Your Guide to Renovating an Older Home

Your Guide to Renovating an Older Home
YOUR GUIDE TO
RENOVATING AN OLDER HOME
The energy for life…
Energy is essential to our daily lives. It heats our homes, fuels our transport and supplies
our electricity. At the moment, most of the energy we use comes from fossil fuels such as
oil, gas, coal and peat. Unfortunately there is a limited supply of fossil fuels in the world
and we are using them up at a very fast rate. The other downside to fossil fuels is that
burning them for energy also produces CO2, a greenhouse gas, which causes climate
change. That’s where sustainable energy comes in.
So what is sustainable energy?
Sustainable energy refers to a way we can use and generate energy that is more efficient
and less harmful to the environment. Another way of explaining sustainable energy is
that it will allow us to meet our present energy needs without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs. We can do this by being more efficient in
how we use energy in our daily lives and also by increasing the amount of energy that
comes from renewable sources such as the wind, the sun, rivers and oceans.
What are the benefits of sustainable energy?
The good news is that being sustainable in how you use energy has immediate benefits:
•
•
•
It will save you money on your electricity and heating bills
Your home will be more comfortable and convenient
And you will also be making a vital contribution to reducing climate change
Believe it or not, the small actions you take to be more energy efficient in your home can
have a very significant impact on improving the environment. The collective efforts of
individuals can often be the most powerful of all.
Who is Sustainable Energy Ireland?
Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) was set up by the government in 2002 as Ireland’s
national energy agency with a mission to promote and assist the development of
sustainable energy. SEI’s activities can be divided into two main areas:
•
Energy Use - Energy is vital to how we live our daily lives but most of us don’t use
energy as efficiently as we could. By assisting those who use energy (mainly industry,
businesses and householders), to be more energy efficient, SEI can help to reduce the
amount of energy we use overall.
•
Renewable Energy - Energy that is generated from renewable sources such as wind
and solar power is clean and doesn’t produce harmful greenhouse gases. By
promoting the development and wider use of renewable energy in Ireland SEI can
help to further benefit the environment, in particular reducing the threat of climate
change.
SEI is also involved in other activities such as stimulating research and development,
advising on energy policy and producing energy statistics.
Sustainable Energy Ireland is funded by the National Development Plan 2000-2006 with
programmes part financed by the European Union.
Did you know…
•
Energy use is responsible for two-thirds of Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions.
•
Irish homes use around a quarter of all energy used in the country– that’s
even more than industry.
•
The average home consumes almost 40% more electricity than it did in 1990.
•
Renewable energy currently accounts for just 2% of Ireland’s energy supply.
1
1
The Purchase Decision
So you are looking at an old house and hoping
to buy!
Renovation may be necessary, and it is sensible
to incorporate energy saving measures with
other home improvement work, to save you
money in the long term.
You should consider the potential for
architectural improvement, better comfort and
facilities to suit your lifestyle, conserve energy
and minimise maintenance requirements.
House orientation
Go to view the house around midday, when the sun from the south is at its highest
in the sky. You will then know which rooms the sun will shine in throughout the
day, moving east to west. It is desirable to have sunshine in the day-time living
rooms of your house, so they should preferably be south-facing or southeast/south-west facing.
P R
E
V
A
R
E
M
W I N D
S
ING
IL
U
M
Planting and landscaping act as
insulation shelters against road noise,
pollution and prevailing wind.
Garden and living space
face south to maximise light
and heat to living areas
and garden.
WI
NT
ER
Day-Time
Living Spaces
Access Road
2
Front Garden
House
Back Garden
SOUTH / PRIVATE
Garden
Patio with pergola extends
summer time living; single
glazed sun-space extends
spring and autumn living-space
Day-time living space,
maximum natural light
Night-time living spaces/
service spaces: kitchen,
circulation, stairs, entry,
minimum openings
NORTH / PUBLIC
ACCESS ROAD
Sunlight brightens your home and minimises the need for artificial light. It heats up
the room in which it shines and this heat can be dispersed to other areas, thus
saving on heating fuel.
If your house is in an exposed area check for shelter from the prevailing wind as this
can cut down heat loss from your house.
Some areas of the country have higher levels of radon gas; this should be checked
if you are buying a house in a high level area, so that the problem can be rectified
while renovations are in progress.
3
2
Adapt your House
You can take the following steps to adapt an older house to achieve a lifestyle which
is both comfortable and energy efficient.
The building structure
By maintaining a dry, well insulated and draught-proof structure, it will be much
easier to achieve comfort.
Older houses that do not have damp-proof courses may be damp-proofed.
Uninsulated walls and roofs should be insulated, and draughts must be minimised
to achieve comfort levels and save energy.
When renovating an older house you should strive to integrate these measures into
the proposed remedial work, and adopt when possible passive solar heating and
day-lighting techniques.
Double glazed south facing windows can maximise solar gain and, with some form
of night insulation and low levels of infiltration, can sharply lower heating demand.
Heating system
Some form of conventional heating system will be necessary. When choosing fuels
and appliances you should consider the pollution produced by burning the fuel, and
the efficiency with which it can be used in available equipment. Plan to use the most
efficient domestic hot water system and modern heating controls which will add
considerable convenience to your lifestyle.
4
Typical emission factors for fuels (based on gross calorific value):
6
0.5
5
0.4
4
0.3
3
0.2
2
0.1
1
0.0
0
G
PE
EL
AT
EC
TR
IC
IT
Y
7
0.6
AS
O
FU IL
EL
O
IL
C
O
AL
0.7
LP
G
SO 2
(g/kWh)
8
G
AS
CO 2
(kg/kWh)
0.8
Typical heating appliance efficiencies:
Open fire
15-30%
Oil-fired boiler
55-70%
Gas-fired boiler
65-75%
Gas room heater
65-75%
Condensing boiler
80-90%
Electric room heater
100% nominal, but only 35% if account is taken
of the primary energy consumed in electricity
generation
5
Hot water services
When replacing sanitary fittings, use water conserving fittings and appliances as
these can reduce water consumption in your home by 20%-30%.
6
Water Using Appliances
Conservation Strategy
WCs
Six litre flush toilets should be
specified
Taps
Taps should be fitted with pressure
regulators, spray nozzles and sprung
on/off control or infra-red detectors
Shower Heads
Low consumption heads should be
specified
Water Heaters
Units for heating water should be
located close to the point of use. This
will reduce the volume run off before
the user gets hot water.
Clothes Washers and Dish Washers
Check water consumption
equipment to be purchased.
of
Windows and daylight
Strive to maximise the
use of natural light.
Position windows and
rooflights to increase
the amount of daylight
in a room, but take
account of heat loss
and
heat
gain.
Position windows to
Replacement windows
increase the amount
of daylight in a room
should be double
glazed low emissivity
to conserve heat. While
double glazing is a
great improvement over single glazing, even better glazings, such as argon filled,
are available at affordable prices. Retain existing shutters to minimise heat loss at
night and hang lined curtains.
When decorating your home,
remember that light coloured
walls and furnishings reflect
light, and use energy efficient
light bulbs in your home.
Effect of surface colour on amount of light reflected
Household appliances
When buying new appliances for your home choose
energy efficient models with Energy or Eco-labels
displayed.
Energy
Manufacturer
Model
More Efficient
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A
Less Efficient
Energy Consumption kWh/year
(Based on standard test results for 24 h)
Actual consumption will
depend on how the appliance is
used and where it is located
Fresh food Volume 1
Frozen food Volume 1
511
180
140
Noise
(dB(A) re 1 pW)
Further information is contained
in product brochures
Norm EN153 May 1990
Refrigerator Label Directive No.94/2/EC
7
3
House Types
The house you are going to buy may be similar to one of the following:
POSSIBLE DEFECTS
Damp-proof course
No damp-proof course in walls
No damp-proof membrane
under floor
Insulation
No roof insulation
No wall insulation
MID-LATE 1800S
EARLY 1900S
Rendered masonry walls
Hardwood windows
Timber floors
Timber roof and slates
Solid brick walls rendered
Hardwood windows, bay
Timber floors
Timber roof with slates
Insufficient insulation
Windows + doors
Single glazed
Double glazed
No draught sealer
Central heating
None
Inefficient
Open fireplaces
8
1920-1950
1960-1970
1980-PRESENT
Solid concrete, rendered
Steel windows
Concrete and timber floors
Timber pitched roof with
concrete tiles or flat roof
Hollow block, rendered
Softwood windows
Concrete ground floor
Timber upper floor
Timber roof with concrete tiles
Cavity wall, block interleaf
Block rendered or brick outer
Concrete ground floor
Timber upper floor
Timber roof with concrete tiles
9
4
Remedial Work
Defects
Remedial work
No damp-proof
course in walls
Inject or render walls with damp-proofing solution
No damp-proof
membrane under floor
Place damp-proof membrane on concrete
slab with screed over or if replacing floor construct new
concrete slab with damp-proof course underneath
No/insufficient roof
insulation
Insulate attic space with a minimum of 250mm
quilt insulation
No/insufficient wall
insulation
Insulate severely exposed walls internally with
insulated plasterboard and vapour check.
Insulate externally with insulation, vapour check
and render finish
No cylinder insulation
Insulate hot water cylinder with equivalent of preinsulated type with 35mm PU foam
Single-glazed windows
If windows need to be replaced due to
deterioration, replace with double-glazed low
emissivity windows
No draught sealer
Weather-strip windows and doors. Integrate trickle
vents to windows to provide sufficient ventilation
to avoid condensation. Retain window shutters
and lined curtains on older houses
Draughty floor boards
Seal joints between floor boards or put a good
underlay under carpets
Central heating
Install efficient central heating system or if already
installed evaluate and upgrade to include
improved efficiency boiler and modern controls if
necessary
Open fires
Close off chimneys when not in use with a patent
chimney damper ensuring that there is adequate
room ventilation
10
Notes
11
Notes
12
Relevant Standards
Building Regulations, 1991
Irish Agrément Board Certified Products
The Irish Agrément Board assesses, tests and certifies building products for compliance with the requirements of the Building Regulations. A complete listing of certified products is available from the Irish Agrément Board.
Useful contacts for further information
For further leaflets on home energy management contact
SEI, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.
For information on solar technologies contact
Energy Research Group, UCD School of Architecture, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14.
SEI, Renewable Energy Information Office, Shinagh House, Bandon, Co. Cork.
For information on radon contact
Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14.
ENFO, 17 St. Andrew Street, Dublin 2.
For information on insulation
Insulating Contractors Association, Construction Industry Federation, Federation
House, Canal Road, Dublin 6.
For information on building products standards contact
National Standards Authority of Ireland, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.
Irish Agrément Board, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.
Source Text
Energy Research Group UCD
This leaflet is printed on paper produced from 50% recycled
and de-inked fibres and 50% chlorine free bleached pulp (TCF).
Read our other publications:
A Detailed Guide to Insulating Your Home
A Detailed Guide to Home Heating Systems
Your Guide to Building an Energy Efficient Home
Your Guide to Renewable Energy
A Consumer Guide to Sustainable Energy
How to make your Home more Energy Efficient
Sustainable Energy Ireland is funded by the
Irish government under the National
Development Plan 2000-2006 with programmes
part financed by the European Union.
SEI, Glasnevin, Dublin 9
tel: +353 1 836 9080
fax: +330 1 837 2848
www.sei.ie
[email protected]
SEI InfoLine
8 to 8, Mon to Fri, 1850-376 666
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