Senior Cycle TEACHER HANDBOOK Senior Cycle Ordinary Level th th 5 & 6 year Based on the 2015 syllabus SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Contents Page Introduction 4 Section 1 Strand 3 Number systems 10 Section 2 Strands 3, 4, 5 Patterns, Functions, Algebra 14 Section 3 Strand 2 Co-ordinate Geometry (Line) 21 Section 4 Strand 2 Synthetic Geometry 1 26 Section 5 Strand 1 Probability and Statistics 1 36 Section 6 Strand 3 Length, area and volume 40 Section 7 Strand 5 Functions & Calculus 41 Section 8 Strand 1 Probability & Statistics 2 44 Section 9 Strand 2 Synthetic Geometry 2 48 Section 10 Strand 2 Co-ordinate Geometry (Circle) 52 Section 11 Strand 2 Trigonometry 53 Section 12 Strand 3 Complex numbers 54 Appendix A Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels: The Van Hiele Theory Appendix B Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels Appendix C Investigations of quadrilaterals and triangles Appendix D How to use CensusAtSchool The strand structure of the syllabus should not be taken to imply that topics are to be studied in isolation. Where appropriate, connections should be made within and across the strands and with other areas of learning. (NCCA JC syllabus page 10 and LC syllabus page 8) 2 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Resources which will allow teachers plan lessons, easily access specific learning outcomes in the syllabus and relevant support material such as “Teaching & Learning Plans” and suggested activities to support learning and teaching are available on the Project Maths website www.projectmaths.ie 3 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Introduction Student Learning While this is a handbook for teachers, it must be emphasised that student learning and the process of mathematical thinking and building understanding are the main focus of this document. Information and Communications Technologies are used whenever and wherever appropriate to help to support student learning. It is also envisaged that, at all levels, learners will engage with a dynamic geometry software package. Students with mild general learning disabilities Teachers are reminded that the NCCA Guidelines on mathematics for students with mild general learning disabilities can be accessed at http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/PP_Maths.pdf This document includes Approaches and Methodologies (from Page 4) Exemplars (from page 20). Note: Synthesis and problem solving listed below must be incorporated into all of the Strands. The list of skills below is taken from Strand 1of the syllabus but, an identical list is given at the beginning of each Strand in the syllabus. 4 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Useful websites http://www.projectmaths.ie/ http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/ http://www.examinations.ie/ Literacy and Numeracy Strategy The National Strategy to Improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young People 20112020 Numeracy encompasses the ability to use mathematical understanding and skills to solve problems and meet the demands of day-to-day living in complex social settings. To have this ability, a young person needs to be able to think and communicate quantitatively, to make sense of data, to have a spatial awareness, to understand patterns and sequences, and to recognise situations where mathematical reasoning can be applied to solve problems. Literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of communication including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media. Colour coding used in the suggested sequence below: Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Statistics and Probability Geometry and Trigonometry Number Algebra Functions 5 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Suggested sequence of topics Section number Section 1 Strand (Syllabus section) 3.1 3.2 Section 2 Corresponding Lesson Number Title of lesson Idea Page number LCOL.1 Number systems 10 LCOL.2 Indices 10 3.2 LCOL.3 3.1 LCOL.4 3.3 LCOL.5 3.3 LCOL.6 3.3 LCOL.7 3.1 LCOL.8 3.1 LCOL.9 3.1 LCOL.10 5.1 LCOL.11 5.1 LCOL.12 4.1 LCOL.13 4.1 LCOL.14 4.1 LCOL.15 4.1 LCOL.16 4.2 LCOL.17 4.3 LCOL.18 Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing real numbers Factors, multiples and primes Arithmetic: Percentages, estimation, % error Financial Maths Ratio and proportion in various contexts Scientific notation Relations approach to algebra Arithmetic sequences and sum to n terms of an arithmetic series 12 Graphing functions 15 Composition of functions Revision of JC algebra Factorising in algebra Rearranging formulae Adding algebraic fractions Solving linear and quadratic equations Inequalities 6 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section number Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number LCOL.19 Section 3 Section 4 Title of lesson Idea Relations without formulae (JC 4.5) Co-ordinate geometry: JC Revision Coordinating the plane, distance and midpoint formulae Slope, parallel and perpendicular lines 21 20 2.2 LCOL.20 2.2 LCOL.21 2.2 LCOL.22 Area of a triangle 22 2.2 LCOL.23 Equation of a line 23 2.2 LCOL.24 2.1 LCOL.25 2.1 LCOL.26 2.1 LCOL.27 2.1 LCOL.28 2.1 LCOL.29 2.1 LCOL.30 2.4 LCOL.31 2.1 LCOL.32 Intersection of two lines Synthetic geometry: plane and pointsrevision of preliminary concepts Revision - Angles, Axiom 3,Theorem 1, Constructions 8 & 9 Revision: Constructions 5, 6, 10,11,12 & Theorem2 Revision: Theorems 3, 4,5,& 6 Theorems 7 & 8 Revision: Constructions 1,2, & 4 Revision: JC Transformation geometry Revision of JC synthetic geometry: Quadrilaterals & parallelograms and Theorems 9 & 10, Construction 20 7 Page number 21 23 26 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section number Section 5 Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number Title of lesson Idea Page number 2.1 LCOL.33 Revision of JC synthetic geometry: More on quadrilaterals 32 2.1 LCOL.34 Theorem 11 33 Theorem 12 and revision of Theorem 13 Revision: Constructions 13,14,& 15 and Theorems 14 & 15: Pythagoras’ Theorem & converse of same; Proposition 9 Theorems 16, 17 & 18 2.1 LCOL.35 2.1 LCOL.36 2.1 LCOL.37 2.4 LCOL.38 Enlargements 35 1.1 LCOL.39 Fundamental principle of counting 36 1.2&1.3 LCOL.40 Concepts of Probability 36 1.2&1.3 LCOL.41 Rules of probability 369 1.2&1.3 LCOL.42 1.4 &1.5 LCOL.43 1.6 & 1.7 LCOL.44 The purpose of statistics and the data handling cycle Data handling cycle and sampling Analysis of and drawing inferences from data 33 34 34 37 38 40 Proposed beginning of 6th year programme Section 6 3.4 LCOL.45 Length, nets, area and volume 40 3.4 LCOL.46 Trapezoidal rule 41 8 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section number Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number Section 7 JC 4.5 LCOL.47 LCOL.48 5.2 LCOL.49 LCOL.50 Section 8 1.3 LCOL.51 1.2 LCOL.52 LCOL.53 1.6 LCOL.54 LCOL.55 Section 9 Title of lesson Idea Relations without formula Revision of functions Differential Calculus Revision of counting and probability concepts from 5th year Bernoulli trials Random variables and expected value Revision of 5th year statistics Bivariate data, scatter plots and correlation Revision of 5th year geometry Corollaries 3 & 4 Theorem 20, Corollary 6 & Construction 19 41 42 44 44 45 45 45 46 48 2.1 LCOL.56 2.1 LCOL.57 2.1 LCOL.58 Construction 18 49 2.1 LCOL.59 Theorem 21 49 2.1 LCOL.60 Construction 21 50 2.1 LCOL.61 Section10 2.2 LCOL.62 Section11 2.3 LCOL.63 Trigonometry Section12 3.1 LCOL.64 Complex numbers Constructions 16 & 17 Coordinate geometry of the circle 9 Page number 48 48 50 52 53 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Ideas Section 1: Number Lesson Idea LCOL.1 Title Number systems Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The operations of addition, multiplication, subtraction and division (emphasising the order of operations, including brackets) in the following domains: N, Z, Q and representing these numbers on a number line Decimals as special equivalent fractions and strengthening the connection between these numbers and fractions and place value understanding Fractions, decimals (that have a finite or a repeating decimal representation) and percentages as different representations of rational numbers Rounding of decimals Terminating and non-terminating decimals Irrational numbers R \ Q Number system R , appreciating that R \ Q and representing real numbers on a number line Lesson Idea LCOL.2 Title Rules for indices Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The rules for indices (where a, b R, p, q Q; a p , a q Q; a, b 0 ) a p a q a pq ap a p q q a a0 1 a p q a pq 10 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel a p 1 ap ab a pb p p p ap a bp b Lesson Idea LCOL.3 (Possibly for 6th year depending on the class) Title Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing real numbers Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Irrational numbers, including surds How to apply the following rules: 1 q q p q q a a, a ap = q Z, q 0, a 0 q a p p, q Z, q 0, a 0 Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing surds Lesson Idea LCOL.4 Title Factors, multiples and primes Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Factors, multiples and prime numbers in N Expressing numbers in terms of their prime factors Highest Common Factor and Lowest Common Multiple 11 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.5 Title Percentages, estimating using real world contexts, % error Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Make estimates of measures in the physical world around them How to make and justify estimates and approximations of calculations How to check a result by considering whether it is of the right order of magnitude and by working the problem backwards; round off a result How to calculate percentage error and tolerance How to calculate accumulated error ( due to addition or subtraction only) Lesson Idea LCOL.6 Title Financial Maths Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving o Cost price, selling price, loss, discount o Mark up (profit as a % of cost price) o Margin (profit as a % of selling price) o Income tax and net pay including other deductions o Compound interest investigated using multi-representations i.e. table, graph and formula (link to exponential functions and geometric sequences) o Compound interest rate terminology such as AER, EAR and CAR o Depreciation (reducing balance method) investigated using multi-representations i.e. table, graph and formula (link to exponential functions and geometric sequences) o Costing: materials, labour and wastage o Currency transactions 12 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.7 Title Ratio and proportion Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Ratios as comparing two quantities of the same kind by division (no units) Contexts involving ratio and proportion o Metric system; change of units; everyday imperial units (conversion factors provided for imperial units) o Rates as the comparison of two quantities by division but with different units o Average rates of change with respect to time and units o Diagrams drawn to scale Lesson Idea LCOL.8 Title Scientific notation involving real world contexts Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to express non -zero positive rational numbers in the form a 10n , where n Z and 1 a 10 involving real world contexts How to enter very large numbers on the calculator How to enter very small numbers on the calculator How to perform arithmetic operations on numbers in scientific notation How to solve problems involving numbers in scientific notation 13 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 2: Patterns, Functions and Algebra Lesson Idea LCOL.9 Title Relations approach to algebra- revision and extension of Junior Cycle material Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That processes can generate sequences of numbers or objects How to investigate and discover patterns among these sequences How to use patterns to continue the sequence How to develop generalising strategies and ideas, present and interpret solutions, in the following: o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing linear patterns and relations Discuss rate of change and the y - intercept. Consider how these relate to the context from which the relationship is derived and identify how they can appear in a table, in a graph and in a formula Decide if two linear relations have a common value (decide if two lines intersect and where the intersection occurs). Recognise that the distinguishing feature of a linear relationship is a constant rate of change Recognise discrete linear relationships as arithmetic sequences o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing quadratic patterns and relations Recognise that a distinguishing feature of quadratic relations is that the rate of change of the rate of change is constant o The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of outputs where each input is related uniquely to only one output o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing exponential patterns and relations Recognise that a distinguishing feature of exponential relations is a constant ratio between successive outputs Recognise discrete exponential relationships as geometric sequences 14 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel o Recognise whether a sequence is arithmetic, geometric or neither Lesson Idea LCOL.10 Title Arithmetic sequences and series Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The link between linear relations and the formula for the general term (Tn) of an arithmetic sequence How to find the sum (Sn) of n terms of an arithmetic series How to apply the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence and the formula for the sum to n terms of an arithmetic series to different contexts. Lesson Idea LCOL.11 Title Functions -interpreting and representing linear, quadratic and exponential functions in graphical form Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That a function assigns a unique output to a given input Domain, co -domain and range of a function The use of function notation f ( x) , How to graph functions of the form: o ax b where a, b Q, x R f : x , and y o ax 2 bx c, where a, b, c Z, x R o ax3 bx 2 cx d , where a, b, c, d Z, x R o ab x where a N, b, x R How to interpret equations of the form f ( x) g ( x) as a comparison of the above functions How to use graphical methods to find approximate solutions to 15 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel o f ( x) 0 o f ( x) k o f ( x) g ( x) where f ( x ) and g ( x) are of the above form, or where graphs of f ( x) and g ( x) are provided How to find local maximum and minimum values of quadratic functions from a graph The relationship between the graphs of f x x 2 , g x ax 2 , h x x 2 c, k x ax 2 c, and l ( x) ( x c)2 Lesson Idea LCOL.12 Title Composition of functions Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to form composite functions (including notation used) Composite functions in context Lesson Idea LCOL.13 Title Revision of basic JC algebra - evaluating and expanding expressions Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The role of the variable (as unknown, representing quantities that vary and in expressing generality) Indices in algebra (exponents N ) Terms, coefficients and expressions How to generate algebraic expressions from simple contexts 16 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Evaluate expressions given the value of the variables Expand and regroup expressions How to add and subtract expressions of the form: ax by c ... dx ey f ax 2 bx c ... dx 2 ex f where a, b, c, d , e, f Z How to use the associative and distribution properties to simplify expressions of the form: o o a bx cy d ... e fx gy h where a, b, c, d , e, f , g , h Z x y w z How carry out operations of the form : ax 2 bx c dx e, where a, b, c, d , e Z Lesson Idea LCOL.14 Title Factorising in Algebra - revision and extension of JC material Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Factors and multiples Factorising expressions of the form: ax, axy where a Z abxy ay where a, b Z ax 2 bx where a, b Z sx ty tx sy where s, t , x, y are variable Factorise expressions of order 2 17 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Idea LCOL.15 Title Rearrangement of formulae Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to rearrange formulae using familiar context Lesson Idea LCOL.16 Title Adding algebraic fractions - revision and extension of JC material Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Operations of the form: ax b dx e where a, b, c, d , e, f Z c f a q where a, b, c, p, q, r Z bx c px r Lesson Idea LCOL.17 Title Solving linear and quadratic equations Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to select and use suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for finding solutions to equations of the form: 18 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel o f x g x with f x ax b, g x cx d and where a, b, c, d Q f x g x with a p bx c qx r e g x f where a, b, c, e, f , p, q, r Z f x o o f ( x ) k with f x ax 2 bx c (and not necessarily factorisable), a, b, c Q and interpret the result o How to solve simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns and interpret the results o How to solve simultaneous equations where one is linear and the other is of order two with two unknowns (restricted to the case where either the coefficient of or the coefficient of is 1 in the linear equation) and interpret the results. How to form quadratic equations given whole number roots Lesson Idea LCOL.18 Title Inequalities Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to select and use suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for finding solutions to inequalities of the form: g x k, g x k, g x k , g x k where g x ax b, a, b, k Q Graph solution sets on the number line for linear inequalities in one variable 19 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.19 Title Relations without formulae (See 4.5 JCOL) Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Motion sensor Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Graphs of motion Quantitative graphs and drawing conclusions from them The connections between the shape of a graph and the story of a phenomenon Quantity and change of quantity on a graph 20 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 3: Co-ordinate Geometry of the line Lesson Idea LCOL.20 Title Review of Junior Cycle ordinary-level coordinate geometry - coordinating the plane, distance and midpoint formula Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The coordination of the plane The distance formula The midpoint formula Lesson Idea LCOL.21 Title Review of slope including application to parallel and perpendicular lines Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Rise The idea of slope as Run The slope formula The meaning of positive, negative, zero and undefined slope. Use of slopes to investigate if two lines are parallel The use of slopes to investigate if two lines are perpendicular or not That 3 points on the coordinate plane are collinear if and only if the slope between any two of them is the same 21 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL. 22 Title Area of a triangle Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content This lesson will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to calculate the area of a triangle using coordinates The connection between this formula ,the geometric approach to the area of a triangle and the formula used in trigonometry for finding the area of a triangle Lesson Idea LCOL.23 Title Equation of Line Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The equation of a line in the forms : y y1 m x x1 y mx c ax by c 0 (The significance of the variables m and c) Whether or not a point is on a line Where a line intersects the axes and why these points might be of interest to someone trying to interpret or plot a graph The interpretation of the intercepts in context How to find the slope of a line given its equation How to solve problems involving slopes of lines The link between coordinate geometry of the line and linear functions 22 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.24 Title Intersection of two lines Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: A graphical approach to the intersection of two lines An algebraic approach to the intersection of two lines, using simultaneous equations The comparison and verification of both of these methods above 23 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 4: Synthetic Geometry 1 The following is a suggested sequence for teaching the Leaving Certificate Course. In teaching these lessons, teachers and students can draw from the Teaching and Learning Plans and student activities on the website at www.projectmaths.ie As outlined at the workshops, the use of learning materials such as “geostrips”, “anglegs”, geo-boards etc. can make the learning so much more enjoyable for students of all perceived abilities. While proofs are not the issue as regards informal introduction, it is important that students are kept aware that the theorems build logically. The lesson divisions which follow are for guidance only. The initial lesson ideas give the students a chance to revisit the material they met in the Junior Cycle. This can be done at a pace that is appropriate to the student’s needs. It is recommended that new activities and challenges be introduced during this revision so that students do not see it as too much repetition and that they can see new ways of investigating familiar situations. Note on experimentation and experimental results: With experimentation, involving measurement, the results are only approximations and won’t agree exactly. It is important for students to report faithfully what they find e.g. for a triangle they could find the sum of the angles to be 1790 or 181° etc. The conclusion is that the angles appear to add up to 1800 .This is a plausible working assumption. There is a distinction between what you can discover and what you can prove. See below: Section 8.2 (From Discovery to Proof) of Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics” 24 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel 25 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.25 Title Revision of preliminary concepts - Plane and points Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Plane, points, lines, rays, line segments, collinear points, length of a line segment What is meant by the terms “axiom” and “implies” Axiom 1: [Two points axiom]: There is exactly one line through any two given points. Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance between points Angles as a rotation, angles in different orientations How to estimate angles in degrees, naming angles Terms: Perpendicular, parallel, vertical, horizontal Lesson Idea LCOL.26 Title Revision - Angles, Axiom 3, Theorem 1, Constructions 8 & 9 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Measurement of angles using a protractor (Possible misconceptions: Students thinking that size of an angle varies with arm or arc-length; failure to recognise equal angles in different orientations Common error: Reading from the incorrect scale on the protractor) Axiom 3 (The protractor axiom) That a straight angle measures 180⁰ Supplementary angles Vertically opposite angles What is meant by the term “theorem” Theorem 1: Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure. 26 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel What is meant by “proof” The use of the compass Construction 8: Line segment of a given length on a given ray Construction 9: Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm Lesson Idea LCOL.27 Title Revision of JC synthetic geometry Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 5: Line parallel to a given line, through a given point; Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly one line through P parallel to l. Construction 6: Division of a line segment into 2 or 3 equal segments without measuring it Triangles and congruent triangles o Triangles: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, right-angled o Construction 10: Triangle given SSS – Congruent triangles (Axiom 4) o Construction 11: Triangle given SAS - Congruent triangles (Axiom 4) o Construction 12: Triangle given ASA - Congruent triangles (Axiom 4) o By construction, show that AAA and ASS are not sufficient conditions for congruence. o What is meant by the term “converse” o Theorem 2: (i) In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal. (ii) Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the triangle is isosceles Suggested class activities Students might engage in activities in relation to scalene, equilateral, isosceles, right-angled and obtuseangled triangles o o o o o Describe each in words Draw three examples of each in different orientations Determine the sum of the angles in each Determine which triangles, if any, contain two or more equal angles Establish if they can say for certainty the size of the angles in each 27 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel o Establish if any of the triangles can belong to more than one category Lesson Idea LCOL.28 Title Revision of JC synthetic geometry Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Alternate angles by examples and measuring Theorem 3: (i) If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines, then the lines are parallel. (ii) Conversely, if two lines are parallel, then any transversal will make equal alternate angles with them. Theorem 4: Corresponding angles explained by examples and measuring Theorem 5: The angles in any triangle add to 180⁰. Two lines are parallel if and only if for any transversal, corresponding angles are equal. Theorem 6: Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. Lesson Idea LCOL.29 Title Theorem 7 and Theorem 8 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 7: In a triangle, the angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than the angle opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side opposite the lesser angle. 28 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Theorem 8: Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third. Lesson Idea LCOL.30 Title Revision - Constructions 1, 2, & 4 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 1: Bisector of a given angle, using only compass and straight angle Construction 2: Perpendicular bisector of a segment using only compass and straightedge Construction 4: Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point on l Lesson Idea LCOL.31 Title Revision of translations, central symmetries, axial symmetries and rotations Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Translations Axial symmetry Central symmetry Rotations Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following investigations: Does a translation preserve length? Does a translation preserve angle size? Does a translation map a line onto a parallel line? Does a translation map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? Does an axial symmetry preserve length? Does an axial symmetry preserve angle size? Does an axial symmetry maps a line onto a parallel line? Does an axial symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? How many axes of symmetry does an isosceles triangle have? How many axes of symmetry does an equilateral triangle have? 29 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel How many axes of symmetry does a circle have? (Draw examples of the above.) Does a central symmetry preserve length? Does a central symmetry preserve angle size? Does a central symmetry map a line onto a parallel line? Does a central symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? Does an isosceles triangle have a centre of symmetry? Does an equilateral triangle have a centre of symmetry? Which types of triangle have a centre of symmetry? Does a circle have a centre of symmetry? Note: quadrilaterals are investigated in the lessons following. Lesson Idea LCOL.32 Title Revision of quadrilaterals, parallelograms, Theorems 9 & 10, Construction 20 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 9: In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite angles are equal Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram; (2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Remark 1: Sometimes it happens that the converse of a true statement is false. For example, it is true that if a quadrilateral is a rhombus, then its diagonals are perpendicular. But it is not true that a quadrilateral whose diagonals are perpendicular is always a rhombus. Remark 2: The converse of Corollary 1 is false: it may happen that a diagonal divides a convex quadrilateral into two congruent triangles, even though the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram. Theorem 10: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect one another. Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Construction 20: Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the angles The properties of different quadrilaterals Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of theorem 9: Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus Draw in one diagonal BD 30 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Mark in all the alternate angles – they should find 2 pairs Establish that triangles ABD and BCD are congruent and explain their reasoning Establish what this means about the opposite sides of parallelogram ABCD Make a deduction about the opposite angles of parallelogram ABCD The students can determine: If the diagonal bisects the angles at the vertex The sum of the four angles of parallelogram ABCD The result if two adjacent angles of the parallelogram are added together Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of theorem 10 (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning): Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E Determine if the two diagonals equal in length. (Measure) Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC Explain why triangles ADE and BEC are congruent (Give a reason.) Possible further investigations: The students can determine: If the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent If the diagonals perpendicular If the parallelogram contains 4 two pairs of congruent triangles If the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the parallelogram The number of axes of symmetry the parallelogram has If the parallelogram has a centre of symmetry and its location if it does exist Students might engage in the following activities about a square, rhombus, parallelogram and rectangle: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) Describe each of them in words. Draw three examples of each in different orientations. Determine which sides are equal in length. Determine the sum of the angles in each case. Determine which angles are equal. Determine the sum of two adjacent angles in each case. Establish whether or not a diagonal bisects the angles it passes through. Establish whether or not the diagonals are perpendicular. Determine whether or not a diagonal divides it into two congruent triangles. Calculate the length of a diagonal given the length of its sides, where possible. Establish whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length. Determine whether or not the diagonals divide the different shapes into 4 congruent triangles. Establish if the diagonals bisect each other. 31 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel The students should determine the number of axes of symmetry each of the shapes has and which ones have a centre of symmetry. An interesting option would be to conduct the activities above on a KITE. Lesson Idea LCOL.33 Title Revision: More Quadrilaterals – Investigating a Square Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The properties of a square The properties of a rectangle(which is not a square) Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities relating to a square: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) Draw a square ABCD. Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E. Determine whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length. Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC. Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent. Determine if the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent. Determine if there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the square. Show that the diagonals perpendicular. Give a reason. Establish whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the square. Find how many axes of symmetry the square has. Determine whether or not the square has a centre of symmetry and if it does, what is its location. Students might engage in the following activities about a rectangle: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) Draw a rectangle ABCD which is not a square Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E and establish if the two diagonals are equal in length Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC. Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent. Determine whether or not the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent. Determine whether or not there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the rectangle. 32 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Show that the diagonals are perpendicular. Determine whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the rectangle. Find how many axes of symmetry the rectangle has. Determine whether or not the rectangle has a centre of symmetry and if it does, find its location. Possible extra activity: Repeat these activities for the rhombus ABCD Lesson Idea LCOL.34 Title Theorem 11 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 11: If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on any other transversal. Lesson Idea LCOL.35 Title Theorem 12 and revision of Theorem 13 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in the ratio : , then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio. Converse to Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line cuts the sides AB and AC in the same ratio, then it is parallel to BC. The meaning of similar triangles and the difference between similar and congruent triangles. Theorem 13: If two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar, then their sides are proportional, in order: | | | | | | | | | ′| | ′ | 33 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Converse: If | | | | | | | | | | | | ,then the two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar . . Lesson Idea LCOL.36 Title Revision of right-angled triangles and Pythagoras’ Theorem Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 13: Construction 14: cases) Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side. Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles (several Construction 15: Rectangle, given side lengths Theorem 14: Theorem of Pythagoras Theorem 15: [Converse to Pythagoras] If the square of one side of a triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle. Proposition 9: If two right-angled triangles each have hypotenuse and one other side equal in length respectively, then they are congruent. (RHS) Lesson Idea LCOL.37 Title Introduction to area Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 16: For a triangle, base times height does not depend on the choice of base. Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base multiplied by the height. Theorem 17: A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area. Theorem 18: The area of a parallelogram is the base by the height. 34 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: In the case of each of these types of triangles: equilateral, isosceles, right-angled and obtuse-angled: draw three diagrams for each type of triangle showing each side as a base and the corresponding perpendicular height. Students investigate the validity of the following statement and its converse: “Congruent triangles have equal areas”. Lesson Idea LCOL.38 Title Enlargements Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Enlargements, paying attention to o Centre of enlargement o Scale factor k, 0 k 1, k 1 ,k Q o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is outside the figure to be enlarged o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is inside the figure to be enlarged o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is a vertex of the figure to be enlarged or is a point on the figure o How to find the scale factor That when a figure is enlarged by a scale factor k , the area of the image figure is increased by a factor k 2 How to solve problems involving enlargements 35 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 5: Probability and Statistics 1 Lesson Idea LCOL.39 Title Fundamental Principle of Counting and Permutations Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The Fundamental Principle of Counting How to count the arrangements of n distinct objects (n!) How to count the number of ways of arranging r objects from n distinct objects Lesson Idea LCOL.40 Title Concepts of probability Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: JC learning outcomes for probability Lesson Idea LCOL.41 Title Rules of probability Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package 36 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to use set theory to discuss experiments, outcomes, samples spaces The basic rules of probability (AND/OR), mutually exclusive events, through the use of Venn diagrams The use of the formulae: 1. Addition Rule (for mutually exclusive events only): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) 2. Addition Rule: P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) P ( A B ) 3. Multiplication Rule( for independent events): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) Use of tree diagrams Lesson Idea LCOL.42 Title The purpose of Statistics and the Data Handling Cycle Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The purpose and uses of statistics and possible misconceptions and misuses of Statistics How to design a plan and collect data on the basis of the above knowledge The data handling cycle (Pose a question, collect data, analyse data, interpret the result and refine the original question if necessary) The Census at School (CAS) questionnaire as a means of collecting data Questionnaire designs Populations and samples That sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about the population The importance of representativeness so as to avoid biased samples Sample selection (Simple Random Sample) The extent to which conclusions can be generalised Primary sources of data ( observational (including sample surveys) and experimental studies) and secondary sources of data The different ways of collecting data 37 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel How to summarise data in a diagrammatic form The students will also engage in analysing spreadsheets of data for example the spreadsheet of class data returned from the Census at School questionnaire to include: o Recognising different types of data – category (nominal /ordinal), numerical (discrete/ continuous) o Recognising univariate/bivariate data o Discussing possible questions which might be answered with the data Lesson Idea LCOL.43 Title Analysing data graphically and numerically, interpreting and drawing inferences from data Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The concept of the distribution of data and frequency distribution tables The selection and use of appropriate graphical methods to describe the sample(univariate data only) taking account of data type: bar charts, pie charts, line plots, histograms(equal class intervals), stem and leaf plot (including back to back) The distribution of numerical data in terms of shape (concepts of symmetry, clustering, gaps, skewness) The selection and use of appropriate numerical methods to describe the sample: o The distribution of data in terms of centre (mean, median and mode and the advantages and disadvantages of each) o The relative positions of mean and median in symmetric and skewed data o The distribution of numerical data in terms of spread (range, inter-quartile range) o The concept of inter-quartile range as a measure of spread around the median o The distribution of data in terms of spread (standard deviation) o The concept of standard deviation as a measure of spread around the mean o The use of a calculator to calculate standard deviation How to analyse plots of data to explain differences in measures of centre and spread How to interpret a histogram in terms of distribution of data and make decisions based on the empirical rule (based on a normal distribution) 38 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel The effect on the mean and of adding or subtracting a constant to each of the data points and of multiplying or dividing the data points by a constant Outliers and their effect on measures of centre and spread The effect on the mean of adding or subtracting a constant to each of the data points and of multiplying or dividing the data points by a constant Proposed end of fifth year 39 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 6: Length, Area and Volume Lesson Idea LCOL.44 Title Length of the perimeter and area of plane figures, nets of solids, surface area and volume Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving the length of the perimeter and the area of plane figures: disc, triangle, rectangle, square, parallelogram, trapezium, sectors of discs and figures made from combinations of these The nets of prisms, cylinders and cones How to solve problems involving the surface area and volume of the following sold figures: rectangular block, cylinder, right cone, triangular based prism (right angle, isosceles and equilateral), sphere, hemisphere and solids made from combinations of these Lesson Idea LCOL.45 Title Trapezoidal rule Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to use the trapezoidal rule to approximate area How to calculate percentage error involved in using trapezoidal rule in e.g. the circle 40 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 7: Functions and differential calculus Lesson Idea LCOL.46 Title Relations without formulae Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package Motion sensor Workshop 4 booklet (graph matching) Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Graphs of motion Quantitative graphs and drawing conclusions from them The connections between the shape of a graph and the story of a phenomenon Quantity and change of quantity on a graph Lesson Idea LCOL.47 Title Revision of function concepts Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Revision of function concepts 41 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.48 Title Calculus Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Rate of change, average rate of change, instantaneous rate of change, the derivative This will include: Calculus as the study of mathematically defined change How to use graphs and real life examples to analyse rates of change for: o Linear functions f x k where k is a constant o Linear functions in general - links should be established to the slope of a line from coordinate geometry o Functions where the rate of change varies Instantaneous rate of change as opposed to average rate of change say over the course of a journey The equality of the instantaneous and average rates of change for linear functions How to find the rate of change in situations where it is not constant and the need to define it at every point o The idea of average rate of change between two points on f ( x)= x2 and its calculation as the slope of the secant connecting the two endpoints of the interval under consideration o That the instantaneous rate of change is not the same as the average rate of change between two points for f ( x)= x2 o That the average rate of change approaches the instantaneous rate as the interval under consideration approaches zero (the concept of a limit) o That the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent at the point The meaning of the first derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of one quantity relative to dy another and the use and meaning of the terms “differentiation” and notation such as and f ' x dx How to find the first derivatives of linear functions using the equation y mx c and observing that the slope the first derivative Use the observation of patterns of change in the slopes of quadratic and cubic functions at points on their graphs to come up with a rule for differentiating these functions. How to find the first derivative of linear, quadratic and cubic functions by rule How to apply differentiation to real life examples of rates of change What it means when a function is increasing/decreasing/constant in terms of the slope, rate of change, derivative 42 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel How to apply an understanding of the change in dy from positive to zero to negative around a local dx maximum in order to identify a local maximum How to apply an understanding of the change in minimum in order to identify a local minimum The meaning of the second derivative as the rate of change of a rate of change at any instant Real life examples of the rate of change of a rate of change, for example acceleration as a rate of change of velocity How to match a function with its first and second derivatives How to find second derivatives of linear, quadratic and cubic functions by rule The application of the second derivative to identify local maxima and local minima The second derivative and its connection with “concave up” and “concave down” sections of curves How to apply differentiation to curve sketching 43 dy from negative to zero to positive around a local dx SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 8: Probability and Statistics 2 Lesson Idea LCOL.49 Title Revision of counting and probability concepts from fifth year Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The Fundamental Principle of Counting How to count the arrangements of n distinct objects (n!) How to count the arrangements of n distinct object taking r at a time Concepts of probability Rules of probability Use of tree diagrams, set theory Lesson Idea LCOL.50 Title Bernoulli Trials Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Find the probability that two independent events both occur Bernoulli trials (A Bernoulli trial is an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two possibilities: “success” or “failure”. How to solve problems involving up to 3 Bernoulli trials How to calculate the probability that the 1st success occurs on the nth Bernoulli trial where n is specified 44 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.51 (option to switch lessons 51 and 50 as perhaps random variables should be introduced before Bernoulli trials. See HL lessons 48 and 49.) Title Random variables and expected value Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Random variables, discrete and continuous, which lead to discrete and continuous probability distributions Expected value of probability distributions The calculation of expected value and the fact that this does not need to be one of the outcomes The role of expected value in decision making and the issue of fair games Lesson Idea LCOL.52 Title Revision of statistics concepts from 5th year Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in participating in investigating and understanding: Revision of statistics concepts from 5th year Lesson Idea LCOL.53 Title Bivariate data, scatter plots, correlation 45 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Bivariate data versus univariate data Different types of bivariate data The use of scatter plots to determine the relationship between numeric variables That correlation always has a value from -1 to +1 inclusive, and that it measures the extent of the linear relationship between two variables How to match correlation coefficients values to appropriate scatter plots That correlation does not imply causality Lesson Idea LCHL.54 Title Drawing inferences from data, margin of error, the concept of a hypothesis test, Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about the population How to use appropriate tools to describe variability drawing inferences about the population from the sample How to interpret the analysis and relate the interpretation to the original question How to interpret a histogram in terms of the distribution of data The use of the empirical rule 1 How to calculate the margin of error for a population proportion ( ) n The concept of a hypothesis test The distinction between a null and an alternative hypothesis 46 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel How to conduct a hypothesis test on a population proportion using the margin of error Note: The margin of error referred to here is the maximum value of the 95% confidence interval. 47 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 9: Synthetic Geometry 2 Lesson Idea LCOL.55 Title Revision of fifth year synthetic geometry Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The synthetic geometry from 5th year Lesson Idea LCOL.56 Title Corollaries 3 and 4 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The term “corollary” Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle. Corollary 4:If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a diameter. Lesson Idea LCOL.57 Title Theorem 20, Corollary 6 and Construction 19 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set 48 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 20: (i) Each tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius that goes to the point of contact. (ii) If P lies on the circle , and a line through P is perpendicular to the radius to P, then is a tangent to . Corollary 6: If two circles share a common tangent line at one point, then the two centres and that point are collinear. Construction 19: Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it. Lesson Idea LCOL.58 Title Construction 18 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content This lesson will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 18: Angle of 60⁰ without using a protractor or set square Lesson Idea LCOL.59 Title Theorem 21 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 21: (i) The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. (ii) The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of a circle. 49 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Lesson Idea LCOL.60 Title Construction 21 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Definition 45: medians and centroid Construction 21: Centroid of a triangle Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: Draw the medians and centroid for an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle and an obtuse-angled triangle. In which instances is the centroid inside the triangle? Lesson Idea LCOL.61 Title Constructions 16 and 17 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 16: Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. Construction 17: Incentre and incircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: Draw the circumcentre and incentre of an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle, an obtuse-angled triangle. 50 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel They should then answer the following questions explaining their reasoning in each case: In which instances is the circumcentre inside the triangle? Where is the circumcentre in a right-angled triangle? (see Theorem 19, corollary 3) In which instances is the incentre inside the triangle? 51 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 10: Co-ordinate geometry of the circle Lesson Idea LCOL.62 Title Co-ordinate geometry of the circle Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: 2 2 2 That x y r represents the equation of a circle centre (0,0) and radius of length r (Link to Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p x, y on the circle to the centre of the circle is equal to the length of the radius of the circle.) That x h y k 2 2 r 2 represents the relationship between the and co-ordinates of points on a circle wit centre (h, k) and radius r (Link to Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p x, y on the circle to the centre of the circle is equal to the length of the radius of the circle.) How to solve problems involving a line and a circle with centre (0,0) 52 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section11: Trigonometry Lesson Idea LCOL.63 Title Trigonometry 1 Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The use of Pythagoras’ Theorem to solve problems (2D only) Trigonometric ratios in a right-angled triangle The use of the trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving right-angled triangles The use of similar triangles to find unknowns in right-angled triangles The use of the clinometer How to use trigonometry to calculate the area of a triangle How to solve problems using the sine and cosine rules (2D) How to define sin and cos for all values of 1 How to use the unit circle to solve equations such as sin , cos 0 etc. 2 How to define tan How to solve problems involving the area of a sector of a circle and the length of an arc Work with trigonometric ratios in surd form 53 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Section 12: Complex numbers Lesson Idea LCOL.64 Title Complex numbers Resources Online resources on the Project Maths website Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The origin and need for complex numbers The use of complex numbers to model two dimensional systems as in computer games, alternating current and voltage etc. How to interpret multiplication by i as a rotation of 900 anticlockwise How to express complex numbers in rectangular form a ib and illustrate them on the Argand diagram How to investigate the operations of addition and subtraction of complex numbers in the rectangular form a ib using the Argand diagram How to interpret the modulus as distance from the origin on an Argand diagram How to multiply a complex number by another complex number Interpret the results of the above multiplication on the Argand diagram How to interpret the complex conjugate as a reflection in the real axis Division of complex numbers in the a ib rectangular form and representation on the Argand diagram How to solve quadratic equations having complex roots and how to interpret the solutions 54 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Appendix A Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels The Van Hiele Theory The Van Hiele model describes how students learn geometry. Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof, mathematics teachers from the Netherlands, observed their geometry students in the 1950's.The following is a brief summary of the Van Hiele theory. According to this theory, students progress through five levels of thinking starting from merely recognising a shape to being able to write a formal proof. The levels are as follows: *Visualisation (Level 0) The objects of thought are shapes and what they look like. Students have an overall impression of a shape. The appearance of a shape is what is important. They may think that a rotated square is a “diamond” and not a square because it is different from their visual image of a square. They will be able to distinguish shapes like triangles, squares, rectangles etc but will not be able to explain, for example, what makes a rectangle a rectangle. Vocabulary: Students use visual words like “pointy”, “curvy”, “corner” as well as correct language like angle, rectangle and parallelogram. *Analysis (Level 1) The objects of thought are “classes” of shapes rather than individual shapes. Students think about what makes a rectangle a rectangle and can separate the defining characteristics of a rectangle from irrelevant information like size and orientation. They recognize its parts (sides, diagonals and angles) and compare their properties (similar, congruent) They understand that if a shape belongs to a class like “rectangle”, then it has all the properties of that class (2 pairs of equal sides, right angles, 2 equal diagonals, 2 axes of symmetry). Vocabulary: words like parallel, perpendicular and congruent relating to properties within a figure and the words all, always, sometimes, never, alike, different. A concise definition of a figure, using a sufficient rather than an exhaustive list of properties is not possible at this level. They do not deal with questions like “Is a square a parallelogram?” but just look at the properties of each class of shape, without comparing the classes. *Some visualisation and analysis is covered in Primary School. Relational/ Ordering/Informal Deduction (Level 2) The objects of thought are the properties of shapes. Students are ready to understand interrelationships of properties within figures and between figures. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and opposite angles are equal. A rectangle is a parallelogram since it has all the properties of a parallelogram as well as having all 900 angles. 55 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Students can recognise the difference between a statement and its converse. All squares are rectangles (true) is different from all rectangles are squares (not true). Capable of “if –then” thinking – if a shape is a rectangle then all the angles in it are right angles. If |<A |= |<B |and |<B| = |<C| then |< A| =|<C| They can select one or two properties to define a figure rather than an exhaustive list. If a quadrilateral has 4 equal sides and one right angle it must be a square. Students can discover new properties by simple deduction. The two acute angles in a right angled triangle add to 900 because all the angles in a triangle add up to 1800. They can explain logically without having to measure everything. Formal deduction (Level 3) Students learn how to use an axiomatic system to establish geometric theory. This is the level at which proof of Theorems is learned. The sequence of theorems given in the appendix is arranged in such a manner that each theorem builds on the previous theorem(s). Rigor (Level 4) Comparing different axiomatic systems – not done at secondary level Characteristics of these levels: Students cannot function at any particular level unless they are competent at all previous levels. The teacher’s role is crucial in structuring activities to bring students from one level to the next. How does the teacher bring students from any one level to the next? 5 phases of learning: 1. In an informal discussion of the topic, students are asked to give their initial observations. 2. The teacher provides structured activities such as drawing, making and measuring. 3. The students then verbalise and write down what they have learned and report back in groups to the class, which leads to a class discussion. 4. The teacher then provides an activity which will require students to apply what they have discovered 5. In the last stage students are required to summarise all they have learned and should be able to remember it as they have discovered it through guidance. A PowerPoint presentation of the Van Hiele theory can be got at www.projectmaths.ie 2 examples are given on the PowerPoint slides (1) Using similar triangles to show advancement between levels and (2) Using an investigation of the rhombus to show how to progress from level 0 to level 1 with this figure using the 5 teaching phases. A mind map of Van Hiele can be found at http://agutie.homestead.com/files/mindmap/van_hiele_geometry_level.html 56 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Appendix B Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels* This is intended as a quick guide to the various axioms, theorems and constructions as set out in the Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics. You can get this from the project maths website: www.projectmaths.ie It is not intended as a replacement for this document, merely as an aid to reading at a glance which material is required to be studied at various levels. The sequence of theorems as given must be followed. As stated in the heading, these theorems and constructions are underpinned by 46 definitions and 20 propositions which are all set out in the Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics, along with many undefined terms and definable terms used without explicit definition. *An axiom is a statement accepted without proof, as a basis for argument *A theorem is a statement deduced from the axioms by logical argument. Theorems can also be deduced from previously established theorems. * A proposition is a useful or interesting statement that could be proved at this point, but whose proof is not stipulated as an essential part of the programme. Teachers are free to deal with them as they see fit, but they should be mentioned, at least (Appendix p. 20, footnote). *The instruments that may be used for constructions are listed and described on page 38 of the Appendix and are a straight edge, compass, ruler, protractor and set-square. Terms Students at Junior Certificate Higher level and Leaving Certificate Ordinary level will be expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive reasoning: Theorem, proof, axiom, corollary, converse, implies. In addition, students at Leaving Certificate Higher level will be expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive reasoning: Is equivalent to, if and only if, proof by contradiction. 57 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Synthetic Geometry Guide to Axioms, Theorems and Constructions for all Levels Interactive files are available in the Student Area on the Project Maths website. Axioms and Theorems (supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions) *proof required for JCHL only ** proof required for LCHL only These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry. Axiom 1: There is exactly one line through any two given points Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance between points. Axiom 3: Protractor Axiom (The properties of the degree measure of an angle). 1 2 3 4* 5 6* 7 8 9* 10 Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure. Axiom 4: Congruent triangles conditions (SSS, SAS, ASA) In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal. Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the triangle is isosceles. Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly one line through P that is parallel to l. If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines then the lines are parallel. Conversely, if two lines are parallel, then any transversal will make equal alternate angles with them. The angles in any triangle add to 180⁰. Two lines are parallel if, and only if, for any transversal, the corresponding angles are equal. Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. The angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than the angles opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side opposite the lesser angle. JC ORD JC HR LC ORD LC HR Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third. In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite angles are equal. Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram; (2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Corollary 1. A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. 58 CMN Introd. Course LC FDN SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel 11** 12** 13** 14* 15 16 Axioms and Theorems (supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions) *proof required for JCHL only ** proof required for LCHL only These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry. If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on any other transversal. Let ABC be a triangle. If a line l is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in the ratio m:n, then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio. Conversely, if the sides of two triangles are in proportion, then the two triangles are similar. If two triangles are similar, then their sides are proportional, in order (and converse) [Theorem of Pythagoras]In a right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse is the sum of the squares of the other two sides. [Converse to Pythagoras]. If the square of one side of a triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle. Proposition 9: (RHS). If two right-angled triangles have hypotenuse and another side equal in length respectively, then they are congruent. For a triangle, base x height does not depend on the choice of base. Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by the height. CMN Introd. Course JC ORD JC HR LC FDN LC ORD LC HR 17 A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area. 18 The area of a parallelogram is the base x height. 19* The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc is twice the angle at any point of the circle standing on the same arc. Corollary 2†: All angles at points of a circle, standing on the same arc are equal (and converse). Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle. 20 21 Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a diameter. Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then opposite angles sum to 180⁰(and converse). (i) Each tangent is perpendicular to the radius that goes to the point of contact. (ii) If P lies on the circle S, and a line l is perpendicular to the radius to P, then l is a tangent to S. Corollary 6: If two circles intersect at one point only, then the two centres and the point of contact are collinear. (i) The perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord. (ii) The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre. † The corollaries are numbered as in the Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics; corollary 2 is the first one relating to theorem 19 ♦ These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry 59 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Constructions (Supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions, 5 axioms and 21 theorems) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bisector of an angle, using only compass and straight edge. Perpendicular bisector of a segment, using only compass and straight edge. Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point not on l. Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point on l. Line parallel to given line, through a given point. Division of a line segment into 2 or 3 equal segments without measuring it. Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments, without measuring it. CMN Introd. Course JC ORD JC HR LC FN LC ORD LC HR Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm. 10 Triangle, given lengths of 3 sides. 11 Triangle, given SAS data. 12 Triangle, given ASA data 13 Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side 14 Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles. 15 Rectangle given side lengths. 8 Line segment of a given length on a given ray. 9 16 17 Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. Incentre and incircle of a triangle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. 18 Angle of 60⁰ without using a protractor or set square. 19 Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it. 20 Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the angles. 21 Centroid of a triangle. 22 Orthocentre of a triangle. 60 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Appendix C Investigations of quadrilaterals and triangles Investigating Quadrilaterals Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Describe it in words. Draw three examples in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. Which sides are equal? What is the sum of all the angles? Are all angles equal? Which angles are equal? What is the sum of two 61 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) adjacent angles? Does a diagonal bisect the angles it passes through? Does a diagonal divide it into two congruent triangles? Given the length of its sides, can you calculate the length of a diagonal? Are the two diagonal s equal in length? Do the diagonals divide it into four congruent triangles? Do the diagonals divide it into four triangles of equal area? Are the diagonals perpendicular? 62 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Do the two diagonals bisect each other? What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? Does a diagonal bisect its area? Investigating triangles Triangles Equilateral Isosceles Describe it in words. Draw three examples 63 Right angled Obtuse Angled SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Triangles Equilateral Isosceles in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. What is the sum of the three angles? Are all angles equal? Are there any equal angles? Where? Can you say for certain what size the angles are? Apart from the isosceles triangles themselves which of the others could also be isosceles? What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? Draw 3 diagrams for each type of triangle showing each side as a base and the corresponding perpendicular height? How do you calculate the area? Is the centroid inside 64 Right angled Obtuse Angled SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Triangles Equilateral Right angled Isosceles Obtuse Angled the triangle always? Is the circumcentre inside the triangle always? Is the incentre inside the triangle always? Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Describe it in words. A square is a quadrilateral in which all sides are equal in length and all angles are 900. (need only say that one angle is 900) A rhombus is a quadrilateral with all sides equal and opposite angles equal. (a parallelogram with all sides equal in length.) A rectangle is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and parallel and all interior angles equal to 900. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and parallel and opposite angles equal. A trapezium is a quadrilateral which has 1 pair of parallel sides. Draw three examples in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. 4 2 2 65 None None if the non parallel sides are not equal in length. SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. No Which sides are equal? All All Opposite Opposite none What is the sum of all the angles? 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 Are all angles equal? x x x Which angles are equal? What is the sum of two adjacent angles? All angles Opposite angles All angles Opposite angles 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 Does a diagonal bisect the angles it passes through? x x x Does a diagonal divide it into two congruent triangles? x No. Need to know an angle. Need to know the lengths of two adjacent sides and the angle between them. Given the length of its sides, can you calculate the length of a diagonal? No. Need to know an angle. Investigate using geostrips. 66 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a parallelogram) (not a square) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Are the two diagonal s equal in length? x x x Do the diagonals divide it into four congruent triangles? x x x Do the diagonals divide it into four triangles of equal area? x Are the diagonals perpendicular? x x x Do the two diagonals bisect each other? x Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Lengths of 2 adjacent sides l and b. Area = l x b. Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = b x h (Base ( b) and Area = b x h The lengths of its parallel sides ( a and b)and the perpendicular distance between them. What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? One side length x. Area = x2 (Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = b x h) Does a diagonal bisect its area? If you know the lengths of the diagonals x and y Area = ½ x y. perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = b x h) 67 Area = ½ (a+b) h Appendix D How to register for CensusAtSchool, complete the online questionnaire and retrieve class data for analysis and interpretation Part 1: Registration www.CensusAtSchool.ie Click “Teacher Registration” under “Take Part” in the main menu This is the Irish CensusAtSchool homepage. Click “Take Part” under the main menu. 1 2 Fill out and click on “Submit” Click “ONLINE REGISTRATION FORM” Once your registration form has been received and approved an email with a personal username and password will be dispatched to you. Check your email spam folder if you do not See “Forgotten Log In Details” Queries: [email protected] receive these details within 48 hours. 3 4 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Part 2: Accessing the questionnaire Click “Take Part”, “Questionnaires” and then click on the latest questionnaire which will be at the top of the list. Click “Take the CensusAtSchool* online questionnaire” 6 5 Part 3: Filling out the questionnaire Each student must fill in accurately; the school roll number and the teacher’s username (sent by email) Click on “Next” When the questionnaire is completed, the student clicks “Submit”. 7 69 8 SeniorCycleOrdinaryLevel Logging in to retrieve data Part 4 Now that my students have filled in the data – what next? Fill in your username and password. (If you have forgotten them, click on the “forgot your password or username” link.) Under “Get Data” click on “Request your class data” Click “Login”. 9 10 Your data will look similar to the spreadsheet below. Once logged in you will be asked for your school roll number and username. Select whichever questionnaire (phase) your students have completed. Click on “Submit” and your data will be returned to you in spreadsheet form. 12 11 70

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