Deploying and Configuring Access Point Access Point 2.0 VMware Horizon 6

Deploying and Configuring Access Point Access Point 2.0 VMware Horizon 6
Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Access Point 2.0
VMware Horizon 6
This document supports the version of each product listed and
supports all subsequent versions until the document is
replaced by a new edition. To check for more recent editions
of this document, see http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
EN-001879-02
Deploying and Configuring Access Point
You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at:
http://www.vmware.com/support/
The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates.
If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to:
[email protected]
Copyright © 2015 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright and trademark information.
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Contents
Deploying and Configuring Access Point 5
1 Introduction to Access Point 7
Firewall Rules for DMZ-Based Access Point Appliances
Access Point Topologies 11
8
2 System Requirements and Deployment 15
Access Point System Requirements 15
Preparing View Connection Server for Use with Access Point 16
Deploy the Access Point Appliance 17
Using VMware OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance 20
Access Point Deployment Properties 24
3 Configuring Access Point 27
Using the Access Point REST API 27
Configuring TLS/SSL Certificates for Access Point Appliances 31
Configuring the Secure Gateways 36
4 Collecting Logs from the Access Point Appliance 37
5 Setting Up Smart Card Authentication 39
Copy Access Point SAML Metadata to View Connection Server 39
Change the Expiration Period for Service Provider Metadata 41
Copy View Connection Server SAML Metadata to Access Point 42
Obtain the Certificate Authority Certificates 43
Configure Smart Card Settings on the Access Point Appliance 44
Index 49
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Deploying and Configuring Access Point provides information about designing a View deployment that uses
Access Point for secure external access to Horizon 6 servers and desktops. This guide also provides
instructions for deploying Access Point virtual appliances and changing the configuration settings after
deployment, if desired.
Intended Audience
This information is intended for anyone who wants to deploy and use Access Point appliances in a Horizon
6 environment. The information is written for experienced Linux system administrators who are familiar
with virtual machine technology and datacenter operations.
VMware Technical Publications Glossary
VMware Technical Publications provides a glossary of terms that might be unfamiliar to you. For definitions
of terms as they are used in VMware technical documentation, go to
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
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Introduction to Access Point
1
Access Point functions as a secure gateway for users who want to access Horizon 6 desktops and
applications from outside the corporate firewall.
Access Point appliances typically reside within a DMZ and act as a proxy host for connections inside your
company's trusted network. This design provides an additional layer of security by shielding View virtual
desktops, application hosts, and View Connection Server instances from the public-facing Internet.
Access Point directs authentication requests to the appropriate server and discards any un-authenticated
request. The only remote desktop and application traffic that can enter the corporate data center is traffic on
behalf of a strongly authenticated user. Users can access only the resources that they are authorized to
access.
Access Point appliances fulfill the same role that was previously played by View security servers, but
Access Point provides additional benefits:
n
An Access Point appliance can be configured to point to either a View Connection Server instance or a
load balancer that fronts a group of View Connection Server instances. This design means that you can
combine remote and local traffic.
n
Configuration of Access Point is independent of View Connection Server instances. Unlike with
security servers, no pairing password is required to pair each security server with a single View
Connection Server instance.
n
Access Point appliances are deployed as hardened virtual appliances, which are based on a Linux
appliance that has been customized to provide secure access. Extraneous modules have been removed
to reduce potential threat access.
n
Access Point uses a standard HTTP(S) protocol for communication with View Connection Server. JMS,
IPsec, and AJP13 are not used.
The following authentication mechanisms are available, and for all of these authentication mechanisms
except smart card, authentication is proxied to View Connection Server:
n
Active Directory credentials
n
RSA SecurID
n
RADIUS
n
Smart cards (Note that for this release smart card authentication is a Tech Preview feature.)
n
SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language)
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Firewall Rules for DMZ-Based Access Point Appliances,” on page 8
n
“Access Point Topologies,” on page 11
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Firewall Rules for DMZ-Based Access Point Appliances
DMZ-based Access Point appliances require certain firewall rules on the front-end and back-end firewalls.
During installation, Access Point services are set up to listen on certain network ports by default.
A DMZ-based Access Point appliance deployment usually includes two firewalls.
n
An external network-facing, front-end firewall is required to protect both the DMZ and the internal
network. You configure this firewall to allow external network traffic to reach the DMZ.
n
A back-end firewall, between the DMZ and the internal network, is required to provide a second tier of
security. You configure this firewall to accept only traffic that originates from the services within the
DMZ.
The following figure illustrates the protocols that each View component uses for communication. This
configuration might be used in a typical WAN deployment.
Figure 1‑1. View Components and Protocols with Access Point
Client Devices
RDP
Client
Horizon
Client
PColP
Blast
HTTP(S)
HTTP(S)
Access Point Appliance
View Secure
Protocol Handlers
PColP
Blast
RDP, Framework, MMR, CDR...
HTTP(S)
View Connection Server
View Secure GW Server &
PColP Secure GW
View
Messaging
View Broker &
Admin Server
HTTP(S)
View
Administrator
SOAP
vCenter
Server
View
LDAP
View desktop virtual machine or RDS host
View
Agent
Firewall policy strictly controls inbound communications from DMZ services, which greatly reduces the risk
of compromising your internal network.
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Access Point
The following figure shows an example of a configuration that includes front-end and back-end firewalls.
Figure 1‑2. Dual Firewall Topology
client device
client device
HTTPS
traffic
front-end
firewall
KEM
P
HTTPS
traffic
KEM
P
fault-tolerant
load balancing
mechanism
DMZ
Access
Point
Appliance
Access
Point
Appliance
back-end
firewall
View
Connection
Server
View
Connection
Server
internal
network
VMware
vCenter
Active
Directory
VMware
ESXi servers
Front-End Firewall Rules
To allow external client devices to connect to an Access Point appliance within the DMZ, the front-end
firewall must allow traffic on certain TCP and UDP ports.
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Table 1‑1. Front-End Firewall Rules
Default
Port
Protocol
Destination
Horizon
Client
TCP Any
HTTP
Access Point
appliance
TCP 80
(Optional) External client devices connect to an
Access Point appliance within the DMZ on TCP port
80 and are automatically directed to HTTPS. For
information about the security considerations related
to letting users connect with HTTP rather than HTTPS,
see the View Security guide.
Horizon
Client
TCP Any
HTTPS
Access Point
appliance
TCP 443
External client devices connect to an Access Point
appliance within the DMZ on TCP port 443.
Horizon
Client
TCP Any
UDP Any
PCoIP
Access Point
appliance
TCP 4172
UDP 4172
External client devices connect to an Access Point
appliance within the DMZ on TCP port 4172 and UDP
port 4172 to communicate with a remote desktop or
application over PCoIP.
Access
Point
appliance
UDP 4172
PCoIP
Horizon Client
UDP Any
Access Point appliances send PCoIP data back to an
external client device from UDP port 4172. The
destination UDP port is the source port from the
received UDP packets. Because these packets contain
reply data, it is normally unnecessary to add an
explicit firewall rule for this traffic.
Client Web
browser
TCP Any
HTTPS or
Blast
Access Point
appliance
TCP 8443
If you use HTML Access, the external Web client
connects to an Access Point appliance within the DMZ
on HTTPS port 8443 to communicate with remote
desktops.
Source
Destination
Port
Notes
Back-End Firewall Rules
To allow an Access Point appliance to communicate with a View Connection Server instance or load
balancer that resides within the internal network, the back-end firewall must allow inbound traffic on
certain TCP ports. Behind the back-end firewall, internal firewalls must be similarly configured to allow
remote desktops applications and View Connection Server instances to communicate with each other.
Table 1‑2. Back-End Firewall Rules
Default
Port
Protocol
Destination
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
HTTPS
View
Connection
Server or load
balancer
TCP 443
Access Point appliances connect on TCP port 443 to
communicate with a View Connection Server
instance or load balancer in front of multiple View
Connection Server instances.
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
RDP
Remote
desktop
TCP 3389
Access Point appliances connect to remote desktops
on TCP port 3389 to exchange RDP traffic.
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
MMR or
CDR
Remote
desktop
TCP 9427
Access Point appliances connect to remote desktops
on TCP port 9427 to receive MMR (multimedia
redirection) or CDR (client drive redirection) traffic.
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
UDP Any
PCoIP
Remote
desktop or
application
TCP 4172
UDP 4172
Access Point appliances connect to remote desktops
and applications on TCP port 4172 and UDP port
4172 to exchange PCoIP traffic.
Remote
desktop or
application
UDP 4172
PCoIP
Access Point
appliance
UDP Any
Remote desktops and applications send PCoIP data
back to an Access Point appliance from UDP port
4172 .
The destination UDP port will be the source port
from the received UDP packets and so as this is
reply data, it is normally unnecessary to add an
explicit firewall rule for this.
Source Port
10
Destination
Port
Notes
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Access Point
Table 1‑2. Back-End Firewall Rules (Continued)
Default
Port
Protocol
Destination
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
USB-R
Remote
desktop
TCP 32111
Access Point appliances connect to remote desktops
on TCP port 32111 to exchange USB redirection
traffic between an external client device and the
remote desktop.
Access Point
appliance
TCP Any
HTTPS
Remote
desktop
TCP 22443
If you use HTML Access, Access Point appliances
connect to remote desktops on HTTPS port 22443 to
communicate with the Blast agent.
Source Port
Destination
Port
Notes
NOTE Access Point optionally listens on TCP port 9443 for the admin REST API traffic and optionally sends
Syslog events on a default UDP port of 514. If there is a firewall in place for this communication, these ports
must not be blocked.
Access Point Topologies
You can implement any of several different topologies.
An Access Point appliance in the DMZ can be configured to point to either a View Connection Server
instance or a load balancer that fronts a group of View Connection Server instances. Access Point appliances
work with standard third-party load balancing solutions that are configured for HTTPS.
If the Access Point appliance points to a load balancer in front of the View Connection Server instances, the
selection of the View Connection Server instance is dynamic. For example, the load balancer might make a
selection based on availability and the load balancer's knowledge of the number of current sessions on each
View Connection Server instance. The View Connection Server instances inside the corporate firewall
usually already have a load balancer in order to support internal access. With Access Point, you can point
the Access Point appliance to this same load balancer that is often already being used.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Figure 1‑3. Access Point Appliance Pointing to a Load Balancer
client device
external network
DMZ
KEMP
load
balancing
Access
Point
Appliance
KEMP
load
balancing
View
Connection
Server
Microsoft
Active Directory
ESXi hosts running
Virtual Desktop
virtual machines
vCenter
Management Server
You can alternatively have one or more Access Point appliances point to an individual View Connection
Server instance, just as was previously done with View security servers. In both approaches, use a load
balancer in front of two or more Access Point appliances in the DMZ.
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Access Point
Figure 1‑4. Access Point Appliance Pointing to a View Connection Server Instance
client device
external network
DMZ
KEM
P
load
balancing
Access
Point
Appliance
View
Connection
Server
Microsoft
Active Directory
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ESXi hosts running
Virtual Desktop
virtual machines
vCenter
Management Server
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
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System Requirements and
Deployment
2
You deploy an Access Point appliance in much the same way that you deploy other VMware virtual
appliances.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Access Point System Requirements,” on page 15
n
“Preparing View Connection Server for Use with Access Point,” on page 16
n
“Deploy the Access Point Appliance,” on page 17
n
“Using VMware OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance,” on page 20
n
“Access Point Deployment Properties,” on page 24
Access Point System Requirements
To deploy the Access Point appliance, ensure your system meets the hardware and software requirements.
Software Requirements
Access Point 2.0 is designed to be part of the Horizon 6 version 6.2 release.
n
Horizon 6 servers: During an upgrade of these components, make sure the View Connection Server
instances are upgraded to 6.2 before using Access Point appliances. Access Point is not designed to
interoperate with earlier versions of Connection Server.
n
vSphere ESX/ESXi hosts and vCenter Server: Access Point appliances must be deployed on a version of
vSphere that is the same as a version supported for Horizon 6.2.
For details about which versions of View are compatible with which versions of vCenter Server and
ESXi, see the VMware Product Interoperability Matrix at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/sim/interop_matrix.php.
n
Horizon Client: Although VMware recommends that you upgrade to the latest version of the clients to
get new features and performance improvements, Access Point 2.0 is designed to work with all client
versions that are supported with View Connection Server 6.2 and View Agent 6.2.
Hardware Requirements
The OVF package for the Access Point appliance automatically selects the virtual machine configuration that
Access Point requires. Although you can change these settings, VMware recommends that you not change
the CPU, memory, or disk space to smaller values than the default OVF settings.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Networking Requirements
You can use one, two, or three network interfaces, and Access Point requires a separate static IP address for
each. Many DMZ implementations use separated networks to secure the different traffic types. Configure
Access Point according to the network design of the DMZ in which it is deployed.
n
One network interface is appropriate for POCs (proof of concept) or testing. With one NIC, external,
internal, and management traffic are all on the same subnet.
n
With two network interfaces, external traffic is on one subnet, and internal and management traffic are
on another subnet.
n
Using three network interfaces is the most secure option. With a third NIC, external, internal, and
management traffic all have their own subnets.
IMPORTANT Verify that you have assigned an IP pool to each network. The Access Point appliance can then
pick up the subnet mask and gateway settings at deployment time. To add an IP pool, in vCenter Server, if
you are using the native vSphere Client, go to the IP Pools tab of the data center. Alternatively, if you are
using the vSphere Web Client, you can create a network protocol profile. Go to the Manage tab of the data
center and select the Network Protocol Profiles tab. For more information, see Configuring Protocol Profiles
for Virtual Machine Networking.
Preparing View Connection Server for Use with Access Point
Administrators must perform specific tasks to ensure that View Connection Server works correctly with
Access Point.
16
n
If you plan to use a secure tunnel connection for client devices, disable the secure tunnel for View
Connection Server. In View Administrator, go to the Edit View Connection Server Settings dialog box
and deselect the check box called Use secure tunnel connection to machine. By default, the secure
tunnel is enabled on the Access Point appliance.
n
Disable the PCoIP secure gateway for View Connection Server. In View Administrator, go to the Edit
View Connection Server Settings dialog box and deselect the check box called Use PCoIP Secure
Gateway for PCoIP connections to machine. By default, the PCoIP secure gateway is enabled on the
Access Point appliance.
n
Disable the Blast secure gateway for View Connection Server. In View Administrator, go to the Edit
View Connection Server Settings dialog box and deselect the check box called Use Blast Secure
Gateway for HTML Access to machine. By default, the Blast secure gateway is enabled on the
Access Point appliance.
n
To use two-factor authentication with Horizon Client, such as RSA SecurID or RADIUS authentication,
you must enable this feature on View Connection Server. See the topics about two-factor authentication
in the View Administration document.
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Chapter 2 System Requirements and Deployment
Deploy the Access Point Appliance
The simplest way to deploy the Access Point appliance is by logging in to vCenter Server and using the
Deploy OVF Template wizard. Logging in directly to an ESXi host to use the deployment wizard is not
supported.
If you would rather use the command-line VMware OVF Tool to deploy the appliance, see “Using VMware
OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance,” on page 20. With this tool, you can set advanced
properties that are not available in the deployment wizard.
NOTE For production environments, VMware recommends that you use VMware OVF Tool rather than the
deployment wizard so that you can ensure a repeatable installation through scripting. This method also
allows advanced settings such as the configuration of the external URLs and the TLS/SSL server certificate to
be applied at deployment time. The interactive deployment wizard does not include these advanced
settings.
Prerequisites
n
Familiarize yourself with the deployment options available in the wizard. See “Access Point
Deployment Properties,” on page 24. The following options are required: static IP address for the
Access Point appliance, IP address of the DNS server, password for the root user, and the URL of the
View Connection Server instance or load balancer that this Access Point appliance will point to.
n
Determine how many network interfaces and static IP addresses to configure for the Access Point
appliance. See “Networking Requirements,” on page 16.
IMPORTANT If you use the vSphere Web Client, you can also specify the DNS server, gateway, and
netmask addresses for each network. If you use the native vSphere Client, verify that you have assigned
an IP pool to each network. To add an IP pool, in vCenter Server, if you are using the native vSphere
Client, go to the IP Pools tab of the data center. Alternatively, if you are using the vSphere Web Client,
you can create a network protocol profile. Go to the Manage tab of the data center and select the
Network Protocol Profiles tab. For more information, see Configuring Protocol Profiles for Virtual
Machine Networking.
n
Verify that you can log in to vSphere Client or vSphere Web Client as a user with system administrator
privileges. For example, you might log in as the user [email protected]
If you use vSphere Web Client, use a supported browser. See the "Client Integration Plug-In Software
Requirements" topic in the vSphere documentation center for your version of vSphere.
n
Verify that the data store you plan to use for the appliance has enough free disk space and meets other
system requirements. The download size of the virtual appliance is 1.4GB. By default, for a thinprovisioned disk, the appliance requires 2.5GB, and a thick-provisioned disk requires 20GB. Also see
“Access Point System Requirements,” on page 15.
n
Download the .ova installer file for the Access Point appliance from the VMware Web site at
https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/downloads, or determine the URL to use (example:
http://example.com/vapps/euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova).
n
If you plan to use the vSphere Web Client, verify that the Client Integration plug-in is installed. For
more information, see the vSphere documentation. For example, for vSphere 6, see Install the Client
Integration Plug-in. If you do not install this plug-in before you start the deployment wizard, the
wizard prompts you to install the plug-in, which requires closing your browser and exiting the wizard.
Procedure
1
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Use the native vSphere Client or the vSphere Web Client to log in to a vCenter Server instance.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
2
3
Select a menu command for launching the Deploy OVF Template wizard.
Option
Menu Command
vSphere Client
Select File > Deploy OVF Template.
vSphere Web Client
Select any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host, and
from the Actions menu, select Deploy OVF Template.
On the Select Source page of the wizard, browse to the location of the .ova file that you downloaded or
enter a URL and click Next.
A details page appears, which tells how much disk space the appliance requires.
4
Follow the wizard prompts, and take the following guidelines into consideration as you complete the
wizard.
Text on each wizard page explains each control. In some cases, the text changes dynamically as you
select various options.
NOTE If you use the vSphere Web Client, for assistance you can also click the context-sensitive help
button, which is a question mark (?) icon in the upper-right corner of the wizard.
18
Option
Description
Select a deployment configuration
You can use one, two, or three network interfaces (NICs), and Access Point
requires a separate static IP address for each. Many DMZ implementations
use separated networks to secure the different traffic types. Configure
Access Point according to the network design of the DMZ in which it is
deployed.
Disk format
For evaluation and testing environments, select the Thin Provision format.
For production environments, select one of the Thick Provision formats.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed is a type of thick virtual disk format that
supports clustering features such as fault tolerance but takes much longer
to create than other types of virtual disks.
VM storage policy
(vSphere Web Client only) This option is available if storage policies are
enabled on the destination resource.
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Chapter 2 System Requirements and Deployment
Option
Description
Setup Networks/Network Mapping
If you are using vSphere Web Client, the Setup Networks page allows you
to map each NIC to a network and specify protocol settings.
a Select the first row in the table (Internet) and then click the down
arrow to select the destination network.
b
c
After you select the row, you can also enter IP addresses for the DNS
server, gateway, and netmask in the lower portion of the window.
If you are using more than one NIC, select the next row
(ManagementNetwork), select the destination network, and then you
can enter the IP addresses for the DNS server, gateway, and netmask
for that network.
If you are using only one NIC, all the rows are mapped to the same
network.
If you have a third NIC, also select the third row and complete the
settings.
If you are using only two NICs, for this third row (BackendNetwork),
select the same network that you used for ManagementNetwork.
With the vSphere Web Client, a network protocol profile is automatically
created after you complete the wizard if one does not already exist.
If you use the native vSphere Client (rather than the Web Client), the
Network Mapping page allows you to map each NIC to a network, but
there are no fields for specifying the DNS server, gateway, and netmask
addresses. As described in the prerequisites, you must already have
assigned an IP pool to each network or created a network protocol profile.
Customize template
5
The text boxes on this page are specific to Access Point and might not be
required for other types of virtual appliances. Text in the wizard page
explains each setting. If the text is truncated on the right side of the wizard,
resize the window by dragging from the lower-right corner. You must
enter values in the following text boxes:
n External IP address
n DNS server addresses
n Management network IP address if you specified 2 NICs, and
Backend network IP address if you specified 3 NICs
n Password for the root user of this VM
n Horizon server URL
n Horizon server thumbprints if the Horizon server does not already
have a server certificate that is issued by a trusted certificate authority
All other settings are either optional or already have a default setting
entered. VMware strongly recommends that you also specify a password
for the Admin credentials for REST API text box. Note the password
requirements listed on the wizard page.
On the Ready to Complete page, select Power on after deployment, and click Finish.
A Deploy OVF Template task appears in the vCenter Server status area so that you can monitor
deployment. You can also open a console on the virtual machine to view the console messages that are
displayed during system boot. A log of these messages is also available in the file /var/log/boot.msg.
6
When deployment is complete, verify that end users will be able to connect to the appliance by opening
a browser and entering the following URL:
https://FQDN-of-AP-appliance
In this URL, FQDN-of-AP-appliance is the DNS-resolvable, fully qualified domain name of the
Access Point appliance.
If deployment was successful, the Horizon Web Portal appears. If deployment was not successful, you
can delete the appliance virtual machine and deploy the appliance again. The most common error is not
entering certificate thumbprints correctly.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
7
To verify that the admin credentials for accessing the REST API were set correctly, open a browser,
enter the following URL, and enter the credentials for the admin user.
https://FQDN-of-AP-appliance:9443/rest/swagger.yaml
A page containing the Access Point REST API specification appears. If you get an error message, you
can either deploy the appliance again and be sure to follow the requirements for the password, or you
can log in to the Access Point virtual machine and set the admin password using the REST API.
The Access Point appliance is deployed and starts automatically.
What to do next
Configure security certificates for Access Point. If you did not set the admin credentials correctly for the
REST API, you can set them by using the procedure “Reset the admin Password for the Access Point REST
API,” on page 28.
IMPORTANT Configure the clock (UTC) on the Access Point appliance so that the appliance has the correct
time. For example, verify that the ESXi host's time is synchronized with an NTP server, and verify that
VMware Tools, which is running in the appliance virtual machine, synchronizes the time on the virtual
machine with the time on the ESXi host.
Using VMware OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance
As an alternative to using the deployment wizard, you can use this command-line tool to deploy
Access Point. Using this tool allows you to set more configuration options than are available in the
deployment wizard.
For production environment deployments, VMware recommends using OVF Tool for a scripted, unattended
deployment that predictably deploys and fully configures the appliance. You can download the VMware
OVF Tool and its documentation by going to https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/ovf/. Besides the
standard commands described in the OVF Tool documentation, you can use Access Point-specific options.
For a list of the available properties and options, see “Access Point Deployment Properties,” on page 24.
Prerequisites for Access Point Deployment
n
Familiarize yourself with the deployment options available. See “Access Point Deployment Properties,”
on page 24. The following options are required: static IP address for the Access Point appliance, IP
address of the DNS server, password for the root user, and the URL of the View Connection Server
instance or load balancer that this Access Point appliance will point to.
n
Determine how many network interfaces and static IP addresses to configure for the Access Point
appliance. See “Networking Requirements,” on page 16.
IMPORTANT Verify that you have assigned an IP pool to each network. The Access Point appliance can
then pick up the subnet mask and gateway settings at deployment time. To add an IP pool, in vCenter
Server, if you are using the native vSphere Client, go to the IP Pools tab of the data center.
Alternatively, if you are using the vSphere Web Client, you can create a network protocol profile. Go to
the Manage tab of the data center and select the Network Protocol Profiles tab. For more information,
see Configuring Protocol Profiles for Virtual Machine Networking.
20
n
Verify that the data store you plan to use for the appliance has enough free disk space and meets other
system requirements. The download size of the virtual appliance is 1.4GB. By default, for a thinprovisioned disk, the appliance requires 2.5GB, and a thick-provisioned disk requires 20GB. Also see
“Access Point System Requirements,” on page 15.
n
Download the .ova installer file for the Access Point appliance from the VMware Web site at
https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/downloads, or determine the URL to use (example:
http://example.com/vapps/euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova).
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Chapter 2 System Requirements and Deployment
Example OVF Tool Command That Uses Access Point Deployment Properties
Following is an example of a command for deploying an Access Point appliance using OVF Tool on a
Windows client machine:
ovftool --X:enableHiddenProperties ^
--powerOffTarget ^
--powerOn ^
--overwrite ^
--vmFolder=folder1 ^
--net:Internet="VM Network" ^
--net:ManagementNetwork="VM Network" ^
--net:BackendNetwork="VM Network" ^
-ds=PERFORMANCE-X ^
--name=name1 ^
--ipAllocationPolicy=fixedPolicy ^
--deploymentOption=onenic ^
--prop:ip0=10.20.30.41 ^
--prop:DNS=192.0.2.1 ^
--prop:[email protected] ^
--prop:rootPassword=vmware ^
--prop:viewDestinationURL=https://192.0.2.2 ^
--prop:viewDestinationURLThumbprints="sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b
dc 34" ^
euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova ^
vi://root:[email protected]/ExampleDC/host/ap
NOTE The caret characters at the ends of the lines are escape characters for line continuation on Windows,
which can be used in a BAT script. You can alternatively just type the entire command on one line.
Following is an example of a command for deploying an Access Point appliance using OVF Tool on a Linux
client machine:
ovftool --X:enableHiddenProperties \
--powerOffTarget \
--powerOn \
--overwrite \
--vmFolder=folder1 \
--net:Internet="VM Network" \
--net:ManagementNetwork="VM Network" \
--net:BackendNetwork="VM Network" \
-ds=PERFORMANCE-X \
--name=name1 \
--ipAllocationPolicy=fixedPolicy \
--deploymentOption=onenic \
--prop:ip0=10.20.30.41 \
--prop:DNS=192.0.2.1 \
--prop:[email protected] \
--prop:rootPassword=vmware \
--prop:viewDestinationURL=https://192.0.2.2 \
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--prop:viewDestinationURLThumbprints="sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b
dc 34" \
euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova \
vi://root:[email protected]/ExampleDC/host/ap
NOTE The backslashes at the ends of the lines are escape characters for line continuation on Linux, which
can be used in a Linux shell script. You can alternatively just type the entire command on one line.
If you use this command, you can then use the Access Point admin REST API to configure additional
settings such as the security certificate and secure gateways. Alternatively, you can use the settingsJSON
property to configure these settings at deployment time.
Example Using the settings.JSON Property
In addition to the deployment properties shown in the previous example, you can use the settingsJSON
property to pass a JSON string directly to the EdgeServiceSettings resource in the Access Point admin
REST API. In this manner, you can use the OVF Tool to set configuration properties during deployment that
must otherwise be set by using the REST API after deployment.
The following example shows how to use the settingsJSON property to enable the View edge service, so
that Access Point can point to and use a Horizon server. In addition to specifying the Horizon server URL
and the View Connection Server thumbprint, the settingsJSON property sets the external URLs for the
secure gateways. This example uses escape characters for running the command on a Windows client
machine.
ovftool --X:enableHiddenProperties ^
--powerOffTarget ^
--powerOn ^
--overwrite ^
--vmFolder=folder1 ^
--net:Internet="VM Network" ^
--net:ManagementNetwork="VM Network" ^
--net:BackendNetwork="VM Network" ^
-ds="PERFORMANCE-X" ^
--name=name1 ^
--ipAllocationPolicy=fixedPolicy ^
--deploymentOption=onenic ^
--prop:ip0=10.20.30.41 ^
--prop:DNS=192.0.2.1 ^
--prop:[email protected] ^
--prop:rootPassword=vmware ^
--prop:settingsJSON="{\"edgeServiceSettingsList\": { \"edgeServiceSettingsList\": [ ^
{ ^
\"identifier\": \"VIEW\", ^
\"enabled\": true, ^
\"proxyDestinationUrl\": \"https://192.0.2.2\", ^
\"proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints\": \"sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b
dc 34\", ^
\"pcoipEnabled\": true, ^
\"pcoipExternalUrl\": \"10.20.30.40:4172\", ^
\"blastEnabled\": true, ^
\"blastExternalUrl\": \"https://ap1.example.com:8443\", ^
\"tunnelEnabled\": true, ^
\"tunnelExternalUrl\": \"https://ap1.example.com:443\", ^
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Chapter 2 System Requirements and Deployment
\"proxyPattern\":\"/\" } ] }^
}" ^
euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova ^
vi://root:[email protected]/ExampleDC/host/ap
The following example uses escape characters for running the command on a Linux client machine. This
example also shows how to use the settingsJSON property to enable the View edge service, so that
Access Point can point to and use a Horizon server. In addition to specifying the Horizon server URL and
the View Connection Server thumbprint, the settingsJSON property sets the external URLs for the secure
gateways.
ovftool --X:enableHiddenProperties \
--powerOffTarget \
--powerOn \
--overwrite \
--vmFolder=folder1 \
--net:Internet="VM Network" \
--net:ManagementNetwork="VM Network" \
--net:BackendNetwork="VM Network" \
-ds=PERFORMANCE-X \
--name=name1 \
--ipAllocationPolicy=fixedPolicy \
--deploymentOption=onenic \
--prop:ip0=10.20.30.41 \
--prop:DNS=192.0.2.1 \
--prop:[email protected] \
--prop:rootPassword=vmware \
--prop:settingsJSON='{"edgeServiceSettingsList": { "edgeServiceSettingsList": [ \
{ \
"identifier": "VIEW", \
"enabled": true, \
"proxyDestinationUrl": "https://192.0.2.2", \
"proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints": "sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b dc
34", \
"pcoipEnabled": true, \
"pcoipExternalUrl": "10.20.30.40:4172", \
"blastEnabled": true, \
"blastExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:8443", \
"tunnelEnabled": true, \
"tunnelExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:443", \
"proxyPattern":"/" } ] } \
}' \
euc-access-point-2.0.0.0-xxxxxxx_OVF10.ova \
vi://root:[email protected]/ExampleDC/host/ap
IMPORTANT You must configure the external URLs for the secure tunnel, the PCoIP Secure Gateway, and the
Blast Secure Gateway at deployment time. You can do this configuration either by using OVF Tool or
through the REST API. This configuration step must be done before you can use Access Point for View
traffic. For more information about these URLs, see “Configuring the Secure Gateways,” on page 36.
For a list of the REST API properties for configuring Access Point, see “REST API Properties for Access
Point,” on page 29.
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Access Point Deployment Properties
For your convenience, almost all deployment properties can be set using either the deployment wizard or
the OVF Tool command-line interface.
For information about how to specify these properties by using the deployment wizard, see “Deploy the
Access Point Appliance,” on page 17. To specify the properties by using the OVF Tool command-line
interface, see “Using VMware OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance,” on page 20.
Table 2‑1. Deployment Options Access Point
24
Deployment
Property
OVF Tool Option
Description
Deployment
configuration
--deploymentOption
{onenic|twonic|threenic}
Specifies how many network interfaces are
available in the Access Point virtual machine.
By default, this property is not set, which means
that one NIC is used.
External
(Internet-facing)
IP address
--prop:ip0=external-ip-address
(Required) Specifies public IPv4 address used for
accessing this virtual machine on the Internet.
NOTE The computer name is set through a DNS
query of this Internet IPv4 address.
Default: none.
Management
network IP
address
--prop:ip1=management-ip-address
Specifies the IP address of the interface that is
connected to the management network.
If not configured, the administration server
listens on the Internet-facing interface.
Default: none.
Back-end
network IP
address
--prop:ip2=back-end-ip-address
Specifies the IP address of the interface that is
connected to the back-end network.
If not configured, network traffic sent to the
back-end systems is routed through the other
network interfaces.
Default: none.
DNS server
addresses
--prop:DNS=ip-of-name-server1[ ip-of-nameserver2 ...]
(Required) Specifies one or more space-separated
IPv4 addresses of the domain name servers for
this virtual machine (example: 192.0.2.1
192.0.2.2). You can specify up to three servers.
By default, this property is not set, which means
that the system uses the DNS server that is
associated with the Internet-facing NIC.
CAUTION If you leave this option blank and if no
DNS server is associated with the Internet-facing
NIC, the appliance will not be deployed
correctly.
Password for the
root user
--prop:rootPassword=password
(Required) Specifies the password for the root
user of this virtual machine. The password must
be a valid Linux password.
Default: none.
Password for the
admin user
--prop:adminPassword=password
If you do not set this password, you will not be
able to access the REST API on the Access Point
appliance.
Passwords must be at least 8 characters long,
contain at least one uppercase and one lowercase
letter, one digit, and one special character, which
includes ! @ # $ % * ( ).
Default: none.
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Chapter 2 System Requirements and Deployment
Table 2‑1. Deployment Options Access Point (Continued)
Deployment
Property
Locale to use for
localized
messages
OVF Tool Option
Description
--prop:locale=locale-code
(Required) Specifies the locale to use when
generating error messages.
n
en_US for English
n
ja_JP for Japanese
n
fr_FR for French
n
de_DE for German
n
zh_CN for Simplified Chinese
n
zh_TW for Traditional Chinese
ko_KR for Korean
Default: en_US.
n
Syslog server
URL
--prop:syslogUrl=url-of-syslog-server
Specifies the Syslog server used for logging
Access Point events.
This value can be a URL or a host name or IP
address. The scheme and port number are
optional (example: syslog://server.example.com:
514).
By default, this property is not set, which means
that no events are logged to a syslog server.
Horizon server
URL
--prop:viewDestinationURL=URL
(Required) Specifies the destination URL of the
load balancer or View Connection Server that the
Access Point appliance directs traffic to.
The destination URL must contain the protocol,
host name or IP address, and port number
(example: https://load-balancer.example.com:
443)
Default: none.
Horizon
Connection
Server
thumbrpints
--prop:viewDestinationURLThumbprints=
thumbprint-list
If you do not provide a comma-separated list of
thumbrpints, the server certificates must be
issued by a trusted CA.
The format includes the algorithm (sha1 or md5)
and the hexadecimal thumbprint digits (example:
sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1
7a f8 8b dc 34). To find these properties, browse
to the View Connection Server, click the lock icon
in the address bar, and view the certificate
details.
Default: none.
You can also use the settingsJSON property to specify other REST API configuration settings using OVF
Tool, such as for configuring the external URLs for the secure gateways. For more information, see
“Example Using the settings.JSON Property,” on page 22.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
26
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Configuring Access Point
3
You use the Access Point REST API to configure Access Point.
IMPORTANT After deployment, the first configuration task is to configure the clock (UTC) on the
Access Point appliance so that the appliance has the correct time. For example, verify that the ESXi host's
time is synchronized with an NTP server, and verify that VMware Tools, which is running in the appliance
virtual machine, synchronizes the time on the virtual machine with the time on the ESXi host. Use vCenter
Server, rather than the REST API for this configuration task.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Using the Access Point REST API,” on page 27
n
“Configuring TLS/SSL Certificates for Access Point Appliances,” on page 31
n
“Configuring the Secure Gateways,” on page 36
Using the Access Point REST API
Although you can configure many settings during appliance deployment, after you deploy the Access Point
appliance, you must use the Access Point REST API to change or add configuration settings.
The specification for the Access Point REST API is available at the following URL on the virtual machine
where Access Point is installed: https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/swagger.yaml
You can use any REST client application, such as curl or postman. For example, the following command uses
a curl client to retrieve the Access Point configuration:
curl -k -u 'admin:[email protected]' https://access-point-appliance.example.com:
9443/rest/v1/config/settings
In this example, [email protected] is the password for the admin user and access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance. As a best practice with regards to security, you
can omit the password for the admin user from any scripts. When the password is omitted, the curl
command prompts you for the password and ensures that no passwords are inadvertently stored in script
files.
You also use JSON requests to invoke the Access Point REST API and make configuration changes. The
following example shows a configuration JSON for the View edge service:
{
"identifier": "VIEW",
"enabled": true,
"proxyDestinationUrl": "https://192.0.2.1",
"proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints": "sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b
dc 34",
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
"pcoipEnabled": true,
"pcoipExternalUrl": "10.20.30.40:4172",
"blastEnabled": true,
"blastExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:8443",
"tunnelEnabled": true,
"tunnelExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:443"
"proxyPattern": "/"
}
This example shows the following settings:
n
The type of edge service being configured (identifier) and enabled (enabled).
Setting identifier to VIEW means that Access Point can communicate with View Connection Server.
For this release, VIEW is the only choice available.
n
The address of the View Connection Server or load balancer (proxyDestinationUrl).
n
The Horizon server's security certificate thumbprint (proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints).
n
Settings for enabling the PCoIP Secure Gateway, the Blast Secure Gateway, and the Secure Tunnel
Gateway.
n
The external URLs for the PCoIP Secure Gateway, the Blast Secure Gateway, and the Secure Tunnel
Gateway.
n
A setting for enabling HTML Access (proxyPattern).
NOTE When you create a JSON request, provide the complete set of properties for that resource. Any
parameter that is not specified in the JSON call is reset to the default value. Alternatively, you can first
retrieve the parameters and then change the JSON string to the new values.
Reset the admin Password for the Access Point REST API
If the password for the admin user is unknown, or if problems prevent you from logging in to the REST API
to reset the password, you can use this procedure to reset the password.
Prerequisites
You must have the password for logging in to the virtual machine as the root user.
Procedure
1
Log in to the operating system of the Access Point appliance as the root user.
2
Enter the following commands:
echo '[email protected]' > /opt/vmware/gateway/conf/firstboot.properties
chown gateway /opt/vmware/gateway/conf/firstboot.properties
supervisorctl restart admin
In this example, [email protected] is a password that is at least 8 characters long, contains at least one uppercase
and one lowercase letter, one digit, and one special character, which includes ! @ # $ % * ( ).
When the admin server reboots, it generates the following message in
the /opt/vmware/gateway/logs/admin.log file: Successfully set initial settings from
firstboot.properties.
What to do next
You can now log in to the REST administration interface using the user name admin and the password that
you just set (for example, [email protected]).
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Chapter 3 Configuring Access Point
REST API Properties for Access Point
Use the Access Point REST API properties to configure which security certificates, protocols, and cipher
suites are used, set up smart card authentication, specify which View Connection Server instance to use, and
more.
You can use the properties in the following tables to make configuration changes after the Access Point
appliance is deployed, or you can alternatively use the OVF Tool property called
--X:enableHiddenProperties=settingsJSON with some of these properties to configure the appliance at
deployment time. For more information about how to use Access Point with the OVF Tool, see “Access
Point Deployment Properties,” on page 24.
System Settings
These settings are included in the SystemSettings resource. The URL is
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/system
In this URL, access-point-appliance.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the Access Point
appliance.
Table 3‑1. REST API Properties for the SystemSettings Resource
REST API Property
Description and Example
Default Value
adminPassword
Specifies the administrator password for accessing
the REST API. Passwords must be at least 8
characters long, contain at least one uppercase and
one lowercase letter, one digit, and one special
character, which includes ! @ # $ % * ( ).
(Not set unless set by the deployment
wizard or OVF Tool.)
cipherList
Configures the cipher list to restrict the use of certain
cryptographic algorithms before establishing an
encrypted TLS/SSL connection. This setting is used in
conjunction with the settings for enabling various
security protocols.
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC
_SHA,
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
(The same default value as for View
Connection Server 6.2.)
ssl30Enabled
Specifies whether the SSLv3.0 security protocol is
enabled.
FALSE
tls10Enabled
Specifies whether the TLSv1.0 security protocol is
enabled.
TRUE
tls11Enabled
Specifies whether the TLSv1.1 security protocol is
enabled.
TRUE
tls12Enabled
Specifies whether the TLSv1.2 security protocol is
enabled.
TRUE
locale
Specifies the local to use for localized messages.
en_US
syslogUrl
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n
en_US for English
n
ja_JP for Japanese
n
fr_FR for French
n
de_DE for German
n
zh_CN for Simplified Chinese
n
zh_TW for Traditional Chinese
n
ko_KR for Korean
Specifies the Syslog server used for logging
Access Point events.
This value can be a URL or a host name or IP address.
The scheme and port number are optional (example:
syslog://server.example.com:514). .
(Not set unless set by the deployment
wizard or OVF Tool.)
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Server Certificate
These settings are included in the ServerCertificate resource. The URL is
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/certs/ssl
In this URL, access-point-appliance.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the Access Point
appliance.
Table 3‑2. REST API Properties for the ServerCertificate Resource
REST API Property
Description and Example
Default Value
privateKeyPem
Specifies the private key for the certificate in
PEM format.
(System-generated)
certChainPem
Specifies the certificate chain in PEM format
(System-generated)
Edge Service Settings for View
These settings are included in the EdgeServiceSettings resource. The URL is
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/edgeservice/view
In this URL, access-point-appliance.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the Access Point
appliance.
Table 3‑3. REST API Properties for the EdgeServiceSettings resource for View
30
REST API Property
Description and Example
Default Value
proxyDestinationUrl
Specifies the URL of the Horizon server (load
balancer or View Connection Server) that the
Access Point appliance directs traffic to.
This URL must contain the protocol, host
name or IP address, and port number
(example: https://load-balancer.example.com:
443).
None
proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints Specifies a list of Horizon Connection Server
thumbrpints. If you do not provide a commaseparated list of thumbrpints, the server
certificates must be issued by a trusted CA.
The format includes the algorithm (sha1 or
md5) and the hexadecimal thumbprint digits
(example: sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad
4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b dc 34). To find these
properties, browse to the View Connection
Server, click the lock icon in the address bar,
and view the certificate details.
None
tunnelEnabled
Specifies whether the View secure tunnel is
enabled.
FALSE
NOTE If you use VMware OVF
Tool to specify a value for the
proxyDestinationUrl
property, tunnelEnabled gets
set to TRUE.
tunnelExternalUrl
Specifies an external URL of the Access Point
appliance, which clients will use for tunnel
connections through the View Secure
Gateway. This tunnel is used for RDP, USB,
and Multimedia Redirection (MMR) traffic.
https://appliance:443
(appliance is the fully qualified
domain name of the
Access Point appliance.)
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Chapter 3 Configuring Access Point
Table 3‑3. REST API Properties for the EdgeServiceSettings resource for View (Continued)
REST API Property
Description and Example
Default Value
pcoipEnabled
Specifies whether the PCoIP Secure Gateway
is enabled.
FALSE
NOTE If you use VMware OVF
Tool to specify a value for the
proxyDestinationUrl
property, pcoipEnabled gets set
to TRUE.
pcoipExternalUrl
Specifies an external URL of the Access Point
appliance, which clients will use for secure
connections through the PCoIP Secure
Gateway. This connection is used for PCoIP
traffic.
applianceIP:4172
(applianceIP is the IPv4 address
of the Access Point appliance.)
blastEnabled
Specifies whether the Blast Secure Gateway is
enabled.
FALSE
NOTE If you use VMware OVF
Tool to specify a value for the
proxyDestinationUrl
property, blastEnabled gets set
to TRUE.
blastExternalUrl
Specifies an external URL of the Access Point
appliance, which allows end users to make
secure connections from their Web browsers
through the Blast Secure Gateway. This
connection is used for the HTML Access
feature.
https://appliance:8443
(appliance is the fully qualified
domain name of the
Access Point appliance.)
proxyPattern
Specifies the regular expression that matches
URIs that should be forwarded to the Horizon
server URL (proxyDestinationUrl). For View
Connection Server, a forward slash (/) is a
typical value for providing redirection to the
HTML Access Web client when using the
Access Point appliance.
None
authMethods
Specifies the type of authentication to use. Set
this property to certificate-auth to
change the authentication method to smart
card:
By default, authentication is
passed through to View
Connection Server, which can be
configured for AD password,
RSA SecurID, RADIUS, or
SAML.
Configuring TLS/SSL Certificates for Access Point Appliances
TLS/SSL is required for client connections to Access Point appliances. Client-facing Access Point appliances
and intermediate servers that terminate TLS/SSL connections require TLS/SSL server certificates.
TLS/SSL server certificates are signed by a Certificate Authority (CA). A CA is a trusted entity that
guarantees the identity of the certificate and its creator. When a certificate is signed by a trusted CA, users
no longer receive messages asking them to verify the certificate, and thin client devices can connect without
requiring additional configuration.
A default TLS/SSL server certificate is generated when you deploy an Access Point appliance. For
production environments, VMware strongly recommends that you replace the default certificate as soon as
possible. The default certificate is not signed by a trusted CA. Use the default certificate only in a nonproduction environment
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Selecting the Correct Certificate Type
You can use various types of TLS/SSL certificates with Access Point. Selecting the correct certificate type for
your deployment is crucial. Different certificate types vary in cost, depending on the number of servers on
which they can be used.
Follow VMware security recommendations by using fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) for your
certificates, no matter which type you select. Do not use a simple server name or IP address, even for
communications within your internal domain.
Single Server Name Certificate
You can generate a certificate with a subject name for a specific server. For example: dept.example.com.
This type of certificate is useful if, for example, only one Access Point appliance needs a certificate.
When you submit a certificate signing request to a CA, you provide the server name that will be associated
with the certificate. Be sure that the Access Point appliance can resolve the server name you provide so that
it matches the name associated with the certificate.
Subject Alternative Names
A Subject Alternative Name (SAN) is an attribute that can be added to a certificate when it is being issued.
You use this attribute to add subject names (URLs) to a certificate so that it can validate more than one
server.
For example, three certificates might be issued for the Access Point appliances that are behind a load
balancer: ap1.example.com, ap2.example.com, and ap3.example.com. By adding a Subject Alternative Name
that represents the load balancer host name, such as horizon.example.com in this example, the certificate will
be valid because it will match the host name specified by the client.
Wildcard Certificate
A wildcard certificate is generated so that it can be used for multiple services. For example: *.example.com.
A wildcard is useful if many servers need a certificate. If other applications in your environment in addition
to Access Point appliances need TLS/SSL certificates, you can use a wildcard certificate for those servers,
too. However, if you use a wildcard certificate that is shared with other services, the security of the
VMware Horizon product also depends on the security of those other services.
NOTE You can use a wildcard certificate only on a single level of domain. For example, a wildcard
certificate with the subject name *.example.com can be used for the subdomain dept.example.com but not
dept.it.example.com.
Certificates that you import into the Access Point appliance must be trusted by client machines and must
also be applicable to all instances of Access Point and any load balancer, either by using wildcards or by
using Subject Alternative Name (SAN) certificates.
Convert Certificate Files to One-Line PEM Format
To use the Access Point REST API to configure certificate settings, you must convert the certificate into
PEM-format files for the certificate chain and the private key, and you must then convert the .pem files to a
one-line format that includes embedded newline characters.
When configuring Access Point, there are three possible types of certificates you might need to convert.
32
n
You should always install and configure a TLS/SSL server certificate for the Access Point appliance.
n
If you plan to use smart card authentication, you must install and configure the trusted CA issuer
certificate for the certificate that will be put on the smart card.
VMware, Inc.
Chapter 3 Configuring Access Point
n
If you plan to use smart card authentication, VMware recommends that you install and configure a root
certificate for the signing CA for the SAML server certificate that is installed on the Access Point
appliance.
For all of these types of certificates, you perform the same procedure to convert the certificate into a PEMformat file that contains the certificate chain. For TLS/SSL server certificates and root certificates, you also
convert each file to a PEM file that contains the private key. You must then convert each .pem file to a oneline format that can be passed in a JSON string to the Access Point REST API.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that you have the certificate file. The file can be in PKCS#12 (.p12 or .pfx) format or in Java JKS
or JCEKS format.
n
Familiarize yourself with the openssl command-line tool that you will use to convert the certificate. See
https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/openssl.html.
n
If the certificate is in Java JKS or JCEKS format, familiarize yourself with the Java keytool commandline tool to first convert the certificate to .p12 or .pks format before converting to .pem files.
Procedure
1
If your certificate is in Java JKS or JCEKS format, use keytool to convert the certificate to .p12 or .pks
format.
IMPORTANT Use the same source and destination password during this conversion.
2
If your certificate is in PKCS#12 (.p12 or .pfx) format, or after the certificate is converted to PKCS#12
format, use openssl to convert the certificate to .pem files.
For example, if the name of the certificate is sslservercerts.p12, use the following commands to
convert the certificate:
openssl pkcs12 -in sslservercerts.p12 -nokeys -out sslservercerts.pem
openssl pkcs12 -in sslservercerts.p12 -nodes -nocerts -out sslservercertskey.pem
3
Use the following UNIX command to convert each .pem file to a value that can be passed in a JSON
string to the Access Point REST API:
awk 'NF {sub(/\r/, ""); printf "%s\\n",$0;}' cert-name.pem
In this example, cert-name.pem is the name of the certificate file.
The new format places all the certificate information on a single line with embedded newline
characters.
4
If you have an intermediate certificate, convert that certificate to one-line format and then add it to the
first certificate so that both certificates are on the same line.
You can now create and use a JSON request to configure the certificate.
What to do next
If you converted an TLS/SSL server certificate, see “Replace the Default TLS/SSL Server Certificate for
Access Point,” on page 34. For smart card certificates, see Chapter 5, “Setting Up Smart Card
Authentication,” on page 39.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Replace the Default TLS/SSL Server Certificate for Access Point
To store a trusted CA-signed TLS/SSL server certificate on the Access Point appliance, you must convert the
certificate to the correct format and use the Access Point REST API to configure the certificate.
For production environments, VMware strongly recommends that you replace the default certificate as soon
as possible. The default TLS/SSL server certificate that is generated when you deploy an Access Point
appliance is not signed by a trusted Certificate Authority.
IMPORTANT Also use this procedure for periodically replacing a certificate that has been signed by a trusted
CA before the certificate expires, which might be every two years.
Prerequisites
n
Unless you already have a valid TLS/SSL server certificate and its private key, obtain a new signed
certificate from a Certificate Authority. When you generate a certificate signing request (CSR) to obtain
a certificate, make sure that a private key is generated also. Do not generate certificates for servers using
a KeyLength value under 1024.
To generate the CSR, you must know the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that client devices will
use to connect to the Access Point appliance and the organizational unit, organization, city, state, and
country to complete the Subject name.
n
Convert the certificate to PEM-format files and convert the .pem files to one-line format. See “Convert
Certificate Files to One-Line PEM Format,” on page 32.
n
Familiarize yourself with the Access Point REST API. The specification for this API is available at the
following URL on the virtual machine where Access Point is installed: https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/swagger.yaml.
Procedure
1
Create a JSON request for submitting the certificate to the Access Point appliance.
{
"privateKeyPem": "string",
"certChainPem": "string"
}
In this example, the string values are the JSON one-line PEM values that you created as described in the
prerequisites.
2
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to use the JSON request to invoke the Access Point REST
API and store the certificate and key on the Access Point appliance.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance, and cert.json is the JSON request you
created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X PUT https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/certs/ssl < ~/cert.json
What to do next
If the CA that signed the certificate is not well known, configure clients to trust the root and intermediate
certificates.
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Chapter 3 Configuring Access Point
Change the Security Protocols and Cipher Suites Used for TLS/SSL
Communication
Although in almost all cases, the default settings do not need to be changed, you can configure the security
protocols and cryptographic algorithms that are used to encrypt communications between clients and the
Access Point appliance.
The default setting includes cipher suites that use either 128-bit or 256-bit AES encryption, except for
anonymous DH algorithms, and sorts them by strength. By default, TLS v1.0 , TLS v1.1, and TLS v1.2 are
enabled. (SSL v3.0 and SSL v2.0 are disabled.)
Prerequisites
n
Familiarize yourself with the Access Point REST API. The specification for this API is available at the
following URL on the virtual machine where Access Point is installed: https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/swagger.yaml.
n
Familiarize yourself with the specific properties for configuring the cipher suites and protocols:
cipherSuites, ssl30Enabled, tls10Enabled, tls11Enabled, and tls12Enabled. See “REST API
Properties for Access Point,” on page 29.
Procedure
1
Create a JSON request for specifying the protocols and cipher suites to use.
The following example has the default settings.
{
"cipherSuites":
"TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA",
"ssl30Enabled": "false",
"tls10Enabled": "true",
"tls11Enabled": "true",
"tls12Enabled": "true"
}
2
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to use the JSON request to invoke the Access Point REST
API and configure the protocols and cipher suites.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance, and ciphers.json is the JSON request you
created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X PUT https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/system < ~/ciphers.json
The cipher suites and protocols that you specified are used.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Configuring the Secure Gateways
By default the secure tunnel, PCoIP Secure Gateway, and Blast Secure Gateway are all enabled on the
Access Point appliance. The external URLs need to be set to values that can be used by remote Horizon
clients to connect to the Access Point appliance for the tunnel connection, the PCoIP connection, and the
Blast connection, respectively.
Table 3‑4. Examples of the Secure Gateway Settings
Type of Secure Gateway
Property Name
Example Setting
Secure tunnel
tunnelExternalUrl
https://ap1.example.com:443
PCoIP Secure Gateway
pcoipExternalUrl
10.20.30.40:4172
Blast Secure Gateway
blastExternalUrl
https://ap1.example.com:8443
These properties are described in more detail in “Edge Service Settings for View,” on page 30.
The PCoIP external URL must use an IPv4 address. The other URLs can use an IP address or a host name
that can be resolved by the client on the external network, which is usually the Internet. These external
addresses are used only by the clients. The connection from the client for all three URLs must route to the
specific Access Point appliance and must not be load-balanced. In a NAT environment, the addresses must
be the external addresses and not the internal NAT'd addresses.
The following example shows a configuration JSON that includes these properties.:
{
"identifier": "VIEW",
"enabled": true,
"proxyDestinationUrl": "https://192.0.2.1",
"proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints": "sha1=b6 77 dc 9c 19 94 2e f1 78 f0 ad 4b ec 85 d1 7a f8 8b
dc 34",
"pcoipEnabled": true,
"pcoipExternalUrl": "10.20.30.40:4172",
"blastEnabled": true,
"blastExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:8443",
"tunnelEnabled": true,
"tunnelExternalUrl": "https://ap1.example.com:443",
"proxyPattern": "/"
}
These settings are included in the EdgeServiceSettings resource. The URL is
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/edgeservice/view
In this URL, access-point-appliance.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the Access Point
appliance.
VMware recommends that you configure these settings at deployment time, by using the VMware OVF
Tool. For an example, see “Using VMware OVF Tool to Deploy the Access Point Appliance,” on page 20.
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Collecting Logs from the Access
Point Appliance
4
You can enter a URL in a browser to get a ZIP file that contains logs from your Access Point appliance.
Use the following URL to collect logs from your Access Point appliance.
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/monitor/support-archive
In this example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the Access Point
appliance.
These log files are collected from the /opt/vmware/gateway/logs directory on the appliance.
The following tables contain descriptions of the various files included in the ZIP file.
Table 4‑1. Files That Contain System Information to Aid in Troubleshooting
File Name
Description
df.log
Contains information about disk space usage.
netstat.log
Contains information about network connections.
ap_config.json
Contains the current configuration settings for the Access Point appliance.
ps.log
Includes a process listing.
ifconfig.log
Contains information about network interfaces.
free.log
Contains information about memory usage.
Table 4‑2. Log Files for Access Point
File Name
Description
esmanager.log
Contains log messages from the Edge Service Manager process, which listens on ports 443
and 80.
authbroker.log
Contains log messages from the AuthBroker process, which handles authentication
adapters.
admin.log
Contains log messages from the process that provides the Access Point REST API on port
9443.
admin-zookeeper.log
Contains log messages related to the data layer that is used to store Access Point
configuration information.
tunnel.log
Contains log messages from the tunnel process that is used as part of XML API processing.
bsg.log
Contains log messages from the Blast Secure Gateway.
SecurityGateway_*.log
Contains log messages from the PCoIP Secure Gateway.
The log files that end in "-std-out.log" contain the information written to stdout of various processes and
are usually empty files.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
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Setting Up Smart Card Authentication
5
By default, Access Point uses pass-through authentication, so that users enter their Active Directory
credentials, and these credentials are sent through to a back-end system for authentication. You can,
however, configure the Access Point appliance to perform smart card authentication.
With smart card authentication, a user or administrator inserts a smart card into a smart card reader
attached to the client computer and enters a PIN. Smart card authentication provides two-factor
authentication by verifying both what the person has (the smart card) and what the person knows (the PIN).
End users can use smart cards for logging in to a remote View desktop operating system and also for smartcard enabled applications, such as an email application that uses the certificate for signing emails to prove
the identity of the sender.
NOTE Smart card authentication is a Tech Preview feature for the Access Point 2.0 release, meaning that the
feature is available for you to try out, but it is not recommended for production use, and no support is
provided.
With this feature, smart card certificate authentication is performed against Access Point, and Access Point
communicates information about the end user's X.509 certificate and the smart card PIN to View Connection
Server by using a SAML assertion.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Copy Access Point SAML Metadata to View Connection Server,” on page 39
n
“Change the Expiration Period for Service Provider Metadata,” on page 41
n
“Copy View Connection Server SAML Metadata to Access Point,” on page 42
n
“Obtain the Certificate Authority Certificates,” on page 43
n
“Configure Smart Card Settings on the Access Point Appliance,” on page 44
Copy Access Point SAML Metadata to View Connection Server
You must generate SAML metadata on the Access Point appliance and exchange metadata with View
Connection Server to establish the mutual trust required for smart card authentication .
The Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an XML-based standard that is used to describe and
exchange authentication and authorization information between different security domains. SAML passes
information about users between identity providers and service providers in XML documents called SAML
assertions.
In this procedure, you generate Access Point SAML metadata by using the Access Point REST API. You
copy that metadata and then use the ADSI Edit utility on the View Connection Server host to edit the View
LDAP and paste in the metadata. In this way, you manually create an Access Point SAML authenticator on
the View Connection Server instance.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Prerequisites
n
Configure the clock (UTC) on the Access Point appliance so that the appliance has the correct time. For
example, verify that the ESXi host's time is synchronized with an NTP server, and verify that VMware
Tools, which is running in the appliance virtual machine, synchronizes the time on the virtual machine
with the time on the ESXi host.
IMPORTANT If the clock on the Access Point appliance does not match the clock on the View Connection
Server host, smart card authentication might not work.
n
See the Microsoft TechNet Web site for information on how to use the ADSI Edit utility on your
Windows operating system version.
n
Obtain a SAML signing certificate that you can use to sign the Access Point metadata.
NOTE VMware recommends that you create and use a specific SAML signing certificate when you have
more than one Access Point appliance in your setup. In this case, all appliances must be configured
with the same signing certificate so that View Connection Server can accept assertions from any of the
Access Point appliances. With a specific SAML signing certificate, the SAML metadata from all of the
appliances is the same.
n
If you have not done so already, convert the SAML signing certificate to PEM-format files and convert
the .pem files to one-line format. See “Convert Certificate Files to One-Line PEM Format,” on page 32.
Procedure
1
Create a JSON request for generating the SAML metadata for the Access Point appliance.
n
If you do not have a SAML signing certificate for the Access Point appliance, the body of the JSON
request is empty brackets:
{}
n
If you do have a SAML signing certificate, use the following syntax:
{
"privateKeyPem": "string",
"certChainPem": "string"
}
In this example, the string values are the JSON one-line PEM values that you created as described
in the prerequisites.
2
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to use the JSON request to invoke the Access Point REST
API and generate Access Point metadata.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance, and ap-metadata.json is the JSON request
you created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/idp-metadata < ~/ap-metadata.json
3
Use a REST client to get the generated metadata, and then copy the metadata.
curl -k -u 'admin' https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/idpmetadata
After you copy the Access Point SAML metadata, you can paste it into View LDAP to create a SAML
authenticator on View Connection Server.
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Chapter 5 Setting Up Smart Card Authentication
4
Start the ADSI Edit utility on your View Connection Server host and connect to View LDAP.
a
In the console tree, select Connect to.
b
In the Select or type a Distinguished Name or Naming Context text box, type the distinguished
name DC=vdi, DC=vmware, DC=int.
c
In the Computer pane, select or type localhost:389 or the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of
the View Connection Server host followed by port 389.
For example: localhost:389 or mycomputer.example.com:389
5
Expand the ADSI Edit tree, expand OU=Properties, right-click OU=Authenticator and select New >
Object.
6
In the Create Object wizard, select pae-SAMLAuthenticator and click Next.
7
In the Value text box, enter a name, such as ap for Access Point, click Next, and click Finish.
The object appears in the right pane. For this example, the name of the object is CN=ap.
8
Double-click the CN=name object and edit the following attributes.
Attribute
Description
pae-SAMLLabel
Supply a name of the SAML authenticator. This label will appear in View
Connection Server, in the View Connection Server authentication settings.
pae-SAMLMetaDataXml
Paste in the SAML metadata that you generated on the Access Point
appliance. Make sure metadata does not contain escape characters before
double quotes. For example, the correct format is <?xml version="1.0"
and not <?xml version=\"1.0\".
pae-SAMLMetaDataUrl
(Optional) If you specify a URL in this attribute (for example,
https://access-point.example.com), the URL will be displayed in the
Manage Authenticators dialog box in View Administrator.
On View Connection Server, the new setting takes effect immediately. You do not need to restart the View
Connection Server service or the client computer.
Change the Expiration Period for Service Provider Metadata
If you do not change the expiration period, View Connection Server will stop accepting SAML assertions
from the SAML authenticator, such as Access Point or a third-party identity provider, after 24 hours, and the
metadata exchange must be repeated.
Use this procedure to specify the number of days that can elapse before View Connection Server stops
accepting SAML assertions from the identity provider. This number is used when the current expiration
period ends. For example, if the current expiration period is 1 day and you specify 90 days, after 1 day
elapses, View Connection Server generates metadata with an expiration period of 90 days.
Prerequisites
See the Microsoft TechNet Web site for information on how to use the ADSI Edit utility on your Windows
operating system version.
Procedure
1
Start the ADSI Edit utility on your View Connection Server host.
2
In the console tree, select Connect to.
3
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In the Select or type a Distinguished Name or Naming Context text box, type the distinguished name
DC=vdi, DC=vmware, DC=int.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
4
In the Computer pane, select or type localhost:389 or the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the
View Connection Server host followed by port 389.
For example: localhost:389 or mycomputer.example.com:389
5
Expand the ADSI Edit tree, expand OU=Properties, select OU=Global, and double-click OU=Common
in the right pane.
6
In the Properties dialog box, edit the pae-NameValuePair attribute to add the following values
cs-samlencryptionkeyvaliditydays=number-of-days
cs-samlsigningkeyvaliditydays=number-of-days
In this example, number-of-days is the number of days that can elapse before a remote View Connection
Server stops accepting SAML assertions. After this period of time, the process of exchanging SAML
metadata must be repeated.
Copy View Connection Server SAML Metadata to Access Point
After you enable the Access Point SAML authenticator in View Administrator, you can generate View
Connection Server metadata and use this metadata to create a service provider on the Access Point
appliance.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that you can log in to View Administrator as an administrator.
n
Verify that you have created an Access Point SAML authenticator by copying the Access Point SAML
metadata into View LDAP. See “Copy Access Point SAML Metadata to View Connection Server,” on
page 39.
n
Verify that the expiration period for the metadata is set for the correct number of days. The default is
one day. See “Change the Expiration Period for Service Provider Metadata,” on page 41.
Procedure
1
Log in to View Administrator and go to View Configuration > Servers and click the Connection
Servers tab.
2
Select the View Connection Server instance and click Edit.
3
Click the Authentication tab, and in the Delegation of authentication to VMware Horizon (SAML 2.0
Authenticator) drop-down list, select Allowed or Required, as appropriate.
4
From the SAML Authenticator list, select the name of the Access Point authenticator you created, and
click OK.
5
In the System Health section on the View Administrator dashboard, select Other components > SAML
2.0 Authenticators, select the SAML authenticator that you added, and verify the details.
If the configuration is successful, the authenticator's health can be either green or red. An
authenticator's health can also display red if the certificate is untrusted, if Access Point is unavailable, or
if the metadata URL is invalid. If the health indicator is red, you do not need to click Verify to validate
and accept the certificate. Clicking Verify is only necessary for dynamic SAML authenticators. The
Access Point SAML authenticator is a static SAML authenticator.
6
Open a new browser tab and enter the URL for getting the View Connection Server SAML metadata.
https://connection-server.example.com/SAML/metadata/sp.xml
In this example, connection-server.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the View
Connection Server host.
This page displays the SAML metadata from View Connection Server.
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Chapter 5 Setting Up Smart Card Authentication
7
Use a Save As command to save the Web page to an XML file.
For example, you could save the page to a file named connection-server-metadata.xml. The contents of
this file begin with the following text:
<md:EntityDescriptor xmlns:md="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata" ...
8
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to invoke the Access Point REST API and store the metadata
on the Access Point appliance.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance, service-provider-name is the name to use as
the View Connection Server service provider, and connection-server-metadata.xml is the metadata file you
created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: text/xml" -X POST https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/sp-metadata/service-provider-name < connectionserver-metadata.xml
Access Point and View Connection Server can now exchange authentication and authorization information.
What to do next
To verify that the POST command worked, you can use a GET command with the same URL.
To verify that the Access Point SAML authenticator was successfully configured after you selected it in
View Administrator, open the ADSI Edit utility on the View Connection Server host, connect to View LDAP
(DC=vdi, DC=vmware, DC=int), and in the ADSI Edit tree, under OU=Properties, select OU=Server, and
double-click the CN=name item in the right pane. The pae-SAMLConfigDN attribute will be populated
with the distinguished name.
Obtain the Certificate Authority Certificates
You must obtain all applicable CA (certificate authority) certificates for all trusted user certificates on the
smart cards presented by your users and administrators. These certificates include root certificates and can
include intermediate certificates if the user's smart card certificate was issued by an intermediate certificate
authority.
If you do not have the root or intermediate certificate of the CA that signed the certificates on the smart
cards presented by your users and administrators, you can export the certificates from a CA-signed user
certificate or a smart card that contains one. See “Obtain the CA Certificate from Windows,” on page 44.
Procedure
u
VMware, Inc.
Obtain the CA certificates from one of the following sources.
n
A Microsoft IIS server running Microsoft Certificate Services. See the Microsoft TechNet Web site
for information on installing Microsoft IIS, issuing certificates, and distributing certificates in your
organization.
n
The public root certificate of a trusted CA. This is the most common source of a root certificate in
environments that already have a smart card infrastructure and a standardized approach to smart
card distribution and authentication.
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
Obtain the CA Certificate from Windows
If you have a CA-signed user certificate or a smart card that contains one, and Windows trusts the root
certificate, you can export the root certificate from Windows. If the issuer of the user certificate is an
intermediate certificate authority, you can export that certificate.
Procedure
1
If the user certificate is on a smart card, insert the smart card into the reader to add the user certificate
to your personal store.
If the user certificate does not appear in your personal store, use the reader software to export the user
certificate to a file. This file will be used in Step 4.
2
In Internet Explorer, select Tools > Internet Options.
3
On the Content tab, click Certificates.
4
On the Personal tab, select the certificate you want to use and click View.
If the user certificate does not appear on the list, click Import to manually import it from a file. After the
certificate is imported, you can select it from the list.
5
On the Certification Path tab, select the certificate at the top of the tree and click View Certificate.
If the user certificate is signed as part of a trust hierarchy, the signing certificate might be signed by
another higher-level certificate. Select the parent certificate (the one that actually signed the user
certificate) as your root certificate. In some cases, the issuer might be an intermediate CA.
6
On the Details tab, click Copy to File.
The Certificate Export Wizard appears.
7
Click Next > Next and type a name and location for the file that you want to export.
8
Click Next to save the file as a root certificate in the specified location.
Configure Smart Card Settings on the Access Point Appliance
On the Access Point appliance, you must enable smart card authentication, copy in the certificate, and
change the authentication type to smart card authentication.
NOTE Smart card authentication is a Tech Preview feature for the Access Point 2.0 release.
Prerequisites
44
n
Get the trusted CA issuer certificate that was used to sign the X.509 certificates for the smart cards. See
“Obtain the Certificate Authority Certificates,” on page 43. for the certificate that will be put on the
smart card.
n
Convert the certificate to a PEM-format file that contains the certificate chain. See “Convert Certificate
Files to One-Line PEM Format,” on page 32. If you have an intermediate certificate, that certificate must
immediately follow the first certificate, and both certificates must be on the same one line.
n
Verify that you have copied Access Point SAML metadata to View Connection Server and copied View
Connection Server SAML metadata to Access Point appliance. See “Copy Access Point SAML Metadata
to View Connection Server,” on page 39 and “Copy View Connection Server SAML Metadata to Access
Point,” on page 42.
n
Familiarize yourself with the smart card certificate properties and determine which settings to use. See
“Smart Card Certificate Properties for Advanced Options,” on page 46.
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Chapter 5 Setting Up Smart Card Authentication
n
If you use a load balancer between Access Point and View Connection Server instances, verify that
TLS/SSL termination is not done on the load balancer. The load balancer must be configured to pass
authentication through to View Connection Server.
Procedure
1
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to invoke the Access Point REST API and get the default
certificate settings.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance.
curl -k -u 'admin' https://access-point-appliance.example.com:
9443/rest/v1/config/authmethod/certificate-auth
2
Paste this information into a JSON request for enabling smart card authentication and pasting in the
certificate.
The following two properties are the required properties to configure. You can also change the defaults
for the other properties.
{
"enabled": "true",
"caCertificates": "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE------ ... -----END CERTIFICATE------"
}
In this example, the ellipses (...) indicates the middle content of the certificate text. The format of
certificate text must be one-line format that can be passed in a JSON string to the Access Point REST
API, as described in the prerequisites.
For caCertificates, you can specify multiple certificates using spaces as separators. When a user
initiates a connection to the Access Point appliance, Access Point sends a list of trusted certificate
authorities (CAs) to the client system. The client system checks the list of trusted CAs against the
available user certificates, selects a suitable certificate, and then prompts the user to enter a smart card
PIN. If there are multiple valid user certificates, the client system prompts the user to select a certificate.
3
Use a REST client, such as curl or postman, to use the JSON request to invoke the Access Point REST
API and store the certificate on the Access Point appliance and enable smart card authentication.
The following example uses a curl command. In the example, access-point-appliance.example.com is the
fully qualified domain name of the Access Point appliance, and smartcard.json is the JSON request you
created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X PUT https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/authmethod/certificate-auth < ~/smartcard.json
4
Use a REST client to get the default edge service settings for View Connection Server.
curl -k -u 'admin' https://access-point-appliance.example.com:
9443/rest/v1/config/edgeservice/VIEW
5
Paste this information into a JSON request for enabling smart card authentication for the View server
and add the authMethods and samlSP properties.
{
"identifier": "VIEW",
"enabled": true,
"proxyDestinationUrl": "https://connection-server.example.com",
"proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints": "sha1=40 e6 98 9e a9 d1 bc 6f 86 8c c0 ad b1 ea ff f7 4a
3b 12 8c",
"pcoipEnabled": true,
"blastEnabled": true,
"tunnelEnabled": true,
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
"proxyPattern": "/",
"authMethods": "certificate-auth",
"samlSP": "connection-server-sp"
}
In this example, connection-server.example.com is the fully qualified domain name of the View
Connection Server host. You specified this name when you deployed the Access Point appliance. Also
in this example, connection-server-sp is the service provider name that you specified when you copied
the View Connection Server metadata to the Access Point appliance. The text for
proxyDestinationUrlThumbprints is an example only. Replace this text with the thumbprint of your
destination server.
6
Use a REST client to send the JSON request to the Access Point API and configure the edge service to
use smart card authentication.
In the following example, smartauth.json is the JSON request you created in the previous step.
curl -k -d @- -u 'admin' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X PUT https://access-pointappliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/edgeservice/VIEW < ~/smartauth.json
End users can now use smart cards when logging in to Access Point.
Smart Card Certificate Properties for Advanced Options
Smart card authentication properties provide functionality for certificate revocation, consent forms, and
configuring the subject alternative name.
You can prevent users who have revoked user certificates from authenticating with smart cards by
configuring certificate revocation checking. Certificates are often revoked when a user leaves an
organization, loses a smart card, or moves from one department to another.
Access Point supports certificate revocation checking with certificate revocation lists (CRLs) and with the
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP). A CRL is a list of revoked certificates published by the CA that
issued the certificates. OCSP is a certificate validation protocol that is used to get the revocation status of an
X.509 certificate.
When you configure both types of certificate revocation checking, Access Point attempts to use OCSP first
and can be configured to fall back to CRL if OCSP fails. Access Point does not fall back to OCSP if CRL fails.
The CA must be accessible from the Access Point host.
When you use the REST API to get the configuration data for smart card authentication, you see a list of the
items you can configure. For example, you can use a GET request with the following URL:
https://access-point-appliance.example.com:9443/rest/v1/config/authmethod/certificate-auth
If you have not changed any configuration settings, the following default settings are returned.
"enableOCSP": null,
"ocspSigningCert": null,
"caCertificates": null,
"displayName": "CertificateAuthAdapter",
"versionNum": null,
"enableAlternateUPN": "",
"className": "com.vmware.horizon.adapters.certificateAdapter.CertificateAuthAdapter",
"sendOCSPNonce": null,
"enabled": "false",
"enableCertCRL": "true",
"enableOCSPCRLFailover": "true",
"enableConsentForm": null,
"ocspURL": null,
"jarFile": "/opt/vmware/gateway/data/authbroker/certificate-auth-adapter-0.1.jar",
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Chapter 5 Setting Up Smart Card Authentication
"enableCertRevocation": "",
"name": "certificate-auth",
"certificatePolicies": null,
"consentForm": null,
"authMethod": "urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:ac:classes:TLSClient",
"crlLocation": null,
"enableEmail": "",
"crlCacheSize": "100"
Table 5‑1. Smart Card Certificate Properties That You Can Configure
Property Name
Description
Valid Values
enableOCSP
Specifies whether to use Online Certificate Status
Protocol (OCSP) for certificate revocation checking.
When this setting is enabled, Access Point sends a
request to an OCSP responder to determine the
revocation status of a specific user certificate.
The default is true.
true or false
ocspSigningCert
Specifies the path to the OCSP responder's
certificate, if known.
Path to the file on the OCSP responder
host (for
example, /path/to/file.cer).
caCertificates
(Required) Specifies one or more trusted CA
certificates in PEM format.
Each certificate's text has the format
"-----BEGIN
CERTIFICATE------ ... -----END
CERTIFICATE------" where the
ellipsis points (...) indicate the middle
content of the certificate text. Separate
multiple certificates with spaces.
enableAlternateUPN
Specifies whether to use alternative fields in the
Subject Alternative Name.
Smart card logins use the user principal name
(UPN) from Active Directory to validate user
accounts.
If the domain a smart card user resides in is
different from the domain that your root certificate
was issued from, you must set the user's UPN to
the Subject Alternative Name (SAN) contained in
the root certificate of the trusted CA.
true or false
sendOCSPNonce
Specifies whether to include a nonce in the OCSP
request and require that the nonce be included in
the response. A nonce is an arbitrary number used
only once in a cryptographic communication.
true or false
enabled
(Required) Specifies whether to use smart card
certificate authentication. You must change this
setting to true.
The default is false.
true or false
enableCertCRL
Specifies whether to use the CRL Distribution
Points extension of the certificate.
true or false
enableOCSPCRLFailover
Specifies whether to use a certificate revocation list
if OCSP fails.
The default is true.
true or false
enableConsentForm
Specifies whether to present users with a consent
form window before they log in using certificate
authentication.
true or false
ocspURL
Specifies the URL of the OCSP responder to use for
the revocation check (for example,
http://ocspurl.com).
A URL that begins with http or https.
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Table 5‑1. Smart Card Certificate Properties That You Can Configure (Continued)
Property Name
Description
Valid Values
enableCertRevocation
Specifies whether to use certificate revocation
checking.
true or false
certificatePolicies
Specifies the object Identifier (OID) list that is
accepted in the Certificate Policies extension.
An OID
consentForm
Specifies the content of the consent form to be
displayed to users.
Text.
crlLocation
Specifies the location of the certificate revocation
list to use for the revocation check.
URL or file path (for example,
http://crlurl.crl or
file:///crlFile.crl).
NOTE Do not use ldap: URLs.
enableEmail
48
Specifies whether to use the RFC822 field in
Subject Alternative Name if no UPN (user
principal name) is found in the certificate.
true or false
VMware, Inc.
Index
A
Access Point overview 7
Access Point documentation 5
admin password for the REST API 28
authentication 39
C
certificate revocation lists 46
cipher suites 35
D
smart cards, exporting user certificates 44
software requirements 15
SSL server certificates 34
system requirements 15
T
TLS/SSL certificates 31, 32
topologies 11
V
View Connection Server 16
deployment, appliance 15
deployment properties 24
deployment wizard 17
E
expiration period for SAML metadata 41
F
firewall rules 8
H
hardware requirements 15
L
logs, collecting 37
O
OVF Tool 20
P
PCoIP Secure Gateway 36
PEM format for security certificates 32
R
requirements 15
REST API 27
REST API properties for Access Point 29
root certificates
exporting 44
obtaining 43
S
SAML 39
SAML metadata for View Connection Server 42
security protocols 35
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Deploying and Configuring Access Point
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VMware, Inc.
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