Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications Freescale Semiconductor

Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
AN2764
Rev. 0, 06/2005
Improving the Transient Immunity
Performance of
Microcontroller-Based Applications
by: Ross Carlton, Greg Racino, John Suchyta
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Introduction
Increased competition among appliance manufacturers, as well as market regulatory pressures, are
challenging original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to reduce the cost of their products while ensuring
compatible operation in increasingly severe electro-magnetic environments. As a result of this focus on
cost control, implementing the necessary transient immunity protections to prevent appliance malfunction
due to transients on power and signal lines is becoming ever more challenging for the appliance designer.
Because traditional power supply designs and electro-magnetic interference (EMI) controls are sacrificed
for lower-cost solutions, the appliance designer must develop new techniques to meet applicable
regulatory electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
This application note discusses the effects of transient electrical disturbances on embedded
microcontrollers (MCUs) and suggests practical hardware and software design techniques that can
provide cost-effective protection for electrical fast transients (EFT), electrostatic discharge (ESD), and
other power line or signal line transients of short duration. Although this discussion is targeted at
appliance manufacturers, these principles also apply to applications in consumer, industrial, and
automotive electronics.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2005. All rights reserved.
The Challenge
The Challenge
As real-world electrical disturbances are understood and modeled, new standards are developed to
characterize, monitor, and qualify the effects of these disturbances in applications. These standards
provide guidance for the appliance system designer and challenges for the integrated circuit (IC) and
component designers.
Environment
The transient immunity environment for commercial electrical and electronic products includes both
electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electrical fast transients (EFT). These transients are defined in
IEC 61000-4-21 (or ANSI C63.16) and IEC 61000-4-42, respectively. These standards include test
methods that are performed by the OEM designer to meet product specifications and regulatory
requirements.
The ESD waveform is intended to simulate the discharge from a human operator. The electrostatic
discharge is injected at any location that the operator is likely to touch. This includes all user accessible
controls and external connectors. The test levels for ESD vary widely depending on application. Values
for air and contact discharge can be as low as 2 kV for commercial applications or as high as 20 kV for
some automotive applications. The ESD waveform specified in IEC 61000-4-2 has a rise time of
0.7 ns to 1.0 ns, resulting in a noise bandwidth (1/πtr) of approximately 450 MHz.
The EFT waveform is intended to simulate the transients created by the switching of relays or the
interruption of inductive loads on the power mains. Though primarily intended for injection on the product’s
AC power cord, the EFT waveform can also be injected onto signal and control lines to simulate the
coupling of the EFT onto these lines. Although test levels for the EFT transient are specified with
amplitudes as high as to 4 kV, higher levels of immunity performance are sometimes required for
particularly severe environments. The EFT waveform specified in IEC 61000-4-4 has a rise time of
3.5 ns to 6.5 ns resulting, in a noise bandwidth (1/πtr) of approximately 90 MHz.
Issues In Embedded Applications
Low-cost, MCU-based embedded applications are particularly susceptible to performance degradation
during ESD and EFT events. This sensitivity to fast rise time transients is to be expected, even for MCUs
running at relatively low clock frequencies. This sensitivity is due to the process technologies used.
Today’s semiconductor process technologies for low-cost, 8-bit and 16-bit MCUs implement transistor
gate lengths in the 0.65 µm to 0.25 µm range. These gate lengths are capable of generating and
responding to signals with rise times in the sub-nanosecond range (or an equivalent bandwidth of greater
than 300 MHz). As a result, an MCU is capable of responding to ESD or EFT signals injected onto its pins.
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The Challenge
In addition to the process technology, MCU performance in the presence of an ESD or EFT event is
affected by the design of the IC and its package, the design of the printed circuit board (PCB), the software
running on the MCU, the design of the system, and the characteristics of the ESD or EFT waveform when
it reaches the MCU. The relative impact of each performance driver (where to focus effort for maximum
effect) is shown in the pie chart in Figure 1.
MCU PACKAGE
PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
SYSTEM DESIGN
MCU DESIGN
PCB DESIGN
Figure 1. Performance Driver Impact on Application Transient Immunity
IC design considerations, other than those directly related to the process technology, have an effect on
MCU performance when subjected to transients. These design considerations include the composition of
ESD suppression devices on I/O pins, the design and layout of I/O pin structures, and any dedicated EMC
circuitry. ESD devices, which are normally designed to prevent damage during part handling and PCB
assembly operations, can range from simple diodes and FET snap back mode protection to complex
active filters. The design of these ESD protection components must ensure compatibility with the need for
powered and operational transient protection. The design and layout of I/O pin structures must be done
carefully to prevent device damage due to electrical over-stress (EOS) and unwanted current injection.
EMC controls and other techniques, such as physical separation or circuit isolation, will also impact
transient immunity performance — potentially at a significant cost due to die size impact.
The choice of MCU package has an effect on transient immunity performance. The primary package
characteristics that impact transient immunity performance are package type and package dimensions.
The package type will determine the baseline impedance of the package pins due to the resistance and
coupling (capacitive and inductive) to adjacent pins and/or bond wires. If the package employs a substrate
to connect the die bond pads to the package pins, its impedance characteristics will also impact
performance. Note that while there are exceptions, similar package types tend to have similar
performance characteristics because they have similar capacitances and impedances. Package
dimensions influence PCB layout and composition. For example, surface-mount packages generally have
smaller footprints than equivalent through-hole packages that can reduce overall PCB dimensions or
provide more space to implement board-level suppression techniques.
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The Challenge
Areas of MCU Vulnerability
Considering that most MCUs are specified and designed to generate and respond to signals with rise
times comparable to ESD and EFT events, vulnerability to these events should be expected. Areas of
MCUs that are typically vulnerable to ESD and EFT signals include:
• Power and ground pins
• Edge-sensitive digital inputs
• High-frequency digital inputs
• Analog inputs
• Clock (oscillator) pins
• Substrate
• Multiplexed pin functions
• ESD protection circuitry
Some MCUs have multiple power and ground pins to isolate high speed digital functions from low speed
or noise-sensitive analog functions. These supply pins should be filtered appropriately to prevent
disturbances in one functional area from affecting another. Low-cost MCUs may have only a single set of
power and ground pins, which makes isolation difficult, and consequentially makes filtering more
important. A transient that gets propagated to a supply line can potentially disrupt any circuit connected
to the power distribution system.
Edge-sensitive inputs are particularly vulnerable to transients. These inputs are usually timer or external
interrupt inputs. Even with external low-pass filtering connected to the input, a sufficiently large transient
can inject enough energy to disrupt MCU operation. Transients that don’t disrupt the MCU can still be
propagated as glitches (see Figure 2).
GLITCH
Figure 2. Transient Generation of Logic Glitches
High speed digital inputs, such as clock and data inputs, are less likely to have low-pass filtering and
consequently can register transients as valid data pulses. External isolation techniques are necessary to
eliminate this vulnerability.
Analog inputs are generally lower impedance than digital inputs and can experience physical damage if
not protected during ESD and EFT transients. However, on most MCUs, the analog inputs are multiplexed
with general-purpose I/O pins and have a small sampling window in which the lower input impedance is
active. A transient appearing at an analog input pin during an analog-to-digital conversion will result in
distorted data due to the signal disruption. Effective software filtering techniques help mitigate this
vulnerability.
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The Challenge
Most MCUs have a built-in oscillator amplifier so that an external crystal or resonator is all that is needed
to ensure a stable high-frequency system clock. The oscillator pins can pass noise pulses as valid clock
edges and are considered to be the most vulnerable inputs to the system. Appropriate PCB layout is the
preferred method to eliminate this risk.
As shown in Figure 3, transients can travel from the point of entry and affect circuits via several paths.
Signal path #1 results from the I/O pin input circuitry attempting to process the transient as if it were data.
A false signal can be sent to core circuitry, such as the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) which can cause
data corruption. As shown by signal path #2, system input signals that exceed the power rails of the MCU
will inject current into the I/O pin structure as soon as the signal level exceeds the ESD protection diode’s
forward bias voltage. The I/O pin structure and on-chip ESD protection network can dissipate small
amounts of injected energy. However, if the injected current is greater than the local circuit can handle,
this excessive current can find alternative paths through the supply rails or substrate and disrupt other
circuitry. The final signal path, shown by #3, is due to current being injected into the device substrate.
Substrate injection currents can flow to remote locations on the die and disrupt sensitive analog circuitry.
Current injection is generally minimized by using series resistors.
VDD
VSS
1
CPU
SPI
MEMORY
SILICON p– SUBSTRATE
2
ATD
3
Figure 3. Transient Current Injection Paths Inside the MCU
General-purpose MCUs have I/O ports that can have more that one function multiplexed on a pin. An
electrical disturbance that causes enough energy to disrupt digital logic can also affect the local circuitry
that selects the pin function. The resulting fault could change the pin state, the pin directionality, or the
pin function.
Vulnerability is particularly troublesome for general-purpose MCUs that are designed to meet the needs
of many applications. For these MCUs, it is impractical or impossible to protect all vulnerable areas
without adversely affecting functional performance in at least some applications.
Application-specific MCUs can be protected with greater success, but some vulnerability will continue to
exist if the operational frequency or bandwidth of the MCU overlaps the bandwidth of the ESD and EFT
signals.
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The Challenge
MCU Failure Modes
Failure modes for integrated circuits (ICs) are typically classified into one of five categories as specified
in IEC 62132-1 and shown in Table 1. The classification is determined by the performance of the IC in the
presence of the ESD or EFT signal. This performance is dependent on the type of IC and its functional
and parametric operation as documented in its data sheet.
Table 1. IEC Classification of IC Performance Degradation
Class
Description
A
All functions of the IC perform as designed during and after exposure to a disturbance.
B
All functions of the IC perform as designed during exposure; however, one or more of
them may go beyond the specified tolerance. All functions return automatically to within
normal limits after the disturbance is removed. Memory functions shall remain Class A.
C
A function of the IC does not function as designed during exposure but returns
automatically to normal operation after the disturbance is removed.
D
A function of the IC does not function as designed during exposure and does not return
to normal operation until the disturbance is removed and the IC is reset by simple
operator action.
E
One or more functions of the IC do not perform as designed during and after exposure
and cannot be returned to normal operation.
Freescale’s interpretation of the IEC’s classification of IC EMC degradation specific to MCUs is shown in
Table 2. The resulting table recognizes that there are two distinct levels of recovery for IEC level C:
external reset and power-on reset (or cycling power). Each of these functions can be performed with
external circuitry or by operator intervention.
Table 2. Freescale Classification of MCU Performance Degradation
Class
Description
A
Normal performance within the specification limits during application of the transient
B
Temporary degradation or loss of function or performance which is self-recoverable
after the transient is removed. Device returns to normal performance.
C
Temporary degradation or loss of function or performance which requires an external
reset after the transient is removed. Device returns to normal performance.
D
Temporary degradation or loss of function or performance which requires that power be
cycled after the transient is removed. Device returns to normal performance.
E
Permanent degradation or loss of function which is not recoverable due to damage or
loss of data
For MCUs, performance degradation can take many forms. Common forms of temporary degradation
include but are not limited to internal reset, latch-up, memory corruption, and code runaway. MCUs with
internal reset circuits can generally resume operation without operator involvement if the fault is an
unexpected reset or code runaway that is caught by a watchdog timer. External reset circuits may be
required when internal reset circuits are not suitable. Recovery from latch-up and volatile memory
corruption (RAM) requires cycling the power to the system. Nonvolatile memory corruption (FLASH,
EEPROM) requires a more extensive process of re-programming the system, which can be viewed as a
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temporary MCU degradation if the system can be re-worked, or as a permanent degradation if it cannot
be re-worked.
Permanent degradation is typically due to silicon damage that can cause increased leakage current on
input/output (I/O) pins or power pins. The damage can affect analog measurements, input impedances,
and output drive strength. With increased leakage current, the electronic system may still operate within
specification for a while, but it may ultimately fail due to damage from the transient stress. Other
permanent degradation can be caused by melted or fused power traces and bond wires resulting in opens
and/or shorts.
Impact of MCU Design Trends
The MCU design trend that particularly impacts transient immunity performance is the drive to continually
reduce the minimum gate length of individual field effect transistors (FETs), making them smaller and
faster. This trend is the result of market pressure on semiconductor manufacturers to reduce the cost of
their products by making die sizes smaller. The result is that maintaining the immunity performance of
MCUs is becoming increasingly difficult. When coupled with continuing cost reductions by OEMs at the
application or system level, the immunity problem becomes more severe.
MCU designers are challenged to develop better methods to dissipate the energy injected during a
transient event. Although designers would appreciate more area in which to include transient suppression
circuits, this is generally not allowed in order to keep the die size and cost to a minimum. Some of the
remaining options available to the designer include modifying semiconductor attributes (doping and
materials) and changing the vertical structure of the I/O pin.
Hardware Techniques
The hardware design techniques used for an application will establish the baseline immunity
performance. The purpose of hardware techniques is to protect the MCU from performance degradation
or long-term MCU reliability problems.
Hardware techniques should be maximized to ensure desired EMC performance before attempting any
software techniques. This is important because software techniques do not reduce the level of transients
to which the MCU is exposed — they only reduce the impact of these signals on system operation. Even
though the application performance may not be degraded, exposure to transients can adversely affect
long-term reliability.
In order to produce an application that meets both the regulatory EMC requirements and minimizes cost,
the design process must be both methodical and iterative. Rigorous system and PCB design
methodologies are required to ensure quality and consistency in the design process. Without such
methodologies, achieving EMC compliance will be accidental and unrepeatable. The design process
must also be iterative to ensure the best possible system design and PCB layout. A design that minimizes
cost cannot be completed properly in one pass — regardless of the quality of personnel or tools. An
EMC-compliant, low-cost application is the result of close and consistent collaboration between the EMC
engineer and all other engineering disciplines (i.e., electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, PCB
layout engineers, etc.).
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Hardware Techniques
Transient Suppression and Control Components
Components used to suppress or control transients, as well as their implementation details and RF
characteristics, are described in technical documentation from the component manufacturers as well as
in many books, papers, and articles. Therefore, this application note will not go into detail on component
selection and specific usage. The following paragraphs provide a basic description of how the most
typically used components are employed in low-cost designs for achieving the desired level of transient
immunity.
Components used to suppress or control transients can be grouped into two main categories:
• Components that shunt transient currents (voltage limiters)
• Components that block transient currents (current limiters)
Note that depending on the rise time (frequency bandwidth) of the transient, a component may function
as either a shunt or a block. For instance, at a slow rise time (low frequency bandwidth) an inductor will
have little impedance (a shunt). At faster rise times (higher frequency bandwidth), an inductor will have
greater impedance (a block). As a result, transient suppression components must be carefully selected
for the optimal operating conditions. The actual performance of the component in the application will
depend on the frequency-based characteristics of the component and the board layout.
Resistors
Series resistance between two nodes can provide inexpensive and effective transient protection blocking
or limiting transients with frequency-independent resistance. Resistance can be used to create low-pass
filters and to decouple power domains. Series resistance is primarily suited to protecting digital or analog
signals that carry low currents and can accept a modest voltage drop (across the series resistance).
Typically, wire-wound or carbon-composition resistors are used due to their ability to survive large
transient currents. Important characteristics to consider when selecting resistors are the steady-state
maximum power rating, maximum working voltage, and dielectric withstand voltage. The parasitic shunt
capacitance and series inductance of a resistor do not require special consideration in transient protection
applications.
Capacitors
Capacitors are used in a variety of transient protection roles: bypassing or charge storage (as a limiter of
voltage variations) and power decoupling (as a shunt element in a low-pass filter or a series element in a
high-pass filter). In either role, the capacitor can be used to effectively shunt fast transients of limited
energy, such as ESD or EFT. Capacitors are not practical for shunting larger transient currents due to
lightning, surge, or switching large inductive loads. Important characteristics to consider when selecting
capacitors are the maximum DC voltage rating, parasitic inductance, parasitic resistance, and
over-voltage failure mechanism. When used in conditions where the maximum voltage rating may be
exceeded, capacitors should be of the self-healing type, such as the metallized polyester film capacitor.
Ferrite Beads and Inductors
Ferrite beads and inductors are used to decouple power domains by creating low-pass filters. In these
applications, a series ferrite bead or inductor is used to block or limit transients with frequency-dependent
impedance. Series inductance is primarily suited to protecting power lines and digital or analog signals
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that carry high currents or cannot accept the voltage drop imposed by a series resistance. Important
characteristics to consider when selecting ferrite beads or inductors are the maximum DC current rating,
parasitic resistance, permeability of the ferrite material, DC resistance, and parasitic inter-winding
capacitance in the case of wound inductors.
Common-Mode Chokes
Common-mode chokes present a large inductance in series with common-mode sources and small or
negligible inductance in series with differential-mode sources. These inductances suppress
common-mode signals while having a negligible effect on power frequency differential-mode signals. As
a result, the common-mode choke is one of the most effective transient protection components. When
used with capacitors to form a low-pass filter, common-mode chokes can be even more effective.
Important characteristics to consider when selecting a common-mode choke are the maximum
differential-mode DC current rating, common-mode inductance, differential-mode inductance, and DC
resistance.
Filters
Filters are used to achieve greater performance than single capacitive or inductive components. Filters
use multiple capacitive and inductive components that are specifically selected to achieve the desired
performance.
Transient Voltage Suppressors
The transient voltage suppressor (TVS) is used to control and limit the voltage developed across any two
or more terminals. The TVS accomplishes this task by clamping the voltage level and diverting transient
currents from sensitive circuitry when a trigger voltage is reached. TVS devices tend to have response
times in inverse proportion to their current-handling capability. As a result, two devices (one with slow
response and high current capability and one with fast response but low current capability) are often
required to achieve the desired protection level.
TVS devices can be used to suppress transients on the AC mains, DC mains, and other power supply
systems. They can also be used to clamp transient voltages generated by the switching of inductive loads
within an application.
Varistors
The varistor (or voltage-variable resistor) is a non-linear, symmetrical, bipolar device that dissipates
energy into a solid, bulk material such as a metal oxide in the case of the common metal oxide varistor
(MOV). As a result, the varistor will effectively clamp both positive and negative high current transients.
The one issue with varistors is that the actual trigger voltage can vary widely from the specified value.
Transient protection designs using varistors must accommodate this characteristic. Currently, MOVs are
the best of the available non-linear devices for the protection of electronics from transient voltages
propagating on the AC mains.
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Hardware Techniques
Avalanche and Zener Diodes
The avalanche and Zener diodes are silicon diodes intended for operation in the reverse breakdown
mode. The primary difference between these two diodes is the mechanism of reverse breakdown:
avalanche or Zener. Typically, the Zener diodes have a reverse breakdown voltage of less than 5 V while
diodes with reverse breakdown voltages of greater than 8 V use the avalanche mechanism.
System Power and Signal Entry
The first and best opportunity to eliminate transient immunity problems is at the point of power or signal
entry into the application. If the immunity signal can be sufficiently suppressed at this point, the remaining
hardware and software techniques may not be necessary. The impact of this is twofold: the risk on
noncompliance is reduced or eliminated; and the cost and effort in other areas of the design are reduced.
Examples of point of entry power filters and signal line filters are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5,
respectively. Power filters are readily available from numerous vendors in both standard and custom
packages. Filter performance can also be selected from standard offerings or customized for the
particular application.
STANDARD FILTERS
CUSTOM FILTERS
Figure 4. Point of Entry Power Filter Examples
Figure 5. Point of Entry Signal Line Filter Examples
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If power and signal connections to the application are not optimized for transient suppression at the point
of entry, the compliance problem increases in complexity because control of the immunity signals has
been lost. The result is that all of the remaining hardware and software techniques may be needed to
ensure good EMC performance.
These two conditions are illustrated in Figure 6. Transient suppression devices suitable for point of entry
applications are readily available from numerous suppliers or, if needed or desired, custom solutions can
be designed.
RADIATED
PCB2
CONDUCTED
PCB2
CONDUCTED
FILTER
PCB1
No Filter — Conducted immunity signal
propagates to PCB1 and radiates to
couple to PCB2 and interior cables.
PCB1
Filtered — Conducted immunity signal
suppressed. Clean power supplied to
PCB1 and no internal radiation.
Figure 6. Point of Entry Filter Placement
System Connector Location
If power and signals are filtered at their point of entry into the application, the location of connectors is not
critical. However, if the power and signals are not filtered, connector location becomes very important. In
this case, connectors should be located so that the cable’s length between the application chassis and
the connected load is as short as possible. A short connection will reduce the amount of energy radiated
into the chassis but will have no effect on the conducted immunity signal. In addition, separate power
connectors from signal connectors as much as possible.
System Cable Routing
Where cable lines are unfiltered, never, under any circumstances, route power lines and signal lines in
the same cable bundle. Doing so will only ensure that the noise on the power/signal lines will be coupled
to the other signal/power lines in the bundle. Failing to follow this rule will serve to maximize the
complexity of the problem by ensuring many more noisy signals in the system.
Where cable lines are filtered, power and signal lines may be routed together in the same cable bundle
only if there is no possibility of creating a self-compatibility problem. For instance, a self-compatibility
problem may exist if the application contains subsystems or components that generate transient noise
(e.g., relays, motors, and compressors) as a result of normal operation. If the possibility of a
self-compatibility problem exists, default to the rule for unfiltered lines.
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System Component Placement
The placement of subsystems, components or cables is important — particularly for self-compatibility.
Noisy subsystems, components or cables should be physically isolated from sensitive electronics, such
as the MCU, to minimize radiated noise coupling. Physical isolation can take the form of separation
(distance) or shielding.
Also, separate AC-to-DC power supply circuits from analog and digital logic circuits. If possible, use a
separate, dedicated PCB for AC-to-DC power supply circuits.
System and PCB Power Supply
The second opportunity to eliminate transient immunity problems is at the application’s power supply. The
transient protection in the power supply can be standalone or be designed to work in conjunction with
protection at the power entry point. In either case, protection is required to prevent damage to the power
supply and logic components as well as to prevent any performance degradation of the application.
Power supply designs typically fall into one of two categories: linear or switching. A basic representation
of each type of power supply is shown in Figure 7. Each design style has its own considerations for
ensuring transient immunity in the application.
+
CONTROL
RL
VOUT
+
CONTROL
VOUT
RL
CO
–
LINEAR POWER SUPPLY
–
SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY
Figure 7. Power Supply Types
Advances in power supply design technology have allowed the development of new low-cost versions of
traditional power supply designs. Although low-cost designs are very attractive, cost reductions are
typically achieved at the expense of EMC. Therefore, the successful implementation of a low-cost design
will require greater planning and expertise to meet the required immunity performance levels.
Traditional Linear Power Supply
The linear AC-to-DC power supply can be approximated as a series resistance between the input and the
output. Feedback control can optionally be used to provide a specified output voltage by varying the value
of the series resistance. Traditional linear power supplies have many positive performance
characteristics, such as excellent EMI performance, but are limited in applications by efficiency, heat
dissipation, and size. A block diagram of a generic linear power supply is shown in Figure 8.
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FILTERED
DC OUTPUT 1
L
UNFILTERED
EMI FILTER
AC INPUT
RECTIFIER
FILTER
CAPACITORS
DC-DC
LINEAR
REGULATOR
FILTER
CAPACITORS
FILTERED
DC OUTPUT 2
N
TRANSFORMER
G
Figure 8. Generic Linear Power Supply
Neither the DC output nor the ground should be directly connected to the AC mains (line or neutral) unless
required for functionality. In addition, there are four areas of a traditional linear power supply that require
consideration and possibly protection. These areas are described as follows:
1. The transformer (or the rectifier diodes, if a transformer is not used), needs protection from
excessive primary common mode and differential mode voltages on the AC mains. Protection
components include fuses or fusible resistors (RF) to limit current, varistors (MOV) to clamp
transient voltages, line-to-line “X” capacitors (CX) to shunt differential mode noise, line-to-ground
“Y” capacitors (CY) to shunt common mode noise, and chokes to impede both common mode and
differential mode noise. These protection components also work together to form a series of
low-pass filters. An example of an AC mains EMI filter with both differential and common mode filter
elements is shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10 for both 2-wire and 3-wire power, respectively.
L
DM CHOKE
RF
UNFILTERED
AC INPUT
+
CM CHOKE
MOV
CX
CX
FILTERED
AC OUTPUT
DM CHOKE
–
N
TRANSIENT
PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL
MODE FILTER
COMMON
MODE FILTER
Figure 9. AC Mains EMI Filter for 2-Wire Power
L
DM CHOKE
RF
UNFILTERED
AC INPUT
CM CHOKE
MOV
+
+
CY
CX
MOV
DM CHOKE
N
+
FILTERED
AC OUTPUT
CY
–
G
TRANSIENT
PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL
MODE FILTER
COMMON
MODE FILTER
Figure 10. AC Mains EMI Filter for 3-Wire Power
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2. If a transformer (T) is used between the AC mains and the rectifier diodes (BR), the rectifier diodes
need protection from excessive current and excessive reverse voltage. Differential mode
protection is achieved by using a high-voltage, line-to-line aluminum electrolytic capacitor (CBulk).
The addition of line-to-line “X” capacitors (CX) from the secondary coil back to the primary reduces
common mode noise. In addition, for three-wire power systems, line-to-ground aluminum
electrolytic capacitors (CBulk_CM) provide additional common mode protection. Note that while the
rectifiers are shown in a full-wave bridge configuration, a half-wave configuration is also possible.
CX
L
+
T
+
FILTERED
AC
BR
CBulk
FILTERED
DC OUTPUT
–
N
Figure 11. Transformer, Rectifier, and Filter Capacitors for 2-Wire Power
CX
L
+
+
T
+
FILTERED
AC
CBulk_CM
BR
CBulk
+
N
G
CBulk_CM
FILTERED
DC OUTPUT
–
CX
Figure 12. Transformer, Rectifier, and Filter Capacitors for 3-Wire Power
3. The voltage regulator input (if used) and the filter capacitors need protection from excessive
voltage. Protection can be achieved by specifying a higher working voltage for the filter capacitor
and by using a transient voltage suppressor such as a Zener diode (DZener) as shown in Figure 13.
DRect
DC-DC
LINEAR
REGULATOR
+
FILTERED
DC
–
DZener
+
CBulk
CBypass
SECONDARY
DC OUTPUT
–
Figure 13. Regulator and Filter Capacitors
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Hardware Techniques
4. The voltage regulator output (if used) and loads need protection from excessive voltage and
require bypassing to reduce noise as shown in Figure 13. Over voltage protection should be
achieved by connecting a rectifier diode (DRect) from the voltage regulator output to the input to
discharge the regulated power rail during power-down. In addition, decoupling capacitors (CBulk,
CBypass) can be used to control noise on the secondary DC output. Transient voltage suppressors
(DZener) can be added in parallel with the bypass capacitors if additional protection is needed.
Low-Cost Linear Power Supply
A low-cost version of the linear power supply is called a passive (capacitive/resistive) dropper power
supply. This power supply type is suitable for current requirements of up to approximately 120 mA.
Diagrams showing two possible examples of a passive dropper power supply are shown in Figure 14 and
Figure 15. This supply type can be approximated as a series resistance between the input and the output
with a Zener diode (DZener) to establish the output voltage. This low-cost linear power supply design
eliminates the conversion efficiency, heat dissipation, and parts cost of the traditional design style;
however, at the cost of increasing the complexity of achieving EMC.
RD
DRect
L
+
RS
CX
DRect
FILTERED
AC INPUT
DZener UNFILTERED
DC OUTPUT
–
N
Figure 14. Passive Dropper Power Supply (Buck Regulator)
RD
L
RS
DRect
CX
FILTERED
AC
N
DZener
–
UNFILTERED
DC
+
Figure 15. Passive Dropper Power Supply (Inverting Regulator)
EMC complexity is increased in these designs because one of the AC mains lines actually becomes one
terminal of the regulated DC power supply. This is to say that either the VDD or VSS pin(s) of a
microcontroller are directly connected to the AC mains. As a result, the microcontroller will be subjected
to all disturbances on the AC mains. This situation can easily cause microcontroller susceptibility
problems unless the proper measures are taken.
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Hardware Techniques
It is highly recommended that point of entry power filtering, as shown for a traditional linear power supply
in Figure 9 and Figure 10, is used. If the power entry point is not filtered, using a passive dropper power
supply will require significant designer time and effort to implement the necessary immunity controls. For
the protection of any attached DC-DC regulators, use the protection recommended for traditional linear
power supplies shown in Figure 13.
An additional problem with this power supply type is that application self-compatibility becomes a real
issue — particularly in applications with relays that switch AC mains power to inductive loads (such as
motors and compressors). Unless the transients generated by these switched loads are properly
suppressed, the microcontroller will also be subjected to them as well.
Traditional Switching Power Supply
The switching AC-to-DC power supply varies the duty cycle of a series switch according to feedback from
the output. Traditional switching power supplies deliver higher efficiency at the expense of higher noise
on the DC output. A block diagram of a generic linear power supply is shown in Figure 16. For switching
power supplies, it is important to optically isolate the feedback loop to ensure the regulated supply and
ground are isolated from the mains to maximize immunity performance.
FILTERED
DC OUTPUT
FEEDBACK
L
SWITCH
UNFILTERED EMI
AC INPUT FILTER
RECTIFIER
FILTER
CAPACITORS
FILTER
CAPACITORS
DC-DC
LINEAR
REGULATOR
FILTER
CAPACITORS
FILTERED
DC OUTPUT
N
G
TRANSFORMER
Figure 16. Generic Switching Power Supply
Neither the DC output nor the ground should be directly connected to the AC mains (line or neutral) unless
required for functionality. In addition, there are four areas of a traditional switching power supply that
require consideration and, possibly, protection. These areas are described as follows:
1. The rectifier diodes need protection from excessive primary common mode and differential mode
voltages on the AC mains. Protection components and EMI filter designs are the same as for linear
power supplies as shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10.
2. While not required specifically for protection, the rectified voltage must be filtered and smoothed.
Differential mode filtering is achieved by using a high-voltage, line-to-line aluminum electrolytic
capacitor (CBulk) as shown in Figure 17. In addition, for three-wire power systems, line-to-ground
aluminum electrolytic capacitors (CBulk_CM) provide additional common mode filtering as shown in
Figure 18.
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L
+
+
FILTERED
AC
FILTERED
DC
BR
CBulk
N
–
Figure 17. Rectifier and Filter Capacitors for 2-Wire Power
L
+
+
+
FILTERED
AC
CBulk_CM
BR
CBulk
+
N
FILTERED
DC
CBulk_CM
–
G
Figure 18. Rectifier and Filter Capacitors for 3-Wire Power
3. The switch, controller, and feedback circuitry will need protection as specified or recommended by
the manufacturer of the switching controller. Care should be taken to ensure that the regulated
supply and ground lines are not DC connected to the AC mains unless required for functionality.
Use optical isolation in the feedback circuit whenever possible, or as recommended by the
manufacturer of the switching controller.
4. The voltage regulator input (if used) and the filter capacitors need protection from excessive
voltage. Protection can be achieved by specifying a higher working voltage for the filter capacitor
and by using a transient voltage suppressor such as a Zener diode (DZener) as shown in Figure 19.
DRect
DC-DC
LINEAR
REGULATOR
+
FILTERED
DC
–
DZener
+
CBulk
CBypass
SECONDARY
DC OUTPUT
–
Figure 19. Regulator and Output Protection
5. The voltage regulator output (if used) and loads need protection from excessive voltage and
require bypassing to reduce noise as shown in Figure 19. Over-voltage protection should be
achieved by connecting a rectifier diode (DRect) from the voltage regulator output to the input to
discharge the regulated power rail during power-down. In addition, decoupling capacitors (CBulk,
CBypass) can be used to control noise on the secondary DC output. Transient voltage suppressors
(DZener) can be added in parallel with the bypass capacitors if additional protection is needed.
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Hardware Techniques
Low-Cost Switching Power Supply
A low-cost version of the traditional switching power supply, called a non-isolated switching power supply,
is designed to be an alternative to the passive (capacitive/resistive) dropper power supply. This power
supply is suitable for current requirements as high as 400 mA but may increase as the switching
technology improves. Diagrams showing two possible examples of a non-isolated switching power supply
are shown in Figure 20 and Figure 21. This low-cost switching power supply design reduces the
component cost and layout complexity of the traditional design style; once again, at the cost of increasing
the complexity of achieving EMC.
L
CONTROL
FEEDBACK
HV POWER
MOSFET
SWITCH
L
+
+
FILTERED
AC
DRect
CBulk
CBypass
FILTERED
DC
–
N
Figure 20. Non-Isolated Switching Power Supply (Buck Regulator)
L
FILTERED
AC
N
HV POWER
MOSFET
SWITCH
CONTROL
DRect
–
CBulk
+
CBypass
FILTERED
DC
+
Figure 21. Non-Isolated Switching Power Supply (Inverting Regulator)
As for the passive dropper power supply, EMC complexity is increased in these designs because one of
the AC mains actually becomes one terminal of the regulated DC power supply. This is to say that either
the VDD or VSS pin(s) of a microcontroller are directly connected to the AC mains. As a result, the
microcontroller will be subjected to all disturbances on the AC mains. This situation can easily cause
microcontroller susceptibility problems unless the proper measures are taken.
It is highly recommended that power point of entry filtering, as shown for a traditional linear power supply
in Figure 9 and Figure 10, is used. If the power entry point is not filtered, using a non-isolated switching
power supply will require either strict compliance with the schematic and layout recommendations of the
switching controller manufacturer or significant designer time and effort implementing the necessary
immunity controls. For the protection of any attached DC-DC regulators, use the protection recommended
for traditional linear power supplies shown in Figure 13.
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Another problem with this power supply type is that application self-compatibility becomes a real
issue — particularly in applications with relays that switch AC mains power to inductive loads, such as
motors and compressors. Unless the transients generated by these switched loads are properly
suppressed, the microcontroller will also be subjected to them as well.
PCB Floorplan
Before a PCB layout begins, care must be taken to properly place components. Low-level analog,
high-speed digital, and noisy circuits (relays, high-current switchers, etc.) must be separated from each
other to limit coupling between the PCB subsystems to a minimum. Begin the PCB design by partitioning
the available board space into separate functional areas as shown in Figure 22.
GROUND DISTRIBUTION POINT
DF ANALOG DC POWER
DOMAIN
DF
BP
DIGITAL DC POWER
DOMAIN
ANALOG
BP
AC POWER DOMAIN
BP
MCU
RELAY
RELAY
SENSORS
RELAY
INPUTS
POWER
SUPPLY
INPUTS
EMI
FILTER
OUTPUTS
LPF
LPF
OUTPUTS
OUTPUTS
Figure 22. PCB Segmentation
Each regulated DC power domain is isolated by its own decoupling filter (DF). The decoupling filter is
typically a low-pass filter with both series and parallel elements as shown in Figure 23. The series
elements, or blocks, are chosen based on the functional and EMC requirements and are typically
resistors, inductors, or ferrite beads. The parallel components, or shunts, are capacitors.
VDD
UNFILTERED
DC INPUT
VSS
VDD_ISO
FILTERED
DC INPUT
VSS_ISO
Figure 23. Generic Decoupling Filter
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Hardware Techniques
Each digital logic component, such as the MCU, or other sensitive circuit block should be provided with a
high-frequency bypass capacitor (BP) as shown in Figure 22. The bypass capacitor, in addition to
providing a local source of charge to reduce emissions, serves to limit transients at the protected device’s
power pins. In addition, low-pass filters (LPF) should be provided for each input and output to prevent
noise that is coupled to connected cables from disturbing circuitry on the PCB.
When placing components, consider the potential routing of traces between the different functional areas,
particularly clocks and other high-speed signals. The layout should be iteratively reviewed and corrected
until all EMI risks have been addressed.
PCB Power Distribution
After the initial PCB segmentation and component placement is complete, the power distribution system
should be defined. The design of the power distribution system is the most important part of ensuring PCB
EMC because it is the basis for all EMC controls. The ground and supply nets should be implemented as
planes or short, wide traces. The ground (VSS) system should be defined first and the supply (VDD)
system second.
To design a successful grounding scheme, the designer must be aware of the paths that ground currents
will take to identify possible common-mode impedance problems, reduce loop areas, and prevent noisy
return currents from interfering with low-level circuits. A good methodology is to start with a ground plane
and selectively remove copper for power and signals. Avoid the use of vias and wire jumpers to connect
different areas of ground. Vias and wire jumpers add inductance that can create common impedance
noise between circuits that could cause functional degradation.
Ensure that all MCU pins tied to VSS are connected using a plane or short, wide trace to provide a
common reference with a minimal voltage differential between any two connections. Such voltage
differentials generate noise currents in the ground system of the PCB and the MCU.
After the ground system has been routed on the PCB, the supply system should be designed. Supply lines
should run parallel to the ground lines on the same or adjacent layers if physically possible. If not, do not
compromise the ground layout for the sake of the supply layout. Supply system noise can be decoupled
with filters, but the ground system cannot. If discrete inductance is required, wire jumpers can potentially
be used.
Some additional design guidelines include:
• Isolate digital, analog, high current, and PCB I/O grounds from each other
• Connect different grounds at single point, typically at the power supply
• Consider adding impedance in the ground path only when necessary
When routing the ground and supply distribution systems, it is important to consider the location and
connection of any filtering or decoupling components. Creating a good power distribution system is an
iterative process that will require several passes.
In the case where regulated power (VDD and/or VSS) is routed off the PCB using a connector, it should
be isolated from filtered DC power as shown in Figure 24. Capacitors should be connected between the
connector supply pins and unfiltered DC power. The typical value of the capacitors (C) is 1 nF to 100 nF
while the typical value of inductance (L) is 100 µH to 100 mH.
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L
C
VDD
MCU
DECOUPLING
FILTER
CONNECTOR
FILTERED VDD
R
I/O
C
L
FILTERED VSS
VSS
C
Figure 24. Routing Regulated Power Off the PCB
Bypassing
Bypassing is the reduction of high-frequency current flow in a high impedance path by shunting that path
with a bypass, typically a capacitor. Bypassing is used to reduce current noise on power supply lines by
reducing the time rate of change of current (di/dt) being drawn through the inductance of the power
distribution system. A capacitor performs this function by providing a local source of high-frequency
current at the IC.
Inadequate bypassing increases system noise margins and ultimately leads to incorrect, unreliable, or
unstable operation. For a bypass network (a capacitor or group of capacitors) to perform properly,
•
•
•
Capacitance must be sufficient to provide the needed transient current to the load
Impedance between the network and its load must be very low
Loop area of the network must be as small as possible
The size of the required capacitance can be calculated either by using readily available formulas and the
characteristics of the decoupled MCU or, even better, by experimentation and measurement. The
following set of equations will give the designer a good starting point for selecting the correct decoupling
capacitance.
1. Determine the average power supply current (Iavg), which can be measured or calculated from the
MCU electrical specification by:
P avg
I avg = -------------V DD
where Pavg is the average power dissipated by the MCU, and VDD is the power supply voltage. The
average power is typically referred to in Freescale electrical specifications as the dissipated power
(PD), which consists of both internal core power (PINT) and input/output (I/O) pin power (PIO) such
that:
I avg
P avg = P D = P INT + P IO = ------------V DD
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Hardware Techniques
PD can be calculated from the equations provided in an MCU electrical specification or measured.
PIO can also be calculated or measured but, in some applications, it can be omitted.
2. Calculate the charge (δQ) to be drawn from the decoupling capacitor at the clock edge by:
I
avg
δQ = ----------fc
where fc is the clock frequency.
3. Calculate the capacitance (C) needed to source the needed charge while maintaining the voltage
supply to within some ripple specification by:
I avg
δQ
C = ------- = --------------------------------δV
f c × V DD × n
where n is the supply voltage ripple in percent (%).
4. Select a package with a resonant frequency (fo) that is at least twice the clock frequency by:
1
f O = ----------------------------------------------2 π L package × C
where Lpackage is the series inductance of the selected package. This inductance is typically
associated with the physical characteristics of the bond wires and package leads — shorter and
wider wires or leads will provide less inductance and a higher resonant frequency. The impedance
of a capacitor over frequency (ZC(jw)) is calculated by:
1
Z C ( j ω ) = R S + ---------- + j ω L package
jωC
where
ω = 2×π×f
Decoupling
Decoupling is the isolation of two circuits on a common power supply to prevent the transmission of noise.
The decoupling circuit is typically a low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is usually not symmetrical — the
isolation is not equal in both directions though the network. Decoupling achieves circuit isolation by using
shunt elements (capacitors, TVSs, etc.) and block elements (resistors, inductors, ferrites, etc.) to limit the
high-frequency content of transmitted signals or power. Noise that is not shunted to its return path will be
attenuated by the series impedance.
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Hardware Techniques
Bypassing and Decoupling Layout
To achieve the minimal impedance of the network, any filter or decoupling components connected
between the MCU pins and VSS should be connected to the MCU VSS pin(s) using planes or short, wide
traces. The impedance of these connections and, therefore, the filter performance, can be adversely
affected by the layout patterns used on the PCB to mount the filter component and connect it to the MCU.
These layout patterns add series inductance to the impedance of the network, which results in a lower
resonant frequency. A comparison of component layout patterns is shown in Figure 25.
5.0 nH
0.5 nH
Figure 25. Layout Pattern Inductance Comparison
Reducing the impedance of the filter network typically has the effect of minimizing the loop area of the
filter network. An example of filter network (decoupling capacitor) current loop area is shown in Figure 26.
As the length of the trace (x) between the MCU and decoupling capacitor increases, the loop and series
inductance also increase. This reduces the efficiency of both emissions and susceptibility coupling paths.
DECOUPLING
CAPACITOR
x
MCU
TOP: COMPONENTS
IN1: VDD PLANE
IN2: VSS PLANE
DECOUPLING CURRENT LOOP
SUPPLY CURRENT
MUTUALLY INDUCTIVE COUPLING LOOP
DECOUPLING CURRENT
Figure 26. Decoupling Loop Area
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Hardware Techniques
MCU Oscillator Circuit
Clock sources for MCUs are available in two types: mechanical resonant devices, such as crystals and
ceramic resonators; and passive RC (resistor-capacitor) oscillators. The optimum clock source for a
particular application will depend on cost, required accuracy, desired power consumption, and the
requirements of the operational environment, which includes EMC. A summary of clock source
characteristics is shown in Table 3.
Normal values of feedback resistors in an external oscillator circuit do not affect noise susceptibility.
However, noise susceptibility (ability of spurious noise to disrupt the crystal) is affected when the series
resistance is too high. The choice of bias resistor and load capacitors in the oscillator circuit (in the case
of the Pierce oscillator configuration) can lower the signal amplitude at the oscillator input pin (typically
OSC1 or EXTAL), which increases the chance of input noise disrupting the signal. In systems with EMC
susceptibility concerns, an oscillator configuration should be chosen which results in a large amplitude
signal at the oscillator input pin.
Lower frequency crystal oscillator circuits result in signals with slower rise and fall times and the oscillator
input pin. This increases the potential of noise affecting the input signal.
Table 3. MCU Clock Source Characteristics
Clock Source
Ceramic Resonator
Crystal
Crystal Oscillator
Module
RC Oscillator
Silicon Oscillator
Advantages
Disadvantages
Lower cost
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Drive circuit matching.
Low cost
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Drive circuit matching.
Insensitive to EMI and humidity. No
additional components or matching
issues.
High cost. High power consumption.
Large size. Sensitive to vibration.
Lowest cost.
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Poor temperature and supply voltage
rejection. Usually large size.
Insensitive to EMI, humidity, and vibration.
Fast startup. Small size. No additional
components or matching issues.
Temperature sensitivity generally worse
than crystal and ceramic resonator. Some
have high power consumption.
The oscillator circuit is often a primary source of susceptibility in an application. To maximize immunity,
the oscillator components should be closely grouped and located near to the oscillator pins of the MCU.
All traces associated with the oscillator circuit should be as short as possible. The oscillator circuit should
be surrounded by guard traces connected to the VSS pin of the MCU with short ground traces or a ground
plane. The oscillator circuitry should also be physically isolated or shielded from any I/O signal traces
routed to off-board connectors. Layouts that incorporate these rules are shown in Figure 27 and
Figure 28.
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R3
C4
C9
C8
Ground
Ground
C3
C1
R1
VREFH
VREFL
C5
VDD
OSC1
OSC2
VSS
Crystal
C6
Ground trace
IRQ
C2
VSSA
VDDA
XFC
Power
Power
R2
C7
RESET
Power trace
Sensitive input trace
GPIO trace
Wire jumper
Thru-hole via
Figure 27. Layout Example for Crystal < 1 MHz (Not to Scale)
The layout in Figure 27 is one possible layout example which correctly applies the filtering and crystal
layout guidelines. This layout is more appropriate for low-frequency crystals (<1MHz) due to the isolation
of the crystal circuit from the digital power domain. The design of this one-layer board is driven by the
selected MCU: the MC908AP64 in the 44LQFP package. Components are surface mount and are as
specified in the data sheet for the MC908AP64 Family of 8-bit microcontrollers, which can be found at
www.freescale.com. The components are classified as follows:
• Crystal circuitry: crystal, C1, C2, R1 and R2.
• Power supply bypassing: C3, C4, and C5.
• Input pin filter: C6 and C7
• CGMXFC filter: C7, C8 and R3.
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Hardware Techniques
R3
C4
C9
C8
Power
C3
C1
R1
R0
C6
R2
C5
Ground trace
IRQ
C2
VREFH
VREFL
VDD
OSC1
OSC2
VSS
R0
Crystal
VSSA
VDDA
XFC
Ground
C7
RESET
Power trace
Sensitive input trace
GPIO trace
Wire jumper
Thru-hole via
Figure 28. Layout Example for Crystal > 1 MHz (Not to Scale)
The layout in Figure 28 is another possible layout example which correctly applies the filtering and crystal
layout guidelines. This layout is more appropriate for high-frequency crystals (>1MHz) due to common
impedance coupling of the oscillator circuit to the digital power domain (between C6 and the VSS pin of
the MCU). As for the previous example, the design of this one-layer board is driven by the selected MCU:
the MC908AP64 in the 44LQFP package. Components are surface mount and are as specified in the data
sheet for the MC908AP64 Family of 8-bit microcontrollers, which can be found at www.freescale.com.
Note that resistors (R0) are 0-Ω resistors used to enable a connection from the VSS pin to bypass
capacitor C2.
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Input Signals
Whether at the system or PCB level, transients on input signals create a particularly challenging problem.
Inputs are typically coupled to supply and ground through EMI and ESD control devices in addition to
being connected to circuitry that will operate on the state of the signal. As a result, inputs require the same
considerations as power pins but include additional considerations based on the functional requirements
of the application.
EMI and ESD control devices must provide the required level of protection without degrading the input
signal or the characteristics of the receiving circuitry beyond specification. For circuitry with an operating
bandwidth outside the noise bandwidth of the transient waveform, protection can be achieved by the use
of low-pass, high-pass, or band-pass filters. For circuitry with an operating bandwidth within the noise
bandwidth of the transient waveform, implementing effective protection without, at least temporarily,
degrading performance can be very difficult or even impossible. In this case, the designer may have to
rely on software techniques discussed later in this application note.
The standard protection for inputs is the low-pass filter as shown in Figure 29. The series resistance limits
the injected current. The parallel capacitor shunts the transient current into the ground system as it
attempts to hold the voltage to its steady-state value. The values of resistance and capacitance can be
varied to either maximize protection or minimize impact on the input signal. Although the capacitor is
typically referenced to VSS (as shown), it can also be referenced to VDD.
VDD
MCU
1kΩ
INPUT
100 nF
VSS
Figure 29. Typical Low-Pass Filter Transient
Protection on Input Pin
Additional strategies for limiting transients on inputs include:
• Clamp the input voltage using transient voltage suppressor (TVS) devices
• Limit the input current using series resistance or impedance
• Shield input cables with braided or solid shields
• Shield PCB traces with guard traces, microstrip or stripline techniques
• Use line terminations to reduce ringing and overshoot
• Terminate unused input pins to VDD or VSS
If sensitive input signals are to be routed off the PCB, place the MCU near the off-board connector. If not,
place the MCU where the trace lengths of these signals will be as short as possible.
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Software Techniques
Reset and Interrupt Request Inputs
The most sensitive input signals in a MCU-based system, after the oscillator inputs, are the reset and
interrupt request inputs. These signals are easily corrupted by electromagnetic cross-coupled signals.
Interference on these lines could easily disrupt the MCU by interrupting code execution with an
unexpected reset or interrupt. In addition, the internal clock signals could glitch or go out of phase and
bring the application to a halt. To protect these inputs to transient susceptibility, utilize the circuit shown
in Figure 30.
1N4148
(optional)
VDD
4.7–10 kΩ
MCU
RESET
100 nF
VSS
Figure 30. Typical Transient Protection on Reset and IRQ Pins
In-Circuit Programming Inputs
The remaining special-purpose input that sometimes requires protection is the background debug or
in-circuit programming input. This input requires minimal distortion of the relatively high-frequency input
signal. As a result, a relatively light capacitance is placed to protect this high-frequency input as shown in
Figure 31. The actual value of the allowable capacitance should be determined by experimentation.
VDD
MCU
BKGD
10 nF
VSS
Figure 31. Typical Transient Protection on BKGD Pin
Software Techniques
In many instances, the way the embedded software is structured and how it interacts with the remainder
of the system can have a profound effect on the EFT test performance of a system. It can be impractical
and costly to completely eliminate transients at the hardware level, so the system and software designers
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Software Techniques
should plan for the occasional erroneous signal or power glitch that could cause the software to perform
erratically. Erratic actions on the part of the software can be classified into two different categories:
• False Signal Detection: The MCU sees changes in input signals, or on-chip hardware reacts to
input signals that are out of the ordinary, and the software does not have the “intelligence” to ignore
them or deal with them in a safe and appropriate manner.
• Code Runaway: Code runaway occurs when the disturbance is so significant that the software
code execution flow is disrupted and the CPU begins to execute code out of sequence or from
incorrect areas of memory.
We refer to the approach to software design that addresses these problems as “defensive software
design.” The following is a list of some common and effective techniques used in defensive software
design.
Digital Input Pins
This concern is particularly important when input pins are vulnerable in the system. Generally, noise
glitches in the system last for a duration measured in the 10s to low 100s of nanoseconds. Using a simple
software filtering technique such as a majority vote or polling will allow the system to ignore these glitches.
The general application of this technique is described in Figure 32.
ERROR IN
INPUT SIGNAL
INPUT SIGNAL
CPU READS
RESULTANT
ERROR IN
RESULTANT
SIGNAL ERROR WITH NO VOTING
ERROR IN
INPUT SIGNAL
INPUT SIGNAL
CPU READS
RESULTANT
NO ERROR IN
RESULTANT
NO SIGNAL ERROR WHEN VOTING IS USED
Figure 32. Example of Majority Vote
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Software Techniques
In the majority vote technique, the input is read a predetermined number of times and the logic state that
is read a majority of the time is considered the proper state.
In the polling technique, when a pin state change is detected, the pin is sampled several more times over
a predetermined time interval to make sure the pin remains in that state. This ensures that the state
change is of sufficient duration to be considered a valid change and not a glitch. This is a particularly
useful technique to use on interrupt inputs such as an IRQ pin or keyboard interrupt (KBI) pins. It is often
used when de-bouncing mechanical switch inputs.
Digital Outputs and Crucial Registers
Within the main system software loop, user software should frequently update outputs and other critical
registers that control output pins. These include:
• Data direction registers
• I/O modules that can be modified by software
• RAM registers that are used for vital pieces of the application
This ensures that any minor malfunction will be corrected without a major upset. The refresh of these
registers should be as regular as possible. Reliability of outputs and RAM registers should not be affected
with constant writing/updating. Care should be taken to ensure that functions, such as serial
communications and timers, are in an inactive state when they are reinitialized because some status bits
are affected by a write to the corresponding control register.
Boundary Checking
Boundary checking refers to a method of validating input signals to the MCU. This technique will have to
be used in cases where input signals (either digital or analog) cannot be “filtered” as in the majority voting
scheme discussed previously.
For example, an electrical glitch reaches the input capture pin to a timer block. The timer count value that
is captured can be examined to determine whether it is relatively close to the expected value. As a further
example, suppose that the timer input capture is being used to measure the duration of an input pulse. If
the input signal can have an input period range of — for example — 1 ms to 10 ms, then a measured time
period of 5 µs should be considered “bad data” and dealt with appropriately.
Oscillator and Other Sensitive Analog Pins
The most vulnerable pins on an MCU are usually the high impedance analog pins such as those used in
oscillator circuits, a PLL (phase-locked loop), and analog signal inputs. In general, software cannot
correct for a pin that is poorly protected by the hardware in this case. Special care in board layout and
design must be the focus with these types of pins.
However, filtering techniques similar to those discussed above for digital pins can be applied to some
analog signal input pins such as those that feed an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In this case, the
converted values can be analyzed to determine whether the values are within expected boundaries; by
performing simple averaging on all valid conversions, most noise effects can be diminished.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
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Freescale Semiconductor
Software Techniques
Software Flow
Token Passing
Structured code techniques should be used at all times. When passing control from the main loop to a
subroutine (or procedure), always pass control with token bytes in RAM that the subroutine can check.
As soon as the return from subroutine occurs, the token bytes should be cleared or changed to the next
value. This prevents the code in these routines from being called and executed accidentally by runaway
code. A simplified example is shown in Figure 33 and Figure 34.
START OF MAIN LOOP
CLEAR ALL TOKENS
SET TOKEN FOR SUB_1
JSR SUB_1
CLEAR TOKENS
SET TOKEN FOR SUB_x
JSR SUB_x
Figure 33. Token Passing, Main Loop
SUB_x
CHECK TOKEN
NO
TOKEN OK
?
YES
SUBROUTINE TASKS
RETURN FROM
SUBROUTINE
Figure 34. Token Passing, Subroutine
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
31
Software Techniques
Filling Unused Memory
If code runaway ever occurs, a convenient way to restore normal operation is to fill unused memory with
a single byte instruction. Use either an SWI (software interrupt) or a NOP (no operation) instruction
followed by an occasional JSR start instruction as shown in Figure 35 and Figure 36, respectively.
Unused_mem:
|
SWI
SWI
SWI
|
|
|
SWI
|
Figure 35. Memory Fill with SWI
Unused_mem:
Known_Place:
|
NOP
NOP
|
|
JMP Known_Place
NOP
NOP
|
|
JMP Known_Place
|
JMP Reset_routine
|
Figure 36. Memory Fill with NOP
This technique is best implemented so that the SWI service routine can determine whether (through token
passing or other means) the interrupt was called intentionally and take the appropriate action. Most linkers
or programmers have options that can be used to fill unused memory blocks with the same data.
Unused Interrupt Vectors
Define all interrupt vectors, even those that are not used. Vectors from unused MCU functions should be
pointed to a safe routine, which could indicate an error condition if executed.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
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Freescale Semiconductor
Software Techniques
Hardware Protection Features
Hardware protection features are included in the MCU to improve system stability and reliability. They
help gracefully recover the system in the event of a significant electrical disturbance that is too severe for
the hardware defense mechanisms and may result in a code runaway condition. In general, try to use
every protection feature available in the MCU of choice.
Before listing good design practices, it is also imperative that the MCU initialization code ensures that
these features are turned on. In some MCUs, there will be an enable bit in a configuration register, which
controls the most of these features. Because these bits are often “write once” bits, it is necessary for the
software to write these control bits even if the default states are not changed. This will prevent a runaway
code situation from unintentionally turning the protection mechanism features off.
COP (Computer Operating Properly or Watchdog)
The following is a list of good practices that should be followed to ensure that the COP hardware will
recover from a runaway code situation quickly and reliably. The scope and spirit of these guidelines is to
minimize the likelihood that a random set of conditions could service the COP.
• Use the shortest COP timeout period possible to ensure that a runaway condition will not last very
long. The nature of the application will dictate the actual COP timeout period chosen.
• Avoid placing COP refreshes in interrupt routines. Interrupts can be serviced even if the CPU is
stuck in an unknown loop within the main program.
• Ideally use one COP refresh operation within the main loop.
• If main loop period is greater than COP timeout, refreshes should be placed at equal intervals of
80% of COP timeout period.
• If the main loop period is much less than COP timeout, introduce a software count which will only
refresh at approximately 80% of COP timeout period.
• Any loop that services the COP should timeout within a finite amount of time. The time will depend
on how long the system can tolerate the CPU executing code incorrectly.
• No loop that services the COP should have a jump instruction from the bottom of the loop to the
top of the loop unless it is based on multiple conditions, not just a single CPU instruction.
• The decision to service or not service the COP should be based on multiple conditions, not just
one. For example, do not base the decision on a single CPU condition code bit or on a single status
register bit.
• Memory should be examined to ensure that it does not contain a string of bytes that, if executed,
would feed the COP unintentionally. For example, a data table inside an HC08 MCU device may
reside somewhere in memory that contains the following string of data embedded within it:
… $C7, $FF, $FF, …
If the CPU gets lost and tries to execute an instruction from the location with the $C7 in it, it would
perform a write to location $FFFF, which would feed the COP in an HC08 MCU.
• Servicing the COP should be based on a set of conditions extremely unlikely to randomly occur.
Do not make decisions to service the COP based on a single bit or byte in RAM or a single status
register bit. Check the system state for integrity before servicing the COP.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
33
Conclusion
Illegal Instruction and Illegal Address Resets
Use these features if they exist on the chosen MCU. It’s potentially a way of quickly recovering the system
during a runaway code condition. Along with these interrupt or reset events, many MCUs have a reset
status register and an interrupt status register that may be helpful in determining the source of the reset
or interrupt so that the software can take the appropriate action.
An illegal address reset is most effective on MCUs with smaller amounts of memory because these MCUs
are more likely to experience runaway code landing in an unimplemented section of their memory maps.
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD) Circuits
If the chosen MCU contains an integrated power supply monitoring circuit which will reset the MCU in the
event of sudden power loss, this feature can be used to protect the MCU from going into a code runaway
condition. However, keep in mind that the LVD circuit may not detect a very fast loss and recovery of the
supply voltage because the response time of these circuits is often intentionally slow.
Other Tips
If possible, design software so that MCU resets can be tolerated. Systems with good feedback and
system integrity checking are more reliable and can recover from a spurious system reset much easier.
Conclusion
Achieving transient immunity in a low-cost embedded application can be a difficult and time-consuming
process, particularly if not addressed early and often in the design of an application. In addition, making
the mistake of not addressing transient protection as close to the AC mains as possible will also adversely
affect the complexity of EMC protection. The initial design of an embedded application should maximize
EMC so that design budgets and production schedules are met without delays at the EMC compliance
stage. Cost reductions can be easily implemented at a later date if the desired EMC performance is still
achieved. It is always easier to remove components while in production than it is to add them late in the
design.
In general, the EFT or ESD performance of a system can be dramatically affected by the choices made
in the software architecture and operation. As stated earlier, these techniques should be viewed as a
necessary but last line of defense against adverse system reaction to EFT or ESD events. The software
can affect how the system will react to a disturbance if it reaches the MCU, but the hardware PCB board
and system hardware design should diminish or eliminate the disturbance before it reaches the MCU.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Dugald Campbell and Harald Kreidl, also of Freescale Semiconductor,
for contributions that made this work possible.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
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Freescale Semiconductor
References
References
IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-2: Testing and measurement
techniques — Electrostatic discharge immunity test, International Electrotechnical Commission, 2001.
IEC 61000-4-4, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-4: Testing and measurement
techniques — Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test, International Electrotechnical Commission,
2001.
Ronald B. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits from Overvoltages, John Wiley & Sons, 1989, pp.
265-283.
Ken Kundert, “Power Supply Noise Reduction”, The Designer’s Guide (www.designers-guide.com), 2004.
Larry D. Smith, “Decoupling Capacitor Calculations for CMOS Circuits”, Electrical Performance of
Electrical Packages Conference, Monterey CA, November 1994, Pages 101–105.
Bibliography
Ronald B. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits from Overvoltages, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
Clayton Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wiley & Sons, 1992.
Bernard Keiser, Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility, Artech House, 1987.
T.C. Lun, “Designing for Board Level Electromagnetic Compatibility”, Freescale Application Note
AN2321, www.freescale.com.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
35
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Appendix A: Example Application 1
To demonstrate the application of the guidance contained in this application note, a generic appliance
controller board was designed. This generic application is based on the MC68HC908AP32 8-bit
microcontroller.
Board Features
The demonstration board was designed with the following features:
• Based on Freescale’s MC68HC908AP32 8-bit microcontroller
• In-circuit programming header
• Low-cost 32-kHz crystal oscillator source
• One potentiometer input with LED readout
• Two push-button switch inputs for microcontroller mode control
• One 8-bit GPIO port connected to off-board connector
• Three outputs driving relays that switch AC power to off-board loads
• Traditional, generic linear power supply with step-down transformer, full-wave bridge, and
secondary voltage regulation
Board Design
The demonstration board was designed using the practices and limitations that many appliance
manufacturers around the world use, including:
• A single layer board design
• Wire jumpers for connectivity
• Surface-mount components on copper side of board
• Through-hole components on the substrate side of board
• Off-the-shelf components, including the transformer
Board Schematic
The schematic of the demonstration board is shown in the Figure 37 and Figure 38. Figure 37 shows the
microcontroller and all related inputs and outputs. Figure 38 shows the power supply and the AC relays.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
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Freescale Semiconductor
1
2
3
4
5
6
MICROCONTROLLER
IN CIRCUIT PROGRAMMING SKT
A
C9
22 pF
GPIO2
3
R16
1K
GPIO3
4
R19
1K
GPIO4
5
R21
1K
GPIO5
6
R24
1K
GPIO6
7
R29
1K
GPIO7
8
R32
1K
10K
R4
10K
R10
GND
R8
10M
330K
6
OSC2
1K
44
C14 10 nF
IRQ#
RST#
9
11
GPIO8
GPIO7
GPIO6
GPIO5
GPIO4
GPIO3
S2
S1
33
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
T2CH1/PTB7
T2CH0/PTB6
T1CH1/PTB5
T1CH0/PTB4
RXD/PTB3
TXD/PTB2
SCL/PTB1
SDA/PTB0
CGMXFC
IRQ1
RST
GND
PTD7/KBI7
PTD6/KBI6
PTD5/KBI5
PTD4/KBI4
PTD3/KBI3
PTD2/KBI2
PTD1/KBI1
PTD0/KBI0
ADC0/PTA7
ADC0/PTA6
ADC0/PTA5
ADC0/PTA4
ADC0/PTA3
ADC0/PTA2
ADC0/PTA1
ADC0/PTA0
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
43
1
3
8
10
12
13
14
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
R18
R20
R22
R23
R25
R30
R31
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
16
15
3
2
1
18
17
4
AN1
1A
1B
A
1C F B
G
1D
1E E C
D
1F
LEFT
1G
1DP
DIGIT
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
R6
R7
R9
R12
R13
R15
R17
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
11
10
8
6
5
12
7
9
AN2
2A
2B
A
2C F B
G
2D
2E E C
D
2F
2G
RIGHT
2DP
DIGIT
GPIO1
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
RLY3
RLY2
RLY1
A
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
14
13
VCC
R26
10K
R27
R28
R2
10K
10K
10K
POT
ICP
B
GPIO8
POTENTIOMETER
GND
+5AN
0.001 uF
1K
C15 220 nF
SCRXD/PTC7
SCTXD/PTC6
SPSCK/PTC5
SS/PTC4
MOSI/PTC3
MISO/PTC2
PTC1
IRQ2/PTC0
C5
B
R14
GPIO1
R3
C7
2
1K
C8
P2
AMP 640445-8
1
R11
0.1 uF
I/O CONNECTOR
22 pF
OSC1
0.1 uF
OSC
VCC
GND
C6
R5
VCC
VCC
GND
RST#
IRQ#
ICP
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Y1
32 kHZ
GND
P1
3M 499345-3
5
VCC
LD1
HDSP-5521
GPIO2
OSC
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
DISPLAY
U1A
68HC908AP32
QFP44
R40
R1
10K
3.9K
C30
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
GND
AGND
C21
C23
C24
C25
C19
C17
C18
C16
PUSH-BUTTON SWITCHES
VCC
GND
C
S1
LEFT
R38
10K
R39
10K
C
S1
S2
S2
RIGHT
GND
VCC
0.1 uF
10 nF
C20
C22
OPTIONAL
32
VREFH
2
39
VREFL
VDD
VSS
R33
0
Cannot open file
C:\Projects\SELIB\FREES
CALE_LOGO.bmp
31
10 nF
C10
VDDA
0.1 uF
C11
7
Figure 37. PCB Schematic, Page 1
+5AN
VSSA
10 nF
C12
GND
38
0.1 uF
C13
VREG
220 uF
C1
4
VCC
D
VCC
R42
100
U1B
68HC908AP32
QFP44
R41
100
GND
AGND
Project: EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: TBD
Section: MCU SECTION
R37
0
By:
GND
File:
1
2
3
4
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
5
KSB
Printed: 9/7/2004
C:\Projects\Freescale_EMC_board\MCU.SCHDOC
6
Rev.:
Sheet
of
A
1
2
D
1
2
3
4
5
6
OUTPUT RELAYS
P3A
1
NEUT
LINE
K1
G5Q-1A
A
A
2
3
1
+VRLY
5
1
3
BAS-16
3
D3
P3B
2
R36
4.7K
WIRING EXTERNAL
TO PC BOARD
C29
0.1 uF
POWER SUPPLY
GND
P4A
1
LINE
+VRLY
L2
LINE
B
1
AC POWER IN
4
P4B
2
RGND
+26V TYP.
T1
TAMURA 3FS-316
2.4 VA
D1
W005G
8
NEUTRAL
Q1
MMBT4401
SOT23
1
2
RLY1
V1
S20K275
L1
4
2
3
LINE FILTER
C3
0.1 uF
X2
1
7
2
6
3
~
+
~
-
K2
G5Q-1A
FERRITE
120Z 100 MHz
1
C2
470 uF 35V
4
5
C33
0.001 uF
C32
0.1 uF
B
2
3
1
+VRLY
5
P3C
3
L3
NEUT
1
FERRITE
120Z 100 MHz
RGND
D4
3
BAS-16
3
PGND
D2
1N4001
R34
D6A
2
3
0.001 uF
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
C26
C35
0.1 uF
GND
C31
FERRITE
240Z 100 MHz
GND
OUT
2
SOT223
2
3
3
C36
0.1 uF
Q2
MMBT4401
SOT23
1
C27
0.1 uF
VCC
L5
IN
D6B
C4
470 uF 16V
C
MMBZ33VA
1
1
C34
+13V TYP.
4.7K
RLY2
+5 VDC
VR1
78M05
RGND
FERRITE
240Z 100 MHz
PGND
C
K3
G5Q-1A
L4
GND
2
3
1
+VRLY
5
1
3
BAS-16
3
D5
P3D
4
R35
4.7K
Q3
MMBT4401
SOT23
1
2
RLY3
C28
0.1 uF
GND
RGND
Cannot open file
C:\Projects\SELIB\FREES
CALE_LOGO.bmp
D
By:
File:
2
3
4
Rev.:
Sheet
of
Project: EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: TBD
Section: POWER & RELAYS
Figure 38. PCB Schematic, Page 2
1
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
5
KSB
Printed: 9/7/2004
C:\Projects\Freescale_EMC_board\POWER.SCHDOC
6
A
2
2
D
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Board Layout
The board layout for the single copper layer of the demonstration board is shown in Figure 39. AC power
enters the board in the upper, left corner and is routed to both the linear power supply (below) and the
relays (below-center). The DC power domain, including the microcontroller, fills the right side of the board.
POWER SUPPLY
MCU
DEBUG
PORT
AC LOAD CONNECTOR
I/O CONNECTOR
Figure 39. PCB Layout, Copper Side
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
39
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Metal wire jumpers, which are used to make connections, and other details are visible in the photographs
of the top and bottom of the PCB shown in Figure 40 and Figure 41, respectively.
Figure 40. PCB Top
Figure 41. PCB Bottom
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
40
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Bill of Materials
The list of parts used in the construction of the PCB is shown in Table 4. All parts were readily available,
commercial off-the-shelf components purchased from DigiKey. These parts, or equivalents, should be
available from any of the major electronics distributors.
Table 4. Bill of Materials
Item #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Designator
C6, 9
C5, 33, 34
C10, 12, 14, 22
C7, 8, 11, 13, 16-21, 2332, 35, 36
C15
C3
C1
C4
C2
D3-5
D6
D2
D1
K1-3
L2, 3
L4, 5
L1
LD1
P1
P4
P3
P2
Q1-3
R33, 37
R41, 42
Description
PCB
Cap 22pF 5% 50V NPO 0805
Cap 1 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
Cap 10 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
Footprint
Cap 0.1uF 10% 50V X7R 0805
Cap 0.22uF 10% 16V X7R 0805
Cap 0.1 uF X-type 275 VAC
Cap 220 uF 6.3V AE 6.3D 2M
Cap 1000 uF 16V AE 10D 5.0M
Cap 470 uF 35V AE 10D 5.0M
Diode BAS16 single SOT23
Diode MMBZ20 dual TVS 20V SOT23
Diode 1N4001 1A 50V rectifier
Diode bridge 1A 50V cylinder
Relay G5Q-1A 24V SPST
Ferrite 120/100MHz 0.8A 0805
Ferrite 300/100MHz 0.7A 0805
Line filter ELF17N005A
LED dual 0.56 in. digit red
Header 16-pin 0.1 in. 2x8 protected 30uin AU
Header 2-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Header 4-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Header 8-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Trans MMBT4401 GP NPN SOT23
Res 0 ohm 1/10W 0805
Res 100 5% 1/10W 0805
R6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17,
Res 560 5% 1/10W 0805
18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 30, 31
R10, 11, 14, 16, 19, 21,
24, 29, 32
R40
R34-36
R2, 4, 5, 26-28, 38, 39
R3
R8
R1
S1, 2
R3, 8, 16, 19
U1
V1
VR1
Y1
Dist.
Dist. Cat. No.
0805
0805
0805
DK
DK
DK
311-1103-1
311-1127-1
478-1383-1
0805
DK
311-1140-1
0805
17.5x6
6.3D 2M
10D 5M
10D 5M
SOT23
SOT23
DO-41
SOT23
0805
0805
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
490-1670-1
P10524
P11166
P5142
P5168
BAS16DICT
MMBZ20VALT10SCT
1N4001DICT
W005GDI
Z220
240-1041-1
240-2218-1
PLK1171
516-1216-5
MHB16K
A1971
A1972
A1974
MMBT4401DICT
311-0.0ACT
311-100ACT
0805
DK
RHM560ACT
0805
0805
Res 1K 5% 1/10W 0805
0805
DK
311-1.0KACT
Res 3.9K 5% 1/10W 0805
Res 4.7K 5% 1/10W 0805
Res 10K 5% 1/10W 0805
Res 330K 5% 1/10W 0805
Res 10 MEG 1/10W 0805
Pot 10K linear 9mm
Switch tactile 6 mm
Transformer 2.4VA 115VAC 16VAC CT
IC MC68HC908AP32 microcontroller QFP-44
Varistor size 20 275 VAC
IC voltage regulator 78M05 SOT223
Xtal 32.768 KHz cylinder
0805
0805
0805
0805
0805
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
Mouser
Freescale
DK
DK
DK
311-3.9KACT
311-4.7KACT
311-10KACT
311-330KACT
311-10MACT
P3C3103
P12216SCT
553-F16-150
samples
S20K275
296-12290-1
SE3201
QFP44
SOT223
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
41
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Test Method
The demonstration board was tested for transient immunity performance in accordance with IEC
61000-4-4. The test was performed using a Haefely PEFT-4010 electrical fast transient generator.
Test Conditions
The conditions under which the testing was performed were as follows:
• All test and support equipment was installed on a grounded copper reference plane.
• The test board was located 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
• In order to emulate a worse case wire routing scenario, all eight I/O signals from the board
connector P2 were taped to the power cord over a 10 cm distance.
• The safety ground from the power cord was not utilized. It was not connected at the board.
• The power cord was coiled and held 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
• The three relays on the PCB were connected to 15-W lamps through 45 cm lengths of wire.
Test Configuration
The tested hardware configurations are summarized below.
1. All components populated, lamps toggling, I/O wires taped parallel to power cord.
2. Same as #1 but with the following component changes: removed metal oxide varistor (V1),
replaced R33 and R37 with 0 Ω resistors, removed common-mode filter (L1).
3. Same as #2 but with the following component changes: removed MCU bulk capacitor (C1),
removed ferrite beads in 24V supply (L2 & L3), removed ferrite beads in MCU supply (L4 & L5).
Test Software
The test software performs the following functions:
• After reset, all segments of the 7-segment displays are turned on and all three lamp relays are
closed.
• Pressing switch S1 toggles the LED display mode between marching segments and displaying a
HEX value ($00 to $FF). The speed of the marching segments or the HEX value displayed is
proportional to the voltage on analog input. The potentiometer (R1) can be adjusted to vary the
voltage to the analog input and the converted value will be displayed in real time on the display.
• Pressing switch S2 toggles the lamp test mode. Each press of the switch will change the number
of lamps that are illuminated or cause all of the lamps to automatically cycle on and off.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
42
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A: Example Application 1
Test Results
The EFT test results are summarized in Table 5. In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the
example application did not experience any detectable performance degradation. The data in the table
represents the absolute value of the highest passing (non-failing) test voltage. If the value is followed by
a ‘+’ sign, then this was the maximum value that could be tested with the EFT generator.
Table 5. Summary of EFT Test Results
Hardware
Configuration
Line
Positive
[kV]
Line
Negative
[kV]
Neutral
Positive
[kV]
Neutral
Negative
[kV]
1
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
2
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
3
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the example application did not experience any
detectable performance degradation up to the limit of the test generator.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
43
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Appendix B: Example Application 2
To demonstrate the application of the guidance contained in this application note, a generic appliance
controller board was designed. This generic application is based on the MC68HC908AP32 8-bit
microcontroller.
Board Features
The demonstration board was designed with the following features:
• Based on Freescale’s MC68HC908AP32 8-bit microcontroller
• In-circuit programming header
• Low-cost 32-kHz crystal oscillator source
• One potentiometer input with LED readout
• Two push-button switch inputs for microcontroller mode control
• One 8-bit GPIO port connected to off-board connector
• Three outputs driving relays that switch AC power to off-board loads
• Low-cost, passive dropper linear power supply with secondary voltage generation
Board Design
The demonstration board was designed using the practices and limitations that many appliance
manufacturers around the world use, including:
• A single layer board design
• Wire jumpers for connectivity
• Surface-mount components on copper side of board
• Through-hole components on the substrate side of board
• Off-the-shelf components, including the transformer
Board Schematic
The schematic of the demonstration board is shown in the Figure 42 and Figure 43. Figure 42 shows the
microcontroller and all related inputs and outputs. Figure 43 shows the power supply and the AC relays.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
44
Freescale Semiconductor
2
3
4
5
MICROCONTROLLER
IN CIRCUIT PROGRAMMING SKT
TP2
RXD
C11 22 pF
R9
1K
GPIO4
5
R22
1K
GPIO5
6
R24
1K
GPIO6
7
R28
1K
GPIO7
1K
6
OSC2
1K
44
C15 10 nF
IRQ#
RST#
9
11
GPIO8
GPIO7
GPIO6
GPIO5
GPIO4
GPIO3
S2
S1
33
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
CGMXFC
IRQ1
RST
C9
C10
GND
T2CH1/PTB7
T2CH0/PTB6
T1CH1/PTB5
T1CH0/PTB4
RXD/PTB3
TXD/PTB2
SCL/PTB1
SDA/PTB0
PTD7/KBI7
PTD6/KBI6
PTD5/KBI5
PTD4/KBI4
PTD3/KBI3
PTD2/KBI2
PTD1/KBI1
PTD0/KBI0
ADC0/PTA7
ADC0/PTA6
ADC0/PTA5
ADC0/PTA4
ADC0/PTA3
ADC0/PTA2
ADC0/PTA1
ADC0/PTA0
43
1
3
8
10
12
13
14
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
16
15
3
2
1
18
17
4
AN1
1A
1B
A
1C F B
G
1D
1E E C
D
1F
LEFT
1G
1DP
DIGIT
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
R6
R7
R10
R12
R13
R15
R17
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
11
10
8
6
5
12
7
9
AN2
2A
2B
A
2C F B
G
2D
2E E C
D
2F
2G
RIGHT
2DP
DIGIT
GPIO1
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
RLY3
RLY2
RLY1
ICP
13
200K
R26
R27
R2
10K
10K
10K
PULSE
B
POTENTIOMETER
GND
+5AN
R38
3.9K
R1
10K
C33
0.1 uF
GND
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
14
VCC
R36
POT
GPIO8
0.1 uF
A
VCC
R18
R20
R21
R23
R25
R29
R31
0.1 uF
10K
10K
R4
GND
R8
10M
330K
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
0.001 uF
R19
R32
C16 220 nF
GPIO3
4
8
R3
SCRXD/PTC7
SCTXD/PTC6
SPSCK/PTC5
SS/PTC4
MOSI/PTC3
MISO/PTC2
PTC1
IRQ2/PTC0
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
C31
1K
0.1 uF
R16
GPIO2
0.1 uF
3
1K
0.1 uF
B
R14
GPIO1
0.1 uF
2
1K
0.1 uF
P2
AMP 640445-8
1
R11
0.1 uF
I/O CONNECTOR
22 pF
OSC1
0.1 uF
OSC
VCC
ICP
GND
C6
R5
VCC
VCC
GND
RST#
IRQ#
5
Y1
32 kHZ
GND
P1
3M 2516-6002UB
LD1
HDSP-5521
GPIO2
OSC
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
DISPLAY
U1A
68HC908AP32
QFP44
A
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
6
TP3
TXD
C8
1
AGND
C22
C24
C25
C26
C19
C18
C20
C17
PUSH-BUTTON SWITCHES
VCC
GND
C
S1
LEFT
R35
10K
R37
10K
C
S1
S2
S2
0.1 uF
10 nF
C21
C23
32
2
39
VDDA
VREFH
VREFL
VDD
VSS
VSSA
10 nF
C7
U1B
68HC908AP32
QFP44
AGND
R39
100
GND
0.1 uF
R34
0
31
38
0.1 uF
C12
4
10 nF
C14
VREG
0.1 uF
C13
7
220 uF
C1
GND
+5AN
C35
R40
100
VCC
D
VCC
OPTIONAL, DO NOT STUFF
VCC
0.1 uF
GND
C34
RIGHT
GND
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
CHANGE HISTORY:
SCHEMATIC REVISION B1
CLARIFIED THAT R33 AND R34 NOT NORMALLY STUFFED
Project: APxx EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: EMC REV. B
Section: MCU
R33
0
GND
Figure 42. PCB Schematic, Page 1
By: KSB/MSB
File:
1
2
3
4
Rev.:
Sheet
of
5
Printed: 5/5/2005
C:\Projects\Freescale_EMC_board\Rev. B2\MCU1.SCHDOC
6
B2
1
2
D
1
2
3
4
5
6
OUTPUT RELAYS
AMP 640445-4
P3A
1
NEUT
LINE
A
A
3
1
2
Q4
MMUN2111
3
2
+VRLY
PULSE
WIRING EXTERNAL
TO PC BOARD
1
RLY1
-VRLY
2
+10V TYP.
GND
D1
3.3 uF 200V
+VRLY
GND
+VRLY
1N4004
R43 82K
R44
B
3
3
C5
1000 uF 16V
D2
1N4004
P3C
3
3
D4
BAS-16
3
PGND
D102
1N4004
1
RLY2
Q2
MMUN2211
TP4
VCC
3
C
GND
TP1
GND
D5
BAS-16
P3D
4
3
1
R30 0
FERRITE
300Z 100 MHz
K3
G5Q-1A
1
C27
3
2
Q6
MMUN2111
1
0.1 uF
2
3
PGND
Z1
5.1V 1W
+VRLY
0.1 uF
0.001 uF
C2
1000uF 16V
L2
GND
R41 0
FERRITE
300Z 100 MHz
C
GND
VCC
C32
Z2
5.1V 1W
L3
C36
-VRLY
-VRLY
2
C29
0.1 uF
Q1
MMUN2211
1
RLY3
C28
0.1 uF
-VRLY
2
D101
1N4004
K2
G5Q-1A
5
R45 DO NOT STUFF
3
4
LINE FILTER
NEUT
2
82K
5
V1
S20K275
R42 0
1
P4B
2
2
1
AC POWER IN
L1
1
1
C4
0.1 uF
X2
Q5
MMUN2111
2
C3
B
NEUTRAL
3
Q3
MMUN2211
C30
0.1 uF
AMP 640445-4
P4A
1
LINE
LINE
P3B
2
3
POWER SUPPLY
5
1
1
K1
G5Q-1A
D3
BAS-16
GND
GND
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
CHANGE HISTORY:
D
SCHEMATIC REVISION B1
DIODES D101 AND D102 NOT ON REV. B ARTWORK
ADDED TO BOARD AS PATCHES
C3 CHANGED FROM 4.7 UF TO 3.3 UF
R45 DELETED
R30, 41, 42 CHANGED FROM 10 TO 0 OHMS
Figure 43. PCB Schematic, Page 2
File:
2
3
4
B2
2
2
Project: APxx EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: EMC REV. B
Section: POWER & RELAYS
By: KSB/MSB
1
Rev.:
Sheet
of
5
Printed: 5/5/2005
C:\Projects\Freescale_EMC_board\Rev. B2\POWER1.SCHDOC
6
D
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Board Layout
The board layout for the single copper layer of the demonstration board is shown in Figure 44. AC power
enters the board in the upper, left corner and is routed to both the linear power supply (below) and the
relays (below-center). The DC power domain, including the microcontroller, fills the right side of the board.
POWER SUPPLY
MCU
DEBUG
PORT
AC LOAD CONNECTOR
I/O CONNECTOR
Figure 44. PCB Layout, Copper Side
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
47
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Metal wire jumpers, which are used to make connections, and other details are visible in the photographs
of the top and bottom of the PCB shown in Figure 45 and Figure 46, respectively.
Figure 45. PCB Top
Figure 46. PCB Bottom
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
48
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Bill of Materials
The list of parts used in the construction of the PCB is shown in Table 6. All parts were readily available,
commercial off-the-shelf components purchased from DigiKey. These parts, or equivalents, should be
available from any of the major electronics distributors.
Table 6. Bill of Materials
Item #
1
2
3
4
Designator
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
C6, 11
C8, 36
C7, 14, 15, 23
C9, 10, 12, 13, 17-22, 2435
C16
C4
C1
C2, 5
C3
D3-5
D1, 2, 101, 102
K1-3
L2, 3
L1
LD1
P1
P4
P3
P2
Q1-3
Q4-6
5
Qty.
1
2
2
4
Description
PCB
Cap 22pF 5% 50V NPO 0805
Cap 1 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
Cap 10 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
22
Cap 0.1uF 10% 50V X7R 0805
1
1
1
2
1
3
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
Cap 0.22uF 10% 16V X7R 0805
Cap 0.1 uF X-type 275 VAC
Cap 220 uF 6.3V AE 6.3D 2M
Cap 1000 uF 16V AE 10D 5.0M
Cap 3.3 uF 250V Met Poly
Diode BAS16 single SOT23
Diode 1N4004 1A 400V rectifier
Relay G5Q-1A 5V SPST
Ferrite 120/100MHz 0.8A 0805
Line filter ELF17N005A
LED dual 0.56 in. digit red
Header 16-pin 0.1 in. 2x8 protected 30uIN AU
Header 2-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Header 4-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Header 8-pin MTA 0.156 in.
Trans MMUN2211 NPN bias 10K/10K SOT23
Trans MMUN2111 PNP bias 10K/10K SOT23
Footprint
0805
0805
0805
0805
0805
17.5x6
6.3D 2M
10D 5M
20.8L/17.5M
SOT23
DO-41
0805
SOT23
SOT23
Dist.
Dist. Cat. No.
DK
DK
DK
311-1103-1
311-1127-1
478-1383-1
DK
311-1140-1
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
Mouser
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
490-1670-1
P10524
P11166
P5142
P10985
BAS16DICT
1N4004DICT
653-G5Q-1A-DC5
240-1041-1
PLK1171
516-1216-5
MHB16K
A1971
A1972
A1974
MMUN2211LT1OSCT
MMUN2111LT1OSCT
23
R30, 41, 42, [33, 34, 35]
3
Res 0 ohm 1/10W 0805
0805
DK
311-0.0ACT
24
25
R30, 41, 42, 45
R39, 40
4
2
Res 10 ohm 1/10W 0805
Res 100 5% 1/10W 0805
0805
0805
DK
DK
311-10ACT
311-100ACT
26
R6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17,
18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 29, 31
14
Res 560 5% 1/10W 0805
0805
DK
RHM560ACT
0805
DK
311-1.0KACT
0805
0805
0805
0805
0805
0805
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
Freescale
DK
DK
DK
311-3.9KACT
311-10KACT
311-82KACT
311-200KACT
311-330KACT
311-10MACT
P3C3103
P12216SCT
samples
S20K275
SE3201
1N4733ADICT
DK
DK
DK
DK
A19950
A19952
A19956
A19990CT
R9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 22, 24,
9
Res 1K 5% 1/10W 0805
28, 32
28
R38
1
Res 3.9K 5% 1/10W 0805
29
R2, 4, 5, 26, 27, 35, 37
7
Res 10K 5% 1/10W 0805
30
R43, 44
2
Res 82K 5% 1/10W 0805
31
R36
1
Res 200K 5% 1/10W 0805
32
R3
1
Res 330K 5% 1/10W 0805
33
R8
1
Res 10 MEG 1/10W 0805
34
R1
1
Pot 10K linear 9 mm
35
S1, 2
2
Switch tactile 6 mm
36
U1
1
IC MC68HC908AP32 microcontroller QFP-44
37
V1
1
Varistor size 20 275 VAC
38
Y1
1
Xtal 32.768 KHz cylinder
39
Z1, 2
2
Zener 1N4733 5.1V 5% 1W
ACCESSORIES NOT PART OF PCB ASSEMBLY
40
[Plugs into P4]
1
Socket 2-pin MTA
41
[Plugs into P3]
1
Socket 4-pin MTA
42
[Plugs into P2]
1
Socket 8-pin MTA
43
[For 3 sockets above]
14
Terminal crimp female MTA tin
27
QFP44
DO-41
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
49
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Test Method
The demonstration board was tested for transient immunity performance in accordance with IEC
61000-4-4. The test was performed using a Haefely PEFT-4010 electrical fast transient generator.
Test Conditions
The conditions under which the testing was performed were as follows:
• All test and support equipment was installed on a grounded copper reference plane.
• The test board was located 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
• In order to emulate a worse case wire routing scenario, all eight I/O signals from the board
connector P2 were taped to the power cord over a 10 cm distance.
• The safety ground from the power cord was not utilized. It was not connected at the board.
• The power cord was coiled and held 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
• The three relays on the PCB were connected to 15-W lamps through 45 cm lengths of wire.
Test Configuration
The tested hardware configurations are summarized below.
1. All components populated, lamps toggling, I/O wires taped parallel to power cord.
2. Same as #1 but with the following component changes: removed metal oxide varistor (V1),
replaced R33 and R37 with 0 Ω resistors, removed common-mode filter (L1).
3. Same as #2 but with the following component changes: removed MCU bulk capacitor (C1),
removed ferrite beads in 24V supply (L2 & L3), removed ferrite beads in MCU supply (L4 & L5).
Test Software
The test software performs the following functions:
• After reset, all segments of the 7-segment displays are turned on and all three lamp relays are
closed.
• Pressing switch S1 toggles the LED display mode between marching segments and displaying a
HEX value ($00 to $FF). The speed of the marching segments or the HEX value displayed is
proportional to the voltage on analog input. The potentiometer (R1) can be adjusted to vary the
voltage to the analog input and the converted value will be displayed in real time on the display.
• Pressing switch S2 toggles the lamp test mode. Each press of the switch will change the number
of lamps that are illuminated or cause all of the lamps to automatically cycle on and off.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
50
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix B: Example Application 2
Test Results
The EFT test results are summarized in Table 7. In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the
example application did not experience any detectable performance degradation. The data in the table
represents the absolute value of the highest passing (non-failing) test voltage. If the value is followed by
a ‘+’ sign, then this was the maximum value that could be tested with the EFT generator.
Table 7. Summary of EFT Test Results
Hardware
Configuration
Line
Positive
[kV]
Line
Negative
[kV]
Neutral
Positive
[kV]
Neutral
Negative
[kV]
1
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
2
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
3
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the example application did not experience any
detectable performance degradation up to the limit of the test generator.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
51
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Appendix C: Example Application 3
To demonstrate the application of the guidance contained in this application note, a generic appliance
controller board was designed. This generic application is based on the MC9S08AW60 8-bit
microcontroller.
Board Features
The demonstration board was designed with the following features:
• Based on Freescale’s MC68HC9S08AW60 8-bit microcontroller
• In-circuit programming header
• Low-cost 32-kHz crystal oscillator source
• Two potentiometer inputs with LED readout
• Two push-button switch inputs for microcontroller mode control
• One 10-bit GPIO port connected to off-board connector
• Three outputs driving relays that switch AC power to off-board loads
• Low-cost, passive dropper linear power supply with secondary voltage generation
Board Design
The demonstration board was designed using the practices and limitations that many appliance
manufacturers around the world use, including:
• A single layer board design
• Wire jumpers for connectivity
• Surface-mount components on copper side of board
• Through-hole components on the substrate side of board
• Off-the-shelf components, including the transformer
Board Schematic
The schematic of the demonstration board is shown in the Figure 47 and Figure 48. Figure 47 shows the
microcontroller and all related inputs and outputs. Figure 48 shows the power supply and the AC relays.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
52
Freescale Semiconductor
2
3
OPTIONAL COMPONENTS
ONLY FOR PRECISION TIMING
UNNEEDED FOR TYPICAL CONTROLLER
DISPLAY
U1A
MC9S08AW60
AN1
LD1
HDSP-5521
C20 22 pF
OSC
AN2
3
0.1 uF
VCC
BKGD
1
3
5
Y1
16 MHz
GND
C26
0.1 uF
P4
C15
C14
0.1 uF
ISP PORT
2
4
6
C19 22 pF
R17 1K
C25
1 nF
AGND
GPIO CONNECTOR
GPIO8
C21
10
49
48
25
24
23
GPIO8
GPIO7
GPIO6
GPIO5
GPIO4
GPIO3
GPIO2
GPIO1
10
12
11
8
7
6
5
4
200K
RXD
TXD
VCC
0.1 uF
9
SERIAL I/O
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
PTG5/XTAL
KBIP7/AD1P15/PTD7
TPM1CLK/AD1P14/PTD6
AD1P13/PTD5
TPM2CLK/AD1P12/PTD4
KBI1P6/AD1P11/PTD3
KBI1P5/AD1P10/PTD2
AD1P9/PTD1
AD1P8/PTD0
BKGD/MS
IRQ1
RST
PTG4/KBI1P4
PTG3/KBI1P3
PTG2/KBI1P2
PTG1/KBI1P1
PTG0/KBI1P0
PTC6
RXD2/PTC5
PTC4
TXD2/PTC3
MCLK/PTC2
SDA1/PTC1
SCL1/PTC0
PTF7
PTF6
PTF5/TPM2CH1
PTF4/TPM2CH0
PTF3/TPM1CH5
PTF2/TPM1CH4
PTF1/TPM1CH3
PTF0/TPM1CH2
AD1P7/PTB7
AD1P6/PTB6
AD1P5/PTB5
AD1P4/PTB4
AD1P3/PTB3
AD1P2/PTB2
AD1P1/PTB1
AD1P0/PTB0
PTE7/SPSCK1
PTE6/MOSI1
PTE5/MISO1
PTE4/SS1
PTE3/TPM1CH1
PTE2/TPM1CH0
PTE1/RXD1
PTE0/TXD1
PTA7
PTA6
PTA5
PTA4
PTA3
PTA2
PTA1
PTA0
53
52
51
50
47
46
43
42
AGND
AN2
AN1
POT2
POT1
9
64
1
63
62
61
60
S4
S3
S2
S1
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
VCC
GND
A
VCC
AN1
1A
1B
A
1C
FG B
1D
1E E C
D
1F
LEFT
1G
1DP
DIGIT
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
R12
R11
R10
R9
R8
R5
R3
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
11
10
8
6
5
12
7
9
AN2
2A
2B
A
2C
FG B
2D
2E E C
D
2F
2G
RIGHT
2DP
DIGIT
14
13
GND
B
GND
R4
10K
PUSH-BUTTON SWITCHES
P1 1
2
3
TXD
RXD
VCC
POTENTIOMETERS
C
1 nF
GPIO7
1K
1 nF
1K
R31
C9
R28
8
56
2
3
RLY3
RLY2
RLY1
GND
R38
C8
7
RLY3
RLY2
RLY1
LINE SYNC
0.1 uF
GPIO6
0.1 uF
1K
C12
R26
0.1 uF
GPIO5
6
C10
GPIO4
1K
0.1 uF
1K
R24
C11
R22
5
0.1 uF
4
C13
GPIO3
C24
GPIO2
1K
0.1 uF
1K
R19
C23
R15
3
0.1 uF
2
C22
B
GPIO1
RLY1
RLY2
RLY3
RST#
C17
1 nF
GND
1K
57
BKGD
VCC
PTG6/EXTAL
R18
4.7M
RST#
GND
P3
AMP 1-640445-0
1
R13
58
16
15
3
2
1
18
17
4
+5AN
GND
LEFT
R1
10K
R32
3.9K
S1
POT1
C
S1
LEFT
C31
0.1 uF
GND
10K
1K
560
560
560
560
560
560
560
10K
R7
R27
R25
R23
R21
R20
R16
R14
R37
2
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
R34 10K
1K
6
R33 10K
A
5
MICROCONTROLLER
ANALOG INPUT CONNECTOR
P2
AMP 640445-3
1
R6
4
R36
1
S2
S2
S3
VCC
U1B
MC9S08AW60
QFP64
VREFH
0.1 uF
10 nF
VREFL
C18
C16
54
VDDAD
VSSAD
44
R2
10K
R35
3.9K
POT2
GND
C32
0.1 uF
AGND
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
Figure 47. PCB Schematic, Page 1
By: KSB/MSB
File:
2
3
4
Rev.:
Sheet
of
Project: AWxx EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: AW60 EMC REV. A
Section: MCU
AGND
R30
100
GND
1
S4
RIGHT
+5AN
RIGHT
GND
S4
55
D
+5AN
R29
100
45
VDD
10 nF
C6
VSS
VSS
0.1 uF
C7
21
59
220 uF
C1
22
VCC
S3
AGND
5
Printed: 4/13/2005
C:\Projects\FREESCALE_EMC\Rev.C\MCU.SCHDOC
6
A
1
2
D
1
2
3
4
5
6
OUTPUT RELAYS
AMP 640445-4
P5A
1
NEUT
LINE
A
A
3
1
2
Q4
MMUN2111
3
2
+VRLY
LINE SYNC
WIRING EXTERNAL
TO PC BOARD
1
RLY1
-VRLY
2
+10V TYP.
GND
D3
3.3 uF 200V
+VRLY
GND
+VRLY
1N4004
R40
2
82K
B
3
3
C5
1000 uF 16V
D4
1N4004
D2
1N4004
1
RLY2
Q2
MMUN2211
TP1
VCC
Z2
5.1V 1W
L2
-VRLY
GND
GND
VCC
2
Q6
MMUN2111
3
C
3
1
0.1 uF
0.1 uF
0.001 uF
K3
G5Q-1A
GND
TP2
GND
P5D
3
D7
BAS-16
4
3
FERRITE
300Z 100 MHz
Q1
MMUN2211
1
RLY3
C27
0.1 uF
-VRLY
2
PGND
1
L3
5
1
C29
Z1
5.1V 1W
C34
C4
1000uF 16V
+VRLY
C28
FERRITE
300Z 100 MHz
C
P5C
3
2
C30
0.1 uF
-VRLY
D6
BAS-16
3
PGND
D1
1N4004
K2
G5Q-1A
3
NEUT
2
LINE FILTER
3
4
1
2
R39 82K
5
V1
S20K275
P6B
2
1
AC POWER IN
L1
1
1
C2
0.1 uF
X2
Q5
MMUN2111
2
C3
B
NEUTRAL
3
Q3
MMUN2211
C33
0.1 uF
AMP 640445-4
P6A
1
LINE
LINE
P5B
2
3
POWER SUPPLY
5
1
1
K1
G5Q-1A
D5
BAS-16
GND
GND
Confidential
Information
Proprietary to
Freescale Semiconductor
D
Project: AWxx EMC TEST BOARD
PCB P/N: AW60 EMC REV. A
Section: POWER & RELAYS
Figure 48. PCB Schematic, Page 2
By: KSB/MSB
File:
1
2
3
4
Rev.:
Sheet
of
5
Printed: 4/13/2005
C:\Projects\FREESCALE_EMC\Rev.C\POWER.SCHDOC
6
A
2
2
D
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Board Layout
The board layout for the single copper layer of the demonstration board is shown in Figure 49. AC power
enters the board in the upper, left corner and is routed to both the linear power supply (below) and the
relays (below-center). The DC power domain, including the microcontroller, fills the right side of the board.
POWER SUPPLY
MCU
DEBUG
PORT
AC LOAD CONNECTOR
I/O CONNECTOR
Figure 49. PCB Layout, Copper Side
Metal wire jumpers, which are used to make connections, and other details are visible in the photographs
of the top and bottom of the PCB shown in Figure 50 and Figure 51, respectively.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
55
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Figure 50. PCB Top
Figure 51. PCB Bottom
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
56
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Bill of Materials
The list of parts used in the construction of the PCB is shown in Table 8. All parts were readily available,
commercial off-the-shelf components purchased from DigiKey. These parts, or equivalents, should be
available from any of the major electronics distributors.
Table 8. Bill of Materials
Item #
Designator
1
2
3
Qty.
1
5
2
Description
PCB
Cap 1 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
Cap 10 nF 5% 50V X7R 0805
C8, 9, 17, 25, 34
C6, 16
C7, 10-15, 18, 21-24, 264
20
Cap 0.1uF 10% 50V X7R 0805
33
5
C2
1
Cap 0.1 uF X-type 275 VAC
6
C1
1
Cap 220 uF 6.3V AE 6.3D 2M
7
C4, 5
2
Cap 1000 uF 16V AE 10D 5.0M
8
C3
1
Cap 3.3 uF 250V Met Poly
9
D5-7
3
Diode BAS16 single SOT23
10
D1-4
4
Diode 1N4004 1A 400V rectifier
11
K1-3
3
Relay G5Q-1A 5V SPST
12
L2, 3
2
Ferrite 120/100MHz 0.8A 0805
13
L1
1
Line filter ELF17N005A
14
LD1
1
LED dual 0.56 in. digit red
15
P4
1
Header 6-pin 0.1 in. 2x3 vert 15uIN AU
16
P6
1
Header 2-pin MTA 0.156 in.
17
P2
1
Header 3-pin MTA 0.156 in.
18
P5
1
Header 4-pin MTA 0.156 in.
19
P3
1
Header 10-pin MTA 0.156 in.
20
P1
1
Header 3-pin vert 0.1 in. tin
21
Q1-3
3
Trans MMUN2211 NPN bias 10K/10K SOT23
22
Q4-6
3
Trans MMUN2111 PNP bias 10K/10K SOT23
23
R29, 30
2
Res 100 5% 1/10W 0805
R3, 5, 8-12, 14, 16, 20,
24
14
Res 560 5% 1/10W 0805
21, 23, 25, 27
R6, 7, 13, 15, 19, 22, 24,
25
10
Res 1K 5% 1/10W 0805
26, 28, 31
26
R32, 35
2
Res 3.9K 5% 1/10W 0805
27
R4, 33, 34, 36, 37
5
Res 10K 5% 1/10W 0805
28
R39, 40
2
Res 82K 5% 1/10W 0805
29
R36
1
Res 200K 5% 1/10W 0805
30
R1, 2
2
Pot 10K linear 9 mm
31
S1-4
4
Switch tactile 6 mm
32
U1
1
IC MC9S08AW60 microcontroller QFP-64
33
V1
1
Varistor size 20 275 VAC
34
Z1, 2
2
Zener 1N4733 5.1V 5% 1W
HIGH-PRECISION OSCILLATOR OPTION--NOT NORMALLY STUFFED
35
C19, 20
2
Cap 22pF 5% 50V NPO 0805
36
R17
1
Res 1K 5% 1/10W 0805
37
R18
1
Res 4.7 MEG 1/10W 0805
38
Y1
1
Crystal 16 MHz HCM49 SMD
ACCESSORIES NOT PART OF PCB ASSEMBLY
1
Socket 2-pin MTA
39
[Plugs into P6]
1
Socket 3-pin MTA
40
[Plugs into P2]
1
Socket 4-pin MTA
41
[Plugs into P5]
1
Socket 10-pin MTA
42
[Plugs into P3]
[For 4 MTA sockets
43
14
Terminal crimp female MTA tin
above]
Footprint
Dist.
Dist. Cat. No.
0805
0805
DK
DK
311-1127-1
478-1383-1
0805
DK
311-1140-1
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
Mouser
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
P10524
P11166
P5142
P10985
BAS16DICT
1N4004DICT
653-G5Q-1A-DC5
240-1041-1
PLK1171
516-1216-5
WM6806
A1971
A1971
A1972
A1975
WM6403
MMUN2211LT1OSCT
MMUN2111LT1OSCT
311-100ACT
0805
DK
RHM560ACT
0805
DK
311-1.0KACT
0805
0805
0805
0805
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
DK
Freescale
DK
DK
311-3.9KACT
311-10KACT
311-82KACT
311-200KACT
P3C3103
P12216SCT
samples
S20K275
1N4733ADICT
DK
DK
DK
DK
311-1103-1
311-1.0KACT
311-4.7MACT
300-6134-1
DK
DK
DK
DK
A19950
A19951
A19952
A19956
DK
A19990CT
17.5x6
6.3D 2M
10D 5M
20.8L/17.5M
SOT23
DO-41
0805
SOT23
SOT23
0805
QFP64
AXIAL 0.4
0805
0805
0805
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
57
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Test Method
The demonstration board was tested for transient immunity performance in accordance with IEC
61000-4-4. The test was performed using a Haefely PEFT-4010 electrical fast transient generator.
Test Conditions
The conditions under which the testing was performed were as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
All test and support equipment was installed on a grounded copper reference plane.
The test board was located 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
In order to emulate a worse case wire routing scenario, all eight I/O signals from the board
connector P2 were taped to the power cord over a 10 cm distance.
The safety ground from the power cord was not utilized. It was not connected at the board.
The power cord was coiled and held 10 cm above the grounded reference plane.
The three relays on the PCB were connected to 15-W lamps through 45 cm lengths of wire.
Test Configuration
The tested hardware configurations are summarized below.
1. All components populated, lamps toggling, I/O wires taped parallel to power cord.
2. Same as #1 but with the following component changes: removed metal oxide varistor (V1),
replaced R29 and R30 with 0 Ω resistors, removed common-mode filter (L1).
3. Same as #2 but with the following component changes: removed 220uF MCU bulk capacitor (C1),
removed ferrite beads in MCU supply (L2 & L3), removed 10nF capacitors (C6 & C16).
Test Software
The test software performs the following functions:
•
•
•
•
•
After reset, the LED display indicates the source of the reset condition and opens all three lamp
relays. Pressing any switch starts the test software.
Pressing switch S1 manually toggles the three relays in sequence. Repeatedly pressing the switch
will cycle the relays through a repeating sequence [Relay1 ON, Others OFF -> Relay2 ON, Others
OFF -> Relay3 ON, Others OFF -> All OFF].
Pressing switch S2 toggles between manual and automatic sequencing of the relays. When the
manual mode is selected, switch S1 controls the sequencing of the relays. When automatic mode
is selected, the relays automatically sequence through a repeating cycle [Relay1 ON, Others
OFF -> Relay2 ON, Others OFF -> Relay3 ON, Others OFF -> All OFF].
Pressing switch S3 toggles between the available analog inputs: two potentiometers (R1 & R2) and
external inputs on connector J2 (J2:1 and J2:2). The result of the analog conversion on the
selected input is displayed on the LED display (LD1).
Pressing switch S4 toggles the LED display mode between marching segments and displaying a
HEX value ($00 to $FF). The speed of the marching segments or the HEX value displayed is
proportional to the voltage on analog input.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
58
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix C: Example Application 3
Test Results
The EFT test results are summarized in Table 9. In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the
example application did not experience any detectable performance degradation. The data in the table
represents the absolute value of the highest passing (non-failing) test voltage. If the value is followed by
a ‘+’ sign, then this was the maximum value that could be tested with the EFT generator.
Table 9. Summary of EFT Test Results
Hardware
Configuration
Line
Positive
[kV]
Line
Negative
[kV]
Neutral
Positive
[kV]
Neutral
Negative
[kV]
1
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
2
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
3
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
4.5+
In either of the three tested hardware configurations, the example application did not experience any
detectable performance degradation up to the limit of the test generator.
Improving the Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor
59
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AN2764
Rev. 0, 06/2005
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