironomid midges
Chironomidae caught per
week in the window traps
in 2008 compared with
the mean for 1996-2007.
This season, window traps were opened
on 28 May, when the eastern and western
ponds had ice covers of 90 %. The traps
worked continuously until 28 August. The
total number of specimens caught this season in the window traps was 15,755 (table
4.10). This number is the highest number
ever caught at Zackenberg.
Thrips, Thysanoptera, were caught in
the highest numbers since the start of the
programme.
This year, the midges, Chironomids,
were caught in very high numbers, and the
peak was very high, i.e. twice as high as
the 1996-2007 average (figure 4.5 and table
4.10). Early in the season, the curve was
steeper than usual, but the peak was in the
same week as the average for the previous
ten years. 77 % of the midges were caught
during two weeks (collection dates 18 and
25 June). In fact, 47 % were caught during
7000
Chironomidae 2008
6000
Chironomidae avg.1996–2007
Numbers
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
150
170
190
210
Day of year
230
250
the first of those two weeks. For weather
during this period, see section 2.1.
Dark-winged fungus gnats, Sciaridae,
were caught in very high numbers compared to previous seasons. Only in 2005,
more Sciaridae were caught in window
traps.
Dung flies, Anthomyidae, continue
to rise in numbers with new record
numbers caught. House flies, Muscidae,
had higher numbers than the record
low numbers of 2006 and 2007, but still
only half the numbers compared to the
1996-2006 average (figure 4.6; table 4.10).
Mites, Acarina, were caught in record
low numbers (table 4.10).
Pitfall traps
The first pitfall traps were established 27
May, and all traps were in use from 25
June to 25 August. The number of trapping days in 2008 was 1,578, which is low
compared to previous seasons due to the
fact that the number of traps used in 2008
was half the number used prior to 2007
(table 4.11). Weekly totals were pooled
for all five stations and are presented in
table 4.11 with totals from 2003-2007 for
comparison. 15,247 arthropods were collected from the pitfall traps in the 2008
season. This is low number compared to
other years, even when taking the reduced
number of pitfall traps into account.
Spring tails, Collembola, were caught
in numbers higher than average, as were
scale insects, Coccoidea, and thrips, Thysanoptera. Mosquitos, Culicidae, were
caught in low numbers. Midges, Chironomidae, were caught in numbers lower
than the average for 1996-2007 (table 4.11).
Again, it should be kept in mind that
only half the numbers of traps were open.
The background data show that the overwhelming majority of the midges were
caught in the traps in a fen, and most of
these were from the same two collection
dates as in the window traps.
49
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.10 Weekly totals of arthropods etc. caught in the window trap stations in 2008. The station holds two window traps situated perpendicular to each other. Each window measures 20×20 cm. Values from each date represents catches from the previous week. Totals for 2000-2007 are
given for comparison.
Day of year/Year
155 162 170
177
183
190
198
207 211 219 225 232 238 2008
2007
2006 2005 2004 2003 2002
No. of trap days
12
14
14
14
16
16
8
14
176
184
178
195
172
168
168
13
10
1
1
15
71
33
58
112
175
31
191
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
1
6
10
0
1
1
0
0
8
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
5
7
7
11
0
3
0
0
1
9
2
6
3
9
3
1
5
4
1
1
13
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
6
1
4
7
1
1
0
COLLEMBOLA
12
16
9
8
14
14
12
14
COLEOPTERA
0
0
Latridius minutus
HEMIPTERA
0
1
Nysius groenlandicus
Aphidoidea
1
1
1
Coccoidea
THYSANOPTERA
3
2
1
3
1
2
1
LEPIDOPTERA
0
Colias hecla
0
Clossiana sp.
1
Lycaenidae
2
1
Geometridae
Noctuidae
3
1
1
1
DIPTERA
0
Nematocera larvae
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
Nematocera undet.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tipulidae
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Trichoceridae
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
88
53
68
128
104
96
232
Culicidae
Chironomidae
10
3
17
25
4
72 6738 4210 1334 1064 361
Ceratopogonidae
1
7
2
5
15
4
60
69
23
2
1
3
4
83
32
9
21
66
7
17
18
21
2
6
613
179
125
749
53
12
56
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
8
9
7
7
8
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
1
11
9
8
10
12
6
10
Heleomyzidae
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Piophilidae
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
1
3
17
99
34
2
3
2
1
3
7
10
7
0
3
5
1
9
4
1
1
Sciaridae
362
Cecidomyiidae
144
37
40
2
1
9
2
16
7
14 14207 12788 9290 6470 5203 7792 6378
21
2
2
24
17
Mycetophiliidae
2
8
235
2
2
1
1
Empididae
1
Cyclorrhapha, larvae
1
Phoridae
Syrphidae
2
2
Agromyzidae
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
2
Scatophagidae
Anthomyidae
1
1
Tachinidae
Calliphoridae
1
18
Muscidae
1
1
49
6
1
1
1
2
5
104
140
122
37
27
10
2
2
3
18
26
25
8
HYMENOPTERA
6
15
0
31
11
3
7
88
65
43
28
12
10
8
522
514
394
935 1423 866
2
3
0
7
5
3
1
29
29
33
68
47
70
24
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
3
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
17
18
31
10
1
1
1
15
2
8
12
4
8
8
7
27
120
704
524
54
347
554
0
Bombus sp.
1
Ichneumonidae
6
Braconidae
8
11
2
1
1
1
1
Chalcidoidea
1
Ceraphronoidea
2
1
ARANEA
0
Lycosidae
2
Linyphiidae
2
ACARINA
Total
1598
1
4
13
3
2
2
6
5
2
1
1
1
4
1
2
101 7173 4488 1557 1280 444
307
90
129
66
78
29 15755 13876 10279 9444 7717 9050 9448
50
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.11 Weekly totals of arthropods etc. caught in the five pitfall trap stations in 2008. Each station holds eight yellow pitfall traps measuring
10 cm in diameter. Values for each date represent catches from the previous week. Totals for 2002-2007 are given for comparison.
Day of year / Year
155 162 169- 177
170
No. of active stations
3
5
No. of trap days
52
COLLEMBOLA
28
183 189- 198- 206- 211
190 199 207
5
5
5
5
218
5
5
5
5
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
5
5
5
5
5
5
3437
3101
3059
5
5
5
90
84
112
140
140 167 153 100
140
140 140 120 1578
1709
2979
3686
90
168
190
273
160 188 184
94
104
1292
7100
9586 13277 17510 20312
4
13
90
5
225 232 238 2008
52
12
1633
3
1
10
48
33
61
19
1228
431
617
0
0
3
22
6
2
HETEROPTERA
0
2
Nysius groenlandicus
Aphidoidea
1
1
Coccoidea
1
3
3
1
1
5
3
10
1
9
15
95
129 238
6
250
12
5
275 197
Unidentified
heteroptera
THYSANOPTERA
1
LEPIDOPTERA
1
2
5
1
3
3
2
4
2
Lepidoptera larvae
4
471
96
3
0
524
277
1624
157
1092
1288
42
634
19
4
0
5
63
2
43
32
116
82
280
37
Tortricidae
2
4
4
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
Colias hecla
0
0
0
15
38
156
29
178
140
210
174
240
468
381
14
16
45
0
0
0
0
Plebeius franklinii
0
0
0
1
1
0
7
Geometridae
0
0
0
2
2
0
6
38
19
19
183
14
110
1
Clossiana sp.
4
Lycaenidae
1
Noctuidae
12
10
2
6
2
6
6
37
73
36
2
2
5
4
3
9
12
6
1
12
6
2
DIPTERA
0
Nematocera larvae
1
Tipulidae larvae
1
Tipulidae
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
21
10
18
29
46
1
3
1
2
1
6
3
3
5
3
4
5
1
7
4
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
5
0
33
13
19
23
86
2415
3559
4365
1492
1596
4768
5982
7
97
92
6
16
107
102
1
Trichoceridae
Culicidae
2
Chironomidae
12
951
576
2
210
382 162
75
25
6
4
2
1
Mycetophiliidae
1
7
39
41
10
1
2
1
1
1
104
1
74
104
63
70
48
43
53
41
68
41
31
10
9
3
1
548
533
1256
819
912
1101
762
88
160
Cecidomyiidae
4
10
Ceratopogonidae
Sciaridae
1
1
1
1
Brachycera larvae
Empididae
Cyclorrhapha
larvae
1
Phoridae
1
2
Syrphidae
1
1
24
2
1
2
1
1
Muscidae
2
13
19
4
12
88
134
2
0
2
2
3
5
8
24
3
1
1
77
60
23
22
119
67
40
370
18
775
620
461
386
461
665
489
1
4
1
19
2
35
28
9
93
45
35
30
0
0
1
0
1
1
5
6
11
3
29
151
60
10
6
2
27
19
16
39
42
60
23
6
20
6
96
31
17
44
5
18
22
1
106
7
42
24
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
7
5
1
4
2
8
4
75
6
3
0
1
4
Fannidae
20
8
0
2
1
Anthomyiidae
13
85
1
Scatophagidae
8
0
2
2
Calliphoridae
2
0
49
2
Tachinidae
0
0
1
Heleomyzidae
Agromyzidae
1
0
1
15
30
22
213
210
183
535
124
108
238
184
130
98
37
1647
1525
2313
5464
5623
8385
7499
SIPHONAPTERA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HYMENOPTERA
0
Tenthredinidae
0
0
0
1
Hymenoptera
larvae
0
0
0
3
4
8
0
Bombus sp.
1
Ichneumonidae
Braconidae
Chalcidoidea
Scelionidae
1
1
303 349 147 163
12
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
3
14
10
3
8
4
6
3
5
1
1
1
2
5
8
44
121
5
14
19
20
1
1
190 198
9
8
14
6
18
40
15
7
98
115
269
717
720
974
436
1
35
20
42
80
61
52
11
55
625
437
287
747
746
120
190
0
0
4
0
0
310
5
51
14th Annual Report, 2008
Ceraphronoidea
2
1
3
2
Cynipoidae
1
1
ARANEA
2
2
15
9
6
12
Lycosidae
13
24
111
108
80
156 308 119 353
3
2
Lycosidae egg sac
Linyphiidae
5
8
17
13
3
8
1
0
0
24
3
0
0
0
Thomisidae
Dictynidae
9
81
2
12
12
2
3
1
19
1
6
1
2
3
101
121
164
98
90
164
219
147
644
70
29
2162
2450
2869
3316
3428
3438
1760
1
1
91
18
56
45
69
85
12
12
11
10
84
40
18
107
1411
1483
2526
1438
2
1
12
7
229
261
834
196 104
31
2835
1141
3837 10096 17616 18602 21282
OSTRACODA
0
0
129
1
0
12
9
NEMATODA
0
0
233
1
1
4
0
ENCHYTRAEIDAE
0
0
20
1
0
0
1
Unidentified
0
0
89
0
0
0
0
ACARINA
Total
26
22
3
7
16
40
25
29
25
24
139 195
268
246
382 488 226 344
4
6
10
192
102 390 1741 1350 1072 1656 1858 1111 1507 1238 1721 1227 274 15247 13210 25916 38217 48935 61756 62523
Phoridae – scuttle flies – were caught in
numbers above average. For house flies,
Muscidae, numbers caught were higher
than usual in the third and fourth collection
week, but remained at a low level throughout the season, giving lower than average
numbers. The usual double peaked abundances of house flies in the pitfall traps
were somewhat broken up, as the usual
‘first peak’ was split into two (figure 4.2).
The Ichneumon wasps, Ichneumonidae,
were found in record low numbers, continuing a downward trend, even considering the reduced numbers of traps. Once
again, sheetweb weavers, Linyphiidae,
also appeared in the samples in the lowest
numbers ever (table 4.11).
Insect predation on Salix arctica and
Dryas flowers
No sawfly Symphyta sp. infections were recorded in any of the Salix arctica plots (table
4.12), and woolly-bear caterpillars Gynaephora groenlandica were only observed on
four occasions in the Salix plots.
The percentage of Dryas flowers depredated by ‘black moth’ Sympistris zetterstedtii
larvae in 2008 was higher than usual, and
four of six plots had record high depredation percentages (table 4.13).
Breeding populations
A complete initial census was made between 18 and 28 June. The weather prevented census work on several days in the
period. The completion of the survey took
45 ‘man-hours’. The entire census was
performed in decent weather conditions,
and most of the 15.8 km2 census area was
snow free. Please notice, that the census
area was changed in 2007, by omitting the
section west of Zackenbergelven.
In addition, large parts of the census
area were investigated regularly during
June, July and most of August. The total
effort in June and July 2007 (table 4.14)
was similar to the effort in recent years.
Results from the initial census, supplemented with records from the rest of the
season (see Meltofte et al. 2008 a), are presented in table 4.15 and table 4.16, together
with estimates from previous seasons.
The first pair of red-throated divers Gavia stellata to settle was a pair in a pond at
the research station 3 June, only few days
after the first individuals was observed
(table 4.17). Four pairs attempted to breed
within the census area, two nests were
7
4.3 Birds
Bird observations were made by Martin
U. Christensen (9 May - 30 May), by Jannik Hansen (31 May - 4 August) and by
Lars Holst Hansen (5 August – 28 August).
Other researchers and staff provided valuable additional information throughout
the season. Local place names can be
found in Meltofte et al. 2008 a.
Individuals trap day–1
6
Figure 4.6 Numbers of
house flies Muscidae
caught per trap day every
week in the pitfall traps
in 2008 compared with
means 1997-2007.
Muscidae 2008
Muscidae avg. 1998–2006
5
4
3
2
1
0
150
170
190
210
Day of year
230
250
52
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.12 Peak ratio (%) of female arctic willow Salix arctica pods infested by sawfly larvae Symphyta sp. in 19962008. ‘+’ indicates that numbers were not quantified.
Plot
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Salix 1
+
0
0
43
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 2
3
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 3
9
0
0
3
5
0
0
2
0
0
6
0
0
Salix 4
0
0
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
Salix 7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 4.13 Peak ratio (%) of mountain avens Dryas integrifolia/octopetala flowers depredated by larvae of ‘black
moth’ Sympistris zetterstedtii in mountain avens plots in 1996-2008.
Plot
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Dryas 1
2
6
3
0
0
0
15
2
15
1
27
0
34
Dryas 2
0
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
1
3
2
25
Dryas 3
11
18
3
0
0
0
7
1
33
10
6
8
67
Dryas 4
17
1
7
0
0
0
11
5
39
3
18
4
32
Dryas 5
2
8
2
0
0
0
9
2
3
0
2
0
2
Dryas 6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
6
5
8
Table 4.14 Number of trips and hours (trips; hours) allocated to bird censusing, breeding phenology and hatching
success sampling west and east of Zackenbergelven during June and July 2008, respectively. *) The west area was
taken out of the intensive study from 2007and onwards.
West of river*
East of river
Total
June
Month
2; 8
19; 103
21; 111
July
3; 11
18; 109
21; 120
Total
5; 19
37; 212
42; 231
Table 4.15 Estimated numbers of pairs/territories in four sectors of the 15.8 km2 census area in Zackenbergdalen 2008.
Species
<50 m a.s.l.
50-150 m a.s.l.
150-300 m a.s.l.
300-600 m a.s.l.
7.77 km2
3.33 km2
2.51 km2
2.24 km2
4
0
0
0
4
King eider
0–1
0
0
0
0–1
Long-tailed duck
7–8
0
0
0
7–8
Rock ptarmigan
0–1
0
2–3
0
2–4
8
3–6
0–1
5–7
16–22
5–7
10–12
8
1
24–28
Red-throated diver
Common ringed plover
Red knot
Total
Sanderling
37–41
2–4
13
8–9
60–67
Dunlin
82–90
14–17
1
0
97–108
Ruddy turnstone
10–11
14
0–1
0
24–26
1–2
0
0
0
1–2
Red-necked phalarope
Red phalarope
Long-tailed skua
Glaucous gull
1
0
0
0
1
9–12
9–11
0–1
1
19–25
1
0
0
0
1
Arctic redpoll
2
0
0
1
3
Snow bunting
21–23
21–22
10–11
2–4
54–60
53
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.16 Estimated numbers of pairs/territories in the 15.8 km2 census area in Zackenbergdalen, 1996-2008.
Species
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Red-throated diver
1
2
3
2–3
2–3
2
0
2
2
4–5
3–4
3–4
4
Pink-footed goose
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2–3
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
1–2
2–4
2–4
4–6
1
1
1–2
1
1–2
0–1
4–6
4–6
6–7
7–8
5–7
5–7
6–7
7–9
6
5–7
5–6
4–7
7–8
3
10–12
4–6
6–7
1–3
2–4
0
0
0
0
3–5
2
2–4
44–45
31–39
29–34
45–54
34
45–47
30–33
25
36
15–18
33–44
26–29
16–22
Common eider
King eider
Long-tailed duck
Rock ptarmigan
Common ringed plover
European golden plover
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Red knot
30–39
31–39
24–29
24–30
23–25
25–28
21–23
22–23
19
28–33
27–40
27–35
24–28
Sanderling
41–52
45–61
51–57
48–54
44–51
48–57
40–46
54–59
54
33–43
65–76
62–70
60–67
Dunlin
45–55
54–65
55–69
55–67
72–76
76–81
89–98
80–88
91
73–82 83–101 89–111 97–108
Ruddy turnstone
36–45
43–49
50–54
39–44
45–47
39–44
28–33
31
47
60–67
0–1
0–2
1–2
1–2
1–2
1–3
1–2
1–2
1
0
0
0–1
0
0
1
0
0
0
20–23
19–22
19–20
18–21
17–24
19–21
19–22
22–25
Snowy owl
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Arctic redpoll
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Snow bunting
27–33
28–34
24–27
32–40
26–30
27–37
37–40
Red-necked phalarope
Red phalarope
Long-tailed skua
found within the census area. In adjacent
areas, red-throated diver pairs were recorded in two lakes. In Vesterport Sø, a
pair nested near the nest from last season
(2007). Most likely, the nest suffered predation. In Lindemandssø, a pair with a large
chick was seen in August. Red-throated
divers started to form smaller flocks 26
July. The last red-throated diver was heard
19 August.
Sanderling Calidris alba territories were
recorded at numbers above average for the
third consecutive season, and were comparable to the previous two peak years of
2003 and 2006 (table 4.16). Dunlin Calidris
alpina territories were found in the highest
number so far. Meltofte (2006 a) suggests
that the numbers were underestimated in
early years – hence, at least some of the
increase might be an artefact of this underestimation. Since 1996, common ringed
plover Charadrius hiaticula territory numbers have varied considerably, and in 2008
numbers were very low. Ruddy turnstone
56–69
42–51
24–26
1
2
0–1
1–2
1
5–7
0
1
16
20–25
16–23
17–25
19–25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0–2
1–4
3
34–36
55–64
81–83
63–67
51–55
54–60
Arenaria interpres territories were found
in very low numbers, continuing the decrease that followed the above average
numbers seen in 2005 and 2006. Red knot
Calidris canutus territory numbers were a
little above average (tables 4.15 and 4.16).
Neither red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus nor red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius nests were found in 2008. Up to two
pairs of red-necked phalarope were seen
between 1 and 12 June, and a single pair of
red phalarope was seen once 23 June.
Long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus territories were found in nearaverage numbers. They have varied little
over the years (cf. Meltofte and Høye 2007;
table 4.16). Nine pairs nested in the census
area (see below).
A pair of glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus bred on an islet in the river, Zackenbergelven. A glaucous gull pair has
bred on the islet since 2004. The islet is reshaped most years during surge flooding,
and the nest site is not always in the same
Table 4.17 Dates of first observation of selected species at Zackenberg 1996-2008.
Species
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Red-throated diver
≤155
150
154
155
158
154
152
≤155
≤153
149
155
152
152
Pink-footed goose
≤155
≤148
147
154
156
154
152
≤154
≤153
≤139
≤146
≤145
136
Common eider
165
153
175
180
163
161
163
163
169
155
163
172
164
King eider
164
155
166
167
≤174
160
152
≤164
166
172
163
173
170
Long-tailed duck
≤153
150
153
157
158
158
154
158
154
152
158
156
155
Red-necked phalarope
157
150
156
161
159
155
156
162
≤153
147
157
148
153
54
14th Annual Report, 2008
Glaucous gull over
Zackenbergelven.
Photo: Jannik Hansen.
Table 4.18 Median first egg dates for waders at Zackenberg 2008 as estimated from
incomplete clutches, egg floating, hatching dates, as well as weights and observed
sizes of pulli.
Median date
Range
N
Common ringed plover
Species
167
163–181
4
Red knot
166
165–167
2
Sanderling
169
156 -154
39
Dunlin
169
157–187
22
Ruddy turnstone
170
156–179
9
location. No chicks were seen, and the
fate of the nest is uncertain. The glaucous
gull is a common bird at Zackenberg, and
several birds can be seen during most of
the season patrolling the rivers, shores and
fens (cf. Hansen et al. 2009).
The number of rock ptarmigan Lagopus
mutus territories was comparable to 2006
and 2007. During the census, two to four
pairs were registered. One brood was
found in the census area 17 July with nine
pulli on the slopes of upper Aucellabjerg.
In adjacent areas, a female with four pulli
were seen on the slopes of Zackenbergfjeldet (above the border of the census area).
Numbers of snow bunting Plectrophenax
nivlais territories equalled the last three
years, and were higher than during the
period 1996-2003 (table 4.16).
Arctic redpoll Carduelis hornemanni territories were few and far apart. This is the
normal (table 4.16).
Reproductive phenology in waders
Nest initiation was a little late in one species (ruddy turnstone), and around average in the remaining species (table 4.18).
Only about 7 % of the eggs lying in all
wader nests were initiated before 10 June,
and around 60 % before 20 June, in other
words, a fairly synchronous nest initiation.
The snow cover 10 June 2008 was approximately 71 %, which equals the average of the period 1996-2007. Median nest
Table 4.19 Snow cover 10 June together with median first egg dates for waders at Zackenberg 1995-2008. Data based on less than 10 nests/
broods are in brackets. Data based on less than five nests/broods are omitted. The snow cover is pooled (weighted means) from sections 1, 2, 3
and 4 (see section 2), from where the vast majority of the egg laying phenology data originates.
Species
Snow cover on 10 June
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
84
82
76
80
91
53
84
79
83
48
28
85
48
71
(168)
169
169
174,5
168
173,5
168
164
160
(166)
181
166
169
Sanderling
2008
Dunlin
(169)
163,5
164
167,5
173
163,5
176
159
163
164
163
178
166
169
Ruddy turnstone
(163)
170,5
164
163,5
175
163
174
160
159
160
162
(172)
158
170
55
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.20 Mean nest predation (%) 1996-2008 according to the modified Mayfield method (Johnson 1979). Poor data (below 125 nest days or
five predations) are given in brackets. Data from species with less than 50 nest days have been omitted (‘-‘ indicates no nests at all). Nests with at
least one pipped egg or one hatched young are considered successful. Also given are total numbers of adult foxes observed by the bird observer
in the bird census area during June and July along with the number of fox dens holding pups.
Species
1996
1997
1998
1999
Common ringed
plover
Red knot
Sanderling
–
–
Red-necked phalarope
Red phalarope
All waders
2001 2002
(72)
(33–100)
(88)
40
(46)
19
65
68
(75)
16
23–28
29
(60)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
33–63 52–100 32–37
2004
2005
2006
–
(0)
–
–
–
(100)
–
28–47
21–68 67–100
2003
(38)
–
Dunlin
Ruddy turnstone
2000
(60)
(33)
45
71–85
63
93
52
21–27
83
–
–
–
(43)
2007 2008 1996-2008
(2)
48-51
(24)
(7)
3
5
22–23
47
48
17
55–60
36
(22)
38–44
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
42–44
44
43
43
42–44
87–90
22
37
18
16
36–39
N nests
17
31
44
44
47
32
21
51
55
15
28
60
58
503
N nest days
163
274
334
518
375
328
179
552
700
104
332
533
433
4816
Fox encounters
14
5
7
13
11
14
21
11
16
18
22
23
20
Fox dens with pups
2
0
1
0
2
2
0–1
2
3
0
2
3
5
4.20). A single sanderling nest was abandoned during egg lying, and another two
sanderling nests were abandoned before
hatching. All four registered nest of common ringed plover were predated. Just
one nest of red knot was found in 2008,
and it suffered predation.
The arctic fox Vulpes lagopus is the likely
predator of most nests, as very few nests
were found with clear signs of avian predators. The number of fox encounters was
relatively high in 2008 and the minimum
number of fox pups produced in each
initiation dates around average for the
previous seasons (table 4.19).
Reproductive success in waders
The overall wader nest success was extremely low in 2008. After the modified
Mayfield method (Johnson 1979), 84 % of
the wader nests were subjected to predation. Ruddy turnstones suffered the lowest
predation of the waders; 22 % of the nests
were successful. Sanderling nests suffered
much from predation again this season,
although a little less than in 2007 (table
Table 4.21 Mean clutch sizes in waders at Zackenberg 1995-2008. Samples of less than five clutches are given in brackets.
Species
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Common ringed plover (4.00) (4.00) (3.50) (4.00) (3.50) (4.00) (3.50) (4.00) (4.00) (4.00)
Red knot
Sanderling
(4.00) (4.00)
(4.00)
Dunlin
4.00
Ruddy turnstone
Average
3.86
(4.00) (3.75)
4.00
(4.00)
2006
2007
(3.75)
(4.00) (4.00)
2008 Mean
(3.75)
3.83
(4.00) (4.00)
4.00
4.00
3.67
4.00
3.43
3.83
4.00
4.00
3.75
3.63
3.73
3.77
3.83
3.90
3.70
3.93
3.63
(4.00)
4.00
3.92
4.00
3.13
3.79
3.67
3.80
3.71
3.75
3.73
3.83
3.71
3.79
3.82
3.58
3.80
3.75
4.00
3.77
3.92
3.86
3.93
3.73
3.94
3.69
3.93
3.66
3.96
3.95
3.97
3.87
(3.00) (4.00)
3.38
3.88
Table 4.22 Egg-laying phenology, breeding effort and success in long-tailed skuas at Zackenberg 1996-2008. Median egg lying date is the date,
when half of the supposed first clutches were laid. Number of clutches found includes replacement clutches. Mean hatching success according to
the modified Mayfield method (Johnson 1979). Poor data (below 125 nest days or five predations) are given in brackets. Nests with at least one
pipped egg or one hatched young are considered successful. Also given, are numbers of lemming winter nests within the 2 km2 lemming census
area (see section 4.4). Please note that in 2006, only one of two eggs hatched.
Long-tailed skua breeding
1996
Median 1st egg date
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
158
163
168
170
166
160
166
160
159
170
163
164
No. of clutches found
8
17
23
8
5
21
14
7
21
8
2
15
9
No. of young hatched
1
25
16
2
2
18
14
5
36
6
1
11
3
33
Nest success % (Mayfield)
Estimated no. of young fledged
Lemming winter nests pr. km2
(80.6)
26.7
39.5
44.1
(76.2)
(94)
(51.8)
(100)
23
0
5
6
(18.1) (17.5)
1
0
5
4
2
22
1
0
1
2
224.5
247.2
467
227.4
136.8
208.5
178.3
66
238.7
170.8
189.6
236.8
75.5
56
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.23 Average brood sizes of barnacle geese in Zackenbergdalen during July and early August, 1995-2008, together with the total number
of broods brought to the valley. Samples of less than 10 broods are given in brackets. Average brood size data from autumn on the Isle of Islay in
Scotland are given for comparison, including the percentage of juveniles in the population (M. Ogilvie, pers. comm.).
Decade
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Primo July
1995
(3.0)
3.1
(2.9)
1.9
(3.2)
(1.8)
2.4
(1.8)
2.6
(1.7)
(2.0)
1.3
(4)
Medio July
(2.3)
2.7
2.3
1.8
(3.1)
(1.7)
2.4
(1.2)
2.3
2.7
(1.5)
1.5
1.6
2.2
1.7
3.1
(2.2)
(1.1)
(3.3)
(1.5)
Ultimo July
(2.0)
(3.0)
2.6
Primo August
(2.3)
(2.3)
2.4
No. of broods
≥7
6-7
19-21
≥18
29
Scotland
2.0
2.3
2.0
2.3
Per cent juv.
7.2
10.3
6.1
10.5
2008
2.3
(1.1)
2.3
(2.0)
2.2
(1.2)
(1.9)
11
4
32
8
26
14
9
28
15
1.9
2.2
1.9
2.2
1.6
2.6
1.7
1.2
2.1
1.9
8.1
10.8
7.1
12.5
6.4
15.9
6.3
3.2
9.8
8.2
1.8
of the dens within the research area was
record high (table 4.20).
The mean clutch size across the three
target species was 3.7 in 2008, which is
a little below average (table 4.21). Nests
containing less than four eggs were: Common ringed plovers (two nests of three
eggs), sanderling (one nest of three eggs,
two nest of two eggs, and two nests of one
egg), dunlin (four nests of three eggs) and
ruddy turnstone (one nest of two eggs).
During July and early August alarming
parents – and later juveniles – were found
in the fens and marshes (dunlins), on the
slopes of Aucellabjerg and in the dry lowlands (common ringed plovers, red knots,
sanderlings, dunlins, turnstones).
Data on chick survival is scarce, but as
early as 11 June flocks of up to 10 individuals of long-tailed skuas roamed the lower
slopes of Aucellabjerg and the lowlands,
which most likely have asserted a significant predation pressure on the chicks.
(1.5)
(1)
riod. In terms of nest initiation, this season
was around average (table 4.22), and in
the census area only two nests were initiated after 20 June.
Only one collared lemming Dicrostonyx
groenlandicus observation was made by the
bird observer, reflecting a season with few
lemmings (table 4.22). The average clutch
size was 1.6 eggs per nest. Only five chicks
hatched. Nest success for long-tailed skuas
was well below average (average nest
success 1996-2007: 55 %; table 4.22). Most
hatched chicks are thought to have suffered
predation; only two are thought to have
survived. The last observation made was
of a juvenile, accompanied by an adult, 13
August. This young bird is possibly from
a known nest, and was estimated to be 40
days old.
Barnacle geese
The barnacle goose Branta leucopsis colony
on the southern face of the mountain Zackenbergfjeldet was active with at least
three pairs. The colony was first found in
1964 and hereafter revisited and found
still in use in 2005 and 2006 (Hansen et al.
2008 c).
Reproductive phenology and success
in long-tailed skuas
Eight (i.e. 80 %) of the long-tailed skua
nests were initiated prior to the census pe-
Table 4.24 The number of immature pink-footed geese and barnacle geese moulting in the study area at Zackenberg 1995-2008. The closed area
is zone 1c (see http://www.zackenberg.dk/graphics/Design/Zackenberg/Maps/mapzoner_stor_opl.jpg).
Study area
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Closed moulting area and
further east
310
246
247
5
127
35
0
30
41
11
17
27
0
0
Coast west of closed area
230
40
60?
0
29
0
0
0
0
10
0
3
2
0
Upper Zackenbergdalen
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
Pink-footed Goose total
540
286
322
5
156
35
0
30
41
21
17
31
2
2
Closed area at Lomsø and
Kystkærene
21
0
29
21
60
84
137
86
120
81
87
148
66
106
Coast east of closed area
>120
150?
96
55
66
0
109
80
45
0
2
218
46
125
65
Pink-footed goose
Barnacle goose
Coast west of closed area
0
0
0
0
0
30
0
0
0
0
29
29
106
Upper Zackenbergdalen
41
85
2
75
<57
27
60
0
14
0
25
30
6
41
>182
235?
127
151
<183
141
306
166
179
81
143
425
224
337
Barnacle Goose total
57
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.25 Numbers of individuals and observations of avian visitors and vagrant at Zackenberg 2008, compared with the numbers of individuals
observed in the preceding seasons, 1995-2007.
Visitors and vagrants
Previous records
Species
2008
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
No. of
No. of
individuals observations
Great northern diver
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
Wooper swan
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Snow goose
0
0
0
0
0
2
11
0
23
0
0
0
1
0
0
a
a
0
0
Canada goose
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
Merlin
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Gyr falcon
1
1
1
3
0
4
5
1
3
4
2
0
3b
2c
4
Pintail duck
0
0
0
1c
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3d
0
0
Common teal
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Eurasian golden plover
0
3
1
3
1
0
1e
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
White-rumped sandpiper
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Pectoral sandpiper
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
Purple sandpiper
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1f
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Red phalarope
0
0
0
4-5d
0
0
4d
0
1
0
2d
11d
0
2
1
Common snipe
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Whimbrel
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
2
3
Redshank
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1g
3
Pomarine skua
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Arctic skua
0
0
11
6
0
2
7
4
3
2
0
1
0
0h
0
Great skua
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Lesser black-backed gulli
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
4
0
0
0
Iceland gull
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
Great black-backed gull
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Black-legged kittiwake
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
Arctic tern
≈200
2
1
2
0
14
0
0
32
0
0
0
0
57
2
Snowy owl
0
0
2
1
1
1-2
≥4d
0
0
0
0
0
1b
0
0
Meadow pipit
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1c
1c
0
0
0
White wagtail
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Northern wheatear
4
8d
4
3d
1-2d
0j
0
0
0
0
2
1
4b
2
1
Arctic redpoll
7
9
16
23
8
5
3
6
31b
12
3d
2
8b
10k
14
Lapland longspur
0
0
0
0
1-2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
a Subspecies interior
b See Hansen et al. 2009
c After regular season, four observations of one to three birds.
d Northernmost records in East Greenland (cf. Bortmann 1994)
e At least one territory, possible territory or breeding found, see table 4.16
f Juvenile
The first families with goslings were
seen 9 July. The number of broods was 15
(table 4.23), and the maximum number of
goslings seen at one time, was 18.
The mean brood size was high until mid
July, but ended on just one gosling per brood
in early August (table 4.23). From Isle of
Islay, Western Scotland, it was reported that
the percentage of young in the flocks arriving to their wintering quarters was 8.2 (table
4.23; M. Ogilvie, pers. comm.)
In 2008, immature barnacle geese
moulted in numbers well above average
(1995-2007 average 196; table 4.24).
b
g 2nd record at Zackenberg (cf. Møhl-Hansen 1949). First record during BioBasis
h Before the regular season, one in adjacent areas
i Increasing in East Greenland (Boertmann 2008)
j One dead individual found
k In addition, one juvenile at Dombjerg 28 July
Common birds, not breeding in the
census area
A total of 1,181 individual immature pinkfooted geese Anser brachyrhynchus migrated
over Zackenbergdalen northwards towards
their staging areas. Only two immature
pink-footed geese were found moulting at
Zackenberg this year (table 4.25).
On 12 June, the first common eider Somateria mollissima was seen on Lomsø (a
female). During the following weeks pairs
and smaller flocks were seen regularly,
but at no time more than 10 individuals.
Ten young – possibly from the Daneborg
58
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.26 Numbers of casts and scats from predators
collected from 29 permanent sites in Zackenbergdalen.
The samples represent the period from mid/late August
the previous year to August in the year denoted.
Year
Fox
scats
Stoat
scats
Skua
casts
Owl
casts
1997
10
1
44
0
1998
46
3
69
9
1999
22
6
31
3
2000
31
0
33
2
2001
38
3
39
2
2002
67
16
32
6
2003
20
1
16
0
2004
16
3
27
0
2005
24
0
7
6
2006
29
0
15
4
2007
54
4
13
3
2008
30
1
16
0
Table 4.27 Annual numbers of lemming winter nests recorded within the 1.06 km2 census area in Zackenbergdalen 1996-2008 together with the numbers of animals
encountered by one person with comparable effort
each year within the 15.8 km2 bird census area during
June-July.
Year
Figure 4.7 The number of
collared lemming winter
nests registered within
the 1.06 ha designated
lemming census area
(broken line), along with
the percentage of winter
nests taken over by stoats
1996-2008 (full line).
Winter
nests
Winter
nests
Animals
seen
0
1996
84
154
1997
202
60
1
1998
428
67
43
1999
205
36
9
2000
107
38
1
2001
208
13
11
2002
169
20
4
2003
51
19
1
2004
238
15
23
1
2005
98
83
2006
161
40
3
2007
251
21
1
2008
80
20
4
Visitors and vagrants
5
Lemming winter nests
Stout predation
400
4
300
3
200
2
100
1
1996
98
00
02
Year
04
06
08
0
% nests depredated by stoats
No. of lemming winter nests
500
0
or Sandøen colonies (approximately 30-35
km west of Zackenberg) – were recorded
with an adult female in the former delta,
on 18 July. The last adult male was seen
on 23 July. The 63 adults and three pulli
seen at a sandy spit at the former delta 29
July was the largest flock of the season.
At Daneborg, the common eider colony
between the dog pens was once again censused, and estimated to hold 2,135 nests
(Sirius Patrol, pers. comm.). The 2002-2007
average nest numbers is 2,290.
A pair of king eiders Somateria spectabilis
was seen on 18 June, which is a little later
than usual (table 4.17). During late June,
another five pairs were seen – mainly migrating over Zackenberg or through the
valley. No nesting attempts were recorded.
The last observation this year was a pair
observed 13 July.
Long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis were
seen from 3 June, with pairs seen regularly
– almost daily – until late June. In early July,
only a few pairs were seen. From mid-July,
only females were seen in flocks of up to 22
in the former delta (4 August). This is also
the last record of long-tailed ducks from
2008. No pulli were seen in 2008.
Juveniles of both arctic redpoll Carduelis
hornemanni and snow bunting Plectrophenax nivalis were seen in adjacent areas. For
the snow bunting, even several juveniles
were observed within the census area.
There was an estimated two pairs of
common raven Corvus corax roaming in the
valley, both assumed to nest in adjacent areas. The first six immature birds were seen 24
June near the research station. During July
and August, birds from this flock were seen
regularly around the valley, with numbers
varying from one to four.
Two great northern divers Gavia immer
were seen 6 June on Østersøen, a lake adjacent to the Zackenberg bird census area.
The same birds were seen on the shore
nearby the following day (M. Bjerrum,
pers. comm.). Great northern divers are
seen occasionally around Zackenberg, but
are known to breed in a neighbouring valley, Store Sødal (Meltofte 2006 b).
Gyr falcons Falco rusticolus were spotted several times during the season. There
was a single observation of one gyr falcon
9 May. In late May, a single individual was
seen on two occasions, near the research
station. Only one more observation from
the summer was made 11 June. One to
59
14th Annual Report, 2008
three gyr falcons were seen four times
during September and October (T. Tagesson and J. Skafte, pers. comm.).
This year’s most surprising visitor was
a redshank Tringa totanus seen in the fens
just south of research station 18 and 20
June. This is a very rare sighting in Northeast Greenland (cf. Boertmann 1994), and
only the second record at Zackenberg. The
previous redshank record from Zackenberg dates back to 1947 (Møhl-Hansen
1949) (table 4.25).
Apart from the redshank, other nonbreeding waders were recorded as well.
The Eurasian golden plover Pluvialis apricaria was once again recorded with a single individual from 7 to 10 June, at the foot
of Aucellabjerg.
In six of thirteen seasons, whimbrels
Numenius phaeopus have been observed at
Zackenberg. A pair was seen 17 June on
the edge of a large fen area in the census
area proper (table 4.25). One bird was
heard nearby the following day, and a
“large wader´ seen 25 June could have
been the same bird.
On 15 May, an arctic skua Stercorarius
parasiticus was seen at Langemandssø,
outside the census area.
Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea were seen
at Zackenberg twice this season. A flock
of 45 were flying past the shores south of
the research station on 10 July. Three days
later, another 12 flew the same way.
Sandøen
During the period 16 July to 26 August
2008, fieldwork was conducted on Sandøen
by researchers from Greenland Institute of
Natural Resources and from the National
Audubon Society - Alaska. For details on
the study see section 6.11 and 6.12.
Throughout the entire season, when
weather permitted a sufficient coverage,
musk oxen Ovibos moschatus were counted every third day from a fixed elevated
point at the research station. Counting
took place between 19:00 and 23:00, and
covered the 47 km2 designated census
area including the coastal areas and
mountain slopes of Aucellabjerg. At the
same time, numbers of seals on the ice in
Young Sund and arctic hares Lepus arcticus in the de-signated monitoring area
on the south-east and east facing slopes
of Zackenbergfjeldet were censused from
9 May to 8 July and 2 July to 21 August,
respectively.
The total number of musk oxen, including sex and age from as many individuals as possible, was censused weekly
within the 47 km2 census area from 28
June to 21 August, with additional censuses 16 March, 17 March, 12 May, 26
May and 9 June. The 15 known arctic
fox Alopex lagopus dens (nos. 1-10 and
12-16) within the central part of the valley were checked weekly for occupancy
and breeding. The only known den (no.
11) between Daneborg and Kuhnelven
was checked on 3 July. The 29 fixed sampling sites for predator scats and casts
were checked on 23 August (table 4.26).
Observations of other mammals than
lemmings, foxes, musk oxen and arctic
hare are presented in the section ‘Other
observations´ below.
In 2008, BioBasis collected more than
100 hair and feather samples in collaboration with the IPY project Arctic Predators
under the IPY project ArcticWOLVES (Arctic Wildlife Observatories Linking Vulnerable Ecosystems). Also, for the third year
in a row, BioBasis collected arctic fox scats
for the analysis of parasitic load.
4.4 Mammals
160
140
Musk oxen counted pr. day
The mammal monitoring programme
was conducted by Lars Holst Hansen (30
May – 26 August). Additional field work
was conducted by Niels Martin Schmidt
(12 August – 26 August), Jannik Hansen
(30 May – 5 August) and Martin Ulrik
Christensen (9 - 30 May). The station personnel and visiting researchers supplied
random observations during the entire
field season.
The collared lemming Dicrostonyx
groenlandicus census area was surveyed
for winter nests during July and August.
Figure 4.8 Number of
musk oxen recorded from
a fixed elevated point at
the research station from
early May to late August,
averaged over 10 day
periods 2008 is compared
with an average of 19972007.
2008
1997–2007
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
131
141
151
161
171
181
191
Day of Year
201
211
221
231
241
60
14th Annual Report, 2008
Musk oxen at Zackenberg. Photo: Henrik Spanggård.
Collared lemming
Musk oxen counted pr. day
200
160
120
80
40
0
140
200
260
320
75
Day of year (2007)
135
195
255
Day of year (2008)
Figure 4.9 Number of musk oxen per day observed from the research station in the
ordinary and extended field seasons of 2007 and 2008.
Density (number of Musk oxen pr km2)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
150
210
270
Day of year (2007)
330
85
150
205
265
Day of year (2008)
Figure 4.10 The density of musk oxen based on field censuses in the designated census area or part hereof during the ordinary and extended seasons of 2007 and 2008.
In 2008, a total of 80 collared lemming
Dicrostonyx groenlandicus nests from the
previous winter were recorded within the
1.06 km2 census area (table 4.27). This is
the third lowest number ever registered
following a year (2007) with the second
highest number ever registered (figure 4.7
and table 4.27).
During the years 1996-2007, between
0 and 4.7 % of the lemming winter nests
have been depredated by stoats (figure
4.7). As in the four previous seasons, not a
single nest was found depredated by stoat
during the 2008 season.
Musk ox
During the International Polar Years of 2007
and 2008 extra musk ox Ovibos moschatus
counts were conducted from the research
station, and extra field censuses were carried out in the entire musk ox census area
or in a part of it during September 2007 and
March and May 2008. These census data are
presented along with the censuses within
the ordinary seasons 2007 and 2008.
The pattern of musk ox occurrence
within the census area in Zackenbergdalen
was in general in accordance with the patterns observed in previous years, i.e. low
numbers during late May and June, and
increasing numbers throughout July and
August (figure 4.8). The extended seasons
showed that musk oxen remain in the val-
61
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.28 Sex and age distribution of musk oxen based on weekly counts within the 47 km2 census area in Zackenbergdalen from July to August,
1996-2008.
Year
M4+
F4+
M3
F3
M2
F2
1M+1F
Calf
Unsp. adult
No. of
weekly
counts
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
Total
%
1996
98
14
184
27
7
1
31
5
54
8
17
3
146
22
124
18
15
2
9
1997
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1998
97
29
97
29
22
7
19
6
30
9
27
8
14
4
22
7
1
0
8
1999
144
38
106
28
21
6
21
6
9
2
12
3
5
1
30
8
32
8
8
2000
109
30
118
32
11
3
15
4
2
1
7
2
31
8
73
20
3
1
8
2001
127
30
120
29
8
2
19
5
26
6
19
5
43
10
55
13
4
1
7
2002
114
20
205
36
20
3
24
4
38
7
43
8
51
9
77
13
0
0
8
2003
123
23
208
39
24
5
23
4
16
3
19
4
44
8
72
14
0
0
8
2004
122
22
98
18
13
2
28
5
5
1
8
1
32
6
124
23
119
22
7
2005
212
23
260
28
11
1
46
5
43
5
21
2
116
13
200
22
6
1
9
2006
205
29
123
17
29
4
55
8
62
9
34
5
102
14
94
13
0
0
7
2007
391
25
341
22
73
5
152
10
80
5
83
5
202
13
246
16
8
1
9
2008
267
34
189
24
38
5
57
7
44
6
58
7
58
7
63
8
18
2
8
Arctic fox at Zackenberg. Photo: Lars Holst Hansen.
120
Mean no. of Musk oxen pr. census
ley at high densities into late October. Hereafter, the numbers apparently decreases,
with a minimum in May and June (figure
4.9, 4.10). Mean number of musk oxen per
observation day in 2008 was 63.3, with a
maximum of 175 and a minimum of 14
(figure 4.9). After some years with increasing mean number of musk oxen counted
from a fixed location, the 2008 season show
a significant decrease. It is still above the
numbers for the early seasons of 1993-2003
though (figure 4.11)
Based on the weekly field censuses,
table 4.28 lists the sex and age composition. Across all censuses, but excluding
the extra censuses before 28 June, males
of ‘four years or older’ constituted the second highest proportion ever recorded in
2008. On the other hand, calves occurred
in low proportions (table 4.28). When considering all censuses, this was the lowest
ever recorded (6 %) but when the standard
census period is considered, it is superseded by 1998 (7 %) and equalled by 1999
(8 %). Figure 4.12 illustrates the temporal
development in the proportions of the different sex and age classes during the 2007
and 2008 seasons. In both seasons, the
proportion of males of four years or older
declined in the late part of the season.
Eleven fresh musk ox carcasses (five
calves, one male and five females) were
registered during the 2008 season (table
4.29). The number of dead calves found is
the highest ever recorded. Additionally,
tissue samples from a total of four dunlins,
100
80
60
40
20
0
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Year
Figure 4.11 Mean annual number per observation day of musk oxen observed from a
fixed elevated point at the research station 1996-2008 within the designated census area.
62
14th Annual Report, 2008
six arctic foxes, one arctic hare, one collared lemming, and one unspecified seal
were collected (table 4.30).
100
80
Arctic fox
(%)
60
40
20
234
228
215
206
199
192
185
180
161
147
133
77
76
268
262
254
247
241
234
226
219
211
209
198
191
184
0
Day of year (2007)
Day of year (2008)
Calves
Unsp. Adults
M2
M3
Yearlings
F2
F3
F4+
M4+
Figure 4.12 The sex and age composition of musk oxen registered during the weekly
field censuses within the census area during the extended seasons of 2007 and 2008.
Arctic hare. Photo: Niels
Martin Schmidt.
In 2008 a minimum of 24 arctic fox Vulpes
lagopus pups - all white colour phase- were
observed at the known dens. This is the
highest minimum number recorded so
far (table 4.31). Breeding was verified in
five dens. An average number of 40 arctic
fox were observed away from the dens
from May to August. This included three
sightings of foxes with dark colour phase
(table 4.32). A record high number of six
carcasses of arctic fox were found in 2008
(table 4.32). All fox carcasses were from
juveniles and were found near the breeding dens, possibly indicating a high early
mortality. In 2008, dark colour phase foxes
were observed on four occasions.
63
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.29 Fresh musk oxen carcasses found during the
field seasons of 1995-2008. F = female, M = male.
Year
Total 4+ yrs 3 yrs
carcasses F/M
F/M
1995
2
0/1
1996
13
7/1
1997
5
0/2
1998
2
0/2
1999
1
0/1
2000
8
0/6
2001
4
0/4
2002
5
1/2
2003
3
0/2
2004
2
1/1
2005
6
2/3
2006
5
0/2
2007
12
3/4
1/0
2008
11
3/1
2/0
0/1
2 yrs
F/M
1 yr
F/M
0/2
1/1
1/0
1/0
Table 4.30 Wildlife tissue samples collected in 2008
along with previous collections.
Calf
Species
2008
1997-2008
1
Dunlin
4
4
Arctic fox
6
7
Arctic hare
1
1
Collared lemming
1
6
Musk oxen
11
48
Seal (sp.)
1
1
Long-tailed skua
0
1
1
1/0
1
1/0
1
1
1
0/1
2
1/0
3
5
Arctic hare
In 2008, 17 counts of arctic hares Lepus
arcticus were made with a mean of 2.5 per
census (maximum of seven; minimum of
0). The mean of 2008 is lower than during
the previous three seasons but still higher
than the means of the 2001-2004 seasons.
The number of arctic hares observed during the period late May to late August at
other sites than the census area on Zackenbergfjeldet was 20 (table 4.33). In addition
to this, 21 hares were observed before and
after the ordinary field season.
Other observations
Polar bear Ursus maritimus
No animals were observed but fresh tracks
were seen on two occasions in March.
Arctic wolf Canis lupus
No animals were observed but tracks were
seen on four occasions.
Stoat Mustela erminea
No animals were observed but scat was
found on one occasion. None of the 80
lemming winter nests found in the census
area were depredated by stoats. During
the standardised collection of scats and
casts, one stoat scat was found (table 4.26).
Arctic tern at Sandøen,
equipped with geolocator
(left food) in 2007 and resighted breeding in 2008.
Photo: Carsten Egevang.
64
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.31 Numbers of known fox dens in use, numbers with pups and the total number of pups recorded at their
maternal dens within and outside the central part of Zackenbergdalen 1995-2008. W=white phase, D=dark phase.
Walrus at Sandøen.
Photo: Henrik Spanggård.
Total no. of pups
recorded
Year
No. of
known dens
inside/outside
No. of dens
in use
inside/outside
No. of
breeding dens
inside/outside
1995
2/0
0/0
0/0
0
1996
5/0
4/0
2/0
5W+4D
1997
5/0
1/0
0/0
0
1998
5/0
2/0
1/0
8W
1999
7/0
3/0
0/0
0
2000
8/0
4/0
3/0
7W
2001
10/2
6/1
3/1
12W+1D
2002
10/2
5/1
0-1/0
0
2003
11/2
8/1
3/0
17W
2004
12/2
12/2
4/1
18+W
2005
14/2
6/0
0/0
0
2006
15/1
6/1
3/0
17W
2007
14/1
12/1
3/1
23W
2008
15/1
14/1
4/1
24W
Walrus Odobenus rosmarus
Seal Phoca sp.
Walruses use Sandøen as haul out site and
feed in Young Sund. On 2 August, 16 individuals were recorded on the beach. The
haul out was followed closely by Carsten
Egevang and colleagues (see section 6.12).
They recorded a daily average of 8.9 with
a maximum of 37 observed (Egevang et al.
2008). Although walruses are only rarely
seen in the shallow waters along the coast
of Zackenbergdalen, up to four individuals were observed there from 8 to 10 July.
Different seal species haul out on the ice
of Young Sund but the specific species can
only rarely be identified during the censuses from the research station. Seals were
recorded from 2 June until 8 July when
the ice broke up. A total of 11 counts were
made with an average of 14, a minimum
of six (2 June) and a maximum of 27 (20
June) seals per census (table 4.34). An additional five counts were carried out during May with a mean of 9.8.
65
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 4.32 Total number of encounters with arctic fox
in the field away from their dens during May-August
1996-2008.
Year
Total number Total number Number of
of records colour phase fox carcasses
Table 4.33 The number of arctic hares within the designated census area per observation
day counted during July and August. Other observations indicate hares encountered in the
valley during late May to late August.
Year
Sum
Average ± SD
Range
Counts
2001
27
1.2 ± 1.3
0–5
22
Other obs.
72
2002
7
0.4 ± 0.6
0–2
16
10
1996
37
34W + 3D
0
1997
20
15W + 5D
1W + 1D
2003
47
2.4 ± 1.8
0–6
20
42
1998
22
18W + 4D
1W
2004
21
0.9 ± 1.1
0–3
23
135
5.5 ± 5.1
0–26
48
150
1999
19
18W + 1D
2W
2005
264
2000
22
22W
2W
2006
231
5.9 ± 3.7
1–19
39
32
2001
30
29W + 1D
1W
2007
94
4.8 ± 3.0
0–11
18
46
2008
42
2.5 ± 2.3
0–7
17
33
2002
26
26W
0
2003
43
43W
0
2004
67
67W
0
2005
76
76W
0
2006
74
73W + 1D
1W
2007
63
63W
1W
2008
40
37W + 3D
6W
Table 4.34 The number of seals counted per observation
day during the period from 1 June until the fjord ice became too fragmented in early/mid-July 1997-2008. Only
counts conducted with good visibility are included.
Year
Average
± SD
Range
Counts
1997
8.5 ± 5.0
3–21
23
Narwhal Monodon monoceros
1998
7.4 ± 4.5
0–18
18
No narwhales were observed in 2008.
1999
25.1 ± 12.3
2 – 61
22
2000
14.4 ± 7.0
2–28
16
2001
22.1 ± 14.2
3–57
16
2002
28.7 ± 3.8
9–48
13
2003
63.6 ± 32.1
14–126
12
2004
19.0 ± 6.4
9–30
13
2005
13.4 ± 12.8
2–48
15
2006
14.1 ± 4.5
6–22
21
2007
6.2 ± 4.6
0–16
13
2008
14.0 ± 5.6
6–27
11
4.5 Lakes
Due to other field activities and the large
number of samples that need to be processed from the extended seasons (autumn
2007 and spring 2008), the lake samplings
for the autumn 2007 and the entire season
of 2008 will not be presented in this report
but in the 15th ZERO Report 2009.
Both lakes were ice free around average
dates of the previous seasons, and dates of
50 % ice coverage for Sommerfuglesø and
Langemandssø were 29 June and 30 June,
respectively.
Tracks from a polar bear.
Photo: Jørgen Skafte.
66
14th Annual Report, 2008
5 ZACKENBERG BASIC
The MarineBasis programme
Mikael K. Sejr, Søren Rysgaard, Ditte Marie Mikkelsen, Morten Hjorth, Egon R. Frandsen, Kunuk
Lennert, Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Peter Bondo Christensen and Paul Batty
Figure 5.1 Map of the
sampling area. The dots
represent the hydrographic
sampling stations from
the innermost Tyrolerfjord
(left) to the East Greenland
Shelf (right).
This report presents results from the 6th
year of the MarineBasis programme. The
aim of the programme is to provide long
time data series of physical, chemical and
biological parameters in the Tyrolerfjord
–Young Sund system. The goal is to detect
changes in the physical environment and
identify how changes in the physical environment affect selected compartments
of the marine ecosystem. This is accomplished by sampling during a three week
field campaign in the summer combined
with continuous sampling by moored
instruments during the rest of the year.
Physical, chemical and biological data are
mainly collected in the outer part of Young
Sund but supplemented with data from
Tyrolerfjord and Greenland Sea.
The sampling strategy during the summer field campaign is to describe the geographic variation in the entire study area
including Tyrolerfjord and Greenland Sea
by visiting a number of stations once (figure 5.1) but also to describe the short term
temporal variability by sampling a single
station (`water column station´) on daily
basis, if the weather allows it (figure 5.2).
The parameters chosen for the programme
were selected based on experiences from
ecological research carried out during the
1990’s in most of the compartments of the
ecosystem. The findings of these research
projects were synthesized by Rysgaard and
Glud in 2007. In 2008, as part of the IPY
project ISICaB, the summer measurements
were supplemented with a two week winter field campaign in March. One of the
main aims of this campaign was to obtain
winter values of pCO2 levels in the water
column in order to estimate the annual net
transport of CO2 between the atmosphere
and Young Sund.
67
14th Annual Report, 2008
During the summer field campaign the
physical and chemical part of the sampling
programme consists of hydrographic measurements (salinity, temperature, pressure,
oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity) combined
with measurements of nutrient concentration (NO3- + NO22-, PO43-, SiO4), dissolved
inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA)
and surface pCO2 together with estimation
of attenuation coefficients of light (PAR).
The biological part of the summer field
campaign includes sampling and identification of pelagic phyto- and zooplankton,
density of selected benthic epifauna, estimation of sediment-water fluxes of nutrients,
oxygen and DIC and sulphate reduction.
In the sediment, vertical profiles of oxygen
were also measured. Annual growth of the
macroalga Saccharina latissima (previously
called Laminaria saccharina) is estimated.
Abundance of walruses is recorded, and
specimens of arctic char collected and
stored for future analysis of contamination
levels and isotopic composition.
To supplement data collected during the
summer campaign a permanent mooring is
established in the outer part of Young Sund.
Here continuous measurement of salinity,
pressure and temperature are conducted at
approximately 40 and 55 metres depth. The
flux of vertically sinking particles is also
estimated throughout the year using a sedi-
Basalt Ø
Sandøen
Figure 5.2 Detailed map showing the sampling stations in the outer part of the Young
Sund.
A
27 September, 2007
B
4 October, 2007
D
5 July, 2008
E
8 July, 2008
C
Figure 5.3 Examples of daily images used
to monitor ice conditions in Young Sund,
2007-2008.
12 June, 2008
68
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.1 Summary of sea ice and snow conditions in Young Sund. *Will be provided in
next annual report when the data from the autonomous camera has been collected.
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Ice thickness (cm)
120
150
125
132
180
176
Snow thickness (cm)
20
32
85
95
30
138
Days with open water
128
116
98
75
76
*
Sea ice and snow thickness (cm)
200
Sea ice
Snow
150
100
50
0
2003
Figure 5.4 Snow and
sea ice thickness in the
outer part of Young Sund,
2003-2009.
2004
2005
2006
Year
2007
2008
2009
ment trap at approximately 60 m depth.
In addition to the monitoring activities,
logistical support was provided with the
research ship ‘Aage V. Jensen’. Assistance
was provided to the projects GeoArk, NANOK and to Greenland Institute of Natural Resources.
5.1 Sea ice
Figure 5.5 Time series of
temperature at two depths
in Young Sund. Data were
collected every 20 minutes
from 9 August, 2007 until
5 August, 2008.
The sea ice conditions in Young Sund are
monitored by an autonomous camera
system near Daneborg (figure 5.3). The
camera takes one daily photo which combined with information and measurements
provided by the Sirius Patrol are used to
determine the date when the sea ice breaks
up in summer and when it forms again in
autumn. The break-up of sea ice in 2008
occurred on 8 July which was relatively
early compared to 2006 and 2007 when
–0.6
42 m
65 m
Temperature (°C)
–0.8
–1.0
–1.2
–1.4
–1.6
–1.8
6 Aug
2007
25 Sep
2007
14 Oct
2007
3 Jan
2008
22 Feb
2008
12 Apr
2008
1 June
2008
21 July
2008
it happened in late July. The pictures are
only downloaded during the summer and
accordingly there is a one year lag in data
and therefore the duration of the open
water (ice free) period in 2008 can not be
determined before 2009. However, based
on preliminary data from the Sirius Patrol,
fast ice was not established in the fjord
before November which means that 2008
most likely was characterized by a long
open water season comparable to conditions in 2003 and 2004.
Personnel from Sirius Patrol continued
their measurements of sea ice and snow
thickness during 2007/2008 winter. The
snow thickness was the highest recorded
yet on the fjord ice (table 5.1), which is in
line with the observation in the Zackenberg
study area where more snow than average
was observed during the 2007/2008 winter.
Despite the thick snow cover, sea ice was
thicker than average (figure 5.4).
5.2 Water column
Annual data from mooring
Continuous data of temperature, salinity
and density was provided at two depths
at the same position as the sediment trap.
The sediment trap with the two attached
CTD’s was deployed on 9 August 2007
and retrieved on 5 August 2008. Data on
temperature and salinity is presented in
figure 5.5. The annual variation in temperature (figure 5.5) ranged within 1 °C at 42
m depth and about 0.3 °C at 65 m which
is comparable to previous years. The
warmer surface water in autumn cooled
during October-December and ended up
being colder than the water at 65 m during December-January. In February the
temperature at both depths were identical
and variation decreased compared to the
previous period. This situation maintained
until late June when both temperature
and variability increased at 42 m. A similar pattern was seen for salinity data (not
shown). In February, the variability at
both depths decreased due to inflow of
homogeneous water from the shelf/coast.
It is noteworthy that the salinity for both
depths was slightly higher at the end of
the sampling period as compared to the
beginning. The opposite was observed
during the 2006/2007 season so the increase in salinity from 2007 to 2008 could
represent the return to average conditions.
69
14th Annual Report, 2008
Total matter (g m–2 d–1)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
60
18
C
C:N
50
16
40
14
30
12
20
10
10
8
0
–16
C:N (mol:mol)
C (mg m–2 d–1)
Figure 5.6 Time series of
the vertical sinking flux
of total matter, total carbon and C:N ratios, and
isotopic composition of
carbon in the collected
material in the outer part
of Young Sund during
2007 and 2008.
Total matter
6
δ13C
δ13C
–18
–20
–22
–24
–26
Sep
Oct
Nov
2007
Dec
Jan
Feb
The long-term sediment trap mooring was deployed 9 August, 2007 and
retrieved 5 August, 2008. Similarly to
previous years, highest vertical sinking
fluxes of total matter and carbon were observed from July to September during ice
free conditions (figure 5.6). Peak sinking
fluxes in mid-July were likely induced by
sinking algal material as indicated by the
δ13C value (-18 ‰). Throughout the rest of
the year, i.e. from October to June, vertical
sinking fluxes of total matter and carbon
remained low with a strong terrestrial
signal as indicated by the low δ13C values
(-24 ‰). Furthermore, the sinking material collected throughout the year showed
high C:N ratios (> 10.8 mol:mol) suggesting a strong terrestrial contribution to the
fluxes. The annual vertical sinking flux of
total matter and carbon in 2007 and 2008
(207 g m-2 y-1 and 3.2 g m-2 y-1, respectively)
were comparable to the values recorded in
2006 and 2007 (285 g m-2 y-1 and 3.5 g m-2
y-1, respectively), when values from 2006
and 2007 are corrected according to the
Mar
Apr
May
2008
Jun
Jul
Aug
following note: Vertical sinking fluxes for
2006 and 2007, presented in Klitgaard and
Rasch (2008), are 2.5 times too low (we
accidentally used a wrong sediment trap
diameter in our calculations) while C:N
ratios and δ13C values were correct.
Summer distribution of temperature,
salinity, density, nutrients, dissolved
inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and
chlorophyll
The spatial variation in hydrographical
conditions is assessed by conducting vertical profiles along three transects in the fjord.
One transect, extending from Tyrolerfjord
to Greenland Sea, was covered on 3 August.
Data on temperature, salinity and fluorescence (figure 5.7) show large differences
along the transect, primarily related to the
influence of terrestrial run-off of freshwater
in the inner part of the fjord, the influence
of sea ice and Deep Atlantic Water in Greenland Sea. The large scale pattern was similar
to previous years. The surface water of the
fjord was characterized by relatively high
70
14th Annual Report, 2008
0
34
33
32
31
30
26
22
18
14
12
33
-100
33
-200
-300
Salinity
Depth (m)
0
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
-100
-200
-300
Fluorescence
0
-100
0
-200
-300
20 km
Temperature
Greenland Sea
Young Sound
10
8
6
4
2
1
0
–1
–1.5
Tyrolerfjord
Figure 5.7 Salinity, fluorescence and temperature (°C) in the Young Sund – Tyrolerfjord system on 3 August, 2008. Sampling points indicated as
lines in upper panel.
0
32
30
–50
28
26
24
–100
22
Salinity
21
0
Depth (m)
0.6
0.5
–50
0.4
0.3
–100
0.2
Fluorescence
0.1
Temperature
10
8
6
4
2
0
–1
–1.5
–1.75
0
–50
–100
0
2
Wollaston forland
4
Distance (km)
6
Clavering Ø
Figure 5.8 Salinity, fluorescence and temperature (°C) across Young Sund, near Basalt
Ø, August 2008. Sampling points indicated as dots on upper panel.
temperature and low salinity. In the inner
part of Tyrolerfjord, the surface water salinity was below 20. The input of freshwater
from land created a thin freshwater layer
which prevents mixing and allows the surface water to warm up. Depending on the
degree of wind-induced mixing during the
summer, the temperature in the surface water can reach more than 10 °C. In Greenland
Sea the temperature of the surface water often decreases due to the presence of melting
sea ice. However, sea ice was encountered
further from the coast than in 2007 which
allowed us to sample all the hydrographic
stations on the East Greenland shelf. Maximum fluorescence values are usually observed off the coast, typically at depths from
20 to 50 m. We also encountered warmer Atlantic Water at some distance from the coast
at water depths of around 200 m.
Two other transects were sampled across
the fjord, i.e. one transect near Basalt Ø and
another near Sandøen (figure 5.1). Data
from the transect near Basalt Ø (figure 5.8)
shows that conditions were more uniform
along cross sections but with a slight tendency to lower salinity in the surface water
off the coast of Clavering Ø indicating that
the surface water predominantly flowed
71
14th Annual Report, 2008
32.4
32.2
Salinity
32.0
31.8
31.6
31.4
31.2
31.0
0.2
0
Temperature (°C)
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
–0.8
–1.0
–1.2
–1.4
–1.6
2
4
6
8
10
August 2008
12
14
16
Figure 5.9 Time series of salinity and temperature from 23 m depth at summer CTD
station (74°18.869 N; 20° 14.739 W) during August 2008.
0
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
24
-50
-100
-150
Salinity
0
Depth (m)
out of the fjord along the southern shoreline due to the Coriolis Force.
The temporal variation during the three
week field campaign in August was estimated by deploying a moored CTD that
continuously measures temperature, salinity and density at a single point (summer
CTD station, figure 5.2) and by conducting
vertical profiles at the hydrographic station where measurements of fluorescence,
PAR and oxygen are included as well.
Continuous measurements in the surface
layer (23 m, figure 5.9) showed that variation primarily was related to the influence
of the tide and on internal waves within
the stratified layers. Vertical profiles at the
water column station showed only minor
changes during the field campaign (figure 5.10). Changes are usually primarily
caused by wind induced mixing of the
surface layer but weather conditions were
relatively calm and changes were primarily detected in chlorophyll concentrations.
Compared to previous years, data from
the surface layer (0-5 m, table 5.2) indicate
a trend of decreasing salinity and temperature at the hydrographic station in August
(figure 5.10).
Vertical profiles of nutrients showed
very similar vertical distributions on the
three sampling dates (figure 5.11). Concentrations are low at 5 to 40 m due to uptake
by phytoplankton. For silicate and phosphate the increase in concentration at the
surface (1 m) was due the terrestrial freshwater input. Vertical profiles of dissolved
inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity
(TA) showed the presence of freshwater
near the surface (figure 5.12). Fresh water
has low content of both DIC and TA which
is reflected in the profiles where minimum values are found at 1 m depth. As
for nutrients, variations between the three
sampling dates were low due to the calm
condition during the sampling period.
When the hydrographic conditions of
August 2008 are summarized for three
depth strata (table 5.2) and compared to
previous years, the surface water (0-5 m)
was close to average conditions except
that SiO4 concentrations were lower than
in previous years. In the 0-45 m depth stratum the temperature was lower and salinity slightly higher than in previous years.
In the 45-150 m layer temperature was
higher and salinity lower than in previous
years indicating increased mixing between
the two strata.
10
8
6
4
2
1
0
-1
-1.5
-50
-100
-150
Temperature
0
0.8
0.7
-50
0.6
0.5
-100
0.4
0.3
-150
Fluorescence
2-7
2-8
0.2
7-8
12-8
17-8
2008
Figure 5.10 Salinity, temperature and fluorescence during August 2008 at the main
hydrographic station in Young Sund. Sampling points indicated as dots in upper panel.
72
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.2 Summary of hydrographic conditions in Young Sund. Mean values of depth profiles sampled throughout August. ± represents standard
error (SE) of the mean.
0-5 m
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Pot. temp. (°C)
5.570 ± 0.175
5.515 ± 0.158
4.612 ± 0.077
3.59 ± 0.46
2.066 ± 0.207
4.139 ± 0.287
Salinity
28.10 ± 0.230
26.02 ± 0.247
27.42 ± 0.089
27.63 ± 0.77
24.86 ± 0.714
27.46 ± 0.290
Chl. (µg l–1)
0.727 ± 0.069
0.060 ± 0.004
0.945 ± 0.239
0.29 ± 0.08
0.20 ± 0.04
0.20 ± 0.02
DIC (µM)
1806.2 ± 60.4
1769.0 ± 46.5
1829.5 ± 11.5
1763 ± 58.8
1716.8 ± 92.0
1767.9 ± 34.5
TA (µM)
1929.5 ± 65.8
1867.5 ± 52.5
2066.6 ± 11.1
2002 ± 67.3
1812 ± 101.8
1912 ± 30.7
pCO2 (µatm)*
302.2 ± 32.6
197.1 ± 10.1
154.8 ± 9.0
122.1 ± 4.5
239.9 ± 5.0
170 ± 19.1
NO3 (µM)
0.00 ± 0.04
0.16 ± 0.05
0.04 ± 0.08
0.12 ± 0.07
0.03 ± 0.03
0.11 ± 0.05
PO4 (µM)
0.25 ± 0.01
0.58 ± 0.17
0.20 ± 0.01
0.56 ± 0.20
0.27 ± 0.02
0.30 ± 0.02
SiO4 (µM)
2.41 ± 0.30
2.51 ± 0.59
1.85 ± 0.11
1.17 ± 0.85
3.31 ± 0.42
0.98 ± 0.52
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Pot. temp. (°C)
2.564 ± 0.203
0.708 ± 0.095
0.998 ± 0.109
–0.32 ± 0.15
–0.532 ± 0.062
–0.772 ± 0.078
Salinity
30.44 ± 0.168
31.16 ± 0.104
31.02 ± 0.105
31.58 ± 0.15
30.72 ± 0.139
31.86 ± 0.070
Chl. (µg l–1)
0.498 ± 0.032
0.407 ± 0.021
1.465 ± 0.292
1.14 ± 0.22
0.69 ± 0.14
0.47 ± 0.11
–
3–
0-45 m
DIC (µM)
2000.6 ± 40.4
1986.3 ± 3.6
2001.6 ± 17.6
2007.5 ± 26.3
1949.8 ± 50.6
1985 ± 26.0
TA (µM)
2146.0 ± 44.9
2175.5 ± 31.2
2263.8 ± 19.5
2274.3 ± 29.0
2063.0 ± 55.2
2135.3 ± 28.9
NO3– (µM)
0.83 ± 0.27
0.46 ± 0.15
0.08 ± 0.04
0.27 ± 0.14
0.07 ± 0.21
0.40 ± 0.15
PO4 (µM)
0.34 ± 0.03
0.62 ± 0.08
0.24 ± 0.01
0.34 ± 0.04
0.36 ± 0.02
0.34 ± 0.01
SiO4 (µM)
2.20 ± 0.2
1.45 ± 0.27
1.25 ± 0.09
0.05 ± 0.03
6.43 ± 0.22
0.52 ± 0.22
45-150 m
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Pot. temp. (°C)
–1.65 ± 0.004
–1.65 ± 0.001
–1.72 ± 0.002
–1.68 ± 0.01
–1.628 ± 0.001
–1.419 ± 0.026
3–
Salinity
32.93 ± 0.002
33.09 ± 0.001
33.21 ± 0.001
32.97 ± 0.01
32.67 ± 0.010
32.47 ± 0.023
Chl. (µg l–1)
0.257 ± 0.011
0.117 ± 0.004
1.040 ± 0.257
0.33 ± 0.14
0.10 ± 0.02
0.19 ± 0.01
DIC (µM)
2181.1 ± 7.9
2172.4 ± 0.40
2188.9 ± 3.2
2190.9 ± 3.2
2203.2 ± 10.4
2192.8 ± 3.1
TA (µM)
2318.8 ± 1.7
2347.6 ± 5.0
2450.5 ± 4.7
2440.9 ± 3.5
2307 ± 21.9
2311.6 ± 9.7
pCO2 (µatm)*
3.95 ± 0.15
4.64 ± 0.14
3.15 ± 0.18
3.91 ± 0.35
3.88 ± 0.36
4.70 ± 0.36
NO3 (µM)
0.58 ± 0.01
0.88 ± 0.11
0.50 ± 0.01
0.47 ± 0.06
0.48 ± 0.01
0.55 ± 0.02
PO4 (µM)
4.22 ± 0.27
4.48 ± 0.11
3.99 ± 0.26
4.63 ± 1.23
5.66 ± 0.41
4.74 ± 0.50
–
3–
SiO4 (µM)
Figure 5.11 Profiles of the
concentrations of nutrients
in the water column at the
main hydrographic station
in outer Young Sund during August 2008.
0
–20
–40
Depth (m)
–60
–80
–100
–120
1-8
–140
8-8
16-8
–160
0.2
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0
PO43– concentration (µM)
1 2 3 4 5 6
NO3– concentration (µM)
7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6
SiO3 concentration (µM)
7
73
14th Annual Report, 2008
0
–20
Depth (m)
–40
–60
–80
–100
–120
–140
–160
1-8
8-8
16-8
1400
1600
1800
2000
DIC (µM)
2200
2400 1600
1800
2000
TA (µM)
2200
2400
Figure 5.12 Concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) in the water column at the main hydrographic station in the
outer part of Young Sund during August 2008.
–40
The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of the
surface water determines whether the fjord
acts as a source or a sink for atmospheric
CO2. Measurements so far have revealed
that the fjord takes up CO2 during summer.
Measurements of surface pCO2 conducted
along the transect from Tyrolerfjord to
Greenland Sea (figure 5.13) show undersaturation of the surface water compared to
the atmosphere especially in the inner part
of Tyrolerfjord. The spatial difference was
more pronounced in 2008 compared to 2006
and 2007. At the main hydrographic station, the average pCO2 level was 170 matm.
The pCO2 values found at the surface at the
main station show considerable variation
between years. The partial pressure of CO2
in the surface water depends on both physical (temperature and salinity), chemical
(DIC and TA) and biological (production
and mineralization of organic carbon) processes. All of these showed distinct vertical
variation within the upper 25 m of the water column. The measured values of pCO2
are thus strongly dependent on the degree
of stratification and mixing of the water
column which could be an important factor
causing inter-annual variation.
–80
Attenuation of PAR
Light attenuation was remarkably stable
and relatively low at the main station
during the sampling period. Part of the
explanation is the calm conditions which
allowed phytoplankton cells to establish
a deep maximum bloom at 25-30 m depth
where nutrient conditions were favourable.
The surface water showed very low level
of fluorescence indicating very low phytoplankton biomass and low attenuation of
∆pCO2 (ppm)
Surface pCO2
–120
–160
2006
–200
2007
2008
–240
0
25
Tyrolerfjord
50
75
Distance (km)
100
125
175
Greenland Sea
Figure 5.13 Difference in partial pressure of CO2 between atmosphere and sea surface
in Young Sund along a transect running from Tyrolerfjord to Greenland Sea, 20062008 (see figure 5.1 for sampling stations).
RAR attenuation coefficient (m–1)
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Year
PAR here. The high values observed in 2006
and in 2007 (figure 5.14) were most likely a
result of very windy conditions that mixed
phytoplankton into the surface water.
Phytoplankton and zooplankton
From 2004 to 2007 phytoplankton identification was carried out at the laboratory of Dr. Marek Zajaczkowski at the
Figure 5.14 Attenuation
coefficients in the water
column of phytosynthetical available radiation
(PAR) at the standard station 2003-2008.
74
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.3 Phytoplankton diversity in Young Sund at 0-50 m depth during August 2008. The ten most abundant species are listed together with the relative accumulated proportion (%) of total cell count.
No. of species
Diversity
Equitability
Species
31-jul-08
08-aug-08
30 ± 1.15
29 ± 4.04
16-aug-08
23 ± 2.31
2.61 ± 0.07
2.53 ± 0.35
2.13 ± 0.10
0.77 ± 0.02
0.75 ± 0.07
0.68 ± 0.01
Chaetoceros
decipiens
16
Chaetoceros
debilis
36
Chaetoceros
decipiens
43
Pauliella
taeniata
30
Chaetoceros
decipiens
47
Alexandrium
sp.
53
Fragilariopsis
oceanica
39
Eucampia
groenlandica
53
Pauliella
taeniata
61
Actinocyclus
tenuissimus
48
Pauliella
taeniata
58
Actinocyclus
tenuissimus
65
Alexandrium
sp.
54
Cylindrotheca
closterium
62
Synedropsis
hyperborea
69
Eucampia
groenlandica
59
Thalassiosira
nordenskieldii
66
Dictyocha
specullum
71
Protoperidinium
pellucidum
62
Alexandrium
sp.
69
Protoperidinium
pellucidum
73
Protoperidinium
brevipes
65
Actinocyclus
tenuissimus
71
Eucampia
groenlandica
75
Thalassiosira
nordenskieldii
68
Synedropsis
sp.
73
Tabularia
sp.
77
Bacterosira
bathyomphala
71
Fragilariopsis
oceanica
75
Thalassiosira
hyalina
78
Institute of Oceanology, Sopot in Poland.
In 2008 samples were identified by Dr.
Witkowski at Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Szczecin. In 2008
the total number of phytoplankton species (table 5.3) was higher than previous
years where values ranged from 15 to
20 species per sample date. However,
several of the dominant species in 2008
were the same as previous years such as
the dominance of the species belonging
to the genus Chaetoceros, the species Eucampia groenlandica, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii and Fragilariopsis oceanica.
The zooplankton community was also
sampled at the main station three times
during the field campaign using a 50 mm
net (table 5.4). In 2008 the composition
was characterized by a large proportion
of Calanus glacialis which accounted for
11 % of the total number of zooplankton
compared to an average of 2 % for 20032007. Lower relative abundance of Calanus hyperboreus (4 % in 2008 compared
to 15 % on average for 2003-2007) and
Pseudocalanus spp. (5 % compared to 17 %
on average) was found. One interesting
trend observed in previous years is a decreasing ratio of Calanus hyperboreus to C.
finmarchicus. These two species are of special interest because C. hyperboreus is considered a typical arctic species whereas C.
finmarchicus is a more temperate species.
From 2003 to 2007 the ratio of adult and
copepodite abundance of C. hyperboreus
to C. finmarchicus decreased from 56:1
to 0.8:1 which could be an indication of
increased input of water of Atlantic origin. In 2008 the ratio was 1.6:1 which still
indicates that the Atlantic species have
become more abundant compared to the
Arctic species in recent years.
5.3 Sediment
Sediment-water exchange rates of
oxygen, DIC and nutrients, oxygen
conditions and sulphate reduction
A fraction of the pelagic production settles on the sea bed where it is mineralized
or buried in the sediment. The extent to
which a portion is mineralised and released into the overlying water column as
inorganic carbon and nutrients depends
on a number of processes. In the surface
sediment layers organic matter is oxidised
through oxygen electron acceptors and
below the oxidised zone sulphate (SO42-)
reduction is the dominant electron acceptor. Sediment processes were measured
in recovered intact sediment cores. Of the
organic matter settling on the sediment
75
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.4 Composition of the copepod fauna in Young Sund at 0-150 m depth during August 2008.
01-aug
Species
Calanus hyperboreus
Calanus glacialis
Stage/sex
Microcalanus
Metridia longa
Mean
(No. m–3)
SE
(n=3)
22
7.1
67.4
12
52
1.3
1.3
0
0
0
0
CV
75.8
10.6
145.3
4.7
165.3
45.6
C IV
116.8
51.1
225
122
395.8
114
C III
227
90.4
394.4
62.6
495.4
110.2
C II
166.1
79.4
248.1
57.5
157.8
54.5
CI
96.3
57.9
0
0
0
0
41
12.7
95.8
11
147.4
56.3
Adult ♀
5.6
5.6
0
0
0
0
260.8
109.2
433.3
33.3
407.1
71.4
C IV
25.9
9.4
72.2
14.7
107.7
65.1
C III
447.1
148.2
470.4
123.8
733.3
175.2
C II
345
54.4
1103.7
167.4
1168.9
277.9
CI
792.6
522.2
1340.7
104.5
1111.1
219.7
Adult ♀
127.8
37.2
294.4
36.4
306.1
115
Adult ♂
0
0
4.2
4.2
0
0
470.4
97.3
694.4
253.9
739
250.5
C IV
0
0
83.3
44.1
81.6
52.9
C III
91.5
65.5
381.5
146.9
284.4
62.2
C II
118
96.8
518.5
112.1
295.6
115.9
CI
125.9
94.6
448.1
184.2
304.4
106.6
Adult ♀
46.6
5.6
238.9
45.5
206.7
66.8
Adult ♂
0
0
11.1
11.1
0
0
90.5
27.9
240.7
64.3
326.7
57.5
CV
Oncea
SE
(n=3)
26.7
CV
Oithona spp.
16-aug
Mean
(No. m-3)
Adult ♀
Adult ♂
Pseudocalanus spp.
08-aug
SE
(n=3)
Adult ♂
CV
Calanus finmarchicus
Mean
(No. m–3)
C IV
35.4
8.2
274.1
40.7
260
53.5
C III
184.7
68.4
292.6
76.5
264.4
59.7
C II
251.9
97.4
411.1
128.1
237.8
31.3
CI
205.6
33.8
248.1
98.6
226.7
75.8
821.2
Adult ♀
2222.2
617.4
2581.5
620.3
4433.3
Adult ♂
266.7
77
540.7
177.9
506.7
93.3
C I-CV
3472.2
1558.3
9774.1
838.4
8566.7
1855
Adult ♀
527.8
281.6
1111.1
205.8
982.2
54.6
Adult ♂
655.6
178.8
1344.4
403.8
1220
499.7
403.7
C I-CV
1077.8
496
1785.2
143.5
1931.1
Adult ♀
227.8
24.2
629.6
91
640
160
Adult ♂
127.8
43.4
259.3
94.6
157.8
42.2
C I-CV
1816.7
576.6
4466.7
384.4
4780
1553.6
Adult ♀
59.5
6.3
149.3
37.3
187.9
26.1
Adult ♂
22.2
5.7
63.9
34.8
49.3
4.7
CV
200.5
122.6
116.7
25.5
270.9
17.3
C IV
0
0
0
0
6.1
6.1
C III
0
0
33.3
19.2
88.7
26.3
C II
49.5
21.1
77.8
29.4
122.2
11.1
CI
45
6.9
55.6
40.1
51.1
9.7
surface 5.4 mmol C m-2 d-1 was returned to
the water column as dissolved inorganic
carbon (DIC) in 2008 (table 5.5). This level
was of similar magnitude as observed in
2003 and 2005, indicating that more organic matter reached the sea bed and was
mineralized in 2008 compared to 2007. The
oxygen consumption of the sediment was
6.6 mmol m-2 d-1 which was higher than
DIC efflux due to reduced substances reacting with oxygen in the upper sediment
layers (figure 5.15). Bioturbation activity
(table 5.5) determined from the ratio between diffusive and total oxygen uptake,
increased from previous years. Sulphate
reduction was low in the upper sediment
layers where other processes are dominant, especially oxygen dynamics associated with mineralisation. In deeper layers,
sulphate reduction became the dominant
process (figure 5.16). Sulphate reduction
was responsible for 16 % (table 5.5) of the
mineralisation of organic matter, which
was the lowest level observed to date.
76
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.5 Sediment-water exchange rates of O2 (TOU), DIC
(dissolved inorganic carbon), NO3– + NO2–, NH4+, PO43– and
SiO4 measured in intact sediment cores. Sulphate reduction
rates (SRR) in the sediment integrated to a depth of 12 cm.
Diffusive oxygen uptake by the sediment (DOU) and the
ratios of DOU to TOU and SRR to DIC flux. SRR/DIC flux is
calculated in carbon-equivalents. n denotes the number of
sediment cores. Positive values indicate a release from the
sediment to the water column. All rates are in mmol m-2
d-1. SE denotes the standard error of the mean.
2008
Parameter
TOU
Average
±SE
n
6.624
3.078
10
DIC
5.558
1.293
10
NO3– + NO2–
0.177
0.062
10
NH4+
–0.021
0.033
10
PO43–
0.012
0.014
10
SiO4
0.81
0.111
10
SRR
0.441
0.061
3
DOU
–3.992
–
10
TOU/DOU
1.659
–
–
SRR/DIC
0.159
–
–
O2 consumption (µmol cm–3 d–1)
Figure 5.15 Vertical concentration profiles of oxygen (dots) and modeled
consumption rates (line)
in the sediment at 60 m
depth in Young Sund,
August 2008.
–0.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
Depth (cm)
0.5
1.0
1.5
Benthic macrofauna
The composition and abundance of dominant benthic fauna was monitored by underwater photography of the sea floor.
Three transects each covering depths of
20-60 m are photographed each year with
an approximate coverage of 50 m2 in total.
Data for the small scallop Propeamussium
groenlandicus, the two infaunal bivalves
Hiatella arctica and Mya truncata (labelled
`bivalves´) and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus sp. is shown in figure 5.17. When
the programme started in 2003 the scallop P. groenlandicus was very rare and not
included in the standard quantification
of dominant species. Since then it has increased steadily in abundance and in 2008
a total of 182 specimens were identified in
the photos. Analysis of photos from 2003
to 2006 is being conducted to provide an
estimate of the increased abundance of this
species. Unfortunately, very little is known
about the ecology of this species but it is
abundant on most of the East Greenland
coast particularly at depth from 20 to 60-70
m (Ockelmann 1958). Brittle stars are the
most abundant epifauna group and data
from 2003-2008 (figure 5.18) shows considerable year-to-year variability. Part of this
variation is related to a considerable spatial
variability. An increasing trend in brittle
star abundance is however visible for several of the sample station, for example
most of the depths at transect H3.
Underwater plants
2.0
2.5
0
100
200
O2 (µM)
300
400
0
Figure 5.16 Sulfate reduction rates in the sediment
at 60 m depth in Young
Sund, August 2008.
2
Depth (cm)
4
6
8
10
12
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14
Sulphate reduction (nmol cm–3 d–1)
The large brown alga Saccharina latissima is
sampled in August in order to provide an
estimate of growth conditions for benthic
primary producers. Growth is estimated
by measuring the length of the new blades
produced and by estimating the corresponding production in gram carbon by
analyzing subsamples of the leaf tissue. The
annual growth of the brown alga is primarily determined by light availability and
thus influenced by the ice conditions in the
fjord. The brown alga starts to form the new
blade in late winter from stored energy and
continues to grow through the summer. The
annual growth in 2008 is thus the combined
result of growth condition in 2007 and 2008.
The average leaf growth in 2008 was 99 cm,
corresponding to a production of 6.6 g carbon (table 5.6). This is above values for 2006
and 2007, where ice conditions were comparable. However, in 2008 surface water were
warmer and the PAR attenuation coefficient
approximately 30 % lower than in 2006
77
14th Annual Report, 2008
Table 5.6 Annual growth (mean ± SE) of Saccharina latissima at 10 m depth in Young Sound from 2003 to 2008. Number of specimens measured
is given in brackets.
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Length of new leaf blades (cm y–1)
109 ± 7.6 (14)
106 ± 6.2 (16)
118 ± 5.5 (20)
77 ± 6.6 (20)
85 ± 5.7 (22)
99 ± 6.0 (14)
Production of new leaf blades (g C y–1)
15.1 ± 1.3 (14)
5.8 ± 0.8 (16)
11.0 ± 0.9 (20) 2.0 ± 0.5 (17) 5.9 ± 1.0 (22) 6.6 ± 3.3 (14)
and 2007. This could have contributed to
increased growth. Also, the sea ice broke up
in early July in 2008 compared to late July in
2006 and 2007. Since algae were collected in
early August this difference could represent
a significant increase in light availability
during the year of collection.
5.5 Results from winter campaign in 2008 (part of the
ISICaB project)
In the winter of 2008 it was possible to supplement the MarineBasis programme with
measurements conducted during a two
week field campaign in late March – early
April as part of the ISICaB project. Two
CTD profiles from the campaign (figure
5.19) supplement the continuous measurements at 42 and 65 m on the mooring. Data
from the mooring indicates that the period
from February to May is characterized by
very homogeneous water masses at both
depths. The vertical profiles in winter show
considerable variation of the surface water
but also an increase in temperature and salinity around 100 m depth.
5.4 Walrus and arctic char
Detailed observation of walrus abundance on Sandøen was conducted by the
research team at Sandøen working on sea
birds and walruses. Their observations are
presented elsewhere in this report. The
MarineBasis programme collects 20 specimens of arctic char near Zackenbergelven
which are stored for future analysis of contaminants, stomach content etc.
Abundance (ind. m–2)
20
Propeamussium groenlandicus
15
250
10
Bivalves
200
8
150
6
100
4
50
2
Sea urchins
H1
H2
H3
10
5
0
0
20
30
40
50
60
0
20
30
40
50
Depth (m)
60
20
30
40
50
60
Figure 5.17 Abundance of dominant benthic fauna in three transects (H1-H3) in Young Sund estimated from photos (mean ± SE) of the sea floor,
August 2008. n=10.
1000
Abundance (ind. m–2)
800
1000
H1
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
1000
H2
800
800
600
600
400
400
400
200
200
200
600
0
0
20
30
40
50
60
H3
0
20
30
40
50
Depth (m)
60
20
30
40
50
60
Figure 5.18 Abundance of brittle stars estimated from photos (mean ± SE) at transects H1, H2 and H3 in outer Young Sund from 2003 to 2008.
78
14th Annual Report, 2008
0
–20
Depth (m)
–40
–60
–80
–100
Winter
–120
–140
–1.8
Summer
–1.7
–1.6
–1.5
–1.4
Temperature (°C)
–1.3
–1.2 30.5
31.0
31.5
32.0
32.5
33.0
Salinity
Figure 5.19 Profiles of temperature and salinity from the winter campaign (30 March and 4 April 2008). A profile from summer (31 July 2008) is
included for comparison.
0
30 March
4 April
Depth (m)
–40
–80
–120
–160
280
300
Figure 5.20 Vertical profiles of partial pressure
of CO2 (pCO2) in Young
Sund 2008.
Figure 5.21 Incubation
chambers used to measure CO2 dynamics across
the sea ice -atmosphere
interface during winter.
Photo: Peter Bondo
Christensen.
320
340
pCO2
360
380
400
One of the aims of the project was
to provide more information about the
processes involved in determining the
exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere
and the sea. The Arctic Seas play a major
role in regulating the atmospheric CO2
concentration, which affects the global
heat balance and climate. In the sum-
mer, the surface water in Young Sund
is generally under-saturated with CO2
and takes up atmospheric CO2. Surface
pCO2 measurements in Young Sund have
been conducted since 2003 and were supplemented in 2006 with a system that
allowed frequent measurement directly
on the boat using a micro equilibrator
and a portable CO2 analyzer. This method
greatly increased the number of measurements and allowed frequent measurements of spatial and temporal variation
to be made. However, without knowledge of the winter situation it is not
possible to determine whether the fjord
acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2 at an
annual scale. Also, the formation and presence of sea ice influence the exchange of
CO2 in several ways. Sea ice impedes gas
exchange between the atmosphere and
the sea; however sea ice formation itself
concentrates all solutes, including gases,
in the brine pockets that form within the
ice. Together with solute rejection, several
factors can elevate the CO2 concentration in the liquid brine: (1) as salinity
increases the gas solubility decreases, (2)
bicarbonate dissociates in favour of CO2
concentration and (3) calcium carbonate can precipitate, decreasing alkalinity
(Rysgaard et al. 2007). Brine with a high
concentration of CO2 may vent gas to the
atmosphere or convey that excess gas
(relative to atmospheric equilibrium) to
the water column through gravity-driven
brine drainage. In addition to these physicochemical processes biological activity
in form of ice algae and bacterial mineralization of carbon leaked from algae may
also influence pCO2 of the brine system.
Measurements in the water just below
sea ice showed that the partial pressure of
CO2 was under-saturated during the winter
79
14th Annual Report, 2008
600 Formation of 20 cm of new ice
Existing sea ice (1.8 m thick)
500
400
pCO2 (ppm)
compared to the atmosphere (figure 5.20)
which indicates that the fjord act as a net
sink of atmospheric CO2 at an annual scale.
Just like in the summer, the pCO2 increases
with depth, but remains under-saturated
compared to the atmosphere in the upper 50
m. By placing incubation chambers directly
on the sea ice (figure 5.21) we estimated the
CO2 exchange above existing sea ice of an
average thickness of 1.8 m. Measurements
in three duplicate chambers showed slow
out gassing of CO2 from the sea ice into
the atmosphere (figure 5.22). This out gassing of CO2 was greatly increased during
the production of new ice in the incubation
chambers placed over holes drilled in the
ice. These results show that during the formation of sea ice part of the CO2 is released
to the atmosphere in addition to the downward flux with brine. In order to estimate
the potential uptake of CO2 during sea ice
melt, ice cores of known volume were melted in gas tight containers. At a temperature
of 2 °C the melt water averaged 150 ppm of
CO2 indicating a large potential for uptake
of atmospheric CO2 during ice melt in July.
Algae within the sea ice are known to
exude carbohydrates which are degraded
by bacteria. The balance between biological consumption and release of CO2 could
potentially influence pCO2 levels in the sea
ice. To estimate CO2 released by bacteria,
experiments with sea water (10 m depth)
and melted sea ice were conducted to estimate oxygen consumption in dark incubations. Samples on bacterial abundance and
production are still being processed in the
laboratory. However, oxygen consumption
in melted sea ice was either negligible or
below detection level.
The available knowledge on CO2
exchange is summarized in figure 5.23.
300
200
100
0
0
2
4
6
8
10 0
2
Time (days)
Based on the data obtained during the
summer and winter campaign the best
available estimate is that Young Sund act
as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 at an
annual scale. Assuming that the summer
estimates of CO2 exchange represents a
90 day period, ice formation takes place
30 days a year and measurements above
sea ice represents the remaining 245 days,
a very crude estimate is that Young Sund
takes up 1750 mmol CO2 m-2. There are
two main sources of uncertainty related
to this estimate. The temporal resolution
is very poor (e.g. two measurements in
winter). Also, the calculation of actual
flux rates based on difference in partial
pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere and
surface water can be done using different parameterizations of the gas transfer
velocity which result in flux rates varying by a factor 2. One way to increase our
knowledge of the mechanisms involved
in CO2 exchange and the actual flux rates
is to use the eddy correlation technique.
This technique is already employed for the
measurement of terrestrial CO2 exchange
in the study area.
Winter sea ice: 0.06 mmol CO2
Atmospheric pCO2: ~380 ppm
Ice formation: 1.2 mmol CO2
Ice free: 20 mmol CO2
Snow
Sea ice
Ice pCO2: ~150 ppm
Algae & bacteria
Surface water pCO2: 230 ppm
Surface water pCO2: 320 ppm
Algae & bacteria
4
6
8
10
Figure 5.22 Average increase of CO2 concentration in chambers above
existing sea ice and during
ice formation.
Figure 5.23 Schematic representation of processes involved in the CO2 exchange
between the atmosphere
and Young Sund. Estimated
rates of CO2 exchange (italics) are per m-2 day-1.
80
14th Annual Report, 2008
6 Research projects
6.1 Climate change and glacier
reaction in Zackenberg
region
Wolfgang Schöner, Daniel Binder, Bernhard
Hynek, Gernot Weyss, Jakob Abermann,
Marc Olefs and Ulrike Nickus
Figure 6.1 Freya Glacier
in 1939 (photo: H. W.
Ahlmann) and in 2008
(photo: Gernot Weyss).
Direct measurements of glacier changes
are sparse for Northeast Greenland. Besides the Greenland Ice Sheet, smaller ice
caps and glaciers at the coastal ranges of
Greenland are assumed to give an important contribution to the freshwater release
from Greenland. The level of contribution
to sea level change is, however, still not
well quantified. In the Zackenberg region
detailed measurements of glacier change
and boundary layer climate were performed in the 1930s by H. W. Ahlmann at
Freya Glacier (Clavering Ø). In spite of its
early date these data are among the most
detailed on climate-glacier relationship
in eastern Greenland. A clear retreat of
Freya Glacier since the investigations of
Ahlmann is illustrated from comparison
of photographs taken in respectively 1939
and 2008 (figure 6.1).
Based on these early observations, detailed measurements of glacier mass balance
(winter balance and annual net balance),
glacier volume, glacier topography and
snow accumulation were started in 2007 at
Freya Glacier. Measurements of winter accumulation were carried out in May 2008
by ground penetrating radar (GPR). From
these measurements a net winter balance of
685 mm for 2007/2008 was estimated. If this
value is compared to the annual precipitation at Zackenberg Research Station, which
is about 230 mm, a high spatial variability of
precipitation in the Tyrolerfjord region can
be assumed (even if an increase of precipitation with altitude and preferential deposition of snow at glaciers is considered).
Results of mass balance measurements
on Freya Glacier in 2007/2008 are shown
in figure 6.2. Annual net balance of Freya
Glacier in 2008 was negative (-500 mm)
which results from a specific summer
balance of about -1200 mm. This clearly
shows the importance of the glaciers in the
Zackenberg region as freshwater supply to
pro-glacial streams.
Low frequency GPR-measurements
from Freya Glacier (2008) show that the
glacier has a maximum ice thickness of
about 300 m. Additionally; it can be derived from the GPR measurements that
Freya Glacier is polythermal.
81
14th Annual Report, 2008
6.2 FERMAP: Effects of climate
change on terrestrial and
fresh-water ecosystems
in Greenland. Subproject
“Description of glacial
microbial communities”
Birgit Sattler, Michaela Panzenböck, Alexandre
Anesio and Andreas Fritz
Glacial surfaces of Alpine, Arctic and
Antarctic sites can no longer be addressed
as sterile deserts, inhospitable to active
life. Viable microbial food webs are crucial and prominent features on glaciers
world-wide. They are metabolizing and
contributing substantially to the global
carbon budget. So called cryoconite holes
are water filled cylindrical depressions.
They act as sediment traps from atmospheric and terrestrial input and support
highly active microbial communities
which are sensitive indicators for environmental change such as temperature.
For a critical assessment of the ecological
relevance of cryoconite assemblages the
sources of inoculation (airborne and terrestrial source) need to be investigated
under the aspect of carbon in- and output
at glacial systems.
The joint project between the Universities of Innsbruck, Vienna (Austria) and
Bristol (UK) carried out in the Zackenberg
region in July 2008 was mainly based at
Freya Glacier and had various aspects as
described below.
In principle a majority of measurements
could be carried out with the perspective
to compare them with other habitats in
different latitudes and altitudes for which
the team encountered glacial ecosystems;
i.e. in Antarctica and the Austrian Alps, to
follow a long-term assessment of bipolar
and alpine glaciers under the theme of
‘TRIPLE A’.
1400
A
1200
Elevation (m a.s.l.)
Mass balance and accumulation
measurements will be continued and extended in 2009. Additionally, the glacier
surface topography will be surveyed by
GPS. Results from mass balance measurements and elevation changes will be
evaluated and compared with the climate change in the Zackenberg region
(from climate measurements at Zackenberg and Daneborg).
1000
B
Winter
Summer
Annual
800
600
400
200
–4000
–2000
0
b, bw, bs (kg m–2)
2000 0
Aerobiology
Since remote areas like glacial surfaces are
not solely inoculated by material of local
origin but also settled by microbes deposited by the atmosphere, a substantial part
of the sampling campaign was dedicated
to the quantification of microbial cells
in the surrounding air parcels. For this
purpose airborne biological particles have
been sampled with an air-sampler along
transects from the glacier accumulation
zone down to glacier snout, and in the
landscape in front of the glacier. As a reference, air samples (a multiple of 1000 l
onto gelatine filters) have been taken as
well around Zackenberg Research Station to assess the human impact and the
adjacent vegetation to see the influence of
more variable sources.
Qualification of sources for dissolved
organic carbon (DOC)
To assess the quantification and qualification of the input sources of DOC various
possible DOC contributors have been
leached and microbial communities have
been inoculated with differing concentrations of leachates. A glacial melting river
and a creek not influenced by glacial flour
have been chosen as target habitats. Extracts have been produced from glacial
flour to estimate the influence of glacial
melt onto microbial communities, glucose
as a carbon source and two prominent
plants, Eriophora and Cassiope. All sources
have been analysed for the original DOC
content and were added in various concentrations to the microbial communities.
As relevant parameters, bacterial activity measured via leucine incorporation,
bacterial cell numbers (epifluorescence
microscopy) and respiration, were chosen
and samples have been extracted during
1000 2000 3000
S (1000 m2)
Figure 6.2 Mass balance of
Freya Glacier in 2007/2008
(b = annual net balance,
bw = winter balance, bs =
summer balance) and the
glacier area (S).
82
14th Annual Report, 2008
5
Table 6.1 For comparison, primary production of the debris of cryoconite holes, often considered as analogues of
mini-lakes (sediment with water column) are shown from
Arctic glaciers in Svalbard (Midtre and Austre Lovenbréen, Austre Brøggerbréen), Freya Glacier in Greenland and
Stubacher Sonnblickkees in the Austrian Alps.
3
Primary Production (debris)
µg C g–1 d–1
Midtre Lovénbréen
353 ± 248
(72.2–756)
1
Austre Brøggerbréen
48.0 ± 35.9
(11.2–125)
0
Vestre Brøggerbréen
208 ± 106
(101–368)
Freya Glacier
115 ± 56.3
(35.5–205)
Stubacher Sonnblickkees
147 ± 78.3
(2.83–2059)
Tundra creek
at camp
Clacier creeks
Cryoconites
Snow
T3-6
T3-5
T3-4
T3-3
T3-2
T3-1
T2-1
T1-3
T1-2
2
T1-1
DOC (mg L–1)
4
Figure 6.3 Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon along transects of Zackenbergelven and the respective carbon sources.
on the production rates since the photosynthetic active radiation is limited by
the blocking of dust. Increased melting
processes on glaciers and snowy surfaces
can cause a relative increase in shading.
To assess this problem, primary production of snow samples along the shores of
Zackenbergelven has been measured at
various light densities to minimise the effect of shadowing effect of dust deposition
(table 6.1).
1200
µg FAME g–1 dw
1000
800
600
400
200
0
STB
Alpine
MLB
ABB
VBB
Arctic
AG
FG
LUS
DG
JP
Anarctic
Figure 6.4 Fatty acids (FAME = fatty acid methyl ester) of glacial microbial communities from various glaciers (FG = Freya Glacier, Greenland). Analysed by Julia
Nussbaumer.
a time period of a long-term incubation
at Zackenberg Research Station. Measurements have been carried out back in the
respective laboratories. DOC analysis has
been done for the different treatments including controls and parallels (figure 6.3).
Primary production of snow and glacial microbial communities in cryoconite holes
The surface of wet snow, as it occurs in a
short period during summer, is a suitable
habitat for primary producers. Moreover,
photosynthetic organisms are supported
by airborne organic and inorganic material serving as nutrient source. However,
increasing dust deposition on the snow
surface is not only favouring the food
situation but is also providing shading
for algae. This can have a secondary effect
Fatty acids as adaptation mechanism
for microbial cells in cold environments
Lipids play a major role in the cell membrane of cold adapted organisms. Little is
known about composition of fatty acids
especially in glacial communities. Therefore, glacial microbial communities have
been sampled and analysed for fatty acids
(figure 6.4 and 6.5).
Radioactive deposition
Radionuclides attached to aerosols were
deposited after the atmospheric nuclear
bomb explosions (Mainly 1950s to 1960s)
and in the days after the Chernobyl accident (27 April 1986). The resulting contamination of snow or ice layers has been
observed in various regions as Austria,
Switzerland, France, Greenland and Spitsbergen. However, over longer periods the
often very complicated patterns of glacier
ice movement will generally distort such
layers. On temperate glaciers (most of
Austrian glaciers) soluble radionuclides
are expected to be removed with melt water soon after fallout, but particulate fallout may stay where it has been deposited,
apart from local redistribution in course
83
14th Annual Report, 2008
0.14
0.030
Stearic acid – C18:0
0.12
Linoleic acid – C18:2n6cis
0.025
µg FAME mg–1 dw
µg FAME mg–1 dw
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0
–0.02
0
STB
MLB
ABB
VBB
AG
FG
of the cryoconite formation process, that
is, relative to the glacier surface, which is
in constant slow movement relative to the
surrounding terrain. Investigating the spatial pattern of cryoconite occurrence and
composition may therefore help to understand small scale redistribution processes.
During the sampling campaign on
Freya Glacier cryoconite material has been
collected along a transect to be analysed
in cooperation with the University of Salzburg. So far it has been proofed that cryoconite material has a long-term storing
capacity for radionuclides of Chernobyl
and nuclear bomb tests sources. Analyses
are still underway.
6.3 The sensitivity of polar
permafrost landscapes to
climate changes
Bo Elberling and Hanne H. Christiansen
As part of the Nordic project ‘The International University Course on High Arctic
Permafrost Landscape Dynamics in Svalbard
and Greenland’ and University centre in
Svalbard course AG-333, a group of 10
students and the authors worked at Zackenberg for a week in the end of August
2008. This Svalbard and Greenland based
permafrost project aimed to provide a
multi-disciplinary field-training experience for internationally recruited students
in the dynamics of high arctic terrestrial
permafrost and its soil environments during the International Polar Year (IPY). We
focussed on high arctic landscape variability across the steepest high arctic climatic
gradient - from maritime Svalbard at Cap
Linné and in central Svalbard near Longyearbyen (78º10’N) to continental Northeast Greenland at Zackenberg (74º30’N).
LUS
DG
STB
MLB
ABB
VBB
Thanks to the ten dedicated students
and funding from the Nordic Council of
Ministers Arctic Co-operation Programme,
the IPY project ‘Permafrost Observatory
Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State
of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard’ (TSP
Norway), The University Centre in Svalbard, and the Danish Polar Center this
project allowed us to dig through the active layer and drill down into the upper
part of the permafrost at more than 16
sites at snow patches, ice wedge polygons,
inorganic rich deposits and in loess terraces in Svalbard and Zackenberg. We collected more than 30 m of active layer samples and permafrost cores. Roughly half of
the cores/samples were processed during
the course, and analyses included stratigraphy, water/ice content, core description, macro fossils, grain size distribution
and pH. The rest of the samples are being
processed as part of international research
collaborations. Additional fieldwork included downloading data from existing
meteorological and other permafrost stations at the study sites, installing temperature loggers in five boreholes and measuring active layer thickness at three existing
CALM sites. The first permafrost borehole
temperature monitoring in Northeast
Greenland was started by this project. Excursions during the course included visits
to main research sites with a focus on periglacial landform activity of ice wedges,
nivation landforms, soil formation and
geochemical processes at various scales.
Preliminary data and results have been
compiled and provide a unique snapshot
of integrated physical, geomorphological
and biogeochemical variability of high
Arctic permafrost landscapes in key parameters such as active layer thickness, permafrost temperatures and carbon stocks in
the top permafrost. The collected data will
AG
FG
LUS
DG
Figure 6.5 Comparison of
concentrations of stearic
(C18:0) and linoleic acid
(C18:2n6cis) in various
cryoconite hole communities of the Arctic, Antarctica and the Austrian
Alps. (FG = Freya Glacier,
Greenland). Analysed by
Julia Nussbaumer.
84
14th Annual Report, 2008
be part of IPY datasets freely available for
the scientific community. Data will form
part of the international IPY permafrost
thermal snapshot, and will be used as
input to models to quantify the sensitivity of active layer depths with respect to
climatic changes and the corresponding
changes in soil element cycling. Among
our new observations are 1) very ice-rich
permafrost (up to 80 % ice by volume), 2)
high concentrations of dissolved N and C
in the permafrost, 3) contrasting permafrost conditions across landscape elements
and 4) increasing active layer depths along
the ZERO line towards the top of the
Aucellabjerg. A 99 page report containing
an overview of all collected samples and
some preliminary data analyses have been
compiled by all the students. The report
was presented and preliminary conclusions were discussed at a Workshop on 6
February 2009 at University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
6.4 CO2 and CH4 balance for a
high arctic fen
Torbern Tagesson and Lena Ström
Figure 6.6 Relationship
between CH4 fluxes and
water table depth in the
continuous fen.
Changes in vegetation composition and
carbon balance such as increased emissions
of CH4 and CO2 have been reported from
sub-arctic and arctic areas (Oechel et al.
1993; Svensson et al. 1999; Christensen et
al. 2004; Malmer et al. 2005, Johansson et al.
2006). These changes are believed to be a
consequence of climatic warming resulting
in permafrost degradation, a deepening of
the active layer and often in a shift in plant
composition or productivity (Christensen et
al. 2004). In addition, several environmental variables, with a presumably high dependence on permafrost depth, such as soil
CH4 flux (mg CH4 m–2 h–1)
14
12
10
8
6
4
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
Water table depth (cm)
0
2
temperature and depth of water table have
been identified as controls of methane production and ultimately of net CH4 emission
(e.g. Torn and Chapin, 1993; Waddington
et al. 1996, Ström and Christensen 2007).
The aim of the present study in Rylekærene
was to investigate if changes in hydrology
and plant composition could be observed
in the area by using remote sensing data.
A second aim was to validate the potential
effect of a change on the fluxes of CH4 and
CO2. Furthermore, during September and
October 2007, Mastepanov et al. (2008)
reported large methane bursts during the
onset of soil freezing and a third objective
of this study was to investigate the cause of
such a burst.
Simultaneous measurements of the
fluxes of CO2 (SBA-4, PP Systems, UK) and
CH4 (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos
Research, USA) were performed at three
to four days intervals using a closed chamber technique. Net Ecosystem Exchange
(NEE) was defined as ecosystem exchange
of CO2 under light conditions, respiration
as exchange of CO2 after darkening of the
chamber, and photosynthesis was calculated as the difference between NEE and
dark respiration.
The measurements from 2008 are a
continuation from 2007 and the 2008
results are currently in the process of being analysed. Mean growing season CH4
fluxes for 2007 were 8.6±5.1mg CH4 m-2
h-1 and 3.3±2.2 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for the
continuous and hummocky fen, respectively. No CH4 fluxes were seen for the
drier vegetation types. Growing season
soil respiration was 179.0±99.8 mg CO2
m2 h-1 (heath), 333.2±132.8 mg CO2 m2 h-1
(grass), 350.1±138.5 mg CO2 m2 h-1 (hummocky fen) and 369.2±148.0 mg CO2 m2 h-1
(continuous fen). Mean growing season
GPP were -213.7±112.3 mg CO2 m2 h-1
(heath), -477.2±190.7 mg CO2 m2 h-1 (grass),
-581.1±281.4 mg CO2 m2 h-1(hummocky fen)
and -654.1±250.1 mg CO2 m2 h-1 (continuous
fen). Continuous fen had the largest effluxes
and heath had the lowest and results clearly
indicate that effluxes of the area are highly
governed by wetness (figure 6.6).
Vegetation types over Rylekærene were
also estimated 2007, and a vegetation map
was drawn (figure 6.7). Results from a remote sensing analysis showed that wetter
vegetation types had larger normalized
different vegetation index (NDVI) than
drier vegetation types. Analysis of remote
sensing data from 1992 to 2008 indicates
85
14th Annual Report, 2008
that NDVI increased in Rylekærene until
1999 after which it has started to decrease,
indicating an increase in wetness until
1999 and a subsequent decrease. However
further studies using wetness indices are
necessary to confirm this finding. Future
aspects of this study will be to analyze the
changes in CH4 and CO2 fluxes between
1992 and 2008 in detail, by looking at satellite images and spectral signatures of the
different vegetation types in combination
with other remotely sensed information
that can be linked to CO2 and CH4 fluxes.
We also wanted to investigate the
reasons behind the high methane burst
in Rylekærene observed during autumn
2007. To investigate effluxes on a larger
spatial scale than chambers, we used an
aerodynamic method combining profile
measurements of CH4 concentration with
eddy flux estimates of resistance. At the
same time several environmental parameters (water table depth, active layer,
photosynthetic active radiation, NDVI,
net radiation, solar irradiance, soil pressure and soil temperature) were investigated. Results for these measurements
are in the process of being analyzed but
points to large inter-annual variations
and future needs for high resolution flux
measurements during the onset of soil
freezing.
N
Continuous fen
6.5 Establishment of GLORIA
monitoring sites at
Zackenberg
Siegrun Ertl, Christian Bay, Christian Lettner,
Ditte Katrine Kristensen and Karl Reiter
The GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments)
programme aims at establishing and maintaining a long-term observation network to
obtain standardised data of plant species
diversity and vegetation patterns of mountain biota at a global scale. Its purpose is to
assess risks of biodiversity losses and the
vulnerability of high mountain ecosystems
under climate change pressures.
By the end of 2008, the network consisted of 63 target regions and more than 50
research teams, distributed over five continents. Zackenberg is the northernmost
target region in this network.
The project was funded by the Austrian
Ministry of Science and Danish Environmental Protection Agency.
Hummocky fen
Grassland
Heath
Water
Riverbed, gravel
0
Sampling design: The multi-summit
approach
Basically, a GLORIA target region consists
of four summit sites arranged along an
elevation gradient from the natural tree
line ecotone (where applicable) up to the
limits of (vascular) plant life.
Each summit is divided into eight summit area sections (figure 6.8): four sections
in the upper summit area (5-m summit
area) and four sections in the lower summit area (10-m summit area). In these
sections the summit flora is recorded, and
abundance of species as well as cover of
surface types is estimated. In each summit,
four 3 × 3 m quadrate clusters (one in each
main compass direction) are installed,
each consisting of four 1 m² permanent
plots. Within these 1 m² plots, species
200
400 meters
Figure 6.7 Vegetation
types surveyed in the field
20 - 30 July 2007 in Rylekærene.
86
14th Annual Report, 2008
(AUC, 605 m a.s.l.) both located further
up the slope of Aucellabjerg (figure 6.9).
All three summits deviated in some way
from the ideal cone-shaped mountain
requested, but permanent plots could be
installed according to the standard protocol. The most problematic deviance was at
the east-side of Polemoniumbjerg, which
was rather flat and running into the main
slope of Aucellabjerg, not reaching the 5
m or 10 m-level from the highest summit
point. Therefore, following the protocol,
the summit area sections in this direction
were cut off at a distance of 50 m and 100
m from the highest summit point. Nevertheless, accessibility and local morphology
often constrains or impedes the set-up of
a site. No suitable site for a fourth summit
could be found.
Figure 6.8 Sketch of
sampling plots and area
sections on a GLORIA
summit.
cover is recorded, and frequency counts in
subdivisions of 100 10 cm² cells are made.
A pinpoint method is applied in a 10 m ×
10 m square around the clusters, where
400 points are recorded in a grid of 50 cm.
Furthermore, temperature is measured in
each quadrate cluster in one-hour intervals with data-loggers (GEOPRECISION
M-Log5). Photo-documentation is made
for re-visitation purpose.
Summit selection at Zackenberg
Three summits were selected: Kamelen
(KAM, 90 m a.s.l.), a moraine hill in the
valley ground, ‘Polemoniumbjerg’ (POL,
470 m a.s.l.), and ‘Little Aucellabjerg’
Figure 6.9 Location of the
GLORIA summits.
The summits
Overall, 72 vascular plant species were
recorded on the investigated summits,
of which 22 occurred on all three sites.
Most common species were Poa glauca
Vahl, Potentilla hookeriana Lehm, Potentilla
rubricaulis Lehm, Salix arctica Pall, Papaver radicatum Rottb, Cerastium arcticum
Lange, Campanula uniflora L. and Draba
arctica J.Vahl. Highest species numbers
were observed on Polemoniumbjerg (58)
followed by Little Aucellabjerg (48) and
Kamelen (34). Peak species richness on
Polemoniumbjerg can be explained by
before-mentioned constraints regarding
summit topography which resulted in a
87
14th Annual Report, 2008
large investigation area towards the East,
touching a moist fen-like community from
the main slope (figure 6.10).
Out of the 48 1 m² quadrates inspected,
eight were not colonised by vascular plant
species. These plots were dominated by
unstable scree or rock, which most likely
hinders plant colonisation and establishment due to high disturbance. A median of
three species up to a maximum of twelve
species were recorded per square meter.
For species numbers per quadrate cluster
and mean number per 1 m² in each compass direction see figure 6.11.
Overall, vascular plant species had very
low cover values (figure 6.12). Carex supina
Willd. ex Wahlenb. reached a maximum
cover of 8 % at Kamelen, average cover
values were at 0.1%; only few species had
an average cover of more than 0.5 % (Carex
supina Willd. ex Wahlenb., Dryas cf. octopetala L., Polemonium boreale Adams, Potentilla hookeriana Lehm., Salix arctica Pall. and
Campanula uniflora L.).
Frequency recordings showed that almost three quarters (74.3 %) of the 4800 10
cm² cells were not occupied by vascular
4000
60
3500
50
40
2500
2000
30
1500
20
Species number
Area (m²)
3000
1000
10
500
0
0
N
E
S
W
N
E
S
W
N
E
S
W
AUC AUC AUC AUC POL POL POL POL KAM KAM KAM KAM
plants (figure 6.13). More than two species in
one cell were only found in 3 % of the cells,
predominantly at Kamelen. This leaves a
vast potential for colonisation, which is to be
monitored in the years to come.
Figure 6.10 Area investigated in each main
compass direction in
the uppermost 10 m of
each summit (bars), with
number of species recorded (diamonds).
Outlook
For the time being, baseline data can be
compared with datasets from other regions, as reference sites are arranged along
the fundamental climatic gradients in
both the vertical and the bio-geographical
N
18
1 m2 mean AUC
16
1 m mean POL
14
2
1 m2 mean KAM
4 m2 total AUC
12
4 m2 total POL
10
4 m2 total KAM
8
6
4
2
0
W
S
E
Figure 6.11 Species
numbers in each main
compass direction on
each summit. Contour
lines display equal species
numbers. Large symbols:
total of one cluster (4 m²).
Small symbols: mean of
the four 1 m² quadrates.
88
14th Annual Report, 2008
100
Rock
Scree
Bare ground
Litter
Lichens
Bryophytes
Vascular plants
80
(%)
60
6.6 Plant and soil responses in
ecosystem manipulation
experiments
Kristine Boesgaard, Kristina Mathiesen, Kristian Albert, Helge Ro-Poulsen, Niels Martin
Schmidt and Anders Michelsen
40
20
0
N
E
S
W
N
E
S
W
N
E
S
W
AUC AUC AUC AUC POL POL POL POL KAM KAM KAM KAM
Figure 6.12 Cover of surface types and plants (mean of four 1 m² plots) in each main
compass direction on each summit.
100
80
(%)
60
40
20
0
W
N
E
W
E
N
S
S
N
E
S
W
POL KAM KAM AUC AUC POL AUC POL AUC POL KAM KAM
Unoccupied
1 species/cell
2 species/cell
>2 species/cell
Figure 6.13 Colonisation of cells in frequency counts (mean of four 1 m² plots) in each
main compass direction on each summit, ordered by occupancy of cells.
dimensions. The first re-visitation cycle
conducted for 18 target regions across
Europe during summer 2008 will presumably reveal first trends of change and/or
possibly point at future needs of refined
surveillance. The expansion of the GLORIA network to and within the Arctic
nonetheless will improve our understanding of climate-induced changes of vascular
plant distribution and small-scale vegetation patterns both on the global and the
regional scale. The establishment of more
arctic sites is planned in near future in
Canada and Russia. On the long term, additional target regions covering all vegetation zones within Greenland would be a
priority objective for in-depth observation
of global climate change effects on arctic
vegetation. Meanwhile, Zackenberg represents the northernmost outpost of the
GLORIA network.
Ecosystem manipulations serve to facilitate our understanding of changes in ecosystem pools and fluxes which take place
due to ongoing environmental changes.
In 2004 an experiment was initiated on a
Cassiope tetragona and a Salix arctica heath
at Zackenberg in order to investigate the
consequences of warming, increased cloud
cover and changed growing season length.
The aim was to study effects on plant
performance, reproduction, growth and
net CO2 fluxes. Since the establishment in
2004, the manipulations have been maintained in the same spots every growing
season. In 2008, CO2 exchange (ecosystem
respiration, gross ecosystem production
and net ecosystem production) was measured occasionally, and the vegetation in
the areas used for these measurements
were harvested to determine the overall
plant production, both in the Cassiope
tetragona and in the Salix arctica sites. Furthermore, in the Cassiope tetragona heath
site, the Cassiope green shoot biomass production was sorted into years and measured in length. Soil samples from the plots
were also collected and the soil microbial
biomass was determined in the laboratory at Copenhagen University. The plant
material was analysed for carbon (C) and
nitrogen (N) concentration.
Manipulations with UV-B radiation
levels have been maintained since the
first experiment was initiated in 2001. The
original three sites of the UV- B manipulation (for position and further description,
see Klitgaard et al. 2006) were maintained
throughout 2008. The UV-B manipulation
plots (Site 4) which were established in the
summer 2005 at a Vaccinium uliginosum
heath were re-visited. No measurements
had been made since CO2 gas exchange
measurements in 2005, but the plots and
treatments had been maintained. Through
the growing season of 2008, the photosynthetic performance (chlorophyll fluorescence) and CO2 gas exchange were measured with short time intervals with 2 to 3
days between the measurements. Through
the season, plant material for chlorophyll
determination was harvested. In the end
89
14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 6.14 This male
sanderling returned to its
previous nesting location
in Zackenberg and was
the only male, known to
us, to re-mate with its
female partner of the year
before. Photo: Jeroen Reneerkens.
of the growing season the areas used
for gas flux measurements were finally
harvested, and the plots were removed.
The soil and plant material was analysed
for C and N concentration, and the plant
biomass production was determined. The
microbial biomass in the soil was also determined at the University of Copenhagen.
The measurements were a part of two
master thesis assignments. One master
thesis will aim to reveal the long-term effects of climate manipulation factors, and
one thesis will focus on the long-term effects of UV-B radiation at Zackenberg.
6.7 Return rates, mate fidelity
and territory size of
sanderlings Calidris alba in
Zackenberg
Jeroen Reneerkens and Kirsten Grond
Many shorebirds are common and often
well studied in their non-breeding grounds.
The opposite is usually true for the breeding
grounds in the High Arctic where the birds
occur in relatively low densities. Knowledge
of their breeding biology is often very limited. This is certainly the case for sanderling
Calidris alba (Reneerkens et al. 2009), which
is the second most common breeding
wader in Zackenberg (Hansen et al. 2008
a). They are presumed to have a doubleclutching breeding system in which females successively lay two clutches of four
eggs shortly after each other, of which the
first is being incubated by the male and the
second by the female herself (Parmelee and
Payne 1973). In Zackenberg, sanderling
are found to incubate their clutches either
together (biparental) or alone (uniparental), which indicates that some, but not all,
sanderlings in Zackenberg double-clutch
(Reneerkens et al. 2008). Other unknown
aspects of the breeding biology of sanderlings in Zackenberg are the site fidelity,
mate fidelity and the home ranges of the
birds. Such information is, however, crucial
to interpret the results of the bird monitoring, which is an important aspect of the
BioBasis programme (Hansen et al. 2008 b).
In the sanderlings’ breeding season of
2008 these aspects could be investigated
for the first time because we had individually marked sanderlings in Zackenberg
in 2007 with coloured rings on their legs
(figure 6.14) which made each bird recognisable in the field. Colour-marking birds
can give information about annual survival, breeding system (which individuals
are paired with each other) and spatial
use. In addition, re-sightings of colourringed birds outside the breeding area tell
us about migration routes and strategies
and the final non-breeding destination,
which, in case of sanderlings from Greenland can be as far south as South Africa
(Reneerkens et al. 2009).
In 2007, sanderlings were caught on their
nest with small clap nets after which their
body condition, breeding phenology and
breeding system (Reneerkens et al. 2008)
90
Figure 6.15 Locations of
nests in 2007 and 2008
(large dots) and observations in the pre-incubation
period (small dots) of colour-ringed sanderlings of
which nests were located
in both 2007 and 2008.
Dots of the same shade
of grey correspond to
the same individual male
sanderling.
14th Annual Report, 2008
were studied. All adults and chicks older
than 5 days received colour rings on their
legs: two on each tarsus and an additional
flag (extended ring, see figure 6.14). The colours of the rings can be white, red, yellow
or green. The flag was green and always
between two rings. Most Calidris-shorebirds
breed for the first time at an age of (almost)
two years, so we did not expect to find the
chicks that we colour-ringed in 2007. In
2008 the Zackenberg area was walked daily
between 31 May and 28 July with one or
two teams of in total two to five persons in
search of sanderlings. At each encounter the
birds were checked for colour-rings and, in
case they were, their combination was read
with a telescope with 20-60 times magnification. The exact location was noted by use
of GPS. We observed 21 individuals of the
60 adults that were colour-ringed the previous year, which makes a return rate of 35
%. The average annual survival probability
of sanderlings breeding in Zackenberg are
very likely larger than that, because we will
not have observed all the sanderlings that
were still alive. Underhill et al. (1993) calculated an annual return rate of 11.1% for the
local breeding population as a whole. We resighted three time as many males (16 out of
31 ringed in 2007: 52 %) than females (5 out
of 29 ringed in 2007: 17 %). Tomkovich and
Soloviev (1994) found a similar difference in
breeding site fidelity between males (20.3 %
returned in the following year) and females
(6.8 % returned) compared to our study, but
with an overall lower return rate. It is common in Calidris shorebirds that males have
a higher return rate than females (e.g. Johnson and Walters, 2008).
Before the start of incubation, sanderlings
were almost always found paired, during
which the males stayed in close vicinity to
a female and almost continuously made
soft calls. The locations where the foraging
birds were found in the pre-nesting period
was always close to the location where the
colour-ringed birds were breeding the year
before, and/or where they were going to
breed in 2008 (figure 6.15). Sanderling males
protect their females carefully against other
males, but the birds do not seem to defend
an area or ‘territory’. In cases, in which we
found nests of colour-ringed individuals
both in 2007 and 2008, they were always
close to each other (on average 469 m, range
173 – 740 m, figure 6.15). The distance between successive nest locations was larger
for the three females (average 653 m) than
for the five males average (average 412 m),
but the sample size is too limited to conclude whether this is a real pattern. As in
our study, on Taimyr, the inter-annual movements between successive nests were within
1 km (Tomkovich and Soloviev 1994).
We only recorded a single pair that
was together both in 2007 and 2008. In all
other known cases, males returned to the
same nest location but paired with another
female. In a single case both partners of
a pair returned to the study area in 2008,
but paired with another partner. Both the
male and the female had a nest within 600
m from the nest location in 2007. The fact
that male sanderlings are site specific but
in general do not re-mate with a partner of
a previous year, could be a mechanism to
avoid inbreeding. It could also be related
to the timing of arrival in the breeding
area (cf. Handel and Gill 2000) and the
fierce competition for mates that takes
place immediately after arrival.
The measured annual return rates of
sanderlings to the breeding sites are lower
than to wintering sites and migration stop-
91
14th Annual Report, 2008
overs (Reneerkens et al. 2009). This may be
the result of low environmental predictability in the High Arctic, where sanderling
move relative opportunistically in search
of suitable (e.g. snow-free) environments
to breed, and partly because some pairs
are formed during the last stage of migration (Tomkovich and Soloviev 2001). For a
proper survival analysis, which also takes
observation probability into account, observations of colour-ringed birds in combination with continued colour-marking
should be conducted during more breeding seasons. Such an analysis would be
especially interesting in a study area such
as Zackenberg were long-term monitoring
of the environment takes place because for
the first time both annual survival and reproduction could be measured for a High
Arctic long-distance migratory shorebird
in relation to environmental parameters.
0
100 Km
Daneborg
6.8 Satellite tracking of
common eider
Anders Mosbech, Morten Bjerrum, Kasper
Johansen and Christian Sonne
The eider colony in Daneborg is by far
the largest eider colony in East Greenland
totalling about 2000 pairs. In June 2007
six female and four male common eiders
in the eider colony in Daneborg were
equipped with implanted satellite transmitters.
Nine eiders where tracked to Iceland
were they wintered (figures 6.16). Male’s
departure from Iceland about 20 days earlier than females - median day of departure 4 August and 23 August, respectively.
During both the autumn and the following
spring migration the eiders did not stage
for any significant time period between
the Daneborg area (within 100 km from
Daneborg) and Iceland.
Before they took off for Iceland, the
tracked eiders staged dispersed along the
south coast of Wollaston Forland including Sandøen, but also further to the west
and south at Tyrolerfjord, Granta Fjord
(74˚17’ N, 22˚ 05’ W), Finsch Øer and at
Hold with Hope near Holland Ø (73 35 N
20 30 W).
Eiders arrived back in Greenland in
second half of May 2008 (median 22 May;
range 10 May – 1 June) both females and
males arrived at the south coast of Wollaston Forland and at Sandøen with some
Common Eider
Argos positions
Migration routes
Deployment site
Assesment area
arrivals also on the east coast of Wollaston
Forland (figure 6.17). At the end of July
2008 six of the nine satellites tracked eiders
were still being tracked and one had been
shot near Scoresbysund in May 2008 during spring migration.
6.9 Impacts of musk oxen on
the vegetation: foraging
ecology and dispersal of
nutrients
Ditte Katrine Kristensen
Musk oxen, Ovibos moschatus, are the only
large herbivores in Northeast Greenland.
To sustain a full-grown body size of 200350 kg they consume extensive amounts of
plant material, particularly during the summer months. Considering the abundance of
musk oxen in Zackenbergdalen (up to 100
individuals in a 40 km2 area) their presence
is expected to have marked influence on
the vegetation, directly by grazing grami-
Figure 6.16 Locations
and track lines for nine
common eiders tracked
from the Daneborg colony
from June 2007 to August
2008.
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14th Annual Report, 2008
Figure 6.17 Kernel Home
range for the common
eiders tracked from
the Daneborg colony.
Locations before 1 July
including pre-breeding
locations, are black and
locations after 1 July (both
years), including postbreeding locations, are
white.
Wollaston
Forland
Daneborg
Granta Fjord
Finsch Øer
Common Eider
Kernel density (%)
10
20
30
40
50
60
Hold with
Hope
70
80
90
95
Release site
0
20 km
noids (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Juncaceae)
and willow (Salix arctica), which are the
preferred food sources of the oxen, and
indirectly by affecting soil composition and
plant growth by dispersing nutrients via
faeces and urine. The aim of this master
thesis study was to investigate these impacts by quantifying the biomass and nutrient removal and enrichment from musk
oxen in different vegetation types1, with
emphasize on carbon and nitrogen flow.
The field study was carried out at Zackenberg during August 2008. The approach
was divided into three parts; 1) behavioural observations, 2) estimating faeces
densities, and 3) sampling plants, faeces,
and shed wool for analysing total elementals (C and N) and stable isotope ratios.
A comprehensive behavioural study
was made by scanning herds throughout the day, where behaviour, sex, age,
and position (vegetation type) for each
1
In this study the vegetation types were pooled to
graminoid-dominated areas, willow-dominated
area, and areas not used for foraging by the oxen.
Locations before 1st of July
Locations after 1st of July
individual were registered. Moreover, observation on biting rates (number of bites
taken per time interval) of oxen foraging
on graminoids and willow were carried
out. The behavioural data will be used
to calculate biomass removal by grazing.
For this purpose information on biomass
intake per bite is taken from a study in
West Greenland. The calculations will be
extrapolated to the whole study area by
the means of the temporal and spatial
distribution of the oxen from the BioBasis
programme.
Faeces were counted along transects
placed in different vegetation types. Some
droppings were selected for analysis and
weighting. In the calculations of biomass
enrichment from faeces, these densities
will be used as relative enrichment factors
for different vegetation types. Furthermore, distributions of the oxen and knowledge of defecation rates will be applied.
Plant samples were collected in the
most utilized forage areas of the oxen, i.e.
fens and Salix arctica snow beds. The gra-
93
14th Annual Report, 2008
zing technique of the musk oxen was imitated. The elemental analysis of plants and
faeces permit the biomasses to be translated into nutrients. The isotope ratios, on
the other hand, give information about the
composition of the food. Graminoids and
willow are distinct with regards to 15Ncontent, thus a separation into these two
compounds is possible. The signatures of
faeces express the current forage choice
(summer) while those of tissues (primarily
guard hair and wool) give information
on the whole or parts of the season. Furthermore, stable isotope measurements
in other musk ox tissues (muscle, fat, and
bone) will be examined in order to investigate the isotope fractionation between diet
and ox tissues further.
6.10MANA Project
Philippe Bonnet and Kirsten Christoffersen
The MANA project is a collaboration between the biology and computer science
departments at University of Copenhagen,
the school of computing at Reykjavik University, Arch Rock Corporation a company
based in San Francisco that provides wireless sensor networks systems, and Dan-System a small Danish Enterprise, specializing
in technical solutions for niche markets.
The overall aim of the MANA project
is to improve scientific data acquisition in
remote, harsh environments, for example
Polar Regions, deep sea locations, or other
planets. Such environments all are hard
to access by humans, and provide limited
communication bandwidth. As a result,
manual measurements are costly, manually tapped data loggers are unreliable,
and remote supervised control is impractical. We aim at enhancing sensors and data
loggers with computation and communication capabilities so we can programme
them to be reliable and autonomous. We
plan to develop sensor network-based
data loggers that check the data they collect and correlate measurements in time
and space, and autonomously adapt their
sampling strategy in order to optimize
data quality as well as resource utilization.
We focus on the monitoring of limnic
parameters in the Zackenberg region,
Northeast Greenland. The goal is to document the effects of climate change on lake
environment, in particular during the winter season that has been neglected so far
because of logistics constraints. Our data
loggers promise to introduce a remarkable
progress in terms of temporal resolution
with respect to the manual measurements
that have been performed a couple of
times annually since 1996.
The MANA project started on 1 February 2008. In March, we deployed a test
buoy built by Dan-Systems. In August, we
installed the Capoh system, a complete
data acquisition system with a base station
and a buoy developed by Dan-Systems,
with a data logger integrating DIKU
software and Arch Rock sensor network,
as well as a water quality monitor from
Wetlabs. In October, we completed the installation of the Capoh system and tested
its software setup. We expect to collect the
acquired data during summer 2009.
The Capoh system consists of a buoy
and a base station. The Capoh buoy is composed of the following parts (from top to
bottom): external antenna, a floating buoy
with a two meter long extension mast, an
electronics shell (incl. sensor protection
fence) positioned about 1,90 m under the
water line, an external sensor (Wetlabs
WQM - with chlorophyll, conductivity,
temperature, depth sensors as well as an
integrated data logger with 1 GB storage
space), and an anchor chain together with
its anchor. The base station is composed
of a solar panel mounted on a mast, and a
protective box that contains 6 XIDE 6V batteries and a microserver (a Linux computer
equipped with two USB keys for data storage, a microcontroller that controls the duty
cycling of the Linux computer, and a solar
panel voltage regulator that is used to control the load of the batteries). The design of
the Capoh system is described in details in
the user manuals available at http://mana.
escience.dk/mana/documents.html.
We have also described the installation
of the Capoh system at Zackenberg on the
MANA web site: http://mana.escience.
dk/diary. Basically, the system was installed but not tested in August; the tests were
conducted in October.
The software installed on the microserver
(in the base station) is executed twice a day.
It contacts the buoy via short-range radio,
downloads the latest measurements and reset the water quality monitor to collect four
measurements per day into a new file. The
tests we conducted in October did not allow
us to establish contact between the base station and the buoy. There are three possible
causes for this problem: (1) the buoy was
94
14th Annual Report, 2008
stopped at the time of the test, i.e., either it
was never started or stopped to function between August and October, (2) the buoy was
collecting and logging data but could not
be reached via short range radio because of
a permanent problem with the radio or the
antenna, (3) the buoy was collecting and logging data but could not be reached because
of a transient radio problem. Scenario (1) is
the worst case scenario. Scenario (2) is the
most likely scenario - with a sensor collecting data at the default sampling rate of 10
Hz which should be sustainable for a year
with the battery and storage capacities of the
buoy.
6.11Breeding and foraging
ecology of seabirds on
Sandøen 2008
Carsten Egevang, Iain J. Stenhouse, Lars
Maltha Rasmussen, Mikkel Willemoes
Kristensen and Fernando Ugarte
The main aim of this study is to track the
long-distance migration of two high Arctic
breeding seabird species, the arctic tern
(ARTE) and the Sabine’s gull (SAGU). The
study at Sandøen runs over three seasons
with first season in 2007 (Egevang and
Stenhouse 2008). Fieldwork was conducted
from 16 July to 26 August, 2008, at Sandøen
(74.263˚N; 20.160˚W), at the mouth of
Young Sund, approximately 29 km southeast of Zackenberg Research Station.
Of 50 geo-locator loggers attached to
ARTEs in 2007 (Egevang and Stenhouse
2007), ten loggers (20 %) were retrieved
in 2008 – and of 30 loggers attached to
SAGUs in 2007, eleven loggers (37 %)
were retrieved in 2008. However, the
total number of individuals of both species with loggers observed in the colony
was greater and ‘logger birds’ were seen
at Sandøen throughout the field season
(Egevang et al. 2008).
None of the recaptured ARTEs were
found breeding in the nest cup used the
previous season, but 2008 nests were found
between 10 and 220 meters from the 2007
nest site. All ten birds were in good physical condition and no significant difference
(t=-1.57, p=0.133, df=18, n=10) could be
detected in body mass of individuals in
2007 (106.0 g + 6.29) and 2008 (110.3 + 5.95).
The recaptured SAGUs also shifted nest site
(estimated distance 5-150 m) and the body
mass of individuals did not differ (t = -0.29,
p = 0.769, df =1 6, n = 9) in 2007 (176.1 g +
10.83) and 2008 (177.7 g + 11.29).
The early season in the Young Sund
area was characterized by a late snow melt
in 2008, with much of the ground remaining snow covered until late June. This
likely resulted in a reduced area available
for nest sites and altered the breeding distribution of birds on Sandøen compared
with the 2007 season. For example, in
2008, SAGUs nested exclusively on the
raised, central part of the island, whereas
approximately 20% of SAGU nests were
found outside this area in 2007.
Given the focus on retrieving geo-locators, no actual counts of the breeding population were conducted in 2008. However,
the 2008 population was estimated to be of
similar magnitude to that of 2007 (700-1000
ARTE pairs and 60-65 SAGU pairs). A total
of 80-100 common eiders nested across
Sandøen in 2008, in sharp contrast to the
situation in 2007 where only a single active
nest of this species could be found (due to
arctic fox predation early in the season). In
the early season, up to four female longtailed ducks were observed on Sandøen in
2008. Although evidence of only one longtailed duck (unsuccessful) nest was found
there may have been several other breeding
attempts. One pair of lesser black-backed
gulls nested in the central part of the island
amongst breeding ARTEs, SAGUs, and
common eiders. Up to five additional lesser
black-backed gulls visited the island on
several occasions.
To follow ARTE hatching rate, chick
growth and survival, a study plot (‘N’)
was established at the northern part of
the island where 50 nests were encircled
with ‘chicken wire’ enclosures to insure
consistent daily measurements of hatching status and chick mass/wing length.
Due to a different behaviour in SAGU
chicks (which move over larger distances)
this method was not appropriate at SAGU
nests and growth measurements for this
species were more opportunistic.
The first ARTE chicks (estimated to be
3-4 days old) were observed at ‘The Plateau’ on our arrival (16 July), which is approximately two weeks earlier than the first
observed ARTE chick in 2007. The median
hatching date for study plot ‘N’ was 1 August (0.25/0.75 quartile: 26 July/3 August,
n=76 recorded hatching dates). The first
ARTE fledgling was observed on 2 august
in 2008, approximately the same date as the
first hatchling was observed in 2007.
95
14th Annual Report, 2008
SAGUs also showed a protracted and
‘early’ breeding season in 2008. The first
chick (4-5 days old) was observed on 16
July, 10 days earlier than in 2007. The
first SAGU fledgling was observed on 5
August. As in the ARTEs, hatching did
not appear to be highly synchronous and
chicks observed around 1 August included
near-fledglings, mid-sized chicks, and
newly hatched chicks.
Recently-hatched common eider ducklings were observed on our arrival on the
island (16 July) and last chicks were observed on 6 August, when a clutch of two
near the camp left the nest for the water.
The average clutch size of ARTEs in 2008
was 1.65 with no three-egg clutches observed (table 6.2). The hatching success in plot
‘A’ was 85.9 % (SD=35.03, n=85 eggs) and
chick survival (chicks from hatched eggs
that survived until fledging or assumed
fledging) was 69 % (SD=46.6, n=71 chicks).
Average productivity in plot ‘A’ in 2008
was 1.04 chicks per nest (SD=0.771, n=48
nests). The average daily chick mass gain
in the linear growth period (day 4-14) was
5.99 g, and the average daily wing growth
(day 4-14) equalled 8.27 mm.
The SAGU clutches in 2008 were of one,
two, or three eggs, with an average clutch
size of 1.93 eggs (table 6.2). It was not possible to obtain standardized estimates of
SAGU hatching rate, chick survival, or
productivity in 2008, but from daily random measurements of ringed SAGU chicks
(n=34 chicks of both known and unknown
age) growth rates could be addressed. The
average daily SAGU chick mass gain in the
linear growth period (day 4-14) was 13.16
g, and the average daily wing growth (day
5-14) equalled 11.34 mm.
Common eider nests on Sandøen contained between one and six eggs with an
average clutch size of 3.3 eggs per nest
(n=52 nests, SD=0.92). The lesser blackbacked gull nest was first visited on 17
July and contained one egg (63.2 × 46.0
mm). This egg had not hatched on 22
August (likely addled) and the nest was
abandoned on 25 August after the storm,
so the most northerly known breeding
pair of lesser black-backed gulls was not
successful in 2008.
Large multi-species feeding concentrations (including ARTEs, SAGUs, and
common eiders) were regularly observed
throughout the incubation and food provisioning period. They usually formed
relatively close to shore and were seen on
Table 6.2 Mean clutch size, egg size, and calculated volume of arctic tern and Sabine’s
gull eggs, Sandøen, 2008.
Arctic tern (SD)
N
Sabine’s gull (SD)
n
Clutch size
1.65 (0.50)
60
1.93 (0.77)
28
Length (L) all eggs (mm)
40.14 (1.69)
73
41.52 (1.60)
30
Width (W) all eggs (mm)
29.15 (0.92)
73
30.65 (1.11)
30
IEV all eggs (ml)
16.40 (1.42)
73
18.77 (1.88)
30
IEV A-egg (ml)
16.52 (1.42)
44
19.75 (1.54)
15
IEV B-egg (ml)
16.23 (1.43)
29
18.36 (1.89)
9
IEV C-egg (ml)
–
–
16.39 (1.04)
3
all sides of the island, although most often
in the waters immediately to the south
and to the north, where tidal currents were
particularly strong. These feeding concentrations formed quickly, moved rapidly,
and were often short-lived. Thus, their
ephemeral nature suggests that specific
oceanographic conditions were required
for birds to access this particular resource.
The diet of ARTEs, SAGUs, and most
other sea birds in Northeast Greenland
is largely unknown and, in 2008, effort
was made to observe chick feedings on
Sandøen. Between 5 and 21 August (the
chick-rearing period), standardised feeding observations (total: 50 hours and 51
min) were conducted on ARTEs from a
movable hide in plot A. The majority (81
%) of feeds to ARTE chicks were made up
of fish, with fish larvae (likely Polar cod)
being most important in terms of numbers
(table 6.3). Crustaceans (especially a Thysanoessa-type) were also important prey
species and comprised approximately 16
% of the items brought to the chicks. Furthermore, polychaetes (likely Nereis) were
occasionally observed in chick feeds (approximately 3 %).
In order to ‘ground-truth’ the feeding
observations, a fish and zooplankton
survey was conducted, in cooperation
Table 6.3 Distribution of prey species observed in arctic tern chick feeds, Sandøen,
August 2008.
Prey Species
Numbers (% of total)
Average size1 (± SD)
1063 (71.0)
0.9 (0.16)
Polar cod (juvenile)
84 (5.6)
1.3 (0.51)
Small unidentified fish
34 (2.3)
1.2 (0.20)
Fish larvae (round fish)
21 (1.4)
1.0 (0.10)
Fish larvae
Unidentified fish
Crustaceans
Krill
Polychaetes
Total
9 (0.6)
1.9 (0.17)
168 (11.2)
0.7 (0.60)
76 (5.1)
0.7 (0.21)
42 (2.8)
0.7 (0.37)
1497 (100)
96
Figure 6.18 Walrus with
a transmitter attached to
its back. Photo: Fernando
Ugarte.
Figure 6.19 A CO2 powered gun is used to attach
a satellite transmitter into
a walrus at Sandøen.
Photo: Carsten Egevang.
14th Annual Report, 2008
with the MarineBasic group, in the
waters around Sandøen on 2 August.
A five mm mesh net, designed to trawl
only in the upper layer of the water column, was used to sample prey in areas
with high densities of foraging ARTEs
and SAGUs.
As in 2007, the extent of Sandøen was
recorded by walking along the shoreline
(mid-tide) of the island with a tracking
GPS.
The 2007/2008 study at Sandøen is a
joint venture of the Greenland Institute of
Natural Resources, the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark, the
Audubon Society in Canada and the British Antarctic Survey. This study on ARTE
migration has been adopted by the CAFF
sea bird group and is part of a larger coordinated effort, with parallel and concurrent research projects being carried out in
Iceland and Alaska.
97
14th Annual Report, 2008
6.12­­Walrus studies on Sandøen
2008
40
Erik W. Born, Carsten Egevang, Fernando
Ugarte, Lars Maltha Rasmussen and Mikkel
Willemoes Kristensen
30
Number of walruses
In addition to the bird study (see section
6.11) conducted on Sandøen in 2008, a
second aim of the fieldwork was to test
the performance of a new generation of
satellite transmitters on walruses. This
type of sender has been used on walruses
in West Greenland and has been found
to be inclined to transmit signals for a
shorter time period than expected. We
attached three SPOT-5 satellite-linked
transmitters (Wildlife Computers, Redmond, USA) into adult male walruses
that periodically haul out in an accessible
site (figure 6.18).
We expected to follow the fate of the
sen-ders through a combination of direct
visual observations and analysis of the
received satellite data. The haul out site
on Sandøen was visited several times
a day to observe if the tagged animals
were back on the beach. When a tagged
animal was observed, notes on the status
of the tag (wounds, bleeding etc.) were
kept, and a picture of the tag was taken
using a lens with long focal length. The
study was conducted as a pilot study for
an assessment combining aerial surveys
with information from satellite transmitter, scheduled for 2009.
The configuration of the tags and the
attachment system have been developed by researchers from the Greenland
Institute of Natural Resources (M. P.
Heide-Jørgensen and E. W. Born) and the
Department of Arctic Environment at the
National Environmental Research Institute at Aarhus University (Rune Dietz)
and Mikkel V. Jensen (Mikkels Værksted,
Denmark). The transmitters were delivered to the walruses from a distance of
approximately 15 m by using a CO2 powered gun (figure 6.19).
The study focused on detecting how
long the tags would remain attached on
walruses that regularly use a terrestrial
haul-out during the open water period. It
may be regarded as a feasibility study
with the purpose of revealing whether
the system will work long enough for
providing activity data for correction of
aerial survey counts of walrus during
summer. The walruses showed only little
35
25
20
15
y = 0.014x2 – 0.96x + 20.5
R2 = 0.23
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
Days
25
reaction when the tags hit the skin and
the tags remained actively transmitting
for 6, 25 and 95 days, respectively. It was
concluded (1) that the tags and the attachment do not harm the animals physically
and do not influence on their natural
behaviour, and (2) that the attachment
system and the transmitters, if deployed
prior to an aerial survey can be used for
sampling activity data for correction of
counts.
Sandøen is one of the few terrestrial
walrus haul outs in Greenland and daily
counts of walruses were conducted at the
beach on the north-western part of the
island (figure 6.20). From mid-July to 24
August, the number of walruses hauled
out varied from zero to 37 animals with
a declining trend over time (figure 6.21).
As in 2007, on days with strong wind
and heavy rain, no or very few walruses
were observed. In 2008, however, we also
observed several quiet and sunny days in
which no walruses hauled out.
The average number of walruses using
Sandøen as a haul out site in 2008 was
8.9 per day (+10.51, n=36 days), notably
lower than in 2007, where on average
17.4 animals (11.81, n=22 days) used the
beach per day. We can only guess about
the cause(s) for this, but the low numbers
correlate with a relatively high level of
disturbance in 2008. Besides our presence,
a total of four film crews visited Sandøen
between 17 July and 24 August to film the
walruses at close range. Furthermore, visitors of various kinds (researchers, staff,
and visitors at Daneborg etc.) visited the
walruses during the season. On 13 August
a helicopter from the Danish Navy flew
low over the haul out – likely to film the
walruses.
30
35
40
Figure 6.20 Average
numbers of walrus on
Sandøen 17 July (day 1)
to 24 August 2008 originating from one, two or
three daily counts.
98
14th Annual Report, 2008
6.13GeoArk: Coast, Man and
Environment in Northeast
Greenland
Bjarne Grønnow, Bjarne Holm Jacobsen, Anne Birgitte Gotfredsen, Marianne Hardenberg, Hans Christian Gulløv, Aart Kroon, Jørn
Torp Petersen and Mikkel Sørensen
Based on pilot projects in 2003 and 2005,
the GeoArk project has conducted major
field investigations in the Clavering Ø
area during 2007 and 2008. The project
received logistic support from the Zackenberg Research Station and the Sirius Patrol in Daneborg.
The GeoArk project was established in
2003 as an interdisciplinary research programme exploring the dynamics of the
High Arctic environment - climate, coasts,
natural resources - and the cultural strategies applied by the native cultures of
Northeast Greenland. Archaeologists
from SILA (The Greenland Research Centre at the National Museum of Denmark)
and The Greenland National Museum
and natural scientists from the University
of Copenhagen (Department of Geography and Geology and The Natural History Museum) collaborate across disciplines
within the framework of the project.
During the International Polar Year the
GeoArk project focused on the Thule Culture in Northeast Greenland: the time period from about 1400 AD to 1823 AD, when
Europeans for the first and last time encountered Inuit in this part of Greenland.
The Thule Culture era provides splendid
possibilities to elucidate a number of basic
questions concerning relations between
Man and environment.
Eskimonæs, Revet and Sabine Ø as well
as from marine sediments off Germania
Havn.
A major task during the field season
was to survey the dwellings, caches and
other stone built features at Hvalros Ø,
which was only briefly visited in 2005. It
turned out that more than 2000 structures
from the Independence I, Saqqaq, Dorset
and Thule Cultures were located on this
small island, demonstrating that Hvalros
Ø was a major early spring and summer
hunting site for the people of Northeast
Greenland for more than 4.000 years.
The polynia next to the island provided
optimal hunting of walruses, seals and
whales. The Thule hunters stuffed the
caches with meat and blubber during
spring, and these supplies were essential
for human life during the more ‘meagre’
seasons of the year.
Analyses
The comprehensive data collected during the GeoArk project’s field work are
currently being analyzed. The project
provides new insight into local climate
and environment, in particular during
the last 500 years, including the Little Ice
Age. The investigations have also yielded
a hitherto unsurpassed detailed picture
of a Thule Culture settlement pattern in a
High Arctic region.
6.14The battle of the climate
– archaeological and historical investigations of
the German Wehrmacht
weather stations in Northeast Greenland, 1941-1944
The 2008 field campaign
Jens Fog Jensen
During summer 2008, the GeoArk team
conducted field work on the south coast
of Clavering Ø, where major concentrations of Thule winter sites are found, in
the Revet area, on Hvalros Ø and on the
coasts along the estuary of Young Sund.
The archaeological/zoological investigations included excavations of stratified
midden layers at the sites of Fladstrand
and Holmevig as well as surveys of major
Thule Culture sites by means of precision GPS. The geographers conducted
investigations of coastal geomorphology
and fossil beach ridges and retrieved
cores from fresh water lake sediments at
During the Second World War the German authorities was denied access to
data from international weather stations
under allied control. In order to produce
weather forecasts for the North Atlantic
and important European battlefields the
Germans thus had to establish their own
system of weather stations throughout the
North Atlantic. In deep secret and in spite
of the presence of American bases in West
Greenland the Germans also established
weather stations in Northeast Greenland.
As a countermeasure the authorities in
Greenland with American support estab-
99
14th Annual Report, 2008
lished the Northeast Greenland Sledge
Patrol. This resulted in several shootings
and minor combats between the Northeast
Greenland Sledge Patrol and the German
forces in the years of 1943 and 1944, and
the German stations were subsequently
bombed by US Air Force. Even today
the burned remains of the allied station
at Eskimonæs on Clavering Ø and from
the German station ‘Holzauge’ in Hansa
Bugt on Sabine Ø are clearly visible at the
surface, where the artefacts are sitting as
time capsules open to archaeological and
historical inquiry.
In 2008 field work was conducted as
an imbedded sub-programme of the GeoArk activities. For accommodation and
transport we thus relied on the services
provided by Zackenberg Research Station
for GeoArk. Participants were Jens Fog
Jensen and Tilo Krause from the National
Museum of Denmark, and valuable assistance in GPS mapping was conducted
by the GeoArk crew. Economic support
was given by a grant from the Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland.
Field work in the form of site documentation was conducted on Eskimonæs, Dødemandsbugten on Clavering Ø and in
Hansa Bugt on Sabine Ø. Selected features
were drawn in detail, through photo documentation in addition to description of the
preserved objects, and surveys of the surrounding landscape in order to locate new
features.
Focus was on the documentation of
burned features on Eskimonæs, where
most effort was put into the documentation of the burned remains of the house
of the Treårs-ekspeditionen and on the
registration of site of fire at the Alte Hütte
in Hansa Bugt, where the main structure
of the German station was located. In
both cases the work have documented,
that the rusty remains of stoves, chimneys
and other inventory, are very much in
situ, and that the fire sites only appear to
be little disturbed by later activities. The
Second Wold War’s remains in Northeast
Greenland thus represent unique and well
preserved in situ remains from the activities and engagements of the Axis powers
as well as from the Allied mostly consist in
the burned and rusty remains from stoves,
chimneys, radio cabinets etc., but there
are numerous other objects as well such
as remains of wooden boats, dog sledges,
clothing, dinghy, melted barographs, engine parts, tools, ammunition casings and
some weapons. At Eskimonæs there are
three standing structures from the Second
World War: The existing patrol hut, a shelter and the partly collapsed dog yard - the
rest is in ruins. In Dødemandsbugten the
patrol house and two fortified machine
gun stands are preserved. However the
house has been altered considerably since
its construction in 1943. In Hansa Bugt the
standing structures are limited to a few
stone built cashes in the hills behind the
ruins.
Hopefully the systematic documentation of these historical sites can inspire for
their future protection and preservation
for educational purposes as well as in the
interest of a potential tourist industry.
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14th Annual Report, 2008
7 Disturbance in the study area
Jannik Hansen
7.1 Opening duration of the
station
7.3 Aircraft activities in the
study area
In 2008, the Zackenberg Research Station
was open longer than usual. The station
opened on 13 March and was open until 2
November. This chapter only describes the
disturbances in the study area during the
‘normal’ opening period – from 30 May to
30 August.
This season, fixed-wing aircrafts landed
and took-off 38 times, which is above average (table 7.2). Two helicopter flights took
place during August 2008.
7.2 Surface activities in the
study area
The number of ‘man-days’ (one person
in the field for one day) spent within the
main research area, i.e. Zone 1 (table 7.1)
was 80, which is low. The ’Low impact
area’ i.e. Zone 1 b, was visited a little more
than average. The ’Goose protection area’,
i.e. Zone 1 c, was visited only on very few
occasions.
This season, the use of the all terrain
vehicle (ATV) was mainly along the designated roads to the climate station and to the
beach at the delta of Zackenbergelven. Two
trips made on 9 August with remains of an
obsolete snow fence back to the research
station, were the only ones off the designated road. Few trips went beyond the climate station, along the designated road.
The use of the ATV at and near the station was in excess of the usual level.
Table 7.1 ’Man-days’ and trips in the terrain with an All
Terrain Vehicle (ATV) in the Zackenberg study area May–
August 2008. Trips on roads to the climate station and
the delta of Zackenbergelven are not included.
Research zone
7.4 Discharges
Combustible waste (paper, card board etc.)
was burned at the station, while other materials (glass, metal and other waste) were
sorted and flown out of the national park.
Water closets were in use from late
March and onwards, facilitated by frost
preventing equipment in the house of residence. All toilet waste from the accommodation building were grounded in an electrical mill and led into the river. Likewise,
solid, biodegradable kitchen waste was
run through a grinder mill, and discarded
into the river. The mill was in use until the
end of the season.
Waste stored during May, June and July
is no longer treated with a fly maggot killing agent.
The total amount of untreated wastewater (from kitchen, showers, sinks and
laundry machine) equalled approximately
1447 ‘man-days’, which is around 25 %
more than average.
Table 7.2 Numbers of flights with fixed-winged aircrafts
and helicopters, respectively, over the study area in Zackenbergdalen, May – August 2008. Each consecutive landing
and take-off of an aircraft is considered two flights.
June
July
Aug.
Total
1
9
42
29
80
Fixed-wing aircraft
May June July Aug. Total
4
2
14
18
38
1b
9
10
13
32
Helicopter
0
0
0
2
2
1c (20.6-10.8)
1
1
3
5
2
0
2
2
4
ATV-trips
5
3
2
10
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14th Annual Report, 2008
7.5 Manipulative research
projects
The UV stress research project (see Section
6.6) used varying UV filters on their Site 1
(UTM zone 27: 8264000 m N, 512700 m E),
Site 2 (UTM zone 27: 8263800 m N, 513000
m E) and Site 3 (UTM zone 27: 82637700 m
N, 513000 m E) with Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum (Site 1 and 2) and Betula
nana (Site 3). On Site 5 (UTM zone 27:
8264350 m N, 512650 m E), long term effects on the photosynthesis and growth of
Vaccinium uliginosum were measured, and
afterwards the site was closed. Site 4 did
not run in 2007.
From mid-June to the end of August,
manipulation with UV-filters was continued at the site established in 2007 for
BioBasis monitoring. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted at
this site in the second half of July (see section 4).
Watering of a vegetation plot (512625 m
E, 8264159 m N) (precipitation simulation)
was conducted again this year (see section
6.6)
For the fifth season, shade, snow melt
and temperature was manipulated at two
sites, each with 25 plots. (UTM zone 27:
8264733 m N, 513460 m E and 8264984 m
N, 513717 m E - see section 6.6).
Five predator exclosures were put on
sanderling nests inside Research Zone 1 a,
in order to protect the nests against predation by arctic fox (see section 6.7).
7.6 Take of organisms and
other samples
31,002 land arthropods were collected
during the season, as part of the BioBasis
programme (see section 4.2). For the same
programme eight litres of filtered water
were collected from two small lakes to
analyse the composition of the zooplankton fauna (section 6.10).
The UV stress research project sampled
leaves of Vaccinium uliginosum from Sites 1
and 2, and entire plants and soil from Site
5 (see sections 6.6 and 7.5).
Two blood samples of approximately
80 μl were collected from red knots (Calidris canutus) and 65 blood samples of approximately 80 μl (10 μl for chicks) were
collected from sanderlings Calidris alba for
a parentage and breeding strategy study.
Swaps (of throat and cloacae) were collec-
ted for a study of the bacterial community
in the adult birds (section 6.7). The same
project collected 3,481 arthropods in pitfall
traps at stations in different vegetation
types and altitudes (UTM Zone 27: Trap 0:
512755 m E, 8264260 m N; Trap 1: 514481
m E, 8266451 m N; Trap 2: 514787 m E,
8267015 m N; Trap 3: 515618 m E, 8267487
m N; Trap 4: 512755 m E, 8264260 m N;
Trap 5: 515925 m E, 8268235 m N).
Tissue samples were collected from collared lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus
(from carcass), musk oxen Ovibos moschatus (from carcasses), arctic fox Alopex
lagopus (from carcasses), arctic hare (Lepus
arcticus), seal sp. (from carcass), dunlin
Calidris alpina (from carcasses and abandoned foetuses) for a BioBasis DNA Bank.
107 faecal samples from arctic fox were
collected for a parasite survey.
For a glaciological/biological project,
approximately 100 g of Cassiope tetragona
and approximately 100 g of Eriophorum
scheuchaeri were harvested and approximately 200 g of soil samples were taken
from the area at UTM zone 27: 513260 m E,
8266751 m N (see Section 6.2).
Ninety-one faecal samples from musk
oxen were collected inside Research
Zone 1a.
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14th Annual Report, 2008
8 Logistics
Henrik Spanggård Munch and Lillian Magelund Jensen
8.1 Use of the station
In 2008, the field season at Zackenberg
Research Station was from 13 March to 2
November, in total 235 days. During this
period 80 scientists visited the station. Of
the 80 visiting scientists, 24 stayed at the
old Weather station at Daneborg. They
were serviced by 10 logisticians employed
by Danish Polar Center and stationed at
Zackenberg during different parts of the
field season. Besides that, Zackenberg Research Station received visits from:
• A delegation from The Greenland
Home Rule, Aage V. Jensen Charity
Foundation, The Danish Ministry of
Environment and The Danish Ministry
of Climate and Energy.
• A Danish/Greenlandic Film team
(2 persons).
• A German/French Film team
(4 persons).
• A journalist from Danish Polar Center.
The total number of bed nights during 2008
was 2516. Of the 2516 bed nights, 491 were
related to logistics during the field season,
and 16 were related to the VIP delegation.
In total the numbers of days spend by scientists at Zackenberg were 1221.
During the season the station was
visited by persons from 11 different countries: Austria, Denmark, France, Germany,
Greenland, Italy, Netherland, Norway,
Sweden, Switzerland and USA.
The logistics supported three expeditions in the vicinity of Zackenberg Research Station - two expeditions with two
persons each and one expedition with
eight persons.
8.2 Transportation
During the field season fixed winged aircrafts (DeHaviland DHC-6 Twin Otter)
landed 38 times at Zackenberg.
Two helicopter slings (one with a new
generator for the station and one with
scientific equipment for Langemandssø)
from Daneborg to Zackenberg Research
Station, were carried out during the period
with a SA 350 Bell helicopter
Two persons were evacuated by helicopter from Clavering Ø, after a fall accident
in which one person was hurt. Both were
brought to the hospital in Ittoqqortoormiit,
Greenland. One person was evacuated by
the DeHaviland DHC-6 Twin Otter from
Zackenberg Research Station, after a fall
accident. The person was brought to the
hospital Akureyri, Iceland.
8.3 Maintenance
During 2008 the following construction
and maintenance work was carried out on
the station:
• A new generator was installed.
• Four of the station’s houses were painted.
• The canteen was finalised.
• A check disk was built in front of the
logistics building.
• The outdoor toilet building got a new
sewer.
• The station got a new mail system.
• A fence was build around the garbage
depot.
• Damages due to frost burst of water
pipes and valves were fixed.
The maintenance condition of the station is
very good. Besides the normal painting of
the houses we do not expect larger maintenance costs during the first years to come.
8.4 Handling of garbage
Non-burnable waste from the construction during 2007 had accumulated at the
station together with empty fuel drums
from the same period. The non-burnable
waste was packed in the empty fuel
drums and removed from the station by
aircraft to Daneborg. On the empty return
flights during the fuel lifts from Daneborg
to Zackenberg and from there by ship to
Denmark. All together, 60 drums of waste
were removed from the station.
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14th Annual Report, 2008
9 Personnel and visitors
Lillian Magelund Jensen, Henrik Spanggård Munch and Morten Rasch
Research Zackenberg
Jacob Abermann, Research scientist, Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics,
University of Innsbruck, Austria (6 May
– 30 May and 19 August – 2 September)
Alexandre Anesio, Research scientist,
Bristol Glaciology Centre, School of
Geographical Sciences, University of
Bristol, United Kingdom (Glaciology;
1 July – 15 July)
Christian Bay, Research scientist, National
Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus, University, Denmark (BioBasis;
8 July – 29 July)
Mareen Becking, Research scientist, Center
for Ecology and Evolution Studies, Animal Ecology Group, the Netherlands
(Ornithology; 1 July - 29 July)
Louise Berg, Student, University Centre in
Svalbard, Norway (Field course;
26 August – 2 September)
Daniel Binder, Research scientist, Institute of
Geodesy and Geophysics, Vienna Institute of Technology, Austria (Glaciology;
6 May – 30 May)
Kristine S. Boesgaard, Research assistant,
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen (BioBasis; 1 July – 12 August)
Philippe Bonnet, Research scientist, Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (Limnology; 19 August – 28 August)
Skafti Brynjolfsson, Student, University
Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field
course; 26 August – 2 September)
Michele Citterio, GlacioBasis Manager,
Geological Survey of Denmark and
Greenland, Denmark (GlacioBasis;
25 March – 8 April)
Hanne Hvidtfeldt Christensen, Associate
professor, University Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field course; 26 August
– 2 September)
Martin Ulrich Christensen, Research assistant, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University,
Denmark (BioBasis; 6 May – 30 May)
Kirsten S. Christoffersen, Research scientist, Freshwater Biological Laboratory,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
(Limnology; 14 March – 25 March and
19 August – 28 August)
Koos Dijksterhuis, Research scientist, Center
for Ecology and Evolution Studies, Animal Ecology Group, The Netherlands
(Ornithology; 1 July - 15 July)
Rasmus Egede, Technician, Asiaq - Greenland Survey, Greenland (ClimateBasis;
12 August – 19 August)
Bo Elberling, Professor, Department of
Geography and Geology, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark (Field course;
26 August – 2 September)
Siegrun Ertl, Research scientist, Department
of Conservation Biology, University of Vienna, Austria (GLORIA; 1 July – 22 July)
Julie Maria Falk, Research assistant, Department of Geography and Geology,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
(GeoBasis; 30 May – 12 August)
Robert S. Fausto, Research scientist, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland,
Denmark (GlacioBasis; 25 March – 8 April)
Mads C. Forchhammer, Research scientist, National Environmental Research
Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
(Zoology; 14 March – 25 March)
Andreas Fritz, Research scientist, Institute
of Ecology, University of Innsbruck,
Austria (Glaciology; 1 July – 15 July)
Kirsten Grond, Research scientist, Center
for Ecology and Evolution Studies, Animal Ecology Group, The Netherlands
(Ornithology; 30 May - 29 July)
Jannik Hansen, Research assistant, National Environmental Research Institute,
Aarhus University, Denmark (BioBasis;
30 May – 5 August)
Lars Holst Hansen, Research assistant,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
(BioBasis; 30 May – 26 August)
Franz Herzog, Research scientist, Department of Didactics, University of Salzburg, Austria (GLORIA; 8 July – 12 July)
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14th Annual Report, 2008
Jos Hooijmeijer, Research scientist, Center
for Ecology and Evolution Studies, Animal Ecology Group, the Netherlands,
(Ornithology; 20 June - 15 July)
Bernhard Hynek, Research Scientist, Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Climatology,
Vienna (Glaciology; 6 May – 30 May
and 19 August – 2 September)
Christian Jørgensen; Student, University
Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field
course; 26 August – 2 September)
Laura R. H. Kaufmann, Research assistant,
Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen (GeoBasis; 5 August - 26 August)
Camilla Kristensen, Student, University
Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field
course; 26 August – 2 September)
Ditte K. Kristensen, Research assistant,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
(BioBasis; 8 June – 26 August)
Dominik Langhamer, Student, University
Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field
course; 26 August – 2 September)
Christian Lettner, Research scientist, Department of Conservation Biology, University of Vienna, Austria (GLORIA;
1 July – 22 July)
Karianne S. Lilleøren, Student, University
Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field
course; 26 August – 2 September)
Zoe L. Luthi, Student, University Centre in
Svalbard, Norway (Field course;
26 August – 2 September)
Mikhail Mastepanov, Research scientist,
Department of Physical Geography and
Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University,
Sweden (GeoBasis; 20 June – 1 July)
Kristina Mathiesen, Research assistant, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen (BioBasis; 1 July – 12 August)
Kjersti Moe, Student, University Centre in
Svalbard, Norway (Field course; 26 August – 2 September)
Ulrike Nickus, Research scientist, Institute
of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria (Glaciology; 6 May – 30 May)
Anders Birk Nielsen, Research scientist,
Freshwater Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (Limnology; 19 August – 2 September)
Bent Olsen, Technician, Asiaq - Greenland
Survey, Greenland (ClimateBasis;
12 August – 19 August)
Michaela Panzenböck, Research scientist,
Department of Freshwater Ecology,
University of Vienna, Austria (Glaciology; 1 July – 15 July)
Karl Reiter, Research scientist, Department
of Conservation Biology, University of Vienna, Austria (GLORIA; 1 July – 22 July)
Jeroen Reneerkens, Research scientist, Center for Ecology and Evolution Studies,
Animal Ecology Group, the Netherlands
(Ornithology; 30 May - 29 July)
Kees de Rijk, Research scientist, Center for
Ecology and Evolution Studies, Animal
Ecology Group, the Netherlands (Ornithology; 20 June - 8 July)
Birgit Sattler, Research scientist, Institute
of Ecology, University of Innsbruck,
Austria (Glaciology; 1 July – 15 July)
Niels Martin Schmidt, BioBasis manager,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark (BioBasis; 14 March – 25 March and
12 August – 26 August)
Charlotte Sigsgaard, Research assistant, Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. (GeoBasis; 14 March – 30 May and 12 August - 3
September and 20 October – 2 November)
Lena Ström, Research scientist, Department
of Physical Geography and Ecosystems
Analysis, Lund University, Sweden
(Carbon balance; 1 July – 8 July)
Torbern Tagesson, Research scientist, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Sweden
(Carbon balance; 20 June – 5 August)
Mikkel P. Tamstorf, GeoBasis manager,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark (GeoBasis; 14 March – 25 March and
20 October – 2 November)
Ulrike Udier, Research scientist, Department of Didactics, University of Salzburg, Austria (GLORIA; 8 July – 12 July)
Peter Walthard, Student, University Centre in Svalbard, Norway (Field course;
26 August – 2 September)
Jaran Wasrud, Student, University Centre
in Svalbard, Norway (Field course;
26 August – 2 September)
Gernot Weyss, Research scientist, Central
Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Climatology,
Vienna, Austria (Glaciology; 6 May –
30 May and 19 August - 2 September)
Peter Aastrup, BioBasis manager, National
Environmental Research Institute,
Aarhus University, Denmark (BioBasis;
14 March – 25 March)
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14th Annual Report, 2008
Research Daneborg
Ole Bennike, Research scientist, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland,
Denmark (Quaternary geology; 22 July
– 5 August)
Morten Bjerrum, Research scientist,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark,
(Ornithology; 1 June - 15 July)
Peter Bondo Christensen, Research scientist, National Environmental Research
Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
(MarineBasis; 25 March – 8 April )
Carsten Egevang, Research scientist,
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Greenland (Ornithology; 8 July –
5 August)
Egon R. Frandsen, Technician, National
Environmental Research Institute,
Aarhus University, Denmark (MarineBasis; 25 March – 8 April and 29 July
– 19 August)
Anne Birgitte Gotfredsen, Research scientist, Natural History Museum of
Denmark, University of Copenhagen,
Denmark (Archaeology; 22 July – 2 September)
Bjarne Grønnow, Research scientist, SILA
- the Greenland Research Centre at the
National Museum, Denmark (Archaeology; 22 July – 2 September)
Hans Christian Gulløv, Research scientist,
SILA - the Greenland Research Centre
at the National Museum, Denmark (Archaeology; 22 July – 26 August)
Marianne Hardenberg, Research scientist,
SILA - the Greenland Research Centre
at the National Museum, Denmark (Archaeology; 22 July – 2 September)
Morten Hjorth, Research scientist, Greenland
Institute of Natural Resources, Greenland
(MarineBasis; 29 July – 19 August)
Bjarne Holm Jakobsen, Research scientist,
Geocenter, University of Copenhagen,
Denmark (Paleo climate; 22 July –
2 September)
Jens Fog Jensen, Research scientist, SILA
- the Greenland Research Centre at the
National Museum, Denmark (Archaeology; 22 July – 26 August)
Tilo Krause, Research scientist, Department of Culture and Identity, Roskilde
University Denmark (Archaeology;
22 July – 26 August)
Dorte Krause-Jensen, Research scientist,
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
(MarineBasis; 25 March – 8 April)
Art Kroon, Research scientist, Geocenter,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
(Coastal geomorphology; 22 July –
2 September)
Kunuk Lennart, Research assistant, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources,
Greenland (MarineBasis; 29 July –
19 August)
Ditte Marie Mikkelsen, Research scientist,
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Greenland (MarineBasis; 29 July
– 19 August)
Jørn Torp Pedersen, Research scientist,
Geocenter, University of Copenhagen,
Denmark (Paleo climate; 22 July –
2 September)
Lars Maltha Rasmussen, Research scientist, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Greenland (Ornithology;
29 July – 29 August)
Mikael K. Sejr, Research scientist, National
Environmental Research Institute,
Aarhus University, Denmark (MarineBasis; 25 March – 8 April and
29 July – 19 August)
Iain Stenhouse, Research scientist, Audubon
Alaska, United States of America (Ornithology; 8 July – 5 August)
Mikkel Sørensen, Research scientist,
Natural History Museum of Denmark,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
(Archaeology; 22 July – 2 September)
Fernando Ugarte, Research scientist,
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Greenland (Ornithology; 15 July –
29 July)
Bernd Wagner, Research scientist, Institute
of Geology and Mineralogy, University
of Köln, Germany (Archaeology/geology; 22 July – 5 August)
Mikkel Willemoes, Research scientist,
Department of Biology, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark (Ornithology;
29 July – 29 August)
Logistics Zackenberg
Sørine Gejl, Logistic assistant, Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for Science,
Technology and Innovation, Denmark
(15 July – 19 August)
Henrik Krohn Hansen, Logistic assistant,
Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for
Science, Technology and Innovation,
Denmark (8 July – 2 September)
Ole Fro Henriksen, Cook, Danish Polar
Center, Danish Agency for Science,
Technology and Innovation, Denmark
(30 May – 2 September)
106
14th Annual Report, 2008
Laura R. H. Kaufmann, Logistic assistant,
Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for
Science, Technology and Innovation,
Denmark (22 July - 5 August)
Kenny P. Madsen, Logistic assistant, Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for
Science, Technology and Innovation,
Denmark (1 July – 19 August)
Georg Spanggård Munch, Logistic assistant, Danish Polar Center, Danish
Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Denmark (30 May – 8 July)
Henrik Spanggård Munch, Logistic leader,
Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for
Science, Technology and Innovation,
Denmark (13 March – 9 May, 30 May –
8 July and 5 August - 2 September)
Henrik Philipsen, Logistic leader, Danish
Polar Center, Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Denmark (13 March – 25 March)
Morten Rasch, Logistic leader, Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for Science,
Technology and Innovation, Denmark
(5 August – 19 August)
Jørgen Skafte, Logistic coordinator, Danish
Polar Center, Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Denmark (5 May – 30 May and 26 August
– 2 November)
VIP
Ole Christensen, Danish Ministry of the
Environment, Denmark (17 August –
19 August)
Thomas Egebo, Ministry of Climate and
Energy, Denmark (17 August – 19 August)
Tom Greiffenberg, Greenland Home Rule,
Nuuk, Greenland (17 August – 19 August)
Tommy Marø, Greenland Home Rule, Nuuk,
Greenland (17 August – 19 August)
Morten Skovgaard Olsen, Danish Energy
Agency, Denmark (17 August – 19 August)
Leif Skov, Aage V. Jensen Charity Foundation, Denmark (17 August – 19 August)
Mette Skov, Aage V. Jensen Charity Foundation, Denmark (17 August – 19 August)
Frank Sonne, Danish Ministry of the Environment, Denmark (17 August –
19 August)
Keld Hornbech Svendsen, Asiaq - Greenland Survey, Greenland (17 August –
19 August)
Others - Zackenberg and Daneborg
Ulrik Bang, Photographer, Bang Film,
Nuuk, Greenland (15 July – 5 August)
Thomas Grue Jakobsen, Journalist, Grue
Film, Copenhagen, Denmark (15 July –
5 August)
Nadja Köpke, ZDF, Germany (15 July – 29 July)
Poul Erik Philbert, Journalist, Danish Polar Center, Danish Agency for Science,
Technology and Innovation, Denmark
(29 July – 5 August)
Dirk Steffens, ZDF, Germany (15 July –
29 July)
Nikolaus Taraqouella, ZDF, Germany
(15 July – 29 July)
Jürgen Vogt, ZDF, Germany (15 July – 29 July)
Further contributors to the 14th
Annual Report
Andreas P. Ahlstrøm, Geological Survey of
Denmark and Greenland, Denmark
Ann-Luise Andersen, Asiaq - Greenland
Survey, Greenland
Paul Batty, Greenland Institute of Natural
Resources, Nuuk, Greenland
Erik W. Born, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland
Torben Røjle Christensen, Department of
Physical Geography and Ecosystems
Analysis, Lund University, Sweden
Birger Ulf Hansen, Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Kasper Johansen, Department of Arctic
Environment, National Environmental
Research Institute, Aarhus University,
Denmark
Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk,
Greenland
Anders Michelsen, Department of Biology,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Anders Mosbech, Department of Arctic
Environment, National Environmental
Research Institute, Aarhus University,
Denmark
Marc Olefs, Institute of Meteorology and
Geophysics, University of Innsbruck,
Austria
Helge Ro-Poulsen, Department of Biology,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Søren Rysgaard, Greenland Institute of
Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland
Wolfgang Schöner, Department of Climatology, Central Institute of Meteorology
and Geodynamics, Vienna, Austria
Christian Sonne, Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research
Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark
Kisser Thorsøe, Asiaq – Greenland Survey,
Greenland
107
14th Annual Report, 2008
10 Publications
Compiled by Lillian Magelund Jensen
Scientific papers
Albert, K.R., Rinnan, R., Ro-Poulsen, H.,
Mikkelsen, T.N., Håkansson, K.B., Arndal, M.F. and Michelsen, A. 2008. Solar
Ultraviolet-B Radiation at Zackenberg:
The Impact on Higher Plants and Soil
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14th Annual Report, 2008
Appendix
Julian Dates
Regular
years
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
1
1
32
60
91
121
152
182
213
244
274
305
335
2
2
33
61
92
122
153
183
214
245
275
306
336
3
3
34
62
93
123
154
184
215
246
276
307
337
4
4
35
63
94
124
155
185
216
247
277
308
338
5
5
36
64
95
125
156
186
217
248
278
309
339
6
6
37
65
96
126
157
187
218
249
279
310
340
7
7
38
66
97
127
158
188
219
250
280
311
341
8
8
39
67
98
128
159
189
220
251
281
312
342
9
9
40
68
99
129
160
190
221
252
282
313
343
10
10
41
69
100
130
161
191
222
253
283
314
344
11
11
42
70
101
131
162
192
223
254
284
315
345
12
12
43
71
102
132
163
193
224
255
285
316
346
13
13
44
72
103
133
164
194
225
256
286
317
347
14
14
45
73
104
134
165
195
226
257
287
318
348
15
15
46
74
105
135
166
196
227
258
288
319
349
16
16
47
75
106
136
167
197
228
259
289
320
350
17
17
48
76
107
137
168
198
229
260
290
321
351
18
18
49
77
108
138
169
199
230
261
291
322
352
19
19
50
78
109
139
170
200
231
262
292
323
353
20
20
51
79
110
140
171
201
232
263
293
324
354
21
21
52
80
111
141
172
202
233
264
294
325
355
22
22
53
81
112
142
173
203
234
265
295
326
356
23
23
54
82
113
143
174
204
235
266
296
327
357
24
24
55
83
114
144
175
205
236
267
297
328
358
25
25
56
84
115
145
176
206
237
268
298
329
359
26
26
57
85
116
146
177
207
238
269
299
330
360
27
27
58
86
117
147
178
208
239
270
300
331
361
28
28
59
87
118
148
179
209
240
271
301
332
362
29
29
88
119
149
180
210
241
272
302
333
363
30
30
89
120
150
181
211
242
273
303
334
364
31
31
90
212
243
151
304
365
116
14th Annual Report, 2008
Leap
years
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
1
1
32
61
92
122
153
183
214
245
275
306
336
2
2
33
62
93
123
154
184
215
246
276
307
337
3
3
34
63
94
124
155
185
216
247
277
308
338
4
4
35
64
95
125
156
186
217
248
278
309
339
5
5
36
65
96
126
157
187
218
249
279
310
340
6
6
37
66
97
127
158
188
219
250
280
311
341
7
7
38
67
98
128
159
189
220
251
281
312
342
8
8
39
68
99
129
160
190
221
252
282
313
343
9
9
40
69
100
130
161
191
222
253
283
314
344
10
10
41
70
101
131
162
192
223
254
284
315
345
11
11
42
71
102
132
163
193
224
255
285
316
346
12
12
43
72
103
133
164
194
225
256
286
317
347
13
13
44
73
104
134
165
195
226
257
287
318
348
14
14
45
74
105
135
166
196
227
258
288
319
349
15
15
46
75
106
136
167
197
228
259
289
320
350
16
16
47
76
107
137
168
198
229
260
290
321
351
17
17
48
77
108
138
169
199
230
261
291
322
352
18
18
49
78
109
139
170
200
231
262
292
323
353
19
19
50
79
110
140
171
201
232
263
293
324
354
20
20
51
80
111
141
172
202
233
264
294
325
355
21
21
52
81
112
142
173
203
234
265
295
326
356
22
22
53
82
113
143
174
204
235
266
296
327
357
23
23
54
83
114
144
175
205
236
267
297
328
358
24
24
55
84
115
145
176
206
237
268
298
329
359
25
25
56
85
116
146
177
207
238
269
299
330
360
26
26
57
86
117
147
178
208
239
270
300
331
361
27
27
58
87
118
148
179
209
240
271
301
332
362
28
28
59
88
119
149
180
210
241
272
302
333
363
29
29
60
89
120
150
181
211
242
273
303
334
364
121
151
182
212
243
274
304
335
365
213
244
30
30
90
31
31
91
152
305
366
ZERO – 14th Annual Report 2008
14 th Annual Report 2008
National Environmental Research Institute
Aarhus University
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