EM-WL8314
54Mbps standard 11g
PCI Bus Wireless LAN Adapter
WL-8314
User Manual
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Copyright
Copyright  2005 by PLANET Technology Corp. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or
computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical,
manual or otherwise, without the prior written permission of PLANET.
PLANET makes no representations or warranties, either expressed or implied, with respect to the
contents hereof and specifically disclaims any warranties, merchantability or fitness for any particular
purpose. Any software described in this manual is sold or licensed "as is". Should the programs prove
defective following their purchase, the buyer (and not PLANET, its distributor, or its dealer) assumes
the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair, and any incidental or consequential damages resulting
from any defect in the software. Further, PLANET reserves the right to revise this publication and to
make changes from time to time in the contents hereof without obligation to notify any person of such
revision or changes.
All brand and product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of
their respective holders.
Federal Communication Commission Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in
a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try
to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
1. Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
3. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
4. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio technician for help.
FCC Caution
To ensure continued compliance. (Example-use only shielded interface cables when connecting to
computer or peripheral devices). Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party
responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the Following two
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conditions: ( 1 ) This device may not cause harmful interference, and ( 2 ) this Device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Federal Communication
Statement
Commission
(FCC)
Radiation
Exposure
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure set forth for an uncontrolled environment. In
order to avoid the possibility of exceeding the FCC radio frequency exposure limits, human proximity to
the antenna shall not be less than 20 cm (8 inches) during normal operation.
R&TTE Compliance Statement
This equipment complies with all the requirements of DIRECTIVE 1999/5/CE OF THE EUROPEAN
PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF 9 March 1999 on radio equipment and telecommunication
terminal Equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity (R&TTE)
The R&TTE Directive repeals and replaces in the directive 98/13/EEC (Telecommunications Terminal
Equipment and Satellite Earth Station Equipment) As of April 8,2000.
Safety
This equipment is designed with the utmost care for the safety of those who install and use it. However,
special attention must be paid to the dangers of electric shock and static electricity when working with
electrical equipment. All guidelines of this and of the computer manufacture must therefore be allowed
at all times to ensure the safe use of the equipment.
EU Countries Not Intended for Use
The ETSI version of this device is intended for home and office use in Austria Belgium, Denmark,
Finland,
France
(with
Frequency
channel
restrictions).
Germany,
Greece,
Ireland,
Italy,
Luxembourg .The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.
The ETSI version of this device is also authorized for use in EFTA member states Iceland,
Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
Potential restrictive use
France: Only channels 10,11,12 and 13
Revision
User’s Manual for PLANET 54Mbps standard 11g PCI Bus W ireless LAN Adapter
Model: WL-8314
Rev: 1.0 (March, 2005)
Part No. EM-WL8314
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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................ 1
1.1
FEATURES....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2
APPLICATIONS ................................................................................................................. 2
1.2.1 Infrastructure .......................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2 Ad-Hoc ................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.3 General Application ................................................................................................................ 2
1.3
SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................................ 3
1.4
PACKAGE CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 4
1.5
MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................... 4
1.6
INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE.................................................. 5
2.1
CONFIGURATION UTILITY INSTALLATION ............................................................................ 5
2.2
DRIVER INSTALLATION...................................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER 3 CONFIGURATION UTILITY....................................................... 9
3.1
LINK INFO...................................................................................................................... 10
3.2
CONFIGURATION............................................................................................................ 11
3.3
ENCRYPTION ................................................................................................................. 12
3.4
SITE SURVEY ................................................................................................................ 15
3.5
ABOUT .......................................................................................................................... 16
APPENDIX .................................................................................................... 17
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................. 19
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Complying with the newly approved 802.11g standard, WL-8314 provides a faster wireless
connection for desktop users who want to access network resources. The gadget delivers data at
speeds up to 54Mbps, 5 times data rate than 802.11b. It can operate in Infrastructure mode or
Ad-hoc mode based on your needs
WL-8314 provides 360 degrees’ coverage of wireless access by employing a detachable dipole
antenna, which can be replaced with any types of external antennas to better signal strength, link
quality and enhance signal coverage range. Support of 64 and 128-bit WEP encryption plus WPA
(Wi-Fi Protected Access) high-level encryption keeps your wireless network from unauthorized
access and ensures secure data transfer.
WL-8314 is backward compatible with 802.11b products, allowing interoperability with any Wi-Fi
certified wireless 802.11b/g products, so both 11b and 11g clients can reside on the same network.
Support of most operating systems such as Windows98SE/Me/2000/XP/Server 2003 offers greater
scalability and usability, making the device a perfect choice for users who are getting tired of running
cables or in constant need of wireless access.
1.1
Features
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2.4GHz ISM band, unlicensed operation
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A fast Wireless connection without the hassles and cost of running cables
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IEEE 802.11b/g standard compliant
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Up to 54Mbps data rate
l
Utilization of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum plus OFDM modulation to provide a robust,
interference-resistant solution in a multi-user environment
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One detachable dipole antenna
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Support of 64/128-bit WEP encryption and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) high-level encryption
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Support of Ad-Hoc / Infrastructure mode
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Seamless integration with IEEE 802.3 Ethernet through any other IEEE 802.11b/g compliant
Access points
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Support of most popular operating systems including Windows 98SE/Me/2000/XP/Server 2003
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Support of Power Save mode
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1.2
Applications
1.2.1 Infrastructure
The difference between Infrastructure network and Ad-hoc network is that the former requires an
Access point. For old buildings, open areas, or frequently changing environments, just install the
WL-8314 on your desktop, and you thus can get connected to the wired Ethernet through a
wireless Access Point. SOHO users can then access the Internet and share all kinds of data with
the other wired or wireless clients within the coverage of wireless signals. For enterprise users,
the installation of multiple Access Points to enlarge the coverage of wireless signals can provide
wireless users with seamless network access.
The Infrastructure mode is appropriate for enterprise-scale wireless access to a central
database or provides various wireless applications for mobile users.
Infrastructure mode also supports roaming capabilities for mobile users. More than one BSS can
be configured as an Extended Service Set (ESS). The continuous network allows users to roam
freely within an ESS. All wireless clients using WL-8314 or other IEEE 802.11b compliant
wireless adapters within one ESS must be configured with the same ESS ID and use the same
radio channel.
Before adopting an ESS with roaming capability, choosing an available radio channel with less
interference is highly recommended. Proper Access Point positioning combined with a clear
radio channel will greatly enhance performance.
1.2.2 Ad-Hoc
Need a wireless networking comprising of several desktops or laptops without any access point?
Configuring all the wireless adapters to operate in Ad-Hoc mode will be the easiest and
cost-effective way to meet your requirements.
An Ad-hoc mode is a wireless network type in which a group of computers equipped with
WL-3564 or other wireless adapters are connected as an independent wireless LAN. All
computers operating in this mode must be configured to share the same radio channel.
In this kind of network, new devices can be quickly added; however, users can only
communicate with other wireless LAN computers that are in this wireless LAN workgroup within
range.
1.2.3 General Application
WL-8314 offers a fast, reliable, and cost-effective solution for wireless access to the various
network scenarios:
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1. Remote access to corporate network for information
Emails, file transfer, or terminal service.
2. Difficult-to-wire environments
Old or historical buildings, public occasions, venues and open area where it is difficult to wire.
3. Frequently changing environments
Factories, retailers, and offices that frequently change locations and rearrange the workplace.
4. Temporary LANs for special projects or peak time
Events, exhibitions, construction sites or some important occasions that require temporary
network access.
5. SOHO (Small Office and Home Office) users
SOHO users in need of a easy-to-install and wide coverage networking
1.3
Specification
Product
IEEE 802.11g Wireless PCI card
Model Name
WL-8314
Attached Interface
PCI V2.2
LED Indicators
ACT
Operating Frequency /
Channel
2.412~2.462GHz (FCC, US/Canada) / 11 Channels
2.412~2.472GHz (ETSI, Europe) / 13 Channels
2.412~2.484GHz (TELEC, Japan) / 14 Channels
Emission type
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Technology
RF Modulation
OFDM with CCK, BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
RF Output Power
15dBm
Data Rate
802.11b: 1, 2, 5.5, 11Mbps
802.11g: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps
Antenna
One Detachable Dipole Antenna
Sensitivity
54Mbps: Typical -73dBm @ 10% PER
11Mbps: Typical -85dBm @ 8% PER
Working Mode
Infrastructure, Ad-Hoc
Power
3.3V±5%
TX: 3.3v, 530mA,
Power Consumption
RX: 3.3v, 240mA
Standby: 3.3v, 30mA
Dimension (mm)
133 x 121 x 21.6 mm
Humidity
10 ~ 95%, non-condensing (Operating and storage)
Temperature
0 ~ 40℃ (Operating), -10 ~ 70℃ (Storage)
Management
Bundled utility or Windows XP/Server2003 Wireless Zero
Configuration utility
Electromagnetic
Compatibility
FCC, CE
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1.4
Package Contents
Before installation, please check the items of your package. The package should include the following
items:
1 x WL-8314
1 x Dipole Antenna
1 x Quick Installation Guide
1 x Drivers and User’s Manual CD
If any of the above items is missing, contact your supplier as soon as possible.
1.5
Minimum System Requirements
Before installation, please check the following requirements:
Operating System: Windows 98SE/Me/2000/XP/Server 2003
Desktop PC with a CD-ROM drive
One vacant PCI slot
Important: WL-8314 is compliant with the PCI V2.2 with 3.3V output voltage standard. Some old model
motherboards, especially those for Intel Pentium, Pentium II, AMD K6, K6-II, K6-III or Cyrix M5, M6
processors, provide only PCI V2.1 or V2.2 slots with only 5V output voltage that cannot be supported by
WL-8314. Therefore, to ensure smooth installation of the Wireless adapter, please do examine the
system requirements for the adapter, particularly the specification of the PCI slots of the motherboard.
The PC with Intel Pentium III 600MHZ or above is highly recommended for better compatibility.
1.6
l
Installation Considerations
Beware of the walls and ceilings. Each wall or ceiling can reduce your wireless cover range from
3-90 feet. Properly position your Access Points, Residential Gateways, and computers so that
the number of walls or ceilings residing between Access Points and clients is minimized.
l
Building materials make a difference - A solid metal door or aluminum studs may have a negative
effect on signal coverage range. Try to properly position Access Points and computers with
wireless adapters so that there would be less obstacles existing between them.
l
Keep your wireless LAN devices away from microwaves, cordless phones and child incubators. It
is likely that the latter will cause interferences to affect the operation of your wireless LAN
devices.
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Chapter 2 Installation Procedure
Before you proceed with the installation, it is necessary that you have enough information about the
Wireless PCI Card. Follow the procedure described below to install the WL-8314 under Windows
98SE/Me/2000/XP/Server 2003.
Note: If you had installed another Wireless Card before, please uninstall the existed drivers and
utilities first. If this is the first time to install this device, please refer to the following steps to
complete the installation.
2.1
Configuration Utility Installation
Note: The following installation operates under Window XP. The procedure also applies to
Window 98SE/Me/2000/Server 2003..
Please install the configuration utility before inserting WL-8314 into the PCI slot of the computer.
1. Insert the bundled CD into the CD-ROM drive to launch the autorun program. Once completed,
a menu screen will appear.
2. Click the “Configuration Utility” hyperlink in the WL-8314 field to initiate the installation
procedure. You will see the below InstallShield Wizard window. Please click “Next” to
continue.
Note: If the above-mentioned screen does not appear, click “Start” at the taskbar. Then,
select “Run” and type “E:\utility\WL-8314\setup.exe”, where E is your CD-ROM drive.
3. You may click “Browse” to specify the Destination Folder you prefer for the installation of utility.
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Or, you can keep the default setting and click “Next” to proceed.
4. Once the utility is installed, select “Yes” to restart your computer right away, or select “No” to
restart later. Then, click “Finish” to go on.
2.2
Driver Installation
Note: The following installation operates under Window XP. The procedure also applies to
Window 98SE/Me/2000/Server 2003. If your operating system is Windows 2000, please
directly skip to step 3. If your operating system is Windows 98SE/ME, Windows will
automatically detect the device and ask you to reboot (For Windows 98SE, the system
installation CD will be required). Just click “Yes” to proceed.
1.
Power off your computer. Insert WL-8314 into a vacant PCI slot and turn on the computer.
2.
Windows will automatically detect the device. Choose “Install the software automatically
(Recommended)”. Then click “Next” to continue.
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3.
A screen will appear to inform you that the PCI adapter does not passed Windows Logo
testing (WHQL). Click “Continue Anyway” to proceed since the card has been tested
thoroughly to verify the compatibility.
Note: If your operating system is Windows 2000, the below window will pop up. Please click
“Yes” to continue.
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4.
When the driver is installed, click “Finish” to complete the installation procedure.
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Chapter 3 Configuration Utility
The Configuration Utility is a powerful tool that helps you to configure WL-8314 easily and
monitor the status of wireless communication. By double-clicking
in the system tray, the dialog box
will appear as follows:
Note: It is highly recommended to use PLANET utility tool to configure WL-8314 rather than
Windows XP/Server 2003 Wireless Zero Config Service. Windows XP/ Server 2003 Wireless Zero
Config Service will take over the management task of the wireless adapter. Make sure to disable
the Wireless Zero Config Service provided by Windows XP/ Server 2003 before launching
PLANET utility. To complete this, firstly, restart your computer, and click the Windows XP/
Server 2003 networking icon in the system tray, and then click “Advanced” in “Wireless
Network Connection” window. Uncheck “Use Windows to configure my wireless network
settings” and click “OK” to exit (If your operating system is Windows 98SE/Me/2000, this step
can be skipped). At last, double-click the utility icon
configuration utility.
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in the system tray to use the
3.1
Link Info.
The default page is as below after you launch the configuration utility. It displays the current link
status of WL-8314. You may press the “Radio off” button if you want your wireless PCI adapter to
stop working. After the wireless PCI adapter stops working, the “Radio off” button will be
renamed to “Radio on”. Click it if you would like to get your wireless PCI adapter back to work. If
you have connected to a certain Access Point, pressing “Rescan” button enables the wireless
PCI adapter to rebuild the link with the Access Point.
1. Status: It shows the BSSID associated with, which can be used to identify the wireless network.
2. SSID: It shows the current SSID, which must be the same for the wireless client and AP in order
to establish the link.
3. TxRate: It shows the current data rate for transmission.
4. Channel: It shows the current channel for communication.
5. Link Quality: It shows the link quality of WL-8314 with the Access Point when operating in
Infrastructure mode.
6. Signal Strength: It shows the signal strength of the wireless connection between WL-8314 and
the Access Point.
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7. Data Rate: It shows the statistics of data transfer based on the number of packets transmitted
and received.
3.2
Configuration
In this page, you can configure the settings of the Access Point you want to connect to or you
have connected to. After making the configuration, please click “Apply” to make it work or
“Cancel” to give up.
1. SSID: It must be identical for each wireless clients and devices in the same wireless work.
2. BSS Type: There are two types available for selection:
(1)Ad-hoc: This mode allows clients to communicate directly with each other without the use of
an Access Point.
(2)Infrastructure: This mode requires the presence of an Access Point, via which all
wireless communication is conducted
3. Channel: It shows the current channel on which the AP is operating. In Infrastructure mode, this
value is fixed, while in Ad-hoc mode it can be changed.
4. Tx Rate: It shows the data transfer rate. If Auto mode is selected, the device will choose the best
data transfer rate automatically.
5. Preamble (Auto/Long/Short): There are 3 options: Auto, Short, and Long Preamble.
Preamble is a sequence of bits transmitted at 1Mbps that allows the PHY circuitry to reach
steady-state demodulation and synchronization of bit clock and frame start. It is the first Suffield
of PPDU, which is the appropriate frame format for transmission to PHY (Physical layer). The
Short Preamble minimizes overhead and thus improves throughput performance. However, the
Short Preamble is supported only by IEEE 802.11b (High-Rate) standard and not by IEEE
802.11. That means the stations using Short Preamble cannot communicate with the peers
using Long Preamble. If Auto Preamble is selected, the device will automatically choose the
appropriate preamble type to communicate with the Access Point.
6. Power Mode: It shows Power Management modes. There are 3 options: Continuous Access
Mode (CAM), Maximum Power Save, and Fast Power Save.
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(1)Continuous Access Mode: The adapter will be always operating with full power, consuming
the most power.
(2)Maximum Save Mode: The adapter will enter power saving mode when it is idle and only
revives when there is data transmission, consuming the minimum power.
(3)Fast Power Save: The adapter will transfer and receive data once in each 5 seconds,
consuming the moderate level of power.
3.3
Encryption
In this option, you can enable and select one of the security methods to protect your wireless
connection. Wl-8314 has provided WEP (Open Authentication, Shared Authentication), WPA
and WPA-PSK functions for your network security. Please choose one of them and refer to the
below for the detail settings.
1. Data Encryption: You can check this for enabling data encryption.
2. Authentication Mode: If Data Encryption is implemented, it will be required to choose the
authentication mode. There are 4 options available:
(1)Open Authentication: In this mode, wireless stations directly associate with the Access
Point without any authentication (null authentication). You can decide whether to employ WEP
data encryption.
(2)Shared Authentication: In this mode, wireless stations communicate with the Access Point
with the identical WEP key settings for authentication and data encryption. It combines with
WEP data encryption.
(3)WPA-PSK: In this mode, you can use a pre-shared key to AP authenticate and encrypt data
during communication. It uses TKIP to change the encryption key frequently. This can improve
security very much.
(4)WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is an advanced security standard. You will need to
obtain a Certificate Authority from the RADIUS server for authentication before connect to the
wireless network which work with this WPA encryption.
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3. WEP Key options: This will be configurable only when Open Authentication or Shared
Authentication is selected in Auth. Mode option.
(1)Default Key: There are 4 keys available for the WEP authentication/data encryption. Please
select one of them to use.
(2)Network Key: You can define the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Key values by yourself.
(3)Key Format: You can decide on the WEP key format in HEX (Hexadecimal code, 0-9, A-F) or
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange, 0-9, a-z, A-Z) code.
(4)Key Length: You can select 64 or 128 bits as the length of the WEP keys. Each category has
2 kinds of key length based on the key format you have selected: 64 bit (5 ASCII/ 10 HEX) and
128 bit (13 ASCII/ 26 HEX).
4. WPA-PSK Pre-shared key option: This will be configurable only when WPA-PSK is selected in
Auth. Mode option.
(1)Passphrase: You have to input at least 8 character pass phrase as the pre-shared keys
(2)Confirm Key: Please input the same pass phrase as above option.
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5.WPA: This will be configurable only when WPA is selected in Auth. Mode option.
(1)Protocol: WPA function is support EAP-TLS protocol only now.
(2)Personal Certificate: Before enable WPA function. Please make sure you have obtain a
valid Certificate. Please press “Browse…” button. You will see the installed Certificate in below
dialog box. Please click the Certificate you want to use and press “Select”. Then you will back to
the Encryption screen, please check the User Name and Certificate of Authority are correct.
Press “Apply”.
Note: When you enable encryption, please ensure that you have configured the same
authentication mode and settings as the wireless device you connect to. For example: Your
Access Point is working in WPA-PSK authentication mode and key value (aaaaaaaa), please
ensure WL-8314 is using the same settings to communicate with this Access Point.
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3.4
Site Survey
In this page, The Available Network list displays all available Access Points (Infrastructure mode) and
adapters (Ad-hoc mode) within the signal coverage range for WL-8314 to connect to. Click “Refresh” to
scan all available networks again. Select the SSID you want to connect and double-clicking the
specified Access Point or clicking the “Connect” button. Then WL-8314 will connect to the device and
create a profile for the selected device automatically.
You can configure the profile with those buttons:
(1)Add: Add a new profile. If you want to create a new Ad-Hoc network, you should add a new
profile manually and set the BSS Type as “Ad-Hoc”.
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(2)Remove: Delete the selected profile.
(3)Properties: View or modify the selected profile.
After clicking “Add” or “Properties”, the dialog box as below will appear for your configuration. You
can refer to the above to configure the settings of the profile to meet your needs.
3.5
About
This page displays the current firmware, driver and utility version of WL-8314.
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Appendix
This section provides some technological Q&A. Read the description below to know the IEEE802.11g
standard.
ü
What is the IEEE 802.11g standard?
The IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN standard subcommittee has formulated a standard for the
industry. The objective is to enable wireless LAN hardware from different manufacturers to
communicate with each other. It is backward compatible with 802.11b.
ü
Which IEEE 802.11 features are supported?
The product supports the following IEEE 802.11 functions:
• CSMA/CA plus Acknowledge protocol
• Multi-Channel Roaming
• Automatic Rate Selection
• RTS/CTS feature
• Fragmentation
• Power Management
ü
What is Ad-hoc?
An Ad-hoc mode is a wireless network type, meaning a group of computers with WLAN
adapters are connected as an independent wireless LAN. It is operating without the presence of
the Access Point.
What is Infrastructure?
An Infrastructure is a wireless network type, meaning wireless stations communicate with each
other via an Access Point.
ü
Can Wireless products support printer sharing?
Wireless products perform the same function as LAN products. Therefore, Wireless products
can work with Netware, Windows NT/2000/XP/Server 2003, or other networking operating
systems to support the printer or file sharing.
ü
Would the information be intercepted while transmitting on air?
WLAN features two-folded protection in security. On the hardware side, as with Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum technology, it has the inherent security feature of scrambling. On
the software side, WLAN series offer the encryption function (WEP) to enhance security and
Access Control for users to set up depending on their needs.
ü
What is DSSS?What is FHSS?And what are their differences?
Frequency-hopping-spread-spectrum (FHSS) uses a narrowband carrier that changes
frequency in a pattern that is known to both the transmitter and receiver. Properly synchronized,
the net effect is to maintain a single logical channel. To an unintended receiver, FHSS appears
to be short-duration impulse noise. Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) generates a
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redundant bit pattern for each bit to be transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping
code). The longer the chip, the greater the probability that the original data can be recovered.
Even if one or more bits in the chip are damaged during transmission, statistical techniques
embedded in the radio can recover the original data without the need of retransmission. To an
unintended receiver, DSSS appears as low power wideband noise and is rejected (ignored) by
most narrowband receivers.
ü
What is Spread Spectrum?
Spread Spectrum technology is a wideband radio frequency technique developed by the military
for use in reliable, secure, mission-critical communication systems. It is designed to trade off
bandwidth efficiency for reliability, integrity, and security. In other words, more bandwidth is
consumed than in the case of narrowband transmission, but the trade off produces a signal that
is, in effect, louder and thus easier to detect, provided that the receiver knows the parameters of
the spread-spectrum signal being broadcast. If a receiver is not tuned to the right frequency, a
spread –spectrum signal looks like background noise. There are two main alternatives, Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).
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Glossary
Access Point: An internetworking device that seamlessly connects wired and wireless networks.
Ad-Hoc: An independent wireless LAN network formed by a group of computers, each with a network
adapter.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange, ASCII, is one of the two formats that you
can use for entering the values for WEP key. It represents English letters as numbers from 0 to 127.
Authentication Type: An indication of an authentication algorithm which can be supported by the
Access Point and wireless stations:
1. Open System: Open System authentication is the simplest of the available authentication algorithms.
Essentially it is a null authentication algorithm. Any station that requests authentication with this
algorithm may become authenticated if 802.11 Authentication Type at the recipient station is set to
Open System authentication.
2. Shared Key: Shared Key authentication supports authentication of stations as either a member of
those who knows a shared secret key.
Backbone: The core infrastructure of a network, which transports information from one central location
to another where the information is unloaded into a local system.
Bandwidth: The transmission capacity of a device, which is calculated by how much data the device
can transmit in a fixed amount of time expressed in bits per second (bps).
Beacon: A beacon is a packet broadcast by the Access Point to keep the network synchronized. What
is Included in a beacon is the information such as wireless LAN service area, the IP address, the
Broadcast destination addresses, time stamp, Delivery Traffic Indicator Maps, and the Traffic
Indicator Message (TIM).
Bit: A binary digit, which is either -0 or -1 for value, is the smallest unit for data.
Browser: An application program that enables one to view the content and
interact on the World Wide Web or Intranet.
BSS: BSS stands for “Basic Service Set”. It is an Access Point and all the wireless stations associating
with it.
Channel: The bandwidth where wireless Radio operates is divided into several segments, which we
call them “Channels”. Access Points and associated wireless stations reside in one of the channels.
CSMA/CA: In local area network, this is the CSMA technique that combines slotted time -division
multiplexing with carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) to avoid the occurrence
of collisions a second time. This works best if the time allocated is short compared to packet length and
if the number of situations is small.
CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection, which is a LAN media access method
used in Ethernet. When a device wants to gain access to the network, it will see if the network is quiet
(senses the carrier). If it is not, it waits for a random amount of time before retrying. If the network is
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quiet and two devices access the media at exactly the same time, their signals collide. When the
collision is detected, they both back off and wait for a random amount of time before retrying.
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, which is a protocol that lets network administrators
manage and allocate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in a network easily. Every computer must have
an IP address in order to communicate with each other in a TCP/IP-based network. Without DHCP,
each computer must be entered the IP address manually. DHCP enables the network administrators to
assign the IP from a central location and each computer receives an IP address upon connected to the
network.
DSSS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. DSSS generates a redundant bit pattern for each bit to be
transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping code). The longer the chip, the greater the
probability that the original data can be recovered. Even if one or more bits in the chip are damaged
during transmission, statistical techniques embedded in the radio can recover the original data without
the need for retransmission. To an unintended receiver, DSSS appears as low power wideband noise
and is rejected (ignored) by most narrowband receivers.
Dynamic IP Address: An IP address that is assigned automatically to a client station in a TCP/IP
network by a DHCP server.
Encryption: A security method that uses a specific algorithm to alter the data transmitted, and thus
prevent others from knowing the information transmitted.
ESS: ESS stands for “Extended Service Set”. More than one BSS is configured to become an
Extended Service Set. WLAN mobile users can roam between different BSSs in an ESS.
ESSID: The unique identifier that identifies the ESS. In infrastructure mode, the stations use the same
ESSID as AP’s to communicate.
Ethernet: A popular local area data communications network, originally developed by Xerox Corp.,
Ethernet operates in a 10/100 Mbps base transmission rate, using a shielded coaxial cable or over
shielded twisted pair telephone wire.
Fragmentation: When transmitting a packet over a network medium, sometimes the packet is broken
into several segments, if the size of packet exceeds that allowed by the network medium.
Fragmentation Threshold: The Fragmentation Threshold defines the number of bytes used for the
fragmentation boundary for directed messages. The purpose of "Fragmentation Threshold" is to
increase the transfer reliability thru cutting a MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU) into several MAC Protocol
Data Units (MPDU) in smaller size. The RF transmission can not allow to transmit too big frames due to
the heavy interference caused by the big size of transmission frame. But if the frame size is too small, it
will create the overhead during the transmission.
Gateway: a device that interconnects networks with different, incompatible communication protocols.
HEX: Hexadecimal, HEX, consists of numbers from 0 – 9 and letters from A – F.
IEEE: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which is the largest technical professional
society that promotes the development and application of electrotechnology and allied sciences for the
benefit of humanity, the advancement of the profession. The IEEE fosters the development of
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standards that often become national and international standards.
Infrastructure: An infrastructure network is a wireless network type, meaning all wireless stations
communicate with each other via the Access Point.
ISM Band: The FCC and their counterparts outside of the U.S. have set aside bandwidth for
unlicensed use in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band.
Spectrum in the vicinity of 2.4GHz,
in particular, is being made available worldwide.
MAC Address: Media Access Control Address is a unique hex number assigned by the manufacturer
to any Ethernet networking device, such as a network adapter, that allows the network to identify it at
the hardware level.
Multicasting: Sending data to a group of nodes instead of a single destination.
Node: A network junction or connection point, typically a computer or workstation.
Packet: A unit of data routed between a source and a destination in a network.
PLCP: Physical layer convergence protocol
PPDU: PLCP protocol data unit
Preamble Type: During transmission, the PSDU shall be appended to a PLCP preamble and header to
create the PPDU. Two different preambles and headers are defined as the mandatory supported long
preamble and header which interoperates with the current 1 and 2 Mbit/s DSSS specification as
described in IEEE Std 802.11-1999, and an optional short preamble and header. At the receiver, the
PLCP preamble and header are processed to aid in demodulation and delivery of the PSDU.
The
optional short preamble and header is intended for application where maximum throughput is desired
and interoperability with legacy and non-short-preamble capable equipment is not consideration. That
is, it is expected to be used only in networks of like equipment that can all handle the optional mode.
(IEEE 802.11b standard)
PSDU: PLCP service data unit
Roaming: A LAN mobile user moves around an ESS and enjoys a continuous connection to the
distribution system.
RTS: Request To Send. An RS-232 signal sent from the transmitting station to the receiving station
requesting permission to transmit.
RTS Threshold: Transmitters contending for the medium may not be aware of each other. RTS/CTS
mechanism can solve this “Hidden Node Problem”. If the packet size is smaller than the preset RTS
Threshold size, the RTS/CTS mechanism will NOT be enabled.
SSID: Service Set Identifier, which is a unique name shared among all clients and nodes in a wireless
network. The SSID must be identical for each clients and nodes in the wireless network.
Subnet Mask: The method used for splitting IP networks into a series of sub-groups, or subnets. The
mask is a binary pattern that is matched up with the IP address to turn part of the host ID address field
into a field for subnets.
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. The basic communication language or
protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network, i.e.
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intranet or Internet. When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided
with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get
information from those with a TCP/IP program.
Throughput: The amount of data transferred successfully from one point to another in a given period
of time.
WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an encryption scheme used to protect wireless data
communication. To enable the icon will prevent other stations without the same WEP key from linking
to the Access Point.
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