Configuring Altera FPGAs

Configuring Altera FPGAs
Configuring Altera FPGAs
2014.12.15
CF51001
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This document describes the types of configuration schemes for Altera® FPGAs
Device Configuration Overview for Passive Schemes
During device operation, Altera FPGAs store configuration data in SRAM cells. Because SRAM memory
is volatile, the SRAM cells must be loaded with configuration data each time the device powers up. After
the device is configured, its registers and I/O pins must be initialized. After initialization, the device enters
user mode for in-system operation.
Figure 1: Configuration Cycle Waveform
D(N – 1)
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
DCLK
DATA
User I/Os
INIT_DONE
MODE
High-Z
Reset
D0
D1 D2
High-Z
Configuration
D3
DN
High-Z
User I/O
Configuration
Initialization
User- Mode
The low-to-high transition of nCONFIG on the FPGA begins the configuration cycle. The configuration
cycle consists of 3 stages—reset, configuration, and initialization. While nCONFIG is low, the device is in
reset. When the device comes out of reset, nCONFIG must be at a logic high level in order for the device
to release the open-drain nSTATUS pin. After nSTATUS is released, it is pulled high by a pull-up resistor and
the FPGA is ready to receive configuration data. Before and during configuration, all user I/O pins are tristated. Stratix® series, Arria® series, and Cyclone® series have weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins
which are on, before and during configuration.
To begin configuration, nCONFIG and nSTATUS must be at a logic high level. You can delay configuration
by holding the nCONFIG low. The device receives configuration data on its DATA0 pins. Configuration data
is latched into the FPGA on the rising edge of DCLK. After the FPGA has received all configuration data
successfully, it releases the CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by a pull-up resistor. A low to high
transition on CONF_DONE indicates configuration is complete and initialization of the device can begin.
An optional INIT_DONE pin is available, which signals the end of initialization and the start of user mode.
During initialization, internal logic and I/O registers are initialized and I/O buffers are enabled. When
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2014.12.15
Device Configuration Overview for Passive Schemes
initialization is finished, the INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high by an external pull-up resistor.
After entering user mode, the user I/O pins will no longer have a weak pull up and will function as
assigned in your design. After configuration, you must not leave the DATA0 pins floating. Drive the pin
high or low, whichever is convenient, on your board.
You can initiate a reconfiguration by toggling the nCONFIG pin from high to low and then back to high.
When nCONFIG is pulled low, nSTATUS and CONF_DONE are also pulled low and all I/O pins are tri-stated.
After nCONFIG and nSTATUS return to a logic high level, configuration begins.
Figure 2: Configuration Cycle State Machine
Power Up
Power supply not stable
nSTATUS and CONF_DONE driven low
All I/Os tri-stated
Configuration RAM bits cleared
Power supply reached
recommended operating voltage
Reset
nSTATUS and CONF_DONE driven low
All I/Os tri-stated
MSEL pins sampled
Configuration RAM bits cleared
nCONFIG or nSTATUS held low
nCONFIG at logic high and
nSTATUS released and at a logic high
Configuration
nCONFIG driven low
or configuration CRC
error occured
Configuration data written
to device
CONF_DONE released and
pulled high by pull-up resistor
Initialization
nCONFIG pulled low
CONF_DONE low
Internal logic and registers initialized
I/O buffers enabled
INIT_DONE released
(if option enabled)
Need more initialization clocks
Initialization complete
nCONFIG pulled low
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Configuring Altera FPGAs
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Selecting a Configuration Scheme
3
Selecting a Configuration Scheme
You can load the configuration data for Altera devices using an active, passive, or JTAG configuration
scheme. When using an active configuration scheme with a serial configuration (EPCS) or quad-serial
configuration (EPCQ) device, the target FPGA generates the control and synchronization signals. When
both devices are ready to begin configuration, the EPCS or EPCQ device sends data to the FPGA.
When you use any passive configuration scheme, the Altera device is incorporated into a system with an
Altera configuration device or an intelligent host, such as a microprocessor, that controls the configura‐
tion process. The configuration device or host supplies configuration data from a storage device such as a
configuration device, a hard disk, RAM, or other system memory. When you use passive configuration
scheme, you can change the target device’s functionality while the system is in operation by reconfiguring
it.
Altera devices support a number of configuration schemes. After you have decided on the appropriate
configuration scheme for your system, you need to drive the dedicated mode select control pins, MSEL, of
the FPGA to set the configuration mode.
Note: For more information about how to set the MSEL pins for your target device, refer to the configura‐
tion chapter in the appropriate device handbook.
Active Serial Configuration
You can perform an active serial (AS) configuration using EPCS or EPCQ devices. During AS
configuration, the FPGA device is the master and the EPCS or EPCQ device is the slave. Configuration
data is transferred one bit per clock cycle.
Passive Serial Configuration
You can perform a passive serial (PS) configuration using an Altera download cable, an Altera
configuration device, or an intelligent host, such as a microprocessor. During PS configuration,
configuration data is transferred from a storage device, such as a configuration device or flash memory, to
the FPGA on the DATA0 pin. This configuration data is latched into the FPGA on the rising edge of DCLK.
Configuration data is transferred one bit per clock cycle.
Fast Passive Parallel Configuration
You can perform a fast passive parallel (FPP) configuration using an Altera configuration device or an
intelligent host, such as a microprocessor. During FPP configuration, configuration data is transferred
from a storage device, such as a configuration device or flash memory, to the FPGA on the DATA[7..0]
pins. This configuration data is latched into the FPGA on the rising edge of DCLK. Configuration data is
transferred one byte per clock cycle.
JTAG Configuration
You can perform a JTAG configuration using an Altera download cable or an intelligent host, such as a
microprocessor. JTAG configuration uses the IEEE Std 1 149.1 JTAG interface pins and supports the
Jam™ Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL) standard.
Configuring Altera FPGAs
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Document Revision History
Document Revision History
Date
Version
December 2014
2014.12.15
September 2014
3.2
Added EPCQ device support.
August 2012
3.1
Updated Figure 1.
January 2012
3.0
Reorganizing the content for this document.
October 2008
2.2
• Updated Table 1-1 and Table 1-2.
• Updated Figure 1-2.
• Updated “Introduction”, “Device Configuration Overview for
Passive Schemes”, and “Selecting a Configuration Scheme”
sections.
• Added “Active Parallel Configuration” and “Document Revision
History” sections.
Altera Corporation
Changes
Updated Configuration Cycle Waveform figure.
Configuring Altera FPGAs
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