Part 14 - cd3wd414.zip - Offline - Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water

Part 14 - cd3wd414.zip - Offline - Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water
A project
Small
of Volunteers
in Asia
Farm Weed Control:
by: J.A.F.
An Annotated
Compton
Published
by:
Intermediate
Technology
9 King Street
London WC2E 8HN
United Kingdom
Paper copies
Ltd.
Publicatioris,
Ltd.
are $10.00.
Available
from:
Intermediate
Technology
9 King Str-eet
London WC2E 8HN
United Kingdom
Reproduced
Technology
Publications,
by permission
Publications,
of Intermediate
Ltd.
Reproduction
of this microfiche
document in any
form is subject to the same restrictions
as those
of the original
document.
TATED BIBLIOC
and edited by
pton
Jointly published by the
Intermediate Technology Development
and the
International Plant Protection Center
Group, Ltd.
January 1982
U.S. Library of Congress card no. 81-84639
US$lO
from:
Intermediate Technology Publications,
9 King Street
London WC2E8HN / U.K.
Ltd.
Compiled and edited by J. A. F. Compton on behalf of the Weed Control working Croup of
the Intermediate
Technology
Development
Group, London, U.K., with partlal SUPPOrt Of
the International
Plant Protection
Center, Oregon State Unlversltv, Corvallls, Oregon,
USA, and published by the International
Plant Protectlon
Center (with sUPPOti through a
contract with the U.S. Agency for International
Development)
In association with the
Intermediate
Technology Development
Group.
Publications
Ltd
Table of Contents
1
Acknowledgements
I.
Introduction
II.
Overview
3
_..
5
Technology
6
choice
(1) Choice
of crop,
variety,
and cropping
(3) Planting
12
(4) Fertilisation
14
(5) Weed control
in the growing
crop
14
(6) Water management
16
(7) Harvesting
17
(8) Sanitation--weed
(9) Control
Weed Control
prevention
17
weeds
18
of problem
tools
(1) Tools
and cover
20
22
control
(4) Herbicides
and their
(5) Cultivar
20
crops
(3) Biological
23
application
25
selection
(6) Utilisation
About
20
and techniques
and implements
(2) Mulches
26
of weeds
28
the Bibliography
28
Preparation
Table
7
9
(2) Land preparation
III.
system
Sources
1:
searched
to compile
bibliography
28
Selection
criteria
31
Reference
classification
31
Included
33
indexes
Acquisition
of cited
documents
33
used
35
Anatomy of an entry
36
Abbreviations
i
IV.
Bibliography
1.
GENERAL
39
1.1
1.01 Textbooks and reference
Review and Regional Studies
1.2
Tools
and Techniques
1.21 Tools
works
40
x
44
and implements
1.22 Herbicides
and herbicide
1.23 Biological
control
1.3
1.24 Utilisation
Problem Weeds
1.4
1.31 Aquatic
Weed Control
of
application
of weeds,
allelopathy,
grazing
'weeds'
62
weeds
in Particular
1.41 Root and tuber
Crops
63
crops
1.42 Cereals
1.43 Grain
legume crops
1.44 Vegetable
2.
crops
1.45 Weed control
in multiple
WEED CONTROL IN PADDY RICE
2.1
Principles
2.2
Tools
and Regional
66
71
general
2.22 Techniques
for
land preparation
2.23 Techniques
for
weed control
2.24 Hand tools
and manually-operated
2.26 Herbicides
2.28 Utilsation
Control
'weeds'
of Problem
Weeds
2.32 Annual
Weed control
implements
implements
application
fish
of
2.31 Perennial
and planting
in the crop
and motor-powered
and herbicide
2.27 Herbivorous
3.
Studies
techniques,
2.25 Animal-drawn
2.4
66
and Techniques
2.21 Weed control
2.3
cropping
problem
83
weeds
problem weeds
in deep-water
rice
85
HIGHLAND AND TEMPERATE ZONE
3.1
3.2
weed Control
Systems
Tools and Techniques
3.3
Weed Control
(Existing
in Particular
ii
87
and Innovative)
87
87
Crops
88
4.
89
HUMID TROPICS
4.1
Weed Control
@items
(Ct;isting
4.11 Manual-powered
systems
4.12 Animal
systems
draught
4.13 Minimum tillaye
4.2
Tools
and Innovative)
69
systems
95
and Techniques
4.21 Herbicides
4.22 Cover crops
4.3
Control
99
of Problem Weeds
4.31 Perennial
4.4
and mulches
problem
Weed Control
weeds
in Particular
4.41 Root and tuber
100
Crops
crops
4.42 Cereals
4.43 Perennial
crops
4.44 Vegetable
crops
4.45 Multiple
5.
cropping
systems
WEZD CONTROL IN THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS
105
5.1
105
Weed Control
Systems
5.11 Regional
(Existing
studies
5.12 Manual-powered
systems
5.13 Animal
systems
draught
5.14 Minimum tillage
5.2
Tools
and Innovative)
systems
117
and Techniques
5.21 Techniques
for
land preparation
5.22 Techniques
for
weeding
5.23 Hand tools
and manually-operated
5.24 Animal-drawn
and planting
in the crop
implements
implements
and motor-powered
implements
5.25 Herbicides
5.3
Control
application
124
of Problem Weeds
5.31 Parasitic
weeds
5.32 Perennial
problem
5.33 Annual
5.4
and herbicide
problem
Weed Control
5.41 Cereals
5.42 Sugarcane
iii
weeds
weeds
in Particular
Crops
130
5.43 Grain
legumes
5.44 Fibre
crops
5.45 Perennial
crops
5.46 Vegetable
crops
5.47 Multiple
V.
cropping
Indexes
Index A - Structured
list
140
of keywords
B - Alphabetical,
item referenced
list
of keywords
141
Index C - Alphabetical,
item referenced
list
of authors
152
Index D - Alphabetical,
item referenced
list
of institutions
162
Index
.iv
ACKNGWLEDGEMF,NTS
'!&is bibliography
was compiled at the suggestion , and on behalf,
of the Weed Control Working Group of the Intemdiate
Technology
Development Group (IIDG), Iondon, U.K. .Mr. J.E.A. CQborn, in his
capacity as leader of the working group, Pmfessor R.W. Radley
(National College of Agricultural
Engineering, Silsoe, U.K.) and
Officer,
discussed the project
Mr. P.M. Mulvany, ITDC Agricultural
with me at all stages of the work and contributed many useful ideas.
of
Many thanks are also due to Mr. A.E. Deutsch and Mr. L.C. Burrill
the International
Plant Protection Center (IPPC), Corvallis,
Oregon,
USA, for their assistance and editorial
advice.
Mr. Deutsch, in
particular,
bore most of the burden of seeing the manuscript through
the typing and production process.
The Commnwealth Agricultural
Bureaux (CAB) have generously given
their permission for the reproduction of abstracts prepared by their
These abstracts form about one third of the entries in this
staff.
bibliography,
and their source is acknowledged by the letters CAB, or
the abbreviation
for one of the CAB abstracting
journals (WA, FCA, FA,
Thanks are also
AE4. WAERSA)below and to the right of each entry.
due-to Abstracts in Tropical Agr&il.ture
(ATA) for permission to use
ten of their abstracts. acknowledged by the use of the letters ATA.
Permission to use the text incorporated into references 12105 and
12212 was kindly given by K. Darrow and R. Pam, the editors of the
Appropriate Technology Source Book.
I am grateful for the help of many people in compiling the
The librarians
of the Grasslands Research Institute
bibliography:
(GRI), Hurley; the Agricultural
Emmmics Library, Oxford; Reading
University Library; the National College of Agricultural
Engineering,
Silsoe; and especially Nirs. B.R. Burton, Librarian,
and Mrs. J.A. Cox,
Library Assistant,
of the Agricultural
Research Council Weed Research
Organisation (WRO)Library, Yarnton, Oxford, U.K. Also, Ms. M. Bellamy
(Commnwealth Bureau of Agricultural
Economics), Mr. N. Briggs
(National Institute
for Research in Dairying, U.K.), Mr. A. Cooper
(IPPC), Dr. D.S.H. Drennan (Reading University),
Mr. J. Hardcastle
(WRO), Ms. A Jukes (GRI), Mr. J.L. Maya11 (Weed Abstracts),
Mr. S.
Mercer (Tropical Pest Management), Ms. C. Mzhael (Reading University
Library),
Mr. C. Parker (WRO) and Mrs. H. Turton (Weed Abstracts).
I would particularly
like to thank Mr. P.J. Kemp (Weed Abstracts)
who has shown a special interest in this project a has helped in
innumxable ways throughout the search for references.
The following people were kind enough to read and comrmt on the
first draft of the bibliography;
many of their suggestions have been
I am grateful to Mr. C. Parker
incorporated in the final version.
(WRO)for putting me in touch with n-any of them: Dr. 1.0. Akobundu
(International
Institute
of Tropical Agriculture,
Nigeria),
1
Mr. L.C. Burr-ill and Mr. A.E. Deutsch (IPPC), Dr. D.M.J. Compton,
Dr. D.S.H. Drennan (Reading University),
Mr. P.J. Kemp and Mr. J.L.
Dr. K. Moody (International
Rice Research
Maya11 (Weed Abstracts),
Mr. C. Parker (WRO), Eng. Agron., M.L. Rosa
Institute,
Philippines),
(Instituto
de Agronomia, Portugal), Dr. S.V.R. Shetty '(International
Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics, India), Mr. P.J.
Terry (WRO), and Mrs. H. Turton (Weed Abstracts).
For publication
and distribution
of the bibliography,
I am grateful
to Mr. P.M. Mulvany for help with editing and Mr. P. Robson for help
in compiling the indexes. Mrs. Cheryl1 Joy (ITDG) typed and mimeographed the first draft of the bibliography.
Typing and proofreading
of subsequent drafts has been performed by Ms. !&ry Connors, Ms. Kay
&M&aid, Ms. Maureen Xrissek, and Ms. Mary Welsch, all of IPPC.
I express appreciation
to ITDG, IPPC, and the U.S. Agency for International Development for the financial
support that made this effort
possible.
J.A.F. Compton
Reading, U.K.
September 1981
2
I.
Background
Introduction
and purposes
of agriculturSmali-scale
farmers, who form the vast majority
have received
increasing
attention
alists
in developing
countries,
With the
from the agricultural
research
community in recent years.
emphasis on raising
the production
of small farms has come a recognition
that weed control
stands as one of the most important
factors
Research in this field has burgeoned;
determining
small farm yields.
as an illustration,
189 of the 298 references
cited in this bibliography were published
after
the beginning
of 1976.
This bibliography
was initiated
by the Weed Control Working
Group of the Intermediate
Technology Development Group (ITDG) as
It represents
the first
part of the ITDG agriculture
programme.
attempt to compile literature
describing
appropriate
technologies
It does not pretend to
for the control
of weeds on small farms.
include all the relevant
literature
on the subject
(this is an
impossible
claim for any bibliography):
rather,
its purpose is to
guide the reader through the range of weed control
techniques
that
have been documented and to indicate
the scientific
workers and
institutions
currently
active in this field
of research.
It is increasingly
recognized
that weed control
techniques
for
the small farm cannot be studied
in isolation,
but must be seen and
Besides providing
studied as an integral
part of the farming system.
information
on low-cost
tools and techniques
for weed control,
it is
hoped that the references
in the bibliography
may provide
the reader
with insights
into the kinds of social,
economic and environmental
factors
w'nich influence
the choice of techniques
to use, as well
as demonstrating
some of the methods used to study the relationship
of weed control
to other aspects of small-scale
farming systems.
3
Overview
II.
Importance of
weed control
to
small-scale
farmers
Weed control
is one of the principal
production
of small
substantial
yield/ha
in farming
farms.
increase
practices
the introduction
increased
rarely
factor)
simultaneously
(in regions
is often
In these
time
the farmer
to the cultivation
employment
yields
improvements
such as
varieties'
if
and
weed control
is
with
the highest
the amount of land one farmerY
by the area
weed control
one farmer
that
is not a limiting
can be kept
may enable
can cultivate
(no.
51303).
from improved
of additional
overview
introduces
and highlights
Y Numbered
references
other
references
Z/The
term farmer,
persons
a
gives
an increase
in
and thus an increase
In other
weed control
crops
weeded.
regions
the
may be devoted
or to more profitable
off-farm
(no. lKO2).
This
concepts
yielding
the operation
cycle,
of the farm
'gains'
often
'improvements'
where land availability
the amount of land that
crop
1968).
is often
improved
yield
'high
(Allan,
restricted
regions,
in the total
Other
increase
demand in the cropping
can plant
determining
in the absence of other
of short-statured
Because weed control
labour
weed control
(no. 51307)Y.
fertilisation
not improved
Improved
factors
working
many of the bibliography's
some of the significant
in the text
are listed
used here,
a small
farm,
refer
refers
whether
references
to items
at the end of th's
key
therein.
in the bibliography;
discussion.
to the person
male or female
or group of
or a family
unit.
Farming
with
Choice
farming
tice at
cropping
affects
of
praceach
stage
control
even if
crop,
express
practices
purpose
affect
weeds.
tion
of a crop--land
preparation,
tion,
harvesting--the
farming
farmer
thus,
in effect,
making a choice
a very
limited
choice
social
and environmental
in practice,
tion.
cycle
However,
to discuss
of this
(3)
Sowing and planting
(4)
Fertilisation
(5)
Weed control
(6)
Water management techniques
(7)
Harvesting
(8)
Sanitation--prevention
(9)
Control
ments;
its
ecological
is
may be
of economic,
cropping
a single
discussion,
of the
system and,
stage
in isola-
the cropping
into:
of crop,
variety,
and cropping
system
techniques
techniques
in the growing
crop
techniques
of weed reproduction
of problem
its
reliability;
the choice
the initial
effect
of technique
investment
on crop yield;
the availavility
considerations
and spread
weeds
farmers,
in particular
value;
it
at each stage
Land preparation
weed control
although
occurring
(2)
cost,
The farmer
framework
Choice
by its
cultiva-
a complex
(1)
For small-scale
options.
on the overall
purposes
has been divided
in the produc-
used by the small-scale
of technology,
practices
is impossible
for
stage
the
restrictions.
are dependent
it
out for
fertilisation,
possible
made within
farming
cycle
At every
practice
one among several
and competition
carried
planting,
is only
cropping
weed growth
they are not operations
of controlling
Individual
Factors
influencing
the choice
of technique
often
its
required;
labour
of required
such as the need to conserve
and soil
moisture;
and social
education
required
to use the technique
technique
to local
tradition.
6
considerations
is influenced
its
require-
inputs;
soil
fertility
such as the level
and the adaptability
of
of the
(1)
Choice
of crop,
Choice
of crop
variety,
and cropping-system
and variety
To compete effectively
Use of crops
and varieties
that suppress
weed growth
with
weeds,
the crop must germinate
grow vigorously
and form a foliar
canopy
varieties
compete well
weeds is especially
which
small-scale
control.
farmers,
who are often
Traditional
cron varieties
because
they are selected
rather
than
54302)
suggests
the presence
small-scale
farmers
for
that
usually
may be able
by selecting
crop varieties
(nos.
Choice
which
to improve
the
inhibit
53102,
53111,
of cropping
weed problem
number of future
affect
tion,
the inclusion
new cultivars
varieties
that
'weed-resistance'
in
for
small-scale
of their
own
plants.
(nos.
of allelopathic
12301,
resistance
12302).
to parasitic
one of the many considerations
a pernicious
However,
system.
quite
drastic
temporary
must be remembered
that
to one crop but will
cropping
which
conditions
weeds
system
may justify
system-- it
with
53112).
is only
not be confined
inclusion
select
the production
for
weed
Moody (no.
(no. 14301)
weed growth
be selected
a cropping
cropping
suggests
adequate
competitors
weeds.
'weed-resistant'
he also
for
in weed-free
should
have investigated
Weed control
planning
breeders
poor
seed from the most luxuriant
can also
53101,
yields
important
compete well
are often
high
of weeds to produce
The use of crop
to practice
to compete with
plant
farmers;
Cultivars
ior
the ability
Some workers
will
unable
but many commercia 1 vrrieties
weeds,
crops
with
rapidly.
and
the control
seasons.
of a fallow
period
changes
the economic
Aspects
in
and persistent
be spread
of weeds include
involved
in a
benefit
out over a
of the cropping
the choice
in the rotation,
system
of crop rotaand the
of an intercrop.
Crop rotation
Rotation
of crops
down weed growth
adapted
rotation
different
by not allowing
to one crop.
with
with
upland
For example,
crops
(nos.
7
production
a buildup
keeps
of weeds ecologically
paddy rice
21001,
requirements
21002,
is often
53101,
grown in
53102) or an
early
crop can be included
Iiotation
23201).
control
with
parasitic
its
1 lth
or 'trap'
53102,
of a crop of intercrop
with
weed growth
to the presence
a late
crops
53101,
to reduce
tolerance
'catch'
weeds (nos.
in the rotation
may be able
in the rotation
crop
is often
(no.
used to
53111).
The inclusion
allelopathic
residues
in a following
crop chosen
of such residues
for
(no. 12303).
Fallow
Ise of
Iallow in
shifting
:ultivation
The inclusion
suppression
tional
of arable
shifting
indexed
carry
of a fallow
'shifting
out measures
growth
crops.
22716)
and large
following
(nos.
of Orobanche,
flooded
soil.
(no.
soil
which
51401).
and destroy
22701-22705)
fallow
cannot
in the
with
survive
where weeds and rhizomes
is often
technique,
but is probably
(no.
of perennial
used in semihas been
too expensive
the fallow
some
in
which
countries,
or
eat weed
53105) can be used to eradicate
mulch during
weed seeds
It
the fallow
or rotation
cultivations,
to
crops.
weed biomass
(no. 53104)
in developing
polyethylene
the farmer
a water
reduce
and others
during
(nos.
under
One interesting
farmers
11008,
fields
fish
have seeds which
in Israel
small-scale
transparent
53102,
by repeated
used experimentally
most
fallow
A bare fallow,
weeds are destroyed
areas
to graze
the natural
as in tradi-
in subsequent
in paddy fields
53101,
species
arid
weed growth
animals
A water
11001,
or may allow
weed seeds and greatly
season.
paddy rice
(nos.
In paddy rice,
kept
may allow
succession,
cultivation'),
to allow
season in upland
(no.
systems
to reduce
is common practice
ducks
weeds by ecological
cultivation
under
in the rotation
for
involves
using
season to heat
a
the
53106).
Intercropping
Small-scale
rather
under
the principal
weeding
with
labour
crop help
required.
an intercrop
the economic
grow crops
(nos.
'intercropping').
return
11008,
it
together
14402,
Intercrops
to smother
the yield
intercrops
from the principal
value
8
41104 and others
grown between
normally
of the principal
is necessary
and the weed control
(intercropping),
plants
or shade out weeds and reduce
However,
and somewhat reduce
choosing
value
often
than as monocultures
indexed
!hoice of
.ntercrop
farmers
to balance
the
compete
crop.
Thus, in
the reduction
in
crop against
of the intercrop.
also
of
the economic
b
Weeds as
intercrops
Small-scale
fields
for
food,
These
22801).
principal
forage
or other
household
uses
should
be regarded
systems,
with
intercrops
with
to minimise
(nos.
14402,
'smother'
crops
such as Egusi melon
(nos.
51314,
suppressed
systems
cropping
systems,
young plants
42208,
43104,
44301,
44302).
perennial
crops
(nos.
54501,
54502)
43102,
weeds under
43105,
44301,
Since
intercropping
an effective
are culti-
light
lanatus)
and
and sweet
cassava
altering
herbicides
and yam
crop yields
which
for
the bibliography
systems
(nos.
41101,
to a mijtture
during
countries
part
and is
workers
should
of course,
of unrelated
that
consider
any
crops
will
but resistant
handweeding.
51202,
43101-
(no. 42208).
farmers
a number of weeds,
51201,
42210,
problems,
the use of herbicides
44502-44504,
41101,
grown to smother
as intercrops
is likely,
by supplementary
discuss
(nos.
be used as forage
weed and pest
It
are often
42201-42207,
use by small-scale
against
be controlled
crop
is common in developing
is harmless
be ineffective
intercrops
Cover crops
be regarded
use in crop mixtures.
herbicide
annual
can often
means of reducing
developing
(2)
the
The low-growing
of the perennial
and can also
of the year,
could
habits
for
(Citrullus
without
grown between
also
54101).
with
44502-44504).
In perennial
their
growth
weeds in maize,
in Nigeria
12401-12404,
as possible
competition
nutrients
effectively
41106,
(nos.
in their
are chosen to compete
diffevent
intercrop
growing
as intercrops.
weeds and as little
Thus crops
together
intercropping
Weed control:
one of the
two main aims
of land
preparation
plants
cropping
crop.
potato
Herbicides
for
intercropping
systems
many wild
as much as possible
vated
Intercrops
in perennial
crops
utilise
'weeds'
In annual
Annual
intercropping
systems
farmers
weeds
A few papers
in
in intercropping
51317,
53108,
54702).
Land preparation
The two main objectives
seedbed and to control
to the means of preparing
way possible,
consistent
of land preparation
weeds.
land
with
9
Much research
in the quickest,
fulfilling
these
are to prepare
a
has been devoted
easiest
and cheapest
two objectives.
Drtance of
nate in
zsing
nniques of
3. preparation
The two main techniques
tillage
first,
techniques
and/or
in which
replaced
available
cultivations,
all
of the tilTage
of papers
in the bibliography
requirements
tillage
for
and value
land preparation
discuss
for
and cultivation
operations
are
of low-cost
on small
farms;
a number
and compare the cost,
weed control
equipmc:nt
are
minimum tillage
A grea+ variety
by the use of herbicides.
is available
land preparation
and secondly,
or part
equipment
for
of different
(nos.
11006,
labour
types
12104,
of
22201,
51302,
52415).
Effect
of climate
The climate
on land preparation
has an important
and thus on the technique
In areas with
a marked dry
of the rainy
crucial,
with
early-planted
planting
cannot
begin
crops
be done until
the ground
have investigated
preparation
and crop
the dry season.
designing
tractive
(b) Part
it
would
growing
very
occurs
51305)
(no.
little
weed growth
or as soil
operations
tillage
moisture
10
rains.
up land
equipment
52401) represents
of tillage
can be
during
one attempt
equipment
be too expensive
at
with
high
for
most
countries.
season,
during
permits
51402).
cannot
out in hard ground
probably
and
circumstances:
of the land preparation
the end of the previous
prepared,
by the first
for
But
yields.
methods of speeding
piece
in developing
or all
tillage
in these
(no.
low-cost
although
farmers
much higher
can be carried
The 'Snail'
power,
small-scale
traction)
power available
a relatively
is often
the land is adequately
three
tillage
is done at
of planting
giving
establishment
(a) The tractive
so that
timing
system
used.
where planting
has been softened
Researchers
increased
season,
season,
(hand or animal
until
on the cropping
of land preparation
the beginning
conventional
influence
can be carried
in semi-arid
the dry
following
season
dry-season
out at
areas where
(nos.
51105,
showers
speeding up
land preparation using
improved
equipment or
herbicides
(c) Tillage
with
operations
can be reduced
adequate
weed control.
.
to speed up tillage
attempts
technology
(nos.
22206,
the replacement
Some papers
using
51203,
51301).
22301,
of conventional
51403,
51404,
In areas
tional
tillage
bare
in these
is killed
(improved
systems
When the cover
the crop seeds are planted
the crop
crop,
tively,
the crop
weed emergence
Alley
cropping
systems
and soil
(c) In alley
planted
parallel
systems,
to the annual
is used as a mulch which
Wijewardene,
1981;
of
bush clearance.
with
herbicide
42201,
44502-44504),
The cover
cover
Alterna-
crop.
which
and
(no. 44504).
mulch of an established
along
weed
In a variant
of the cover
in strips
further
the cover
crop helps
crop
prevent
erosion.
cropping
(International
The dead weeds
the mulch.
41302,
weed
or herbicides
and discourages
is killed
(nos.
herbicides.
cut down at the beginning
growth
and
44501),
the dead remains
or destruction
using
erosion
have been developed
systems)
it
in a living
is planted
has been destroyed
soil
is sown following
mulch systems
tillage
conven-
41301-41307,
through
through
is sown directly
without
22204,
rainfall,
systems
erosion
crop is established,
(b) In living
describe
techniques
22101,
of the season.
soil
a cover.crop
technique,
21014,
encourage
(nos.
at the beginning
Crop seeds are planted
this
Other papers
high
(traditional
form a mulch which minimises
growth.
soil
tillage
by slashing
systems)
existing
areas:
(a) In mulch tillage
growth
11002,
or seasonal
exposing
farmers
the farmers‘
52410).
A number of minimal
small
describe
by minimum tillage
(nos.
year-round
cultivations
leaching.
for
with
in the bibliography
operations
based on the use of herbicides
44401,
to the minimum consistent
crop rows.
of the cropping
controls
Institute
Ogborn,
leguminous
1981).
11
These
crops
'alley
are
crops'
season and their
weeds and soil
of Tropical
tree
erosion
Agriculture,
are
foliage
during
1980;
crop
(d) In minimum tillage
:e lay
:ropping
;ystems
sown directly
into
the residues
The crop
tillage.
and weed growth
residues
to control
after
rhe use of
:he staleseedbed
technique
:o smooth
xt labour
lemand
before
nique
weeds.
they
sowing
the crop
because
the cropping
for
crops
season,
(3)
soil
erosion
case of the use of
technique,
primary
weeds are allowed
by further
22102,
cultivations
or herbicides
The stale-seedbed
44501).
demand occurs
more time on controlling
the time required
thus
smoothing
It
(no. 22301).
as are many staple
crops
cultivations
to germinate,
for
during
crop
weed control
out iabour
is clearly
tech-
weeds before
demand over
not suitable
must be sown at the very beginning
of the growing
in the semi-arid
tropics.
Planting
of techniques
both by direct
competition
effects
with
technique
crop plants,
and planting
is affected
method on weed growth
and
and by the demands of the weed control
growth
of the crop
of crop
Healthy
crops
seed,
with
the planting
seed and planting
clearly
weakened by disease.
from disease
and competition
the crop
date,
is affected
the spacing
of
and the use of transplanting.
Quality
Seeds and planting
with
material
weeds than crops
should
be free
by weeds and weed seeds.
date
Timeliness
planted
season
material
compete better
and from contamination
Planting
growing
sowing
to be used in the crop.
by the quality
normally
for
of the planting
the cro.p,
Weed emergence,
Timeliness
of planting
(nos.
reduces
cycle
The choice
Jse of
clean
seeds
in which
is growing,
which
without
reducing
is a special
In this
by spending
the crop
as a mulch,
where the peak labour
the crop is sown it
while
crop,
is
543C1, 54302).
are destroyed
can be useful
weeding
of the previous
technique
by a period
which
each crop
systems,
technique
The stale-seedbed
are followed
cropping
serve
41101,
(n,&.
Stale-seedbed
tillage
relay
of planting
is important
as soon as possible
to give
after
them a 'head start'
12
in weed control.
Crops are
the beginning
of the
in competition
with
weeds,
except
in the special
case of the
the planting
date
preparation,
workers
preparation
(see previous
and planting
may be combined
the
'plough
51203,
technique.
Where
is set back by the amount of time taken
have investigated
ways of speeding
section).
At the extreme,
in a single
technique
planting'
51301)
'stale-seedbed'
land preparation
operation:
techniques
land
up land
examples
used in some semi-arid
and some mulch tillage
for
include
areas
(nos.
(no. 41304).
Spacing
Crops planted
Choosing
correct
plant
spacing
14301,
weeds (nos.
decrease
(no.
21001,
crop yield
common for
thinning
but too close
of intracrop
farmers
to ensure
a good stand
simultaneously
a spacing
competition,
emergence
and weeding
may
lodging
is unreliable,
by sowing
to produce
with
it
is not un-
thickly
and then
the desired
plant
popu
(no. 24002).
clearly,
sowing
compete more effectively
Where crop
and direct
Transplanted
with
44103)
because
Transplanting
Mansplanting
gives better
veed control
spacing
etc.
54301),
tion
at close
crops
the larger
weeds (no.
sowing
have a competitive
the transplanted
of weeds germinating
seedling,
Transplanting
21002).
early
lings
are transplanted.
Weed growth
crops
than direct-seeded
crops;
consideration
be transplanted
or direct
describes
a low-cost
also
in the growing
is an important
in deciding
allows
season,
it
competes
the destruction
before
less
crop
seed-
in transplanted
the amount of weed growth
whether
the crop
Ben-Nun
(no'. 22202).
method of speeding
over weeds;
the better
is thus
in rice,
seeded
advantage
should
(no.
the transplanting
51313)
operation
in rice.
The requirements
the crop influence
of planting
Planting
owing in
ows permits
nter-row
ultivation
of the weed control
the choice
pattern
to be used in
and other
aspects
techniques.
pattern
Sowing the crop
weeding
of planting
technique
by allowing
drawn row planters
in rows reduces
inter-row
taken
Several
cultivation..
have been developed
13
the time
(nos.
52404,
for
subsequent
low-cost
52410,
animal52411).
A number of workers
on the square
('checkrow
vations
21010,
(nos.
reported
several
the increased
labour
Equipment
for checkro
planting
of the technique
Other
*
(4)
(nos.
up in two-way
planting
established
channels
a useful
and the adaptation
(no. 52101).
and rolling
injection
leading
ahead of the crop
gives
planting
41302-41304,
of fertiliser
the crop a competitive
(nos.
52201,
description
of an ox-
planters
for
which can
use with
mulch
44504).
Echinochloa
before
the rice
(National
Weed control
growing
techniques
and cover
techniques,
is dictated
ing sections
fertitliy
phosphate
the first
crops,
selective
it
Once rice
made just
reduce
weed
weed control
slashing,
grazing
of considerations
conservation.
in the
the use
and other
biological
The choice
mentioned
by the demands of erosion
14
seedbed,
1968).
for
and the use of herbicides.
and mositure
for
applications
time will
cultivation,
and in particular
in a dry
for
crop
available
by a host
time
weeds.
Academy of Scineces,
crop are handweeding,
of mulches
control
for
in the growing
The principal
seeding
and other
however,
is flooded
can be important;
the application
before
crus-galli
are weed infested,
competition"
of rice,
or in the crop row
over weeds in the inter-row
of fertilisation
"Applied
is crucial.
crop plants
advantage
Timing
52202).
fields
(5)
around
in the production
encourages
soil
among these were
at a time of peak
a mulch have been developed
gives
niques
one author
Fertilisation
phosphate
.on
checkrow
jab planters
systems
example,
&,' Timing of
. fertilisati
planting
cult-
aspects
Placement
IT
system;
be planted
inter-row
However,
in the bibliography
of checkrow
seeds through
tillage
silting
and weeds becoming
for
Special
plant
checkrow
crops
two-way
53302).
to the checkrow
demand for
One paper
drawn planter
Planters
fo #r
mulch tilla ge
systems
drawbacks
planting
to allow
53301,
and the increased
(no. 51304).
W
planting')
52409,
labour
need,
to shallow
have recommended that
of techin the followcontrol,
achniques
or humid
nd semi-humid
teas
2e-way and
go-way
nter-row
Jltivations
se of
traddle
ridge
altivators
In areas
weeding
with
year-round
is inadvisable
or seasonal
due to the danger
of the exposed
soil.
niques
the use of mulches
include
of reducing
perennial
it
crops
(nos.
but
help
to prevent
be pulled
or destroyed
USA for
selective
(nos.
soil
(nos.
of erosion
51314,
52402,
weeding,
(no.
the crop
of grasses
54401)
but
some workers
have developed
vators
follow
important
may also
it
less
54101,
in broadleaved
water
loss
some workers
52411-52413).
soil
Herbicides
of herbicide
farms;
to overcome
(nos.
reduce
the
checkrow
plant-
equipment
rows,
this
straddle
row at a time,
which
problem,
ridge
weeding
weed control
crops
with
for
cultiboth
sides
is particularly
water,
but cultivations
minimal
soil
and little
application
for
attention
for
ploughs,
which
disturbance
is a very
and suppressing
suitable
In these
the soil.
Mulching
moisture
are also
expensive,
crop roots
parallel
have used sweeps or chisel
51305,
means of conserving
than
of the
can further
by disturbing
(nos.
51306,
by damaging
is scarce,
cultivations
the problem
53302,
52407).
out inter-row
are relatively
buried
time-consuming
in straight,
crop
carry
follows).
hand tools,
53301,
high-clearance,
as weeds compete with
conditions
weeds may
The use of most cultivating
a single
moisture
increase
soil,
demands time-consuming
on small
52405,
Where soil
on the
but demands row plailting
to be planted
difficult
of the row (nos.
than are other
and sedges
yields
51304).
is sometimes
which
54502).
Geese have been used in the
Two-way cultivation
requires
or beneath
52202,
of exposed
is normally
44103,
54302).
ing of the crop
method
runoff.
52406,
51307,
for
crops
52201,
hoes and other
reduce
taken
and the use of
labour-intensive
44303,
crop and can sometimes
time
tech-
12305).
(nos.
54102,
crops
and water
with
cultivation
handweeding
weed control
weed growth
erosion
weeding
Inter-row
and leaching
of annual
by cultivations.
12304,
clean
and dead tops of the weeds left
uprooted
by hand,
54601),
crops
43105,
is no danger
by 'earthing-up'
and cover
in controlling
the roots
Where there
suitable
in the inter-row
42207,
effective
techniques,
areas,
rainfall,
of erosion
weeds is a low-capital,
weed growth
is less
soil
In these
Slashing
herbicides.
high
effective
weeds (more detail
use in dry areas,
has been given
the small-scale
but
to
farmer.
Timing:
early and
frequent
weeding
until
canopy
closure is
advisable
Timing
of weeding
Ideally,
crops
after
which
51204,
ically
destroyed
54105,
cultivations
be kept weed-free
54201,
duction
of a light
reduced
overall
dutch
and frequent
11003,
labour
52302)
hoe to replace
weeding
time
(nos.
so a series
are small,
(nos.
canopy closure,
weed growth
may in the end demand less
Druijff
until
44101-
Weeds are more easily
54302).
when they
cultivations.
(6)
should
the crop shades our further
44103,
early
operations
of frequent,
light
than a few infrequent
describes
the local
in Kenyan cotton
mechan-
how the introheavy hoe ('jembe')
farming
by allowing
hoeing.
Water management
A number of water
management practices
affect
the control
of
weeds.
Flooding
is often
weeds (nos.
soils
43105,
inhibit
53104,
Rotation
(no. 44102)
fish
weeds adapted
to either
21002,
53102).
53101,
In paddy rice,
reduce
is also
rice
required
for
can rarely
developed
be achieved
herbicides
under poor water
of upland
crops
or a water
fallow
upland
(no.
crops.
been described
with
in flooded
paddy rice,
inhibits
manipulation
by small-scale
(no. 12120).
16
(nos.
of water
levels
in rice,
farmers,
of
21001,
can help
irrigation
(nos.
but as this
some workers
application
down irrigation
to clean
paddy
rice
(no. 22203) or can be usedi
Precise control
of water levels
23202).
and herbicide
seeds of
the buildup
or paddy conditions
management conditions
A 'trap'
terestrial
conditions
the use of many herbicides
Weed seeds can float
gated
anaerobic
in direct-seeded
wild
measure for
of most weed seeds and destroy
precise
weed growth
to control
54202);
germination
many species.
taro
used as a control
techniques
have
for
rice
22601-22604).
canals
water
and infest
irri-
of weed seeds has
(7)
Harvesting
Most small-scale
farmers
to improve
crop
able
of vigorous
local
competitive
them setting
(8)
seed
by selecting
seed
by parasitic
operations
before
Burning
53302).
are carried
harvest
out
prevents
or cultivating
late-fll>wwt:ring
weeds from
prevention
can be used to prevent
Most farmers
of weeds.
including
carry
the use of clean
the spread
and
out some routine
sanita-
crop seed and of clean
and equipment.
which are allowed
fields
Regular
weeding
labour;
a new approach
broad ridge
of field
Crops Research
eliminated
In this
Late weeding
is desirable
problem
farming
system developed
for
boundary
and farmers
much
in the
Tropics
bunds have been
mark their
in the crop prevents
property
roguing
weeds setting
of weeds which
using
of low-cost
application
equipment
(no.
12120).
at the Inter-
the Semi-Arid
field
(no.
to
but requires
is demonstrated
herbicides,
grazing
A 'trap'
has been described
to this
system,
or from weeds
boundaries.
crop can be done with
Weeds setting
water
by the
owned.
Selective
harvest.
water
Institute
altogether,
number of ridges
on field
boundaries
and furrow
(no. 51311).
in irrigation
to reproduce
remove seeds from irrigation
national
Preventing
weeds setting
seed before
and after
harvest
may be
54?04).
Weed seeds can enter
Preventing
weed seeds
entering
field
;boundaries
or
irrigation
water
Farmers
are not attacked
weeds just
prevents
of measures
measures,
tools
23201,
51305,
Sanitation--weed
reproduction
which
problem
harvest
(nos.
A variety
tion
roguing
after
themselves
weed. control
seed (nos.
immediately
setting
Use of
clean crop
seed and
clean
equipment
time:
own seed.
selection').
A number of important
at harvest
varieties
plants
weeds (see 'Cultivar
Pre- and
postharvest
weed control
measures
save their
herbicide
seed after
51311),
harvest
cultivations
(no. 54204).
17
are taller
a recently
(nos.
can be destroyed
(no.
seed before
51305),
than
the
developed
range
12213-12216).
by postharvest
or burning
cultivation
Repeated
Fallow
season
cultivations
and grazing
prevents
annual
weeds setting
the USSR, fish
reduced
or grazing
farming
rice
in the following
(9)
Control
controlled
resemble
irrigation
(nos.
22702,
fallow
weeds.
In
drastically
and increased
22704).
rice
Ducks have
22716).
as those
routine
deep-rooted
systems may also
practices.
weeds which
weeds (usually
and parasitic
weeds not adequately
weed control
perennial
some annual
the crop)
season
weeds
by the farmers'
removed by hand,
water
and weed biomass
can be defined
weeds'
weeds include
under
way in the USA (no.
of problem
'Problem
Definition
of problem
weeds
fields
season
been used in a similar
the fallow
seed and weakens perennial
weed seed populations
yields
during
weeds.
present
Problem
are not easily
those which
Aquatic
special
closely
seeds infesting
problems
for
the small-
holder.
Techniques
‘.
”
e:,..,Developing
C.
,:: measures for
of
i:'* control
1 problem weeds
for
the control
of problem
the basis
of information
from autecological
lifecycle
and ecological
requirements
to the general
losses
weed control
from a particular
grass
Imperata
a system for
outlined
and McIntosh
cylindrica,
They are similar
the entire
(nos.
give good control
Where
cropping
its
43104,
on
the
earlier.
the aim of reducing
systems which
about
of the weed.
techniques
with
Suryatna
two cropping
studies
weed are severe,
system may be modified
reproduction.
weeds are developed
growth
41101)
and
developed
of the perennial
and Vergara
et al (no. 23101) suggest
-of the perennial
sedge Scirpus maritimus
the control
in paddy rice.
Prevention
Farmers
weed flora
weed buildup
and extension
workers
which may signal
For example,
Monitoring
population
levels of
problem
weeds
of problem
the annual
should
a buildup
grass
weeds are controlled
easily
by selective
low,
controlled
but
requiring
54103).
allow
if
allowed
to build
much labour
Similarly,
Striga
populations
the weed is very
exaltata
(nos.
(197Oj states
hard to control,
,h
in
problem
weeds.
can build
up in
-R. exaltata
when populations
are
up can become a major
to build
shifts
by atrazine.
handweeding
to eradicate
Doggett
out for
of particular
Rottboellia
maize where other
look
53301-53303,
that
up to very
because
'problem
54101,
farmers
high
weed'
often
levels
low and moderate
at which
popu-
is
lations
of Striga
Better
do not appreciably
education
and extension
reduce
sorghum yields.
may prevent
this
kind
of problem
developing.
Perennial
problem
Perennial
weeds are often
uproot
Methods of
perennial
weed control
by hand and can present
build
The bibliography
up.
tillage
tools
weeds (nos.
expensive
32002,
the control
cost
application
herbicides
equipment
(nos.
problem
glyphosate)
(e.g.,
patches
suitable
12213-12215,
for
example,
has recently
purpose
of annual
herbicides
applied
herbicide
application
Parasitic
with
in maize)
that
rices
a recently-developed
(nos.
it
is
for
the
in rice).
weeds is advisable
can be done by hand,
equipment
or where
in mistake
spp. and wild
problem
seedling
to
to prevent
or by the use of
range of low-cost
12213-12216,
12217).
weeds
Techniques
available
been extensively
for
discussed
the bibliography).
the control
in general
However,
the uses and limitations
an exception
exaltata
to the crop
Echinochloa
are used and
weeds are allowed
or even transplanted
seed - this
them setting
low-
12217).
Rottboellia
is so similar
roguing
of
weeds
in manual weeding
Selective
of perennial
this
annual
example,
to traditional
weeds;
of herbicide-resistant
(for
to
of perennial
where herbicides
missed
allowed
may be economic
weeds can be a problem
the weed seedling
to
quantities
Annual
up (for
if
two references
problem
build
(nos.
smallholders
Annual
populations
Controlling
parasitic
weeds on the
small farm
a serious
The use of small
of intransigent
been developed
for
to aid in the control
52303).
systemic
difficult
includes
which are said
for
crop
weeds
is the work of J.E.A.
53108-53110).
19
terms
few workers
of these
of parasitic
weeds have
(see section
have seriously
techniques
studied
on the small
Ogborn in Northern
5.31 of
farm;
Nigeria
Aquatic
weeds
In a special
which
infest
Control
class
canals
methods
equipment
weeds are the aquatic
and irrigation
covered
(nos.
harvesting
include
loo-cost
the use of herbivorous
13101-13103),
weeds
ponds used by smallholders.
in the bibliography
and finding
22701-22710),
so that
of problem
uses for
the aquatic
fish
(nos.
weeds themselves
the weeds becomes of economic
value
(nos.
12405-12407).
WEED CONTROLTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Weed control
alone,
can be accomplished
in combination
and specialised
(1)
Tools
or in rotational
items
of equipment
(occasionally)
motor-powered
and postplanting
expedite
weed control
on small
system often
calls
for
contains
to import,
copy or design
such equipment
2.25,
5.23 and 5.24).
3.2,
manufacturers
of traditional
dimensional
tools
and implements
drawings
and construction
can be constructed
animal-drawn
slashing
tools,
purpose
toolbars.
Attempts
to improve
workers
underestimate
vations;
'improved'
rejected-(no.
details
equipment
level
ploughs,
local
1.21,
for
using
and drawings
basic
metal-
hand hoes and other
Zools
of local
may already
and
a few implements
only
cultivators,
weeding
2.24,
listing
descriptions
deal with
the capacity
and multi-
may fail
farmers
if
extension
to make inno-
have been tried
and
52301).
Mulches
and cover
Mulches
inhibit
and soil
catalogues
seeking
from many countries;
at a local
Most references
skills.
of new
workers
(see sections
equipment;
of
a number of
and extension
They include
of agricultural
land preparation
the introduction
The bibliography
equipment.
and
The development
farms.
research
(2)
general
practice.
implements
is used for
which may help
working
weed control
animai-drawn
references
which
of techniques--
Various
sequence.
implements
weed control
a new weed control
;a5
-y" References
'c~i‘:',>, in the
'.
).:.: .:. bibliography
c which describe
weed control
equipment
,'
I
a variety
and implements
A wide range of hand tools,
;..
-’ ._
using
moisture
crops
weed growth
conservation.
as well
as aiding
erosion
control
In situ
--
mulching
In some farming
Mulching
with residues
of crops or
weeds left
--in situ
dead remains
of weed or crop plants
left
as a mulch.
In mulch tillage
systems,
--in situ function
weeds or a cover crop grown for the purpose are killed
by slashing
or the use of herbicides
and crop seeds are sown through
mulch
42204,
(nos.
tillage
41301-41307,
relay
cropping
the residues
54301,
In trash
from perennial
plants
(nos.
Mulches
of organic
supplement
mulching
and labour
costs
of different
For minimum
is sown directly
without
tillage
(nos.
systems,
fallen
leaves
are left
in situ
---
or packed
interesting
into
41101,
and
around
crop
for weed control
Inorganic
54602).
most small-scale
during
of Orobanche
and other
although
farmers
(nos.
transport
42202,
42203,
are probably
in developing
too
countries;
polyethylene
season to temperatures
weeds
to
compare the value
mulches
uses a transparent
the fallow
can be imported
--in situ,
references
Several
mulches
technique
materials
available
can be high.
54305,
for
or inorganic
materials
organic
53201,
the soil
mulching
the
54202-54204).
mulches
expensive
each crop
crop,
crops
Imported
42208,
44501,'44504).
systems,
of the previous
54303).
trash
Comparison of
materials
for
imported
mulches
systems,
one
mulch to heat
which
kill
seeds
(no. 53106).
Cover crops
Cover crops
Use of
cover crops
subhumid
or
areas)
43101-43105,
annual
cover
into
suppress
in humid and
and,
for
41101,
21
cover
cover
(nos.
42203,
42208,
crops
42210,
for
which are
finding
but not crop growth
regard
for
43103,
appear
(Citrullus
Several
44502-44504).
42206-42208,
mulch'
However,
in this
crops
They
the crop.
42202-42207,
such as Egusi melon
cover
in the case
44501-44504)
crop.
weed growth
crops
of different
42202,
(nos.
42201,
the established
and sweet potato
(nos.
erosion
nitrogen
crops
(nos.
'smother'
compare the value
growth
crops
(mainly
54502) or used as a 'living
the most successful
be low-growing
lanatus)
54501,
crop which will
not easy;
additional
under perennial
or biennial
sown directly
weeds, prevent
to provide
44301,
are used
mulches'
to suppress
of legume covers,
can be planted
'living
references
suppressing
54501).
weed
a
is
to
(3)
Biological
control
Although
specialists
most biological
and carried
control
out over
campaigns
a large
area,
biological
control
of weeds can potentially
individual
farmer,
including
domestic
are planned
by
some agents
for
the
be managed by the
animals
and certain
other
organisms.
Domestic
Goats,
weeds under
the fallow
grazing
animals
sheep and cattle
can be used for
tree
43101,
crops
and sedges
and in Bulgaria
Other
lirect
aipulation
environmental
editions
control
which
control
weeds.
Europe
containing
pupae of Phytomyza
over winter
high
populations
transplanted
ing and floating
rice
snails
(no.
herbivorous
(nos.
22716)
in flooded
51307).
12405,
plants
manipulate
some
populations
some tobacco
of the
farmers
of Orobanche
ramosa
an agromyzid
fly
in Japan manipulate
of tadpole
(no.
which
organisms
fish
an organism
which
have been used to control
root-
(nos.
systems
(no.
12405),
22711).
Fish
(nos.
paddy fields
been used to reduce
during
22
and in paddy rioe,
22701-22711),
crayfish
have also
shrimp,
paddy conditions
22712).
weeds in irrigation
22713-22715),
increased
orobanchiae,
farmers
A number of aquatic
(nos.
(no.
of -0. ramosa.
They store the pupae
them in tobacco fields
the following
spring
Some rice
to maintain
including
12304,
tissues
and release
(no. 53101).
farmers
For example,
in autumn collect
on reproductive
'weeds'
selective
(nos.
in tobacco
techniques,
to encourage
in Eastern
feeds
53202) or during
crops
Orobanche
of
organisms
of the environment
organisms
44301,
in broadleaved
to control
In some biological
aspect
43102,
grazing
Geese have been used in the USA for
season.
of grasses
12305)
(nos.
unselective
the fallow
tadpole
ducks
shrimp
(no. 12405)
22701-22705)
and
and ducks
the number of weed seeds
seascn.
Allelopathy
Recent
Use of
allelopathic
crops of
crop residues
research
niques
which
pathic
cultivars
developed
could
has identified
may be of interest
of cucumber
be bred
and it
in other
crops.
the inclusion
allelopathic
its
inhibit
tolerance
reduce
techAllelo-
farmers.
that
have been
similar
Crop residues
could
control
weed yrowth
is thought
in the rotation
residues
chosen for
to small-scale
that
12302),
(no.
pathic;
new biological
cultivars
can also
be allelo-
of a crop or intercrop
weed growth
to the presence
with
in a following
of such residues
crop
(no.
12303).
(4)
Herbicides
and their
The situations
scale
farmers
in which
herbicides
soil
(1974),
to additional
or off-farm
employment.
in densely-planted
methods,
or for
certain
nonchemical
methods.
place
weeding
other
handweeding
buildup
will
by specialised
Herbicides
Special
requirements
of herbicides
for use by
small-scale
farmers
not toxic
by absorption
obnoxious
colours,
consumption
water
and must require
afford
into
should
and which
unlabelled
too rough
for
nontoxic
calculations
containers.
be cheap and easy to maintain,
to guard
Formulations
the risk
should
at all,
at the least,
with
against
warning
accidental
to the fields
(no. 51201)
to be made by the farmer.
of farmers
as well
and the
must not demand much
containers
Herbicide
re-
be inexpensive,
and provided
only
reduce
by
supplementary
if
1969) or,
emetics
in small
controlled
farmers;
farmers
must be carried
be sold
other
for
herbicides.
where water
simple
or steep
be controlled,
the skin,
and/or
weeds,
in weed flora
(Ogborn,
through
be used in wet
than destroy
small-scale
shifts
time
cultiva-
can not completely
can only
1974).
the farmer
are not easily
expensive
smells,
(Hammerton,
in regions
Herbicides
rather
use by small-scale
easy and cheap to apply,
situations,
may also
weeds that
for
giving
herbicides
and relatively
(no.
Herbicides
be needed to prevent
of resistant
Ogborn
the area under
weeds that
techniques
small-
increasing
in terrain
However,
for
In certain
labour,
may 'transplant'
crops,
(1972),
among others.
crops,
where hoe weeding
may be useful
by Parker
may be used to replace
to devote
tion,
herbicides
have been discussed
51201) and Hammerton
Herbicides
may be
useful on
small farms
application
which
decanting
application
as safe.
farmers
toxic
equipment
can
chemicals
should
Few existing
all
herbicides
the requirements
tide
application
using
outlined
equipment
conventional
ent knapsack
consider
high
sprayers
in selecting
The conventional
for
of
fitted
Low volume,
suitable
for
farmers
1 of
ide
ation
walking
have been compared
(no. 12202);
a knapsack
are listed
high
sprayer
volume knapsack
for
by several
areas
are not cheap,
unaccustomed
pacing
the development
pumps (nos.
12203,
(no.
of ground-metered
are also
51102,
51202),
may be difficult
applied
audible
depends on the
timer
12204).
sprayers
that
Another
application
aids
approach
rates
is
based on peristaltic
12206-12208).
hand-held
Some work has been aimed at developing
contact
1981).
type of calculation.
a low-cost
herbicide
long
(Wijewardene,
12205,
the amount of herbicide
of controlling
12218).
have been
(CDA) sprayers
to making this
to
has to be carried
and calibration
has been described
to the problem
points
is not suitable
companies
(nos.
sprayer
(no.
sprayer
spraying
drop application
use in these
meet
of differ-
LOW volume nozzles
speed of the operator;
accurate
is the knapsack
The qualities
sprayers
In CDA spraying,
equipment
volume spraying.
controlled
but CDA sprayers
for
in the tropics
by hand to the fields.
to knapsack
of application
The most common type of herbi-
above.
use in areas where water
distances
ility
lume
w
and types
application
(DCA) equipment,
the so called
direct
'weed wipers'
(no. 12217).
In the May & Baker
in paddy rice
(no. 22604),
low volume herbicide
requirements
simple
volume of water.
bottle'
the container
applicator.
of small-scale
application
application
'shaker
farmers:
equipment
is only
water.
24
itself
small
suitable
for
weed control
functions
technique
and a herbicide
it
However,
onto standing
This
technique
as a
meets many of the
packaging,
formulation
for
cheap and
using
herbicide
a low
Granular
Suitability
of granular
formulations
formulations
formulations
due to high
spraying
the problem
herbicide
liser
(nos.
cation
of granular
developed
and are easy
22603).
applicator
These include
a 'water
(no. 12216)
and 'weed wipers'
be suitable
for
fact
that
in the bibliography
mixed cropping
53108,
particular
been
problem
a herbicide
weeds.
glove
12217)
which may
small
farms cannot
the
A few references
the use of herbicides
44502-44504,
ignore
51201,
in small-farm
51202,
51317,
54702).
Cultivar
selection
Research
workers
vigorously
and inhibit
which
are resistant
improvements
save their
carry
suggests
selection
that
farmers
vigorous,
competitive
plants
well
seeds.
with
It might
select
seed from plants
Striga
species
chlorotic
stunt
blotching
saving
weeds
might
53101,
could
also
but
farmers
to
Moody (no.
which
compete
to train
farmers
to parasitic
(Doggett,
seed from sorghum plants
by
seed from the most
crops
so it
for
of crops.
be possible
1980)
53111,
they do not buy seed,
select
sorghum growth
53102,
be possible
to produce
are allelo-
are not affected
and improvement
resistant
(Parker,
(nos.
seeds because
that
grow
12302) and cultivars
farmers
In some cases it
own.
that
cultivars
12301,
(nos.
to parasitic
in commercial
crop varieties
weeds,
most small-scale
out on-farm
14301)
with
weed growth
However,
53112).
have developed
and compete well
pathic
avoid
12212).
has recently
mixed cropping.
(nos.
appli-
farmers.
for
describe
of an
for
(no.
12213-12215,
(nos.
practice
systems
be suitable
(no. 53109),
of herbicides
many farmers
might
or spot wiping
use by small-scale
Development
are made by
The use and construction
equipment
pistol'
this
such as sand or ferti-
has been described
spot spraying
to reduce
although
Formulations
which
herbicides
is possible
'carrier'
of cheap application
for
It
formulations,
a granular
12211,
granule
A range
(5)
costs.
of calibration.
onto
12210,
animal-drawn
On-farm
selection
of
seed from
crops which
are competitive
with weeds and
resistant
to
parasitic
weeds
transport
by making homemade granular
reintroduces
Herbicides
for
intercropping
systems
need no water
existing
skills
in even
to apply, taking advantage of farmers'
broadcasting.
However, they are usually
more expensive than other
costs
Equipment
for spot
application
of herbicide
should
attacked
weeds;
1970),
for
to
example,
and cause
be fairly
by these
easy to
species.
(6)
Utilisation
of
Many 'weeds'
Utilisation. 'n.
of 'weeds'
as a means
of control
'weeds'
of smallholdings
family
as an integral
sold.
Thus these
recent
research,
part
'weeds'
are used on the farm by the farming
of the farming
effectively
the possibilities
of these
attention.
of uses for
listed
(nos.
12401-12407,
22801,
26
function
of increasing
and commercialisation
A variety
system,
'weeds'
upland
41103,
and a few may be
as intercrops.
the utilisation
have received
and aquatic
42209).
increasing
weeds are
In
Overview
Allan,
References
A.Y.
The maize diamond.
1968.
Published
in the
Kenya Farmer.
Doggett,
1970.
H.
and Harlow,
Hammerton,
Meeting
Problems
1974.
Adaptation
ing.
International
- an improved
for
5-8,
Ibadan,
and Animal
peasant
Ogborn,
J.
1969.
1981.
C.
C.
1968.
Highlights
Principles
N.A.S.
use of herbicides
for
the adoption
of
Publication
in tropical
of
'no-tillage'
Paper presented
Crop Production
The role
20(5),
crop
to a symposium
in the Tropics.,
Proc.
R.
Sri
of weed science
Monrovia,
Liberia
Weeds and Their
Control
Conf.,
Inst.
1981.
Lanka.
in developing
countries.
408-413.
Parasitic
1980.
the humid tropics
Colombo,
Weed Control,
Volume 2.
by smallholders.
1972.
No. 3, Int.
Wijewardene,
Research
T'JINS 15, 9-11.
Criteria
Weeds and Their
22-50,
system.
"Alley
1981.
Weed Science
Parker,
1980.
DC/USA.
agriculture.
on 'No-tillage
Parker,
NV/USA.
Nigeria.
The potential
establishment
August
Las Vegas,
Agriculture.
Pest Control,
1597, Washington,
J.
farm-
at the Feb. 1974 Annual
of America,
bush fallow
Academy of Sciences.
Plant
Ogborn,
Sot.
of Tropical
cropping"
National
presented
use in peasant
as IPPC Paper A/2.
Institute
1979,
of herbicide
of a paper
of the Weed Sci.
and published
London
403 pp.
UK.
J.L.
Longmans, Green and Co.,
Sorghum.
Control
in the Tropics.
in the Humid and Subhumid Tropics,
Ibadan,
Trop.
Nigeria,
1978,
Proc.
Agric.,
Ibadan,
Nigeria.
Conservation
farming
for
(Techniques
20 PP.
27
and tools)
IITA
small
Sri
Series
farmers
in
Lanka Programme
About
III.
the Bibliography
Preparation
The bibliography
pilation
and abstracting
oibliography
are listed
journals
in Table
searched
in the com-
Additional
1.
items were drawn from an ad
-- hoc manual search of the literature
collections
of the Intermediate
Technology Development Group
(Read-
Plant Protection
Center (Corvallis,
UK) , the International
(Yarnton,
Oxford,
Oregon, USA), and thle Weed Research Organisation
ing,
in review
UK) ; as well as references
short list
of about 1000 titles.
An effort
was made to acquire
short
list,
but this
older
documents.
was not always
After
reading
selected
for
included
in the bibliography
ments,
inclusion
where these
and read every document
possible,
particularly
the documents,
in the bibliography.
could
This produced
papers.
without
having
a
on the
for
298 of them were
A few abst
Lets were
read the original
docu-
not be obtained.
TABLE 1
SOURCESSEARCHEDTO
COMPILEBIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
ABBREVIATIONS
CAB
CAB (S)
CAB (G)
CBAE
FAO
-
IRAT
-
IRRI
-
KIVDT
-
NIAE
USDA
WRO
-
USED IN TABLE
Commonwealth Agricultural
Bureaux, Slough, UK
Commonwealth Bureau of Soils,
Rothamsted, UK
Commonwea.Lth Bureau of Field Crops, Hurley, UK
Commonwealth Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, Oxford, UK
Food and Agriculture
Organisation
of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy
Institut
de Rechsrches Agronomiques Tropicales
et des
Cultures
Vivrisres,
France
International
Rice Research Institute,
Los BaGos, Philippines
Koninklijk
Instituut
voor de Tropen, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
National
Institute
of Agricultural
Engineering,
Silsoe,
UK
United States Department of Agriculture,
USA
Agricultural
Research Council Weed Research Organisation,
Yarnton,
Oxford, UK
TABLE 1 kont,
B.
1
ABSTRACTING
JOURNALS
SEARCHED
CAB
CAB
- Weed Abstracts
(WA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1960-5/1~81
- World Agricultural
Economics and Rural
Sociology Abstracts
(wA~RSA)..........l977-8/1980
CAB - Agricultural
Engint-aring
Abstracts
(AEA).1976-4/1981
and Horticultural.
NIAE - Agricultural
Engineering
Abstracts
(AHEA) . . . . . . . . . -1951-1956,
FAO - Agrindex.................................l975-8/1980
KIVDT - Abstracts
on Tropical
Agriculture
(ATA)..1975-11/1980
C.
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
1964-1966
SEARCHED
WROnos.
WROnos.
1.23.49.77.107.133...Contro
1 of Crobanchaceae,
1940-1979
17,74,86,108,134
... ..Contro 1 of hemiparasitic
Santanales and
Schropulsriaceae,
1930-1979
WROnos. 28,75,98,142 .......
..Contro 1 of Imperata spp., 1954-1980
WROnos. 32,51,100 ..........
..Contro 1 of Cuscuta spp., 1923-1976
WROno. 33 ..................
..Contro 1 of Scirpus spp.
WROno. 37 ..................
..Contro 1 of Cyperus rotundus and C.
esculentus,
1968-1970
WROnos. 84, 139..............Minim
um cultivation,
1959-1979
WROno. 85 ..................
..Wee d control
in upland rice,
1964-1974
WROno. 93 ..................
..Contro 1 of wild Oryza spp., 1949-1976
WROno. 94 ..................
..Wee d control
in jute and kenaf, 1955-1976
WROno. 105 .................
..Contro 1 of Rottboellia
exaltata,
1955-1976
WROno. 109 .................
..Contro 1 of Eupatorium spp., 1956-1977
WROno. ill.................
..Contro 1 of Mikania spp., 1960-1977
WROno. 115...................Economic
s of weed control,
1967-1977
WROno. 116 .................
..Wee d control
in temperate and tropical
crops, 1970-1977
WROno. 127 ...................
Weed control
with herbivorous
fish,
1957-1978
CAB no. 25....................Minim
um tillage
CAB (S) no. 1565R .............
Minimum and zero tillage,
1958-1972
CBAE..........................
Economics of plant protection,
1965-1971
CAB (G) nos. 335,335A,335B .. ..Intercroppin
g in the tropics
and subtropics
CAB (G) nos. 278(1),278(2)
278(3) .........
..Cro p rotations
in the tropics
Agricultural
Index
(H.W. Wilson
Agricultural
Engineering
Index
Co.,
(compiler
Dictionary
Catalog of the National
Library,
USDA, USA, Vol. 70
IRRI.
International
Bibliography
New York, Scarecrow Press,
Ramos, M.M. International
i973-1974
and 1978,
Lee, S.A.
Preliminary
Malaysia,
1979
NY, USA)
1916-1961
C.W. Hall)
1907-1970
Agricultural
1862-1965
of Rice Research,
1963
1951-1960,
Bibliography
on Cropping Systems,
IRRI, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines
list
of references
on weed control
in
TABLE 1 kont,
>
maghrebine.
In:
Yana, M.A.; Basset, A. Elements de bibliographie
Conference
sur le problsme des mauvaises herbes et les moyens
de lutte,
Tunis, 1969
Les cultures
IRAT.
Riehl,
1977
s.; Rinch, M.; Wolff, A.E.; Khan, S.M.A.; Baker,
Bibliography
of Dryland Agriculture,
Deutsch, A.E.
1980, Oregon State University,
USA
Fisher,
D.
bibliographie,
associges:
R.;
3rd ed.,
H.H.; Locatelli,
E,; Anderson, C.; Chase, R. A partial
bibliography
of weed research and control
for South and Central
IPPC, 2nd ed.
America, the Caribbean and Mexico, 1942-1976,
COMPUTER SEARCHES USED
'Mulches'
USDA AGRICOLA Quick bibliography:
USDA AGRICOLA Weeds and weeding in rice
Weeding on smallholdings
CAB WAERSA
30
l/1974-ii/l978
1973-a/1980
Selection
criteria
The bibliography
of the farming
ing with
focuses
system of the small-scale
new tools,
not normally
herbicides
included
innovations
fit
on the small
bicide
trials,
will
for
excluded
be able
weed science
exception
texts
listed
The text
corner
papers
describing
were
is hoped that
novel
fish
readers
nature
from the
techniques,
to control
on small
weeds,
are not
literature.
used in the bibliography
by the letter
An
such as
farms and which
in the international
(see:
of weed-
research
of this
her-
1.01 of the bibliography.
or herbivorous
as indicated
of each abstract
It
were
or described
papers
and similar
describing
of the abstracts
sources,
abstract
in section
described
system,
information
have some application
known or often
several
general
'weed-wipers'
which might
crop,
deal-
of how such
the optimum timing
from the bibliography.
was made for
the use of
well
a particular
to obtain
Thus, papers
a discussion
reason,
to determine
part
of weed control
farming
For this
experiments
ing operations
farm.
they contained
the small-scale
farm.
as an integral
and techniques
unless
into
trials
normally
on weed control
came from
at the bottom
"Anatomy of an Entry"
right-hand
for
a list
of
sources).
Reference
classification
The emphasis
of the bibliography
is on small-scale
farming
systems and the introduction
of innovations
into
The references
not classified
by crop or by type of
weed-control
by their
are therefore
technology
relevance
(e.g.
herbicides,
to different
types
farming
systems
are broadly
classified
logical
zones:
paddy rice,
highland
tropics
and semi-arid
Mosi authors
of their
ular
research,
ecological
farming
equipment,
of farming
under
systems.
mulches)
but
systems.
The
the following
eco-
and temperate
zone,
humid
tropics.
did not include
so the decision
zone was normally
31
climatic
information
to allocate
about
a reference
based on the geographical
the site
to a particlocation
of the research
site,
the type of crops
treme
grown.
('Semi-Humid')
Figure
1.
reference,
farming
'general'
of the
or when it
appeared
all
line
about
to contain
ecological
from the
information
zones,
it
t
32
Review,
or placed
Vol LI,
a particular
to
was allocated
Figure 1.
THE HUMID TROPICS
The Geographical
'Semi-arid
relevant
section.
(Based on:
the ex-
and is shown in
how to classify
zones,
such as
dividing
delineated
in two or more ecological
the relevant
in the paper
'Humid Tropics'
was arbitrarily
was any doubt
for
'clues'
is no clear
When there
systems
keywords
with
There
limit
- the border
Tropics'
together
1961)
in the
Included
indexes
The bibliography
liographic
listings)
structured
list
crop,
keywords
list
Region,
Equipment
and Miscellaneous.
should
describing
etc.
first
find
of keywords.
the following
Crop,
Weed Control
lists
keyword
weed control
list
used
contains
to be used in conjunc-
The structured
into
list
categories:
System,
of
Climatic
Weed Control
Problem Weeds, Biological
To use the alphabetic
the appropriate
a
The keywords
keyword
is intended
and Herbicides,
the bib-
references:
The alphabetic
region,
it
keywords
Zone, Geographical
trol
references
instead,
separates
Technique,
for
follow
item referenced
chosen and the alphabetic
the structured
for
and alphabetical,
geographical
no cross-referencing;
with
(which
search
and keywords.
can be used to search
were arbitrarily
indexes
the reader
of keywords;
in a partictilar
tion
four
to help
institutions,
of authors,
list
contains
keyword
keyword
Con-
list,
the reader
in the structured
list
of
keywords.
Acquisition
of cited
documents
readers
who cannot
To help
ography
lists
for
each reference
copy of the original
cated
find
document
by the initials
given
documents
an institution
on request.
at the bottom
locally,
the bibli-
which will
send a
The institution
left-hand
is indi-
corner
of each
abstract:
CAB
Commonwealth Agricultural
Bureaux,
Farnham House
Farnham Royal
Slough
SL2 3BN
UK
Photocopies
of most periodical
of the CAB abstracting
The abstracting
sited:
journal
journals
this
abstracted
can be provided
and abstract
in the bibliography
Example:
articles
follows
in one
on request.
number should
the letters
CAB (WA 30-1111)
=
Weed Abstracts,
WA =
Weed Abstracts
FCA =
Field
Volume 30, Abstract
Crop Abstracts
1111
be
CAB.
The cost
(as of August,
overseas
(by air);
with
ATA
1981) is 25 p. per page sent
20 p. per page for
a minimum order
Kingdom,
abstracted
in ATA
of f2 per item.
Abstracts
on Tropical
Koninklijk
Instituut
Department
of Agricultural
Mauritskade
the United
Agriculture
voor de Tropen
iiesearch
63
1092 AD Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Photocopies
of any periodical
can be supplied
of Dfl.
WRO
article
on request
at a cost
(as of August,
1981)
0.75 per page.
The Library,
A.R.C.
Weed Research
Begbroke
Hill
Yarnton,
Oxford
Organisation
OX5 1PF
UK
Photocopies
of any article
at the same cost
ITDG
Intermediate
A.R.S.
as photocopies
Technology
Agriculture
'WRO' can be supplied
from CAB (see above).
Development
Group
Unit
Shinfield,
Reading,
marked
Shinfield
Berkshire
Rd.
RG2 4AE
UK
Photocopies
IPPC
of articles
request.
The cost
page with
a minimum order
International
Oregon State
Corvallis,
OR 97331
can be supplied
1981)
is 25 p. per
of 612.00 per mailing.
Protection
University
34
'ITDG'
(as of August,
Plant
USA
marked
Center
on
.-. __^_._l
IPPC offers
a series
commercial
institutions
less
developed
major
charges
papers
for
as well
as free
and related
a free
Agric.
Agriculture,
A schedule
of
services
ingredient
Agron.
Agronomy,
Biol.
Biology,
Coil.
College
De
German (Deutsch)
Dept.
Department
Dev.
Development
Div.
Division
D.M.
Dry Matter
En
English
Es
Spanish
Exp.
Experimental,
Fat.
Faculty
Fr
French
Govt.
Government
In
Indonesia
Inst.
Institute,
Int.
International
Lab.
Laboratory,
Laboratoire
Mach.
Machinery,
Machinisme
Nat.
National
Nl
Dutch
No.
Number, Numero, etc.
Pre-em.
Pre-emergence
Prot.
Protection
Rech.
Recherche(s)
Res.
Research
Agricultural,
Agronmique(s)
Biological
(Espa501)
Experimentation
(Francais)
Institut,
(Nederlands)
etc.
Agricole,
copy of
ser-
used
active
in a
photocopy
cases.
A.i.
non-
working
qualify
and publications.
for publications
in other
i
country,
of other
Also,
reprints.
and individuals,
IPPC publications
vice
Abbreviations
01 free
Agricola
applies
Ref.
Reference
Rs.
Rupees
Ru
Russian
Sect.
Section
Sta.
Station
Tech.
Technology
Trop.
Tropical(e)
Univ.
University,
Vol.
Volume
Universidad,
etc.
Anatomy of an entry
The bibliography
full
bibliographic
affiliation
the source
the original
below it
details
over
document.
papers,
under
only
300 references,
including
(in square brackets),
indicating
related
contains
the author's
an abstract,
of the text
the first
the heading:
keywords,
has written
is abstracted
"see also
36
institutional
of the abstract
Where one author
-II.
each containing
and letters
and one source
of
two or more closely
and the others
are cited
Figure 2.
IDENTIFICATION OF ENTRY ELEKENTS
title
indicate
that
it is an English
translation
of a
Document 15 in
section
2.27
Tadpole
released
shrimp
(Triops
The eggs hatched
the same time
the soil
50/m2;
eggs were
and T.
- longicaudatus)
of transplanted
rice at puddling
on the 4th day after
6-7 days later.
in shrimp
of tadpole
shrimps
plots
puddling
as weed emergence and the shrimps
surface
the increase
density
granarius
in experimental
did
Weed populations
decreased
The effective
population
populations.
shrimps
at almost
began to scratch
for weed control
was estimated
not damage the transplanted
1
Language of
paper (capitalised) and
summary lang;;',:I
(lower-
with
at
.
.
rice.
- English
- Spanish
Abstract
d
;~2r,.3:$;iadd~d~ice
From which source
original
document
can be obtained see "How to acquire
the documents cited
in the bibliography"
Keywords
c3
CA!3
Abstracting
Journals
37
(yle
fo'i_l
A Author's
summary
JAFC Julia Compton (compiler)
ATS Appropriate
Technology
sourcebook
TA Tropical
Abstracts
ATA Abstracts
on Tropical
Agriculture
AIDRA AID Research and Development Abstracts
WA Weed Abstracts
FCA Field Crop Abstracts
FA Forestry Abstracts
AEA Agricultural
Engineering
Abstracts
WARRSA World Agricultural
Econmics and Rural
Sociologi
Abstracts
IV, Bib1 iomrW
1.
GENERAL
1.01 Textbooks
and reference
10102
works
A few of the many good general texts
Note:
on weed control
have been included
in this
section
for the use of readers who require
background information
or particular
herbiFor a complete listcide recommendations.
ing of weed science texts,
the Weed Science
Publication
List,
published
by the International
Weed Science Society should be
consulted
(Int. Weed Sci. Society,
c/o Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon State Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA).
GUPTA, O.P.; LAMBA, P.S. Modern weed
control
in the tropics
and sub-tropics.
Today and Tomorrow's Printers
and Publishers,
Desh Bandhu Gupta Rd.,
New Delhi - 110005, India (1978), 420 pp.
A valuable
textbook
including
chapters
on importance,
classification
and propagation of weeds: weed-crop competition;
the principles
of weed control;
cultural
practices
for weed control;
biological
control
of weeds; the uses of herbicides,
their chemistry
and action
(9 chapters);
and a chapter on the herbicide
application equipment used in India.
A further
section
(5 chapters)
is devoted to weed
control
recommendations
for a variety
of crop and noncrop situations
in India.
Appendices include data on herbicides,
lists
of common and scientific
names of
Indian weeds, and sources of weed control equipment in India.
10101
DEUSE, .I.; LAVABRE, E-M. [Weed Control
~&herbayu
des
in Tropical
Crops!.
Paris,
cultures
sous les tropiques.
France; G.P. Maisonneuve et Larose
(1979), 312 pp. ISBN 2-7068-0756-3
[Fr] Techniques Agricoles
et Productions Tropicales,
XXVIII.
This text embodies the experience
accumulated by French agronomists
and
weed scientists
working in the tropics,
particularly
in West Africa,
over the
There are brief
intropast 20 years.
ductory
sections on weed biology,
crop
losses, methods of weed control
and
herbicide
classification
and a more
detailed
chapter on application
methods,
giving particular
emphasis to the use
of hand-held CDA (Controlled
Drop
Application)
sprayers.
-10103
BeJOSHI, N. Manual of weed control.
search Corni ny Publications,
75/1A, East
Azad Nagar, Delhi - 51, India (1974),
362 pp.
Includes a short introduction,
tables of
common and Latin names of Indian weeds,
an introduction
to the uses and properties of herbicides,
and tables showing
recommended herbicides
for use in variThe
ous crop and noncrop situations.
main part of the book is devoted to an
extensive
list
of herbicides
with a
discussion
of the chemistry,
properties
and uses of each.
There are then sections
on each of the
major (and some minor) tropical
crops.
As different
authors have prepared
different
chapters,
there is no standard method of presentation
and the
degree of detail
varies considerably.
there is no attempt to deIn general,
fine precise
recommendations,
but
rather
to indicate
the range of problems in each crop situation
and the
main herbicide
treatments
available.
There are comprehensive
bibliographies
at the end of each crop section and a
selection
of good colour illustrations
of equipment,
methods and results
in a range of situations.
Appendices
provide useful lists
of major reference
books, weed floras,
research
institutes
and a glossary
of technical
terms.
--
JAFC
--
JAFC
10104
in the
KASASIAN, L. Weed control
Leonard Hill,
London (1971),
tropics.
307 pp. ISBN O-249-44097-0.
Separate sections
deal respectively
general aspects of weeds and
with:
weed competition;
basic methods of weed
control;
herbicides,
and their classifi-
From the review by
C. Parker (published
orginally
in the journal
of PANS)
39
10107
cation,
properties,
mode of action,
formulation,
application,
persistence
in the soil and residual
effect
in the
plant;
precautions
in the use of herbicides and first
aid measures; field
experimentation
techniques
and statistical
analysis
of herbicide
trials;
specific
weed problems;
aquatic weed
tree and brush control;
vegetacontrol;
tion control
of uncropped land; and,
soil fumigation.
MERCADO, B.L.
Introduction
to weed
science.
Southeast Asian Regional Center
for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture,
University
of the Philippines
at Los Baiios
(19791, 292 ppThis volume has put together
research
data and other information
on the biology
of and damaqes caused by weeds under
tropical
conditions,
particularly
in
Southeast Asia, involving
such crops as
rice,
corn, legumes, vegetables,
plall~ation crops, pastures,
root and tuber
crops, multiple
cropping systems and
aquatic resources.
The book characterises over 70 weed species with a comprehensive study on the morphology,
distribution,
conditions
for growth and methods
of control
of major species that are
considered
problematic
in many Asian
countries
where rice is a principal
crop _ ii compares ihe efficacy
of ciifferent control
methods under tropical
conditions
with emphasis on the timing
of control
treatments
with respect
to
size of farm operation,
economic status
of the farmer, stage of crop growth, and
a host of other environmental
considerations.
There follows a collection
of detailed
reviews of the effect
of weeds on and
of weed control
in some seventy of the
Numerous
most important
tropical
crops.
references
are provided a.. the end of
each section and there are some excelAppendices include
lent photographs.
selected
bibliographies
of useful pubaddresses of research centres
lications,
and manufacturers,
maximum permitted
residues
in tropical
and subtropical
details
crops in the USA, and tabulated
There
of crop responses to herbicides.
is a glossary
and an index.
^-
WA
10105
The book also calls attention
to the need
for the enforcement of pesticide
laws
It proin Southeast Asian countries.
vides information
on the toxicological
requirements
for herbicide
registration.
KRANZ, J.; SCHMUTTERER,H.; KOCH, W.
Diseases, pests and weeds in
teds.).
Verlag Paul Parey,
tropical
crops.
Berlin
(19771, 666 pp.
Pp. 543-616.
cal crops are
The importance
herbicides)
of
--
Important
weeds in tropilisted,
grouped by family.
and control
(mainly by
each weed is discussed.
--
1.1
From the forewoid
J.D. Drilon,
Jr.
by
REVIEWS AND RF.GIoQL STUDIES
JAFC
11001
MOODY, K. Weeds
and shifting
cultivation.
PANS (1975), 21(2):
188-194 [Int.
Inst.
Tropical
Agric.,
Ibadan, Nigeria].
10106
IVENS, G.W. East African
Weeds and
Their Control.
oxford University
Press, Oxford and Nairobi
(1967),
250 pp.
Traditional
l&w-intensive
methods of
associatweed control
which are normally
ed with shifting
cultivation
are briefly
evaluated
and compared with the use of
herbicides
and improved cultural
pracProblems that occur in shifting
tices.
cultivation,
such as weed seed dormancy,
erosion and a changing weed population,
are discussed.
Suggestions
are made for
A large biblireducing these problems.
ography on traditional
farming systems in
the tropics
is appended.
220 important
water weeds, grass and
sedge weeds, woody weeds and herbaceous weeds of East Africa
are listed.
Each weed is described
and illustrated,
and its importance,
distribution
and
methods of control
are explained.
--
JAFC
CAB (WA 25-1136)
traditional
fallow
40
systems;
JAFC
shifting
cultivation;
11002
LEWIS, C.J.; WATSON, G.A. Extension
work with herbicides
in the small scale
In : Proceedtropical
farm situation.
ings, 11th British
Weed Control Conference, London, UK, British
Crop Protection
Council
(19721, 1078-1083 [ICI Plant
Protection
Ltd., Fernhurst,
Haslemere,
Surrey, UK].
Minimum cultivation
techniques
have been
widely adopted by small-scale
farmers
in the wet zone of Sri Lanka where, in
waterlogged
paddies often infested
with
Salvinia
auriculata,
a precultivation
spray with paraquat has reduced the work
of land preparation
to a minimum and
Minimum
made double cropping possible.
cultivation
techniques
based on paraquat
are also used by small-scale
farmers
in Japan, Western Malaysia,
South India
However, in an
and the Philippines.
extension
scheme carried
out in 19691970 and aimed at introducing
paraquat
and 2,4-D to the farmers of the state of
Orissa,
India, most farmers adopting
these herbicides
were in the larger
farm
size group (lo+ acres) and most repeat
purchases came from this group.
Socioeconomic changes may need to occur if
peasant farmers are to benefit
from
technological
introductions
of this type.
CAB (WA 23-1193)
novel
systems;
cides;
social
Figure
32001
tillage;
aquatic
Dutch hoe, ref
no. 11003,
11004
Weeds and Their
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.
ted.).
Control in the Humid and Subhumid TrODiCS.
Proceedi=
of a Conference held at the
International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria,
1978 (1980).
International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria,
Proceedings Series No. 3, 421 pp.
Contains many review papers giving
some
information
on cropping
systems and weed
control practices
in Nigeria,
Togo, Ghana,
Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Seneqal, Kenya,
Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zaire,
as
well as papers discussing
the economics
of weed management in West African
cropping systems, the economic constraints
to introduction
of weed control
technology in Latin America, and the practical
problems associated
with introduction
of herbicides
to small farmers in
West Africa.
JAFC
minimum
analysis;
3.
herbiweeds
11003
DRUIJFF, A.H.
weed control
in smallscale tropical
farming.
In:
Proceedings, 11th British
Weed Control Conference, London, UK, British
Crop Protection Council
(1972), 458-465 [International
Land Development Consultants,
N.V. II&CO, P.O.B. 33, Arnhem, Netherlands].
-humid tropics;
West Africa;
semi-arid
tropics
JAFC
East
Africa;
11005
The weed problems of some ILACO projects
in developing
countries
are described
together
with the practical
difficulties
encountered
in introducing
new methods
and tools.
In two projects,
six new
hoe types were introduced
and their efficiency compared with that of the local
attitudes
to the new
tool;
farmers'
tools are also recorded.
CAB (WA 23-214)
novel
systems;
see also
KLINE, C.K.; GREEN, D.A.G.; DONAHUE. R.L.;
Agricultural
Mechanisation
STOUT, B.A.
in Equatorial
Africa.
Institute
of International
Agriculture,
College of Aqriculture
and Natural
Resources, Research
Report No. 6 (19691, 593 pp. 511 refs.
[Dept. of Aqric.
Eng., Inst. Internat.
Michigan State Univ., East LanAgric.,
sing, MI 48823, USA].
WA/JAFC
hand
This lengthy report on agricultural
mechanisation
in tropical
equatorial
kfrica
is the result
of detailed
studies conducted in Ethiopia
and Ghana, with additional
visits
to projects
in the Gambia,
tools
52302
41
handweeding,
while the labour
ments were fairly
low.
Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria,
Senqal and
It encompasses hand tools,
Tanzania.
animal-drawn
implements and motorised
The report
is divided
into
equipment.
The first
consists
of
three parts.
recommendations
and guidelines
arisinq
The second, entitled
from the studies.
'A documentary field
study,'
includes
'qenthe following
section headings:
era1 description
of present fanning
systems in selected
equatorial
African
countries'
(a series of case studies
of hand-, animal- and engine-powered
'engineering
and technical
systems),
analysis
of agricultural
production
operations'
(including
a discussion
of
tillaqe,
pp. 2-166 to 2-197, and of
weeding and intercultivation,
pp. 2-222
'analyses
of present farming
to 2-238),
of improved
systems,'
and 'introduction
technology
and power into present farmThe third part consists
ing systems.'
of a comprehensive
list
of references
relevant
to agricultural
mechanisation
in equatorial
Africa,
type of mechanisatisn
(hand-, animal- or enginepowered), and keywords.
--
require-
CAB (AEA 2-453)
semi-arid
tropics;
traditional
hand tOOlSi
systems;
JAFC
humid
tropics;
novel
systems;
animal-drawn
implements;
rice;
motor-powered
implements;
upland
land preparation;
inter-row
cultivation;
West Africa;
herbicides
11007
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.
Weed control
in Nigeria.
PANS (1979), 25(3)287-298
Lint.
Inst.
Tropical
Aqric.,
PMB 5320 Ibadan,
Nigeria].
This paper reviews the major weeds of
field crops and the status of weed control in relation
to crop production
pracA brief review of
tices in Nigeria.
traditional
methods of weed control
is
followed by a discussion
of more recent
approaches to the problem of weed control
in cereals,
food legumes and root crops.
JAE'C
CAB (WA 29-1507)
West Africa;
East Africa;
traditional
systems;
hand tools;
animal-drawn
implements;
motor-powered
implements;
manual implements
West
systems;
tuber
Africa;
traditional
cereals;
grain
crops
JAFC
systems;
legumes;
novel
root and
11006
CURFS, H.P.F.
Systems Development in
Agricultural
Mechanization
with Special
Reference to Soil Tillaqe
and Weed
Control:
A case Study for West Africa.
Mededelinsen.
Landbouwhoseschool.
Wageningen (19761, No. 76-5, 184.~~.
11008
in the Congo
MIRACLE, M.P. Agriculture
Basin:
Tradition
and Change in African
University
of Wisconsin
Rural Economies.
Press. Madison. Milwaukee and London
(1967), 355 pp: Library
of Congress Catalog No. 67-26628.
This study deals with mechanisation
in
West Africa.
The principles
and strategy of mechanisation
are reviewed,
and
present cropping systems in West Africa
are described
in some detail.
Some
model studies on mechanisation
are reported,
which indicate
the importance
of soil tillage
and weed control
for
most mechanisation
levels.
The weed
growth effects
of different
tillaqe
practices
are reviewed,
with emphasis
on rice,
and the results
of a study on
a number of manual and mechanical weed
control
practices
in rice are given,
Mechanical
inter-row
weedinq of upland
rice was not found to be very effective,
and did not result
in reduced labour
requirements
compared to manual weeding
alone, when used in combination
with
manual weeding.
The highest
yields were
obtained
by chemical weed control
methods, either
alone or with supplementary
A comprehensive
review of studies on the
agriculture
of the Congo Basin, including
some original
field data.
Agricultural
systems of the region,
including
12
classes of tropical
long-fallow
systems,
ash fertiliser-dependent
long-fallow
systems, sompost-dependent
systems, and
Agrishort-fallow
systems, are outlined.
cultural
operations
and the way they inin as much detail
terlock
are described
as is available
in the original
studies.
Weeding
Tools mentioned are illustrated.
operations
are described
for each agricultural
system when the information
is
available.
The weeding value of such
practices
as site selection
and clearance practices
is recoqnised
by the author . The book emphasises the great
,‘,‘
,‘,
,,.
.,
42
Row planting
with the local
farmer.
plough followed
by intercultLvations
with
the plough, the introduction
of harrows
and trials
with granulated
herbicides.are
recommended.
diversity
of cropping systems which
may evolve to cope with very similar
ecological
situations
and that the
amount of weed growth is one of the
crucial
factors
in selecting
one cropping system over another.
A
CAB (WA 22-7)
--
JAFC
traditional
Central
Africa;
shifting
cultivation;
fallow;
tools
intercropping
East Africa;
novel
systems
systems:
hand
traditional
systems;
11011
INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CENTER, USA.
Terminal Report, Weed Control Systems for
Representative
Farms in Developing
Countries.
Terminal Report, Agency for International
Development/Oregon
State University
No. 18-C-76, 120 pp. [Int.
Plant
Prot. Center, Oregon State Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
11009
Economics of weed
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.
control
in the Azican
tropics
and
Proceedings,
15th
sub-tropics.
In:
British
Weed Control Conference,
Brighton,
UK, British
Crop Protection
PMB 5320,
Council
(19801, 911-920 [IITA,
Ibadan, Nigeria].
(1976)
An investigation
of weed control
systems
and policies
in three ecologic
and cultural
El Salvador,
and
zones - one in central
two in Northeast
Brazil.
The weed control
systems were investigated
to determine
their effect
on economic efficiency,
employment and income distribution.
Manual
methods were most efficient
for small farms
Chemiproducing beans, maize and sorghum.
cal and mechanical
control methods appeared
more economical
for cassava, sugarcane,
and
rice grown on larger
farms.
Evidence from
El Salvado: demonstrates
that, under some
conditions,
efficient
weed control
methods
can substitute
for fertiliser.
In areas
of labour abundance, manual weed control
methods are most economical and efficient
in growing food crops on small farms operated by farmers with limited
capital
and
low ievels of training.
More advanced weed
control methods are economical on plantations and large commercial farms where
labour costs are higher,
capital
and credit
are more abundant and, generally,
government subsidies
and support prices are more
favourable.
Manual weed control
methods
are generally
impracticable
for wheat and
rice.
In situations
where land itself
is
not limiting,
the major factor determining
how many hectares
a farmer will plant is
his ability
to clear the land before
planting
and to keep the crop weeded.
Adverse weather often delays manual weeding,
For the sugar
resulting
in yield losses.
plantations
of Northeast
Brazil
and the
large rice farms of central
El Salvador,
the least cost weed control method is consistently
chemical when private
prices are
used, and manual when social prices are
A review briefly
covering
weed control
methods used in field
crops in Africa,
labour use in field
crops, and giving
the results
of a trial
studying
the
economics of weed control
using hoe
weeding and herbicides
in Nigeria.
In
many parts of Nigeria,
the opportunity
cost of the farmer's
time is high and
the farmer prefers using herbicides
to
'hiring
labour to using family labour
for weeding.
CAB (WA 30-3766)
West Africa;
economic
social
analysis
l
JAFC
analysis;
11010
..
ALKAMPER, J.
[General problems with
weed control
inw.a
] . (Paper at
Symposium Arbeisqruppe
ijnkrautprobleme
Warmer Klimate im Arbeitskreis
Herbologie der DPG, Stuttgart-Hohenheim,
1972).
Berichte
aus der Abteilung
fiir
Herbologie
an der Universitst
Hohenheim
(19721, No. 3, 81-92 [De, en] [Tropeninst.,
Justus Liebig-Univ.
Giessen,
German Federal Republic].
Current weed control
practices
in field
crops and scope for development
of improved techniques
are discussed.
Handweeding is very labourious,
and herbicides are too expensive
for the small
43
The welfare of small farmers canused.
not be improved significantly
by focusing only on a single problem,
such as
Government policies
afweed control.
fecting
inputs and outputs must be considered.
WA
IPPC
Central
systems:
analysis;
1-2
1.21
America;
Brazil;
traditional
economic
anaiysis;
social
Phaseolus;
maize;
sorghum
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Tools
and implements
12101
Farm Implements for Arid
HOPFEN, H.J.
FAO Agricultural
and 'Tropical
Regions.
Development Paper (1969), No. 91, Food
and Agriculture
Orqanisation
of the
United Nations,
Rome.
Brief descriptions
and clear line drawings are presented
for a wide range of
tools and implements from many counIncludes many implements
(e.g.,
tries.
a range of ards) not covered in other
works.
-hand
JAFC
manual implements;
implements;
motorimplements
tools;
animal-drawn
powered
Figure 4. A series of sole ards:
a) Pakistan:
b) Afghan avd from Kabul
Province;
c) Nepal; d) Cyprus; e) KurdIraq; f) double-sole
ard, Syria.
istan,
(FAO drawings).
Ref no. 12101
12102
A
BOYD, J. ~001s for Agriculture;
Buyer's guide to Low-Cost Agricultural
Intermediate
Technology
Implements.
Publications,
London (1976), 2nd ed.,
173 pp.
This guide describes
commercially
manufactured
small farm implements which are
available
for use in developing
countries
and gives the names and addresses of the
It contains
information
manufacturers.
animal-drawn
and small
on hand-operated,
engine-powered
equipment,
and supersedes
the directory
published
by the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG)
in 1973 under the title
Tools for AgriGuide tc hand-operated
and
culture:
The informaanimal-drawn
equipment.
tion contained
in this guide is based
on that supplied by manufacturers.
A
photograph
or line drawing and brief
description
of each implement are qiven.
The book includes
sections
on equipment
for tillage
and cultivation
(pp. 19-40)
and for crop protection
(pp. 51-91).
Sickles
and other slashing
tools are
included with harvesting
equipment
(pp. 105-106).
The guide is currently
and updated by ITDG.
being
and maintenance of some chosen pieces
of equipment.
The book includes
sections
on tools for cultivation
(#. 18-86), animal-drawn
cultivation
equipment
(pp. 87-126) and on mulch
spreaders
(pp. 420-421).
--
JAFC
hand tools;
manual implements:
drawn implements;
motor-powered
implements;
mulching
animal-
revised
12104
JAFC
ITDG
hand tools;
motor-powered
implements;
equipment
Figure 5.
drawing).
CENTRE D'ETUDES ET D'EXPERIMENTATION
DE MACHINISti AGRICOLE TROPICAL (CEEMAT).
The Employment of Draught Animals in
Agriculture.
English Translation,
Food
and Agriculture
Organisation
of the
United Nations,
Rome (1972), 249 pp.
animal-drawn
implements;
implements;
manual
herbicide
application
Ox drawn ridger.
Ref no. 12102
This manual, originally
written
for agronomists and technicians
in the Frenchspeaking African
states,
was intended to
be used in the preparation
and conduct
of animal draught mechanisation
operations.
It includes
a detailed
consideration of the draught animals available
in Africa,
the impiements involved,
the
rural skills
required
to use the animals
and implements to best advantage,
and
the economic aspects.
Of particular
relevance
to weed control
are the following sections:
animal draught agricultural implements
(pp. 73-78); soil preparation
in rainfed
farming (pp. 79-81);
implements for working the soil while
dry (pp. 82-124); equipment for the soil
preparation
of irrigated
rice fields
(pp. 125-139):
equipment for weed control
and crop protection
(pp. 156-173);
and
a comparison of the time and cost of
cultivation
by hand, with draught animals and with power equipment
(pp.226234).
(ITDG
12103
BRANCH, D.S. (ed.)'.
Tools for Homesteaders,
Gardeners and Small-Scale
Farmers.
Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, USA,
and Intermediate
Technology
Publications,
London, UK (1978). 512 pp. ISBN
O-87857-235-X.
This book, compiled by the editors
of
the USA journals
Organic Gardening and
New Farm, is partly
based on Tools for
It is princiAgriculture
(no. 12102).
pally written
for small-scale
farmers
in the United States,
but includes
a
mass of information
on agricultural
tool and implement manufacturers
worldwide, some of it not included
in the
1976 edition
of Tools for Agriculture.
A short description
of each implement
is given, based on information
supplied
by the manufacturers,
with the manufacturer's
address.
This information
is
interspersed
with informally-written
articles
on the design,
use, handling
--
JAFC
semi-arid
tropics;
animal-drawn
implements;
economic
analysis;
West Africa;
land preparation:
inter-row
cultivation
12105
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGYD~LOPMENT
GROUP. Agricultural
Green Leaflets.
Intermediate
Technology Publications,
9 King St., London WC2E EBN, U.K. (19731976) Price (1981):
CO.75 each.
45
groundnuts.
The share is adjustable
to
allow these different
operations
to be
carried
out.
The following
review
is taken from the
Technology
Sourcebook
leds.
K. Darrow and R. Pam), Volunteer
in
Asia Publication,
2nd edition
(1978/,
California,
USA:
304 PP., Stanford,
Appropriate
#11-Ox-Drawn Tie-Ridger/Weeder
Implement,
dimensional
drawings,
3 pages, origin:
Malawi.
MATEPU4L.5: steel pipe, flat steel,
steel bar, angle iron, and an old plough
disc.
PRODUCTION: some welding and metal
bending.
Dimensional
drawings with English and
metric units.
Fabrication
is straightand uncomplicated,
requiring
forward,
some welding.
The instructions
for
field use are vague.
"This implement is an attachment
only,
designed for use with the 'EMCOT' oxdrawn ridginq
plow."
It can be used for
cross-tying
during ridging,
and for both
cross-tying
and weeding after ridging.
Precisely
what 'cross-tying'
means is
not made clear for anyone unfamiliar
with ti-7 technique.
Ridging and crossit is claimed,
have resulted
in
tying,
substantial
crop yield gains on certain
free-draining
soils in Africa.
This
attachment
(with the EMCOTplough) cut
the labour requirement
for use of this
technique
in land preparation
and weeding by an estimated
"60% when compared
with cultivation
by hand."
The following
plans, called
'Aqricultural Green Leaflets,'
are offered by
ITDG. Most of these tools were designed
for agricultural
conditions
in Africa.
These leaflets
were
originally
intended
for distribution
to experienced
agricultural
engineers
in the field,
and
the descriptive
text is often brief.
This is unimportant
in most cases, but
for some of the equipment the precise
use is unclear to anyone unfamiliar
with African agricultural
practices.
Construction
details
are quite easy for
anyrne to understand.
#4-tibanyolo
Toolbar,
dimensional
drawings, 5 pages.
MATERIALS: mild steel flat/pipe/bar/
channe;/angle/box
section.
PRODUCTION: some welding.
Dimensional
drawings with English and
Simple but sufficient
for
metric units.
Basically,
this is
local construction.
a locally-built
(and locally-repairable)
steel plough that also functions
as a
A simple skid is
cuitivator/weeder.
used instead of a depth wheel.
ClZ-IDC Weeding Attachment for EMC~L
plow! dimensional
drawings,
3 pages,
origin:
Nigeria.
MATERIALS: flat steel,
sheet metal,
thick high-grade
steel,
steel square
bar.
PRODUCTION: some welding,
cutting,
and
bending metal.
Dimensional
drawings with both English
and metric units.
"This attachment
enables weeding in ridged row crops to
be carried
out by animal power instead
of by hand."
However, this is only an
attachment,
to be used with the EMCOT
plough.
"The tool . ..can be adjusted
for height,
and also for width according to the row spacing.
The sides of
the ridges are remade by the ridger
body following
behind."
Essentially,
the attachment
consists
of two steel
blades that are pulled along through the
earth on the sides of the ridges.
#5-Chitedze
Ridgemaster Toolbar,
dimensional drawings,
6 pages,
origin:
Malawi.
MATERIALS: mild steel tube/bar/box/
angle/ rod, 7" diameter castiron
wheel.
Dimensional
drawings with English and
Simple but sufficient
metric units.
for local construction.
This is a
locally-built
and repairable
combination
steel plough, ridger,
and cultivator.
"The unique design of this toolbar
is
that it combines lightness
with adequate
structural
strength,
the main parts
being fabricated
from rectangular
hollow
section mild steel."
#6-Prototype
Multi-Purpose
Ox-Drawn Tool,
dimensional
drawings,
3 pages, origin:
Nigeria.
MATERIALS: thick mild steel,
nominal
bore pipe.
PRODUCTION: some welding,
metal hole
drilling,
cutting
flat
steel along
curves.
Dimensional
drawings with English and
Simple but sufficient
for
metric units.
This is a prototype
local construction.
of a tool to be used for ridging,
splitting ridges,
cross-tying,
weeding, and
breaking
capped soil in the furrows.
The tool frame was designed with an offset beam to avoid blockage when lifting
#16-Rotary Weeder for Row-Planted Rice,
photoprints,
1 page.
MATERIALS: metal angle/flat
bar/ rod;
l/8" and 3/32" flat plate;
wood handle.
PRODUCTION: some welding and hole
cutting.
The
A single page with four photos.
rotary weeder is a very simple piece of
equipment,
only about lf feet long at
46
implement is not suitable
ing.. ..This
for use in very hard soil conditions.
It can be used in wet soil and has been
-used successfully
for weeding cotton
while water was standing in the furrows."
Measurethe base, with a long handle.
ments are English units only.
Two
star-blade
clusters
are pushed
rotary,
A blade folalong between two rows.
lows the two clusters.
#36-The Weeder-Mulcher,
dimensional
drawings,
3 pages, origin:
India.
MATERIALS: wood beam, mild steel
(flat,
plate,
rod and pipe).
(2) 125 mm diameter metal wheels.
PRODUCTION: metal bending, cutting,
drilling;
weldinq optional.
Dimensional
drawings with metric measurements.
"This animal-drawn
self-cleaning
weeder was originally
developed for use
in sugarcane plantations
(by the Indian
Institute
of Sugarcane Research).
It is
designed to destroy weeds, leave a mulch
on the soil surface to conserve moisture
and give a high work output per day (up
to 5 or 6 acres of row crop work per 8
hour day).
It can be used o:i most row
crops with a spacing of 30 inches (75 cm)
or more . . ..The blades can easily
be replaced by a village
blacksmith."
#17-Multi-Action
Paddy Field Puddling
Tool, photoprints,
1 page, origin:
Japan.
MATERIALS: wood frame, steel sheet,
steel bars, 2" and 3" diameter pipe.
steel
PRODUCTION: some welding,
cutting,
riveting.
Photoprints
with English units only.
Some imagination
would have to be used
by whomever would build from such plans.
are quite
However, the basic principles
clear from the photoprints.
Ox-drawn.
the farmer simply follows
Apparently,
along behind, controlling
the animal
Some weights may need to be atonly.
tached for effective
use.
#31-IT Expandable Cultivator,
dimensionNigeria.
al drawings,
7 pages, origin:
MATERIALS: hardwood beams, mild steel
plate/pipe/spring
leaf.
blacksmith
can
PRODUCTION: a village
make this with a forge, anvil,
hammer,
tongs, punch, and chisel.
Dimensional
drawings with metric units
Simple but sufficient
for local
only.
construction.
This design requires
a
lot of hole drilling
or punching,
and
thus accuracy in measurement.
see also
nos.
52416, 54202
#41-Harrows:
High-Clearance
Peg Tooth
(East Africa),
Triangular
Spike Tooth
(India),
Flexible
Peg Tooth (Iran),
and
Japanese Harrow, dimensional
drawings,
B pages.
MATERIALS: hardwood, steel pieces for
teeth,
steel chain, eyebolts.
PRODUCTION: metal bending, cutting
and
drilling
for two of the designs;
only
use of simple hand tools for the other
two designs.
Dimensional
drawings with
English and metric measurements.
This
leaflet
is a combination
of what were
formerly
offered
as Agricultural
Green
Leaflets
7, 8, and 9. Construction
is
quite simple and evident from the drawings.
"A lightweight
cultivator
designed for
weeding of crops planted
in 70-90 cm
spaced rows in sandy soils,
to be pulled
by one or two oxen or donkeys.
Tines
are individually
adjustable
for depth,
making the implement suitable
for flat
or ridge cultivation."
The width is
also adjustable
for the unit as a whole.
#33-IT High-Clearance
Rotary Hoe, dimensional drawings,
7 pages.
MATERIALS: steel bars, metal water pipe,
hardwood, some bolts.
PRODUCTION: some welding,
metal bending,
metal hole drilling.
Dimensional
drawings with metric measurements only; brief
but sufficient.
These harrows can all be pulled by animals.
The function
of a harrow is to
prepare seedbeds by breaking
soil clods,
cover seeds after broadcast
seeding,
and
control
weeds.
Several of these harrows
are designed to leave weed residue on
the soil surface to conserve moisture.
"This animal-drawn
implement is designed
for seeding of crops grown on ridges at
75-90 cm spacing.
It cultivates
both
sides of one ridge at a time and therefore, unlike cultivators
drawn between
the ridges,
does not require
straight
and parallel
ridges for efficient
weed-
ATS
ITDG
manual implements;
implements
47
animal-drawn
and ox-drawn implements
aration
and weeding.
12106
CHEZE, B. [Weeding machines adapted to
the levels of mechanisation
in certain
tropical
countries].
Mat&ial
de d6sherbage adapt6 aux niveaux de m&anisation
de certains
pays trOpiCaUX.
3 Symposium sur le D&herbage des
In:
Cultures
Tropicales,
Dakar, 1978.
8, Av. du Pr&ident
Wilson, 75116 Paris,
(1978), Vol. II, 507France; Columa.
513 [Fr, en] [C.E.E.M.A.T.,
Part de
Tourvoie,
93160 Antony, France].
West Africa;
motor-powered
application
animal-drawn
implements;
equipment
land
--
prep-
JAFC
East Africa:
hand
drawn implements
tools;
animal-
12109
ISHIHARA, A.; ABWALLI, A.; ARBABI, S.
Farm implements in Iran.
Agricultural
Mechanization
in Asia (1977), 8(4):59-63
Mach. Inst.;
Fat. of Agric.,
[Agric.
Tottori
Univ.,
Kozan-cho, Tottori,
Japan 6801.
A review of the role of machinery in
controlling
weeds, from the ox-drawn
The suitability
hoe to CDA sprayers.
of the latter
to conditions
in tropical
countries,
particularly
in West Africa,
is discussed.
Brief descriptions
of SOme traditional
Iranian
farm tools and implements are
given, including
spades, diyqing
hoes
and digging hooks, ploughs, multipurpose
intercultivation
implements,
implements,
Photographs
sickles,
forks and rakes.
and line drawings are included.
WA
CAB (WA 28-3836)
for
implements;
herbicide
ITDG
JAFC
12107
,
CENTRE D'ETUDES ET D'EXPERIMENTATION DE
MACHINISME AGRICOLE TROPICAL
[Cultivation
of annual
(C.E.E.M.A.T.).
rain-fed
crops with animal-drawn
impleCahiers d'Agriculture
Pratique
mentsl.
des Pays Chauds (19661, 2:103-112 [Fr]
Part de Tourvoie,
93106
[c.E.E.M.A.T.,
Antony, France].
Middle
drawn
West Africa;
aninnl-drawn
semi-arid
implements
tools;
animal-
12110
ALI, N.: PATRA, S.K.; LALL, R.R.
Catalogue of Improved Agricultural
Tools, Implements and Equipment of
Central
Institute
of Agricultural
India.
Geering
(ICAR), Bhopal, India (19791,
192 pp. [Indian
Council for Agricultural
Research (ICAR), Nabi Bagh, Berasia Road,
Bhopal, M.P., India].
Descriptions
and diagrams are given of
ox-drawn and ass-drawn implements suitable for cultivations
in tropical
crops,
and their
uses are explained.
CAB (WA 16-1085)
East;
hand
implements
Agricultural
tools and implements developed and available
in India are described
individually
under the following
headings:
function,
specifications,
where developed,
test results
(suitability
for crops and
soils,
work rate, labour requirement),
approximate
cost, general information,
and address of manufacturer
(in India).
WA
tropics;
12108
MENGESHA, A.H.; LEE, B.; ZEWGEr A.H.y.
Domestic implements of Ethiopia.
A
brief
survey of hand tools,
household
and farming implements of Harar Province.
Imperial
Ethiopian
College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts (1960).
of particular
relevance
to weed control
are the following
manually-operated
tools:
interculture
tools (pp. 19-28); plant
protection
equipment (pp. 29-34); the
tillfollowing
animal-drawn
implements:
age implements
(pp. 47-60); interculturc
implements
(pp. 77-78); and the ultra-low
Largely concerned with household implements, but includes a number of drawings
and informal
descriptions
of hand tools
48
For each implement,
a photograph
and
line drawing (with measurements)
is
accompanied by a listing
of Enqlish and
where
local names, states and districts
and sources of
used, manufacturers
availability,
materials
used, implement
weight,
operating
power, cost, service
life,
usage, method of use, whether repaired locally
or otherwise,
annual maintenance charges, work rate, cost of operation per acre, season of use, total
number of working days in year, percentage of farmers using it, country of
oriqin,
and other remarks.
Apendiccs
give tables of comparative
cost, weight,
power required,
cost of operation,
etc.
for representative
types of ploughs,
harrows and hoes.
volume sprayer
(p. 101).
A detailed
is given
line drawing, with measurements,
for each implement.
--
JAFC
Indian
subcontinent;
hand tools;
animal-drawn
implements;
herbicide
application
equipment
12111
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT
ASSOCIATION (INDIA).
Appropriate
Technology - Directory
of Tools, Equipment,
Processes and IndusMachines, Plants,
(19771, 280 pp- [Approp. Tech.
tries.
Dev. Ass., Post Box 311, Gandhi Bhawan,
Lucknow 226001, U.P., India].
--
This directory
of equipment includes
the following
tools and implements of
double hoe
relevance
to weed control:
with three prongs, seedbed leveller,
spade, weeding hoe (pp. 3-S); multipurpose hand-operated
implement
(pp. 2324) and a paddy transplanter
(pp. 29-30:.
Indian
subcontinent;
manual implements;
implements
JAFC
hand tools;
animal-drawn
12113
TRACTOR TRAINING CENTRE. Guide to
selected
improved hand toomide
prepared]
for the participants
of [the]
International
Agricultural
Machinery
Manufacturing
Development Clinic
(A joint
UNIDO-India project),
New Delhi,
October
1974 (19741, Bulletin
Series 11 (Preliminary Issue),
32 pp. [Audiovisual
Aids
Sect., Govt. of India, Tractor Training
Centre, Hissar,
India].
The use and operation
of each implement
is explained
and a method of constructing it is described
in detail,
aided by
clear line drawings with measurements
(in inches).
JAFC
27 common Indian hand tools and implements are rouqhly illustrated,
with
brief notes on their use, material
of
construction,
maintenance requirements,
Includes
cost in E!s and availability.
hoes, khgrpa, kudali
(= local short-handled weeding hoes and forks),
rakes,
'spades'
(= mattock or heavy hoe), hand
ridgers,
a jute seed drill,
hand dusters
and sprayers,
shears, sickles,
and harA list
vesting
and threshing
equipment.
of Indian manufacturers
of agricultural
equipment,
by state,
is appended together with the names of hand tools supplied.
Indian
subcontinent;
hand tools;
manual implements;
motor-powered
implements;
animal-drawn
implements
12112
INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Impleww . Indigenous Agricultural
An All-Indian
Survey.
ments of India:
Indian Council of Agricultural
Research,
New Delhi (1960), 401 pp.
catalogue
of the indigenous
agricultural
implements of India based on a
country-wide
survey.
Following
a chapter 'on the geographical
features
of the
states participating
in the survey,
and another discussing
the parts and
uses of ploughs, the work catalogues
the ploughs (pp. 53-1281, harrows
(pp. 128-1741, hoes (pp. 17%228),
sowclod crushers,
rollers,
ing devices,
levellers,
ridgers,
and harvesting
implements in use in different
states.
A
--
Indian
subcontinent;
hand tOOlSi
manual implements;
herbicide
application
equipment
49
JAFC
with local implements in trials
on the
fields
of farmers wit11 small and medium
size 'rol<lings in eight districts
of Uttar
Pradesh.
The study concludes that the
paddy puddler and planet junior
improve
weed control
and reduce human- and bullockhours over the traditional
implements
(deshi ha1 plouqh and Khurpi or Kudali
(short-handled
weeding hoes and forks),
respectively).
Figure 6. Heavy hoe (mamooty).
Ref no. 13113, 54401.
Additional
profits
accrued from the use
of the improved implements means that
their cost can be recovered by using them
on less than one hectare of land.
12114
TRACTOR TRAINING CENTRE. Guide to selected animal operated implements.
[Guideants
of
[the]
International
Agricultural
Machinery Manufacturing
Development Clinic
(A
joint
UNIDO-India pro]ect),
New Delhi,
qctober 1974 (1974). Bulletin
Series 12
(Preliminary
Issue),
37 pp. [Audiovisual
Aids Sect., Govt. of India,
Tractor
Training
Centre, Hissar,
India].
CAB (AEA l-72)
I
32 common Indian bullock-drawn
implements
are roughly illustrated
(line drawings)
with brief
notes on their use, material
of coi.struction,
adjustment
in use,
maintenance
requirements,
cost in Rs and
availability.
Includes country and
mouldboard ploughs, ridger
ploughs, cultivators,
harrows, a puddler,
a greenmanure trampler,
seed drills,
a (manual)
paddy weeder, a 'persian
wheel'
(for
A list of
irrigation)
and a thresher.
Indian manufacturers
of agricultural
equipment.
by state,
is appended together with the names of animal-drawn
implements supplied.
-Indian
subcontinent;
implements;
manual
JAFC
Indian
subcontinent;
implements;
economic
Figure
7.
Indian
animal-drawn
analysis
kudali.
Ref no. 12115
12116
HORIO, H. Farm tools in the "Nogu-BenriRon".
Intensive
hoe-farming
during the
Tools and Tillage,
Edo period in Japan.
(19741. 2(31:169-185
[595, Omiya-Chd,
.
Fushimi-Ku,
Kyoto-Shi,
Japan].
JAFC
animal-drawn
implements
This paper describes
some of the farm
tools which appear in the 'Nogfi-BenriRon' (Treatise
on Farm Tools) written
in
1817. Each tool is illustrated
by a line
drawing, with measurements, and its use
is described
in the context of the two
farming systems of the period,
hoe tillage
Both traditional
and animal tillage.
tools and 'improved,
labour-saving
tools'
of the period
(e.g.,
a double-bladed
p-Jugh for inter-row
cultivation)
are
included.
12115
Performance
RASTOGI, R.A.; MITTAL, J.P.
of some improved implements compared to
some conventional
implements.
Indian
Journal of Asricultural
Economics (1975).
30(2):54-61
[Dept. of Agric.
Engineering,
Coll. of Technology,
G.P. Oant Univ. of
. Agric.
and Tech., Pantnagar,
District
Nainital,
India].
JAFC
ITDG
Six improved implements,
including
the
bullock-drawn
paddy puddler and the
hand-operated
planet junior
for interculture
operations
(both described
and
pictured
in no. 51313) were compared
Far East;
implements
50
hand
tools;
animal-drawn
ground, the scythe is quicker
and demands less stooping;
but on rough ground
or where many creepers are present,
the
machete is to be preferred.
12117
MA, F-C.; TAKASAKA, T.; YANG, C. AZliminary
Study of Farm Implements Used
in Taiwan Province.
Chinese-American
Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction,
No.
4, Taipei,
Plant Industry
Series:
Taiwan, China, 2nd ed. (1958), 326 pp.
Plant Industry
Division,
Joint Commission
on Rural Reconstruction.
Part 1: Study of Taiwan Farm Implements
Pp. Pa-22 Variations
in structure
of
Taiwan farm implements and variations
in size, shape and usage of hoes and
harrows in different
districts
of Taiwan
are tabulated
and discussed.
CAB (WA 25-1124)
northern
slashil:g
Far
East;
implements;
herbicide
tools;
application
tools
KULKARNI, S.D.; SIROHI, B.S.
Effect of
improved sickle
on field capacity
and
wheat harvesting
drudgery.
Agricultural
Mechanization
in Asia (Summer 19801, 7174 [Aqric.
Eng. Div.,
Indian Aqric.
Res.
Inst.,
New Delhi 110012, India].
The improved 'Krishi
Udyoq' sickle
was
compared with traditional
sickles
in
trials
of field
performance and worker
satisfaction.
The Krishi Udyoq sickle
was more efficient
and generally
preferred,
although
female workers had some
complaints
about its handle.
It could
/ not be used efficiently
by left-handed
workers.
Dimensional
drawings of a
local sickle
and the improved sickle
are
included.
Although this study concerned
the use of sickles
for harvesting
wheat,
it is possible
they could also be used
for slashing
weeds in certain
situations.
:.TDG
Indian
subcuntinent;
slashing
JAFC
hand
tools
12120
animal-drawn
motor-powered
hand
12119
JAFC
hand
America;
.
of Taiwan Farm
Part 2: Description
Implements
Local and introduced
farm implements are
individually
describedunder
the following headings:
usage, opcost, weight,
erating
power (number of persons or anseason of use, service
imals),
material,
life,
method of application,
work rate,
origin
and additional
observations.
A
line drawing of each is given, with
Of particular
relevance
measurements.
to weed control
are the following
sections:
(1) manual implements:
land preparation
(pp. 100(PP. 53-73). intertillage
128), plant protection
(pp. 158-168)
implements:
land prepi2) animal-drawn
aration
(pp. 259-300),
intertillaqe
(pp. 301-308)
(3) mechanical-powered
implements:
land preparation
(pp. 327-3291,
plant protection
(p. 331).
ITDG
South
ATA
implements;
MARIE, P.; GRILLARD, K.; SEGUY, S.L.
[A "trap"
for weed seeds in rice fields].
In:
2e Symposium sur le Dgsherbaqe des
Cultures
Tropicales,
Montpellier,
1974;
. .
orqanlse par....
COLUMA, 8 av. du
Pregident
Wilson, 75116 Paris, France;
Comitg Francais de Lutte contre les
Mauvaises Herbes (1975), 142-145 [Fr, en]
[Lab. du riz,
Sta. d'Am&lioration
des
Plantes,
Centre Rech. Aqron.,
34 Montpellier,
France].
equipment
1'118
SAR, T., VAN DER. [The use of scythe
and machete for mowing qrassJ.
net
qebruik van zeis en houwer bij bet
maaien van qras.
Surinaamse Landbouw
(19741, 22(1):40-43
[Nl] [CELOS, Paramaribo, Surinam].
This study reports data on the working
times and physical
workload of a labourer mowing grass stands of different
ages,
using several types of scythes and the
traditional
Suriname machete.
On flat
The principle
of a relatively
simple
'trap'
to catch seed brought into rice
fields
by irrigation
water is explained
A diagram of the
and problems discussed.
51
I.
of conventional
knapsack sprayers and
hand-carried
CDA sprayers.
The book
includes over 500 up-to-date
references
and an excellent
index.
The control
of
trap is included.
is the
Bchinochloa
spp. in particular
object of the experiment
but, once percould be used for
feceed, the 'trap'
other weed species.
--
JAFC
A
CAB (WA 25-894)
weed seed source reduction;
irrigated
crops;
paddy rice;
annual
problem
weeds
herbicide
herbicide
herbicide
herbicide
see also Weed Seed Screens for Irrigation
Systems, PNWBulletin
43. 1961, prepared
Profusely
illustrated,
by W. Bergstrom.
this E-page leaflet
describes
various
simple weed screens and their construc(Photocopies
available
through
tion.
IPPC).
see also BINDRA, O.S.; SINGH, H. Pesticide Application
Equipment, Oxford and
IBH, India (1977), 2nd ed., 464 pp.
[Punjab Agricultural
Univ.,
Ludhiana,
India] Describes
application
equipment
with particular
reference
to India.
1.22 Herbicides
and herbicide
see also nos. 12102,
12113, 12117
equipment;
(high volume);
(low volume);
(granules)
12202
application
12106,
application
application
application
application
FRASER, F.; BURRILL, L.C.
Knapsack sprayAccessories.
Iners: Use, Maintenance,
ternational
Plant Protection
Center, Corvallis,
Oregon (1979), Document 29-A-79,
31 pp. [Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon
State Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA]
(1981 price - $3.00).
12110,
12201
Application
MATTHEWS, G.A. Pesticide
Methods.
Lonqmans, New York (1979),
335 pp. [Overseas Spraying Mach. Centre,
Imperial
Coll. Field Station,
Silwood
Park, Ascot, Berks, UK] f20.00 (1981 UK
price).
ISBN O-502-46054-9.
Hand-held and knapsack sprayers are described together
with use (knapsack sprayand types of nozzles.
ers) , functions
Extensive
information
and construction
details
are provided
for constructing
multi-nozzle
booms. There are notes on
calibration,
safety precautions,
pesticide storage and disposal,
and application problems.
This is an expensive but comprehensive,
lucidly
written
and well illustrated
book on all aspects of pesticide
application.
After a discussion
on the
formulation
of pesticides
and movement
of spray droplets,
the main part of the
book comprises detailed
descriptions
of
the various
types of application
equipment available,
with discussions
on
their
use. A chapter is devoted to
hand-operated
hydraulic
sprayers,
another to dust and granule application,
and
another to the techniques
of controlled
droplet
application
(CDA). The final
chapters deal with the maintenance of
equipment,
safety precautions,
and the
selection
of the right machinery for the
right
job.
Includes two tables comparing spraying +-hes (including
time spent
fetching
water) and operating
costs
WA
IPPC
herbicide
herbicide
52
application
application
equipment;
(high volume)
..”
A simple,
liqhtwelqht,
low-cost
audible
timer is described
which aids accurate
pacing when a portable
conrrolled
drop
A circuit
diasprayer is being used.
gram and photograph of assembly are
given.
TEE
tube to tube
to N.P.T.(M)
CAB (WA 29-4301)
trigger
herbicide
herbicide
handle
application
application
WA
equipment;
(low volume)
TEE
tube to tube
to tube
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AM3 WATER
AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENTOF AGRICULTURE,
ZAMBIA. Annual report of the weed control research and extension
team, 1979.
Mt. Makulu Research Station,
P-0. Box 7,
Chilanya,
Zambia (1980), 58 pp-
ELBOW
tube to N.P.T.
CDA herbicide
applicators.
Pp. I, 51-58.
'Forester,'
Micron 'Handy' and
Turbair
Micron 'Herbi'
sprayers were tested
using Primaqram 500 FW (atrazine
+
metolachlor).
In the laboratory,
satisfactory
rates of herbicides
were delivered by each sprayer assuming a 1 m
swath width.
Altering
the angle of the
sprayer
(and hence the head of liquid)
significantly
affected
the output.
The
spray pattern
from all 3 sprayers was
somewhat eccentric.
In the field,
all
3 gave qood weed control
in maize.
At
wind speeds of 80 m/min some drifting
The 'Forester'
produced the
occurred.
most drift
and the 'Handy' was considered the best applicator
for the small
farmer in Zambia.
(Ml
--
(for
nozzle
bodies
see Figure 34A)
Figure 8. A diagram for constructing
a multi-nozzle
boom.
(IPPC illustraRef no. 12202.
tion).
12203
MATTHEWS, G.A. Taking the work out of
spraying.
Appropriate
Technology
(1976),
3(3):4-6
[Overseas Spraying Mach. Centre,
Imperial
Coil. Field Sta., Silwood Pk,
Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK].
CAB (WA 30-415)
The use of the ultra-low
volume sprayers
for pest and weed control,
in areas
where the limitation
to conventional
spraying
is water scarcity,
is
described:
with diagrams.
herbicide
herbicide
Southern
application
application
(low
12206
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL
AGRICULTURE, IBADAN, NIGERIA.
Annual
Report, 1975.
(1976) 219 pp. [PMB
5320, Ibadan, Nigeria].
equipment;
(low
Africa;
herbicide
application
herbicide
application
volume)
equipment;
JAFC
ITDG
WA
volume)
12204
P. 62. Weed Control and Herbicide
The possible
advantages
Applicators.
to West African
farmers of a 'wheel'peristaltic-pump'
type
barrow' or
sprayer for conventional
high volume
herbicide
application
Ire discussed.
These include the possibility
of local
ARNOLD, A.C.; THORNHILL, E.W. An aural
aid to govern walking
speed.
PANS
LImperial
Cell. Field
(1979), 25(1):71-72
Sta., Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY,
4.
58
which would make them much
manufacture,
cheaper than knapsack sprayers
imported
from the USA, shields of variable
width
mounted on either
side of the nozzle for
inter-row
spraying,
and an adaptation
The advanfor use on ridged crops.
tages of ultra-low
volume and controlled
drop application
equipment are also
discussed.
ground wheel for metering the spray solution; the shroud facilitates
the collection and recycling
via the pump of surplus
spray.
The average spray rate was
0.763 ml/m and the swath width constant.
The sprayer head performed best at an
angle of 45' to the horizontal.
At the
maximum efficient
disc loading of 1.5 ml/s,
the maximum ground speed was 0.83 m/s at
a spray volume rate of 10 litres/ha
on
90 cm ridges;
the forward speed was about
1.2 m/s.
Tests showed that the maximum
disc capacity
should be increased
to
The minimum application
volume
3.6 ml/s.
to ensure adequate plant cover with 250 mm
droplets
was 10 litres/ha.
Postemergence
application
in growing crops reduced the
forward speed to 1 m/s.
Herbicides
were
selective
at 10 litres
spray volume/ha,
but left visible
crop damage at heights up
to 30 cm, indicating
a necessary change
in the disc configuration
for post-em.
application.
WA
CAB (WA 26-865)
West Africa;
herbicide
application
equipment;
herbicide
application
herbicide
application
(high volume);
(low volume)
12207
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT
Pump Sprayer.
GROUP. Polyrow Peristaltic
ITDG Complete Technical
Drawings #23,
dimensional
drawings,
no text,-3
large
sheets,
1972, Intermediate
Technology
Publications,
9 King St., London
WCZE 8HN, UK (1981 price - f2.25).
CAB (WA 30-1264)
herbicide
herbicide
Dimensional
drawings with English units.
This hand-pushed unit is designed so
that the single, large wheel pumps the
liquid
by means of rollers
that compress
a plastic
hose.
This action takes place
only while the unit is actually
moving.
The drawings are clear enough, but the
lack of any explanatory
text is a limitation.
Good if you already understand
the principle
of the peristaltic
pump.
Some substitution
of materials
would be
possible.
ITDG
herbicide
equipment
(low volume)
12209
GARNETT, R.P. A low-volume herbicide
applicator
for tropical
small-holder
farms.
In:
Proceedings,
15th British
Weed Control Conference,
Brighton,
UK,
British
Crop Protection
Council
(19801,
629-636 [Overseas Spraying Machinery
Cent., Imperial
College,
Silwood Park,
Sunninghill,
Berks SL5 7PY, UK].
A wheelbarrow
sprayer suitable
for use on
smallholdings
in the tropics
is described.
Two peristaltic
pumps, driven off the
ground wheel, deliver
the spray liquid
to
a Micromax spinning
cup, giving
an application volume of 20 litres/ha.
The swath
width is controlled
by a shroud mounted
around the cup with two variable
shutters.
Patternator
tests show a variation
across
the swath cf lo-25% over a range of walking speeds and flow rates for a swath up
to 1.5 m. Above this width the swath has
the horned pattern
characteristics
of
spinning discs and hollow-cone
nozzles.
The sprayer has performed successfully
in
trials
under laboratory
conditions
and in
the field
and has provided weed control
similar
to that obtained with knapsack
sprayers.
ATS
application
application
application
WA
equipment
12208
CHOUDHURY,M.S.; OGBORN, J.E.A.
Towards
the development of a ground-metered,
shrouded, controlled
droplet
herbicide
applicator
(GMSD-CDA). In:
Proceedings
of the Appropriate
Tillage
Workshop,
Zaria,
Nigeria,
1979. London, UK;
Commonwealth Secretariat
(1980), 43-47
[Dep. Agric. Eng., Inst. Agric.
Res.,
PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria].
The GMSD-CDA applicator
was designed in
Nigeria
to overcome the difficulty
of
controlling
the Herbi hand sprayer.
The
sprayer consists
of a peristaltic
pump
and shrouded Herbi disc head powered by
batteries,
the pump compounded with a
WA
CAB (WA 30-1995)
herbicide
herbicide
54
application
application
equipment;
(low volume)
thoroughly
with the desired rate of
superphosphate
fertiliser
by hand.
The
granules were applied by hand while
still
moist.
:221.o
Improved
ZAHRAN, M-E.; IBRAHIM, T.S.
application
technique
for chemical
control
of barnyard grass in transplanted
LArig.
PANS (1975), 21(3):304-307
rice.
Res. Centre, Min. of Agric.,
Onnan Giza,
Cairo, Egypt].
CAB (WA 26-2135)
herbicide
herbicides;
Two field
trials
were carried
out at
Hamoul in Lae Nile Delta to test the
effectiveness
of 12 herbicides
for the
control
of Echinochloa
crus-galli
in
transolanted
rice cv. Giza 170. In the
1972 season, granular
were superior
to
In 1973 and 1974,
liquid
formulations.
a herbicide
+ gypsum (hydrous calcium
sulphate)
mixture was broadcast
by hand
All herbicide
applicaon flocd water.
tions were superior
to one handweeding.
For homemade granular
also no. 22603
herbicide
herbicides;
application
paddy rice
(granules);
formulations,
see
12212
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT
Green Leaflets.
GROUP. Agricultural
Intermediate
Technology Publications,
9 King St., London WCZEBHN, UK (1981
price - f0.75).
To make the granular
formulations,
the
appropriate
rate of herbicide
was
mechanically
mixed with sand or 50 kg/2
feddan of gypsum (1 feddan = 4200.83 m =
1.05 acres) to produce very fine granules.
#30-IT Granule Applicator,
dimensional
Nigeria
drawings,
14 paqes, origin:
MATERIALS: mild steel sheet, water pipe,
reinforcing
rod.
PRODUCTION: welding.
Dimensional
drawings with both English
and metric units'.
Some of the drawings
are not very clear,
but the unit should
The materials
and dibe reproducible.
mensions can be altered
to fit local
conditions.
WA/JAFC
CAB (WA 25-1493)
application
cotton
WA/JAFC
(granules);
12211
There is a metering mechanism in place of
a mechanical weeder.
These plans include
a calibration
chart for the applicator
at
various flows and row spacings.
ZAHRAN, M.K.; IBRAHIM, T.S.; EL-MAGHRABY.
A new approach towards easy application
for cotton herbicides
in Egypt.
In:
Proceedings,
13th British
Weed Control
Conference,
London, UK, British
Crop
Protection
Council (19761, 159-163
[Weed Control Res. Sect.,
Plant Prot.
Inst.,
Agric.
Res. Centre, Min. of
Agric.,
Egypt;.
ITDG
herbicide
herbicide
Trials
in Egypi In 1976 showed that
granular
herbicide/superphosphate
mixtures gave good selective
weed control
in cotton,
while reducing the labour
involved
in more conventional
treatment
methods, since incorporation
was not
necessary.
To make the granular
formulations,
the appropriate
rate of commercial
formulation
of herbicide
(fluometuron,
trifluralin,
dinitram!.ne
and penoxalin
were used here) plus a
small quantity
of water were mixed
ATS
application
application
equipment;
(granules)
12213
A non-mechanical
system of
DALE, J.E.
herbicide
application
with a rope wick.
PANS (1979), 25(4):431-436
LUSDA-SWSL,
Stoneville,
MS 38776, USA].
A nonmechanical
system of applying
herbicides to weeds taller
than crops by a
simple rope wick device is described.
The herbicide
applicator
requires
no
pumps or moving parts to deliver
the herbicide,
and can be built
by the farmer
Selective
control
at a very low cost.
55
wiper, solenoid-equipped
sprayers and
plant sensors, and tne rope wick applicator.
Of these, the controlled
droplet
applicators
(see nos. 12203-12206, 12208
and 12209) and rope Mick applicators
may
be of interest
ts smallholder
farmers
in developing
countries.
A number of
companies now make and sell hand-held
'home-and-garden'
rope wick applicators.
of Johnsongrass
(Sorghum halepense)
in
soyabeans with glyphosate
was demonunder field
strated
in two experiments
conditions.
CAB (WA 30-1270)
A
herbicide
application
equipment;
perennial
problem
weeds;
weed
seed source
reduction:
herbicides
New equipment has also been developed for
the precise
placement of herbicides
in
including
the 'emulsifiable
soil,
paste
injector'
and chemical-laden
string
(CLS).
The use of CLS to apply pesticides
is a
new concept developed by J.E. Dale (U.S.
BiodePatent Application
No. 082-326).
gradable string
laden with chemicals
is
dispensed from a reservoir
that contains
a pool of string
immersed in the chemical
solution.
As the CLS is dispensed from
it is placed in a slit
or
the reservoir,
shallow trench in the soil.
The string
may be placed in the furrow with seed at
beside planted rows and estabplanting,
or in a ring around indilished plants,
vidual plants.
A hand tool designed for
application
of CLS is illustrated.
12214
Application
equipment for
DALE, J.E.
Roundup - the rope wick applicator.
Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton
In:
Production
Conference,
3rd Cotton Weed
Science Research Conference,
January
1979, Phoenix, Arizona,
USA. 8 PP.
[USDA-SWSL, Stoneville,
MS 38776, USA].
The initial
development of the rope wick
Details
for
applicator
is described.
construction
of one of the early models
are given and the materials
needed are
listed
together
with sources of supply
of a
(in the USA). The unit consists
reservoir
boom which can be made from a
number of materials
including
wood and
bamboo, and soft nylon 'marine'
rope
wicks held into holes in the front of the
boom by inert glue or rubber grommets.
Results of three experiments
demonstrating selective
control
with glyphosate
of tall
weeds in soyabeans and pastures
are tabulated.
--
JAFC
herbicide
application
equipment;
perennial
problem
weeds; weed seed
source
reduction
12216
glove - a new
HOLROYD, J. The herbicidal
concept for the localised
application
of
herbicides
to weeds in susceptible
crops.
In:
Proceedings
of the North Central
Weed Control Conference
(1972), Volume 27,
74-76 [A.R.C. Weed Res. Org., Yarnton,
Oxford 0x5 lPF, UK].
JAFC
herbicide
application
equipment;
perennial
problem
weeds:
weed
seed source
reduction;
herbicides
The development
and use of a glove for the
localised
application
of nonselective
herbicides
to weeds are described.
Results of trials
using dalapon 10% wt/vol.
to control
wild oats (Avena spp.) in
cereals are given.
(UK Patent 1282002)
12215
Specialized
equipment for
DALE, J.E.
on-target
application
of herbicides.
Paper presented at the Working Group
Conference on Determination
and Assessment of Pesticide
Exposure,
Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania,
USA, October 1980. 10 PP.
[USDA-SWSL, Stoneville,
MS 38776, USA].
WA
CAB (WA 23-2731)
This paper briefly
describes
advances in
herbicide
application
techniques
and
some of the special
equipment developed
since 1970 for on-target
application
of
herbicides,
including:
recirculating
sprayers,
controlled
droplet
applicator
(spinning
disc) sprayers,
hooded sprayers, roller
applicators,
the Stoneville
herbicide
application
equipment;
perennial
problem
weeds; weed
seed source
reduction
For low-cost
equipment for
weeds, see also no. 53109
56
spot-spraying
.
.“
12217
COOPER, A.S.; FRASER, F.; BURRILL, L.C.:
Hand-held wiping devices
DEUTSCH, A.E.
IPPC Paper
for herbicide
application.
#A/8 (1981) Lint. Plant Prot. Center,
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis,
OR 97331.
USA].
The use of rope wicks as a means of applying
herbicides
is now an established
commercial practice
in U.S. agriculture.
The technique
selectively
applies
glyphosate to tall
growing weeds rising
above
International
Plant
the crop canopy.
Protection
Center staff members,
as well
recognized
that the
other researchers,
concept also holds promise for use on
small farms in developing
countries.
Prototype
hand-held versions
of rope wick
and carpet wipers were designed,
conand tested,
particularly
for
structed,
between-row weed control.
Ef,fective
weed control
was achieved,
but accompanied by an unacceptable
level of injury to small maize
and bean plants.
Results indicate
that various
hand-held,
wiper-type
applicators,
when properly
used, may provide small farm operators
with an alternative
method of applying
herbicides
that reduces hazards to man
and the environment while lowering
capital
costs below those of conventional
application
techniques.
DCA
12218
DEUTSCH, A.E.
m:
Univ.,
A
IPPC
novel
systems;
hand
herbicide
application
herbicides
hand-held
Figure 9. Prototype
(IPPC drawing).
"wick wiper".
Rrf no. 12217.
So you're
I
of a knapsack sprayer
a comprehensive
list
of
use in selecting
a unit,
Most of the world's
knapsack sprayers are
address.
A
IPPC
herbicide
a
gz;~z;E1~
Corvallis,
The characteristics
are defined and
checkpoints,
for
are presented.
manufacturers
of
listed,
including
tools;
equipment;
considering
application
equipment
12219
Problems of herbicide
HAMMERTON,J.L.
use in peasant farming.
IPPC Paper A/2,
adapted from a presentation
at the 1974
annual meeting of the Weed Science
Society of America [Caribbean
Aqric.
Res.
and Devel. Inst.,
Bridgetown,
Barbados],
Herbicides
can assist
peasant farmers
increasing
yields
from improved
through:
and more timely weed control;
releasing
labor from the time consuming drudgery of
manual weeding to devote more attention
to additional
crops or increased
acreage;
providing
more time to seek supplemental
57
1 nCOrne.
Iqnorance
of the losses
c,iuseit
a Fatalistic.
acceptance
of
by weels,
<and the tedium of hand control-weeds,
allie!
with
a lack. of cash for lur-chase
of spraying
equipment
and herbiciues-impede increased
hertic:de
use by peasant
f-.5I-niers.
where? f,imily
labor
is ZJJ;~able,
there
may be little
inducement
to
spend money on weed control
materials.
Use of herbicides
alone m&y be uneconomic
unless
the entire
hysfcnt of production
is impro~.ed . Errors
in lierbiciclc
use may
llclve serious
consequences
on family
diet
and income.
Tmpt-oved education
and ex!:ensiirn
servi-cs
and provision
of credit,
.11-c stci,s
tow;lrd
solving
some of these
; 1-t-111
I ems . Dr-ibble
bars and qr.anu1a.r
:formul,lti~~ns
can simF,lify
application
dnd rdunc overall
costs.
A single
licrhl(.i.lc,
suitable
for all
the crops
;IOW~ in ;1n area,
wotrld be the ideal;
it
r;c!d not pcjssfss
a wldc weed spectlurn
hIit
I;h~lrlld conti-nl
mayor weeds durinq
cc-iti:.11 ;.eiiods
of growth.
1rFY
traditional
application
analysis;
A
Figure
spr;lyer
12218,
systems;
herbicide
flow volume);
economic
12cial
analysis
10.
A representative
.
(IPPC drawinq).
12220.
knapsack
Ref nos.
12221
12220
DELITSCF!, A-E.;
POOLE, A.P.
(eds).
Manual of pesticide
application
equipment,
Int.
Tlant.
Prot.
Center
(19721,
no. 72-2,
132 pp. Int.
Plant
Prot.
center,
Oregon State
Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA.
DEUTSCH, A.E.
Small pesticide
application
equipment--its
selection,
use and
maintenance.
World Farming
(19741,
IPPC
Paper B,'3 Int.
Plant
Prot.
Center,
Oregon State
Uriv.,
Corvallis,
OR
97331, USA.
An illustrated
guide
to the various
classes
of pesticide
application
on the
world
market
includinq
small,
hand-held
and manually-powered
units.
A list
of
manufacturers,
with
addresses,
is also
presented.
Choosing,
using,
tion
is presented,
safe methods.
IPPC
herbicide
herbicide
IPPC
A
application
and servicing
informawith emphasis
on
A
application
equipment
see also Equipos
pequenos
para
plaguicidas--su
selection,
uso
miento,
Agric.
de las Americas
IPFC Paper B/4.
equipment
58
aplicar
y manteni(1974),
12302
12222
PUTNAM, A.R.; DUKE, W.B. Biological
evidence for
suppression
of weeds:
allelopathy
in accessions of cucumber.
Science (26 July 1974), 185, 370-372
Pesticide
Research
[Dept. of Hort.,
East Lansing,
Center, Michigan State Univ.,
MI 48824, USA].
Non-motorised
hydraulic
SUTHERLAND, J.A.
Center for Overseas
energy sprayers.
Pest Research, College House, Wrights
Lane, London W8 5SJ,- UK (1979) 40 pp.
(1979 price - f2.00).
This illustrated
booklet describes
various
types of manually operated
equipment and sugqests points to consider when buying a new sprayer.
-herbicide
1.23 Biological
Cucumber (Cucumis
sativus L.) accessions
~from 41 nations were grown with two indicator species in a search for superior
competitors.
Of the plant introductions
one inhibited
indicator
plant
tested,
qrowth by 87 percent and 25 inhibited
The toxic-.growth by 50 percent or more.
ty of leachates
from pots containing
inhibitory
cucumbers to indicator
plants
germinated
in separate containers
suggested allelopathy.
Incorporation
of an
allelopathic
character
into a crop cultivar could provide the plant with a means
of gaining
a competitive
advantage over
certain
weeds.
A
application
control
equipment
of weeds
12301
PUTNAM, A.R.; DUKE, W.B. Allelopathy
Annual Review of
in agroecosystems.
Phytopathology
(1978). 16, 431-451
Pesticide
Res. Center,
[Dept. of nort.,
Michigan State Univ.,
East Lansing, MI
48824, USA].
IPPC - free
allelopathy;
An introduction
to the concept of
allelopathy
('detrimental
effects
exerted by higher plants of one species
(donor) on the germination,
growth or
development of another species
(recepof a cl- ,ical by
tar) , through release
the donor')
and the nature and production of allelopathic
chemicals
is
followed
by a review of the role of
allelopathy
in crop production
and a
discussion
of the methodology
of
The possible
uses
allelopathy
studies.
of allelopathy
in agriculture
are discussed.
Crop plants could be bred for
their
ability
to suppress weeds by
selectively
allelopathic
allelopathy;
companion plants
(intercrops)
or mulches,
which do not interfere
with crop growth,
or an allelopathic
could be utilised;
plant could be incorporated
into a crop
rotation
to control
weeds in the following crop.
CAB (WA 29-1119)
reprint
cultivar
on request
A
selection
see also MCKERMAN, R.H.; PUTNAM, H.R.
Evaluation
of allelopathic
cucumbers
(Cucumis sativus;.as
an aid to weed
Weed Science (1979), 27(l):
control.
54-57.
12303
ALTIERI, M.A.; DOLL, J.D.
The potential
of allelopathy
as a tool for weed
management in crop fields.
PANS (1979),
24(4):495-502
iTal
Timbers Res. Sta.,
Tallahassee,
FL 32303, USA].
The increasing
emphasis now placed on
weed management as opposed to weed control
raises the question of the role of
allelopathy
in agricultural
systems.
Evidence of allelopathic
interactions
between crops and weeds is briefly
reviewed and two experiments
designed to
demonstrate
the allelopathic
effects
of
plant residues
on seed germination
are
From these experiments
it can
described.
be seen that Tagetes patula,
Amaranthus
dubius, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
and
cassava (Manihot esculenta)
residues
have
widespread
inhibitory
effects
on the
germination
of seeds of other species,
while maize, Cenchrus brownii,
Eleusine
indica and Portulaca
oleracea
show
JAFC
allelopathy
59
The management and use of weeder geese
strawberries,
nurseries,
maize,
in cotton,
orchards and other crops is outlined.
considerable
tolerance
to the presence
Suggestions
are made
of such residues.
as to how the potential
of allelopathy
in weed management can be investigated
and how the process can be exploited.
A considerable
quantity
of research
remains to be done in this area.
ITDG
North
CAB (WA 28-4136)
allelopathy;
cassava;
crop
Use of
CONLEY, C.C.; PETERSON, I.L.
California
geese for grass control.
Agriculture
(19571, 11(11):12
[Farm
Advisors,
Merced County, Univ. of California,
USA].
ITDG
1.24 Utilisation
The use and economics
of geese for the
control
of perennial
weeds such as
Johnsongrass
(Sorghum halepense),
Bermuda
grass (Cynodon
dactylon)
and nut grass
-(Cyperus spp.) is discussed.
Geese have
been used successfully
for weed control
in cotton,
beets, beans, sweet potatoes,
onions and a number of fruit
crops.
young geese are more economical and
make better
selective
weeders.
Two to
four geese are sufficient
for an acre
In cotton,
of broadleaved
row crops.
geese should be put in the field
as soon
as the cotton and weed seedlings
emerge.
Geese do not like old grass.
Fencing
and supplementary
feeding are additional
costs.
The use of geese for two consecutive
years in heavy Johnsongrass
can eliminate
the weed.
see also
of
'weeds'
no. 22801
12401
SOEWARDI, B.; TJITROSOEPOMO, G.;
WIRJAHARDJA, S. Alternative
control
through utilisation
of weeds by farmers.
In:
LProceedings],
BIOTROP Workshop on
Weed Control
in Small Scale Farms, Jakarta
[Center for Natural Re(19771, 10 pp.
source Management and Environmental
Study,
Bogor Agric.
Univ.,
Indonesia].
Utilisation
of weeds as an alternative
method of control
has received
increasing
attention
in line with development of the
concept of integrated
control
and progress
in the ecological
approach to natural
Dtilisation
of weeds
resource management.
by small-scale
farmers has been practised
as an integral
part of their farming
by their
systems, which is also dictated
socioeconomic
conditions.
An appendix
lists
uses of 82 tropical
weeds of importance, based on a scrutiny
of the 9 cited
bibliographical
sources.
JAFC
America:
cotton;
Phaseolus;
vegetable
crops;
problem
weeds;
grazing;
sweet potatoes,
perennial
economic
cotton
see also JOHNSON, C. Management of Weeder
Geese in Commercial Crops.
Leaflet,
Field
Crop File,
Agricultural
Extension
Service
of the University
of California,
Madera
County (19721, 2 pp. [128 Madera Ave.,
Madera, CA 93637, USA] which includes
similar
information.
12304
North
America:
grazing;
crops;
maize
vegetable
A
maize;
Phaseolus,
rotation
IPPC
JAFC
analysis
12305
CAB (WA 28-2946)
GEIGER, G.; BIELLIER, H. Weeding
Geese.
Leaflet,
Science and Technology
Guide, University
of Missouri
Extension
Division
(1979 reprint),
2 pp. [Cooperative Extension
Service,
U.S. Dept. of
Agric.,
Univ. of Missouri,
Clark Hall,
Columbia, MO 65211, USA].
utilisation
60
WA
12405
12402
NATIONAL ACADEMYOF SCIENCES, USA.
Making aquatic weeds useful:
some perspectives
for developing
countries.
(1976)
176 pp.
[En, es, fr] [Commission on Int.
Relations
(JH 215), Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat.
2101 Constitution
Ave.,
Res. Council,
Washington, DC 20418, USA].
i
The subject
is considered
under the following headinqs:
(1) The grass carp
Ctenopharyngodon
idella).
(2) Other
herbivorous
fish,
(3) Manatees,
(4) Crayfish,
(5) Ducks, geese and swans,
(6) Other herbivorous
animals,
(7) Harvesting,
(8) Dewatering,
(9) Soil additives,
(10) Processed animal feeds,
(11) Pulp, paper and fibre,
(12) Energy,
(13) Wastewater treatment
using aquatic
weeds, (14) Aquatic plants for food, and
miscellaneous
uses and Appendix A) Duckweeds and their uses.
Nearly every chapter gives a description
of techniques,
limitations
and research needs, plus
selected
readings and addresses of research contacts.
Economic utilisation
of
MISHRA, M.N.
Labdev Journal of
weeds in India.
Science and Technology
(Part B) (1969),
[Central
Arid Zone Res.
7(3):195-199.
India].
Jodhpur, Rajasthan,
Inst.,
The medicinal
properties
of 17 common
weed species are listed.
Weeds are
listed
which are considered
as potentially useful for horticulture
(flowers,
lawns, etc.),
for eating,
for manuring,
for fodder,
for soil conservation,
for
for plant breeding,
fibres,
for oil,
for packing and thatching
materials,
for
pesticides,
for perfumes, dyes and
for fuel and for religious,
tannins,
military
and miscellaneous
purposes.
WA
CAB (WA 19-2384)
utilisation;
Indian
subcontinent
12403
Two novel means of *Meed control
in rice
paddies discussed here are crayfish
(used in California
and Louisiana
rice
Paddies, but research is needed before
they could be used elsewhere)
and ducks
(used in the People's Republic of China).
The Useful Native Plants
MAIDEN, J.H.
London, Turner and Co.
of Australia.
(1889), 696 pp.
The uses of Australian
plants for human
foods, forages,
drugs, gums and resins,
oils,
perfumes, dyes, tans, timbers,
fibres
and other products are described,
including
use by both white colonists
and aboriginal
peop1r.s.
CAB (WA 27-884)
-utilisation;
Abstracts
of chapters
2, 6, 10, 12, 13
and Appendix A are given in WA 27,
885-890.
JAFC
JAFC
utilisation;
herbivorous
control
Australasia
aquatic
weeds:
fish;
biological
12404
12406
Plantas &tiles
de
PZRZZARBELAHZ,E.
Contraloria
General de la
Colombia,
Republica,
Bogo&, Colombia (1947),
537 pp.
EDWARDS,P. Food potential
of aquatic
macrophytes.
ICIARM Studies and Reviews
5 (1980), 51 pp.
International
Center
for Living Aquatic Resource Management,
Manila, Philippines
[Div. of Agric.
and
Food Engineering,
Asian Inst. of Tech.,
P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand].
Includes drawings and descriptions
of
the economic uses of many weeds and
other wild plants.
-utilisation;
Present and potential
uses
macrophytes as human food,
der, fertilisers,
food for
fish and other aquatic and
JAFC
northern
South
America
61
of aquatic
livestock
fodherbivorous
amphibious
herbivores
are discussed,
as well as
the potential
for recycling
waste into
A number of recaquatic macrophytes.
ommendations for research are made.
--
13101
DEUTSCH, A. (ed.).
Some equipment for
mechanical control
of aquatic weeds.
Int. Plant Prot. Center, Oregon State
Univ. Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA (1974),
No. 74-2, 17 pp.
JAFC
aquatic
weeds;
utilisation;
rice;
herbivorous
fish
Illustrated
details
of commercially
available weed cutters
and rakes are given.
paddy
IPPC
WA
12407
Weed out weed
MEHTA, I.; BOONLA, D.S.
(Mulching with aquatic
with a weed.
weeds, esp. Tvpha).
Intensive
Agricul[Soil and Water
ture (19801, 18(6):23-24
Management Station,
Kota, Raqasthan,
India].
aquatic
weeds; hand tools;
motor-powered
implements
13102
DRUIJFF, A.H.
Manual and mechanical
control of aquatic weeds in watercourses.
Berichte
aus dem Fachgebiet
Herbologie
der Universi&it
Hohenheim (1979) No. 18.
Weed research in Sudan. VOl 1: Proceedings of a symposium:
ed. by M.E. Beshir
and W. Koch, 137-145 [Beaulieustr.
22,
6814 DV Arnhem, Netherlands].
Weeds are a serious problem in the
Chambal Irrigation
Project
and amount
to 250-350 t submerged, 400-500 t
immersed and 350-1700 t floating
weeds/
In 1975-76, aquatic weeds were used
ha.
Weed
as mulches in sunflower crops.
mulches 15 cm deep gave ES-93% control
of weeds and Typha spp. were the most
effective:
moisture retention
in soil
was increased by 17% under the mulch.
The farmers near the irrigation
canals
can profitably
use the aquatic weeds at
the time when the weeds are removed
annually
by the Irrigation
Department.
WA
CAB (WA 30-2339)
utilisation;
sunflower;
aqoatic
imp>rted
An account is given of manual and mechanical methods of weed control
in waterways.
Five types of aquatic weeds are distinguished,
each requiring
different
approaches to control.
The most widely
used methods are manual and mechanical;
these are discussed on the basis of experience
in arid and semi-arid
climates.
Manual methods are inexpensive
and require
little
foreign
exchange.
Commonly used
tools include the chain scythe, clearing
scythe, ditch bank knife,
digging
fork,
and longhandled
rake; methods and productivity
figures
are given for each of
these based on experience
in Egypt.
Mechanical methods are more expensive
and
require
considerable
expertise
in proper
application.
They are developed for
different
conditions,
and often operate
below expectation
due to lack of spares
and repair
facilities,
lack of properly
trained
operators,
+nd in practice,
' poorly accessible
watercourses
in the
tropics
and subtropics.
Detailed
study
is essential
before their introduction
to avoid expensive
failures.
weeds;
mulch
mulching
Handbook of
see also LITTLE, E.C.S.
utilisation
of aquatic plants.
A
review of world literature.
Rome,
Italy;
FAO (1979) FAO Fisheries
Technical Paper No. 187, 176 pp. [Kerikeri,
Bay of Islands,
New Zealand]
Abstracted
in WA 30-424.
1.3
PROBLEMWEEDS
1.31 Aquatic
weeds
A
CAB (WA 29-3270)
For references
to biological
control
aquatic
weeds, with special
reference
to paddy rice,
see nos. 22701-22711.
See nos. 12405-12407 for utilisation
of aquatic weeds.
of
aquatic
powered
weeds: hand
implements:
tools;
North
motorAfrica
13103
The chain scythe,
a simple
DRUIJFF, A.H.
tool for controlling
aquatic weeds in
62
tuber crops.
In lowland taro, timely
proper management of irrigation
water
together
with thorough land preparation
and application
of a pre-cm. herbicide
recommended.
PANS (1973), 19(2):
irrigation
canals.
216-218 LILAC0 N.V., 35 Utrechtsestraat,
P-0. Box 33, Arnhem, Netherlands].
The chain scythe is an almost forgotten
tool which was once fairly
widely used
for weed control
in irrigation
canals.
It consists
of scythe blades loosely
bolted together
in a chain, with a rope
fastened
to each of the two outer blades.
Two people stand on opposite
bank of
the canal, each holding one of the end
ropes, and pull alternately
on the ropes
as they walk slowly forward,
causing the
blades to zig-zag forward and cut off the
aquatic weeds. The scythe operates
closely
parallel
to the bottom of the
canal;
thus only the aquatic weeds are
removed and not those which protect
the
A third
banks from becoming eroded.
Each
person collects
the cut plants.
weeding operation
involves
comparatively
little
effort
and co?t, although regular
weeding rounds are necessary to mainEstimates
of time spent
tain control.
operating
and maintaining
the chain
scythe are given in the paper.
CAB (WA 23-1433)
aquatic
weeds:
CAB (WA 29-3602)
WA
1.42 Cereals
14201
Weed control'in
rice and sugarcane cropping
systems.'
In:
Symposium,
WeedControl
in Tropical
Crops, Manila
(19781, 56-74 [Dep. Xgron.,
Int. Rice Res.
Los Baiios, Laguna, Philippines].
Inst.,
MOODY, K.
Weed control
in dry-sown, rainfed
bunded
rice is reviewed together with such
aspects as land preparation
during the
dry season, the use of the stale seedbed
technique and herbicides.
Weed control
is also reviewed for wet-sown, transplanted and upland rice and for sugarcane.
tools
CAB (WA 29-3560)
1.4
is
root and tuber
crops;
cassava;
yam; taro;
sweet potato
A/JAFC
hand
and
WA
WEED CONTROL IN PARTICULAR CROPS
1.41 Root and tuber
paddy rice;
novel
systems;
sequential
cropping;
upland
sugarcane
rice;
crops
14101
14202
PEtiAA. R.S. DE LA. Weed control
in root
crops in the tropics.
In:
Symposium,
Weed Control in Tropical
Crops, Manila
(1978), 169-188 [Dep. Agron. Soil Sci.,
Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu,
USA].
HI,
MILLER, S-F.; BURRILL, L.C.; DOLL, J.D.
Economics of weed control
in maize, dry
beans and soybeans in Latin America.
Proceedings,
15th British
Weed ConIn:
UK, British
trol Conference,
Brighton,
Crop Protection
Council (1980), 921-929
[Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon State
Univ., Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
The situation
with regard to weed control in the major tropical
root and
tuber crops is reviewed.
Results of
cultural
and chemical methods of control
are summarised for cassava, sweet potato,
yams, tar0 (Colocasia
esculenta)
and tannia
(Xanthosoma sagittifolium).
An integrated
weed control
programme,
utilising
thorough land preparation
and a combination
of pre-em. and postem. herbicides
is highly
recommended
for all the major tropical
root and
Farmers of small landholdings
A review.
in Latin America produce most maize and
dry beans, although some large-scale
maize production
occurs in Argentina,
Uruguay and parts of Mexico.
Presently,
small farmers rely on family or hired
labour for weeding and other farming
operations.
While peak demand periods
and seasonal labour scarcities
exist,
unemployment and underemployment
prevail
throughout
Central America and most of
63
The resulting
low-cost
South America.
low product prices
labour a:. : relatively
often !.rt--1;le
herbicides
as an option
to handweicding.
In contrast,
large
farms, which are the main producers of
soyabeans. possess enough land and
capital
to use herbicides.
Methods of improving weed control
in tropical vegetable
crops including
manual
weeding, cultivations,
crop rotations,
flooding,
placement of fertiliser
and
irrigation
water near vegetables,
transplanting,
mulching,
herbicides,
competitive cropping,
cover crops, selection
of
cultivars
and planting
time are briefly
described.
IPPC
CAB (WA 29-3615)
Central
America;
America;
economic
America;
Brazil;
northern
southern
maize;
Phaseolus;
analysis;
social
South
South
vegetable
crops
analysis
14402
14301
MOODY, K.
legumes.
in Tropical
146 [Dept.
Los 8aAos.
Weed control
in tropical
In:
Symposium, Weed Control
Crops, Manila (1978), 112Agron., Int. Rice Res. Inst.,
College,
Laguna, Philippines].
Research on S legumes, namely mung bean
cowpea (Vigna unguicu(Vigna radiata),
lata),----- asparagus bean (Vrgna unguicupigeon pea
gg
ssp. sesquipedalis),
(Calanus cajan),
groundnut and soyabean, all of which are grown in or are
of potential
interest
to the Philippines,
is reviewed,
including
research of the
effects
of competition,
moisture,
different crop cultivars
and crop density.
Farmers rarely
use herbicides
and are
unlikely
to do so until
the yield potential
of the crops or labour costs
increase
substantially.
WILLIAM, R-D.; CHIANG, M.Y. Weed management in Asian vegetable
cropping
systems.
(Paper presented
at a Symposium of the
Wcled Science Society of America, San Francisco, California,
February 1979).
Weed
Science (19801, 28(4):445-451
[Asian
Vegetable
Res. and Development Centre,
P.O. Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741, Taiwan].
A variety
of successful
weed management
practices
in Asian vegetable
cropping
systems are briefly
described,
including
sequential
cropping
systems, crop rotation, intercropping
in annual and perennial crops, planting
patterns
and other
cultural
practices.
Research and training needs associated
with the need for
weed management in vegetable
cropping
systems are identified.
CAB (WA 30-1593)
Far
East;
Asia;
grain
legumes;
upland rice:
perennial
crops;
crop rotation;
intercropping;
sequential
cropping
vegetable
CAB (WA 30-1674)
soyabean;
groundnut
Vigna;
WA
Southeast
crops;
Cajanus;
1.45 Weed control
1.44 Vegetable
JAFC
in multiple
cropping
crops
14501
14401
WILLIAM, R.D. Weed management in v&yetable crops.
In:
Symposium:
Weed.
Control
in Trcpixl
Crops, Papers presented at the 9th Pest Control Council
of the Fhilippines,
Manila (l.9781,
149-163 [Veg. Crops De,?t., IFAS, Univ.
of Florida,
Gainesville,
FL 32611, USA].
MOODY, K. Weed control
in multiple
cropping.
Philippine
Weed Science Bulletin (19771, 4, 27-38 [Int.
Rice Res.
Los B&OS, Laguna, Philippines].
Inst.,
Weed control
in dry-sown, rainfed
bunded
rice through land preparation,
the stale
seedbed technique
and the use of herbi-
further
research
is needed to determine
weed control
methods that are economical
and acceptable
to the small farmer.
tides in upland rice,
in mixed crops,
in intercrops
and under relay cropping
is reviewed.
CAB (WA 28-2615)
CAB (WA 30-2988)
WA
Southeast
novel
systems;
interpaddy rice;
cropping;
sequential
cropping
14502
in multiple
MOODY, K. Weed control
In Symposium on Cropping
cropping.
Systems Research and Development for the
Rice
Asian Rice Farmer, International
Research Institute,
Manila,
Philippines
Rice Res. Inst.,
(19771, 281-294 [Int.
Agron. Dep., Los Baiios, Laguna, Philippines].
Each of the possible
means of intensifying crop production
(mixed, sequent,j.al,
relay and ratoon cropping)
on a
inter-,
given area of land is discussed
separately with regard to weed control.
The
present status of weed control
in multiple cropping
is reviewed and future areas
of research are suggested.
CAB (WA 28-3861)
WA
novel
systems;
intercropping;
sequential
cropping
in
see also MOODY, K. Weed control
multiple
cropping.
Lecture prepared for
participants
in a training
course for
extension
and production
personnel,
Cooperative
(CRIA-IRRI Program, Bogor,
Indonesia,
1977 (the same paper with
more detailed
examples)
14503
K.
Weed control
in intercropping
in tropical
Asia.
In:
Weeds and Their
Control
in the Humid and Subhumid Tropics;
Proceedings
of a conference
held
at the International
Institute
of
Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria,
1978 (19801, 101-108, 1.0. Akobundu,
ed. [IRRI, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines].
MOODY,
A review covering
the competitive
ability
of intercrops
and weed control
in intercrops.
It is concluded that
65
Asia;
WA
intercropping
WEEDCONTROLIN PADDY RICE
2,
2.1
PRINCIPLES AND REGIONAL STUDIES
The importance
for weed control
of proper
land preparation
(deep ploughing,
repeated
harrowing and puddling
before transplantperformed by
ing) , often inadequately
The use of trafarmers, is emphasised.
ditional
tall
varieties,
close spacing
and transplanting
all help the rice compete with weeds; however, mechanical
transplanting,
which transplants
young seedlings
(about 15 cm tall
as opposed to about 23 cm
tall for hand transplanting),
is much less
effective
in suppressing
weed growth.
A
water depth of at least 15 cm is recommended for maximum suppression
of weed
The rotary
weeder reduces the
growth.
time and effort
required
for good weeding
in transplanted
rice,
but it operates
best
in soft saturated
mud, and may give inadequate control
in paddies with dry soil
or standing water.
Seeding at a high rate
followed by harrowing
in two directions
(in and across the rows) reduces the need
for manual weeding in the rows.
This
method is also employed with broadcastseeded rice in Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Growing corn and mung beans in rotation
with rice reduces subsequent weed stands.
21001
Lecture
in rice.
MOODY, K. Weed control
presented
to participants
attending
a
Weed Control
Short Course, Jan. 15 Feb. 2, 1979, at the National
Crop Protection
Center, Univ. of the Philippines
at Los BaAos, Los Bafios, Laguna, Philip[IRRI, Los Barios, Laguna,
pines.
Philippines]
23 pp. + 25 tables.
Weed control
methods in rice,
including
land preparation,
preventing
seeding of
weeds and using clean rice seed, planting methods, cultivars
grown, plant
density,
fertiliser
application,
water
management, crop rotation,
manual weeding by hand, foot and hand tools,
mechanical weeding, biological
control,
and
Details
of
herbicides
are discussed.
recommended practices
(for example,
"during puddling
do two or three harrowings at ‘I-and lo-day intervals")
are
given.
ITDG
paddy rice;
novel
Asia;
herbicides;
land preparation;
niques;
weed seed
water management;
JAFC
systems;
Southeast
crop rotation:
planting
techsource
reduction:
biological
control
CAB (WA 28-2617)
JAFC
paddy rice;
land preparation;
planting
techniques;
water
management;
manual implements;
crop rotation
This information
(excluding
that on
herbicides)
is included in abbreviated
form in MOODY, K. Weed control
in
irrigated
rice using non-chemical
methods.
Lecture at a short course on
Integrated
Pest Control for Irrigated
Rice in South and Southeast Asia,
Oct. 16 - Nov. 18, 1978, Philippines,
(IPC / SP-91, 10-19-78) 11 pp. +
18 tables.
21003
DATTA, S.K. DE. Weed problems and
methods of control
in tropical
rice.
Symposium:
Weed Control in Tropical
In:
Crops, Papers presented at the 9th Pest
Control Council of the Philippines,
Manila,
1978 (1979), 9-44 [Dept. of Agron.,
IRRI,
Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines].
21002
The discussion
on weed control
and management is grouped into four categories:
substitutive,
preventive,
complementary,
Substitutive
meaand direct
measures.
sures include land preparation
and water
management; preventive
measures include
use of clean seed, keeping levees and
irrigation
canals weed-free and keeping
MOODY, K.; DATTA, S.K. DE. Integration
of weed control
practices
for rice in
tropical
Asia.
In (Proceedings)
BIOTROP
Workshop on wsed Control in Small Scale
Farms, Jakarta
(1977), 15 pp. [Dept.
kgron.,
Int. Rice Res. Inst.,
Los Baiios,
Philippines].
66
.
. tran- cplanted and trzlitional
most 71~~
1s
methods of weed control
are used.
Traditional
varieties
are strong competitors
with weeds and are still
used despite
low
yields.
Deep flooding
controls
weeds in
the Mekong Delta.
In water-seeded
rice in
Sri Lanka, a very dense stand is sown to
suppress weed growth, followed
by harrowing to reduce the stand to a proper density.
In West Malaysia,
repeated cutting
with a type of scythe (Tajak) followed
by
flooding
and soil puddling has been used
to remove perennial
weeds before planting.
In Bangladesh,
an implement locally
known as 'Niranee'
is used for hand pulling weeds.
tools and machinery clean; complementary
practices
include crop competition,
fertiliser
management and cropping
system; and direct methods include hand
rotary weeding, and herbicides.
pulling,
CAB (WA 29-3967)
paddy
rice;
see also
A
herbicides
-
in rice
DATTA, S.K. DE. Weed control
methods and trends.
in Southeast Asia:
Philippine
Weed Science Bulletin
(19771,
4, 39-63
Control of weeds in wheat and barley in
lowland Japan and South Korea is briefly
reviewed.
CAB (WA 213-2558)
CAB (WA 28-2616)
and soil
DATTA, S.K. DE. Weed control
and crop management in rainfed
rice at
??&I and other locations
in tropical
Proceedings
Rice in Africa.
A&.
In:
of a conference
held at Ibadan, 1977;
6lited.by
I.W. Buddenhagen and G.J. Persley, London, UK; Academic Press (1978).
201-211.
JAFC
paddy rice;
Far East;
Southeast
subcontinent;
wheat;
Asia:
Indian
highland
and temperate
zone
21005
in Taiwan.
CHANG, W.L. Rice weed control
Proceedings
of the 1st Asian-Pacific
In:
Weed Control
Interchange,
June 12-22, 1967,
Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu;
East West Centre
(1969), 73-76 [Chiayi Agricultural
Experiment Station,
TARI, Chaiayi,
Taiwan].
CAB (WA 29-45)
21004
in rice and other
NODA, K. Weed control
cerea3 crops.
In:
(Proceedings)
BIDTROP
-Workshop on Weed Control in Small Scale
Farms, iakarta
(19771, 17 pp. [Rice Res.
Div.,
Tohoku Agric.
Exp. Sta., MAF,
Omagari, Akita 014-01, Japan].
Current weed control
practices
in paddy
rice in Taiwan are reviewed.
No herbicides
are in use at present.
Rotation
of rice
with upland crops and sequential
cropping
with vegetables
(e.g., melons between the
first
and second rice crops),
helps reduce
aquatic weed numbers.
Two or three ploughings with a water buffalo-drawn
plough,
harrowing and levelling
precede seeding
or transplanting.
The nursery seedbed is
prepared in strips
of 1.2 metre width,
with a 30 cm ditch between the two seedbeds, to facilitate
weeding and roguing.
Seedlings are transplanted
in lines and
weeding is done by hand pulling
or with a
hand-operated
rotary cultivator.
Farmers
weed about 3-4 times in the first
crop
of the season and 2-3 times in the second
crop.
The labour requirement
for hand- '
weeding the first
and second crops is 400
and 200 man-hours/ha,
respectively.
This paper describes
present methods of
weed control
in paddy rice in Asia.
Countries
are broadly classified
into
three groups based on yield of rice per
unit area, which is closely
connected
with the usage of modern weed control
methods:
Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and
Southeast Asian countries.
Paddy rice in
Japan is predominantly
transplanted
by
machine after land levelling
and soil
puddling.
Intertillage
with a rotary
weeder, handweeding at the middle stages
of growth and again after heading
(especially
for Echinochloa
spp.), and
pre- and post-emergence
herbicide
use
are shown in a table of standard weed
control
measures.
In Taiwan, virtually
all rice is transplanted
by hand. Weed
control
measures consist
of soil preparation, water management, 2 or 3 weedings
by hand or feet, hand pulling
and
chemicals.
In Southeast Asian countries,
The first
weeding and intertillage
is done
at about 15 days after transplanting
(DAT)
in the first
crop and 10 DAT in the second
crop, after which weeding is carried
out
once every 10 and 7 days in the first
and
Weeding
second rice crops, respectively.
takes about 100 man-hours per hectare each
67
21007
Water is drained one day before
time.
weeding and a topdressing
of fertliser
is generally
applied at the time of
In Southern Taiwan, weeding
weeding.
Water is
may be done with the feet.
kept on the field at a depth of 3 cm for
20-30 days after transplanting.
traditional
This report presents
the findings
of a
study of the rice economy of 11 West
African countries:
Dahomey, The Gambia,
Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia,
Nigeria,
Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and
the Upper Volta.
The importance of rice
in the economy, the physical
environment,
production
practices,
tools and techniques, marketing,
and suggestions
for
improvements are outlined
for each
country.
A description
of weed control
which varies in detail
from
practices,
country to country,
is included
in the
section on production
practices.
JAFC
CAB (WA 18-2070)
Far East;
paddy rice
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENTOF AGRICULTURE;
UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT. Rice in West Africa:
A
Study by USDA/USAID. Washington, DC
(19681, 196 pp.
systems;
21006
to weed
KIM, D.S. An introduction
Proceedcontrol
in rice in Korea.
In:
ings of the 2nd Asian-Pacific
Weed Control Interchange
(1969). 34-42 [Inst.
Pl. Environment,
Office Rural Dev.,
Suwon, S. Korea].
--
Rice is the staple food of Korea.
A
survey in 1965 found 65 species of weeds
from 31 families
in paddy fields
in
Echinochloa
crus-galli
Southeast Korea.
is the worst weed Hnd 5-125 plants/ml
reduced rice yields by 12-34% compared
with 8-13% for the same densities
of
Monochoria vaginalis;
weeds reduced
yields
by 20% on average.
Cultural
control of weeds is described.
Weeding
time for 1 season is estimated
at
about 300 man-hours/ha.
Propanil
at
2.5 kg/ha is recommended for the control
of E. crus-galli
in lowland seedbeds.
TOK<ranular
(nitrofen
7%) at 25-35 kg
product/ha,
applied within
1 week after
transplanting,
was equal to handweeding
in effect
and yield.
The use of nitrofen could reduce weeding costs by US
$23.5/ha.
Recommendations include PCP
(86% a.i.)
at 8-10 kg/ha before planting;
nitrofen
granular
(7% a.i.1
30 kg/ha
after
transplanting
but before weed emergence followed,
i.e. within
15-20 days
after
transplanting;
by rotary weeding;
25-30 days, by MCPA (less
or, within
phytotoxic)
in the north or 2,4-D in the
south and with hand pulling
of high
populations
of E. crus-galli.
Eighteen
common weeds ofpaddies
are listed
with
their
-ornon names.
West Africa;
traditional
JAFC
upland
systems
rice;
Weed control methods in
BURRILL, L.C.
Paper presented at the West
rice.
African Rice Development Administration
Plant Protection
Seminar, Monrovia/
Liberia,
May 1973 [Int.
Plant Prot.
Center, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
In much of Western Africa,
rice production is at a primitive
level.
The
slash and burn system is often used,
connnercial fertiliser
is rare, and most
of the rice is broadcast
seeded.
Under
nonherbicidal
methods
these conditions,
of weed control
should be encouraged.
Using transplanted
rice, good water
control,
crop rotation,
clean seed, row
planting,
and hand- or mechanical weeding should provide a dramatic
increase
Herbicides
should be introin yield.
duced to help solve problems.
A
WA
West Africa;
upland rice
paddy rice;
Far East; traditional
systems;
herbicides;
economic
rice;
22108
IPPC
CAB (WA 20-537)
paddy
analysis
68
paddy
rice;
21009
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.; FAGADE, S.O. Weed
In:
problems in African
rice lands.
Proceedings
of a conRice in Africa.
ference held at...Ibadan,
1977; edited
by I.W. Buddenhagen and G.J. Persley,
London, UK; Academic Press (1978), 181192 [Int.
Inst. Trop. Agric.,
PMB 5320,
Ibadan, Nigeria].
two rice crops per year where previously
he grew only one, the second being harvested at approximately
the same time as
the single crop.
He can, therefore,
grow
an upland crop to follow rice harvest,
a
practice
some farmers have already adopted.
The problems with regard to weeds and
their control
associated
with such a change
and ways in which these problems may be
overcome are discussed.
Unless weeds can
be controlled,
particularly
in the first
crop of rice,
should it be dry seeded, the
idea of increasing
production
in rainfed
rice growing areas in Asia by growing more
crops in sequence will have to be abandoned. A major research effort
will be
needed to ensure that such a thing does
not happen.
The weed problems of dryland,
hydromorphic land and lowland rice are reviewed
Yield reducand weed species listed.
tions caused by weeds are discussed,
cultural
and chemical control
are described and the benefits
of weed control
It is concluded that rice
are outlined.
qrain yields
in Africa could be doubled
by improved weed control,
especially
in lowland rice.
The following
methods should be examined
to find suitable
ways of controlling
weeds
in dry-seeded
rice.
Ploughing at the end
of the rice crop followed by repeated
cultivations,
or production
of a droughttolerant
crop in which weeds are controlled should stop annual weeds from seeding
and desiccate
perennial
weeds.
Dry seeding rice as soon after the rains start as
possible
should reduce weed growth.
Row
planting
or hill
planting
to allow one-way
or two-way mechanical
cultivation
should
reduce the time taken for weed control.
Suitable
herbicides
for dry--seeded rice
have still
not been found.
Handweeding is common in Africa.
Two
weedings are usual for dryland and three
Weeds are
for hydromorphic
areas.
allowed to grow until
tall
enough to be
Rotary weeders, such as
easily
grasped.
not in use in
used in Asia, are presently
The hoe is more efficient
than
Africa.
handweeding,
but requires
line sowing.
Rotation
of rice with a crop such as a
legume reduces infestation
OF subsequent
Closer spacing of rice
rice crops.
increases
its ability
to compete with
Careful
levelling
of the bed
weeds.
and maintenance
of the water level at a
depth of at least 10 cm while rice is at
the seedling
stage helps to control
many
annual weeds.
WA/JAFC
CAB (WA 29-43)
West Africa;
upland
rice
CAB (WA 28-2618)
paddy
paddy rice;
sequential
Southeast
Asia;
novel
planting
techniques
WA
cropping;
systems;
rice;
21011
21010
DATTA, S.K. DE; LACSINA, R.Q.
trol in flooded rice in tropical
11th British
In:
Proceedings,
trol Conference,
Brighton,
UK,
Crop Protection
Council
(1972),
472-478 [Int.
Rice Res. Inst.,
933, Manila,
Philippines].
Weed control
in sequential
K.
cropping
in rainfed
iowland rice growing
(Proceedareas in tropical
Asia.
In:
ings) BIOTROP Workshop on Weed Control
in Small Scale Farms, Jakarta
(1977),
19 pp. [Int.
Rice Res. Inst.,
Los Bafios,
Philippines].
MOODY,
Weed ConAsia.
Weed ConBritish
Volume 2,
P.O. Box
Experiments
at the International
Rice Research Institute,
at other experiment
stations
and in farmers'
fields
in the
Philippines
showed that 2,4-D and MCPA
were equally
effective
in controlling
Echinochloa
crus-galli
and other annual
weeds in irrigated
or rainfed
transplanted
rice, without
causinq sustained
toxicity
to either
indica or japonica rice varieties.
These herbicides
were less expen-
Traditionally,
in the rainfed
rice growing areas of Asia, fanners have grown
only one rice crop per year by transplanting
late-maturing
varieties
after
sufficient
rain has fallen
so that the
soil can be puddled.
By sowing at the
start of the rains and using earlymaturing
varieties,
the farmer can grow
69
In the Asian tropics,
most rice farms are
weeded by hand or with rotary weeders.
Despite the rise in chemical costs, herbicides such as 2,4-D, which can control
most annual weeds in transplanted
rice,
can be used effectively
in many areas at
a cost of about US $5-B/ha.
In East Asia,
high wages and less available
labour have
brought about the almost complete substitution of herbicides
for handweeding;
in
the Philippines
some farmers combine herbicide use with other weed control
measures,
while in other parts of South and Southeast Asia where wage rates are low, such
as Indonesia,
Bangladesh and India,
handweeding is still
the major form of conFor direct-sown
flooded rice,
trol.
qranular
formulations
of butachlor,
thiobencarb and C-288 (piperophos
+ dimethametryn) are highly
selective
in controlling barnyardgrass
(Echinochloa
crusgalli)
and other annuals under tropical
7conditions.
These treatments
cost US
$20-22/ha.
Other herbicides
sive than handweeding.
such as butachlor
or benthiocarb
with
2.4-D, which can control
weeds before
or after
they emerge, are more expensive
is prothan 2,4-D or MCPA. Butachlor
viding
an excellent
alternative
to
handweeding in Taiwan and Korea.
Southeast
Asia:
rice;
herbicides
Far
East;
paddy
21012
DATTA, S.K. DE. Weed Control
in Rice
in South and Southeast Asia.
Extension
Bulletin
No. 156 (1980), Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, P-0. Box 22-149,
Taipei City, Taiwan [Int.
Rice Res.
Inst.,
P.O. Box 933, Manila,
Philippines].
A summary of weed control
practices
used
in the types of rice culture
practised
in monsoon Asia:
transplanted
rice,
direct-seeded
flooded rice,
dry-seeded
rainfed
bunded rice, upland rice,
and
deep-water
rice.
Techniques discussed
include
land preparation,
selection
of
cultivar,
timing of weeding operations,
herbicides
and herbicide
application.
The economics of herbicide
treatments
are discussed.
Current research on
(in particular,
perennial
weed control
control
of Scirpus maritimus
and
Paspalum distichum
in paddy rice,
and
of Cyperus rotundus in upland rice)
is
reviewed.
--
CAB (WA 26-4154)
Southeast
paddy rice:
analysis
Asia;
Indian
herbicides;
A
subcontinent;
economic
21014
K.;
DATTA, S.K. DE. Economics of
weed control
in tropical
and sub-tropical
rice growing regions with emphasis on
reduced tillage.
In:
Proceedings,
15th
British
Weed Control Conference,
Brighton,
UK, British
Crop Protection
Council
(1981),
Volume 3, 931-940 [Int.
Rice Res. Inst.,
P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines].
MOODY,
JAFC
In irrigated
transplanted
rice fields
in
Asia, farmers generally
do an adequate
job of weed control.
The weed control
method used depends on the resources
available
to the farmer.
Weeding labour
in Laguna Province,
Philippines
almost
tripled
between 1965 and 1975 as a result
of the introduction
of modern cultivars
and a high rate of fertiliser
application.
Between 1975 and 1978, weeding labour
decreased due to an increase in the use
of herbicides
and increased efficiency
of herbicide
use.
In addition,
real
agricultural
wages increased and herbicide
prices stabilised.
Reduced tillage
techniques have resulted
in considerable
savings in time, labour, water, power,
and capital
without
yield 1055 under
varying ecological
conditions.
tiowever ,
Southeast
Asia;
Indian
subcontinent;
paddy rice;
upland rice:
deep-water
rice;
perennial
problem
weeds; land
preparation;
cultivar
selection;
timing;
herbicides:
economic
analysis
21013
DATTA, S.K. DE; BARKER. R. Economic
evaluation
of modern weed control
techniques
in rice.
In:
integrated
Control of Weeds: ed. by J.D. Fryer and
S. Matsunaka, Tokyo, Japan; University
of Tokyo Press (1977), 205-228 ISBN-O86008-179-6 [IRRI, Los Bafios, Laguna,
Philippines].
70
heaps and covering
with soil is wasteful
S. auriculata
is readily
of space.
desiccated
by paraquat at 600 g/ha and
can then be trodden into the ground with
buffaloes
and the soil levelled
and
planted normally.
usage of such techniques
may be limited
to areas where perennial
weeds are
Acceptance of reduced tillage
absent.
systems in tropical
Asia has been slow,
but they are expected to become more
acceptable
in the future with changing
economic and social conditions.
CAB (WA 17-52)
Southeast
Far East;
herbicides;
preparation
2.2
WA
A
WRO
paddy rice;
herbicides;
Asia;
Indian
subcontinent;
paddy rice;
minimum tillage;
economic
analysis;
land
22102
COUEY, M. [Research on rice in the Senegal river region].
Agronomie Tropicale,
(1966), 21(1):19-37.
[Fr, en, es] [Richard~011 Development Scheme, Senegal].
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
2.21 Weed control
minimum tillage;
novel
systems
techniques
- general
see also no. 42209 (Eupatorium
green manure in paddy rice)
Weed control
lowing:
as a
techniques
include
the fol-
(a) Ploughing rice fields,
irrigating
to
induce germination
of weed seeds and
cultivating
to kill
the seedlings.
Irrigation should be in the hot season at the
end of February or beginning
of March.
Repeating the operations
2-3 times destroys most seeds in the top 10 cm of
soil.
22101
New production
techniques
DENIZE, J-R.
and chemical aids.
In:
Proceedings
Report, Conference 'Mechanisation
and
the world's
rice,'
Leamington Spa, UK
(Sept. 1966), 79-81 [Plant Protection
Haslemere, Surrey, UK].
Ltd., Fernhurst,
(b) Growing an early variety
of rice,
such
as Sintiane
Diofior,
which is sown during
April/May
and can be harvested
in midOctober, before the flowering
or ripening
of wild rices such as w
breviligulata,
Two harvests
0. staptii
and 0.
barthii.
-_I_
z me
Diofior,
followed by irrigation,
are recommended befcre another
variety
is town.
Paraquat
(Gramoxone)--the
minimal cultivation of rice.
In Japan, out of a
total
of 1600 man-hours/ha
spent in 1960
on rice production
in Mie Prefecture,
420 were devoted to soil preparation:
direct
drilling
into stubble could reduce
labour costs for seedbed preparation
by
up to 50%. Paraquat has reduced the
number of rotary cultivations
needed
to produce a dry seedbed from 3-4 to 1
and can also reduce the number required
For direct
drilling
for a puddled soil.
into paraquat-treated
stubble,
the
Japanese have produced a hand-operated
seeder which punches out plugs of soil
and simultaneously
sows seed in the
holes.
Malaya, the Philippines
and
Ceylon have also shown interest
in
minimal cultivation
techniques.
In
Malaya, paraquat desiccation
of weeds
could reduce the time for seedbed preparation
from the 5 weeks taken by
slashing
weeds, flooding
and leaving
to
This techrot, to as little
as 5 days.
nique, however, is only likely
to be of
value on montmorillonite
type soils
The wetter
which expand on wetting.
districts
of Ceylon are subject
to infestation
by Salvinia
auriculata.
Here,
the normal practice
of raking into
(c) Growing a longer-season
variety
such
as Paugern (yields
up to 29 quintaux/ha)
which is sown in May and can be harvested
Its early rapid
at the end of October.
growth smothers weeds and gives results
similar
to those obtained with Sintiane
Diofior
except that larger areas can be
treated.
As for Sintiane
Diofior,
two
harvests are recommended, followed
by
irrigation.
(d) Use of herbicides.
CAB (WA is-i446j
west Africa:
paddy
herbicides;
annual
land preparation
71
WA
rice;
novel
systems;
problem
weeds;
22202
22103
DATTA, S.K. DE; MORRIS, R.A.; BARKER, R.
Land preparation
and crop establishment
for rainfed
lowland rice.
IRRI Research
Paper Series
(19781, No. 22, 24 pp.
Rice Res. Inst.,
P-0. Box 933,
[Int.
Manila, Philippines].
Determining
ATIENZA, F.M.; KUNKEL, D.E.
the economic family size farm for land
Journal of Agricultural
reform areas.
Economics and Development
(1974). 4(2):
107-129.
On the basis of mathematical
models,
this study attempts to determine
the
economic size of farm that can be operated with the use of family
labour in
It inirrigated
lowland rice areas.
cludes tables giving the cost and labour
requirements
of a number of methods of
postland preparation
and weed control.
emergence weeding can be carried
out with
hand tocjls ('dulos')
or a push-type
weeder.
--
The major advantages of wetland tillage
are reduction
of draught requirements,
improved weed control,
ease of transplanting,
enhancement of soil fertility,
and reduction
of percolation
losses.
The major disadvantages
of wetland tillage are increased
late-season
drought
risk, high transplanting
labour requirements and power unit size limitations.
Once the soil has been puddled,
the
method of crop establishment
is restricted
to transplanting
or direct
seeding of pregerminated
seeds.
Rainfed
areas suitable
for direct
seeding are
limited
by drainage
control.
Weed intensity
is an important
consideration
in
determining
whether rice should be
transplanted
or direct
seeded.
JAFC
paddy rice
Southeast
preparation:
inter-row
economic
analysis
2.22 Techniques
planting-
New rice technology
- short duration
varieties,
herbicides,
and tillage
machinery with higher horsepower - may
make new systems of land preparation
and
crop establishment
economically
feasible.
To identify
conditions
for adoption of
alternative
systems and to determine
where further
research is necessary,
the
characteristics
of the traditional
rainfed rice land preparation
transplanting
system and its alternatives
are reviewed.
for
Asia;
land
cultivation;
land preparation
and
22201
Some general
CURFS, H.P.F.
and particular
aspects of rice and soil
tillage.
In: Meeting of Experts on the
Mechanization
of Rice Production
and
Processing,
Paramaribo,
Surinam, 1971
Organisation
(19721, Food and Agriculture
of the United Nations;
55-60 [IITA,
PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria].
MOOMAW, J.C.;
Forms of dryland tillage
for rice have
been practiced
in limited
but suitable
environments.
The major advantages of
dryland tillage
are early crop growth
that can be obtained
from early rainfall,
elimination
of labour for seedbed preparation
and transplanting,
adequate
trafficability
for large power units,
maintenance of soil structure
for upland crops following
rice (or increased
time for a second rice crop), and
reduction
of many insect and disease
pressures.
The major disadvantages
are high draught requirements,
comparatively
exacting
early weed control
requirements,
comparatively
high fertiliser losses,
and expsure
to soilinhabiting
insects and blast disease.
Techniques of wet and dry tillage
of
rice soils are briefly
reviewed from the
point of view of crop production
and
soil management.
The paper contains a
comprehensive
table of time and labour
requirements
(man-hours and animal-hours
per hectare)
for 54 different
soil
tillage
operations
with a wide range of
hand implements,
animal-drawn
implements
and machines, including
the reference
to the paper from which each figure came.
ITDG
paddy rice;
land preparation;
tools;
animal-drawn
implements;
xotor-powered
implements
JAFC
hand
72
. I
As with wetland tillage,
possible
methods
of crop establishment
are restricted
once soil has been prepared in the dry
Common establishment
methods
state.
are broadcasting,
drilling,
and dibbling.
The different
establishment
methods
produce similar
grain yields
provided
The choice of
weeds can be controlled.
a weed control
technique
compatible
to
establishment
method is critical.
Using minimum cultivation,
the time and
water required
for land preparation
is
reduced , more efficient
use can be made
of labour,
animals and machinery,
and the
timing of land preparation
is more flexicropping trials
in
ble.
In continuous
which sowing followed
harvest in the
shortest
time possible,
the use of minimum tillage
increased
grain production
over normal cultivation
from 13 to 17
kg/ha/day
in the Wet Zone and from 18 to
22 kg/ha/day
in the Dry Zone.
A
CAB (WA 29-42)
paddy rice;
preparation;
yields following
minimum tiilage
were
similar
to those from normally cultivated
plots,
but were lower if paraquat was
omitted.
Limited
trials
suggest that the
method, timing and' level of nitroqen
application
recommended for normal cultivation are also suitable
for minimum tillage.
Southeast
planting
Asia;
land
techniques
22203
INSTITUT DE RECHERCHESAGRONOMIQUES
Trans[Rice.
ET DES CULTURES VIVIERES.
planting
or direct
sowing?]
Le riz-repiquage
ou semis direct?
Cahiers
d'agriculture
pratique
des Pays Chauds
[Fr] [IPAT, France].
(19651, (2):67-72
CAB (WA 18-1063)
paddy rice;
indian
subcontinent;
land preparation;
minimum tillage;
novel systems;
herbicides
P. 70-72.
Weed control.
It is more
difficult
with direct
sowing.
One method
is to sow in a lo-15 cm depth of water.
Most weeds are killed
after 8-10 days
while rice survives.
The water level is
then lowered to enable the rice to make
rapid growth and the initial
depth of
water is not restored
until
some days
later.
With herbicides,
it is possible
to control
all the weeds, but they are
expensive
(under African
conditions),
as
are the implements needed for their
application.
CAB (WA 30-2988)
paddy rice;
techniques;
22205
SETH, A.K.; WAW, C-H.; FUA, J.M.
Minimal
and zero tillage
techniques
and postProplanting
weed control
in rice.
In:
ceedings of the 3rd Asian-Pacific
Weed
Science Society Conference,
1971 (1973),
Kuala Lumpur, Vol. 1, 188-200 [Plant
Protection
Ltd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia].
Trials
comparing conventional
cultivation
techniques
in wet paddy culture
with
minimal and zero tillage
techniques
using
pardquat for precrop planting
weed control
are described.
Good crop establishment
and growth were achieved with minimal and
zero tillage
and yields were similar
to
those obtained with conventional
tillage.
In the traditional
cultivations,
weeds
were first
slashed with a 'tajak'
(scythelike tool) followed
by a 2-3 week period
of flooding
to facilitate
decomposition,
then by a second slashing
to control
regenerating
weeds, followed by incorporation of the dead vegetation
into the
soil.
This usually
required
1 or 2
rounds of harrowing,
followed by levelling and transplanting.
Total time taken
from the start of cultivation
to planting
was 4 to 5 weeks.
WA
West Africa;
water
A/WA
planting
management
22204
MITTRA, M.K. Paraquat as an aid to
paddy cultivation.
In:
Proceedings,
9th British
Weed Control Conference,
Iondon, UK, British
Crop Protection‘
Council
$1968), 668-674 [Plant Protection Ltd.,
Haslemere, Surrey, UK].
In trials
established
in Ceylon in August 1966, traditional
methods of land
preparation,
consisting
of 2 to 3 cultivations
and taking up to 30 days to
complete,
were compared with minimum
tillage
techniques
taking 10 days, in
which weeds were killed
with paraquat
at 1.12 kg/ha followed
by one cultivation.
During the next 3 seasons, the
JAFC
CAB (WA 21-1751)
paddy rice;
traditional
preparation;
73
Southeast
systems;
minimum
Asia:
land
tillage
The optimum time of weeding in relation
to yield,
prices and labour costs was
determined at 16 days after transplanting
IR-8 rice in wet and dry seasons and 7-14
days after transplanting
H-4 rice in the
dry season (after
21-28 days in the wet
Regression curves
season due to lodging).
of weed weights 70 days after transplanting
against yields
indicated
that IR-8 rice
was more responsive
to better
land preparation
and more competitive
with weeds
than BPI-76-1 rice.
The minimum level
of land preparation
consistent
with no
reduction
in yield was determined
as 3
passes of a carabaotwater
buffalo)-drawn
harrow or 1 pass of a tractor-drawn
harrow; the same ratio held for weed removal.
Fewer weeds survived
in the wet
than in the dry season.
Regression
lines
of the dry weights of weeds against
labour time showed that there was little
difference
in labour requirement
for weeding at different
stages of the crop growth
when land preparation
was good.
Land
preparation
and weeding appeared to substitute
for each other after 2-5 passes
of the tractor-drawn
harrow; the time
required
for weeding varied inversely
as
the time spent on land preparation.
The
removal of the 0.732 t weed d.m./ha remaininq 14 days after transplanting
required
415 man-hours costing
$0.11/h.
The optimum number of harrowings
was
reached when the saving in the cost of
handweedinq was as low as the cost of 1
additional
tractor
harrowing
(84.36);
at
14 days after transplanting
this occurred
with 3 passes of the harrow and at 28 days
after transplanting
with 4-5 passes of the
harrow in the dry season.
22206
PANDE, H.K.; BHAN, V-M. Effect of
varying
degree of soil manipulation
on
yield of upland paddy (Orvza sativa)
and
Canadian Journal
on associated
weeds.
of Plant Scie.ce
(1964), 44(4):376-380
[Dept. Agric.
Engng., Tech. Inst.,
Kharagpur,
India].
Trials
were conducted in 1961 and 1962
to determine
the minimum level of soil
manipulation
required
for adequate weed
The main weeds
control
in upland paddy.
present were Echinochloa
crus-galli,
Panicum capillare
and P. sanquinale.
Cyperus rotundus and Criria
appeared
-xmately
3 weeks after sowing.
Removal of topsoil
with a Khurpi (a hand
tool,
consisting
of a blade 4-6 in. long
to a wooden
and 2-3 in. wide attached
handle) and dibbling
the seed was considerably
less effective
against weeds
than plough planting
with a country
plough (consisting
of a bar-point
share
attached
to a wedge-shaped wooden shoe,
which tills
the soil with practically
no
inversion)
or a mouldboard plough.
Both treatments
resulted
in lawer yields
than those obtained by usinq the standard
cultivation
technique
of ploughinq
4
times with a country plouqh and harrowing
Ploughinq once with a
before sowing.
mouldboard plough and harrowing once
with a disc harrow before sowing resulted in yields
similar
to those obtained by using the standard cultivation
It was concluded that plouqhtreatment.
inq with a mouldboard rather
than a
country plouqh resulted
in better
control of weeds, and that ploughing
once
with a mouldboard plough,
followed by
harrowing,
was the minimum cultivation
necessary for efficient
production
of
upland paddy.
CAB (WA 13-1610)
CAB (WA 23-1899)
WA
paddy rice;
Southeast
Asia;
economic
analysis;
land preparation;
timing
WA
22302
paddy rice;
Indian
subcontinent;
land preparation;
hand tools;
animal-drawn
implements
2.23 Techniques
for weed control
INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCHINSTITUTE.
Economics of mechanization.
In:
IRRI
annual report
for 1971 (1972), 154-156
[Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines].
in the crop
The use of granular
herbicides
was the
least expensive
of the 4 alternative
methods of weed control
studied,
over the
whole range of farm sizes.
Among the
other methods, handweeding (P75/h)
was cheapest for areas of < 0.1 ha,
22301
INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE.
The economics of cultural
weed control.
Report.
International
Rice Research
Institute
(1967), 246-254.
[Int.
Rice
Los ~afios, Laguna, PhilipRes. Inst.,
pines].
74
a manual rotary weeder was cheapest for
areas of 0.1-6 ha and a powered rotary
weeder for areas > 6 ha. Most farmers
in Laquna Province use a combination
of
hand, manual rotary and chemical weeding
22402
YADAV, B.G. Design, development and field
evaluation
of a hand rake hoe weeder.
Program and Abstracts
of Papers, Weed
In:
Science Conference and Workshop in India
(1977) I Paper No. 186, 121 [Dep. Farm
Mach. Power, Orissa Univ. Aqric.
Tech.,
Bhubaneswar, India].
WA
CAB (WA 22-2217)
economic analysis;
paddy rice;
manual implements;
motor-powered
implements;
herbicides;
herbicide
application
(granules)
2.24 Hand tools
implements
see also
A rake hoe was designed for removing the
weeds (uprooting
them while they are still
very small) without
smothering
the small
paddy plants with soil.
The hoe works
quite satisfactorily
in the field
and, on
8-10 khurpi-man-days.
an average, replaces
(Khurpi = local short-handled
weeding hoe.
Its construction
is simple.
or fork.)
It is being prepared by the village
artisans
in Orissa and costs only Rs 6/
unit.
and manually-operated
no. 22302
22401
CAB (WA 28-1121)
INSTITUT DE RECHERCHESAGRONOMIQUES
DE MADAGASCAR. [Weeding rice with a
Cahiers d'agriculture
rotary
hoe].
pratique
des pays chauds (1965), (2):
[Fr] [Lake Alaotra
Res. Sta.,
109-112.
Madagascar].
Although many nonaquatic
weeds are
controlled
by the flooding
of rice paddies, weed growth may become important
during the period between ploughinq
and
transplanting
or direct
sowing.
Trials
at Lake Alaotra
showed that hand hoeing
(with Japanese or Formosan rotary
hoes)
was not as satisfactory
as handweeaing
or the USC: of herbicides,
but that it
simple and inexpensive.
was rapid,
paddy rice:
Indian
manual implements;
cultivation
.
East
ITDG
paddy rice;
Indian
manual implements;
cultivations
WA
Africa;
inter-row
PRADHAN, S.N. A more efficient
paddy
hoe. Indian Farming (Nov. 1970), 15-16,
21. [Central
Rice Res. Inst.,
Cuttack,
Orissa, India].
A paddy hoe developed at the Central
Rice
Research Institute
in Cuttack is deIt consists
of an anterior
scribed.
wheel, a sweep-type
shovel with a razorsharp shank to cut through the soil,
and
a posterior
handle.
The operator
walks
behind the weeder and pushes it forward
in the inter-row.
It is claimed that it
is 20 percent more efficient
per man-hour
than the Japanese-type
rotary weeder
under wet field
conditions.
The weeder
costs about Rs 25 and can be made and
repaired
by local artisans.
A description
is given of a modified
hoe suitable
for Malagasy
rotary
conditions.
paddy rice;
implements;
subcontinent;
inter-row
22403
A hand-operated
rotary hoe has the
advantage that it (i) destroys
weeds
and buries them, (ii) can be used by
unskilled
labour,
(iii)
has a good
physical
action on the soil,
(iv) makes
an excellent
seedbed for nurseries
and
(v) is cheap and robust.
Its disadvantages are that (i) it can only be used
where rice is sown or transplanted
in
lines
(minimum spacing of 25 cm),
(ii)
it must be used in a 5-10 cm depth
of water,
(iii)
it must be used at the
correct
stage of growth of weeds (maximum height 15 cm) and (iv) there is no
efficient
depth control.
CI,B iWA 15-1447)
WA
manual
cultivation
75
JAFC
subcontinent;
inter-row
22502
22404
PRADHAN, S-N. Combined blade and raketype paddy weeder both for dry and wet
Indian Farming (November r9681,
fields.
33, 35, 36 [Central
Rice Research Inst.,
Cuttack,
Orissa,
India].
of a weeding maZERBO, D. [Description
chine for rix
Note sur la mise au
point d'une sarcleuse
a riz.
In 3e spposium sur le Desherbage des Cultures
Tropicales,
Dakar, 1978, 8, Av. du
President
Wilson, 75116 Paris France.
COLUMA. (1978) Vol. II, 522-526 [Fr, en]
[Div. du Machinisme Aqricole,
B.P. 155,
Bamako, Mali].
A paddy weeder which can operate efficiently
in both wet and dry fields
is
described.
It consists
of one doubleedge blade, one rake and a rotating
drum (roller)
attached to a sheet-iron
positions
depending
frame, in different
on whether the weeder is to be used in
The operator
wet or dry conditions.
walks behind the weeder and pushes it
Man-hour and
forward in the inter-row.
cost requirements
are tabulated
for this
weeder and the Japanese-type
rotary
weeder under wet and dry field
condiThis weeder was up to 40% more
tions.
efficient
than the Japanese-type
weeder
under wet conditions
and can be used in
dry conditions
where tl.sa Japanese-type
weeder cannot be used.
ITDG
CAB (WA 28-3837)
JAFC
semi-arid
paddy rice;
Indian
subcontinent;
imp.Lements;
inter-row
2.25 Animal-drawn
The S.E.M.C.M.A.
apparatus for weeding in
rice is described
and illustrated.
It
consists
of a steel frame on two wheels
and is fitted
with 3 A-blades.
It is
pulled by animals and nas two steering
handles.
It penetrates
the soil to a
depth of 7 cm, has a working width of
20 cm per blade and a working speed of
70 cm/second.
It should be used on weeds
of a moderate height only and use on
muddy soil should be avoided.
WA
paddy rice:
West Africa;
animal-drawn
implements;
inter-row
cultivation
tropics;
jute;
manEd
22503
cultivation
and motor-powered
TARCHETTI, A. The control
of weeds in
rice fields
tin ItalyJ
by rolling.
International
Review of Scientific
and
Practical
Agriculture
(19181, 9(10):11921193.
implements
22501
HERBLQT, G. [Control
of weeds by mechanical means in certain
annual tropical
crops, particularly
in the case of rice.]
(Paper in) 26th International
Symposium
on Crop Protection,
Part I.
Mededelingen
Fakulteit
van de Landbouwwetenschappen,
Gent (1974), 39(2):377-399
[Fr]
[c.E.R.M.A.T.,
Par-c du Tourvoie,
93160
Antony, France].
A technique of 'rolling'
weeds is described in detail.
The corrugated
roller
with wooden laths of iron bars can be
pulled by one or two horses.
Rolling
is
especially
successful
in first-year
rice
fields
and in those with numerous sedges;
it is not recommended for grass weeds.
ITDG
A review is given of the role of cultural
control
techniques
in impro>ring crop
yields
in French-speaking
Africa.
Mechanisation
of weeding, through the introduction of animal traction
or tractors,
and the implements used (harrows, rotary
hoes, rolling
cultivators1
are described
for upland and paddy rice.
paddy
drawn
JAFC
rice;
Eurpoe;
implements
2.26 Herbicides
animal-
and herbicide
application
22601
CAB (WA 24-1659)
WA
Weed control
in directAKOBUNDU, 1.0.
seeded lowiand rice under poor water
management conditions.
In:
Proceedings
of the 7th Meetinq of the Ghana Weed
Science Committee-(19781,
61-65 [Int.
Inst. Tropical
Aqric.,
PMB 5320, Ibadan,
Nigeria].
paddy rice;
upland rice:
West
Africa;
animal-dram
[email protected];
motor-powered
implements
76
depth, 2-3 mechanical
weedings, and one or
two handweedinqs of barnyardgrass
(Echinochloa
spp.).
Liqllid herbicides,
whichrequire
the field
to be drained to
provide effective
weed control,
are unacceptable
to most‘ Asian rice farmers
because of the uncertainty
of rainfall
amount and distribution.
Granular herbicides are easy to apply and can be broadcast directly
onto water.
In this experiment, adequate weed control
was obtained
by flooding
the rice to a depth of 5 cm
for a minimum of 10 days after application
in combination
with
of granular
TCE-styrene
the isopropyl
ester of 2,4-D, or the qranular formulation
of EPTC in combination
with MCPA.
Herbicides
were evaluated
for weed control
and for their effects
on crop yield in
direct-seeded
lowland rice under poor
water management conditions
characteristic
of the conditions
in which lowland rice
is grown by most farmers in Nigeria,
where
land preparation
is accomplished
with
local hoes.
Molinate
and thiobencarb
did not give
good weed control
under these water
Best control
of
management conditions.
sedges and broadleaved
weeds was obtained
by a mixture of cfperquat
at 2 kg/ha +
2,4-D at 0.5 kr* ha applied
post-em.,
but
grain yields
were reduced in comparison
The highest
to the weed-free check.
yields
of rice,
comparable to those from
the weed-free
check and significantly
greater
than yields after
2 handweedinqs,
were obtained by fluorodifen
at 1.5 kg/ha
f propanil
at 2 kg/ha applied
post-em.,
bentazone at 2 kg/ha applied
post-em.,
and bifenox
at 2 kg/ha applied pre-em.
CAB (WA 21-610)
paddy rice:
Far East;
Southeast
Asia;
herbicides;
herbicide
appiication
(granules);
water
management
Broadcast application
of 2,4-D granules
at 0.75 kg/ha gave yields
comparable to
those from 2 handweedings at 14 and 35
days after emergence.
The use of 2,4-D
granules
is appealing
to small farmers
as no special
equipment or new skills
are needed to apply this formulation.
CAB (WA 29-3971)
WAiJAPC
22603
DICKINSON, L.; CARPENTER, A.J.
Home-made
granular
formulations
for applying
them-icals to irrigated-.
PANS (1977),
23(2):234-235
[Ce:ltral
Aqric.
~xp. Sta.,
Suakoko, Liberia].
WA/JAFC
Spraying equipment can be costly and
unwieldy for zhe small farmer in developing
countries;
granular
formulations
are often
more practical,
but can be expensive
to
the use of MCPA,
buy. This paper describes
2,4-D and lindane
in homemade granular
formulations
in Irrigated
rice in Liberia
using dry sand and urea or ammonium sulphate as the carrier.
paddy rice:
West Africa;
water management:
herbicides;
herbicide
application
(granules)
22602
DATTA, S.K. DE; LACSINA, R.Q.;
AHMAD, CH. M. Water management for
granular
herbicides
in transplanted
rice.
International
Rice Commission Newsletter
[IRRI, Los Bafios,
(1970), 19(3):1-X
Laguna, Philippines].
A
WRO
paddy rice:
West Africa;
herbicide
application
(granules)
In monsoon Asia, most rice is grown in
fields
where precise water control
canThe use of water
not be achieved.
management in weed control
in a number
of countries
is briefly
reviewed,
and a
number of useful references
given.
A
water depth of 15 cm has been found
necessary to give good suppression
of
grasses and sedges.
In areas in Taiwan
where rotational
irrigation
is practiced,
infestations
of weeds are heavy because
fields
are not continuously
flooded
during the early growth of the ricC crop.
In Japan, weeds are controlled
in the
following
programme:
thorough land preparation
before transplanting
the rice
seedlings,
precise
flooding
to 3-5 cm
see also
no. 12210
22604
[of Ronstar 2D =
GOSNEY, J. ULV spraying
oxididzon
+ 2,4-D
from the bottle
tin
Thailand rice].
International
Agricultural Development
(1980), 2 (Nov/Dec),
26.
A bottle
of Ronstar 2D
is converted
to an ULV
off flush the 3 nipples
the cap; the farmer in
77
(o.:adiazon + 2,4-D)
sprayer by cutting
which poke through
Thailand walks
22702
through the paddy rice field
after transshaking the bottle
alternately
planting,
to the right
and left every 5 paces.
The herbicide
is so formulated
that when
LL drop hits the water (i 100 mm deep) it
spreads rapidly
outwards,
the solve,:t
evaporates
and the active
ingredients
sink and form a herbicidal
layer on the
About 4-5 litres/ha
are
soil surface.
used costing
fl5/ha.
CAB (WA 30-3373)
paddy rice;
application
2.27 Biological
Herbivorous
BATENKO, A.I.;
SOROKHINA, Z.F.
[Fish
rearing as a method of controlling
weeds
in rice paddies J . Trudy Vsesoyuznogo
Nauchno-Issledovatel'skoqo
Instituta
Prudovogo Rybnogo Khozyaistra
(1969),
16, 204-206 [Ru, en].
Infestations
of weeds, mainly Echinochloa
spp., progressively
reduced yields
of a
monoculture
of rice in the Krasnodar district
from 4.6 t in 1953 to 1.3 t/ha in
1956; crop rotation
is normally used to
control weeds.
A rotation
consisting
of
2-years rice followed by a l-year
crop of
mixed fish was proposed; common carp
(Cyprinus carpio)
feed on weed seeds and
-rice pests, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon
idella)
on macrophytes,
and silver
carp
(Hypophthalmichthys
molitrix)
and bighead
(Aristichthys
nobilis)
on plankton.
In
1964-65, trials
were carried
out in rearing fish on rice fields
under a water
fallow in the Karakalpakskaya
ASSR; the
main weeds were Echinochloa
crus-galli
and E. oryzicola.
Fish reduced largeseeded weed populations
from 78-100 millions to 11-15 millions/ha
or by about
85%. Sheep manure, used to fertilise
paddies, contained
9000 seeds (20% viable)
of Echinochloa
macrocarpa/lOO
g but the
seeds lost viability
45 days after the
manure was submerged in the paddy.
Rearing fish on paddies for 2 years running
reduced weed infestation
by 96%. In
1965, weed populations
per ha were 76
millions
in rice fields,
3.4 millions
in
lucerne,
1.2 millions
in melon crops and
20 millions
in a reservoir
without
fish.
WA
herbicide
(low volume)
control
fish
22701
[Grass carp in a rice-fish
YUDIN, V.L.
Nikol'skii,
G.V., (ed.):
rotation].
In:
Novye Issled Covaniya po Ekologii
i
Razvedeniyu Rastitel'noyadnyk
Ryb [New
investigations
in the ecology and bleeding of herbivorous
fish],
Nauka, Moskva
2001.
(1968), 143-146 [Ru] [Inst.
Akad. Nauk Uzbek. SSR, USSR].
Parazitol.
Trials
in the use of Ctenopharyngodon
idella
to control
weeds in rice were
carried
out in paddies under a water
fallow.
Yearlings
failed
to control
Phragmites
communis and Echinochloa
spp.
in 1964 and so 2-year-old
C.
and
--- idella
Cyprinus carpio were stocked in 1965.
The soil was ploughed deeply in spring
and flooded with 5-10 cm of water which
produced a dense growth of Echinochloa
On
SPP- and Cyperus spp. in mid-May.
20 May, the water depth was increased
to 25-40 cm before stocking
with fish.
Grass carp were stocked at 23 kg/ha;
2-year-old
grass carp increased
their
weight from 305 g to 1985 g by autumn.
Echinochloa
spp., Scirpus spp., algae,
--potamc
ogeton spp. andage
of P.
-Grass carp
COIDlllLll
Gre
destroyed.
--prevented
the emergence of weeds above
the water surface whereas paddies
stocked with C.
-- carpio only were overgrown.
CAB (WA 20-198)
herb.ivorous
fish:
paddy
fallow;
aquatic
weeds
CAB (WA 20-1176)
herbivorous
USSR; fallow;
fish;
paddy rice;
aquatic
weeds
22703
,
CHIZHOV, N.I.;
ANOSHIN, A.I.
[Fish culture on rice fields
under water-.
Trudy vsesoyuznogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta
prudovogo rybnogo
Khozyaistra
(1969). 16, 187-193 [Ru, en].
In June 1965, rice
paddies under water
fallow in the Karakalpakskaya
ASSR were
stocked with common carp (Cyprinus
carpio)
averaging
20 g by weight,
grass
carp (Ctenopharyngodon
idella)
averaging
90 g and bighead (Aristichthys
nobilis)
averaging
00 g; artificial
feeds were
supplied.
The best stocking
rates giving the highest
fish prodcztion
(1.2 t/ha)
WA
rice;
WA
USSR;
78
was determined
to be 600-700 fish/ha.
Fish
production
ranged from 0.74 to 0.95 t/ha;
the addition
of herbivorous
fish increased
production
by 40-44%.
were grass carp ZOO, common carp 600 and
Grass carp at stocking
bighead 400/ha.
rates of 200-300/ha completely
cleared
paddies of vegetation
including
common
reed (PSzagm ites communis) and clubrush
In fish polycultures
in
(Scirpus sp.).
rate for
Central
Asia, the best stocking
both 2-year-old
common carp and biqhead
was 500+00/ha
and for grass carp 200Large-scale
field
trials
300/ha.
showed that 75-85% of fish perished
in
shallow water less than 35 cm deep compared with 3-5% at a water depth of
50 cm.
CAB (WA 20-1177)
herbivorous
usst(;
fallow;
CAB (WA 23-1299)
herbivorous
USSR; fallow;
WA
fish:
paddy rice;
aquatic
weeds
22705
TSUCHIYA, M. Control of aquatic weeds
by grass carp (Ctenonharvnsodon
idellus
Cal.,.
JARQ (Japan Agricultural
Research
Quarterly)
(1979), 13(3):200-203
[Saitama
Pref. Fish. Exp. Sta., 1060 Kitakchama
Kazoshi, Saitama-ken,
Japan 3471.
WA
fish;
paddy rice:
aquatic
weeds
Grass carp (sogyo in Japanese) was introduced to Japan in World War II, but reproduces naturally
only in the Tone River
system.
Elsewhere,
spawning is artificially
induced by hormone injection.
An
experiment
at Ueda in a heavily
infested
reservoir
showed that 100 fish averaging
200 g in weight,
or 50 fish of 750 g, or
30 fish of 2 kg, were required/ha
for weed
control.
Weed control
by grass carp is
widely practised
in fish ponds, castle
moats, park lakes and factory
reservoirs.
The culture
of common carp (Cyprinus
carpio)
and Tilapia
mossambica in paddy
fields
is widelyactised
in Southeast
Asia.
Stocking
30 g grass carp at
l-6/10 m2 has completely
controlled
weeds
in a paddy field.
Floating
weeds disappeared after
l-lb months, followed
by
submerged species.
The grass carp has a
preference
for cereals,and
so should not
be stocked until
rice seedlings
are well
established;
complete submergence of the
rice seedlings
should be avoided.
Grass
carp weighing 0.5-2 kg grazed areas of
4-30 m2 in fallow paddies and controlled
Typha latifolia,
Isachne globosa and
Phragmites communmaustralis).
Weed infestation
is a szat
nroblem in
the eutrophic
waters of irrigation
canals;
stocking
grass carp at 20-50 g
fish/m2 was effective
especially
with
release at about the time of weed emergence.
There was little
difference
in
weeding ability
between fishes in the 0.3
to 1 kg weight classes.
Grass carp cost
only half as much as other methods of
weeding cereals.
22704
[Fish
CHIZHOV, N.I.;
DFM'YANENKO, V.F.
farming rice paddies under water fallow
Accliin order to improve them].
In:
matization
of herbivorous
fish in the
reservoirs
of the USSR, edited by
M.F. Yaroshenko.
[Part of] Proceedings
of the 7th All-Union
Conference on the
Acclimatization
of Herbivorous
Fish,
Kishinev,
1972, Kishinev,
Moldavian SSR,
Shtiintsa,
(1972) 136-139 [RU] [Vses.
n-i Inst.
prud. ryb. Khoz., Moscow Zh-33,
USSR].
In 1967-69, 9 paddies under a water
fallow were stocked with l-year-old
common carp (Cyprinus carpio),
2-year-old
silver
carp (Hypophthalmichthys
molitrix)
and 2- and 3-year-old
grass
carp (Ctenopharyngodon
idella).
Common
carp consumed 30-87% of weed seeds on
the soil surface and increased
rice
production
by 0.3-0.6 t/ha.
Two-year-old
grass
carp stocked at 50-80 fish/ha
and
3-year-olds
at 15-20 fish/ha
completely
controlled
all weeds in the paddies, of
which the chief were weed millets
(Echinochloa
spp.), clubrushes
(Scirpus
naiad (a
SPP.) I rush (Juncus sp.),
sp.), bladderwort
(Utricularia
sp.),
waterwort
(Elatine
sp.) and stoneworts
(Chara spp.).
As the plants were used
u-the
fish began to feed on detritus.
Two-year-old
silver
carp preferred
phytoplankton
(Protococcaceae,
Volvocaceae, Euglenophycaceae
and diatoms),
but also consumed zooplanktcn,
detritus,
sand and soil;
the optimum stocking
rate
WA
CAB (WA 29-3273)
herbivorous
Far East;
79
fish;
fallow;
paddy rice;
aquatic
weeds
of rice by qrass carp, while the presence
of salvinia
(Salvinia
cucullata)
and
waterhyacinth
(Eichhornia
crassipes)
did
-not decrease tne damage to rice.
22706
INDIAN FARMING. Use grass carp for weed
-7
Indian Farming (1971), 21(5):
control.
-[Central
Inland Fish Res. Sub-Stn.
Cuttack,
Orissa].
CAB (WA 29-3699)
Grass carp 10 cm long (weighing
15 g)
are stocked at 1000-2000 fish/ha
(according to weed density)
for the control
of
the floating
weeds Wolffia,
Lemna,
-Fish 20-30 cm
Spirodela
and Azolla spp.
long (100-200 g) are stocked at 200-lOOO/
ha to control
the submerged weeds
Hydrilla,
Najas, Ceratophyllum,
Potamogeton, Utrmria
and Myriophyllum
spp.;
some control
is also afforded
of Ottelia,
Nechomandra, Vallisneria,
Trapa, LimnoInduced breeding
phila and Salvinia
spp.
and rearing
are described.
CAB (WA 21-3015)
herbivorous
subcontinent;
herbivorous
Southeast
fish;
paddy
Asia;
aquatic
A
rice;
weeds
22708
[Fish culture
and bioloqS. DE.
ical control
in rice fields ] . A piscicultura
e o controle
biol6qico
nos
arrozais.
Lavoura Arrozeira
(197x), 29
(294):17-18
[pt].
MORiES,
Weeds in irrigated
rice fields
can be
controlled
by herbivorous
fish such as
Tilapia
rendalli,
T.
or -Puntius
-- zilli
-us,
and algae, by T. mossambica.
All these fish are well adapted to the
Brazilian
environment.
WA
fish;
Indian
aquatic
weeds
CAB (FA 39-697)
22707
SOEWARDI, K.; NURDJANA, M.L.; LELANA,
Some ecological
impacts of the
I.J.B.
introduction
of grass carp (Ctenonhary&
sodon idella
Val.) for aquatic weed
Proceedings
of the 6th
control.
In:
Pacific
Weed Science Society Conference,
Jakarta,
Indonesia,
1977 (1979).
Vol. 2, 451-458 [BIOTROP, Bogor,
Indonesia].
herbivorous
Brazil;
fish;
paddy
aquatic
weeds
FA
rice;
22709
HAUSER, W.J.; LEGNER, E.F.; MEWED, R-A.;
PLATT, S. Tilapia
- a management tool.
Fisheries
(19761, 1(6):24 IDiv.
Biol.
Control,
Univ. of California,
Riverside,
CA, USA].
The faeces of grass carp (CtenODharJ&oodon idella)
indirectly
cause deterioration
of water quality,
such as a
decrease in dissolved
oxygen.
A mixed
Culture
in equal weight of grass carp
and kissing
gourami (Helostoma temmincki)
reduced the deterioration
of water
quality.
When the plankton
feeder constituted
only 30% of the total
fish
population,
the deterioration
of water
quality
still
occurred.
A mixed culture
with common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
did
not reduce the deterioration
of water
quality.
Another ecological
implication
of the use of grass carp for biological
control
of aquatic weeds is its preference for the rice plants.
The presence
of hydrilla
(Hydrilla
verticillata)
significantly
reduced the consumption
Tilapia
are cultured
in the southern
states for sport and commercial fishing,
and in Southern California,
T. mossambica
and T. zillii
are used for tgg control
of
aquaticweeds
and noxious insects
in
various habitats,
including
irrigation
canals, recreational
lakes, ornamental
ponds and sewage treatment
lagoons.
The
most extensive
application
has been the
use of T. zillii
for weed control
in
irrigatgnxs
and drainage ditches.
In some cases, stocking
rates of 75 mm
fish of 25OO/ha were effective
whereas, in
others,
integrated
biological
and mechanical control
was needed.
The use of T.
zillii
is economically
feasible
and saves
Two disadvantages
energy and herbicides.
are its dislike
of low winter temperatures, necessitating
year-round
culturing,
and its dislike
of Myriophyllum
spicatum;
it prefers
Potamogeton pectinatus,
Najas
guadalupensis
and Chara sp. The mixing
of T.
broadened
- mosrambica w=. -- zil1i.i
80
raised together
with the rice
(rizipisciculture)
or in rotation
with rice.
This
paper reviews economic and technical
aspects of fish culture
in rice fields
The rice
under the following
headirlgs:
fields
as fish environment;
Main fish
cropped in rice fields,
Biological
contra
in rice fields
[of weeds and pests];
Socioeconomic
importance;
Critical
analysis of fish culture;
Problems, research
and future;
Worldwide survey [of culture
techniques].
The main fish species discussed are Cyprinus carpio
(common carp)
and Tilapia
mossambica, with additional
notes on Carassius
auratus,
Catla catla,
mxi9dldrCidLids
C~CUIOSchanus, Cirrhind
Ictalurus
punctatus,
Ictiobus
batrachus,
cyprinellus,
Labeo rohita,
Ophinocephalus
Puntius
javanicus,
Tinca w,
striatus,
and Trichoqaster - pectoralis.
the spectrum of weeds controlled;
a
stocking
rate of 1450 fish/ha
gave better
Stocked
weed control
than herbicides.
in paddies after rice emergence, Tilapia
will
control
emerging weeds and insects,
At rice
converting
them to fertiliser.
Tilapia
could provide
extra
harvest,
protein
or be ploughed in as a fertilisAbout 160 kg T. mossambica/ha was
er.
produced in small zce ponds in 3 months
in 1975, a g-fold increase
in biomass
over the amount stocked,
and no supplemental feeds were added.
'WA
CAB (WA 27-3687)
herbivorous
fish;
paddy rice;
North
America;
aquatic
weeds
22710
JAFC
ITDG
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF
THE UNITED NATIONS. Fish in rice-fields.
International
Rice Commission Newsletter,
June 1961.
paddy
aquatic
rice;
herbivorous
weeds
fish;
see also Vincke, M.M.J.
[Situation
as
regards rice paddy aquaculture
and its
Eture
role].
Situation
et role futur de
Paper presented
l'aquiculture
en rizi&res.
at an FAO Technical
Conference on
Aquaculture,
Kyoto, Japan, 1976.
FIR: AQ/Conf/76/R.35.
In a 3.2 ha rice field
into which milk
fish (Chanos chanos) had been introduced,
growthxa*
of rice were more
and tillering
was greater,
than
rapid,
in an adjoining
field
in which no fish
Fish were helpful
in controlwere used.
Rice yield
ling algae and other weeds.
was estimated
to be higher from the field
with fish than from the field
without.
Other organisms
FCA
CAB (FCA 15-1186)
22711
herbivorous
Southeast
fish;
paddy
Asia;
aquatic
YEO, R.R.; FISHER, T.W. Progress and
potential
for biological
weed control
with fish, pathogens,
competitive
plants
and snails.
LPaper presented atJ 1st
FAO International
Conference on Weed
Control,
University
California,'Davis
(1970), wC/70:WP/37, 15 [USDA, Univ.
California,
Davis, CA, USA].
rice;
weeds
22710A
*
Cache, A.G. Fish culture
in rice fields.
A world-wide
synthesis.
Hydrobiologia
(1967), 30(l),
l-44 LFAO Dept. of Fisheries,
Fishery Resources and Exploitation
Division,
Inland Fishery Branch, Rome].
Although this paper is concerned with
aquatic weed control
in the USA, some of
the information
in it may be useful elseThe preferences
of 8 species of
where.
fish for 35 aquatic plant species and
effective
stocking
rates and times to
Effeceffect weed control
are tabulated.
tive stocking
rates cited for grass carp
about 30 cm long vary from 49-99 to 1693
fish/ha
to effect
control
in L-3 months.
Fish culture
in rice fields
has been
known for centuries
in Asia, and the
practice
is increasing
in Africa and the
USA. Under proper conditions,
fish can
greatly
contribute
to the control
of
algae and weeds, snails
(bilharzia
vectors)
and mosquitos
(malaria vectors).
There are two main types of culture:
in
the captural
system, wild fish are admitted in the fields
with the irrigation
water.
In cultural
systems, chosen fish
species are deliberately
stocked and
The Caribbean snail
(Marisa cornuarietis)
can be expected to thrive
only in tropical
Maximum
or subtropical
fresh waters.
feedinq and reproduction
occur at water
temperatures
of 21 to 32'C; it feeds
81
22713
readily
on submersed rice seedlings,
but
At 26.5'C the eggs
not on emerged rice.
Egg production
hatch in lo-12 days.
The snail
begins 43-5s months later.
is unisexual;
oviposition
is not contingent
on fertilisation,
but unfertilIt is
ized eggs do not produce embryos.
selectively
polyphagous and seems to
prefer broadleaved
or floating
plants,
is highly
sensitive
to molluscicides,
but can protect
itself
from certain
herbicides,
does not act as a host t0
the common and animal trematodes,
and has no specific
enemy. In small
plus the
impoundments, a single release,
progeny produced hy the single
inoculum,
can control
certain
aquatic
plants
in < 2 years.
control;
fish;
The effect of tadpole shrimps (Triops
spp.) on rice seedlings,
especially
young
seedlings
at the 2.5-leaf
stage and suitable for mechanical
transplanting,
was
investigated.
The results
showed that
there was no damage to young seedlings
by
tadpole shrimps, even in the case of irregular and rough transplanting
operations.
Introduction
of egg-containing
soil into
paddy fields,
which had been flooded,
did
#not result
in the occurrence of tadpole
shrimps.
The effect
of the flooding
date
before the introduction
of tadpole shrimps
was tested using experimental
concrete
Although the pots were flooded 3,
pots.
6, and 9 days before the introduction
of
eggs I no tadpole shrimps could be observed.
Only when the eggs were introduced
at the
same time as flooding
were a moderate
number of tadpole shrimps observed.
It
appears that the natural
enemies, which
had hatched prior to the tadpole shrimps,
took their toll
when the introduction
of
Actual labour of
the eggs was delayed.
weeding was estimated
in paddy fields
where a number of tadpole shrimps occurred
Total weeding
and no pesticide
was used.
labour,
20 h/ha (for a single handweeding
carried
out at 40 days after transplantweeding being left to
ing , all previous
the tadpole shrimp),
was significantly
lessthan
the average of 100 h/ha for
present weeding systems in Japan, including the use of herbicides.
WA
CAB (WA 20-2692)
biological
herbivorous
MATSUNAKA, S. Further research on tadpole
shrimps for biological
weeding.
In:
Proceedings
of the 6th Asian-Pacific
Weed
Science Society Conference,
Jakarta,
Indonesia,
1977 (1979), Volume 2, 447-450
Scis.,
Konosu, Saitama
[Nat. Inst. Agric.
365, Japan].
aquatic
paddy rice
weeds;
22712
a bioMAT!;UNAKA, S. Tadpole shrimp:
logical
tool of weed control
in transplanted
rice fields.
In:
Proceedings
of the 5th Asian-Pacific
Weed Science
Society Conference,
Tokyo, Oct. 5-11,
1975 (1976), Asian-Pacific
Weed Science
Society,
439-443.
Three species of tadpole shrimp, Triops
longicaudatus;,
T. qranaris,
and L
can be found in Japan.
cancriformis,
They can be used for weeding in fields
of transplanted
rice.
Their leg-like
organs agitate
the soil and, at the same
time, mechanically
damage newly emerged
weeds.
They feed on the soft parts of
weeds.
20-30 tadpole shrimps per square
metre give good control
of weeds.
A survey of their distribution
in Japan
found tadpole shrimps only in welldrained or semi-ill-drained
paddy soils.
In some districts,
many farmers are
already aware of their usefulness
and
endeavour to keep them in the fields.
They are, however, susceptible
to insecticides
and some herbicides.
A technique for the mass production
of eggs is
needed.
CAB (WA 26-2260)
WA
CAB (WA 29-2943)
tadpole
aquatic
shrimp;
We&S;
paddy rice;
Far East
22714
Weeding efficacy
of the
M.
tadpole shrimp (Trioos spp.) in transplanted rice fields.
In:
Proceedings
of
the 7th Asian-Pacific
Weed Science
Society Conference,
Sydney, Australia
(1979), 237-240 [Kanagawa Pref. Agric.
Hiratsuka,
Kanagawa, 259-12,
Res. Inst.,
Japan].
YONEKURA,
A
tadpole
shrimp;
paddy rice;
Far East;
aquatic
weeds
82
22716
In order to study the efficacy
of Triops
control
SPP. as an agent for biological
of weeds in transplanted
rice fields,
many eggs deposited
in the soil were
released
in the plots at puddling
time
and the relations
between their population
and suppression
of weed growth
The results
obtained are
were examined.
as follows:
some metanauplii
and young
tadpole shrimps (Triops granarius,
T.
longicaudatus)
were found on the 4tcday
close to the time of
after puddling,
weed emergence.
The successful
population
density
of tadpole shrimps for
control
of weeds was estimated
at 50 or
They did not damage the transmore/ma.
planted rice plants.
FONTENOT, H.A.
Feathered weed control:
wild ducks fight red rice.
Rice Journal
(New Orleans)
(19731, 76(3):14.
Some rice farmers in southwest Louisiana
flood their
fields
during the winter
fallow season to encourage wild ducks to
inhabit
the fields
and eat red rice and
other weed seeds in the top zone of the
soil.
Wild ducks are thought not to
spread seeds because most seeds are broken up and completely
digested
by the
birds.
CAB (WA 23-735)
CAB (WA 29-3564)
JAFC
A
North
fallow;
tadpole
aquatic
shrimp;
weeds;
America;
paddy rice;
control;
biological
annual problem
weeds: weed
seed source
reduction
paddy rice;
Far East
2.28 Utilisation
22715
YONEKURA, M. [Biological
control
of
weeds by tadpole shrimps in paddy field
weed efficacy
of tadpole shrimps in
transplanted
rice fields].
Weed
Research, Japan (1979), 24 (2):64-68
[Ja, en] [Kanagawa Prefectural
Agric.
Res. Inst.,
Hiratsuka,
Kanagawa, Japan].
'weeds'
22801
DATTA, S.C.; BANERJEE, A.K.
Useful weeds
of West Bengal rice fields.
Economic
Botany (1978), 32(3):297-310
[Dep. Bot.,
Univ. Calcutta,
Calcutta
700019, India].
Out of 158 weed species collected
from
rice fields
of Hoghly and Midnapore districts
of West Bengal, 124 possess economic importance
in one way or other.
The various uses of these weeds may aid
dealers in crude drugs, manufacturers
of
plant products,
or persons interested
in
the beneficial
aspects of plants.
Tadpole shrimp (Triops granarius
and T.
longicaudatus)
eggs were released
in experimental
plots of transplanted
rice
at puddling
time.
The eggs hatched on
the 4th day after puddling
at almost
the same time as weed emergence and the
shrimps began to scratch the soil surface
6-7 days later.
Weed populations
decreased with the increase
in shrimp po,pulaticns.
The effective
population
density of tadpole &rim', s for weed control
was estimated
at 50/m d ; shrimps did not
damage the transplanted
rice.
CAB (WA 29-2704;
Indian
rice;
CAB (WA 30-1102)
of
subcontinent;
utilisation
A
paddy
WA
2.3
CONTROLOF PROBLEMWEEDS
tadpole
shrimp;
paddy rice;
Far East;
aquatic
weeds
2.31 Perennial
see also TAKAHASHI, F. Trioos species
for the biological
control
of weeds in
Japanese paddy fields.
Entomophaga
(France)
(19771, 22(4):351-357.
problem
weeds
23101
VERGARA, B.S.; MOCDY, K.; VISPERAS, R.M.
Autecology
of scli;E)us maritim=L,
(4). Suggested control
under field
conditions.
Philippine
Weed Science
Bulletin
(1977), 4, 7-12 [Int.
Rice Res.
Inst.,
Los Bafios, Laguna, Philippines].
a3
soil and water
measures, crop rotation,
management practices,
tillage
practices,
use of competitive
varieties
and herbiInteqrated
weed control
in the
cides.
management of perennial
weeds must be
compatible
with the management of annual
weeds and other pests, suL,h as insects
and disease;
and with other practices
that
help in increasing
rice production.
Furthermore,
in developinq
suitable
controls for perennial
weeds in rice the
farmer's
resource capabilities
must
be considered.
The shift
to semi-dwarf
rice varieties
and continuous
cropping
has aided the
spread of the perennial
sedge S.
Control methods resewed
maritimus.
include handweeding, harrowing,
competitive cropping with tall
rice varieties
and with longer duration
varieties,.
ploughing
lo-20 days after harvest,
desiccation
of the tubers,
crop rotation
The best
and the use of herbicides.
herbicides
are fenoprop,
oxadiazon and
bentazone;
they could be economical if
the ccst were spread over 2 or more
crops.
CAB (WA 27-1755)
CAB (WA 28-2309)
WA
WA
paddy rice;
Southeast Asia;
perennia,
problem
weeds; upland
rice;
herbicides
paddy rice;
Southeast
Asia;
perennial
problem
weeds;
herbicides
see also no. 21012 for
more recent work
23102
DATTA, S.K. DE. Approaches in the control and management of perennial
weeds
in rice.
In:
Proceedings
of the 6th
Pacific
Weed Science Society Conference,
Indonesia,
1977, Volume 1,
204-225 [Dep. Agron., Int. Rice Res.
P.O. Box 933, Manila,
PhilinInst.,
pines].
2.32 Annual problem
a brief
review
of
weeds
see also
nos.
22102, 24001
RAI, B.K.
The red rice problem in
PANS (19731, 19(4):557-559
Ayric.
Sta., Mon Repos, Guyana].
23201
Increased
use of herbicides
to control
annual rice weeds in temperate East Asia
has resulted
in serious problems with
perennial
weeds. For tropical
Asia,
there is evidence that, given reliance
on a single
method of weed control,
such
as continuous
use of the same or similar
herbicides
, perennial
weeds could create
Rice farmers
a similar
serious problem.
must integrate
all available
and relevant technologies
to reduce the losses
of grain yield and quality
caused by
all weeds.
As direct
methods of perennial weed control,
handweeding,
the use
of a push-type
rotary weeder, mechanical
weeding, and herbicides
are alternatives
from which rice growers can choose.
For indirect
methods of perennial
weed
control,
appropriate
land, water, soil
and weed management practices
should be
developed.
The use of a rice variety
that competes better
with perennial
weeds, the transplant
method of planting
and suitable
cropping systems could
minimise further
the buildup
of difficult-to-control
weeds, such as perennials.
Various approaches should be
followed
to develop suitable
management
An effiof perennial
weeds in rice.
cient perennial
weed management system
for rice should integrate
preventative
High red rice incidence
in Guyana paddy
fields
is encouraged by the use of seasonbound rice varieties
maturing in 140-150
days, while red rice matures earlier.
Hurried dry-seedbed
preparation,
a result
of the tractor
shortage and the need for
nearly simultaneous
preparation
of all
fields,
encourages red rice germination.
The solution
suggested is the cultivation
of short duration
(90-110 days) periodbound varieties,
with short stature
(70-90 cm) enabling
the taller
red rice
(150 cm) to be rogued out, and with good
seedling vigour enabling sowing in a wet
seedbed; secondly,
thorough seedbed preparation
and the sowing of pregerminated
seed or transplanted
seedlings.
CAB (WA 23-2109)
paddy rice;
northern
South America;
annual
problem
weeds; land preparacultivar
selection;
weed seed
tion;
source
reduction
a4
JAFC
The most effective
are combinations
following
tillage
23202
water
SONNIER, E.A. Red rice studies:
management experiment
(a preliminary
71st Annual Progress
reuort).
In:
^Report, Rice Experiment
Station,
Crowley,
Louisiana,
USA, 1979 (1980), 101-112.
In a comparison of water management
practices
for red rice control,
continuous flooding
from the time of sowing
to preharvest
drainage resulted
ir. the
greatest
reduction
of red rice plants,
from both April and May sowings, while
drainage
immediately
after
sowing followed by gradual reflooding
as the crop
took root provided the greatest
suppresDelayed flooding
sion of red rice seed.
(until
the rice plants were large enough
to withstand
full flooding)
resulted
in
the highest
number of rice seedlings
and the lowest crop yield.
methods of control
of hand hoeing with
systems:
the
(1)
Water weed cutting
(1st year) followed by plouqhing
at the end of the
season (2nd year)
(2)
Plouqhing at the beginning
of the
season followed by several cultivations at intervals
of a few days
(3)
Ploughing at the beginning
of the
season just before flooding
(1st
year) followed
by late ploughing
at
the end of the season (2nd year)
CAB (WA 28-3914)
Nest Africa;
deep-water
annual
problem
weeds;
preparation
WA/A
rice;
land
WA
CAB (WA 30-845)
24002
paddy rice;
North America;
annual
problem
weeds; water
management
2.4
DATTA, S.K. DE: BANERJI, B. Recent developments in cultivation
of deep-water
rice.
MACCOAgricultural
Digest (1979), 4(l):
9-16 [Rice Res. Sta., Chinsurah,
West
Bengal, India].
WEED CONTROL IN DEEP-WATER RICE
Present cultural
practices
in deep-water
rice in India are reviewed.
Seeds are
broadcast onto dry land at the beginning
of the rainy season, or sown in nurseries
and the seedlings
transplanted.
In the
broadcast
crop, usually
2-3 weedings are
given with the Bidha (bullock-drawn,
bamboo-tooth
harrow) at intervals
of lo-12
days when the rice is 15 to 20 cm tall,
with supplementary
handweeding.
When the
crop is 30 to 40 cm high, the field
is
ploughed crosswise with a light
plough.
Following
this,
handweeding,
thinning
and
filling
of gaps with transplanted
seedlings are carried
out.
These operaticas
are done in shallow water (20-25 cm
cultivators
build
depth).
Generally,
barricades
around their rice plots to
Floatprotect
them from water hyacinth.
ing filamentous
algae are controlled
by
skimming with a tin or bucket or applying
copper sulphate
at lo-12 kg/ha.
24001
"AL&E,
G.
[Use of cultural
techniques
Utilisation
de techniques
culturales
dans la lutte
contre le riz sauvage annuel (O.&thii)
dans le Boucle du Niger (Mali).
In:
3e Symposium sur le D&herbage
des Cultures Tropicales,
Dakar, 1978, 8, Av.
du Pr&ident
Wilson, 75116 Paris, France;
COLUMA. (1978) Vol. 1, 304-311 [Fr, en].
The development of floating
rice crops
with controlled
submersion in the Niger
River sweep in Mali ha*le been associated
with a rapid spread of Oryza barthii.
This is most effectively
controlled
by
with various weed
band hoetng, together
cutting
and ploughing
programmes, but
labour shortage has led to the need for
mechanised hoeing; a multi-cultivator
to hoe after drilling
with a 4-row seed
In the long
dr;.ll
has been developed.
increased
technical
knowledge on
tELm,
the part of local farmers will be essential
if -0. barthii
is to be controlled.
CAB (WA 29-44)
Indian
rice;
85
subcontinent;
land preparation
WA
deep-water
,,l’
-,,
Y,.,
24003
CATLING, H-D.; THORNHILL, E.W.; ISLAM, 2.
A
spray boom for deepwater
-- boat-nounted
Tropical
Pest Management (1980),
*.
26(1):56-60
[Deepwater Rice Pest Management Project,
Bangladesh Rice Research
Institute,
Jaydebpur,
Bangladesh].
A lightweight
spray boom for applying
pesticides
in flooded rice was designed
and built
in Bangladesh for use with a
The 5 m long boom
local type of boat.
is equipped with 4 Micron rotary
atomisers powered by a 12-volt
car battery
and
can spray a 4 m swath on one side of the
Two operators
are required
- one
boat.
to prcpel the boat and another to superThe equipment is describvise spraying.
ed in detail,
with photos and diagrams.
The spray boom has been successfully
used
in Bangladesh for spraying
insecticide
and
in crop loss assessment experiments
is probably
suitable
for spraying herbicides.
CAB (WA 30-1267)
A/JAFC
Indian
subcontinent;
deep-water
rice;
herbicide
application
equipment;
herbicide
application
(low volume)
24004
GRIST, D.H. Rice.
Longmans, London
(1965), 4th ed., 548 pp., 734 ref.
Chapter XII Weeds, pp. 260-275, A review.
Includes
theinformation
that,
in East
Pakistan,
jute (Corchorus sp.) and
on
Sesbania spp. are sometimes cultivated
-;river banks to exclude Eichhornia
crassipes
from beds of deep-water
rice.
--
paddy
rice;
crops
WA
rice;
Indian
herbicides;
subcontinent;
deep-water
cover
86
3.
HIGHLAND AND TEMPERATEZONE
3.1
WEED CONTROLSYSTEMS (EXISTING AND
INNOVATIVE)
31002
ZAHIR, M.A.; GUPTA, V.K. Management of
weed control:
a behavioural
analysis
of
Pesticides
(1979),
farmers in Punjab.
13(10):18-24
LDep. Business Management,
Punjab Agric.
Univ.,
Ludhiana,
India].
31001
practices
and
BENGTSSON, B. Cultivation
the weed, pest and disease situation
in
Mimeosome parts of the Chilalo
auraja.
graph Publication,
Chilalo
Agricultural
Development Unit (1968), pp. 62 + 9.
A survey of weed control
practices
was
carried
out among a total of 56 wheatgrowing farmers in the Jullundar
and
Amritsar provinces
of Punjab.
Phalaris
minor was a problem of wheat throughout
the state,
though wild oats (Avena sp.)
and Chenopodium sp. were most pronounced
in the wheat-potato
rotations
of Jullundar
Only 12.5% of the farmers took no
East.
steps at all to control
weeds, while of
the remainder,
50% used combined cultural
and chemical control
measures.
Tribunil
(methabenzthiazuron)
was the most frequently used herbicide
(60%), followed
by 2,4-D (40%) and Tok E-25 (nitrofen)
(36%).
Information
is given on the cultivation
practices
and weed status in the North
Yehoma and Dighella
and South Asella,
areas of the Chilalo
auraja
(Ethiopia),
based on field
surveys and farmer interviews conducted during 1967. Notes are
provided
on the following
frequentlyoccurring
weeds: Snowdenia polystachya,
Polygonum nepalense,
Guizotia
sp., Avena
spp. (particularly
A. strigosa),
---GaG
spurium, Lolium temulentum,
Galinsoga
parviflora,
Datura stramonium,
Rumex
bequaertii
anGi=.
Other
.--.-._
weeds of local sporta:kce
include
Phalaris
paradoxa, Set,aria acromelana,
Cynodon dactylon,
DziItaria
scalarum,
-.Cotula abyssinica,
Laotuca capensis,
sja,
pseudosime~i~h~nopod
media.
album, Geranium sp. and Stellaria
-Under conditions
characterised
by poor
seedbed preparation
and broadcast
sowing,
hand pulling
is the main method of weed
controi,
but the signitrcance
or weed
competition
does not appear to be fully
appreciated
and weeding is seldom
sufficiently
intensive
to exploit
yield
potentials,
which would more than offset
additional
labour costs.
At present,
wheat, barley and teff
(Eragrostis
syssinica)
are seldom weeded, whereas
maize and sorghum are ploughed once in a
weeding/thinning
operation
and handweeded twice, and broad beans are generally weeded twice.
CAB (WA 20-5)
traditional
East Africa;
wheat;
local
cereals;
sorghum;
grain
maize:
CAB (WA 30-1641)
Indian
subcontinent;
root and tuber
crops;
3.2
WA
wheat;
herbicides
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
32OCl
EVERAARTS, A.P.
Tools used for weeding
in highland
horticulture
in Java, Indonesia.
In:
Proceedings
of the 6th AsianPacific
Weed Science Society Conference,
Jakarta,
1977 (1979), Vol. 2, 364-368
Res. Inst.,
[Agron. Div., Horticultural
Pasarminggu,
Jakarta,
Indonesia].
A brief description
of highland
hortiThe
culture
in Java, Indonesia is given.
tools being used for weed control
are described and drawings of six weeding knives
It is suggested
and hoes are included.
that lighter
Dutch hoes replace traditional heavy weeding hoes.
WA
systems;
cereals;
legumes
CAB (WA 29-30'95)
Southeast
systems;
crcps
87
Asia;
traditional
hand tools;
vegetable
JAPC
32002
Experience with weed control
in teff
(Eragrostis
abyssinica)
in Ethiopia
is
describedand
possibilities
for the use of
herbicides
are examined.
As a rule,
fields
are ploughed after harvesting
the previous
crc$ and left to dry out, while,
in addition, burning-off
is practised
in many
parts of the country.
Between onset of
the rains and sowing, plots are ploughed
a further
4 or 5 times and the soil consolidated.
After tillering,
the crop is
handweede: once or twice.
‘Among the passibilities
for chemical weed control,
both
MCPA and 2,4-D control
broadleaved
weeds,
but with the former resulting
in the higher
yield increases.
Cost analyses are provided of hand and chemical weed control
operations
and their profitability
in
terms of estimated
yield increases.
Handweeding at a labour cost of E$30-40/ha
shows marginal
profitability,
but two
weedings (rarely
practised)
can result
in
94% yield increase
and a satisfactory
MCPA, diuron and linuron
profit
margin.
appear economically
justifiable.
The
GADE, D.W.; RIOS, R. Chaquitaclla.
native
footplough
and its persistence
in
Tools and
central
Andean agriculture.
[Univ. of VerTillage
(19721, 2(1):3-15
mont, Dept. of Geography, Old Mill Building, Burlington,
VT 05401, USA].
The chaquitaclla,
taclla,
or Andean
footplough
is a tillage
implement indigenous to the Central Andes, consisting
of
a wooden shaft (l-l.5
m), a handle, a
footrest
bound to the shaft by leather
thongs, and an iron share (about 7.5 cm
It is used on poor
wide, 23 cm long).
mountain soils where the land is rested
for an average of four years before each
The scratch
cropping
cycle of 2-3 years.
plough introduced
by the Spaniards is
not sufficiently
strong to break the
dense sod after the fallow period,
and
the wooden traction
plough is unsuitable
for small or rocky plots and steep
The taclla
therefore
continues
slopes.
to be used in these situations
and to
combat kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandesIts use is somewhat simm
tinum).
a spade, in that each clod is cut with
the ploughshare
and pried from the
ground, but it is not equipped to raise,
cradle and turn the sod, and this is
done with sticks by other members of a
Later, a wooden mallet
ploughing
team.
or mattock is used to break up the clods
before planting.
ITDG
CAB (WA 22-1261)
East Africa;
local
cereals;
traditional
SySteJISj
herbicides;
economic
analysis
JAFC
Andean countries:
hand tools;
shifting
land preparation;
cultivation;
perennial
problem
weeds
3.3
WEED CONTROL IN PARTICULAR CROPS
33001
A&&R,
J.; NANIG, w. [Weed control
in teff].
(Paper at Sympoc
Arbe:itsgruppe
Unkrautprobleme
Warmer
Klimate
im Arbeitskreis
Hzbologie
der
DPG, Stuttgart-Hohenheim,
1972).
Berichte
aus der Abteilung
fur Herbologie
an der Universitlt
Hohenheim (1972),
No. 3, 65-80 [De, en] [Tropeninst.,
Justus Liebig-Univ.
Giessen, German
Federal Republic].
88
WA
4,
HUMID TROPICS
4.1
WEED CONTROL SYSTEMS (EXISTING AND
INNOVATIVE)
4.li
Manual-powered
In the food crop-based
cropping
system,
continuous
reltiy and intercropping
of
maize,
upland rice,
cassava and grain
legumes is combined with early weed control
and return of crop residues as a mulch for
each succeeding
crop.
Perennial
weeds are
shaded out.
systems
41101
Weed conSURYATNA, E.S.; MCINTOSH, J.L.
trol in a shifting
cultivation
and per(Proceedings),
manent.
In:
BIOTROP Workshop on Weed Control
in Small
Scale Farms, Jakarta
(19771, 14 pp.
[Central
Res. Inst. Agric.,
Bogor,
Indonesia].
CAB (WA 28-2559)
WA/J?ZC
Southeast
Asia; shifting
cultivation;
traditional
systems;
novel systems;
sequential
cropping;
intercropping;
mulching:
cover
crops;
coffee;
rubber;
grain
legumes;
cassava;
maize; upland rice;
perennial
problem
weeds: perennial
crops;
planting
techniques
Shifting
cultivation
can only be appropriate if it is well managed and the land is
put into a perennial
crop-based
system
for the long term.
Weeds will be no
problem provided there is a good cropping
pattern
that permits continuous
or partial
cover of the laad throughout
the year.
Irrespective
of whether the aim is weed
control
or weed management,
the objective
should be the same: to reduce weed infestations
to a level at which yield
loss is prevented.
Numerous methods of
weed control
are available
which should
be used in combination
rather
than separately.
see also
no. 43104
41102
WELSH, N.S. JR. Control of weeds in
swidden agriculture.
In:
Proceedings
of
the 7th Asian-Pacific
Weed Science Society
Conference,
Sydney, Australia
(19791,
409-412 [Australian
Baptist
Missionary
sot., Box 29, Chiang Mai, Thailand].
Stabilising
shifting
cultivation
can be
based on two approaches that
are
agronomically
productive
and ecologically
sound.
In the first
year of the indigenous perennial
crop-based
cropping
system, the trees are cut and burned during the dry season, and rice is dibbled
into the untilled
soil between the stumps
at the beginning
of the rainy season.
At
the time the rice is sown, small trees
are planted in a 2.5 m spacing arrangement, for shade and as living
poles for
pepper vines which are planted
3 months
later.
Two months after the rice,
coffee
is planted
in a 2.5 m X 2.5 m spacing
equidistant
from the shade trees,
and
cassava
is planted in the pepper rows
about 00 cm from the pepper plants.
A
legume crop can be grown afte:. the rice
is harvested,
and a food crop can be
planted
in the second year.
Coffee is
harvested
from the fourth to sixteenth
year,
andlrubber
later
dominates the
system.
After 20 years the plantation
is
broken open.
KudLu (Pueraria
phaseoloides)
can be planted between the trees
-improve
soil fertility
from the third
year.
The tribes
of Northern Thailand use swidden technology
to grow their staple crop
of upland rice and cash crops of soyabean,
Yields are
sesame,
maize
and opium poppy.
low 2nd chemical input minimal.
The lifestyle and agriculture
of tribes
is described,
because consideration
of weed control is useless without knowing the overall
system.
Weeds are controlled
by hand
although recently
some
pulling
or cutting,
experimenting
with herbicides
has occurred.
In a society where people and time are
abundant, economic aspects of weed control
Despite the
require
careful
examination.
problems of finance,
packaging and illiteracy, herbicides
may be a worthwhile
inis a need to
novation.
However, there
identify
appropriate
products,
to evaluate
the use of equipment,
and to investigate
the use of suboptimal
herbicide
rates
combined with handweeding.
CAB (WA 29-3115)
Southeast
traditional
89
shifting
cultivation;
Asia;
systems;
economic
analysis
A
41103
41105
Eradication
MOHAN LAL, K.B.
Eupatorium and other pests.
ester (19601, 86(8):482-484
of Forests,
Assam, India].
of Lantana,
Indian For[Conservator
In the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills,
the Khasi
people have brought Lantana camara and
Eupatorium_ odoratum underoxby
using
The branches are
them to enrich the soil.
cut, laid over cultivated
areas, allowed
to dry, covered with sods which are allowAfter
ed to dry, and then slowly burned.
light
hoeing, potatoes and other vegetables are planted and cow dung added at the
Other crops such as maize or
same time.
swer?t potato are planted after harvesting
the potatoes,
and the area is then left
uncultivated
for 5 to 10 years.
FA
CAB (WA lo-12571
Indian
subcontinent;
shifting
cultivation;
traditional
systems;
perennial
problem
weeds;
uti:ication
.
41104
BERNSTEN, R.H.; HERDT, R.W. Towards an
understanding
of milpa agriculture:
the
Belize case.
Journal of Developing
Areas
(1977), 11(3):373-392
[Dept. of Agric.
Economics, Univ. of Illinois,
UrhanaChampaign, IL, USA].
The paper describes
the milpa indigenous
agricultural
system in Belize,
and possible means of increasing
its productivA detailed
description
is given of
ity.
the crop production
process including
site selection,
land clearing,
seed selection and planting,
intercropping,
weeding
and harvesting.
Costs and labour inputs
for each part of the production
process
are given.
Measures to improve productivity should concentrate
on the times of
labour shortage at weeding and planting,
possibly
by introducing
hand planters
and granular
herbicides.
CAB (WAERSA 20 -6894)
Central
America;
shifting
cultivation;
traditional
economic
analysis;
maize;
intercropping
JAFC
systems;
Phaseolus;
HAMMERTON,J.L.
A role for herbicides
in
the transition
from slash and burn farming.
In:
Abstracts
of 1979 Meetins of the
Weed Science Society of America (1979), 69
[Caribbean Agric.
Res. Devel. Inst.,
Belize].
The 'milpero'
or slash and burn farmer in
Belize usually
abandons his land ('milpa')
after only 1 or 2 crop seasons.
In the
first
place, this is because severe weed
problems develop which would normally
reguire much hand labour for cutting
in order
to plant further
crops and, secondly,
because a decline
in soil fertility
results
from cropping,
leaching
and erosion.
Experiments
in Belize have shown that paragust gives excellent
desiccation
of the
dense stands of predominantly
grass weeds
commonly encountered
after two cropping
seasons, leading
to an effective
burn.
Pre-em. atrazine
gave good control
of weeds
in maize sown after burning,
resulting
in
improved growth and yields.
Fertiliser
without pre-em. atrazine
also gave substantial
increases
in yield,
but at much greater cost.
Similar
results
were obtained
with dry beans where 3 inter-row
weedings
gave large yield increases.
These findings are discussed
in relation
to extension methods among 'milperos'
in seeking
to encourage more settled
farming practices.
CAB (WA 29-972)
A
Central
America;
shifting
cultivation:
traditional
systems:
novel
systems;
economic
analysis;
social analysis;
herbicides:
maize; Phaseolus
41106
SORIA, J.; BAEAN, R.; PINCHINAT, A.M.;
PAEZ, G.; MATEO, N.; MORENC, R.; FARGAS, J.;
FORSYTHE, W. [Studies
of agricultural
production
systems for the small farmer
in the tropics].
Investigacihn
sobre
sistemas de producci6n
agricola
para el
peguefio agricultor
de1 tropico.
Turrialba
(1975). 25(3):283-293
LEs, en] [Departamento de Cultivos
y Suelos Tropicales,
CATIE, Turrialba,
Costa Rica].
In field trials
at Turrialba
to test different systems of production
suited to
spatial
and chronosmall farmers, various
logical
patterns
of monoculture,
intercropping and crop rotation
of bean, maize,
cassava and sweet potato,
with varying
The
fertiliser
rates,
were investigated.
majority
of multiple-cropping
systems were
4.12 Animal
more efficient
monocultures,
production.
than their corresponding
both in yield and biomass
Some of the outstanding
a rotation;of
beans and
systems
were:
maize
followed
by maize; in intercropping
of beans and maize followed
by maize;
beans and cassava followed
by maize;
beans intercropped
with cassava followed
Multiple-cropping
by sweet potato.
systems
were
more
efficient
than monoculture
in reducing weed biomass and in
permitting
a broader and more uniform
distribution
cf hand labour throughout
the year.
FISHER, H.H.; SABIO, E.A.; PASTORES, R.N.
Weed control
systems for upland rice in
the Philippines.
(Abstract
of paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the
American Society
for Horticultural
Science,
Fort Collins,
Colorado,
July-August
1980).
HortScience
(1980), 15(3, Section 2):413
[Int.
Inst. Rural Reconstruction,
Silang,
Cavite,
Philippines].
A cropping system
using the new, highly
competitive
C-22 upland rice sown in rows
upland
30 cm apart was tested by Filipino
farmers.
Treatments were as follows:
2
handweedings;
the application
of butachlor
at 2 or 1.33 kg/ha each followed by 1
handweeding; a modification
of the farmer's
normal practice
of 2 draught cultivations
followed b\ 1 handweeding; and no weed
control.
Rice yields
from the improved
systems ranged from 1.7 to 4.3 t/ha dcpending on weed density
and soil moisture.
Rice yields
with no weed control
were
depressed about 51%. Net revenues ranged
from P 2145 to P 4795 using the improved
systems, compared with P 2632 using the
Adoption
farmer's
traditional
practice.
of economic alternatives
to the traditional
practirie
would depend on the availability
of cash, labour and/or spraying
equipment.
Central
America;
intercropping;
crop rotation;
sequential
cropping;
Phaseolus;
maize;
CSSSSVS; sweet
potato
41107
ZEHRER, W. Initiation
into the weed
control
problems in Togo.
In:
Proceedings of a Symposium held at Miinster on
Plant Protection,
7-18 August, 1978.
Dag-Hammarskjijld-Weg
1, D-6236 Eschborn 1,
German Federal Republic;
Gesellschaft
fiir
Technische
Zusammenarbeit mbH. (1978),
10 pp. [Lomb-Cacareli,
Togo].
Details
are given of some aspects of the
weed flora and cropping of Togo, cl!ltural
methods of weed control
employed, some
preliminary
trial
work with herbicides,
and the administration
of the Crop Protection
Service.
CAB (WA 30-1667)
Southeast
upiand rice:
herbicides
Crop production
in Togo is mainly based
on shifting
cultivation.
The ground is
prepared with a hoe after burning and
cutting
the trees and shrubs at the
Grasses,
beginning
of the rainy season.
especially
lmperata cylindrica,
rapidly
invade and the small-holder
i's forced to
ahandon the plot after 3-4 years.
West Africa;
tra-7itiOnai
shifting
Asia;
novel
economic
WA
SyStemS;
analysis;
41202
FISHER, H.H.; NIELSEN, K.C. Alternative
Weed Control Methods for Upland Rice in
Paper presen.ted at
Cavite,
Philippines.
the 1981 Meeting of the Weed Science
Society of America, Las Vegas, Nevada,
1981 [Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon
State Univ,., Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
I
WA/JAFC
CAB (WA 28-2563)
systems
41201
FCA
CAB (FCA 31-873)
draught
cultivation;
Poor weed control,
often resulting
from
untimely
and ineffective
handweeding,
is
the second most important
obstacle
to increased upland rice production,
after
There is eviinadequate
soil moisture.
dence that hired handweeding labour is
becoming more difficult
to obtain in many
developing
nations.
In Cavite,
the cost
of handweeding has risen from P 5 to P 15/
man-day since 1975, while rice selling
systems
91
0
Two weed control
!)ystems uxl~eriments on
upland rice variety
C-22 were conducted on
on Taqaytay loam soil in
:ci:-mers' fields
C::lvite Province duriny the 1979 wet season.
7'he purpose of the? eqvxunents
was to re?e.'.t ..I packaqe of C-22 production
I>ractices
:levf.loped in 1978, both from the aqronomlc
and economic standpoints.
price has only increased
from p 1.10 to
Detween
P 1.30/kg in the same period.
1978 and 1979, labour and input costs
price 17%.
rose about 25%; rice selli:,g
To maintain
present living
standards,
the
farmer must produce more rice
per
field.
C-22 variety,
The new, hi$h-yielding
developed
for the upland,
is farmertested and gaining acceptance.
In
Balubad, Cavite,
in 1977, 41 growers increased yields
from 1437 (traditional
practices)
to 3133 kg/ha (C-:2 improved).
c-22 is yield unstable hodevar, being
But it comprone to moisture stress.
petes well with weeds, even at the widet
allowing
animal draught
30 cm spacing,
cultivation
with a small mouldbnsrd
Balunad
plough and easier hanrlweeding.
farmers who adopted C-22 have switched
from two handweedings to two cultivations
or pre-emergence
butacnlor;
each followed
Experiments
were [email protected]:Iby a handweeding.
ducted on farmers'
fields
in the 1978
a:ld 1979
(87 weeds/ma, optimLT moisture)
(436 weeds/ma, late-season
moisture
There were few
stress)
wet seasons.
differences
among 1978 yields,
net reHowever, there
turns or weeding times.
were marked differences
in these under
the stress conditions
of 1979. Two
cultivations
slightly
delayed handweeding
time beyond the first
handweeding 'pe~.;~'
corn and sugarcane weediny
(where rice,
required
no herbicide
or
coincide),
utilised
available
implements
sprayer,
Butachlor
and saved 175 man-hours/ha.
at 1.33 kg/ha produced at least 410 kg/ha
more grain and consequently
higfler net
return,
delayed handweeding weil
past the
'peak'
(labour more obtainable),
saved
456 man-hoursiha
and controlled
weeds
early when cultivations
and handweeding
were less effective.
severe moisture stress during
At Palapala,
the middle part of the crop cycle drastically rcu-Iced yields compared to the same
location
in 1978. Yields from farmer's
practice
or two handweedinqs,
or butachlor
(either
rate) followed by c,ne handweeding
Weedy check yields
were rewere equal.
duced 84% compared to average yields
of
plots having weed control.
There were no differences
in yield when
any weed control
treatment
was compared
between 50 and 75 kq/lia seeding rates at
either
site.
Based on Lalaan results
(less influenced
by drought than Palapala results),
possible net returns
for 11 improved weed
control
methods were calculated,
assuming
herbicides
would be applied by the farmer
and hanL&eedings and cultivations
would
be performed by the farmer or by hired
The four highest net revenues
labour.
(butachlor
plus one handweeding) would
Three other
range from P3,024 to 2,497.
high net revenues (82,496 to 2,145) would
be obtained
if the farmer were able to
handweed twice or cultivate
and handweed,
provided
that handweeding would be carried
out mostly with family labour.
A
IPPC
southeast
Asia; upland
novel systems; herbicides;
economic analysis
late season soil moisAt the !,alaan site,
ture hire s and heavy weed populations
in 1978.
resul tee' i!; lower yields
~ut~~h'.\r
a+ 1.33 and 2.00 kq a.i./hn
followr~l Lx: ,>:Ic handweedinq each provided
the .': ?il<. ;‘I< 'd.
These treatments
yielded
more ill.r:: wo handweedings,
which, in turn,
yielded more than modified farmer's
practice of two drauqht cultivations
tollowed
by one handweedinq.
The weedy check
Uncontrolled
weeds
yielded
the least.
reduced rice yields
91% compared to two
ha,-aL:daedings .
rice;
41203
traditional
upland rice
In comparison,
handweeded twice by the farmer under
Lalaan drought and weed conditions
and
(twice the national
upyielding
2.0 t/L
land rice average) would realise
a net
revenue of 82,600 to 2,225.
SABIO, E.A.; FISHER, !'.F.:
?'ASTORES, R.M.
Results from Retesting
a Production
Technology Package Based on C-22 Upland Rice
Paper presented
a- the 11th
in Cavite.
Annual Conference of the Pest Control
Council of the Philippines,
April
23-26,
[Rice and
1980, Cebu City, Phrlippines.
Feed Grains,
Internat.
Inst. of Rural
Reconstruction
(IIRR), Silano,
Cavite,
Philippines].
Under the 1979 Lalaan wet season conimproved practices
appear to be
straints,
little
better
than traditional
practices
Further rein increasing
farmer income.
search is necessary to fully
assess C-22
yield potential.
92
can be maintained
by growing crops exclusively
for use as a mulch, by live
mulch from low-qrowing
and least-competitivc cover crops, or by the use of crop
residue throuqh rotation
and tillaqe
techniques.
Mulch tillage,
such as minimum tillaqe
based on the zonal tillaqe
concept of maintaining
crop residue
in the
inter-row
zone and simultaneously
providing a good seedbed, meets most soil management requirements
for many upland
Yields of maize, cowpeas, pigeon
crops.
peas, soyabeans and sweet potatoes on
mulch tillase
plots
equal yields
from
plouqhed plots.
At the same time, the
soil erosion is minimal and soil structure
soil
is maintained
by more intensive
flora and fauna activity.
The production
package, as tested,
appears to offer the upland rice farmer
several weed control
choices depending
impleon available
cash, cultivation
knapsack sprayers
ments, weeding labour,
and off-farm
employment.
A
IPPC
southeast
Asia; upland rice;
novel systems; herbicides;
eco.~o.mic zeal ysis
4.13 Millimum tillage
see also
sl.stems
no. 42201
ZAB (CAB Annotated
no. 25-121)
Bibliography
CAB
41301
cover crops; maize:
Mulching;
Cajanus; soyabean; sweet potato;
minimum tillage;
West Africa:
novel systems
ROCKWOOD,W.G.; LAL, R. fiulch tillaqe:
a technique
for soil and water conservaSpan (1974), 17(2):
tion in the tropics.
77-79 LEn, fr, es, de] [International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibdan, Nigeria].
41303
Systems of mulch tillage
(zero tillage)
cropping
on tropical
soils are discussed.
In plot trials,
yields
of maize,
cowpeas
and pigeon peas were similar
for mulch
tillage
and ploughed treatments,
except
during periods of drought stress when
yields
of maize and cowpeas were 50 and
25% higher with mulch tillage.
Yields
for soyabeans were lower with mulch
tillage
than for ploughed treatments.
CAB (CAB Annotated
no. 25-162)
minimum tillage;
mulching;
novel
Vigna; Cajanus;
WIJEWARDENE,R. Systems and energy in
Protropical
smallholder
farming.
In:
ceedings of the Appropriate
Tillage
WorkNiqeria,
1979 (1980),
shop, IAR, Zaria,
73-86 [International
Institute
of Tropical
Ibadan, Nigeria].
Agriculture,
A no-till
system of farming for the humid
tropics
is described.
Weed growth is
killed
at the beginning
of the season by
low volume herbicide
sprays and forms a
mulch which minimises
soil erosion and
Crop
discourages
further
weed growth.
seeds are jab planted through the mulch.
A table of labour needs for the no-till
system and conventional
tillage
is preFor descriptions
of some spraysented.
ers and jab planters
commercially
available, see no. 41303.
Bibliography
CAB
West Africa;
systems; maize;
soyabean
41302
CAB (AEA 5-4347)
in
LAL, R. Role of mulching techniques
tropical
soil and water management.
Technical
Bulletin,
International
Institute of Tropical
Agriculture
(1975),
[International
Institute
No. 1, 38 pp.
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan,
Nigeria].
novel systems; West Africa;
minimum tillage;
mulching;
planting
techniques;
herbicide
application
equipment;
herbicide
application
(low volume)
Surface mulching with crop residue at
the rate of 4 to 6 tons/ha decreases
soil temperature
and maintains
favorable
soil structure
through enhanced biological activity.
Continuous surface cover
93
JAFC
*i
see also
41305
-
SHENK, M.; LOCATELLI, E.; BURRILL, L.C.;
MCCARTY, T. Preplant
vegetation
contrcl
for minimum and zero tillaqe
systems.
In:
3e Symposium sur le Dgsherbage des
Cultures Tropicales,
Dakar, 1978, 8, Av.
du President
Wilson, 75116 Paris,
France;
COLUMA (1978) Vol. II, 483-493 [Int.
Plant
Prot. Center, Oregon State Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
and energy in
WIJEWARDENE. R. Systems
Paper presented
at
tropical
farming.
-.the Winter MecLing
of the American
Society r,T Agricultural
Engineers
(ASAT',
USA (1978), ASAE
Chicago, Illinois,
Paper 78-1511, 15 pp.
equipment
WIJEWARDENE, R. Weed control
for the smallholder
in the tropics.
Weeds and Their Control
in the
In:
(ed. 1.0. Ak<.Rumid and Subh,znid Tropics
bundu), Proceedings of a Conference
held at the International
Institute
for
Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria,
1978 (1980), 367-370.
WIJEWARDENE, R. Energy-conserving
ing systems for the humid tropics.
Agricultural
Mechanization
in Asia
(1980), Spring,
48-53.
/
'
Small farmers in Costa Rica plant maize in
January or February,
and often a second
Beans
crop is sown in August-September.
are sown in December, to be harvested
before the heaviest
rains.
Rice is sown
About March.
farm-
In maize, the weeds are first
cut with a
machete to less than 5 inches, requiring
an average of 14 five-hour
man-days per
hectare in 'normally
difficult'
conditions,
and 25 man-days in a stand of rank
perennial
weeds (such as Panicum maximum
The debris
and Paspalum fasciculatum).
is left as mulch.
A few farmers used
chemicals after this cutting.
Fields
are weeded again, with machete, hoe or
herbicides
(2,4-D alone or in a mixture),
within a month after planting,
and weeds
are cut again with a machete when the
stalks are doubled about a month before
harvest.
Beans were planted in a
'covered beans' system:
pathways were
cut through the weeds and the seeds
broadcast,
then the weads were cut with
a machete to ground level.
Only spot
weeding was done before harvest,
with the
exception
of one farmer who hoed the field
once.
Rice is sown with a sharp stick;
herbicides
are used for weed control.
'Improved systems' suggested for weed
control
consist
of treatment
with paraguat
or glyphosate
prior
to planting
in developed vegetation,
planting
in the mulch of
cut plants,
and later handweeding or
directed
spraying
with paraquat.
41304
GEEST INDUSTRIAL GROUPLTD. The Groom
Inset (advertisement)
between
system.
pages 54 and 55, World Crops (19801,
[Geest Industrial
32(2):6 pp., 12 pl.
Group Ltd%. West Marsh Road, Spalding,
Lines. UK].
The 'G-oom system' Fackaqe aimed at small
farmers in the humid tropics
is deWeed growth is killed
at the
scribed.
beginning
of the season by low volume
herbicide
sprays and forms a mulch which
minimises
soil erosion and discourages
Crop seeds are jab
further
weed growth.
planted through the mulch.
The possible
increased
benefits
of this system are:
:rields through reduced soil erosion and
moisture
loss, reduced labour per
hectare giving
the farmer time to cultivate
a greater
area, and reduced
planting
time after harvest
enabling an
additional
crop to be grown in the
same season.
Equipment for spraying,
transporting
and jab planting
is described
in detail
and illustrated.
--
Following
a review of farming practices
in Costa Rica, results
are given cf
beans and
herbicide
experiments
in maize,
rice.
JAFC
CAB (WA 28-3442)
novel systems; minimum tillage;
manual implements;
mulching;
motor-powered
implements;
herbicide
application
equipment;
herbicide
application
(low volume);
planting
technigues
Central America; traditional
systems; novel systems; minimum
tilfage;
mulching;
maize:
Phaseolus;
upland rice;
planting
techniques;
perennial
problem
weeds; herbicides;
slashing
94
JAFC
Maize yields
in no-till
systems were equal
to or greater
than those from ploughed
plots in experiments
conducted in Costa
Rica over a four-year
period.
Soil-inhabiting
insects
reduced production
up to 40%
in ploughed plots and up to 20% in no-till
plots.
Foliar
feeding by Diabrotica
balteata
and Spodoptera_ frugiperda
was
significantly
less in no-till
systems.
Of the no-till
systems, a preplant
application of glyphosate,
paraquat preplant
followed by a directed
postplant
application,
and pre-plant
weeding with a
cutlass
followed
by directed
postemergence
paraquat application
all adequately
controlled
weeds.
Treatments with taller
weed residues
had less S. frugiperda
attack than those with mulch flat on the
soil surface.
41306
SHENK, M.; LOCATELLI, E.; BURITY, H.;
ZAFFARONI, E. [Response of beans
(PhaseolLs vulgaris
L.) to different
systems of vegetation
management].
Respuesta de frijol
(Phaseolus Flaaris
z.* I a diferentes
manejos de la vegetacion.
Paper presented at the 25th Annual
zing
of the Programa Cooperativo
Centroamericano
para el Mejoramiento
de
Cultivos
Alimenticios
(PCCMCA), Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Mar. 1979, 8 pp. [Es,
es] [Int
Plant Prot. Center / CATIE,
Turrialba,
Costa Rica].
Various systems of vegetation
management
based on zero tillage
are compared with
conventional
tillage
systems.
Zero tillage systems gave adequate weed control
and gave yields which were agronomically
and economically
superior
to those ob'ained with conventional
tillage.
A
Central
America; maize; novel
minimum tillage;
herbicides;
slashing;
mulching
Application
of glyphosate
to the regrowth
24 days after having cut the vegetation
gave yields
of 1384 kg/ha.
Conventional
tillage
gave yields of 1169 kg/ha and
the traditional
'covered beans' gave 77
kg/ha.
The 'covered beans' system consists of simply broadcasting
bean seeds
over the weedy plot of land and, immediately after,
hand slashing
weed growth
to cover the seeds.
SyStl?mS;
4.2
4.21 Herbicides
42101
It was also shown that it is possible
to
significantly
increase beln yields
in
the 'covered beans' system by simply
sowing beans with a planting
stick
(espeque or chuzo) in place of broadcastmg.
'This
improvement made possible
an
increase
in yield of 470 kg/ha.
--
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
AHMADFAIZ BIN MD. ALIF.
Use of herbicides in small scale plantations
in
Southeast Asia.
In:
(Proceedings),
BIOTROP Workshop on Weed Control
in Small
Scale Farms, Jakarta
(19771, 10 pp.
[Rubber Res. Inst. Malaysia,
Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia].
A
Interest
in herbicide
use is still
quite
recent in small-scale
plantations
in
Southeast Asia.
Not many planters
are
inclined
to adopt such practices
in view
of the cost of the herbicides
and the
cheapness of manual labour.
In some
small-scale
plantations,
farmers should
be encouraged to adopt herbicide
use
where this is economically
justified.
Efficient
extension
services
should be
provided to disseminate
information
to
small-scale
planters.
The paper includes
a survey of the chemical methods available
for controlling
weed= in long-,
mediumand short-term
cl.>;;?. with indication
of
some pitfalls.
Central America; traditional
systems; novel systems: minimum
tillage;
mulching;
Phaseolus;
planting
techniques;
herbicides:
perennial
problem weeds; slashing
41307
SHENK, M.; SAUNDERS, J.; CARBALLO, M.;
CRAWFORD,E. Interaction
between insects
and soil-weed
management in a tropical
maize production
system.
Paper presented
at the 1981 Annual Meetina of the Weed
Science Society of America, Las Vegas,
Nevada, USA, Feb. 1981 [Int.
Plant Prot.
Center, Oregon State University,
Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
CAB (WA 28-2703)
perennial
crops;
Asia; herbicides
95
WA
Southeast
4.22
Cover crops
and mulches
leaf mulch) were compared with slashing
measures
for
postnursery
as weed control
establishment
of coffee seedlings
(Coffea
-canephora var. Quillou)
in the field.
-------.
Weed specres distribution
was identical
in
plots seeded with P. phaseoloides
or
The
mulched with banangplantain
leaves.
latter
was more effective
in suppressing
The least effective
in
weed growth.
suppressing
weeds was Calapogonium
mucunoides.
42201
a new apLive mulch:
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.
proach to weed control
and crop producProceedings,
tion in the tropics.
In:
15th British
Weed Control Conference,
Brighton,
UK, British
Crop Protection
Council
(1980). 377-382 [Int.
Inst. Trop.
Agric.,
Ibadan, Nigeria].
Live mulch is a crop production
technique
in which a food crop is planted directly
in a living
cover of an established
cover crop without tillage
or destruction
The effect
of
of the fallow vegetation.
several established
legume covers on weed
competition,
fertiliser
requirement
and
yield cf maize was studied in the field
at the International
Institute
of TropiWeed infestation
was
cal Agriculture.
heaviest
in unweeded conventionally
tilled and no-tillage
plots,
but very low
in unweeded Centrosema pubescens and
ConsePsophocarpus palustris
plots.
quently,
maize yield was reduced in all
ground covers where weed infestation
was
heavy, but not in the covers that effectively
suppressed weeds. Maize yield was
significantly
higher in the live mulch
plots that received
no fertiliser
than
in similarly
treated conventionally
tilWhen 60 kg/ha
led and no-tillage
plots.
each of N, P205 and K20 was applied
to
all ground covers, maize yield
in the
live mulch plots was either
equal to or
better
than in the conventionally
tilled
and no-tillage
plots.
CAB (WA 30-1655)
West Africa;
mulching;
mu1ches; cover crops;
imported
coffee
42203
BOUBAEWONT,P. [The use of cover plants
and mulching in arabica coffee crops in
Geroon].
L'utilisation
des plantes de
couverture
et du paillage
dans la culture
du caf&.er arabica au Cameroun. Caf6,
Cacao, The (1979), 23(2):75-102
[Fr, en].
Trials
were conducted at several sites in
Cameroon to study the following
aspects of
cover crops and mulching in coffee;
costs,
effects
on soil chemistry
and availability
nutrition
of coffee
of water, mineral
In arabica,
unlike
bushes, and yields.
the use of creeping cover
robusta coffee,
plants did not significantly
increase
yields and had certain
disadvantages;
Stylosanthes
offered
little
resistance
to
Mimosa increased
the
infesting
grasses,
fire risk and, in general,
there was competition
for water; the costs of cutting
and mulching were another drawback.
Flemingia has given variable
results
as a
cover crop, depending on environmental
it is sugqested that expericonditions;
ments with this species be extended from
low to medium and high altitudes.
A
cover Crops; minimum tillagei
nOVe1
systems
maize; West Africa;
'
A
CAB (WA 1981)
42202
CAB (WA 30-588)
An assessment of culOLADOICUN,M-A-0.
tural weed control
methods in Coffea
caneuhora
(var. Quillou).
In:
Weeds
and Their Control in the Humid and Subhumid Tropics
(ed. 1.0. Akobundu), Proceedings of a conference held at the
International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria,
1978 (19801,
362-365 [Cocoa Res. Inst. of Nigeria,
PMR 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria].
WA
west Africa;
coffee;
ndching;
mulches; cover Crops
imported
42204
Guatemala grass for mulch
TEMPLHR, J.C.
Tea in
on proposed tea planting
sites.
[Tea Res.
East Africa
(1973). 13(1):12-14
Inst. E. Africa,
Uganda Res. Stn.,
Rwebitaba].
Four legume cover crops (Calopogonium
mucunoides,
Centrosperma pubescens,
Pueraria
phaseoloides
and Vigna
unguiculata)
and two typesofrganic
mulch (grass mulch and banana/Plantain
96
Three trials
at the Experiment Statrun and
three in West Malaysia and ,a cover management trial
are described.
Spec;es e. aluated as cover plants
included Eupatorium
odoratum and Mikhnia cordatd;
their depressire effects
on rubber qrowth can be l,iryely relieved
by control
measures to reduce
their quantity.
The depressing
effects
of
M. cordata on tree growth were attributed
g inhibitory
exudates which may act directly
on the trees or indirectly
by
suppression
of soil nitrification;
M.
cordata can be controlled
by spraying with
Good tree growth resulted
from
2,4-D.
periodic
slashing
and spraying of natural
The most effective
leguminouweed covers.
cover plants are given as Calopogonium
caeruleum, Centrosema pubescens, Desmodium
ovalifolium,
Moghania macrophylla
and
Pueraria phaseoloides.
Guatemala grass (Tripsacum laxum) was
planted
in 1970 and 1971 and, at the
ages of 18 or 19 months, was cut to form
a mulch; tea was planted into the mulches
The planting
of 30 cm longin 1972.
rooted grass stems at a spacing of 1.2 X
1.2 m into clean soil is recommended
early in the rainy season; P should be
applied
to planting
holes at 50 kg P205/
ha
I least one cheel hoeing is needed,
but after
canopy close, the grass may
keep itself
entire11
weed-free.
NPK
25-5-5 fertiliser
should be applied
at
400 kg/ha just before canopy close.
After 1 year (preferably)
of growth, the
grass should be cut at or just below
ground level to discourage
regrowth,
and
the stems laid a l,ng the contour so as
The few
to cover the ground completely.
weeds that may grow can easily
be reRegrowth of the grass
moved by hand.
from stools is easily checked by hoeing,
scuffling
by feet, or by spraying
with
Gramoxone [paraguat]
(with protection
for
Regrowth from nodes can be
tea plants).
checked by turning
the stems over.
CAB (WA 30-3530)
WA
CAB (WA 20-2139)
Southeast Asia;
cover crops
rubber;
WA
42207
tea; ccwer crops; slashing;
mulching;
East Africa
SCHINDLER, A.J.; FRASER, R.R. Cover crops,
n.ulch or clean weeding for coffee
(foffea
arablcal
in the highlands
of New Guinea.
Papua and New Guinea Agricultural
Journal
(1964), 17(1):39-47
[Highlands
Agric.
Exp.
Stn., Aiyura].
42205
WATSON, G.A. Cover crops in Malayan
World Crops (1963),
rubber plantations.
15(2):48-52
[Rubb. Res. Inst.,
Kuala
Lumpur. Malaysia].
In two trials
in New Guinea, treatments
(a) cove:: crop of Vigna
used were:
oligosperma,
(b) cover crop ofIndigofera
(c) mulch of elephant grass
endecaphylla,
(Pennisetum purpureum),
(d) clean weeding
(weeds hoed just below ground level),
and
(e) slash weeding (weeds cut just above
Best yields were given by
ground level).
the mulch treatment
and these were significantly
higher than for any other treatment, especially
during the fourth year
Next best yields were given
of the trials.
by the clean-weeding
treatment,
though, by
the fourth year, yields
following
this
treatment were only slightly
higher
those where the V. oligosperma
cover CL.,
Lowesryields
resulted
from
was used.
the I. endecaphylla
cover crop, which
competed severely
with the coffee.
V
L
oligosperma
was unsatisfactory
as a cover
crop because of its lack of ability
to
Slash weeding encompete with weeds.
couraged the growth of grasses, was tedious and did not kill
the weeds effecWhere weeding was practised,
it
tively.
was concluded that this should completely
Various types of cover crops for rubber
are briefly
discussed,
with particular
Species
emphasis on leguminous covers.
discussed
include Pueraria phaseoloides,
Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosperma
Flercingia
congesta,
Stylopubescens,
santhes gracilis
and Calopogonium
caeruleum.
CAB (WA 12-738)
Southeast Asia;
cover crops
JAFC
rubber;
42206
WYCHERLEY, P.R.; CHANDAPILLAI, M.M.
Effects
of cover plants.
Journal of the
Rubber Research Institute
of Malaya
(19691, 21(2):140-157.
[Rubber Res.
Inst. Malaya, Kuala Lumpur].
97
than merely
destroy the weeds, rather
remove the tops; in the long run, the
former was the least costly.
CAB (WA 15-127)
In trials
carried
out in 1958-1960, 20
tons/ha Eupatorium odoratum used as a
green manure on paddy rice produced significantly
higher grain yields
(2.5 tons/ha)
than the use of farmyard manure at 5 tons/
ha (yield 1.5 tons/ha)
or the use of chemical fertilisers.
The presence of L
odoratum eliminated
damage due to land
crabs, but also killed
fish.
In black
peppert an annual mulch of 45 tons/ha of
green E. odoratum effectively
controlled
the prevalent
destructive
yellow disease
and root rot of pepper in Cambodia.
Other
mulches are ineffective
and it is thought
that the effect
of E. odoratum is due to
its nematicidal
properties,
which are
currently
under investigation.
WA
Australasia;
coffee;
slashing;
imported mulches;
mulching;
cover crops
42208
CENTRO INTEPHACIONAL DE AGRICULTURA
TROPICAL. Cassava Program 1979 Annual
CIAT, Cali, Colombia (1980),
Report.
93 PP.
In a preliminary
trial,
the use of 45
tons/ha E. odoratum incorporated
inLo the
soil before ploughing
gave a significantly
higher yield of sole-crop
cassava roots
(22 tens/ha)
than the use of farmyard
manure at 20 tons/ha
(yield 14 tons/ha)
and gave more than double the yield of
unfertilised
cassava (10 tons/ha).
Cultural
weed control:
Pp. 55-56.
mulching and green covers.
In trials
at
comparing the effects
of
two locations,
different
mulches on weed weight/ha,
soil
and root yield of cassava,
temperature,
the highest yields were obtained with a
maize straw mulch, which provided good
weed control
and a lasting
soil cover.
Punter0 grass (Hyparrhenia
rufa),
sugarcane leaves and Stylosanthes
straw also
formed good, persistent
mulches.
Plantain
leaves, kudzu straw and cassava
leaves decomposed rapidly,
leaving
the
soil exposed.
WRO
Southeast Asia; paddy rice:
cassava; perennial
crops;
perennial
problem weeds;
utilisation;
mulching;
imported mulches
In another trial,
green covers established with Desmodium heterophyllum
and with
intercropped
beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
gave similar
weed control
to that
manual weeding.
achieved with continuous
The high seed cost of both legumes was
offset
by the value of the bean crop and
the long-lasting
cover, erosion control,
N fixation
and forage material
from L
heterophyllum.
WRO
JAPC
42210
Teohrosia ~urourea (Pila)
SALGADO, M.L.M.
for the control
of Eupatorium and as a
Ceylon
green manure on coconut estates.
Coconut Planters'
Review (1972), 6\4):
160-174 [Agric.
Consultant,
49.Lady
Catherine
Housing Estate, Borupana Road,
Ratmalana].
JAPC
Eupatorium odoratum has become established
of
in coconut estates
in most districts
Ceylon and its control
is both expensive
Slashing and mowing
and time-consuming.
were useless and the plants reacted as
they might to pruning.
Removing with a
tine cultivator,
followed by hand digging
and cover cropping,
is effective
and
economical,
but the establishment
of 5
pupu
has been found to be the cheapest
and most effective
control
method.
On
an estate in the Chilaw District
in 1969,
E.
-T. purpurea almost eradicated
- odoratum
northern
South America;
cassava; Phaseolus; mulching;
imported mulches; intercropping;
cover crops
42209
LITZENBERGER, S.C.; HO TONG LIP.
Utilising
w
Q&x&um L. to
-.
Agroimprove crop yields
in Cambodia.
nomy Journal
(19613, 53(5):321-324
[Agron. Div., Cambodian Direction
of
Agric.,
Ministry
of Agric.,
Phncxn Penh,
Kampuchea].
98
No recommendabuffalo
are recommended.
tions for herbicidal
control
are at
present available.
and smothered almost all other weeds
Cattle
and goats
except Mimosa pudica.
do not ZTTurea
and might be
used to contrzM.
pudica.
CAB (WA 17-2736)
CAB (WA 22-1690)
WA
WA
Indian subcontinent;
coconut;
cover crops; grazing;
perennial
problem weeds; intercropping
Indian subcontinent;
coconut;
perennial
problem weeds; cover
crops; grazing
43103
4.3
CONTROL OF PROBLEMWEEDS
see also
VAYSSIERE, P. [Weeds in Indo-Malaya].
Journal d'agriculture
tropicale
et
botanique
appliquee
(1957), 4(9/10):392,
401 [Fr] [J. d'Agric.
57, rue Cuvier,
Paris, France].
nos. 42209. 42210
43101
The importance,
distribution
and control
(mainly now-outdated
chemical treatient)
of Imperata cylindrica
are discussed.
Competitive
cover crops include Vitex
moluccans, Centrosperma
pubescens, Albizzia
pubescens and Dolichos hosei in Malaysia,
Tephrosia candida in Nigeria,
Crotalaria
striata
and C.
in Ghana, Pueraria
-- utilis
thunbergiana
in Kenya, and Crotalaria
juncea in India.
In Madagascar,
1.
cylindrica
was completely
eliminated
by
one ploughing
in the dry season and one
ploughing
in the rains,
followed by
planting
a strong-growing
variety
of
cassava which was kept weeded until
it
In Indo-China,
in
covered the ground.
areas where annual bush fires are practised,
broadcast
sowing of Mimosa invisa
at 20-40 kg/ha before burnisich
favours germination
of the Mimosa) has
given good control
of -I. cylindrica.
SAKADO, M.L.M. Weeds on coconut lands
Ceylon Coconut
and their control.
Review (1961). 1(3):16-27
Planters'
Lunuwila,
Sri
[Coconut Res. Inst.,
Lanka].
Includes
an account of the appearance and
control
of Imperata cylindrica
in coconut
Satisfactory
control
is
plantations.
giiren by frequent harrowing,
grazing with
with or without
previous
penned cattle,
burning,
growing a cover crop such as
Pueraria
javanica or Tephrosia
candida,
which is mulched between the coconut
introduced
rows, or growing the recently
as a smother
weed, Euphorbia geniculata,
crop.
CAB :WA 11-1053)
WA
Indian subcontinent;
perennial
xwer
problem weeds; coconut;
crops; grazing;
inter-row
cultivation
CAB (WA 7-1729)
WA/JAFC
Southeast Asia; perennial
problem weeds; cover crops;
cassava; perennial
crops
43102
COCONUTRESEARCHINSTITUTE OF CEYLON.
Leaflet,
Coconut
Control of illuk.
Research Institute
of Ceylon, 28
(Revised ed., 1966), 4 pp.
43104
SDRYATNA, E.S.; MCINTOSH, J.L.
Food crops
production
and control
of Imoerata
.
.
Paper preseatrylldnca
on small farms.
ed at the Workshop on Alang-alang
(Imperata cylindrica),
Bogor, Indonesia,
July 28-29, 1976, BIGTROP Special Publica[Agronomy
tion No. 5 (1980), 23 pp.
Division,
Central Res. Inst. for Agric.,
Jl. Merdeka 99, Bogor, Indonesia].
The growing of catch and cover crops
such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
and
green gram (Vigna sp.) in young plantations will prevent the establishment
of
illuk
(Imperata sp.);
in older plantations,
soil cultivations
and grazing with
99
The control
of Imperata cylindrica
is
discussed with references
to the two
cropping
systems described
in no. 41101.
Both systems appear to perform well without any insurmountable
problems with I.
Initial
levels
of viablecylindrica.
alang-alanq
plants are low in newlycleared
forest,
adequate levels
of soil
fertility
help food crops compete vigorously to shade out alang-alang,
and
simple handweeding on a regular
basis
prevents weed infestation.
WRO
4.4
4.41 Root and tuber
ONOCHIE, B.E.
Critical
periods for weed
control
in cassava in Nigeria.
PANS
(1975), X(1):54-57
LDept. of Plant Sci.,
Nigeria].
Univ. of Ife, Ile-Ife,
The effects
of weed competition
on cassava
yields were assessed in small (0.01 ha)
plots on an experimental
farm in the tropical rain forest zone of Western Nigeria
(mean annual rainfall
1500 mm). The most
damaging effect
of weeds on yield was
noted during early canopy formation
and
early tuberisation
(third month after
planting)
and it is recommended that,
where labour is limiting,
weeding should
be carried
out during the third month
Weeding during this period
after planting.
was as effective
in ensuring a high yield
of cassava roots as weeding throughout
the
Nigerian
farmers
entire period of growth.
use the West African
hoe for weed control
and commonly weed the cassava crop only
once or twice,
so timeliness
of weeding
operations
may be crucial.
cultiSoutheast Asia; shifting
vaticun; intercropping;
niching;
cropping;
cover crops: sequential
traditional
systems; novel systems;
perennial
crops; perennial
problem
rubber;
grain legumes:
weeds; coffee;
cassava; maize: upland rice;
planting
techniques
43105
Imoerata
SOERJANI, M. Alang-alang,
cvlindrica
(L.) Beauv. (1812).
Pattern
of growth as related
to its problem of
(Ph.D. Thesis,
Gadjah Mada
control.
Jogjakarta,
1970).
In:
BIOTROP
Univ..
Bulletin
(1970). 1, 88 [En, in] [Reg.
Cent. Trop. Biol.
(BIOTROP), c/o Natn.
P-0. Box 17, Bogor,
Biol.
Inst.,
Indonesia].
JAFC
CAB (WA 25-537)
West Africa;
Research on the distribution,
economic
importance,
control methods and biology
of I. cylindrica
is reviewed.
Shading
undz a canopy of rubber trees severely
retarded
growth, but flooding
only checked
Regular slashing
did not eradigrowth.
cate alang-alang,
but Increased
the incidence of 'onion disease'
caused by
the gall-forming
insect Orseoliella
javanica
(Cecidomydae);
the latter
shows
potential
as a biological
control
agent,
but was heavily
parasitised
by an unidentified
Cbalcid wasp.
CAB (WA 21-1366)
crops
44101
JAFC
Ground covers and flooding
are also
ommended as control
measures.
WEEDCONTROL IN PARTICULAR CROPS __--
cassava;
timing
44102
PLUCKNETT, D.L.; SAIKI, D.F.; MOTOOKA, P.S.
Weed control
in taro Q.&X&&A
~LxL%uU
(L.)Schott).
In:
Proceedings
of the
1st Asian-Pacific
Weed Control Interchange,
June 19-22, 1967, Honolulu;
East-West
Center (1969), 90-93 [Kauai Branch Sta.,
Hawaii Agric.
Exp. Sta.].
A brief review of current weeding practices
Most
and problems in Hawaii is given.
tare is grown under flooded paddy cultures
in the coastal valleys,
where handweeding
during the first
three months of the crop
until
crop closure
is normally sufficient
In upland taro, plant
to suppress weeds.
insufficient
moisture
spacings are wider,
reduces the crop canopy, and weed control
by flooding
is not possible.
A number
of herbicides
and black plastic
strip
Most
mulching have been under trial.
rec-
A
Southeast Asia; perennial
problem
tee&s; cover crops; rubber;
water management;
slashing;
herbicides
100
4.43 Perennial
promising
herbicides
in lowland taro
proppanil,
promexone, ametryne and
are:
TOK. In upland taro, trifluralin,
and ametryne give good weed
prometryne,
control
with little
injury
to the crop.
crops
44301
Weed control
in
MAT TAIB, I.
rubber smallholdings.
In:
Proceedilgs
of the 6th Asi‘in-Pacific
Weed
Science Society Conference,
Jakarta,
Indonesia,
1977 (1979). Vol. 2, 387-397
[Rubber Res. Inst. Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia].
YEOH, C.H.;
Malaysian
CAB (WA 18-2168)
JAFC
Pacific
islands;
timing;
t.310;
imported muiches;
mulching;
water management
herbicides;
Rubber smallholdings
occupy the largest
percentage of the land under agriculture
in Malaysia.
They also contribute
the
major
portion
to Malaysia's
natural
rubber production.
Weeds, abundant on these
farms, differ
greatly
from those found on
In a preliminary
sampling inestates.
volvcng 60 smallholdings,
about 50 different species were identified.
The major
species are listed.
The methods of weed
control
on small farms range from primitive to the use of herbicides.
The advantages and disadvantages
of the different methods are noted.
44103
RADIX. Weed problems? [in root crops in
the Philippinesj.
Radix (19791, 2(2):13.
Results of trials
at the Philippine
Root
Crop Research and Training
Centre are
translated
into simple advice for farmers
Farmers are advised
Jrowing root crops.
to use longer pianting
materials
and
plant closer to shade out weeds, and to
plant in straight
rows both ways to
facilitate
crisscross
cultivation.
Cultivations
should be done at weekly
intervals
until
canopy closure.
--
Recommended practices
include the establishment of weed-suppressing
legume covers
in the inter-row
area at the time of
the use of sheep and goats grazplanting,
ing the undergrowth
in established
rubber
in the inter-row
stands, intercropping
area during early stages of rubber establishment,
and the use of herbicides.
In
trials
in nurseries
or in fields
with
young rubber where the bark is still
green, 0.6 kg paraguat a.i./ha
was effective in the control
of mixed weeds without
The
causing damage to the rubber plants.
mixture developed by the RRIM, MSMA + 2,4D-amine + sodium chlorate
(2.2 kg + 1 kg +
was effective
against
5.6-22.4 kg/ha),
most of the mixed weeds in immature rubber on small farms.
The mixture
has a
broad spectrum of weed control,
but does
not control
Imperata cylindrica.
Dalapon
at 16.8 kg + Teepol wetter 4.2 litres/ha
and glyphosate
+ urea (2.2 kg + 16.8 kg/
ha, respectively)
were effective
against
subsequent treatments
at
I. cylindrica;
Gie correct
time
gave more effective
control.
JAFC
Southeast Asia; root and tuber
crops; planting
techniques;
inter-row
cultivations;
timing
4.42 Cereals
44201
INERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL
control
AGRICDITLiRE. Tillage/weed
experiment.
In:
1972 Report, Farming
systems Program, Ibadan, Nigeria
(19731,
63-66 [PMB 5320, Ibadan].
*
seven methods of weed control
used at
3 and 6 weeks after sowing upland rice
It is concluded that
were compared.
hand- and hoe weeding are stili
best, at
least if only 2 weedings are done, that
blade or tine-type
weeders give better
weed control
when pulled by hand rather
than by the walking tractor,
and that
rotary
weeding (by walking tractor)
is
better
than other mechanical
weed control
methods.
CAB (WA 23-732)
Hest Africa;
cultivation;
notor-power&
CAB (WA 29-2838)
Southeast Asia;
crops; grazing;
herbicides
WA
upland rice:
inter-row
manual implementsS
implements
101
WA/JAFC
rubber: cover
intercropping;
44303
44302
in abaca
TABORA, P.C. JR. Weed control
Symposium:
in the Philippines.
In:
Weed Control in Tropical
Crops, Papers
presented
at the 9th Pest Control Council
of the Philippines,
Manila,
1978 (1979),
164-168 [Dept. of Horticulture,
Univ. of
the Philippines
at Los Bafios, College,
Laguna, Philippines].
KOENRAADT, J.
[Weeding in tree crops].
Surinaamse Landbz
'(1962), 10, 30-2
[Nl, en].
On an estate growin'
citrus,
cacao, man-hour requirements
reduced from. 24.55 to 9.6 b,y
to a height of 40 cm 6 to 10
than cutting
to
year, rnthr5 cm tw..ce per year.
Cutting
height alsj reduced erosion,
structure
dnd lowered costs.
The paper focuses discussion
on weed
control
in abaca (Muss textilis
Nee)
farms.
the crop stage most
In abaca farming,
vulnerable
to weeds is the initial
deThis is when the farm
velopment phase.
has just been opened or cleared of its
In time, the whole
forest vegetation.
area becomes swamped with broadleaf
vines.
These vines are cleared by ring
weeding 1 m around the abaca plant.
Weeding usually
takes 8 to 9 man-days/ha,
which currently
costs 810.67 to S13.33/ha
on a contractual
basis.
This weeding is
repeated three to four times annually
for
a period of 2 to 3 years.
However, since
most abaca farms are rather
small (90%
are 2 to 3 ha or less),
the area is often
planted to cash crops such as sweet
potato
(Ipomoea batatas
(L-1 Lam.) and
cassava (Manihotesculenta
Crantz).
In
larger
abaca farms (5 to 10 ha) which
have long been cleared,
however, the
farmer may opt to plough between the rows
using animal-drawn
equipment,
especially
if cash crops have not been established
earlier.
Ploughing is done three to
four times a year using 6 to 7 man-days
(currently
rated at 313.33~SZO.OO/ha)
for 2 years.
In very large plantations
where there is scarcity
of labour and
animal power, contact herbicides
are
used in combination
with ring weeding.
This is done two to four times a year
and each application
costs $10.67~$16/ha.
Two-year-old
farms may still
requi.
some
weeding, but 3-year-old
farms already
have dense canopies which suppress the
growth of weeds.
CAB (WA 29-4075)
coffee and
per ha were
cutting
weeds
times per
a height of
to the 40 cm
improved soil
CAB (WT: 12-1291)
WA
coffee;
cocoa; perennial
norrhern South America;
timirk:
4.44 Vegetable
crops;
slashing;
crops
44401
SETH, A.K.
Weed management in vegetable
crops in Malaysia.
In:
(Proceedings),
BIOTRGP Workshop on Weed Control in Small
Scale Farms, Jakarta'(1977),
11 pp.
[ICI
Agric.
(Malaysia)
Sdn Berhad, Wisma
Damansara, P.O. Box 284, Kuala Lumpur,
23-03, Malaysia].
On smallholder
vegetable
farms where many
different
crops are planted in quick
succession,
development of herbicide
Frogramnf3 for pre- and postplanting
weed
control
poses special problems related
to
the complexiQ
of use, the speed and timeliness of operations,
and the dangers of
residual
phytotoxicity
to the following
crops.
Field trials
and wide farmer usage
of paraquat-based
preplanting
weed
management techniques
have shown that
these are simple to use, minimise the time
and labour required
for land pre-preparation, and reduce the postplanting
weed
population.
Paraquet has also been used
as a directed
spray treatment
for postplanting
weed control
in some of the fruit
In lowland farms, it has
vegetables.
been shown to be of particular
value in
controlling
weeds growing in the furrows
between and on the sides of the beds after
the planting
of the main crop.
A (from text)
Southeast Asia; traditional
systems; perennial
cr,ps;
fibre
crops; intercropping;
sweet
potato;
cassava
WA
CAB (WA 28-2683)
vegetable
crops;
minimum tillage;
102
,
novel systems;
herbicides
4.45 Multiple
cropping
(metolachlor
+ atrazine!
applied pre-em.,
the best herbicide
tested,
was not superior
to a permanent ground cover of melon and
sweet potato.
Yams grown alone needed
to be kept weed-free
for the first
12-16
weeks after planting
in order to minimise
the yield reduction
caused by weeds.
Hoe
weeding 3 times, growing melon and sweet
potato,
or applying
a herbicide
were
equally effective.
Intercropping
yam with
maize caused up to 25% reduction
in yam
yield compared with yams grown alone.
systems
44501
Weed control
strategies
AKOBUNDU, 1.0.
for multiple
cropping systems of the
humid and subhumid tropics.
In:
Weeds
and Their Control in the Humid and Subhumid Tropics
(ed. 1.0. Akobundu),
Proceedings
of a conference
held at the
International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan. Nigeria,
1978
Inst. of Tropical
(1980). 80-100 [Int.
Agric.,
PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria].
CAB (WA 28-3953)
Weed control
methods in traditional
(shifting
cultivation)
cropping
systems
of the humid tropics
are reviewed,
including
natural
fallowing,
handweeding,
crop rotation,
intercropping,
burning,
Increased
and mechanical weed control.
food production
in the tropics
will
involve
replacing
shifting
cultivation
with more intensive
land use, with the
adoption of appropriate
weed control
chemical and
systems.
Biological,
cultural
control
techniques
available
for intensive
food production
systems
based on intercropping
are reviewed,
including
cover crop fallowing,
use of
low-growing
intercrops,
modification
of
plant density
and canopy, and no-tillage
Weed reand stale seedbed techniques.
search needs for intercropping
systems
are identified:
more data on weed-crop
competition,
allelopathy,
shifts
in weed
flora and appropriate
chemical control
technqiues
are needed.
CAB (WA 30-3383)
West Africa;
intercropping;
maize; cassava; yam; cover
herbicides;
timing
WA
crops;
44503
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL
AGRICULTURE. Annual report for 1978.
IITA, Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
(1979), 129 pp.
Pp. 71-72.
Weed control
in intercroppinq.
Handweeding, biological
weed control,
chemical weed control
and integrated
weed
management were evaluated
in maize, cassava and yam (Dioscorea rotundata)
cropping patterns.
Results showed that weed
competition
in all cropping patterns
was
minimised by weeding during the first
12
weeks after planting.
Provided the 1st
weeding was carried
out at 3 weeks after
planting,
2 or 3 weedings were adequate.
Biological
control
studies showed that the
low-growing
'Egusi'
melon (Citrullus
vulgaris)
effectively
suppressed weeds
without altering
crop yields.
Sweet
potato (Ipomoea batatas)
was equally
competitive
againstweeds,
but also reduced yam yield.
A mixture of atrazine
+
metolachlor
gave effective
weed control
in all the cropping patterns
and resulted
in crop yields
equal to those from 3
handweedings.
JAFC
fallow;
crop rotation;
intercropping;
cover crops; land
preparation;
shifting
cultivation
44502
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL
IITA,
AGRICULTURE. 1977 Annual report.
Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
(1978). 98 pp.
CAB (WA 29-3927)
P. 59. Weed control
in intercropping.
Various methods of weed management were
evaluated
in maize, cassava (Manihot
--esculenta)
and yam (Dioscorea ~otundata)
in monoculture
and in mixed cropping
patterns.
Mixed crops generally
produced
fewer weeds at harvest
(64%). Weed control methods were mechanical,
biological
(using a low-growing
smother crop such
am melon and sweet potato),
chemical,
or a combination
of these.
Primextra
West Africa;
intercropping;
maize; cassava; yam; cover
herbicides;
timing
-WA
crops:
44504
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL
for
AGRICULTURE. Research highlights
1979. IITA, 0~0 Road, PM8 5320, Ibadan,
Nigeria
(1980), 64 pp.
103
and residue manageP. 15. Weed control
Three or 4 handment in intercropping.
weedings were necessary to minimise the
reduction
in yield due to weeds in
maize/yam and maize,,asmaize/cassava,
Early
sava/yam intercropping
systems.
season weed suppression
with the lowgrowing 'Egusi'
melon (Citrullus
1anatUS)
fcllowed
by sweet potato
(Ipomoea
batatas)
-gave yields
of maize, cassava and yam
equal to those from 3 handweedings.
This
method of weed control
also protects
the
soil from erosion in high-rainfall
areas.
The economic advantage of chemical weed
control
over handweeding was established.
For example, 2 handweedings cost, on
average,
200 Naira/ha compared with 50
Naira/ha
for chemical weed control.
The
herbicide
mixture atrazine
+ me:olachlor
(as Primextra)
applied pre-em.
It rates
from 2.5 to 3 kg total a.i./ha
safely
controlled
most annual weeds in the
intercropping
systems mentioned abcve.
The use of leguminous cover crops following bush clearance
is described.
The
cover crop is later killed
with herbicide,
and maize and cassava can be sown directly
through the plant remains.
CAB (WA 30-1612)
WA
West Africa;
intercropping;
maize;
cassava; yam; cover crops; herbieconomic analysis;
cides; mulching;
minimum tillage;
planting
techniques
104
5,
5.1
WEEDCONTROLIN THE SEMI-ARID
TROPICS
reducing the amount of hoeing required.
has not been
However, the profitability
Presowing incorporation
of
assessed.
herbicides
is more appropriate
to farmers
using ox-power and should permit an increase in the area farmed by this system.
WEED CONTROL SYSTEMS (EXISTING AND
INNOVATIVE)
5.11 Region::1
studies
51101
CAB (WA 28-1135)
Weed problems and co.it? -1
M;BORW, J.E.A.
practices
in the semi-arid
regions of
Inr
Weeds and Their Control II
Africa.
theid
and Subhumrd Tropics
(ed.
of a Confer1.0. Akobundu), Proceedings
ence held at the International
Institate
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria,
for Agric.
1978 (1980). 127-137 [Inst.
Res.. Ahmadu Bello Univ.,
P-Ml31044,
Zaria,
Nigeria].
West Africa;
herbicide
application
(granules);
herbicide
application
(low volume);
traditional
systems
51 103
[Empirical
investigation
of
FREY, J.
labour requirement
in small farms in the
Kenya Highlands].
Empirishe Untersuchungen iiber den Arbeitztbedarf
in KleinZeitschrift
betrieben
in Hochland K-.
fiir Ausl;indische
Landwirtschaft
(1976),
15(3):351-363
[De, en].
Reviews research intc weed control
methods for the Nigerian
hoe farming system
as well as for mecbanised large farms.
Herbicides
for the hoe farming system
must have wide crop tolerance
(e.g.,
linuron)
and are best applied
(to save
water) as granules or by low volume
Supplementary
hand hoeing will
sprayers.
still
be needed.
CAB (WA 30-3001)
West Africa;
A
Data on labour requirements
in smallholdings were measured in a typical
settlement
The
scheme in the highlands
of Kenya.
average size of holdings
is between 9-10
acres, with main crops grown being maize
Ploughing is done by
and pyrethrum.
private
contractors
with tractors
and
ploughs; all other field work is carried
out by the small farmers using the traditional
hand implements,
'jembe' and
Cultivation
of 1 acre of maize
'panqa.'
requires
254 man-hours and .:-hat of
pyrethrum 792 man-hours.
Thr work record
chart shows clearly
that the family
labour
capacity
is not fully
utilised
throughout
An exception
to this occurs
the year.
for the labour peak in June/July
when
weeding needs to be carried
aut.
JAFC
herbicides
OGBOlW, J.E.A.
Weed control
research
for simple technology
upland farming
Proceedings
of
systems at SaDlaru. In:
the 5th Conference of the Weed Science
Society of Nigeria,
held at the University of Ife, July 1975 (1976), 35-42
Inst. Agric..Res.,
Ahmadu
[Dep. Agron.,
Bello University,
PMB 1044, Zaria,
Nigeria].
CAB (WAERSA19-2893)
The weed control
problems of simple-technology farmers in the Nigerian
savanna
are described.
The shortage of water
restricts
the use of herbicides
to
granular
or ultra-low
volume applications.
Research has shown that presowing
broadcast
application
of mixtures
of
fertiliser
and wettable-powder
herbicides
give appreciable
weed control,
thereby
zone;
highland and tem?erate
traditional
systems;
East Africa:
economic analysis
maize: pyrethrum;
105
WAERSA
Figure
51105,
11. Indian
51205
panga.
Ref nos.
Some 30-50 million
man-days, costing
in
the region of 150 million
sh are spent
every year weeding maize in Kenya.
Trials
were carried
out at Kicale to compare the
effect of weeding with effects
of other
cultural
practices
on yield.
Weeding considerably
increased
Yields at both nigh and
low yield levels and this is important
to
Competition
farmers who get low yields.
trials
showed that one weeding in maize
10 cm high gave a yield of nearly 95 hkg/ha
in 1967 compared with 67 hkg/ha without
Recommendations include the
weeding.
improvement of the tools and organisation
of weeding, sowing earlier
and the use of
herbicides.
51103,
51104
[Intensifying
small peasant
FREY, H-3.
farms through appropriate
agricultural
Work studies
in the Bahati
technology.
settlement
scheme in Kenyal.
Intensivierung
Heinbluerlicher
Betriebe
durch
Arbeitszeitangepasste Agrartechnik.
studien
im Bahati Settlement
Scheme,
IF0 Forschungsberichte
der
Kenia.
Afrika-Studienstelle
(197f).
No. 55,
188 pp. [De].
Seedbed preparation
with the local hoe
(jembe) or ox-ploughs
is delayed until
the
onset of the rains,
as the ground is too
hard in the dry season.
It is suggested
instead that farmers prepare the ground
at the end of the previous rainy season.
ay preparing
the land earlier,
it would be
possible
to dry-plant
some of the crop:
this would move some of the peak workload
weeding to start earlier.
forward, enablinq
The jembe used for intra-row
weeding is
the ground
heavy, slow and penetrates
several inches, cutting
crop roots.
It is
suggested that lighter
hoes be developed.
The introductory
examination
of the
problems of mechanisation
in developing
countries
points out that horsepower/ha
in Africa
has been estimated
at between
After a brief
review of
0.09 and 0.12.
the general situation
in Kenya, the main
part of the study reports
on a detailed
survey of working procedures,
tools and
equipment used on the Bahati settlement
scheme for maize, pyrethrum,
other crops,
and livestock.
The survey showed that
labour capacity
was underemployed
for
most of the year, apart from the weeding
period in June/July,
and that yields and
labour productivity
were low.
The final
sections
considered
appropriate
improved
technologies
for these conditions.
Neither draught animals nor small tractors are suitable.
Standard size tractors shared between farms would be most
appropriate.
Suitable
farm plans and
organisation
are suggested.
CAB (WAERSA19-3527)
WA/JAEC
CAB (WA 3-2462)
East ifrica;
traditional
systerls; novel systems; land
preparation;
hand tools;
herbicides
WAERSA
highland
and temperate zone;
East Africa;
traditional
systems:
maize; pyrethrum,
economic analysis
Figure 12.
51105.
Indian
jembe. Ref nos.
51103,
511016
51105
3ENK. M.: YOUNG. D.L.: FISHER. H-H.;
LOCATELLI, E.. [Relative
agroeconomic
viability
of various weed control
methods
;N.E.
Brazil].
lativa de
ros de control
de
en el
Trabajos
y
sil.
In:
AssociaCi6n
zngreso
ALLAN, A.Y.
The relative
importance of
weed control
and other cultural
practices
in Kenya maize.
In:
Proceedings
of the
5th East African Weed Control Conference,
Nairobi
119741, l-10 [Maize Agron. Res.
Project,
Nat. Agric.
Res. Stn., P.O. Box
450, Kitale,
Kenya].
106
Latino-americano
de Malezas "ALAM" y
VII Reunidn Argentina
de kalezas y su
1976.
Control
"ASAM," Mar de1 Plata,
1356 Av. Corrientes
123, Buenos Aires,
Argentina;
ASAM. Vol. 4, 198-211 [Es]
[Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon State
USA].
Univ.,
Corvallis,
OR 97331,
5.12 Manual-powered
51201
Herbicides
and hoe
GGBORN, J.E.A.
farmers.
World Crops (1977), January/
February,
9-11 [Inst.
Agric. Res., Samaru,
Nigeria].
Results of 2 years' investigations
suqgest that little
economic advantage
was to be gained by introducing
mechanical or chemical weed control
techniques
to replace
the current manual methods.
Reasons for this include cheap labour
and lack of alternative
employment in
the area, as well as the very small
size of holdings,
low level of education
and general soil and climatic
conditions.
Brazil;
traditional
economic analysis;
analysis
The use of herbicides
by hoe farmers in
the Savannah zones of Nigeria
is described.
Herbicides
are only worthwhile
there when the need to hoe weeds restricts
the farmer's
productive
activity;
in
Northern Nigeria,
this occurs in June and
July in mixed crops.
Persistent
herbicides are not required
and are probably
undesirable
after
this period.
Presowing
applications
of fertiliser/herbicide
mixtures are broadcast
by hand before the
rains and provide adequate control
because
the 7-month dry season checks the growth
of perennial
weeds.
In the future,
ultra-low
volume methods may be used.
Rates are selected
to give satisfactory
weed control
during June and July, and
herbicides
proposed are linuron,
for use
in a millet
+ sorghum mixture,
and diuron
Newer herbicides,
though
for cotton.
technically
suitable
for other crop mixtures, may be too expensive.
WA
IPPC
systems;
social
51107
YOUNG, D.L.: MILLER S-F.: FISHER, H.H.:
appropriate
weed
SHENK, M.D. selecting
control
systems for developing
countries.
Weed Science (1978) 26:3, 209-212, IPPC
Paper B/21 Int. Plant Prot. Center,
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis,
OR
97331, USA.
CAB (WA 27-883)
A
West Africa;
sorghum; pearl
millet;
cotton;
herbicides:
traditional
systems; herbicide
application
(granules);
intercropping
Herbicides
can increase agricultural
productivity
and rural .:elfare
where
agronomic considerations
G- labor shortages favor their utilization,
but ecoand economic conditions
logical,
social,
in developing
countries
often favor
alternative
weed control
methods.
Traditional
hoeing by peasant farmers in
a Northeast
Brazil upland region was
found to be both effective
and economical
in comparison with other methods.
In
another Northeast
Brazil
region,
government herbicide
subsidies
and payroll
taxes were projected
to encourage
excessive
use of herbicides
at the expense of displaced
workers with few
alternative
employment opportunities.
IPPC
systems
51202
INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH.
Farm systems and intercropping
programme.
(Report to the Board of Governors on the
PMB 1044,
Ins;itute's
work 1975-76).
Samaru, Zaria,
Nigeria;
Institute
for
Agricultural
Research (1977), 65 pp.
Pp. 35-41.
General weed control
in hoe
The objective
of this
farming systems.
study was to devise a simple method of
herbicide
application
that could be integrated with hoe weeding by small-scale
farmers.
Three types of granular
herbicide were compared, viz.,
manufactured
granules,
soil granules made at village
level from wettable
powders, and granular
fertilisers
mixed with herbicides
(soThe latter
showed
called
'herbilisers').
several advantages and no serious disadvantages.
In practice,
a presowing
broadcast application
over the previous
A
herbicides;
economic analysis;
social analysis;
traditional
systems; Brazil
107
: , ;
51204
year's
ridges and furrows at the start
of the rains was the mcst satisfactory
The evaluation
of herbicides
treatment.
in cotton and mixed crcps of millet,
sorghum and cowpeas (Vigna unquiculata)
in different
climatic
zones was initiThe results
so far suggest that
ated.
diuron is suitable
for all the major
cotton growing areas, and linuron
and
propazine
show promise for the millet,
Other herbisorghum and cowpea mixture.
cides which may be important
to the hoe
farmer are triflu
alin and norflurazon
atrazine
in maize and
for use in cotton,
in maize, cotton,
sorghum. and alachlor
cowpeas, groundnuts and soyabeans.
ABALU, G.O.I.;
HARKNESS, C. Traditional
versus improved groundnut practices:
an
economic analysis
of production
in NorthExperimental
Aqriculture
ern Nigeria.
[Inst.
for Aqric.
Res.,
(1979), 15(1):85-90
Ahmadu Be110 Univ.,
Zaria, Nigeria].
of improved groundnut cultivaA 'package'
tion practices
was compared to traditional
growing practices
by observing
farmers'
fields
along the Zaria-Kano main road in
The improved cultivation
pracNigeria.
tices concerned with weed control
were
strict
adherence to planting
specifications
and timeliness
in weeding.
TWO seeds per
stand were to be sown, about 2-5 cm deep,
in stands 23 cm apart on ridges 90 &.I
The first
weeding was to be done
apart.
on top of the ridges,
3-4 weeks after sowon the sides and furrows
ing, continued
1-3 weeks later,
followed by a second
The
weeding 3-4 weeks after the first.
improved practices
produced superior
yields,
but some difficulty
was encountered in getting
the farmers to construct
ridges which were the recommended distance
than traditional
apart, closer together
ridges.
In addition
to the granular
applications,
very low volume (VLV) liquid
herbicide
application
was also examined; 2 models
of spinning
disc VLV sprayers
for applying 10 litres/ha
could be obtained
commercially.
CAB (WA 28-3396)
WA
cotton;
pearl
West Africa;
millet;
Vigna; sorghum; intercropping;
herbicide
application
{granules);
herbicide
application
{low volume)
JAPC
WRO
West Africa;
groundnuts;
systems; planting
techr'c
land preparation;
timii
51203
novel
.-SF
51205
MAKATIANI, J.B.S.
Weed control
and
peasant farming.
In:
Proceedings
of the
5th East African
Weed Cont,sol Conference,
Nairobi
(19741, 35-43 [Western Agric.
Res. Sta., P.O. Box 169, Kakameqa, Kenya].
Traditionally,
farmers in the Sahelian
zone of West Africa
sow in holes made
with the hoe, without
previous
soil
with the new method, using
tillaqe.
draught animals,
furrows are opened and
the seed is placed by hand in the furrow.
Afterwards.
the inter-rev
space is
cultivated,
also by draught animals.
The method is speedy and does not depart
too much from the traditional
approach
to plouqhing
and sowing.
CAB (WAERSA16-1846)
Present weed problems and weed control
practices
of Kenyan small farmers are
Little
crop rotation
briefly
described.
is practiced,
the principal
crops being
maize and beans for home consumption.
Usually only one hand hoeing or 'panqa'
weeding is given, which is insufficient
for good weed control.
Machinery for
hire is scarce and rarely
available
in
good time, and hand labour is scarce at
Possible directions
for
peak periods.
weed research relevant
to the needs of
small farmers are outlined.
TA
West Africa;
land preparation;
planting
techniques;
anianldrawn implements
see also
JAE'C
East Africa;
traditional
systems; maize
no. 52403.
108
be established
in one operation.
Hoe
weeding was reduced to an 11 inch band on
either side of the ridge.
In 1976, a high
clearance
straddle
ridge toolbar
fitted
with rotary
cultivators
was used to cultivate a 6 inch band on either
side of the
crop row.
With this system, hoe weeding
was reduced to 80%. Herbicide
application
techniques
for use in draught animal
systems were evaluated.
These included
the use of very low volume (VLV) sprayers
and soil mixtures
either band-applied
or
In addition
to the surface
broadcast.
active materials
mentioned,
trifluralin
and dinitramine
(both incorporated)
can
be used in cotton,
groundnuts and grain
can be used in qroundlegumes, vernolate
in maize.
In a trial
nuts, and butylate
carried
out in cotton,
diuron applied
either with a knapsack sprayer or as a
coating on a fertiliser
('herbiliser')
increased yields
compared with no herbicide.
51206
VERSTEEG, M.N.;
IWIDONADO, D. Increased
profitability
using low doses of herbicide with supplementary
weeding in smallAlimentacion,
Zona IX, Apartado
Tarapota,
Peru].
102,
Lack of labour for weeding is one of the
principal
limits
to production
and family
farm size in the upper Amazon valleys
of
San Marten. Peru, where slash-and-burn
agriculture
is beinq replaced
by stable
smallholder
agriculture
with mechanical
The application
of
land preparation.
pre-emergence
herbicides
at low rates
toin soyabean, cowpea and sunflower,
gether with supplementary
handweedinq,
reduced weeding costs for smallholders
40% as compared with handweeding
by about
alone or with herbicide
application
at
It is suggested
the recommended rate.
that the introduction
of hoes or other
weeding tools may be an alternative
means
to better
weed control,
but this option
was not tested.
CAB (WA 28-2958)
traditional
systems;
West Africa;
animal-drawn
novel systems;
xnplements;
herbicides;
herbicide
application
(high volume);
herbicide
application
(low volume):
herbicide
application
(granules);
planting
techniques
JAPC
CAB (WA 28-1450)
Andean countries;
highland
temperate zone; herbicides;
soya&an;
Vigna; sunflower
WA
and
51302
5.13 Animal
draught
systems
[AqriculWSVSRS, J.D.A.;
DIBBITS, H.J.
tural mechanization
in Northern m.
Landbouwmechanisatie
in het noorden van
Landbouwkundiq Tijdschrift
Nigeria.
(1977). 89(7):233-241
[Nl].
51301
INSTITUTE FOR AGRICDLTURAL RESEARCH.
Farm systems and intercropping
programme.
(Report to the Board of Governors on the
Institute's
work 1975-76) PMB 1044,
Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria;
Institute
for
Agricultural
Research (1977). 65 pp.
Pp*
a-47
-
CaE?Ial
weed
con+-lol
The authors took part in a mechanisation
study under the auspices of the International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture
in Ibadan, which covered sociological,
as
economic, agronomic ,and technological,
well as hwan ergonomic and livestock
factors of mechanisation
in a developing
country.
The study analyzes labour reinvolved
in
quirements,
costs, and returns
using different
types of plouqhinq
and
weeding equipment for growing maize under
prevailing
conditions
in Northern Nigeria.
in
The
draught animal farminq systems.
objective
of this study was to develop
new equipment with a view to increasing
the efficiency
of cultivations
and to
establish
draught animal cropping
systems
which include the use of herbicides.
Data collected
in the Yaba district
suqgest that farmer s using draught animals
actually
spent more hours subsequently
hoe weeding than farmers without draught
In 1974, a weeder attachment
animals.
mounted on an mcot ridger
was successfully
used to cultivate
existing
ridges
immediately
after
the
first
rains.
In
1975, sowing tubes mounted behind the
weeding tyres enabled a range of crops to
CAB (AEA 2-2340)
traditional
systems;
West Africa;
land preparation;
inter-row
animal-drawn
cultivation;
implements;
(manual implements?);
(motor-powered
implements?);
maize; economic analysis:
social
analysis
109
AEA
1..;.
Technical
problems with
commercial basis.
the checkrow planting
method (increased
silting
up in two-way channels,
causing
shallow planting
and weeds becoming established ahead of the crop) can probably
be overcome, but the increased
labour
demand for planting
at a time
of peak
labour demand is a serious drawback.
Better plant populations
on the checkrow
and higher fertiliser
rates (when these
were applied)
gave larger net profits
than
from traditional
plantings.
Returns to
capital,
however, were much lower.
The
low volume herbicide
system worked well,
but brought no increase in yield,
net
profit
or return to capital,
and its
potential
for labour-saving
was limited,
since it saves laboui at a time after the
The potential
benelargest
labour peak.
fits of a maize herbicide
could include
better early weeding of cotton,
and increased time for planting
sunflowers.
51303
BESSELL, J-E.; ROBERTS,
ELLIOT, C.M.;
Some Determinants
VANZETTI, N.
R.A.J.;
of Agricultural
Labour Productivity
in
Universities
of Nottingham and
Zambia.
-Agricultural
Labour Productivity
Investigation
(UNZALPI). Report No. 3
University
(1970), School of Agriculture,
of Nottingham,
Loughborough,
Leics,
of Zambia, Lusaka,
England; University
Zambia.
The results
of a survey of agronomic
practices
carried
out over two years
(1967-69) in two districts
in the Eastern
and Central
Provinces of Zambia are reThe principal
crops were maize
ported.
Technical
details
of
and groundnuts.
the production
Process (e.g.,
planting
weeding tools)
are not given,
distances,
but the authors present a very comprehensive account of the cropping
systems and
manaqement decisions
for the maize and
to cost
sorghum crops, with reference
and labour use. The large number of
possible
decisions
at each stage of the
production
process are classified
into
It is convincsix management systems.
ingly demonstrated
that improved seeds
and fertiliser
have little
effect
on the
total
yield one farming family can profolHowever, checkrow planting,
duce.
lowed by timely two-way cultivations
supplemented by handweedings,
can greatly
reduce I-enk labour need per acre, thus
enabling
an increase up to ten-fold
in
the acreage one family can cultivate.
Recommendations for action at village
level,
district
level and central
government level are included.
--
The 'improved'
maize management package
requires
increased
investment
and inputs,
increases
the farmer's dependence on
loans and extension
service,
and increases
economic risks.
Other reports
on the small farms research
programme briefly
discuss herbicide
application,
planting
equipment,
couch
and ox and hand cultivagrass control,
tion.
WRO
JAFC
Southern Africa;
novel systems;
maize; planting
techniques;
herbicides;
herbicide
application
(low volume)
JAFC
51305
Southern Africa;
traditional
systems; economic analysis;
novel
systems: planting
techinter-row
cultivations
niques;
EVALUATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS PROJECT (EFSAIP).
Knin.
Report No. 1
(19771, i67 pp.
LAgric. Res. Station,
Content Farm, Gaborone, Botswana].
51304
The traditional
cropping system of
Need populations
Botswana is described.
are low at the beginning
of the rainy
season (spring)
and farmers broadcast
a
mixture of crop seed (mainly sorghum)
onto unprepared
land and cover it by
Weeding is done
mouldboard ploughing.
by women using hand hoes when the sorghum
It is slow (50 woman-hours
is knee-high.
per hectare)
and usually
only done once.
Crop residues
and weed grasses are grazed
Three 'improved'
over the winter period.
cropping systems based on autumn mouldboard ploughing
(AMP) and on two lcrcallydeveloped toolbars
(the Versatool
and the
AGRICULTURE AND WATER
-AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENTOF AGRICULTURE,
ZAMBIA. Annual report of the weed control research and extension
team, 1980.
Mt.Malculu
Research Station,
P-0. Box 7,
Chilanga,
Zambia (1980), 122 pp.
MINISTRY
OF
Pp. 8-16.
Small farm improvements.
A
maize management package, including
a
modified
form of the checkrow planting
method and a pre-emergent
herbicide
applied
at low volume with a spinningdisc applicator,
was tested on a pilot
110
in the growing crop, and, in 1977-1978,
high rainfall
in late spring encouraged
further
weed germination,
resulting
in a
very weedy crop at harvest,
causing
abandonment of postharvest
sweeping operations due to blockage.
High late-spring
rainfall
also slowed traditional
handweedinq so that only about half the planted
area was weeded, resulting
in severe
competition
to the growing crop.
Makgonatsotlhel)
are described
(see nos.
In the first
51401. 52412. 52415).
year's
trials
comparing the 'improved'
cropping
systems and equipment with the
traditional
system, the traditional
system gave higher yields
than the VersaThe
tool and Makgonatsotlhel
systems.
AMP system gave relatively
high yields,
but demanded hiqher inputs than the traditio- -1 system an3 may be less socially
Weed control:
acceptable
to farmers.
Autumn mouldboard plouqhinq
after harvest
prevents many weeds from maturing and
in a very
setting
seed, and also results
sparse weed population
at the beginning
Postharvest
sweepof the rainy season.
ing as recommended in the other two
systems appears correct
in theory,
but
was impractical
because of severe blockHowever, interage of sweeps by weeds.
row weeding with sweeps (as recommended
in the Versatool
and Makgonatsotlhel
systems) was rapid (average 5 hours/ha)
An average of 7
and quite effective.
hours/ha supplementary
handweeding was
needed in the rows.
--
--
JAFC
Southern
Africa:
traditional
novel systems; land
preparation;
inter-row
cultivation; sorghum; Viqna; sunflower;
animal-drawn
implements;
social
analysis
systems;
see also SALMON, D. A review of EFSAIP.
The Evaluation
of Fanning Systems
and
Agricultural
Implements Project
in
Botswana.
In:
Proceedings of the Appropriate Tillaqe
Workshop, Zaria, Nigeria,
1979, London, UK, Commonwealth Secretariat
(19801, 147-152 [EFSAIP, P/Bag 0033,
Gaborone, Botswana].
JAFC
Southern Africa;
traditional
systems; novel systems; land
inter-row
cultipreparation;
weed seed source
vations;
reduction;
animal-drawn
implements;
economic analysis;
social
analysis:
sorghum:
intercropping
51307
ARMITAGE, M.S.; BROOK, C.E. The case for
weed control
to spearhead improvements in
maize
and cotton husbandry in Swaziland.
In:
Proceedinqs,
13th British
Weed Control Conference,
London, UK, British
Crop
Protection
Council
(1976), Vol. 1, 165-172
[En, fr] [Malkerns Res. Stn., Univ. of
Botswana and Swaziland,
P-0. Box 4,
Malkerns,
Swaziland].
51306
EVALUATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS AN0
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS PROJECT (EFSAIP).
Animal draft systems study.
Report.No.
2
(1978!, 106 pp. LAgric. Res. Station,
Content Farm, Gaborone, Botswana].
Weeding is the most labour-demanding
operation
in husbandry and indirectly
determines
the area of subsistence
crops
and limits
the area of cash crops on
Since recommendation
Swazi Nation Land.
of several simultaneous
changes in husbandry practice
to small-scale
farmers
fails
to produce improvement,
it is suggested that only one change at a time be
In tlis
case, it is imporrecommended.
tant to know whether the change will be
effective
in the allsence of other modifications.
To this end, nine husbandry
factors were studied in maize and cotton:
(1) lime,
(2) fertiliser,
(3) insecticide,
(4) weeding (chemical and/or handweedand dressing,
ing) , (5) seed type, quality
(6) inter-row
cultivation,
(7) crop density,
(6) planting
technique and (9) timFictors
which affecting of harvesting.
ed the effectiveness
cf weeding were N
Continuing
work comparing traditional
with 'improved'
cropping
systems for
small-scale
farmers (average holding 6
ha) of Botswana is described.
Work on
the iiersatool
system was discontinued
after
it was found to be very unsatisfactory
in earlier
trials
(see no.
Weed control:
51305).
Autumn (postharvest)
and sprinq
(presowing)
mouldboard plouqhing
resulted
in fewer weeds
at the beginning
of the growing season,
which were then easily
controlled
by
inter-row
cultivation.
Inter-row
cultivation
using sweeps, following
autmn
ploughing,
was a fast and effective
means of weed control,
but farmers were
no!. eager to carry odt a second weeding
111
51309
fertilisation
and inter-row
cultivation,
which had a negative effect
(perhaps due
to root damage to the crop in the case
and crop density,
which
of the latter),
had a positive
effect
in both crops.
Clean weeding consistently
produced the
greatest
yield increases
in both crops.
CAB (WA 26-1888)
(1979) The potential
for
DAVIES, E.L.P.
introducing
improved weed control
methods
to small farmers of the Indian semi-arid
M. Agric.
Sci. Thesis, University
tropics.
of Reading, U.K., 1979, 86 pp.
This project
examined farmers'
traditional
weed control
practices
in four villages
of the Indian semi-arid
tropics,
and trials
weed control methods, using
of 'improved'
herbicides
in the groundnut and sorghum
out in the farmers'
crops, were carried
The report concludes that
own fields.
farmers practice
excellent
weed control
and that the 'improved'
methods involving
herbicides
have no place in the existing
Includes an interesting
discussystems.
sion of the difficulties
of carrying
out
on-farm experiments.
WA
Southern Africa:
inter-row
cultivation;
herbicides;
planting
techniques;
aaize;
cotton
51308
Economic
BINSWANGER, H.P.; SHETTY, S.V.R.
aspects of weed control
in semi-arid
Proceedings
tropical
areas of India.
In:
of the Weed Science Conference and Workshop in India,
1977, Vol. 1, 47-59
[ICRISAT, 1-11-256 Begumpet, Hyderabad500016, A.P., India].
CAB (WA 29-3924)
Indian subcontinent;
traditional
systems; novel systems; herbicides;
groundnut;
sorghum; economic
social analysis
analysis;
Da'ia from ICRISAT village
level studies
is used to document the extent and timeliness of weed control
activities
by farmers
in three distinct
aqro-climatic
zones of
understanding
of the
The farmers'
India.
weed problem and its constraints
is
Budgets are presented
for
examined.
alternativr
weed control
plans with and
without
herbicides
to assess the potential
for use of herbicides
in these areas at
the present and with the existing
reThe implications
for
source position.
weed research are also explored.
The
studies began in 1975 in six villages
in the Akola, MahbubnacIar and Sholapur
districts.
The three districts
are
quite different
in climate.
Weed control
activity
is guided by rational
consideration.
More effort
is allocated
to crops
on better
land and to crops with high
value per unit area.
Dry crops herbisides cannot at present be advocated
on the basis of cost considerations
in
the semi-arid
area of India,
although
they may be useful for spot weeding tough
clumps of perennial
weeds such as Cyperus
Inter rotundus and Cynodon dactylon.
cuiture
is dowily
by males, while
handweeding is primarily
done by hired
femalelabour.
Labour-saving
due to
herbicides
would thus decrease income
opportunities
for the most disadvantaged
labour group in India - landless
female
labourers.
CAB (WAERSA21-954)
JAFC
51310
Some agro-economical
SHETTY, S.V.R.
aspects of improved weed management
systems in Indian semi-arid
tropics.
In:
Proceedinus,_
15th British
Weed Control
Conference,
Brighton,
UK, British
Crop
Protection
Council
(19801, Volume 3,
899-910 [ICRISAT, l-11-256 Bequmpet,
Hyderabad 500016, A.P., India].
Critically
reviews work and presents
essential
tables from two earlier
reports
(nos. 51308 and 51309).
WRO
JAFC
Indian subcontinent;
traditional
systems; herbicides;
economic
social analysis
analysis;
5131i
SHETTY, S.V.R.;
KRANTZ, B.A.; OBIEN, S.S.
Weed research needs of the small farmers.
In: .Proceedings of the Weed Science
Conference and Workshop in India (19771,
vol. 1, 47-59 [Farming Systems Research
Program, ICRISAT, l-11-256 Bequmpet,
Hyderabad, India].
AIDRDA/A
Indian subcontinent;
traditional
systeau;
Mrbicides;
economic analysis;
social
azzalysis;
perennial
problem weeds
112
The authors discuss possible
areas for
weed research which could benefit
small
Herbicides
can be useful in
farmers.
some situations,
but their
cost needs to
Research on integrated
weed
be reduced.
management systems should be conducted
on the farm, and the entire
cropping
system should be taken into account.
The paper describes
the broad ridge and
furrow system recently
developed at
Broad (150 cm) ridges and furICRISAT.
rows are established
on a graded contour
with an average slope of 0.6 to 0.8%
in black soils and 0.4 to 0.6% in red
soils,
leading to a natural
drainage
these features
way. Once established,
are permanent and all future operations
follow and mainzain the broad ridges and
ridging
and planting
furrows.
Plouqhinq,
are done with an animal-drawn
two-wheeled
tool carrier,
the wheels and bullocks
Boundary field
following
the furrows.
bunds, which are a major source of weed
since the farmseeds, can be eliminated,
ers can mark their fields
by the number
of ridges owned. A continuum of crops
is maintained
from the onset of the
monsoon as long as possible,
competing
with weed growth.
Early tillage
(black
cutting.
spraying or pasturing
soil),
(red soil)
immediately
,F-:r harvest
prevents
weeds going to s..:.
The
broad ridge and furrow sysrem also aids
timeliness
in land preparation
and distributes
water more evenly over the
field.
WRO
improved management, where alachlor
was
used at the rate of 0.75 kg/ha and where
effective
cultivation
was possible
in the
broad bed and furrow system, only 10
woman-days/ha were.needed.
Thus, the handweeding cost/ha was Rs 171 more with traditional
than with improved management.
With alfisols,
the total of two handweedinqs required
30 and 56 woman-days/ha for
improved and traditional
management, respectively;
handweeding costs with traditional
and improved treatments
were Rs
252 and 135/ha, respectively.
Pp. 174-175.
Weed management by interTwo pigeon peabased intercropcropping.
ping systems were investigated.
Intercrops
of cowpea and maize suppressed weeds in
the early stages to the greatest
extent,
followed by mung, sorghum, and groundnuts.
Weed infestation
on both soil types was
about the same in the early part of the
season, but late-season
weeds yielded
2-4 times higher weed weights in vertisols
The effect
of intercrops
than in alfisols.
on weed growth was perceptible
even by the
time of first
handweeding at 25 days.
Though cowpea efficiently
suppressed weeds
in the early stages, they reappeared after
Systems with maize and sorghum
harvest.
as intercrops
recorded less weed growth
at the final
harvest of pigeon pea.
Direct weed control
studies were also
conducted to evaluate different
herbicides
on sorghum/pigeon
pea intercrops.
In
general,
triazine
herbicides
like ametryne,
prcmetryne and terbutryne
performed well
and were safe for both pigeon pea and
Fluchloralin
was excellent
sorghum.
in pigeon pea, but toxic to sorghum, while
atrazine
was quite safe in sorghum, but
toxic to pigeon pea.
JAFC
Indian subcontinent;
novel
implements;
systems; animal-dram
timing;
land preparation;
wed
seed source reduction
CAB (WA 28-2960)
51312
WA
Indian subcontinent:
novel
systems; economic analysis:
intercropping;
Vigna; Cajanus;
maize; groundnuts;
herbicides
INIBRNATIONAL CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE
FOR THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS. ICRISAT
Annual Report 1976-1977.
(1979) 240 pp.
~ICRISAT, l-ll-256
Begumpet, Hyderabad,
500016, Andhra Pradesh, India].
see also
P. 173. Weed management in 'Steps in
Imprwed Technology'
trial.
Weed Fwth
early in the rainy season is very rapid
and, if weeds are not removed in time,
serious yield reductions
can result.
With alfisols,
which dry rapidly
after
a rain,
handweeding canbe easily
achieved.
However, with vertisols,
one
may face serious problems when frequent
mine while crops are in the seedling
stzge prevent the control
of weeds by
cultural
or handweeding methods.
With
no. 54702
51313
BEN-NUN, R. Proposals for the Introduction of Multicropping
- New Aqrotechniques
- Improved Implements in Irrigared
AqriDocuculture
in the Lower Mekong Basin.
mentation and Publication
Section,
Centre
for International
Agricultural
Cooperation, Rehovot, Israel,
1973.
113
crop are described
(pp. 21-22), and a
table of animal and human labour requirements for ploughing,
cultivations
and
handweedinqs are given (p. 91).
The weed
control
practice
usually
employed is as
follows:
at planting,
seed is placed in
hills
at the bottom of furrows.
After
3-4 weeks,
when the maize is 20-30 cm high,
the farmer plouqhs between the rows, turning the soil into the furrows and around
the crop plants to bury the weeds.
This
operation
is repeated about 3 weeks later,
leaving the rows of maize as ridges and
the inter-rows
as furrows.
After the
second cultivation,
the broadleaved
weeds
which have escaped covering
are cut back
with a sickle
and used as forage.
Traditional
ox- or mule-drawn plouqhs are used.
In 1967, only 1% of the farmers surveyed
used tractors
and 1% used herbicides.
The author considers
that multicropping
has not been sufficiently
promoted in
the Mekong Basin, despite
evidence that
only such a system can justify
economically
the expensive irrigation
projects
Present conestablished
in the area.
straints
to the introduction
of multicropping
systems are outlined,
and some
suggestions
for overcoming them are put
forward,
including
the introduction
of
daylenqth-insensitive
rice varieties,
new implements and planting
techniques.
A number of possible
crop rotations
for
irrigation
projects
are described.
practices
includRecommended cultural
ing soil preparation,
varieties,
seed
sowing date, spacing,
fertiltreatment,
iser,
irrigation
techniques,
weeding.
and harvesting
are depest control,
scribed
in considerable
detail
for the
following
crops:
rice,
sorghum, qroundnut, maize, cotton,
green manure, soyaA number of
beans, and sweet potato.
local tilling
techniques
and implements
of Southeast Asia are described,
and
the results
of experiments
comparing
tillage
techniques
are presented.
A
proposed new tillage
technique
(for tracEleven low-cost
impletor) is outlined.
ments which are recommended for use in
the proposed multicroppinq
systems, including
a rotary weeder for rice and an
animal-drawn
adjustable
tiller
for row
and their operation
crops, are described
detailed.
--
WRO
Central America; traditional
systems: maize; land preparation;
inter-row
cultivation;
economic
analysis
51315
SCOLARI, D.D.G.; YOUNG, D.L.
[Comparative
costs of different
weed control
methodsj.
In:
Sociedad Colombiana de Control de
Malezas y Fisioloqia
Veqetal,
"COMALFI."
Res&nenes de 10s Trabajos en el VII
Seminario,
Boqotg (1975), 11-12 [ES]
[IPEAWB, Recife,
Brazil].
JAFC
crops;
Southeast Asia; irrigated
paddy rice;
upland rice;
maize;
sorghum;
cotton,
soyabean; sweet
potato;
sequential
cropping;
crop
rotations;
novel systems; land
preparation:
planting
techniques;
inter-row
cultivation;
manual
implements:
animal-drawn
implements;
motor--red
implements
JAFC
The costs are given
mechanical,
manual
of weed control
in
It is felt
Brazil.
using family labour,
methods remain the
s
of various chemical,
and in%egrated methods
maize and bean crops in
that, for smallholders
traditional
manual
most economical.
IPPC
WA
51314
Brazil;
traditional
systems;
economic analysis;
inter-row
cultivations;
novel systems;
herbicides;
nkxize; Phaseolus
CENTRO IXl!ERNACIONAL DE MEJORAMIEWTODE
MA12 Y TRIG0 (CIMMYT). The Puebla Project 1967-69:
Progress Report of a Program to Rapidly Increase Corn Yields on
Small Holdings.
(1970), 120 pp. LCIMWYT,
Apartado Postal 6-641, Mexico
6, D-F.,
see also SCOLARI, D.D.G.; YOUNG, D-L.
[Comparative
costs of different
methods
of weed control
in corn and beansJ.
Custos comparativ6s
de diferentes
mdtodos
de contrdle
de ervas daninhas em milho
e feij?io.
Paper presented at the 10th
Annual Meetinq of the Brazilian
Weed
Society,
Santa Maria, RGS, Brazil,
July
1974 (the same information
in Portuguese)
Mexico].
This is a report on a project
in Puebla
State, Mexico, with the aim of increasing
maize yields
of smallholders
through the
introduction
of new high yielding
varieties,
fertiliser
and corresponding
changes in farming practices.
Traditional weed control
practices
for the maize
114
Brasileiro
de Herbicidas
e Ervas Daninhas.
Ilheus (1980), 42 [Pt] Absi.ract only
[Empresa Brasileira
de Pesquisa Agropecuaria,
Penedo, A.L., Brasil].
51316
[An agroSCOLARI, D.D.G.; YODRG, D.L.
nomic and economic evaluation
of weed
control
systems in the Agreste area of
Pernambuco State].
Avaliacao
agrondmica
e econ5mica de sistemas de controle
de ervas daninhas no Agreste Pernambucano.
Pesquisas Aqropecuarias
Brasileiras
(1977). 12, 187-196 [Pt, en] [CPAC/
SWBRAPA, CP 70.0020-70.600
Planaltina,
D-E'. Brazil].
Experiments
were carried
out in the fields
of the experimental
station
of th- Ministry
of Agriculture,
Santana do Ipanema, in
the Sertao region of Alagoas state
(Northeast Brazil)
which compared cultural,
and chem.?cal methods
manual, mechanical
of weed control.
The experiment
attempted
to follow closely
the techniques
used by
local farmers.
The most effective
treatment was 'two hoe weedings'
followed
by
'two weedings with animal-drawn
cultivators
plus supplementary
handweedings in the
used were ineffective
rows. ' The herbicides
in controlling
weeds at low dosages, and
were phytotoxic,
particularly
to the beans,
at higher dosages.
Two identical
experiments
were conducted
in 1974 at Caruaru, Pernambuco State, to
assess the effectiveness
and profitability
in maize and beans of 12 different
weed
control
systems - manual, mechanical,
Yields from
chemical and integrated.
unweeded controls
averaged 5% (for maize)
and 26% (for beans) of the yields
obPartained with overall
weed control.
tiai
control
systems (mechanical
cultivation
in the inter-row
only, or herbicides only within the rows) gave an
average of 64 and 46% respectively
of
the yields
obtained with overall
weed
Differences
in yield between
control.
systems qiving the same level of control
were not significant,
indicating
that
the methods of weeding were equally effective.
At 1974 prices,
the most costeffective
treatment
for maize grown
alone was simazine at 1.5 kg/ha pre-em.
ratio
of 6.03.
If
with a benefit/cost
only one manual or mechanical
weeding,
instead of two, gave adequate control,
however, this would be the most economiCal.
For beans alone, the most costeffective
treatment
consisted
of two
cultivations
with an animal-drawn
implement plus hoeing in the rows (benefit/
cost ratio
3.4).
Evidence from other
sources,
however, suggested that the
wider row spacing needed for animal
traction
led to reduced yields;
if cultivators
were precluded on that account,
traditional
hoeing remained the most
cost-effective
treatment.
IPPC
Brazil:
maize; Phaseolus;
intercropping;
inter-row
cultivation;
herbicides
5.14 Minimum tillage
GIBBON, D.; HARVEY, J.: HUBBARD, K.
A minimum tillage
system for Botswana.
World Crops (19741, 26(5):229-234
LEn, fr.
es] [Agricultural
Research Station,
Gahorone, Botswana].
crop
The implementation
of a more reliable
production
system, based on soil and
water conservation,
crop rotation
(including a bare fallow),
efficient
weed control,
subsoiling
or chisel ploughing,
rapid sowing, fertiliser
placement and
steerage hoeing, and made possible
by the
development of low-draught
minimum tillage
equipment which could be attsched
to an
animal-drawn
carrier
is described.
WAERSA
CAR (CAR Annotated
no. 25-19)
SANTOS, D.M. DOS; PRRRIRA FILRO, I.A.;
LEMOS, J.W. VERAS. [Comparison of
systems of weed control
in sole crop and
intercropped
maize and beans (~seolus,
In:
Bibliography
CAB
Southern Africa;
novel systems:
minimum tillage;
animal-drawn
implements;
fallow;
crop
rotation;
sorghum
51317
.
systems
51401
Brazil;
maize; Phaseolus;
inter-row
cultivation;
herbicides;
economic analysis
vwlsarrs)l
A
WRQ
see also
Resumes, 8O Congress0
115
nos.
52412,
52413, 51305, 51306
experiments
conducted on farmers'
fields
show that delayed planting
greatly
increases the probability
of moisture
stress.
Average yields
of two experiments
initiated
early (mid-October)
were 4514 and 4857 kg/
ha, while the expcrimr;rlt
Planted late (midNovember) yielded
only 2246 kg/ha.
In both
October experiments,
all weed control
treatments
utilising
minimum and zero tillage yielded
significantly
more than the
fanners'
traditional
land preparation,
or
4379 and 4646 versus
4179 kg/ha.
At
Tanauan, Batangas (October planted),
where
weed growth was exceptionally
heavy, all
zero and minimum tillage
practices
resulted
in significantly
fewer weeds at harvest
than the farmers'
land preparation.
These
preliminary
results
suggest that reduced
tillage
practices
may have potential
in
significantly
improving Batangas and Cavite
dry season feed corn production.
51402
DRYDEN, R.D.; KRISBNAMOORTHY,C.H. Year
Indian Journal of Weed
round tillage.
[Andhra
Science (19771, 9(1):14-M
Pradesh Aq:ic.
Univ., Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500030,
India].
To assist
the farmer in controlling
weeds
and to enable him fo plant early under
improved seedhed conditions
with his
bullock-power
courtry
(chisel)
plough,
blade barrow and jeeding methods, a yearround minimum tilbage
plan was developed.
The programme consists
of surface tillage
with the country plough and/or the wide
blade harrow beginning
immediately
after
harvest and, as soil moisture
permits,
following
summer and premonsoon showers.
CAB (WA 28-3399)
WA
A
IPPC
Indian subcontinent;
novel
systems; .minimum tillage;
land preparation
Southeast Asia; traditional
systems; novel systems: minimum
tillage;
maize; herbicides
51403
GINGRICH, J.; SAMIANO, A.; VI=,
F-;
SAHIO, E-A.; FISHER, H-H- Reduced tillage in dry season corn in Batangas and
Paper presented at
Cavite,
Philippines.
the 1981 Annual Meeting of the Need
Science Society of America, Las Vegas,
Nevada, USA, Feb. 1981 [Nat. Crop Protection
Center, Laguna, Philippines].
51404
HAYWARD,D.M.; WILES, T.L.; WATSON, G.A.
Progress in the development of no-tillage
systems
for maize and soyabeans in the
Outlook on Aqriculture
(19801,
tropics.
10(5):255-261
[ICI Plant Protection
Division, Fernhurst,
Haslemere, Surrey, UK].
After harvest of the 120-day. wet season
upland rice crop, the small farmer in
Batangas and Cavite hurries
to prepare
the soil and plant loo-day feed corn as
the dry season fast approaches.
Traditional
land preparation,
consisting
of
one to two car-0
ploughings
and harrowings and removal of rice stubble before furrowing,
considerably
delays
corn planting
and increases
risk of
moisture
stress.
Traditional
weed
control
consists
of two draught cultivations with the mouldhoard plough.
By
adopting minimum or zero tillage,
the
farmer may conserve soil moisture by
planting
earlier
and hy not opening and
exposing the soil to excessive
drying.
The soil dries quickly
in the dry season
and becomes difficult
to till
with the
carabao,
so less human and animal energy
would be reguired
under reduced tillage
systems.
Increased costs for herbicides
such as atrazine,
glyphosate
and paraquat
may be offset
by higher net revenues from
higher yields under reduced tillage
systems.
Preliminary
results
from three
Research into no-till
production
systems
for maize and soyabean in Nigeria
and
It is stated
Latin America is reviewed.
that it is common practice
in Central
America (especially
the hilly
areas of
El Salvador)
to hand-sow maize
into an
uncultivated
seedbed in which paraquat
has been used to kill
weed growth.
Weeding in the crop is done with directed
sometimes mixed with
sprays of paraquat,
2,4-D, using a knapsack sprayer.
As the
maize matures, the stalks are bent downwards to allow the cobs to dry out for
Paraquat is sprayed again
harvesting.
around the base of the maize to eliminate
weeds and a crop of beans is hand-sown.
The beans climb up the maize stalks.
At
harvest,
all negative material
is left to
die during the dry season.
JAFC
CAB (WA 30-2014)
minimum tillage;
maize; soyabean;
116
novel systems;
herbicides
5.2
52202
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
5.21 Techniques
for
and planting
AGRONOMIINSTITUTE, ZIMBABWE, WEED
RESEARCHTEAM. Annual Report 1978-1979.
(1980), 41 pp. LWeed Research Team,
Private
Bag 222A, Salisbury,
Zimbabwe].
land preparation
Systems
of weed control
in
PP. 22-27.
(P.E.L. Thomas and
maize and soyabeans.
The results
of
H.J.A. van Lindert).
studies comparinq different
systems of
weed control
in maize and soyabeans (hand
cultivation,
slashing,
herbicides,
fertiliser placement and combinations
of these)
Inter-row
weed slashing
are presented.
(requiring
approx. 90 man-hours/ha)
is an
effective
method of weed control
which
normally requires
less labour than handweeding (approx. 120 man-hours/ha).
Slashing can also be done in wet weather,
an advantage over handweeding, and the
shortened inter-row
weeds help reduce soil
However, slasherosion and water runoff.
ing is only likely
to succeed in vigorous
Where maize growth
and competitive
crops.
was retarded
by drought or lack of fertiliser, handweeding gave better
yields
than
slashing.
52101
and
TOIT, J.J. DU. Checkrow planting
the control
of weeds.
Farming in South
Africa
(1930), 5(55):317-319.
Maize can be planted in hills
by a
checkrow planter
in such a way that lands
can be cultivated
crosswise
as well as
lengthwise,
minimisinq
the need for hand
The adaptation
of a horse- or
hoeing.
oxen-drawn planter
for checkrow planting,
and the planting
process itself,
are
described
in detail.
JAFC
ITDG
Southern Africa;
planting
aninml-dram
techniques;
implements;
maize
CAB (WA 30-1856)
5.22 Techniques
for weeding
JAFC
in the crop
Southern Africa;
slashing:
mulching; novel systems; maize;
soyabean; herbicides
52201
Inter-row
weed slashing.
THOMAS, P.E.L.
Effective
control
in maize.
Farmer,
[Henderson
Rhodesia (1978). 49(6):25-27
Salisbury,
Rhodesia].
Res. %a.,
5.23
A system of inter-row
slashing
of weeds
The slashed weeds
in maize is described.
form a mulch which reduces runoff and
soil erosion and discourages
the germiHowever, the
nation of more weeds.
system requires
that in-row weeds must
be adequately
controlled
by some other
means and thatfertilisers
should be
Preliminary
results
of
band-applied.
trials
carried
out on Henderson clay
loam soils showed that yields
of maize
from slashed and inter-row
weeded crops
were similar.
CAB (WA 28-2085)
Southern
mulching;
Africa;
novel
Hand tools
implements
and manually-operated
52301
ANDREWS,C.J.; SHELDRICK, M. Hoeing
Prosurvey in Northern Nigeria.
In:
ceedings of the Appropriate
Tillage
Workshop, Zaria, Nigeria,
1979, London, UK;
Commonwealth Secretariat
(1980), 153-161
[Nat. Coil. Agric.
Eng., Silsoe,
Bedford,
UK].
Hand tools are very important
in shifting
cultivation
on ridges;
these are made at
the beginning
of the rainy season by a
one-pass form of cultivation
which involves
soil inversion
first
on one side of the
ridge,
then on the other, using a plough
the
hoe. When hoe weeding takes place,
ridges are rebuilt,
covering
the weed
trash from the original
ridging;
the
WA
slashing;
systems; nnize
117
than a plouqh, although it
labour.
It is used chiefly
land.
ridges are allowed to erode again and
The various
types
the process repeated.
of hand hoe used are described,
with
photographs.
requires
much
on collective
CAB (WA 29-2689)
CAB (WA 30-1272)
West Africa;
traditional
ATA
WA
Southeast Asia;
land preparation;
problem weeds
hand tools;
systems
hand tools;
perennial
5.24 Animal-drawn
implements
powered implements
52302
INTERNATIONAL LAND DEVELOPMENTCONSULTANTS N.V. (ILACO). ARNHEM. Galole
pilot
demonstration
and trainingxct.
Final report on studies on working
methods in the cultivation
of cotton at
Rep. Int. Land Devel. ConsulGalole.
tants N.V. (ILACO) (19691, 7302.
52401
MUCKLE, T.B.; CROSSLEY, C.P.; KILGOUR, J.
The 'Snail'
- a low-cost primary cultifor developing
countries.
vation system
World Crops (1973), 25(5):226-228
LNat.
College of Agric.
Engineering,
Silsoe,
Bedford, UK].
tabulated
P. 32. This report includes
data on the cost and efficiency
of hoeing and handweeding in Kenyan cotton.
The relative
merits of the Dutch hoe
and jembe (local hoe), optimum times for
weeding, and effect of weeds on seed
cotton yield are among the aspects considered.
CAB (WA 20-464)
The development of a 'low-cost'
(1973
target price about f100) cultivation
force
machine, able to exert a tractive
of 4-5 kN in any soil condition,
is deThe machine consists
of a modiscribed.
fied ox-plough
guided by one person, and
a self-propelied
winch equipped with an
The power unit is guided and
anchor.
controlled
by a second person.
WA
East Africa;
hand tools;
cotton;
timing
see also no 11003. See also
A-H; Kerkhoven, G-3. Effect
weeding on yields of irrigated
Eastern Kenya.
PANS (19701,
596-605.
and motor-
In use, the plough is first
held stationary while the power unit is driven away,
feeding out the cable until
the limit
of
the cable is reached.
The plough is then
pulled through the soil towards the power
unit by the winch, the power unit being
held stationary
by its anchor.
Druijff,
of efficient
cotton in
16(4),
This machine can carry out cultivations
throughout
the year, but it is especially
intended for land preparation
during the
dry season, when the force needed to pull
an implement through the soil is very
high.
52303
[A native working method in
Ati, J.B.
Indonesia].
Un pro&%
de labour origiJournal d'Agriculture
nal en Indon&ie.
Tropicale
et de Botanigue Appligube
(19771, 24(2-3) ~125-130 [Fr] [Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde,
Leiden, Netherlands].
The machine is designed
in developing
countries,
labour and materials.
WI30
The use of a long pointed stick
(called
kabanda in Sumoa, suak in Timor, and
ongkal in Sumatra) is described.
It is
used to clear the land of weeds, especially
Imperata cylindrica,
at the end
of the dry season and is more efficient
land preparation;
notor-powered
implements
118
to be manufactured
using local
JAFC
The short rainy season in the Sahelian
zone induced the search for means of speedy
performance of crop establishment
operaTests have been successfully
contions.
ducted in Niger Republic on light
soils
with animal-drawn
equipment, which secures
tillaqe
on a 45 cm wide strip while makinq furrows for plantinq
by hand, and
providing
at the same time for mechanical
weeding.
As far as the use of dromedaries
as draught animals is concerned, an improved harnessing
system was developed
and working rules are indicated.
52402
as
WBvBRS, J.D.A.;
KUIPERS, H. Tillage
a weed control
measure in the tropics.
TPaoer
inI Proceedinqs of the 7th Con- _
ference of the International
Soil Tillaqe
Research Organization,
Sweden, 1976.
Rapporter
frli? Jordbearbetninqsavdelnin[Soil Till.
gen (1976), No. 45, 47.1-47.6
Univ., Wageningen, NetherLab., Agric.
lands].
Chemical weed control
in the tropics
is
restricted
because of high costs, environmental
consequences and lack of
educaticn
on the part of most farmers.
Proper tillage
operations
can reduce
weed problems enormously.
CAB (WABRSA16-1847)
West Africa;
animal-drawn
Results of tillage
and inter-row
cultivation
trials
carried out in the Savannah
zone of Northern Nigeria
are presented.
Weed growth at three levels
of mechanisation (animal power, power tillers
and
large tractors)
was studied in separate
At each level of mechanisaexperiments.
tion, weed growth after different
tillMouldboard
age operations
was compared.
ploughing
at all mechanisation
levels
was effective
in suppressing
annual weed
growth; moreover, deep tillage
at the
beginning
of the dry season, when soil
moisture
content is still
rather high,
followed
by repeated operations
appears
to result
in a high degree of desiccation
However, the tradiof perennial
weeds.
tional
way of primary cultivations
by
ridge splitting,
which also reverses
much of the topsoil,
was thought to be
a good alternative
to mouldboard ploughless labour.
ing, and required
see also
TA
land preparation;
implements
no. 51203.
52404
for the Advancement
SHULMAN, R. Strategy
of Animal Traction
in Mali.
Report of a
study cariied
out for United States
Agency for International
Development,
Maii
and the Division
de Machinisme Agricole,
Mali, June-October,
1979, Contract No.
[Dept. of crop
688-79-514,
(19791, 55 pp.
Polytech.
State Univ.,
Sci., California
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, USA].
Timely inter-row
cultivations
can keep
weed growth under control
until
crop
Tall crops can be earthed up
closure.
by ridges,
which were effective
in controlling
weeds even in the row; for
lower growing crops, planting
on ridges
and tine cultivation
with reridging
gave satisfactory
weed control.
This study provides
technical
information
from the fields
of agronomy, a.jricultural
engineering
and animal science relevant
to programmes to improve animal traction
The high labour requirement
for
in Mali.
weed control
is the greatest
constraint
on the expansion of total cultivated
area.
It can be reduced by improved equipment
for sowing in rows, for controlling
weeds
closer to the crop plants,
And for greater
Posfrequency in inter-row
cultivation.
sible improvements
in soil preparation
and weed control
are discussed
(pp. 12-20).
CAB (WA 30-1999)
--
WA/JAW
West Africa;
land preparation;
inter-row
cultivation;
animaldrawn implements;
motor-powered
implemtits;
economic analysis
JAPC
West Africa;
animal-drawn
implements;
novel systems;
land preparation;
planting
techniques
52403
52405
Straddle
ridge cultivation
OGBORN, J.E.A.
and equipment for the heavy lands of the
African Savanna.
In:
Proceedings
of the
Appropriate
Tillage
Workshop, Zaria,
Nigeria,
1979, London, UK; Commonwealth
Secretariat
(1980), 49-57 [Dep. Agron.,
Res., PMB 1044, Maria,
FORT, J.
[Mechanisation
of traditional
agricultural
practices
in the Sahelian
Zone].
Mikanisation
des pratiques
acoles
traditionelles
en zone
sahslienne
du nord.
Antony-Seine,
France.
Machinisme Amicloe
Tropical
en].
(X973), 41, 34-40 [Fr;
119
The Strad multipurpose
toolbar
consists
of 2 box-section
legs at an angle of 49O
to each other which straddle
a 76 cm
ridge and support 2 or 4 gangs of rotary
It is
weeders with 3 rotary discsiganq.
designed to operate in hard, dry conditions on heavy land and is pulled by catA central
tine with an A-blade to
tle.
cultivate
the top of the ridge is hollow
and can be fitted
with a seeder box.
TFle forward speed ,?ay be up to 3.6 km/h
Useful
for 3 h continuous operation.
additions
might include a band herbicide
The
applicator
and a precision
planter.
system is well adapted to the use of
preplant
incorporated
herbicides
broadSeparate ridging
and hoe
cast overall.
weeding would have required
600-700 manhours/ha to produce cotton at Samaru.
The introduction
of the straddle
row
weeder halved the post-em. labour reand the central
tine fitted
quirement,
to cultivate
the top of the ridge further
reduced the labour requirement
(to 256
h/ha) and increased the yield.
The addition
of herbicides
(trifluralin
at
0.8 kg/ha) fur:3er
reduced the labour
requirement
to 189 h/ha.
CAE (WA 30-1275)
that the remains of ridqes from which
groundnuts had been harvested
remained
nearly free from weeds throuqhout
the dry
seaso: and into the followinq
rains,
possibly because weed seeds were deflected
into the furrows.
Dry plantinq
into these
reduced ridges immediately
before the rains
gave excellent
qermination
and survival
of
groundnuts and millet
with very little
weed
competition.
Weeds in the furrows could
be eliminated
by several intercultivztions
which would also earth up
with a ridger,
the crop during the growing season.
Planting into the reduced ridge also eliminates
the heavy operation
of splitting
ridges at
a season when the animals are ir: poor
condition.
JAFC
West Africa;
groundnut;
maize;
sorghum; pearl millet;
animaldrawn impzements;
inter-row
cultivation;
economic analysis;
motor-powered
implements;
land
preparation
WA
52407
Traditional
tillage
operations
MUSA, H.L.
and development and use of animal drawn
In:
Proceedings of the Approequipment.
priate
Tillage
Workshop, Maria, Nigeria,
1979, London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat
(19801, 29-36 [Dep. Agric. Eng., Inst.
Agric. Res., PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria].
novel systems;
West Africa;
i
ml-drawn
[email protected];
cotton;
land p&par&ion;
herbicides
52406
-ind the
STOKES, A.R. Mechanisation
peasant farmer.
World Crops (Dec. 1963).
444-450 LParnell
House, 25 Wilton Rd.,
London Swl, UK].
Tillage
and crop production
techniques
used by Nigerian
small-holder
farmers are
Includes a table specifying
described.
the hand tools used in each operation
and
the time taken per hectare.
The impact of the tractor
on upland farming in Northern Nigeria
is discussed.
Improved ox-drawn mulching,
which can he
used to take advantage of the greater
yield potential
of tied-ridge
farming,
is thought LO have greater
potential
for
increasing
yields
than introduction
of
tractors.
Ox-powered implemezt~ were
compared atsamaru
Research Station,
including
the Emcot plough, a one-row
basic multipurpose
tool frame, a l-2
row complete multipurpose
tool frame,
and the NIAE and 'Polyculture'
tool
Production
costs per acre for
frames.
each operation
involved
in the production
of groundnut,
sorghum and maize are
tabulated
for each implement.
Work on
wheeled ox-drawn groundnut lifters
showed
Short- and long-handled
hoes are described.
Weeding constitutes
the greatest
bottleneck period for the traditional
farmer;
The
two weeks' delay may halve the yield.
4 basic manual weeding practices
are hand
pulling,
hoe weeding, ridge side hoe
Hoe weedscraping and ridge remoulding.
ing is used to uproot weeds for desiccation
and shaking soil off the roots may be
The Churbe method involves
the
necessary.
use of a ridging
hoe to scoop and invert
soil and weeds from the side of the ridge
into the furrow; after 2-4 weeks, when the
weeds have decayed, the ridges are reA straddle
row rotary weeder has
moulded.
been des-gned with a high clearance
frame
and is pulled by an animal;'weeding
knives
are mounted on rotors set on an inverted
it averaged 35 m/min
In tests,
U frame.
120
of weed control
dnd next best was tine
cultivation
combined with mechanlcal
weeding (Sine Hoc and Long-handled
cliop hoe).
forward speed (6.5 h,!ha) and worked
best in friable
soil-with
weeds at the
The fitting
of
2- to 3-leaf
stage.
scrapers prevented clogging
of the weeding knives.
CAB (WA 30-1274)
Cotton cultivaticn
trials.
Aqain, mechan--7
ical weeding systems were significantly
faster when combined with plouqhinq
.lnd
tine cultivation.
WA
Summary of cropping practices.
Mechanical weeding of all crops is quick and
easy if it is carried
out early and regularly
and leaves only a small amount of
around-the-plant
handweeding.
Trials
showed that long-handled
hoes were satisHandfactory and have great potential.
sown millet
(Panicum miliaceum)
can be
cross-weeded with the Sine Hoe because
it is planted on-the-square.
traditional
systems;
West Africa;
land preparation;
hand tools;
animal-dram
implements
52408
tillage
systems
PAPA CHAM. Appropriate
evaluation
by the Department of Agricultural
Engineering
in the Gambia.
In:
Proceedings
of the Appropriate
Tillage
Workshop, Zaria,
Nigeria,
1979,
London, UK; Commonwealth Secretariat
(19801, 87-94 [Yundum Exp. Sta., Yundum,
Gambia].
CAB (WA 26-519)
West Africa;
animal-drawn
implements;
hand tools;
land
preparation;
planting
techniques;
groundnut;
cotton;
local cereals;
inter-row
cultivation
The Department has embarket. on long-term
The
trials
to study minimum tiilage.
Sine Houe Package was adopted for cultivation and consists
of a T-shaped frame
with handles and a head wheel, 5 weeding/cultivating
tines,
a 9 inch mouldboard plough. a groundnut lifter,
a
ridging
attachment,
and a 3 m traction
The Package was tested and
chain.
modifications
made and suggested to the
manufacturer;
1500 modified
implements
were issued on credit
to farmers in
1978 and another 700 were expected in
19i9.
CAB (WA 30-1277)
WA
52410
DIHENGA, H. Tanzania's
experience
in
technology
for tillage
-apprcoriate
operations.
In:
Proceedings
of the
Appropriate
Tillage
Workshop, Zaria,
Nigeria,
1.979, London, UK; Commonwealth
Secretariat
(1980), 117-125 [Dep. Agric.
Univ. Dar-es-Salaam,
Eng., Fat. Agric.,
P-0. Box 643, Morogoro, Tanzania].
The use of Howard-Rotoseeders
and paraquat effected
considerable
savings in
time, power and labour in minimum tillage
trials
in dry, marginal areas.
A system
approach based on a tool carrier
system
is recommended and Ubungo Farmers Implements of Tanzania are now manufacturing
their own toolbar.
More trials
with minimum tillage
are recommended with the
supplementary
use of chemicals and/or
mulching for improving weed control.
WA
West Africa;
animal-drawn
implements;
novel systems;
minimum tillage;
land
preparation
52409
MATHEWS, M.D.P.; PULIEN, D.W.M. Cultivation
trials
with ox-drawn implements
using N'dama cattle
in the Gambia.
Report Series,
Overseas Department,
National
Institute
of Agricultural
[Nat. Inst.
Engineering
(1976). 48 pp.
Agric.
Engng., Silsoe,
Bedford, UK].
CAB (WA 30-1278)
East Africa;
animal-drawn
techniques;
herbicides
Groundnut cultivation
trials.
Weed control at Yundum, especially
on directsown plots,
was a problem throughout
the
season.
Ploughing was the best method
121
land preparation;
implements;
planting
minimum tillage;
WA
The construction
and use of the Versatool
(an animal-drawn,
two-wheeled implement
carrier
to which can be attached a number
of implements including
a chisel plough,
subsoil plouqh, sweeps, a steerage hoe,
markers, planters
and fertiliser-application equipment,
as well as being used as
a simple carrier
when all implements are
removed) are described.
It is intended
for use in an integrated
farming system
developed for Botswana (see no. 51401).
The whole tool carrier,
except for the
wheels, can be made using welding equipa saw, a common range of
ment, a drill,
metals and a minimum of skill
in metal
A detailed
description,
drawings,
work.
specifications,
and photographs
of the
toolbar
and associated
implements are
included.
52411
GIBBON, D.; HESMP, C.; HARVEY, J.
DevelThe Hashasha and Atulba toolbar.
opment Studies Discussion
Paper, University of East Anglia
(1978), No. 21,
40 pp. [Overseas Development Group, East
Anglia Univ.,
Norwich, UK].
The animal-drawn
equipment described
was
designed for construction
in a field
workshop and use in sandy, noncompacting,
unstable
soils in semi-arid
regions such
as the Sudan. The Hashasha weeder has
tubular
steel handles and a frame of wood
and metal (2.5 X 3.8 cm bar) supported by
a skid and 3 horizontal
A-shaped overlapping
sweeps, each having 2 blades
point.
swept at 60° and a single chisel
The sweep and skid heights
are adjustable, the implement, pulled by 2 oxen,
working well at 5-7 cm depths with a
working width of 80 cm, and weeding I#
for weeding
ha in 6 h. It is suitable
land before planting
and inter-row
weeding of millet
grown l-l+ m apart.
The Atulba toolbar was designed for
sweeping, planting
and inter-row
weeding
of groundnut crops.
It is made of 2.5 X
3.8 cm solid metal bar and angle iron.
The 2 skids are 120 cm apart and the
implement is set up differently
for each
For planting,
operation.
a hopper made
from an 18 litre
petrol
can, 2 funnels
with plastic
tubes, and stems 60 cm
apart,
carrying
chisel openers and
hinged devices for covering
the seed,
are attached.
The seed feed system uses
seed plates at each end of a horizontal
bar with a pendulum and spring attached;
the rate and timing of seed flow can be
controlled
by pulling
a light
rope attached to the pendulum.
CAB (AEA 4-2736)
JAFC
Southern Africa;
novel systems;
animal-drawn
implements;
land
inter-row
cultivations
preparation;
see also
nos.
51305,
51306
52413
MOCHDDIFARMERS' BRIGADE, BOTSWANA.
'Makgonatsotlhel:
The Mochudi toolbar.
The machine which can do everything.
Aqricultural
Information
Service,
Ministrv
of Agriculture,
Gaborone, Botswana (1975),
Box
17 PP. [Mochudi Farmers' Brigade,
208, Mochudi. Botswana].
The use of the Mochudi toolbar
(an animaldrawn, two-wheelec: toolbar
to which can
also be attached
{A planter,
fertiliser
applicator,
disc hillers,
sweeps, or a
standard mouldboard plough, which can
be used as a carrier
when all implements
are removed) is described,
with many
photographs
and a line drawing of the
toolbar.
More information
and a set of
scale drawings are available
on request
from the Brigade.
ABA
Ea.;t Africa;
animal-drawn
im.,-lements.- land preparation;
plLting
techniques;
inter-row
cultivation
52412
-<
HHBBARD, K.; HARVEY, J.; GIBBON, D.
The Versatool:
an animal drawn tool
carrier
for crop production
systems in
Botswana, Division
semi-arid
regions.
of Agricultural
Research, Dryland Farming Research Scheme, Technical
Bulletin
No. 6 (1974). 28 pp. [Agric.
Res.
Station,
Gaborone, Botswana].
JAFC
Southern Africa;
animal-drawn
implements;
land preparation;
inter-row
cultivation
see also
122
nos.
51305,
51306
52414
This study examines the benefits
from use
of the mouldboard plough and three-tine
cultivator
as substitutes
for the wooden
deshi plough, based on the actual use of
these implements by farmers, which is deFarmers
adopt the mouldboard
scribed.
plough primarily
because of its assistance
in control
of weeds, especially
grasses.
It is not used as a substitute
for the
deshi plough nor does it save time in
The three-tine
culseedbed preparation.
tivator
does save subs{.. ntial
time when
it is used as a substitute
for the deshi
plough r this being the primary reason
qiven
for its adoption by farmers,
although
half the farmers in one district
surveyed
felt that the cultivator
also helps in
grass weed control.
Richer farmers with
two or more pairs of bullocks
prior to
adoption of the new implements may be able
to greatly
increase
their income by substitution
of the plough and cultivator
for
the dd,
since the implements make possible the disposal
of one pair of bullocks.
For the small farmer, in contrast,
the
adjustments
necessary to profit
from savings in bullock-hours
and person-hours
may
not be feasible
or attractive.
A fuller
report of this study is available
from the
Head, Dept. of Agric.
Economics, Allahabad
Agric.
Institute,
Allahabad,
U.F. India.
MEYER, E.; SEER, A.G. DE. An evaluation
of various
t:rpes of cultivators
for weed
Proceedings,
South
control
in sugarcane.
African
Sugar Technologists'
Association
(19751, No. 49, 154-156 [South African
Sugar Association
Exp. St?
Mount
Edqecombe. Natal, S. Afric
1.
Thirteen
types of mechanical
cultivators
were tested under a variety
of soil type
on 3 types
and soil moisture conditions
of weeds at 3 different
growth stages.
Effectiveness
was judged on a performance
scale of 1 to 9 and significant
differences were found between treatments.
Factors such as timeliness
of operation
and type of weed became more important
with the lighter
implements.
Two mule-drawn implements
(a mule-drawn
cultivator
with tines and i cultivator
with sweeps) were included
in the trials.
It is concluded that they gave sufficiently
good results
to justify
their
They are
widespread use even today.
recommended for steep slopes where
other machinery is inefficient,
since
Like most impletSey work very slowly.
on small
ments, they were most effective
weeds and lighter
soils.
--
WA/JAFC
CAB (WA 26-998)
JAFC
Indian subcontinent;
animaldrawn implements;
land preparation;
economic analysis;
social analysis
Southern Africa;
sugarcane;
animal-drawn
implements;
motorpowered implements;
inter-row
cultivation
52416
see also
no. 52416
Figure 13. Indian country
Ref no. 52415
plough.
PANJE, R.R.; MSNON, R.G. The 1.1-S-R.
weeder-mulcher
is ideal for sugarcane.
Indian Farming (1967), 17(2):7-8,
47
[Indian
Institute
of Sugarcane Research,
Lucknow, India].
A simple animal-drawn
implement for combined weeding and mulching in sugarcane
has been constructed
in India.
Four
blades are equally
spaced on a horizontally rotating
axis.
Each blade is locked
into its appropriate
lowermost position
by a manually-operated
latch.
Weeds are
uprooted by slicing
the blade through the
subsurface
soil at a depth of 5 cm. When
excess weeds begin to clog the blade, the
latch is unlocked and the next blade falls
into position.
Collected
weeds are deposited in a heap to serve as an organic
mulch.
The loose topsoil
acts as a soil
The implement is most effective
mulch.
on soils subject
to crust formation.
or "desi"
52415
FOSTER, J.H.
The economics of the moldboard plow and three-tine
cultivator
in
two districts
in Uttar Pradesh.
Indian
Economics
(1966),
Journal of Agricultural
21(2):47-G.
123
ment and that mounted on an ox-drawn cart.
Particular
attention
is given to the
practical
problems
met in the Eield.
Construction
details
are given in an ITDG
leaflet
(no. 12105). which states that
this implement is suitable
for many row
crops.
CAB (WA 20-1912)
Indian
drawn
Southern Africa;
herbicide
application
(high volume);
animal -drawn implements
subcontinent;
animalimplements;
inter-row
cultivation;
mulching;
sugarcane
5.3
5.25 Herbicides
JAFC
TA
CAB (WA 17-958)
and herbicide
CONTROLOF PROBLEMWEEDS
application
5.31 Parasitic
weeds
52501
53101
for small-scale
VERNON, R. Herbicides
Mount Makulu Research Station,
farmers.
Zambia Mimeo, 2 pp., no date (1976'2).
GIRLING, D.J.; GREATHEAD, D.J.; MOHYUDDIN,
for
A.I.;
SANKARAN, T. The potential
biological
control
in the suppression
of
parasitic
weeds.
Biocontrol
News and
Information,
Sample Issue, September
1979, 7-16 [Commonwealth Inst. Biol. ConWest Indies].
trol,
Curepe, Trinidad,
This leaflet
states that small farmers
rarely
use herbicides,
as available
herbicides
lack sufficient
selectivity
and need accurate sprayer calibration.
It recommends applying
atrazine,
which
is highly
selective,
to the soil after
sowing maize, and using the Micron 'Handy'
sprayer which needs no calibration.
JAFC
WRO
Southern Africa;
cides; herbicide
(low volume)
This review article
covers biological,
chemical and cultural
control
of witchbroomrapes (Orobanche
weeds (Striga
spp.),
spp.) and mistletoes
(Loranthaceae),
including crop tolerance
of the parasites
Includes
a
and germination
stimulants.
reference
(Chal"kov,
K. 1973 [A biological
method for the control
of Orobanche]
Rastit.
Zashch. 21, 20-24) to the use of
orobanchiae
the agromyzid fly Zytomyza
Kalt. for the control
of Orobanche ramosa
Larvae of P.
in Eastern Europe.
orobanchiae
feed on the reproductive
tissues of the weed and overwinter
as
Plants containing
pupae in the stem.
pupae are collected
and kept in special
rooms (sic) over winter,
for distribution
and release in tobacco fields
the followSpecial platforms
with sugar
ing spring.
or honey for the adult flies
are also
supplied.
maize; herbiapplication
52502
developanrnt
in
SHARMAN, c. Herbicide
peasant farming.
In:
Proceedings,
10th British
Weed Control Conference,
Brighton,
Uk, British
Crop Protection
Council
(1970), 685-688
[Dept. Conservation and Extension,
P-0. Box 191,
Sinoia,
Zimbabwe].
Flooding destroys
the seeds of some
Orobanche species
(0. crenata and 0. )
rotationsitb
rice to
cernua 1 , allowing
bed
as a control
measure in some areas
(also see no. 53104).
Cattle and goats
graze on Orobanche, but the seeds can pass
through them unharmed and be further
spread.
The increase
in the acreage of cash crops
grown on peasant farms in Rhodesia has
led to a number of problems.
One of the
greatest
is weed control,
especially
in
wet years when the labour available
cannot cope with the increased
acreage using
traditior
1 single-row
ox-drawn cultivators or by handweeding.
This paper
discusses
the initial
introduction
of a
herbicide
into these areas.
It includes
descriptions
of hand-held spraying
equip-
CAB (WA 29-1156)
highland and temperate zone;
parasitic
weeds? biological
control:
crop rotation;
water
management: grazing
124
JAFC
53104
53102
(Oroban
PIETERSE, A.H. The broomrapes
Abstracts
on Tropchaceae) - a review.
ical Agriculture
(1979). 5(3):9-35
[Dept. of Agric.
Research, Royal Tropical
Amsterdam, Netherlands].
Inst.,
PALKIN, YU; PROKUDINA, F. [Cultural
control of broomrape].
Kartofel'i
Ovoshchi
[RU] [Vses. n-i Inst.
(1973), 18(7):35-36
orosh. Ovoshchevod. Bakhchevod.,
Astrakhan, USSR].
A review of taxonomy, distribution,
biology. and manual and chemical control.
Includes
the information
that flooding
suppresses Orobanche by killing
the seeds
in the soil,
so rotation
with rice can
be useful.
Rotation with the trap crops,
lucerne,
maize, clover,
rape, mustard,
castorbeans,
sesame, millet
capsicums,
and linseed,
is also recommended.
Anaerobic conditions
were simulated
by
keeping broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca)
seed under water for 13-6 months, periodicall?
changing the water; the seed was
then dried and mixed with soil.
Immersion
for iii-6 months reduced the number of
attachments
of broomrape to watermelon
host plants
from 137 in the control
to
6 to 0.6 in 1971 and from 55 in the control to 0 in 1972; the leaf surface area
of the watermelons
increased
3-6 times.
Flooding the soil from 18 August 1971 to
26 May 1972 killed
all broomrape seeds;
infestation
amounting to 11.5 broomrapes/
plant in unflooded controls
reduced the
leaf surface area of melons by 67-75%.
Flooding in autumn was less effective
than
flooding
in summer; flooding
for 2 months
in summer was highly effective.
Five to
eight broomrape shoots/m2 reduced melon
yields to 19 t/ha in 1964, but melons
grown in 1967 after cropping with rice
were almost free from broomrape and yields
increased to 24 t/ha.
Flooding for 2
years for fish farming completely
killed
broomrape seeds.
The rotation
of watermelons with rice or fish is recommended.
CAB (WA 30-3620)
JAFC
parasitic
weeds; biological
control;
herbicides;
crop
cultivar
selection;
rotation;
water management; highland
and temperate zone
53103
KABULOV, D-T.; KHALIMOV, M.KH. [Some
biological
characteristics
of F.gy$$n
broomrape and ways of controlling
it by
Nauchnye
Trudy Biologicheskogo
Fakulteta,
Samarkandskii
Cosudarstvennyi
Universitet
imeni A. Navoi (Botanika)
(1974), No.
207, 167-173 [RU] [Biol.
Fak. Samarkand,
Gas. univ.,
Uzbek SSR].
CAB (WA 22-2943)
highland and temperate zone;
parasitic
weeds; vegetable
crops; paddy rice;
fallow;
water management
The fungus (Fusarium orobanches),
distributed
in the.tobacco
plantations
of
Urgutskii
District,
causes rotting
of
the flower-bearing
shoots and nodules
of br-ape
(Orobanche aegyptiaca)
without
affecting
the tobacco host
plants.
Fungal growth was optimal at
soil temperatures
of 18-25'C and soil
moisture
contents of 68-80%.
Fungi cultured on potato agar in flasks retained
their viability
for 2-3 years.
For
application
of the fungus to the soil,
a l-1 mixture
of cattle
concentrate
feed with finely
chopped straw was used;
in water
and
the mixture was soaked
sterilised
or partly
sterilised
by steam
to elimina te antagonists
of the fungus,
and then mixed with cultures
of the
fungus.
Application
of the fungus -in
tobacco-planting
holes at a depth of
15-25 cm prevented broomrape shoots from
emerging.
CAB (WA 26-2099)
WA
53105
KRISHNAMURTY, S.; UMAMAHESWARA
RAO, M.
Control Qrobanche through crop rotation.
Indian Farming (1976). 25(10):23
[Central
Tobacco Res. Inst.,
Rajahmundry, Tamil
Nadu, India].
The easiest way to control Orobanche
(ramosa)
on tobacco is by hand pulling
when the parasite
is 6 inches high; complete eradication
was achieved by systematic hand removal for 3 years at Rajamundry, but labour shortage is the problem.
The application
of 0.1% ally1 alcohol
can
alleviate
the problem.
Alternate
cropping
is an effective
methcd of control,
even
though Orobanche seeds can survive
for 10
years in the soil.
The maximum number
of Orobanche shoots was recorded in fallow-tobacco
plots and the least in tobacco after sorghum; the incidence
was also
low in tobacco after maize.
Paddy in
kharif,
followed
by tobacco in the rabi
WA
highlend
and templerate zone; parasitic
weds; biological
control;
tobacco
125
53107
rotation
season, is the most profitable
in the tobacco areas of Eastern and
a general decline
in
Western Godavari;
both the population
and weight of
Orbannche was noticed in this l-year
2crop rotation.
CAB (WA 26-342)
[On the parasitic
weed probLUBENQU. J.
Symposium on
lem in Bulgaria-i.
In:
Parasitic
Weeds, Malta, 1973, Wageningen,
European Weed Research Council
Netherlands;
pour la
(1973), 18-27 [Fr, en, de] [Inst.
Protection
les Plantes,
P.O. Box 238,
Sofia, Bulgaria].
WA
Reviews Bulqarian
research on the biology
and control
of Orobanche spp. and Cuscuta
the information
that,
in a
SPP- includes
trial
in 1966, stocking
12 geese on 6 ha
of tobacco infested
with -0. ramosa resulted
in the consumption of the weed shoots without harming the crop.
(Reference:
Kirtchev,
R. 1966, Bulg. tjunjun,
11(l):
16-17)
p,igI;2and and temperate zone;
parasitic
weeds; herbicides;
crop rotation;
tobacco; paddy
maize; sorghum
rice;
53106
JACOBSOHN, R.; GREENBERGER,A.; KATAN, J.;
LEVI, M.; ALON, H. Control of Egyptian
broomrape (Orobanche aeqvntiaca)
and
other weeds by means of solar heating of
Weed
the soil by polyethylene
mulching.
Div.
Science (1980), i3(3):312-316
Vegetable
Crops, Agric.
Res. Organization,
The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel].
CAB (WA 23-325)
highland
tobacco:
grazing:
Mulching the soil with polyethylene
sheets before sowing during the hot
season increased
the soil temperatures,
which resulted
in the control
of soilThis method
borne pathogens and weeds.
was tested in a field heavily
infested
with Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche
Soil was irrigated
and
aegyptiaca
L.).
mulched for 36 days during August-September 1977, prior to sowing carrot
(Daucus
carota L. 'Nantes Tip Top') seeds.
Mulching increased
soil temperatures
by
8 to 12OC, up to 56OC in the top 5 cm.
In the nonmulched plots,
the carrot
plants became stunted due to heavy
parasitisation
with broomrape and they
were completely
destroyed
by the end of
In contrast,
broomrape and
the season.
other weeds were controlled
in the
mulched plots and the carrot
plants grew
normally.
This effect was less pronounced in the border rows of the mulched
plots.
Mulching also greatly
reduced
Egyptian
the infestation
of other weeds.
broomrap
was also controlled
in two
other field
experiments
with carrots and
eggplants
(Solanum melongena L. 'Black
oval').
As compared with fumigation,
this new method of control
is economical,
simple,
nonhazardous,
and does not employ toxic materials.
CAB (WA 30-902)
JAFC
zone;
and temperate
parasitic
weeds;
herbicides
53108
Methods of controlling
OGBORN, J.E.A.
Striqa hennontheca for West African
farmers.
[Paper presented at the] Agricultural
Research Seminar, "Sorghum-millet
research in West Africa,"
Bambey, Senegal
(1970), pp. 22 [Inst.
Agric. Res., Samaru,
PMB 1044, Zaria,
Nigeria].
West African
cultivators
cannot afford
expensive equipment and their only favourable circumstance
is that they have a
surplus of family labour during the period
of S. hermontheca emergence from August
Hand pulling
is the main control
onwzds.
method; plants are pulled out once or
twice a season after flowering
and the
formation
of a woody stem, but before the
seed has matured.
Nearly 2 million
k
hermontheca plants weighing 3.5 t had to
be removed by hand (with weekly weeding)
to increase grain yields of sorghum cv.
Short Kaura from 0.25 to 0.68 t/ha
(an increase of Nigeria fl2/ha)
in 1968.
Hand pulling
stimulated
S. hermontheca
emergence and was less elective
than a
single application
of herbicide
as
The application
of 80 kg N/ha
granules.
(3 times the normal rate) 4 weeks after
sowing sorghum gave substantial
suppression of S. hermontheca and was profitable
when gra% prices exceeded 7.2 pence/kg.
Very high proportions
of sorghum and
millet
are grown as mixed crops at low
densities
and control
of k hermontheca
would be expected to produce the greatest
yield increase
in these heavily
infested
A
Middle East: vegetable
crops;
grain legumes; parasitic
weeds;
mulching;
fallow;
imported mulches
126
produced by an adjustable
nozzle.
The
sprayer delivers
almost exactly
1 ml/
stroke;
spot treatment
with ametryne at
0.4 mg/ml of solution
using a total
rate
of 20 g a.i./ha
was effective
in village
trials.
The cost was 3 shillings/ha,
including the cost of the sprayer.
spot
sprays of atrazine,
linuron
and MCPA also
controlled
S. hermonthica
at rates below
0.5 kg/ha; groundnuts and cowpeas (Vigna
cowsp.) tolerated
0.2 kg ametryne/ha.
peas are more tolerant
of fluorodifen
than
of ametryne, but both groundnuts and cowpeas tolerate
linuron.
With the aid of
the spot sprayer,
it should be possible
to
organise the virtual
eradication
of S.
hennonthica
by persistent
communal eEorts
at village
level.
crops intensively
grown close to centres
Herbicide
trials
showed
of habitation.
that 2,4-D was unsuitable
for use in
Sixteen other foliar
mixed crops.
acting herbicides
applied during flowering killed
S. hermontheca with rates
< 0.6 kg/haTn
1967. Herbicides
as 0.05%
solutions
were applied
(before flowering)
in total
spray volumes of 575-924 litres/
ha in the course of 11 weekly applications in 1969. Linuron and ametryne
were effective
and are well tolerated
by tropical
legume intercrops;
ametryne
controlled
S. hermontheca infestations
amounting t;;iOO,OOO plants/ha
at a cost
of f1.25/ha
for the herbicide
in 2 trials.
Granular materials,
easily
applied by
hand, have been tested as soil applications since 1967. 2,4-D and MCPA granular were toxic to some strains
of sorghum
at rates > 1 kg/ha and 2,4-D granular
did not persist
long enough to give
Nitralin
and trieffective
control.
allate
showed strong residual
activity
at rates as low as 0.03 kg/ha, making
control
with a single application
feasible.
The application
of herbicide
+ fertiliser
mixtures,
systemic herbicides,
and the stimulation
of seed
germination
are discussed.
CAB (WA 21-594)
CAB (WA 23-287)
WA
west Africa;
parasitic
weeds;
herbisorghum; intercropping;
cides; herbicide
application
(low volume); Vigna; groundnuts
53110
OGBORN, J.E.A.;
MANSFIELD, R.A. The
potential
use of germinators
for Strisa
control
by African
peasant farmers.
In:
Supplement to the Proceedings
of the
2nd Symposium on Parasitic
Weeds (eds.
Musselman, L.J., Worsham, A.D. and Eplee,
R.E.), North Carolina
State University,
Raleigh,
NC, (19791, 29-37 [Inst.
for
Agric. Res., Zaria,
Nigeria].
WA
West Africa;
parasitic
weeds;
novel systems; herbicides;
herbicide
application
(granules);
sorghum; pearl millet;
intercropping
Methods of applying
ethepon or strigol
analogs in the absence of cereal host
crops are described.
It is also profitable to make direct
applications
in the
season of cereal cropping.
Strigol
analogs
should be applied
at the start of the
rains,
ethepon at planting.
Strigol
analogs can be directly
applied by hoe farmers, providing
that the formulations
are
stable when surface applied.
Ethepon cannot be directly
applied by hoe farmers
until
special
equipment is developed.
Animal-power
farmers can use both types
of germinators
in direct
applications.
53109
The control
of Strisa
CGBOP.N, J.E.A.
hermonthica
in peasant farming.
In:
Proceedings,
11th British
Weed Control
Conference,
London, UK, British
Crop
Protection
Council (1972). 1068-1077
[Inst.
Agric.
Res., Ahmadu Belle Univ.,
PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria].
Sorghum is the staple food grain of
Northern Nigerian
peasant farmers,
but
is often parasitised
by S. hermonthica;
its control
on sorghum iFmixed
crops is
discussed.
Intensive
handweeding is not
attempted
by farmers and is uneconomic.
Farmers near Samaru regard an infestation
of l-2 -S. hermontbica plants/m2
(lo-20
thousand/ha)
in the --op as acceptable
(equivalent
to about 10% loss of yield).
A satisfactory
spot sprayer costing
only 5 Nigerian
shillings
was developed
in 1971; with this pistol
grip sprayer,
farmers can treat individual
S. hermonthica plants up to 1 m away wzhx
Gy
coarse drift-free
droplets
A
WRO
West Africa;
herbicides;
pearl millet
127
parasitic
Weeds;
maize: sorghum:
low stimulation
of
by ICRISAT for their
the Indian S. asiatica
proved relatively
susceptible-to
several strains
of S.
hermontheca.
Laboratory
qerminatiz
studies showed that, whe!reas the exudate
activity
of low-stimulant
varieties
rray be
vari100 times less than in susceptible
eties,
the difference
ma) only be about
5 times less in the case of S. hennontheca.
The pot experiments
showed analmost
peroE S.
fect specificity
of certain
strains
hennontheca to bulrush :lillet
(PennisetE
americanum) and also showed that, generally, strains
of the parasite
associated
with sorghum did not cerminste
in response
to millet
and vice versa.
Four strains
of S. gesneroides
were found to be specific
to their original
hosts, but exudate tests
showed that this specificity
was not due
to simple differences
in qermination
requirement.
53111
of Strisa
asiatica,
RENEAUD, 8. [Control
a rice weed in the Camoro Islands].
Lutte contre 8trisa
asiatica,
plante
Agronomie
parasite
du riz aux Comores.
Trooicale
(19601. 35(1):2.
4. 61-63
de Recharches
[Fr, en, es, fr] [Inst.
Agronomiques Tropicales
(IRAT), Bobo
Upper Volta].
Osoulasso.
Striga asiatica
attacks maize, sugarcane,
Upland rice,
paddy and upland rice.
representing
80% of the farm crops, is
A series of herbicides
most susceptible.
were evaluated
for Striga control
pre-emergence
applications
were not
and postemergence
application
successful,
of 2,4-D (4 litres
of Desormane 600/ha)
killed
only the aerial
parts of the
parasite
without improving
rice yield.
Catch cropping and trap cropping
are
and integrated
control
of
discussed,
using chemical control
Striga
asiatica,
in combination
with the use of economic
trap crops and resistant
varieties,
is
recommended.
--
CAB (WA 30-469)
parasitic
cultivar
millet
WA
weeds; sorghum;
selection;
pearl
ATA
5.32 Perennial
Southern Africa;
parasitic
weeds;
crop rotation:
sequential
cropping;
herbicides;
maize; sugarcane;
paddy rice;
upland rice
problem
weeds
53201
BALTAEAR, A.M. Cwerus rotundus and its
control
in vegetable
crops.
In:
Philippines, Pest Control Council of the Philippines:
Developments
in Pest Management
in the Philippines
(1980), 184-196 [Nat.
Crop Protection
Center, Univ. Philippines
at Los Bafios, Philippines].
53112
PARKER, C.; REID, D.S. Testing
sorghum
and other crops for resistance
to
witchweed.
In:
Eighth Report, Agricultural
Council,
weed Research Orsanization,
1978-1979 i1981‘), 76-83 ISBNO-7084-0164-3
[ARC Wc?edRes. Org., Yarnton, Oxford 0x5 1PF. UK].
Control of Cyperus rotundus in vegetable
crops in thePhilipG;by
cultivations,
intercropping,
competitive
mulching,
cropping and herbicides,
is discussed.
Mulching 5-10 cm thick with rice straw and
hulls,
sugarcane baqasse, coconut leaves
and other local materials
is an effective
method of weed control
when combined wirth
one handweeding or herbicide
treatment.'
Cultivation
to deplete food reserves
is
best carried
out when C. rotundus shoots
are 18 to 20 days old,before
flowering.
Cultivation
is not a practical
method of
No completely
control
in the wet season.
satisfactory
herbicide
for controlling
C. rotundus in vegetable
crops has yet
been found.
Although witchweeds
(Striga
spp.) can be
partially
controlled
by rotation,
catch
irrigation,
improved soil
cropping,
fertility,
and hand pulling,
most of
these practices
are impracticable
for a
majority
of the smallholders
on infertile
soils in semi-arid
areas, where the problem is most severe.
The alternative
approach is to breed resistant
varieties
of the host crops.
Pot experiments
confirmed the resistance
to Striga hermontheca of low-stimulant
sorghum varieties
selected
by breeders
in Northern Nigeria and also revealed
resistance
to a wide range of strains
of both S. henuontheca and S. asiatica.
Stimulan&ositive
varietiesshowed
inconsistent
results.
Varieties
selected
-Southeast Asia; perennial
problem
weeds; vegetable
crops; mukhing;
imported mulches; inter-row
cultivation:
herbicides
128
JAFC
however, used the square method of plantthem to off-bar
twice at
ing, enabling
riyht angles.
This controlled
weeds much
better than one off-barring,
but yields
were still
lower than when a supplementary
handweeding,
to remove weeds from around
the base of the corn plants,
was carried
out.
53202
Controlling
scrubweeds
BATTRN, G.J.
NE Journ. of Agric.
(1979),
with goats.
IPPC Paper B/26 Min. of Agric.
and
Forestry,
New Zealand.
This article
describes
how goats can
be an all-purpose,
low-cost
incomeearning,
ecologically
acceptable
alternative to the more cormnonly used methods
of scrubweed control--mechanical,
chemical,
or burning.
IPPC
problem
WA/JAPC
Southeast Asia; annual problem
weeds; maize; traditional
systems;
novel systems; planting
techniques;
inter-row
cultivation,
herbicides
A
biological
control;
(of 'weeds');
5.33 Annual
CAB (WA 28-2308)
utilisation
53302
PAMPLORA, P.P. Approaches to the control
of Rottboellia
exaltata
L.F. in corn in
the Philippines.
In:
Pest Control Council
of the Philippines:
Developments in Pest
Management in the Philippines
(1980),
286-295 [Univ. of Southern Mindanao,
Kabacan, North Cotabato,
Philippines].
weeds
53301
PAMPulNA. P-P.; IMLAR. J.S.
Methods of
controlling
Rottboellia
exaltata
in
corn.
Philippine
Weed Science Bulletin
(1977), 4, 14-20 [Mindanao Inst. Tech.,
Kabacan. Cotabato,
Philippines].
Most farmers in the Philippines
control
Rottboellia
exaltata
in maize by offbarring
(moving soil away from the crop
row into the inter-row),
followed
by
earthing-up.
One supplemental
weeding
to remove
weeds in or near the rows immediately after properly-timed
off-barring
at
12 to 16 days after sowing maize
(DAS) has
been experimentally
found to practically
overcome weed competition
and increase
yields by 33%. Few farmers give a
supplemental
weeding at present,
due to
the labour involved
and the sharp trichomes
on R. exaltata
which hurt bare hands, but
thispractice
appears to be increasing.
Planting
in the 'square method,'
followed
by off-barring
twice at right angles,
results in fewer weeds left in and around
the maize hills
and a greatly
reduced
time
needed for supplementary
weeding.
Directed
paraquat sprays are an alternative
to handweeding.
Experiments
were condu,-ted during the dry
season of 1975-76 to identify
effective
systems of controlling
Rottboellia
exaltata
in maize which are suitable
for
adoption by farmers.
Uncontrolled
R.
exaltata
growth reduced yields
by 6Fto
51%: The farmers'
usual method of weeding, which is off-barring
(moving soil
away from the crop row into the interrow) 12 days after sowing (DAS) followed
by earthing-up
at 26 DAS with the use of
an animal-drawn
plough, gave insufficient
control;
yields were reduced by 23%.
Treatments
which gave yields
comparable
to a handweeded control
were:
offbarring
and handweeding in the row at 12
DAS followed
by earthing-up
at 26 DAS;
band application
of trifluralin
between
the rows followed by either
handweeding
in the rows at 12 DAS, earthing-up
at
26 DAS, or both; off-barring
and handweeding in the rows at 12 DAS followed
by paraquat/2,4-D
application;
and
pre-em. application
of atrazine,
in
combination
with either
earthing-up
or
directed
paraquat/2,4-D
application
at
26 DAS.
At present,
controlling
R. exaltata
1s an
endless task because theylants
are allowed
to reseed.
Depletion
of seeds in the soil
may be hastened by cultivating
the field
several times at 10 to 15 day intervals
before planting
the maize.
It is suggested
that supplementary
weedings of & exaltata
should be carried
out until
60 DAS so the
weed will have no chance to produce seed
before harvest,
and that farm boundaries
should be kept clear,
but eradication
of
the weed is not possible
unless a concerted
effort
is made by neighboring
farmers over
a large area.
Farmers in Allah Valley
(South Cotabato)
have conducted an
by a
These experiments
were preceded
survey of farmers'
weed control
methods
in maize in Southern Mindanao.
Few
farmers used handweeding in association
with off-barring
or earthing-up
to control weeds in the row.
Some farmers,
129
5.4
intensive
campaign to eradicate
R.
exaltata
through these measures,yhich
has largely
succeeded.
The remaining
weed species can be controlled
with
atrazine.
WEEDCONTROL IN PARTICULAR CROPS
5.41 Cereals
54101
--
JAFC
FISHER, H.H.; MARGATE, L.Z.; LOPEZ, F.A.
Weed control
systems in white feed corn in
the Philippines.
(Abstract
of paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the
American Society for Horticultural
Science,
Fort Collins,
Colorado, July-August
1980).
HortScience
(1980). 16(3, Section 2):413
[Int.
Plant Prot. Center, Oregon State
Univ., Corvallis,
OR 97331, USA].
Southeast Asia; annual problem
systems;
weeds; maize; traditional
novel systems; planting
techniques;
inter-row
cultivation;
weed seed
source reduction;
herbicides
53303
Dense populations
of Rottboellia
exaltata
are reported
in monocropped maize in the
Philippines.
In a series of trials,
uncontrolled
R. exaltata
reduced yields
about
germinated continuously
50%. R.exaltata
Two cultivations
using
up to &vest.
draught animals controlled
R. exaltata
to
some extent,
but yields werestill
reduced
handweeding 3 times
24%. Traditional
failed
to reduce the R. exaltata
population
in the maize rows.
The best control
of
R. exaltata
was achieved by 2 cultivations
rhandweeding
in the maize row. The best
economic return was achieved by intercropping maize with mung bean.
The use of
herbicides
was uneconomic.
INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CENTER,
OREGONSTATE UNIVERSITY, USA. Weed Control
Systems and Systems Utilization
for
Representative
Farms in Developing
Countries,
Periodic
Report 1978-79.
(1979), 56 pp.
Rottboellia
exaltata.
In
Pp. 10-11.
the maize-growing
sectors of Mindanao,
R.
has become the main weed
- exaltata
Results from handweeding experimenace.
mental plots reveal that local farmers
are suffering
a 24% average crop loss
from this weed alone when the normal
procedure of one cultivation
and a hillThe cultiing operation
are practised.
vation misses
weeds in the crop row and
handweeding is not a common practice.
Also, R. exaltata
competes throughout
the season and can exert its most damaging
effect
late in the season.
Monocrop
maize
and the associated
cultural
practices tend to encourage weed expansion.
maize-growing
farms genAlso, regional
erally
fall
in the 3 to 5 ha range, thus
precluding
sufficient
time or labour
adeguate'to
weed the planted area.
In
addition
to herbicide
treatments,
two
other approaches for control
were investigated.
Adding one correctly
timed
handweeding to the present cultivationhilling
routine
could cut weed-caused
yield losses to approximately
5%. Growing mung bean (Vigna radiata)
between
the maize rows znwreduced
the weed
competition,
but also provided
additional
income as mung sells at 6 to 10 times the
value of maize.
IPPC
CAB (WA 30-1663)
Southeast Asia: maize; annual
problem weeds; intercropping;
Vigna; economic analysis ;
inter-row
cultivation;
timing
54102
MERCAW, A.C. JR.; VILLEGAS, L.M. The
cultural
operations
in growing corn7
The Philippines
recommends for corn 1970/71 [College
of Agriculture,
Univ.
of
the Philippines,
College,
Laguna, 22-3,
Philippines].
Recommended practices
for land preparation,
planting,
and cultivation
of maize are
described.
Ploughing should be 5 to 8
inches deep for an animal-drawn
plough,
or 12 to 14 inches deep with a tractor.
or areas with greater
weed
Heavy soils,
growth, may need to be ploughed several
Ploughing
is followed by harrowing
times.
(with an animal-drawn
native harrow) and
planting.
The recommended planting
density is 50,000 to 60,000 plants per hectare in rows 75 cm apart, and in hills
WA
Southeast Asia; annual problem
weeds; maize; traditional
systems;
novel systems; timing;
herbicides;
intercropping;
Vigna; economic analysis
see also
WA
no. 54101
130
The nature and extent of the weed problems
.n maize and sorghum are reviewed and the
various control
and management measures
adopted discussed.
The present status of
weed research in sorghum- and maize-based
cropping systems is reviewed and the
future need for an integrated
weed management approach is stressed.
The proper
combination
of agronomic methods, mechanical tillage
and supplemental
use of herbicides, if necessary,
may give maximum
stability
to the integrated
weed management programmes for maize- and sorghumbased farming systems.
25 cm apart with one plant/hill,
or 50 cm
Cultivations
apart with two plants/hill.
can be carried
out from about two weeks
after planting
until
the corn plants are
18 inches tall without damage to the
Depth of cultivation
should not
crop.
be more than 5 cm to minimise root pruning; the native plough usually
cultivates
After cultivation,
the maize
too deeply.
plants
should be hilled
up to cover the
roots at the stem base and destroy weeds
in the rows.
JAFC
CAB (WA 29-3546)
maize; Southeast
systems; planting
inter-row
timing;
Asia; novel
techniques;
cultivation
maize; sorghum; traditional
herbisystems; intercropping;
cides: novel systems
.
54103
PAMPLONA, P-P.; MADRID, M.T. JR. Weed
control
in corn and sorghum in the
Symposium, Weed ConPhilippines.
In:
trol in Tropical
Crops, Manila (1978),
101-111 [Dep. Agron., Univ. S. Mindanao,
Kabacan, N. Cotabato,
Philippines].
54105
SHETTY, S.V.R.
Weed control
in sorghum in
the tropics.
In:
Symposium, Weed Control
in Tropical
Crops, Manila (1978), El-100
[ICRISAT, 1-11-256 Begumpet, Hyderabad
500016, AP, India].
Cropping systems used in maize and
sorghum, losses caused by weeds, weed
competition,
seedbed preparation,
interraw cultivation,
chemical weed control,
weed control
in intercropping
involving
maize as the major crop, and the control
of Rottboellia
exaltata
and Sorghum
halepense are the topics reviewed.
CAB (WA 29-3547)
A
The critical
period of crop-weed competition in sorghum is the first
20 to 30 days
of crop growth.
Handweeding, the most
common weed control
method, is only effective when done in time.
Mechanical methods
such as inter-row
cultivation,
rotary
hoeing, and flame cultivation
are also
Herbicides
are beginning
to be used
used.
where labour is expensive and physical
and
cultural
methods difficult
to practise.
Atrazine
and propazine
are the most widely
used pre-em. herbicides
and 2,4-D the most
conrmon post-em.
Striga can only be controlled
by combining a number of practices.
The nature and extent of the weed problems
in sorghum are reviewed and the various
control measures are discussed.
Particular
emphasis is focused on weed management in
sorghum-based cropping systems.
The present status of weed research in sorghumbased cropping systems is reviewed and the
need for an integrated
weed management
approach is stressed.
WA
Southeast Asia; traditional
systems; maize: sorghum: novel
systems; herbicides;
perennial
problem weeds; annual problem
weeds; land preparation;
interrow cultivation:
intercropping
54104
SHETTY, S.V.R.
Approaches to integrated
weed management in maize and sorghum in
tropical
and stitropical
areas.
In:
Proceedings
of the 7th Asian-Pacific
Weed Science Society Conference,
Sydney,
Australia
(1979), 87-93 [Farming Systems
Res. Program, ICRISAT, 1-11-256 Begumpet,
Hyderabad 500 016, AP, India].
CAB (WA 29-3556)
sorghum; intercropping;
cides; timing;
parasitic
131
A
herbiweeds
:
This report is on a survey of bean production carried
out in 1975. The survey was
based on eight districts
where 242 farmers
and 72 other interested
persons, ranging
from marketing
to governmental
administrative personnel,
were interviewed.
The
report reviews the present situation,
including seed types used, crop husbandry
practices,
yield levels,
storage,
marketing
and pricing,
and the extension
services
offered for bean production.
The second
part discusses
the economics of bean production as well as the basic constraints
on the intensification
and expansion of
bean production,
both in high-rainfall,
small-farm
areas as well as in dryer areas
where farms are larger and land is not
such a limiting
factor.
Specific
problems
are discussed relating
to seeds, land
preparation,
planting
systems, plant density,
the application
of fertiliser
and
manure, weed control,
pests and diseases,
storage, marketing
an3 pricing.
Finally,
an extension
p?oject
is proposed and dewhich would proscribed in some detail,
mote
the production
of beans in Kenya.
The infrastructural
support which would
be needed for expanded bean production
is
also described,
particularly
a wider
availability
of inputs and a viable marketing and pricing
system.
Experiment
Station,
Paramaribo,
Suriname,
of Agric..
Vol. 15, 266-271 [Faculty
MOM, Kingston,
Univ. of the West Indies,
Jamaica].
This article
reviews the suitability
of
four broad methods of weed control
in
cultural
(through high
groundnuts:
plant populations,
land preparation,
crop rotation,
etc.),
chemical,
mechanIt concludes that one
ical and manual.
specific
package of technological
practices cannot be given, but that it should
be modified
according to the circumstances (farm size, labour availability,
prices of inputs,
etc.).
ATA (6-32688)
ATA
Caribbean;
groundnuts;
novel
systems; herbicides;
economic
analysis
54305
CHANDRAMOBAN, J.; MOHAMMEDALI, A.
Yield response of irrigated
groundnut to
Indian Journal of Agriorganic mulches.
cultural
Sciences (1969). 39(2):196-199.
CAB (WAERSA20-776)
The effect
of leaf and straw mulches
(applied
one month after sowing) on yield
of irrigated
groundnut crops was studied
The field
trials
for 4 seasons in India.
showed that the mulches increased
yields.
Their use is profitable
for irrigated
groundnut crops, especially
those grown
during the dry season, provided
waste
rice straw, leaf or similar
organic matter are available
in abundance.
The
number of irrigations
could be reduced
from 8 to 6, and weed growth was found
to be less in the mulched plots.
CAB (WA 20-75)
WAEXSA
East Africa;
traditional
systems;
Phaseolus; economic analysis;
novel
systems; humid tropics;
5.44 Fibre
crops
54401
RANGAIAB, P.K.
Mechanical control
of
cotton weeds.
Indian Farming (1966),
16(2):30-31
[Agric.
Coil. and Res. Inst.,
Coimbatore,
Madras, India].
TA
Indian subcontinent;
groundnut;
irrigated
crops; mulching;
imported mulches; economic
analysis;
mulching
In Madras State,
in irrigated
cotton topdressed with anunonium sulphate,
hoeing is
normally done two or tliree times by hired
labourers
sing hand hoes and mamutty
(short-handled
digging hoes).
The use of
a 'junior
hoe' cultivator
between the crop
rows when the cotton plants are 1 foot
tall,
followed
by intercultivations
using a desi plough about 1 week later,
replaced all but a single manual weeding
operation
(carried
out when the plants
reduced the cost of
are 4-6 in. high),
cotton
cultivation
by lo%, and increased
54306
Bean producscIi;;NHER, s.; MBUGUA, E.S.
tion in Kenya's central
and eastern
provinces.
Occasional Paper, Institute
for Development Studies,
University
of
Nairobi
(19761, No. 23, 69 pp.
132
5.42 Sugarcane
54106
UPADHYAY, U-C.; KHAN, P-A-i NANDAWATE.
H.D. Studies on weed management ir.
Proceedings
of the 7th
sorghum.
In:
Weed Science
Society ConAsian-Pacific
(1979), 95-97
ference,
Sydney, Australia
[Marathwada Agric. Univ.,
Parbhani M.S.,
India].
54201
OBIEN, S.R.; BALTAZAR, A.M. Weed cent-ol
in sugarcane in the Philippines.
In: Symposium:
Weed Control in Tropical
Crops,
Papers presented
at t'lle 9th Pest Control
Council of the Philippines,
Manila (19781,
45-55 [Philippine
Tof'acco Res. Training
Center, Batac, 110~0s Norte, Philippines].
A field
trial
was conducted
in the monsoon season of 1976/77 and 1977/78 to
study the efficacy
in sorghum of some
herbicides
in comparison with normal
Data of both the
cultural
practices.
years were pooled and the maximum sorghum
grain yield of 7215 kg/ha occurred in
weed-free
plots,
followed
by atrazine
applied
pre-em. and post-em. at 1 kg/ha
The use of atrazine
over(6892 kg/ha).
comes the problems with cultural
control
in heavy clay soils during the monsoon
atrazine
costs RS
Moreover,
season.
32/ha more than normal culturai
practices,
but the additional
increase of
395 kg/ha of sorghum grain,
realisinq
Rs 395/ha, makes it an economic form of
weed control.
Weeds are one of the major constraints
to
high yield in sugarcane production
in the
Philippines.
About 106 weed species belonging to 32 families
are found in association
with the crop.
The critical
period of weed competition
is within
the first
4 months o',' the crop life
cycle.
Weed
control
shxld
be started as soon as possible afte,- planting
or ratooning.
Sugarcane control
practices
include manual,
mechanical and chemical methods, and present practices
are described
in detail.
A combination
of cultural
and chemical
methods is recommended by two of the
country's
leading
sugarcane experiment
stations.
Cost-reducing
and income-adding
practices
like intercropping
with rice
and grain legumes are also being practiced
and recommended.
A
CAB (WA 29-3144)
Indian subcontinent;
sorghum;
economic analysis
herbicides;
CAB (WA 29-3657)
Southeast Asia; sugarcane;
novel systems; intercropping
54107
THOMPSON; P.G. Growing broom corn.
Fiji
Farmer (19661, 2(3):46-48
LAgric.
Fiji].
Stn., Sigatoka,
Pacific
islands:
novel systems
timing;
54202
MATHUR, P.S.
Weed control
in sugar cane
in North India.
Technical
Bulletin,
Indian Institute
of Sugarcane Research
(1965), No. 2, 22 pp. [Indian
Inst.
Sugarcane Res.. Lucknow, India].
Recommendations for broom corn (a variety
of Sorghum bicolor
L. grown for the long
h&?ih
are used in making brooms)
include
one ploughing
and two cult$vations
(with time for the weeds to :
germinate
in between) before sowinq, one
hoe weeding (and thinning
to a final
stand of 14-15,000 plants per acre) when
the crop is 6-8 in. high, followed by a
horse hoeing 10 days later.
CAB (WA 16-1567)
A
Common weeds of sugarcane are listed
and
special weed problems are discussed.
Methods of weed control,
including
handweeding and interculture,
burning,
flooding, field
preparation,
rotation
of crops,
green-manurinq
with Crotalaria
juncea,
Sesbania aculeata,
Cyamopsis psaides,
and Vigna catiang,
fallowing,
and muichincluding
photographs
ing,xdescribed,
A number of tools,
of many operations.
including
khurpi,
kassi, spades, and
JAFC
sorghmn;
133
in the field,
is
previous crop, remaining
sufficient
to mulch about half the ratoon
About eight to ten person-days
are
crop.
required
to spread trash in one hectare
at about one tenth the
of ratoon field,
cost of the normal weed control
practice.
various
hoes and cuitivators
are presently
those such as kh>Jrni
used for weeding:
(a local short-handled
weeding hoe orwhich do not disturb
the soil,
fork),
help conserve precious soil moisture,
but
are less effective
in controlling
weeds
and require
frequent weeding operations.
The use of the IISR-developed
weedermulcher (see no. 52416) is suggested,
and
a weeding schedule for North Indian
Trash mulching
sugarcane is outlined.
conserves soil moisture,
suppresses weeds
and gives yields comparable to those from
other weed control methods with a great
The 'deep-furrow
cum
saving in labocr.
of the
trash-vein'
system, a modification
trash-mulching
system developed at the
Lucknow Institute,
is outlined.
In this
system, furrows about 20 cm deep are
opened by a bullock-drawn
ridger and the
When
cane planted
in these furrows.
germination
is complete,
the furrows are
clean-weeded
and trash is packed into the
Irrigations
are given only in
furrows.
the furrows,
leaving the ridges dry;
these are periodically
weeded by interThis system saves trash, reculture.
duces weed growth on the ridges due to
increases
lack of water, and ultimately
Chemical control
of weeds is
yields.
also discussed.
CAB (WA U-2233)
JAFC
WRO
Indian subcontinent;
economic
mulching;
imported mulches
sugarcane;
analysis;
54204
LALL, M. Weed management can raise yields
Indian Farming (1977), 26
in sugarcane.
(12):25+ [Central
Plant Protection
Training Inst.,
Hyderabad, India].
Current and recommended weed control
practices in sugarcane in India are discussed.
Farmers weed postemergence with local
Hoeing
Kutta or Khurpi.
tools - Kudali,
starts
the week after planting
in the
north, and continues
up to four months at
In the south, weeding
frequent
intervals.
starts at the emergence of the mother
shoots and continues
until
the completion
Normally
of the second earthing-up.
earthing-up
is done-at 45 and 90 days after
planting
in ridges.
Farmers often weed
more frequently
than is necessary - 3 to
4 weedinqs at 3 to 4 week intervals
from
the time of emergence of the mother shoots
up to 12 weeks after crop emergence should
A trash mulch of dried suqarbe adequate.
cane leaves about 10 cm thick gives good
weed control,
but may increase infestations
Interrats and Sclerotium.
of termites,
cropping with grain,
cowpea, soyabean and
Deep
chickpea suppresses weed growth.
plouqhing
in summer helps desiccate
perenBurning the trash in the
nial weeds.
ratoon crop after harvest reduces subseHerbicides
quent weed infestations.
suitable
for sole crop and intercropped
cane are discussed.
JAFC
Indian subcontinent;
sugarcane;
hand tools;
animal-drar--1 implements;
water management; novel
herbicides;
systems; land preparation:
mulching;
planting
techniques;
timing;
irrigated crops; crop rotation;
imported
mulches
54203
MATHUR, P.S.; SAKSENA, M-M. On the
utility
of trash mulch in sugarcane
ratoons.
Indian Sugarcane Journal
(1965),
10(1):24-27
[Indian
Inst.
Sugarcane Res.,
Lucknow. India].
In trials,
trash mulch 15-30 cm thick
packed into the furrows between the
stubble rows up to ridge level after the
sugarcane harvest,
without dismantling
the ridges,
suppressed weeds, conserved
soil moisture,
reduced early shoot borer
infestation
and ultimately
gave yields
of ratoon comparable to or better
than
those obtained with the normal method of
weed control
of dismantling
the ridges
followed
by 5 hoeings.
Trash from the
CAB (WA 27-717)
Indian subcontinent;
sugarcane;
traditional
systems; timing;
mulching;
intercropping;
Vigna;
soyabean; grain legumes; weed
seed source reduction
134
JAFC
5.43 Grain
Mulching has considerable
potential,
provided the residues
from previous
crops are
used -in situ.
In contrast
to soyabean and
cowpeas, weed growth and yield reductions
were not significantly
affected
by row
width.
Maize-mung bean intercrops
compete
very successfully
with weeds, and other
crop combinations
are possible.
Mung bean
cultivars
vary greatly
in their ability
to
compete with weeds, and more competitive
ones could be selected. by the farmer.
It
is also suggested that plant breeders could
select new cultivars
in the presence of
weeds.
legumes
54301
in Asian soybeans
MOODY, K. Weed control
In:
Expandusing non-chemical
methods.
Proceedings
of a
ing Use of Soybeans.
conference
held at Chianq Mai, Thailand,
February 1976 (INTSOY Series,
International
Soybean Program, No. 10) (1976).
69-73 [Int.
Rice Res. Inst.,
P.O. Box 933,
Manila,
Philippines].
A review of weed control
methods including
the growing of competitive
soyabean varisowing density,
land preparation,
eties,
manual and mechanical weeding and mulchNarrow row spacing (30 cm) deing.
creases weed growth but also increases
Rice straw
the risk of crop lodging.
from a previous
crop, scattered
over
the field
before dibbling
soyabean seeds,
reduced the need for weeding and increased yields of unweeded plots.
CAB (WA 29-1617)
Southeast Asia; w;
inter-row
cultivation;
intercropping;
maize;
selection
WA/JAFC
timing;
mulching;
cultivar
54303
CAB (WA 28-1184)
WA
DUMAS, R.E.; AUSAN, S. Research results
and practical
experiences
regarding
weed
control
in peanuts in Suriname.
In:
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society
(Suriname) Symposium on Maize and
Peanut, Paramaribo,
Suriname, 1978 (19781,
Agricultural
Experiment Station,
Paramaribo, Suriname, Vol. 15, 272-287 [Aqric.
Exp. Stat.,
Paramaribo,
Suriname].
Southeast Asia; Far East;
soyabean; cultivar
selection;
planting
techniques;
land
inter-row
cultipreparation;
vation;
mulching;
crop rotation
54302
Crop information
relevant
to weed control
and prevalent
weeds are mentioned,
followed by a discussion
of possible
preplanting
and postplantinq
weed control
measures.
It was demonstrated
that labour
requirements
for the traditional
methods
of land preparation,
weeding and hilling
could be reduced from 700 to 80-100 man
hours/ha through the introduction
of small
machines and herbicides.
Among herbicides
tested,
a pre-emergence
application
of
alachlor
(1.7-2.6
kg active ingredient/ha)
proved the most satisfactory.
MOODY, K. Weed control
in mungbean.
In : 1st International
Munqbean Symposium, Tainan, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable
Research and Development Center (19781,
132-136 [Dep. Aqron.,
Int. Rice Res.
Inst.,
Lcs Bafios, Laquna, Philippines].
Despite high losses due to weeds, weeding
of mung bean (Viqna radiata)
in many
parts of Asia mexion
rather
than the rule, as current
cultivars
are
low yielding
and the economic return to
weeding is low.
The author reviews the
literature
on weed competition
and control in mung bean, and makes suggestions
for control
measures which would greatly
increase
yield in return
for a low input
from the farmer.
Herbicides
are presently uneconomic for use in mung bean and
trials
in the Philippines
failed
to reveal sufficiently
selective
herbicides.
A single timely weeding can increase
yields
considerably
- this should be
within
a few weeks from emergence.
Inter-row
cultivation
is less time- consuming than bandweeding,
but demands
row planting
of the crop and can reduce
yields,
probably due to root damage.
ATA (6-32689)
ATA
northern South America; groundnut;
traditional
systems; motor-powered
implements;
herbicides;
economic
analysis
54304
of specific
PAYNE, Ii. The appropriateness
packages of technological
practices
for
weed control
in peanut cultivation
in
Proceedings
of the CaribJamaica.
In:
bean Food Crops Society
(Suriname) Symposium on Maize and Peanut, Paramaribo,
Suriname, 1978 (1978), Aqricultural
135
yield by lo-15%, giving
an additional
inThis technique
come of 100 rupees/acre.
might also benefit
subsistence
farmers
by reducing
labour requirement
at a peak
period.
(3)
Mulching in areas with a dry season
longer than 4 months:
this can be
with vebetable
material
from the surroundiny area or bunch refuse;
black
150-q rqe polythene
in newly-burnt
areas where vegetation
is not available, to be covered with vegetable
mulch when the polythene
tatters
in
about 18 months; or, in drier areas
where cover crops are not recommended,
the area can be hoed 2-3 inches deep
at the beginning
of the dry season to
destroy weeds and create a 'dust
mulch.'
(4)
Ring weeding to 3-5 ft. radius around
the palm bases, depending on palm age,
by hand with a cutlass or machete
(2-3 times a year, requiring
about 1
man-day per acre for each operation),
or using herbicides.
Sources of
recommended herbicides
and sprayers
are given for Nigeria.
JAFC
CAB (WA 17-1047)
Indian
subcontinent;
cotton;
irrigated
Crops;
inter-row
animalcultiVatlOx7;
timing;
drawn implements
5.45 Perennial
crops
54501
NIGERIAN INSTITUTE FOR OIL-PALM RESEARCH
(NIFoR).
Establishment
of leguminous
cover crops in oil palm plantations.
NIFOR Advisory
Sheet NO. 17, 2 pp. [NIFOR,
Benin, Nigeria 1.
JAFC
Pueraria
phaseoloides.
Calopoqonium
mucunoides and Centrosppubescens are
recommended cover crops for use in oil
palm, except in areas with a prolonged
dry season where they would compete for
water with the crop.
A mixture of species
is recommended to take advantage of the
early and quick establishment
of C.
mucanoides and the greater
persistence
of
C. pubescens and P. phaseoloides.
Prac&al
advice on seed mixture,
scarification of seed, sowing and the management
of newly-established
cover crops is given.
WRO
humid
cover
West Africa;
humid tropics;
perennial
crops;
cover Crops;
imported
mulches;
mulching;
slashing
54503
HOVE, J. VAN DEN. [The use of cattle
for
the control
of grasses in oil palm plantations in Colombia].
Olgaqineux
(1966).
21(4):207-209
[Fr, es] [IRHO/Soci&t~
Industrial
Aqraria
La Palma].
JAFC
tropics;
crops;
perennial
West Africa
Young oil palm fields
of a plantation
in
Colombia were heavily
invaded by pasture
grasses,
in particular
by Panicum
maximum,
-Hyparrhenia
rufa, Pennisetum purpureum
and BrachiarFrequent
urpurascens.
handweeding or disc harrowing followed
by
ploughing
and sowing of pueraria
(Pueraria
A trial
showed
sp.) proved ineffective.
that cattle
could be used more effectively.
The vegetative
aspect and growth of the
palms rapidly
improved and the pueraria
cover was re-established
after 4-6 months'
If stocking-rate
is too high,
grazing.
palm leaves may be attacked and vegetative
cover may disappear
due to excessive
tramThe use of cattle
is recommended
pling.
in plantations
at least 8 months old at a
stocking-rate
not exceeding 1 head per
2 ha.
crops;
54502
NIGERIAN INSTITDTF, FOR OIL-PAIM RESEARCH
(NIFOR).
Care of young oil palms.
NIFOR
Advisory
Sheet No. 18, 2 pp. LNIFOR,
Benin, Nigeria].
The following
weed control
practices
are recommended in young oil palm plantations:
(1)
(2)
Intercropping
with food and cash
crops for the first
two years, followed by establishment
of a legume
cover crop.
Slashing
to prevent the cover
smothering
the palms.
CAB (WA 15-1587)
TA
crop
humid
tropics;
America;
136
northern
perennial
CrOPSi
South
grazing
5.46 Vegetable
handweedings.
Highest yields
in the
herbicide
trials
were given by the local
practice
of hand hoeing and earthing-up
combined with 3 handweedings.
crops
54601
f-R,
E.C.; VALRWTE, F-V.; SAN GABRIEL,
of different
weed
R. Field evaluation
control
approaches in transplanted
University
of the Philiptomatoes.
In:
nines at Los Baiios, College of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy.
Weed
Science Report 1978-1979 (19801, 76-79
[Weed Sci. Sect., Dep. Agron.. College
at Los
Agric.,
Univ. of the Philippines
College,
Rafios, Bioscience
Building,
baguna. Philippines].
WRO
JAFC
Southeast
Asia;
irrigated
crops;
vegetable
crops;
perennial
problem
weeds; annual
problem
weeds: mulching;
imported
mulches;
timing
54603
A rice straw mulch stopped most weeds
except cyperus rotundus,
but handweeding
30 days after transplanting
controlled
surviving
weeds. However, handweeding at
30 days after transplanting
did not inshowcrease yields
of mulched tomatoes,
ing that tine abundant surviving
plants
Offof c. rotundus did not compete.
barring
(moving soil away from the crop
by earthing-up
combined
row), followed
with mulching with rice straw, significantly
reduced C. rotundus populations
and other weeds?or
up to 30 days, And
provided
adequate control
until
harvest.
WRO
irrigated
crops;
crops; Southeast
YIP, S.M. A survey of the common weed
species found in vegetable
fields
and weed
control methods adopted by farmers in
Hong Kong. Agriculture
Hong Kong (1976),
1(5):434-445
[Dep. Agric. Fish.,
393 Canton
Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong].
Weed surveys were carried
out in JulyAugust 1974 to determine the main weeds of
vegetable
fields,
the control methods used,
and the extent of herbicide
use, and to
identify
research needs; a total
of 82
fields
under a drybed system
of irrigation
were investigated.
The average density
of weeds was 150/m2
and 62 species belonging
to 49 genera and
23 families
were identified:
these 62 are
listed
in order of index of relative
importance in an appendix giving
scientific
name, common name in Chinese characters,
The 3 most important
were
and family.
Portulaca
oleracea,
Panicum repens and
Cyperus
iria.
Weed control
methods prac-tised included
the use of hand tools,
hand
pulling,
rotary
cultivation,
burning and
herbicides.
The labour required
for handweeding leaf vegetables
in summer was 10
man-days/crop
in drybed and 8 man-days/
crop in furrow irrigated
cultivation,
or
25-33% of the total
labow requirement.
Only 8% of farmers with drybed cultivation
and 3% of farmers .with furrow irrigation
used rotary
cultivators
for weeding.
Flame guns were widely used after harvesting, being frequently
preceded by the use
of paraquat for desiccation.
Paraquat
was the most popular herbicide
and that
mostly in noncrop situations.
Only 14% of
farmers used pre-emergence
herbicides
and
only 2 herbicidLs
(nitrofen
and alachlor)
It is concluded that the use
were used.
of pre-emergence
herbicides
would be the
solution,
but that advisory/extension
work
was needed together
with more research.
JAFC
vegetable
Asia;
importedmulcbes;perennial
problem
weeds; inter-row
mulching;
cultivat,
In
54602
BALTAZAR, A.M.; PALLER. R.C.; VAb.F.RTR,
F.V.
Weed control
in cabbage.
In:
University
of the Philippines
at Los
Raiios, College of Agriculture,
Department of Agronomy.
Weed Science Report
1978-1979 (1980). 80-91 [Weed Sci. Sect.,
Dep. Agron,, College Agric.,
Univ.
Philippines
at Los Raiios, Bioscience
Ruilding,
College,
Laguna, Philippines].
Rice straw and rice hull mulches 2.5-7.5
cm deep, herbicides,
and herbicide-mulchcultivation
treatments
were compared in
transplanted
cabbage.
Rice hulls save
better
control
of grasses,
while rice
straw provided
better
control
of broadleaved weeds 20 days after
transplanting
@AT).
Hand*teeding was carried
out at
30 DAT to remove Rottboellia
exaltata
and Cyperus rotundus.
The 7.5 cm deep
mulches gave higher yields
than 2-3
CAB (WA 27-3652)
Far East;
irrigated
analysis
137
WA
traditional
systems;
herbicides;
crops;
vegetable
crops;
economic
Index A - STRUCTUREDLIST OF KEYWORDS
Index C - ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF AUTHORS
Index B - ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF KEYWORDS
Index
D - ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF INSTITUTIONS
Figure 14.
GEDGRAPHICALAREAS
Orthogonal
World MaP
Ref. Peters Projection,
Dr. Arno Peters
Univ. of Bremen
I’ ,
(-
Key:
1
North America
2
Central
3
South America
(northern)
harica
4
Brazil
5
Andean Countries
6
South America
(southern)
7
Caribbean
8
Europe
9
North Africa
10
West Africa
11
Central
12
Southern
13
East Africa
14
Middle
15
USSR
16
Indian
17
Far East
18
Southeast
19
Pacific
20
Australasia
Africa
incl.
Mexico and
Panama
incl.
Colombia,
Venezuela,
Guyana, Surinam,
Fr. Guiana
Ecuador,
Bolivia
Africa
Zaire, Central
African
Republic,
Congo
incl.
Angola,
Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia
Sudan,
incl.
Ethiopia
East
Peru,
Paraguay, Argentina,
Chile,
Uruguay
incl.
Mauritania,
Niger, Chad
139
sub-continent
incl.
Afghanistan, Sri Lanka
China, Taiwan,
Mongolia,
Japan, Korea
Asia
Islands
incl.
Hawaii
incl.
Papua New
Guinea
,.,,
.
Index
A
STRUCTUREDLIST OF KEYWORDS
CLIMATIC
Humid tropics
Semi-arid
tropics
Highland and temperate
GEOGRAPHICAL
Africa,
Africa,
Africa,
Africa,
Africa,
CROPS (cont.)
ZONES
Oil Palm
Coconut
zone
Tobacco
Pyrethrum
Sunflower
REGIONS
North
West
East
Southern
Central
WEED
CONTROL SYSTEMS
-
South America, Northern
South America, Southern
Andean countries
Brazil
Central America (includes
North America
Caribbean
Traditional
systems
Novel systems
Shifting
cultivation
Minimum tillage
Sequential
cropping
Crop rotation
Fallow
Intercropping
Mexico)
WEED CONTROL TECHNsQUES
.-
Europe
'iSSR
Middle East
Indian Subcontinent
Far East
Southeast Asia
Pacific
Island
Australasia
Land preparation
Planting
techniques
Inter-row
cultivation
Slashing
Mulching
Mulches, imported
Cover crops
Timing (of weeding operations)
Utilisation
(of 'weeds')
Water management
Weed sead source reduction
(includes
roguing,
cleaning
crop sred and field boundaries,
etc.)
Cultivar
selection
CROPS
Irrigated
crops
Cereals
Wheat
Maize
Sorghum
Rice, upland
Rice, paddy
Rice, deep-water
Millet,
pearl
Cereals,
local
Vegetable
Sugarcane
EQUIPMENT
Hand tools
Implements,
Implements,
Implements,
Herbicides
Herbicide
Herbicide
Herbicide
Herbicide
crops
Grain legumes
Soyabean
Groundnut
Phaseolus
Vigna
Cajanus
Root and tuber
Cassava
YalEI
Taro
Sweet potato
manual
animal-drawn
motor-powered
application
application
application
application
equipment
(low volume)
(high volume)
(granules)
PROBLEM WEEDS
parasitic
weeds
Annual problem weeds
perennial
problem weeds
Aquatic weeds
crops
BIOLOGICAL
CONTROL
Biological
control
Herbivorous
fish
Tadpole shrimp
Grazing
Sllelopathy
Fiber crops
Cotton
Jute
Perennial
Coffee
Tea
Cocoa
Rubber
AND UERBICIDES
MISCELLANEOUS
crops
Economic analysis
Social analysis
140
Index
B
ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF KEYWORDS
CNote:
in
that
the
first
three
the
number of
For
a structured
the
see Index
Africa,
central:
Africa,
east:
42204,
southern:
.52202,
section
it
of
is
the
to bear
each reference
in
number
(see table
keywords
used
in mind
of
in
represent
contents).
compiling
the
A.]
11005,
51103-51105,
Africa,
11010,
51205,
12108,
52302,
22401,
52410,
31001,
52411,
33081,
54306
13102
52501,
11004-11007,
21007-21009,
22102,
41107,
44502-44504,
41301-41303,
51102,
52402-52409,
Allelopathy:
52502,
11009,
22203,
51101,
52101,
51303-51307,51401,
12205,
52412-52414,
west:
53111
12104,
22501,
52201,
12106,
22502,
12107,
22601,
12206,
22603,
42201-42203,
44101,
44201,
51201-51204,
51301,
51302,
53108-53110,
54501,
54502
12301-12303
Andean
countries:
Aquatic
weeds:
Australasia:
of
11004,
north:
52301,
digits
readers
11008
Africa,
24001,
may help
list
index,
Africa,
it
searching,
32002,
11002,
12403,
51206
12405-12407,
42207
13101-13103,
22701-22715
:
Biological
control:
Herbivorous
Tadpole
12304,
53107,
12405,
21001,
14202,
14301,
42210,
43101,
43102,
44301,
53101,
22711,
22708,
22716,
51106,
53101-53103,
51107,
53202
51315-51317
41301,
41302,
51312,
54702
14101,
41101,
41106,
42208,
54304
Caribbean:
12303,
Cassava:
44101,
Central
12305,
12301-12303
11011,
Cajanus:
22701-22711
54503
Allelopathy:
Other:
12406,
22712-22715
shrimp:
Grazing:
Brazil:
12405,
fish:
44302,
42209,
43103,
43104,
44502-44504
America:
11011,
14202,
41104-41106,
41305-41307,
51314
Cereals:
Wheat:
21004,
31001,
31002
Maize:
11011,
12303,
12305,
31001,
41101,
41301,
41305,
41307,
42201,
43104,
51205,
51302,
51304,
51307,
51312-51315,
52101,
52201,
52202,
52406,
52501,
53303,
54101-54103,
11011,
Sorghum:
51313,
51401,
54107,
54702
Paddy rice:
section
53105,
Deep-water
Upland
14202,
rice:
54302,
31001,
51201,
52406,
12120,
53105,
12210,
2 (except
44502-44504,
53301-
54702
51305,
12406,
24001-24003),
51404,
53111,
51306,
53108-53110,
12405,
51103,
51403,
53110,
54701,
51202,
41104-41106,
53112,
14201,
42209,
51309,
54103-
14501,
51313,
53104,
53111
21012,
rice:
11006,
24001-24004
14201,
22501,
23102,
41101,
44201,
51313,
53111
142
14402,
21007-21009,
41201-41203,
41305,
21021,
43104,
Pearl
millet:
51202
51201,
53108,
52406,
53112,
53110,
54702
Local
Other:
Cereals,
Cocoa:
52409
31001
11007,
local:
33001,
31001,
cereals:
31001,
33001,
43101,
43102
52409
44303
Coconut:
42210,
Coffee:
41101,
42202,
42203,
42207,
43104,
44303
Cotton:
12211,
12304,
12305,
51201,
51202,
51307,
52302,
Cover
52405,
crops:
43105,
24004,
44301,
Crop rotation:
51313,
Cultivar
41302,
44501-44504,
12303,
51401,
54401
41101,
14402,
53101,
selection:
54301,
Economic
52409,
analysis:
42201-42208,
54501,
21001,
53102,
21002,
11009,
11011,
41102,
41104,
41105,
41201-41203,
51106,
51107,
51302,
51303,
52402,
54303-54306,
22503
Fallow:
11001,
44501,
54202,
53102,
12104,
21012-21014,
Europe:
43101-
54301
53112,
54702
21006,
54203,
41106,
53111,
23201,
14202,
51314-51316,
42210,
54502
53105,
21012,
12302,
54302,
51313,
11008,
22103,
51305,
52406,
52415,
54603,
54701
22701-22705,
53106
143
12115,
12219,
12304,
22301,
22302,
33001,
44504,
51103,
51104,
51308-51310,
53303,
22716,
51312,
54101,
44501,
54106,
51401,
53104,
Far East:
12116,
22705,
22602,
Fibre
12117,
54603
crops:
12211,
Cotton:
52302,
Other:
12304,
52405,
22404,
Jute:
Grain
54301,
22712-22715,
21014,
21011,
21004-21006,
14402,
12305,
52409,
51201,
51202,
51307,
51313,
54401
54701
44302
legumes:
14301,
Soyabean:
54204,
41306,
51206,
12304,
11011,
12303,
42208,
51315-51317,
14301,
53303,
41301,
54101,
14301,
Cajanus:
41302,
51313,
51404,
52202,
54301
Phaseolus:
Vigna:
41301,
54204,
41301,
14301,
Groundnut:
51202,
54303-54305,
11007,
General/other:
51206,
41302,
54701,
41104-41106,
41305,
54306
54302,
51204,
14202,
51306,
51312,
53109,
54702
51312,
51309,
54702
51312,
52406,
52409,
53109,
54702
14402,
31001,
41101,
43104,
53106,
54204
Grazing:
12304,
42210,
12305,
43101,
43102,
53101,
44301,
53107,
54503
Groundnut:
14301,
54303-54305,
Hand tools:
11003,
11005,
12116-12119,
32001,
32002,
application
12117,
12201-12209,
41303,
41304
11006,
12217,
51005,
52406,
51312,
53109,
52409,
54702
54701,
12113,
Eerbicide
51309,
51204,
11008,
13101-13103,
52301-52303,
equipment:
22201,
52407,
12102,
12212-12218,
144
12101-12103,
1210822206,
52409,
12106,
12220-12222,
54202
12110,
12113,
24003,
Herbicide
application
(granules):
22601-22603,
Herbicide
51102,
12201,
51201,
application
(high
application
(low
51202,
12210-12212,
51301,
53108
12201,
volume 1:
22302,
12202,
12206,
51301,
52502
Herbicide
12209,
12219,
22604,
51304,
52501,
53109
volume):
24003,
12201,
41303,
12203-12206,
41304,
511'02,
12208,
51202,
51301,
Herbicides:
tillage:
11002,
22101,
22204,
22205,
41301,
41305-41307,
44401,
44504,
51403,
51404,
52410
Minimum
Maize:
41105,
51307,
41305,
51312,
51403,
53301-53303,
Sorghum:
41307,
51404,
54103,
51201,
44502-44504,
52202,
54701,
51309,
51105,
52501,
41302,
51304,
53110,
53111,
54702
53105,
53108-53110,
54103-54106,
54702
Paddy rice:
12210,
22102,
Other
22302,
cereals:
41305,
Grain
51201,
51404,
54701,
54702
crops:
Root
53108,
and tuber
31002,
41305,
33001,
51206,
crops:
42101,
43105,
44301
Vegetable
crops:
44401,
53201,
54603,
General/other:
51308,
Herbivorous
Highland
fish:
12213,
51310,
51206,
51315,
12405,
and temperate
12214,
12406,
zone:
53101-53105
145
51316,
54304,
54701
44502-44504
12217,
52410,
51312,
54303,
52405,
Perennial
24004
41201-41203,
51309,
44102,
22101,
54702
53303,
51307,
31002,
crops:
23102,
53111,
53109,
51201,
21011-21014,
23101,
53110,
52202,
12211,
21006,
22602,
24004,
41105,
51317,
21003,
22601,
11006,
legumes:
Fibre
21001,
54701,
51101,
53102,
54702
51107,
53107,
51301,
54202
22701-22711
21004,
Section
3,
51103,
51104,
11004,
Humid tropics:
Implements,
animal-drawn:
Section
11005,
4,
22201,
22206,
22501-22503,
51305,
51306,
51311,
51313,
52502,
54202,
54401
21002,
Implements,
manual:
11005,
22302,
22401-22404,
12117,
44201,
51302(?),
Indian
51401,
11005,
13101,
13102,
51313,
44201,
52402,
12402,
22206,
22402-22404,
24004,
31002,
41103,
42210,
43101,
51402,
52415,
52416,
54106,
54202-54204,
54701,
54702
14402,
22706,
54305,
41101,
44301,
44302,
44501-44504,
51202,
51305,
51312,
51317,
53108,
53109,
Inter-row
cultivation:
11006,
54302,
12104,
22103,
44103,
44201,
51302,
51303,
51314,
52402,
52406,
52409,
52411-52414,
53301,
53302,
54101-54103,
Irrigated
crops
54202,
22404,
(excluding
54305,
54401,
paddy
rice):
54601-54603,
54701
146
24002,
54401,
53303,
41106,
51201,
54101,
54702
43101,
54301,
21012-
41104,
43104,
54204,
54303
51308-51312,
43102,
54201,
41304,
21004,
22801,
43102,
14501-14503,
12106,
52414,
42208,
54103-54105,
51313
22501,
52406,
22204,
11008,
51302(?),
12101-12103,
21014,
Intercropping:
51302,
12111-12114,
22302,
12119,
12114-
52402-52416,
12105,
11006,
52-901,
51301,
52101,
22201,
12110-12115,
subcontinent:
51203,
41304,
54501-54503
12101-12112,
12101-12103,
motor-powered:
12111,
54306,
11006,
12117,
Implements,
Jute:
11006,
22401-22404,
51305-51307,
54302,
12120,
54701
22502,
51313-
52416,
53201,
54401,
54601
44102,
51313,
Land preparation:
11002,
22101-22103,
11006,
22201,
22202,
24002,
32002,
41301-41307,
51203,
51204,
51302,
51401-51404,
11011,
Maize:
42201,
51306,
51311,
31001,
54103,
54202,
41305,
41307,
42201,
43104,
44502-44504,
51103,
51104,
51205,
51302,
51304,
51307,
51312-51317,
51403,
51434,
52101,
52201,
52202,
52406,
52501,
53110,
53111,
53301-53303,
East:
12109,
Millet,
pearl:
Minimum
tillage:
41307,
Mulches,
53106,
51202,
11002;
53110,
22204,
51401-51404,
42202,
54202,
53108,
22101,
44504,
12407,
53201,
52406,
21014,
44401,
imported:
54302,
53105,
54701,
54702
53106
51201,
42201,
54301
41104-41106,
41302,
Middle
51105,
51314,
41301,
54101-54104,
24001,
44504,
51313,
41101,
21012-21014,
23201,
44501,
52415,
14202,
21002,
22301,
44401,
52401-52413,
12305,
21001,
22204-22206,
51305,
52303,
12303,
12104,
54203,
42203,
54305,
53112,
22205,
41301-
52408,
52410
42207-42209,
54502,
54702
44102,
54601,
54602
Mulching:
With
imported
materials
or plant
residues:
see Mulches,
imported.
Using
plant
residues
42204,
43104,
in situ:
12103, 41101, 41301-41307,
-44504, 52201, 52202, 52416, 54201-
54204,
54301,
54302
North
America:
12304,
12305,
Novel
systems:
11003,
1221.7
Africa:
11006,
11007,
22709,
11010,
22716,
22102,
51105,
51204,
51301,
51303-51306,
52404,
52405,
52408,
52412,
147
23202
41301-41304,
53108,
51401,
54306
42201,
52201,
52202,
Asia
and Pacific:
11002,
14201,
14501,
21010,
22101,
22204,
41101,
41201-41203,
44401,
51309,
51311-51313,
53303,
54102-54104,
Latin
America
51315,
Minimum
and Caribbean:
51404,
tillage
Oil
palm:
Pacific
54201,
54202
41305,
42201,
41306,
22101,
44401,
22204,
44504,
22205,
51401-51404,
52410
44102,
weeds:
Perennial
crops:
Coffee:
54107
53101-53112,
41101,
Tear
54105
42202,
42203,
42207,
43104,
44303
42205,
42206,
43104,
43105,
44301
42101,
42209,
43103,
42204
Cocoa:
44303
Rubber:
41101,
Coconut:
42210,
palm:
14402,
44302,
Phaseolus:
41306,
43101,
43102
54501-54503
General/other:
41101,
11011,
12303,
42208,
51315-51317,
techniques:
12304,
21001,
14202,
41104-41106,
21002,
51304,
51307,
51313,
52101,
52411,
53301,
53302,
54102,
54202,
54301
54101,
12120,
54103,
148
44103,
22202,
51303,
53301-53303,
43104,
21010,
51301,
annual:
41305,
54306
41303-41306,
weeds,
43104,
44303
41101,
Problem
53301-
54501-5450?
Parasitic
Planting
51403,
11002,
systems:
islands:
Oil
43104,
51402,
41105,
21001,
54304
41301-41307,
52408,
54107,
14502,
22102,
54602
44504,
22716,
22203,
51203,
52404,
23201,
51204,
52409-
23202,
24001,
Problem
weeds,
23102,
perennial:
32002,
41101,
43101-43105,
Rice,
deep-water:
Rice,
paddy:
Rice,
52303,
21012,
12210,
11006,
23102,
53201,
21012,
23101,
41306,
42209,
42210,
54103,
54601,
54602
24001-24004
12405,
24001-240031,
upland:
41305,
12304,
51104
12120,
(except
41103,
51308,
51103,
Pyrethrum:
12213-12216,
41101,
12406,
42209,
14201,
51313,
14402,
41201-41203,
14201,
53104,
14501,
53105,
21007-21009,
41305,
43104,
Section
53111
21012,
44201,
2
22501,
51313,
53111
Root
and tuber
crops:
Cassava:
12303,
43104,
44101,
14101,
Yam:
Taro:
14101,
14101,
Semi-arid
12304,
Shifting
43104,
11004,
Slashing:
44303,
43104,
43103,
11001,
44302,
51313
44103
43105,
12104,
14402,
53111,
41302,
31002,
11006,
14201,
51313,
41106,
14101,
42206,
cultivation:
43104,
.
42205,
cropping:
41106,
42209,
44502-44504
14101,
11007,
tropics:
Sequential
42208,
44102
General/other:
41101,
44302,
41106,
44502-44504
Sweet potato:
Rubber:
41101,
44301
12107,
14501,
22404,
14502,
Section
21010,
54701
11008,
32002,
41101-41105,
44501
12118,
52201,
12119,
52202,
41305-41307,
54502
149
41101,
42204,
42207,
43105,
41107,
5
Social
analysis:
51106,
Sorghum:
11002,
51107,
11011,
51401,
54107,
54702
America,
54303,
America,
Southeast
52406,
51306,
51202,
51305,
53108-53110,
12118,
12404,
52415
51306,
51309,
53112,
14202,
411.05,
23201,
54103-
42208,
14202
14402,
14503,
21001,
22205,
22301,
22602,
32001,
41101,
41102,
41201-41203,
42209,
43103-43105,
52303,
53201,
53301-53303,
54302,
54601,
54602
14301,
14202,
51308-51310,
53105,
22202,
Soyabean:
12219,
54503
southern:
Asia:
11011,
51305,
51201,
northern:
44303,
South
51302,
31001,
51313,
South
11009,
44103,
41301,
21004,
22707,
44301,
21010-21014,
22710,
51206,
23102,
42101,
42205,
42206,
44302,
51313,
51403,
54101-54103,
41302,
23101,
22103,
54201,
51313,
54301,
51404,
52202,
54204,
54301
Sugarcane:
14201,
52414,
52416,
Sunflower:
12407,
51206,
51306
Sweet potato:
Tadpole
Taro:
Tea:
Timing:
12304,
shrimp:
14101,
14101,
53111,
41106,
54201-54204
41302,
44302,
51313
44303,
44502,
44503,
22712-22715
44102
42204
21012,
22301,
44101-44103,
51311,
52302,
53303,
54101,
54204,
54302,
54401,
54602
150
54102,
54105,
54201,
51204,
54202,
53103,
Tobacco:
Traditional
53105,
systems:
11001,
General:
Asia
51105,
51201,
52407,
54306
llc)lO,
21007,
51301-51303,
and Pacific:
21005,
21006,
43104,
44302,
51308-51310,
54104,
54204,
54603,
America
41306,
51107,
12401-12407,
Vegetable
crops:
53106,
12304,
53201,
14301,
54101,
22205,
51306,
32001,
51403,
llbll,
51314,
51102
52301,
41101-41103,
53301-53303,
41104,
51315,
12305,
54601-54603,
41301,
54204,
22801,
51202,
41103,
54103,
41105,
41305,
54303
14402,
54701,
54702
51206,
51306,
54702
Water management:
21001,
21002,
22203,
44102,
53102,
53104,
54202
53101,
Weed seed source
22704,
22716,
21004,
14101,
reduction:
23201,
31001,
12120,
51305,
31002
44502-44504
151
42209,
14401,
54302,
Yi3Ill:
51305,
41107,
54701
and Caribbean:
51106,
33001,
22701-22704
Utilisation:
Wheat:
31001,
51205,
Latin
Vigna:
12219
11005-11008,
Africa:
USSR:
53107
32001,
51312,
22601,
12213-12216,
51311,
53202
53302,
44401,
53109,
22602,
21001,
54204
53104,
53303,
23202,
22702,
43105,
Index
C
ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF AUTHORS
Abalu,
G.O.I.:
512~4
Abwalli,
A.:
12109
Agronomy
Institute,
Zimbabwe:
Ahmad, Ch. M.:
Ahmad Faiz
22602
bin
Md. Alif:
Akobundu,
1.0.:
11004,
Ali,
12110
N.:
Alkzmper,
Allan,
J.:
11010,
A.Y.:
Alon,
12303
Andrews,
C.J.:
52301
Anoshin,
A-1.:
22703
Appropriate
Technology
S.:
Armitage,
Development
A.C.:
S.:
51307
12204
F.M.:
22103
54303
J.B.:
52303
Haltazar,
A.M.:
53201,
Banerjee,
A.K.:
22801
Hanerji,
B.:
Barker,
R.:
Bengtsson,
Bernsten,
53202
41106
A.G.
Ben-Nun,
22202
22702
G.J.:
Hazan,
Beer,
21013,
A.I.:
Batten,
54201,
24002
R.:
Batenko,
21009,
Association
12109
M-S.:
Atienza,
Ave,
11009,
22601,
42201,
44501
53106
M-A.:
Ausan,
11007,
33001
Altieri,
Arnold,
42101
51105
H.:
Arbabi,
52202
de:
R.:
52414
51313
B.:
R.H.:
31001
41104
152
54602
(India):
12111
Bessell,
Bhan,
J.E.:
51303
V.M.:
22206
Biellier,
H.:
Binswanger,
Boonla,
H.P.:
D.S.:
Bouharmont,
Boyd,
12305
12407
P.:
J.:
Branch,
42203
12102
D.S.:
Brook,
C.E.:
Burity,
H.:
Burrill,
12103
51307
41306
L.C.:
Carballo,
12202,
M.:
Carpenter,
A.J.:
H.D.:
Centre
d'&udes
14202,
21008,
22603
et d'Experimentation
(CEEMAT):
International
Program:
12104,
de Machinisme
Tropical
Chandapillai,
de Mejoramiento
M.M.:
Mohan,
W.L.:
Cheze,
B.:
Chiang,
de Maiz
54305
21005
12106
14402
N.I.:
Choudhury,
Cache,
42206
J.:
M.Y.:
Chizhov,
22703,
M.S.:
A.G.:
22710A
Research
Conley,
C.C.:
12304
Cooper,
A.S.:
12217
M.:
E.:
Crossley,
C.P.:
Dale,
Datta,
Institute
of Ceylon:
22102
Crawford,
Curfs,
22704
12208
Coconut
Couey,
H.P.F.:
J.E.:
S.C.:
(CIAT),
Cassava
y Trigo
(CIMMYTj:
42208
51314
Chang,
Agricole
12107
de Agricultura
International
Chandra
41305
22603
Tropical
Centro
12217,
41307
Catling
Centro
51308
41307
52401
11006,
22201
12213-12215
22801
153
43102
.I.,.
.. I
Datta,
S.K.
de:
21002,
21003,
21011-21014,
22202,
22602,
23102,
24002
Davies,
51309
E.L.P.:
Dem'yanenko,
Denize,
22101
J.R.:
Deuse,
J.:
10101
Deutsch,
A.:
Dibbits,
H.J.:
12217,
Dickinson,
Doll,
12216,
12303,
14202
Donahue,
R.L.:
11005
Druijff,
A.H.:
11003,
R.D.:
12301,
54303
Edwards,
12406
P.:
El-Maghraby:
12211
C.M.:
51303
of
Fanning
(EFSAIP):
Everaarts,
Systems
51305,
S-0.:
Fargas,
J.:
Fisher,
H.H.:
41201-41203,
Fisher,
T.W.:
22711
41106
H.A.:
W.:
J.:
Foster,
J.H.:
Fraser,
F.:
Fraser,
R.R.:
H.J.:
Frey,
J.:
Fua,
J.M.:
51106,
51107,
51403,
54101
22716
Organisation
41106
51203,
Frey,
Project
21009
Food and Agriculture
Fort,
Implements
51306
Fagade,
Forsythe,
and Agricultural
32001
A.P.:
Fontenot,
13103
12302
Dumas, R.E.:
Evaluation
13102,
51402
W.B.:
Elliot,
13101
52410
J.D.:
Duke,
12221,
22603
H.:
Dryden,
12220,
51302
L.:
Dihenga,
22704
V.F.:
52403
52415
12202,
12217
42207
51104
51103
22205
154
of
the
United
Nations
(FAO):
22710
Gade, D.W.:
Garnett,
32002
R.P.:
12209
Geest
Industrial
Geiger,
G.:
12305
Gibbon,
D.:
51401,
Gingrich,
J.:
Girling,
J.:
53101
D.J.:
53101
D.A.G.:
Greenberger,
11005
A.:
Grillard,
K.:
53106
12120
Grist,
D.H.:
24004
Gupta,
0-P.:
10102
Gupta,
V.K.:
31002
Hammerton,
12219,
J.L.:
Harkness,
C.:
Harvey,
J.:
Hauser,
W.J.:
51401,
52411,
52412
22709
D.M.:
Herblot,
G.:
22501
Herdt,
R.W.:
41104
Heslop,
C.:
51404
52411
Ho Tong Lip:
42209
Holroyd,
J.:
12216
Hopfen,
H.J.:
Hove,
41105
51204
Hayward,
Horio,
52412
22604
Greathead,
Green,
52411,
51403
D.J.:
Gosney,
41304
Group Ltd.:
H.:
12101
12116
J. van den:
Hubbard,
K.:
Ibrahim,
T.S.:
Imlan,
J.S.:
Indian
Council
Indian
Farming:
54503
51401,
52412
12210,
12211
53301
of Agricultural
Research
(ICAR):
12112
22706
Institut
de Recherches
Agronomiques
de Madagascar:
Institut
de Recherches
Agronomiques
Tropicales
(IRAT):
Nigeria:
51202,
Institute
for
Agricultural
Research,
155
22401
22203
51301
Intermediate
Technology
12207,
Development
Crops
(ICRISAT),
Research
India:
International
44201,
International
International
Rice
Protection
Research
22302
Ishihara,
A.:
Islam,
z.:
Ivens,
G.W.:
12109
24003
Jacobsohn,
10106
R.:
N.:
53106
10103
Kabulov,
D.T.:
Kasasian,
L.:
J.:
53103
10104
53106
Khalimov,
53103
M. Kh.:
Q.A.:
54106
Khaw, C.H.:
22205
J.:
52401
D.S.:
Kline,
21006
C.K.:
Koch,
11005
W.:
10105
Koenraadt,
Krantz,
J.:
44303
B.A.:
Kranz,
J.:
51311
10105
Krishnamoorthy,
C.H.:
Krishnammty,
S.:
Kuipers,
52402
H.:
Kulkarni,
S.D.:
Kunkel,
D.E.:
Lacsina,
Lal,
for
the
Semi-Arid
Tropics
Agriculture
(IITA),
Nigeria:
Consultants
N.V.
(ILACO),
Nether-
52302
Plant
Kim,
12105,
44502-44504
International
Kilgour,
Institute
of Tropical
Land Development
lands:
Khan,
UK:
51312
Institute
12206,
Katafi,
(ITDG),
12212
International
Joshi,
Group
Lall,
M.:
Lall,
R.R.:
53105
12119
22103
R.Q.:
R.:
51402
21011,
41301,
22602
41302
54204
12110
156
Center
Institute
(IPPC) , USA:
(IRRI),
11011,
Philippines:
53303
22301,
Lamba,
P.S.:
Lavabre,
Lee,
10102
E.M.:
B.:
12108
Legner,
E.F.:
Lelana,
1-J-B.:
Lemos,
Levi,
J.W.
M.:
Lewis,
10131
22709
22707
Veras:
53106
C.J.:
Lindert,
11002
H.J.A.
van:
Litzenberger,
E.:
41305,
54101
J.:
53107
Ma, F.C.:
M.T.,
Maider,
J.H.:
Jr.:
J.B.S.:
Maldonado,
D.:
W.:
51206
R.A.:
Margate,
L.Z.:
P.:
54101
I.:
N.:
Mathews,
53110
12120
Mat Taib,
44301
41106
M.D.P.:
Mathur,
P.S.:
S.:
Matthews,
G.A.:
Mbugua,
E.S.:
McCarty,
T.:
McIntosh,
52409
54202,
Matsunaka,
Mengesha,
22713
12201,
12203
54306
41305
R.A.:
I.:
54203
22712,
J.L.:
Medved,
Menon,
51205
33001
Mansfield,
Mehta,
54103
12403
Makatiani,
Mateo,
41306,
12117
Madrid,
Marie,
42209
F.A.:
Lubenov,
Manig,
52202
S.C.:
Locatelli,
Lopez,
51317
41101,
43104
22709
12407
A.H.:
R.G.:
Mercado,
A.C.,
Mercado,
B.L.:
12108
52416
Jr.:
54102
10106
157
51106
Meyer,
52414
E.:
Miller,
14202,
S.F.:
Ministry
51107
of Agriculture
Mount
ture,
Miracle,
Makulu
M.N.:
Misra,
A.:
12115
Mittra,
M.K.:
22204
Mochudi
Farmers'
Mohammed Ali,
Brigade,
A.:
K.B.:
41103
Mohyuddin,
A.I.:
53101
Botswana:
K.:
11001,
142Oi,
14301,
21014,
23101,
54301,
54302
Moraes,
S. de:
Moreno,
R.:
Morris,
R.A.:
Musa,
21001,
21002,
21010,
22202
44102
T.B.:
52401
H.L.:
52407
H.D.:
National
Academy
Nielsen,
K.C.:
Nigerian
Institute
K.:
54106
of
Sciences,
USA:
12405
41202
For Oil-palm
Research
(NIFOR):
54501,
54502
21004
Nurdjana,
22707
M.L.:
Obien,
S.R.:
54201
Obien,
S.S.:
51311
12208,
J.E.A.:
Oladokun,
M.A.O.:
Onochie,
51101,
51102,
42202
44101
B-E.:
G.:
41106
Palkin,
Yu:
Paller,
E.C.:
Pamplona,
14501-14503,
22708
P.S.:
Ogborn,
52413
41106
Nandawate,
Noda,
51304
22201
Moomaw, J.C.:
Muckle,
12205,
54305
Mohan Lal,
Motooka,
Zambia:
of Agricul-
54701
J.P.:
Moody,
Station,
Department
12402
Mittal,
Paez,
Research
Affairs,
11008
M.P.:
Mishra,
and Water
53104
P.P.:
54601,
53301,
54602
53302,
158
54103
51201,
52405,
53108-53110
Pande,
H-K.:
22206
Panje,
R.R.:
52416
Papa Cham:
Parker,
52408
C.:
Pastores,
53112
R.M.:
41201,
Patra,
S.K.:
12110
Patro,
G.K.:
54701
Payne,
H.:
Pefia,
R.S.
Pereira
54304
de la:
Filho,
Perez
14101
1-A.:
Arbelaez,
51317
E.:
12404
Peterson,
1-L.:.
12304
Pieterse,
A.H.:
53102
Pinchinat,
A.M.:
Platt,
S.:
D.L.:
A.P.:
Pradhan,
12220
22403;
F.:
53104
Pullen,
D.W.M.:
Putnam,
A.R.:
Radix:
44103
B.K.:
12301,
54702
D.C.:
12115
53112
H.:
R.:
Roberts,
53111
32OC2
R.A.J.:
Rockwood,
12302
54401
R.A.:
Reneaud,
Rios,
52409
P.K.:
Rao, M.R.:
Reid,
22404
23201
Rangaiah,
Rastogi,
44102
S.N.:
Prokudina,
Rai,
41106
22709
Plucknett,
Poole,
41203
W.G.:
51303
41301
Sabio,
E.A.:
41201,
Saiki,
D.F.:
44102
Saksena,
M.M.:
Salgado,
M.L.M.:
Samiano,
A.:
41203,
51403
54203
42210,
43101
51403
159
San Gabriel,
Sankaran,
Sar,
53101
T.:
dos:
51317
van der:
12118
C.M.
Santos,
T.,
Saunders,
41307
J.:
Schindler,
42207
A-J.:
Schmutterer,
54306
S.:
Scolari,
10105
H.:
Sch&her,
51315,
D.D.G.:
Seguy,
Seth,
54601
R.:
12120
J.L.:
22205,
A-K.:
Sharman,
52301
M.:
41305-41307,
M.:
Shetty,
51308,
S.V.R.:
Shulman,
Soerjani,
M.:
43105
Soewardi,
B.:
12401
Soewardi,
K.:
22707
Sonnier,
E.A.:
23202
41106
J.:
Sorokhina,
Stokes,
22702
Z.F.:
52406
A.R.:
Stout,
11005
B.A.:
Suryatna,
41101,
E.S.:
Sutherland,
Tabora,
51310,
12119
B.S.:
Soria,
51106,
52404
R.:
Sirohi,
44401
52502
C.:
Sheldrick,
Shenk,
51316
12222
J.A.:
P.C.,
Takasaka,
12117
22503
A.:
Templer,
J.C.:
Thomas,
P.E.L.:
Thompson,
44302
Jr.:
T.:
Tarchetti,
42204
52201,
E.W.:
Tjitrosoepomo,
Toit,
J.J.
Tosh,
G.C.:
12204,
G.:
du:
52202
54107
P.G.:
Thornhill,
43104
24003
12401
52101
54701
160
51107
51311,
54104,
54105,
54702
Tractor
Training
Tsuchiya,
M.:
Rao,
M.:
States
Agency
United
States
Department
U.C.:
Valente,
R.:
Versteeg,
54602
23.i.01
52501
M.N.:
Villa,
F.:
51206
51403
Villegas,
L.M.:
54102
Visperas,
R.M.:
23101
Watson,
G.A.:
Welsh,
11002,
N.S.,
Wevers,
Jr.:
Wijewardene,
William,
Yadav,
S.:
B.G.:
C.:
Yeo,
R.R.:
Yip,
14401,
42206
22402
12117
22711
C.H.:
44301
S.M.:
Yonekura,
54603
M.:
22714,
Young,
D.L.:
51106,
Yudin,
V.L.:
22701
Zaffaroni,
Zahir,
14402
12401
P.R.:
Yang,
52402
41303
R.D.:
Wycherley,
51404
51404
Wirjahardja,
Yeoh,
51302,
R.:
T.L.:
42205,
41102
J.D.A.:
Wiles,
of Agriculture,
43103
B.S.:
Vernon,
Development,
51303
P.:
Vergara,
International
24001
N.:
Vayssike,
for
54601,
G.:
Vanzetti,
12114
54106
F.V.:
Vallge,
12113,
53105
United
Upadhyay,
Ind ia:
22705
Umamaheswara
-
Centre,
E.:
M.A.:
Zahran,
M.K.:
Zehrer,
W.:
Zerbo,
D.:
Zewge,
A.H.Y.:
22715
51107,
41306
31002
12210,
41107
22502
12108
12211
51315,
51316
USA:
21007
USA:
21007
Index
D
ALPHABETICAL, ITEM REFERENCED
LIST OF INSTITUTIONS
Appropriate
Technology
India:
Development
Association
(ATDA),
Lucknow,
12111
Asian
Institute
of
Asian
Vegetable
Research
wan:
Technology,
Bangkok,
and Development
12406
Thailand:
Centre,
Tainan,
Tai-
14402
Australian
Baptist
Missionary
Society,
Chiang
Mai,
Thailand:
41102
Bangladesh
Bangladesh,
Botswana,
Agricultural
51306,
51401,
Bulgaria,
Institut
Caribbean
Agricultural
(CARDI),
Centre
Rice
Tropical
Research
Institute,
Station,
Joydebpur:
Gaborone:
51305,
Belize:
la
Protection
Research
des Plantes,
and Development
Sofia:
Institute
41105
et d'Experimentation
(C.E.E.M.A.T.),
France:
du Machinisme
12104,
12106,
Agricole
12107,
22501
Centre
for
International
Israel:
Centro
Agricultural
Cooperation,
Rehovot,
51313
International
Colombia:
24003
52412
pour
dlitudes
Research
de Agricultura
42208
162
Tropical
(CIAT),
Cali,
51307
Centro
International
de Mejoramiento
Mgxico,
Mexico:
Commonwealth
Institute
Trinidad
de Maiz
y Trigo
(CIMMYT),
Control
(CIBC),
Curepe,
Cairo:
12210,
51314
of Biological
and Tobago:
53101
Egypt,
Agricultural
Research
Centre,
mpresa
Brasileira
de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria
12211
(EMBRAPPA),
Brazil:
51317
Ethiopia,
Chilalo
Agricultural
Ethiopia,
Imperial
Ethiopian
ical
Fiji,
Arts:
College
Unit
(CADU):
of Agriculture
31001
and Mechan-
12108
Agricultural
Station,
Food and Agriculture
Sigatoka:
Organisation
Rome, Italy:
12101,
France,
Centre
Gambia,
Yundum Experimental
Geest
Development
22710,
de Recherches
Industrial
Group
German Federal
Republic,
54107
of
the
United
Station,
UK:
(FAO),
22710A
Agronomiques,
Ltd.,
Nations
Montpellier:
Yundum:
12120
52408
41304
Tropeninstitute,
Giessen:
11010,
33001
Guyana,
Central
Hong Kong,
Agricultural
Department
Station,
of Agriculture
Mon Repos:
and Fisheries,
23201
Kowloon:
54603
Imperial
Chemical
Industries
(ICI)
44401
163
Agricultural,
Malaysia:
Imperial
Chemical
11002,
India,
(ICI)
Industries
22101,
22204,
Agricultural
Plant
22205,
College
Protection
Ltd.,
UK:
Institute,
Coimbatore:
51404
and Research
54401
India,
Allahbad
India,
Andhra
Agricultural
Pradesh
Institute,
Agricultural
Allahbad:
University,
52415
Rajendranagar:
51402
India,
Central
Arid
Zone Research
India,
Central
Inland
India,
Central
Institute
Fish
Central
Plant
Research
Protection
12402
Jodhpur:
Sub-Station,
of Agricultural
. .I
12110
India,
Institute,
Cuttack:
Engineering,
Training
Institute,
22706
Bhopal:
Hyderabad:
54204
India,
Central
Rice
India,
Central
Tobacco
India,
G.P.
Pant
Pantnagar:
Research
Institute,
Research
University
Cuttack:
Institute,
22403,
22404
Rajahmundry:
of Agriculture
53105
and Technology,
12115
India,
Indian
Agricultural
India,
Indian
Council
Research
of Agricultural
Institute,
12119
New Delhi:
Research
(ICAR),
New Delhi:
12112
India,
Indian
54202,
India,
z
Institute
of
Sugarcane
Research,
Lucknow:
52416,
54203
Marathwada
Agricultural
164
University,
Parbhani:
54106
India,
Orissa
liniversity
of Agriculture
22402,
Bhubaneswar:
India,
Rice
Research
India,
Soil
and Water
India,
Technical
India,
Tractor
I
India,
University
54701
Station,
Institute
of
Station,
of Calcutta,
BIOTROP, Bogor:
Indonesia,
Bogor
Indonesia,
Central
Agricultural
12113,
Calcutta:
22801
12114
43105
University,
Research
22206
Kharaqpur:
Hissar:
22707,
12407
Kota:
Kharagpur,
Centre,
Indonesia,
24002
Chinsurah:
Management
Training
and Technology,
Institute
Bogor:
for
12401
Agriculture,
Bogor:
41101,
Indonesia,
Institut
Horticultural
Research
de Recherches
Agronomiques
et des Cultures
Agronomiques
Tropicales
France:
Institut
Institute,
32001
Jakarta:
Vivrieres,
22203
de Recherches
(IRAT),
Upper
53111
Intermediate
12105,
Technology
12207,
International
54105,
Group
(ITDG),
UK:
12102,
12212
Crops
Tropics
Development
Research
(ICRISAT),
Institute
Hyderabad,
for
India:
the
Semi-Arid
53108-51312,
54104,
54702
International
Philippines:
Institute
41201,
of
Rural
41203
165
Reconstruction
(IIRR),
Silang,
Volta:
International
Institute
Ibadan,
of Tropical
Nigeria:
21009,
22201,
44504,
51302
International
11001,
22601,
International
Oregon,
USA:
21008,
41202,
Philippines:
14201,
21010-21014,
22202,
Agricultural
Agricultural
Japan,
Kanagawa
Research
Prefectural
22714,
National
22712,
Kenya,
(IRRI),
14202,
53303,
54101
Los Bafios,
14501-14503,
22302,
13101,
21001-21003,
22602,
23101,
23102,
Institute,
Bet Dagan:
Tottori:
53106
12109
Research
Station,
22715
of Agricultural
Sciences,
Konosu:
22713
Saitama
Prefectural
Fish
Experiment
Station,
Kitakohama
22705
Tohoku
Kampuchea,
53202,
Agricultural
Institute
Kazoshi:
Japan,
Arnhem,
(IPPC) , Corvallis,
Organization,
Machinery
Hiratsuka:
Japan,
44501-
(ILACO),
12217-12221,
Institute
22301,
44201,
52302
51106,
14301,
12206,
54302
Japan,
Japun,
12202,
Research
42201,
Center
41305-41307,
Rice
54301,
Protection
11011,
11009,
Consultants
13103,
(IITA),
11007,
41301-41303,
11003,
Plant
International
Israel,
11004,
Land Development
The Netherlands:
Agriculture
Agricultural
Agronomy
Experiment
Division,
Phnom Penh:
42209
National
Agricultural
Cambodian
Research
166
Station,
DirectirJn
Station,
Omagari:
21004
of Agriculture,
Kitale:
51105
Kenya,
University
of
Kenya,
Western
Agricultural
Korea,
South,
Liberia,
Nairobi,
54306
Research
Institute
Central
Nairobi:
of Plant
Agricultural
Station,
Kakamega:
Environment,
Experiment
Suwon:
Station,
51205
21006
Suakoko:
22603
Institut
Madagascar,
de Recherches
Lake Alaotra
Rubber
Malaysia,
42205,
Mali,
Research
42206,
Division
Brigade,
Wageningen:
,
Fzyal
Nigeria,
Institute
12208,
Nigeria,
42101,
Bamako:
22502
22604
Botswana:
52413
(Landbouwhogeschool),
voor
Volkenkunde,
Institute,
Institute
Research
51102,
52303
53102
Amsterdam:
of Nigeria,
of Agricultural
51101,
Leiden:
51201,
Ibadan:
(IAR),
51202,
42202
Samaru,
51301,
52405,
53108-53110
Nigerian
Benin:
Lumpur:
52402
Tropical
Cocoa Research
Nigeria,
Agricole,
University
11006,
Nigeria,
52407,
Kuala
Mochudi,
Rijksmuseum
Netherlands,
Zaria:
Institute,
Thailand:
Agricultural
--zJIQ,IUzJ
22401
de Madagascar,
44301
Ltd.,
Farmers'
Netherlands,
.T,LL---7
LYE: UlCL
Station:
du Machinisme
May and Baker
Mochudi
Research
Agronomiques
54501,
University
Institute
For
Oil-palm
Research
54502
of
Ife,
Ile-Ife:
44101
(NIFOR),
Papua New Guinea,
Highlands
Agricultural
Experiment
Station,
42207
Aiyura:
Philippines,
Mindanao
Institute
Philippines,
National
Crop Protection
51403,
of Technology,
53301
Kabacan:
Center
(NCPC),
Laguna:
53201
Philippines,
Root
Crop Research
Philippines,
Tobacco
Research
and Training
Philippines,
University
of
Philippines
44302,
Laguna:
Philippines,
the
54102,
University
of
and Training
54601,
Center:
Center,
44103
Batac:
54201
at Los Baiios,
54602
Southern
Mindanao,
Kabacan:
53302,
54103
Rodale
Press,
Richard-Toll
Senegal,
South
Lanka,
Irrigation-
South
Africa,
Mount
Sri
Emmaus, Pennsyivania,
African
Edgecombe:
Coconut
Sugar
USA:
12103
Scheme:
22102
Association
Experiment
Station,
52414
Research
Instit
te,
Lunuwila:
42210,
43101,
43102
Suriname,
Agricultural
Swaziland,
Malkarns
Experiment
Research
Taiwan,
Chiayi
Taiwan,
Chinese-American
tion,
Agricultural
Taipei:
12117
Station,
Paramaribo:
Station,
Malkerns:
Experiment
Station,
Joint
Commission
54303
51307
Chiayi:
on Rural
21005
Reconstruc-
Tanzania,
University
Tea Research
of Dar-es-Salaam,
i,f
iii6iiiutt:
Rwebitaba:
Research
I Oxford:
UK, National
Council
12215,
College
52301,
Africa,
Uganda
Research
Station,
42204
UK, Agricultural
wm)
East
52410
Morogoro:
Weed Research
Organisation
53112
of Agricultural
Engineering
(NCAE),
Silsoe:
52401
UK, National
Institute
Silsoe
:
Spraying
Station,
Machinery
of East
UK, University
of Nottingham,
of
the
USA, California
Centre
12201,
Ascot:
UK, University
University
Engineering
(NIAE),
52409
UK, Overseas
Field
of Agricultural
Anglia
(OSMC), Imperial
12203,
(ZA),
12204,
(UWI),
Polytechnic
State
12209
52411
Norwich:
51303
Loughborough:
West Indies
College
Kingston,
University,
54304
Jamaica:
San Lois
Obispo:
52404
USA, Hawaii
Agricultural
USA, Michigan
State
Experiment
University,
Station:
East
Lansing:
44102
11005,
12301,
12302
USA, National
Academy of
Sciences
(NAS),
Washington,
D-C.:
12405
USA, Rice
Experiment
USA, Tall
Timbers
Station,
Research
Crowley,
Station,
12303
163
Louisiana:
Tallahassee,
23202
Florida:
USA, Unired
toil,
States
States
Extension
USA, United
of Agriculture
(USDA),
Washing-
of Agriculture
(USDA),
Cooperative
(USDA),
Southern
21007
DC:
USA, United
Department
Department
Service,
States
Department
Weed Science
12305
Missouri:
of Agriculture
Laboratory,
Stoneville,
12304,
University
of
California,
Davis:
USA, University
of
California,
Riverside:
USA, University
of
Florida,
USA, University
of
Hawaii,
USA, University
of Vermont,
USA,
USSR, Institut
SSR:
Zoologii
Uzbek SSR:
14101
Honolulu:
Burlington:
32002
i Parazitologii,
Tashkent,
Uzbek
USSR, Vsesoyuznyr
Rybnogo
Nauchno-Issledovatel'skiy
Samarkand,
Institut
Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii
Makulu
Moscow:
Oroshaemogo
53104
Astrakhan:
i Bakhchevodstva,
Khozyaistva,
Mount
Universitet,
53103
Ovoshchevodstva
Zambia,
22709
14401
Gainsville:
Gosudarstvennyi
USSR, Vsesoyuznyy
51304,
22711
22701
USSR, Samarkandskii
Zambia,
12213-12215
Missouri:
Institut
Prudovogo
22702-22704
Research
Station,
Chilanga:
of Zambia,
Lusaka:
51303
Institute,
Harare:
52202
12205,
52501
University
Zimbabwe,
Agronomy
Zimbabwe,
Henderson
Research
Station,
Harare:
52201
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