Experiment 6 The Coefficient of Friction Equipment: 1 ULI with force probe 1 Inclined plane (see Fig. 6-1) 1 Wooden block 1 Triple beam balance Masses Pulley Objectives: To measure the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a wooden block and a wooden plane. Figure 1- Block on incline plane Theory Friction is the force that resists the relative motion of one surface in contact with another. There are two types of friction: static and kinetic. Usually, the kinetic frictional force is less than the maximum value of the static frictional force. The maximum value of static frictional force is given by fs,max = µ s N and the kinetic frictional force is given by fk = µ k N , where µ s is the coefficient of static friction, µ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction and N is the normal force. If f k versus N is graphed, the slope of the line is µ k for the system. Similarly, if fs,max versus N is graphed, the slope of the line is µ s . The angle of repose is defined as the angle at which an object just starts to slide down an inclined plane. If ! is the angle of repose, it can be shown that µs = tan! . We will call this method to determine the static coefficient of friction the angle of repose method. It can also be shown that when an object slides down an incline at constant velocity, µ k = tan ! . In this experiment, the frictional force between a wooden block and the wooden surface of a horizontal and inclined plane will be measured, and from these plotted data, the coefficients of static and kinetic friction will be obtained. The angle of repose method will also be used to determine the coefficient of static friction. Lastly, the coefficient of kinetic friction will be determined by a second method (called constant velocity method) by noting the angle ! that the block slides down an incline without accelerating and then using µ k = tan ! . Procedure: 1. Turn on the ULI and the computer. Open the Logger Pro application. Go to the Experiment/Setup sensors/LabPro1 menu and choose the port which force probe sensor is plugged in. Go through list of probes and highlight Dual Range 50N Force Probe. 2. Calibrate the force probe by using the path Experiment/Calibrate/LabPro1: Dual Range Force. Click on calibrate now and follow the directions given to you on the screen. Use 1/2 kilogram on the weight hanger for the calibration. Be sure to use units of force (not mass) when calibrating the force probe. to Statistics. This will print the value of the slope at the bottom of the graph. If Ffr, the frictional force is proportional to FN, the normal force (Ffr=µkFN), then the slope of this line should be the coefficient of kinetic friction between the two surfaces. Determine this value from the graph. Block on an inclined plane 3. Measure the mass of the wooden block with the Triple-Beam balance and calculate its weight in newtons. 4. With plane in the horizontal position, place 500 grams on the block and pull the block across the plane at a constant speed with the force probe. Be sure to pull horizontally. Note the "bump" at the start of the graph. This peak represents a maximum force which can be used to calculate µs . See fig 6-2 below and theory section. 5. Highlight the constant force portion of your run. Determine the mean force. The force needed to pull the block is your frictional force and the combined weight of the block and mass is your normal force. Note that normal force here is also used in step 4 to determine µs . 6. Repeat steps 4 & 5, adding 500 grams each time until a total of 3000 grams has been added to the block. Record the frictional and normal forces needed for each trial. 7. Plot a graph of the frictional force vs. the normal force using Graphical Analysis, with the frictional force on the Y axis and the normal force on the X axis. Plot a "best fit line" between the points by pulling down the Graph menu to Regression line. To obtain the slope of this line, pull down the Graph menu 8. Calculate the force needed to pull the block up a plane inclined to 300 at a constant speed when loaded with 500 grams. Draw a force diagram labeling all the forces acting on the block as it moves up the inclined plane. Use the coefficient obtained from your graph. 9. Measure the force needed to pull the block up the plane (same angle as part 8) at a constant speed. If there is a large difference between the calculated and the experimental values, check the calculations carefully. (Common mistakes: Neglecting the mass of the block and improper force diagrams) Calculate the percentage difference between this value and the calculated value. Angle of repose method 10. Add 500 g to block. Find the coefficient of static friction by slowly raising the incline plane until the block just starts to slide. Note the angle and use µs = tan! . Repeat with 1000g total added to block. Remove mass(es). Constant Velocity Method 11. Add 500g to block. Find kinetic coefficient of friction by tilting the inclined plane and noting the angle at which the block slides at a constant Experiment 6 The Coefficient of Friction speed. You should have to tap the block in order to get it started. Use µk = tan ! . Add a total of 1000g to block and repeat this step. Questions: 1. Show that µk=tanθ for the constant velocity method. Include a diagram of all the forces on the block as it slides down the inclined plane. 2. When the mass on the block is was doubled, what happens to the angle of repose? Were your results as expected. Explain. 3. Why was it necessary to tap the block to get it started in section 11 of the lab? 4. Why can anti-lock brakes stop a car in a shorter distance than regular brakes? Force (Newtons) 5. Which method do you think would yield the more accurate value for the coefficient of kinetic friction and why? Time (sec) figure 6-2

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