A MESSAGE TO OUR CLIENTS

A  MESSAGE TO OUR CLIENTS
A MESSAGE TO OUR CLIENTS
distributed generation sources, but also short term source
PTI's merger with Stone & Webster is completed, and we
interruption ride-through, has been successfully completed
are taking advantage of the opportunities provided by our
and is operating on-line.
association with this large diversified engineering company.
International transmission planning and operations studThe unparalleled technical strengths of PTI, coupled with the
ies continue to be an important part of PTI's work scope.
management and financial skills of Stone & Webster
Major projects in China, Portugal, and Singapore were comManagement Consultants, enables us to offer much broader
services and products in areas where technical solutions
pleted in 1998 and a number of other studies are slated for
1999. PTI's international companies and affiliates have played
directly translate into commercial advantages. One notable
a key role in promoting our global capabilities and serving our
example is our R-SPACE Process where we perform a
international clients.
cost/benefit analysis of distribution reliability to insure that
PSS/E continued its world leadership position for transdollars spent on reliability are justified.
mission planning software with the release of Rev 25. We
PTI has been assisting both transmission owners and
released Rev 1 of PSS/ADEPT, our new distribution
generator owners/developers to determine the adeproduct which supplements PSS/U and will comquacy of the local grid to cope with the flood of
applications for new generation. Shifting generapletely replace PSS/U in future revisions. We also
released PSSNIPER to provide marine, industrial,
tion and energy delivery patterns are driving the
and other small to medium size power system
need for better transmission loading relief and
designers with a tool comparable to PSS/E but with
redispatch tools and methodologies. One of our
features tailored to those types of systems. Our
newest software products, MUST, a powerful and
PSS/Engines are finding rapidly increased application
effective tool for quantifying generation impact on
as imbedded calculation solutions in GIS and other
transmission limits, is being used by PTI engineers
S.J. Balser, President
network analysis systems. A new graphical user
and more than twenty client organizations to deter([email protected])
mine local network adequacy. In some cases where
interface for PSS/O will serve as a springboard to
increased functionality as a leading edge power application
limitations exist, it may be practical to re-rate limiting equippackage for EMS systems.
ment through the use of dynamic ratings, and PTI has completed field tests of dynamic rating systems to demonstrate
Addition of new classroom courses in 1998 brings our
total curriculum to over 70 topics. Reflective of the changes
the feasibility and benefits of the technique. PTI has also
in the power industry, students from power marketers, genercompleted the conceptual development of the first Convertible
ation owners/developers, ISO's and power exchanges are
Static Compensator, a flexible ac transmission system
(FACTS) device to further enhance the capabilities of existing
increasingly attending our courses. We are extremely proud
transmission systems.
of the success of our new extended Distribution Engineering
course, graduating our first class of 32 students in 1998; we
Distributed generation sources are increasingly being
investigated in selected parts of the U.S. and PTI has particinow can offer extended courses in both distribution and
pated in a number of connection studies. This concept
transmission. The North American Electric Reliability Council
(NERC) initiated system operator certification in 1998, and
promises to play an important role in future energy development as photovoltaics, wind power, fuel cells, and microturPTI offers PracTest to prepare system operators for the NERC
bine technology
tests. PTI will be updating PracTest each year to keep pace
with NERC certification requirements.
matures. PTI introduced a course in
PTI's Dynamic System Monitor (DSM), and its sister
Distributed Generation
product the DSM/6, are enjoying expanding sales with sevenin 1998 to provide our
teen additional units installed in 1998. Ten further units are
clients with a better
already ordered and slated for installation in 1999. PTI also
President's Message ................ 1
understanding of this
installed an industrial load shedding system at a large copper
Distribution Reliability ............. 2
alte rnative fo rm of
mine to prevent catastrophic shut down during the partial loss
energy
production.
of
in-plant generation.
PSS/ADEPT ............................. 2
Our first Power
The past year has been one of substantial product develEnhancement and
opment at PTI. Our new products and relationship with Stone
Distributed Generation ............ 5
Delivery System
& Webster will reinforce our capabilities to serve you in the
Recent Publications ............. 7-8
(PEDS) which procoming years. We look forward to the opportunity to continue
vides not only a uniworking with our existing clients and to introduce ourselves
1999 Course Schedule ..... Insert
versal interface for dc
to those with whom we have not worked in the past.
----~---------------------------POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC~
A A Stone
& Webster Company
Mal.ing Fact·Based Decisions about
Distribution Reliability Spending
Reliability - Statistical, Physical, Analytical, and Cost Evaluation.
This approach provides both an historical and predictive method
to baselining reliability levels. By combining physical inspections
with analytical tools, accurate information is gathered for decision
making. R-SPACpM includes four main activities:
C.A. Warren
Senior Consultant - Distribution Reliability
[email protected]
V.R. DespOSito, Stone & Webster Vice President
[email protected]
E.L. Shlatz, Executive Consultant, Stone & Webster
[email protected]
INTRODUCTION
Distribution system interruptions are responsible for approximately 90% of outages experienced by customers. This fact alone
makes distribution reliability an important restructuring issue.
Recent regulatory developments reveal that regulators are interested in the reliability, affordability, and availability of power. It is
possible, however, for utilities to make significant investments in
network expansion and refurbishment and still fail to achieve the
desired levels of reliability and availability. Utilities will succeed in
this new environment only by understanding the ways they can
optimize investments while maintaining customer satisfaction and
reliability. PTI and Stone & Webster recently completed a comprehensive distribution reliability assessment for a major southwestern utility. Through this work, the team developed a new approach
to optimizing reliability expenditures using a fact-based process:
R-SPACpM.
Figure 1. R-SPACE Process
STATISTICALLY VALID FEEDER SELECTION
Our approach follows an advanced statistical technique that
includes a rigorous analysis of 3 to 5 years of historical outage
information. Feeders are grouped according to climate, overhead
vs. underground, voltage level, and other key attributes. The selection process combines these key attributes with historical reliability performance to produce a statistically valid sample at the
desired level of confidence, which is representative of the entire
COST-BASED STRATEGY FOR MEETING RELIABILITY OBJECTIVES
PTI and SWMCI have developed an innovative approach to
optimizing cost and reliability using a process known as R-SPACETM,
(continued on page 3)
PSS/ADEPT: The Powelo Of PSS/U But
With A Familiar Windows Interface
J.M. Cafarella,
Development Leader
Distribution Analysis Products,
PSS/U, PSS/ADEPT
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In the third quarter of 1998, Power
Technologies, Inc. (PTI) launched a new
era in analysis software for distribution
engineers with the introduction of
PSS/ADEPTTM, which will replace the widely
used PSS/UTM electrical network simulation
program for planning, design, and analysis
of distribution systems. It combines the
powerful analysis capabilities of PSS/U
with the "look and feel" of Microsofr'
Windows to give users a familiar, easy-touse and powerful tool (Fig 1).
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unbalanced, looped or radial systems with any combination of
three-phase, two-phase or one-phase laterals. Power flow results
are available on a phase-by-phase basis for nodes, branches
ILo~Flol'I
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(continued on page 4)
2
I
Mah:ing Fact·Based Decisions about
Distribution Reliability Spending
SAlOl· Mitigation Options
(continued from page 2)
population of feeders. These feeders are then used throughout the
remaining R-SPACETM' process.
PHYSICAL INSPECTION
Our team of experts employs an inspection process utilizing
detailed data collection forms tailored to the client's system. These
forms are completed during feeder walks-down to note conditions
that could cause customer outages. Information is entered into an
appropriately designed database, which produces information
about each feeder as to the types of failures that are likely to occur.
Figure 2 shows an example of the output from the database.
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Figure 3. Mitigation Options
Table 1. Mitigation Strategies for 0.1 Reduction in SAIFI
Feeder Number Animals Equipment
Transformers w/o sq.
Trees
lightning Protection
Circuit No.1
$1,200
$5,000
$1,000 $12,000 $10,000
Circuit No.2
$2,400
$ 600
$1,200
$ 1,000
$ 8,000
Circuit NO.3
$3,600
$1,000
$8,000 $15,000
$ 500
Circuit NO.4
$ 800
$1,200
$1,200
$ 1,200
$ 7,500
Although not rigorously quantifiable, there are both real and
social costs that may be avoided through this process. They
include loss of revenue to business customers and the utility, cost
of potential litigation for business interruption, and the potential
loss of customer loyalty/goodwill as a result of seeking services
and products from competitors during power outages.
Transformers w/o arresters Trees within 3 ft of ROW
guards
Figure 2. Example of Database Output
ANALYSIS (MODELING AND PARAMETRIC)
While the physical inspections are progressing, another part of
the team calculates historical failure rates by protective zone and
cause code, and creates the computerized feeder models used in
PTI's DRNM (Distribution Reliability Analysis) tool. This state-ofthe-art tool allows assessment of existing and target feeder
reliability performance. Parametric studies are performed for each
feeder to determine potential reliability benefit using indices such
as SAIFI and SAIDI for each mitigation strategy. For example,
separate failure rates are calculated for main and tap line feeder
sections. Failure rates are further distilled by cause code
(e.g., animals, trees, equipment, and weather). Mitigation strategies are then selected until reliability targets are achieved. Figure 3
shows the results of parametric studies for a sample feeder. For
this example, two mitigation options (animals and animals + trees)
would reduce the base case to meet the targeted reliability level.
CONCLUSIONS
The R-SPACETM process provides utilities a systematic methodology to critically evaluate alternative feeder reliability options. The
process is designed to determine the best strategy based on costbenefit criteria and customer satisfaction issues. Further, since the
process relies on selecting a statistically valid and manageable
sample from the entire distribution system, the results are valid
and supportable, both for the selected feeders as well as the entire
distribution system. This approach has been successfully
employed for utility clients, and accepted by regulators as well.
o
ATTENTION:
INTERNET USERS
COST BENEFIT EVALUATION
Using the results from the analytical and physical processes,
an optimal mitigation strategy is formulated using a unique cost
benefit evaluation, which incorporates actual cost data experienced
by the client company for various mitigation activities. Key to this
process is the ranking and prioritization of mitigation options
based on combinations of these cost elements versus their predicted impacts on reliability. For example, the following table
shows the mitigation costs for each 0.1 reduction in SAIFI.
This and all future issues of the
PTI newsletter can be found on
our website:
www.pti-us.com
3
PSS/ADEPT: The Power Of PSS/U But
With A Familiar Windows Interface
them into enterprise-wide information systems in AM/FM, GIS,
and OMS applications.
PSS/Engines integrate quickly with users' applications using
an open application programming interface called the PSSAPI.
They can be called from within virtually any programming language, including C, C++, and Visual Basic.
(continued from page 2)
(lines, switches, transformers, cables and series capacitors/reactors), and shunt devices (machines, capacitors).
Short circuit calculations are available for three-phase, phaseto-ground, phase-to-phase-to-ground, and phase-to-phase faults.
Either individual faults or a series of faults may be placed at any
node in the distribution system, and faults also may be applied
sequentially to all nodes in the network.
Motor starting analysis is provided to determine the impact
of starting individual or multiple machines in the system.
PSS/AOEPT easily exchanges data with PSS/U to provide the
following additional capabilities: protective device coordination,
capacitor placement optimization, tie open point optimization,
harmonics, advanced reporting and spreadsheet data editing, and
predictive distribution reliability analysis.
SMOOTH TRANSITION TO PSS/ADEPT
PSS/AOEPT does not impose any limitations on the size of
the electrical network to be analyzed; users' computer memory is
the primary constraint. The program incorporates many of the
suggestions of PSS/U users and has been designed to work with
legacy data and systems. For example, it is backward-compatible
with PSS/U Rev. B.x raw data, construction dictionary, and
machine dictionary files. Once all of the PSS/U functionality is
available within PSS/AOEPT, PSS/U will be phased out completely.
The central focus of PSS/AOEPT's interface is the system
one-line diagram, with which users can easily create, edit, and
navigate a network (Fig. 2). Navigation of large networks is aided
by a tree view, from which users can zoom the one-line diagram to
any selected node or branch.
PTI developers are busy working on the next two releases of
PSS/AOEPT. Revision 2.0, scheduled for release in mid-1999, will
incorporate additional analysis capabilities including capacitor
placement optimization, tie open point optimization, and advanced
user-directed reporting. Revision 3.0, tentatively scheduled for the
end of 1999 or early 2000, will add protective device coordination,
harmonics analysis, and a transmission line constants calculation.
We are also working on a facility to allow users to
import/export data to and from the database of their choice using
OOBC technology. With all these capabilities, PSS/AOEPT provides
improved performance over PSS/U in a modern, easy-to-use package that will be welcomed by new and experienced users alike.
DECOUPlES USER INTERFACE FROM ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
PTI created PSS/AOEPT because users wanted many issues
addressed in PSS/U that were difficult to implement, given the
legacy structure of PSS/U.
Therefore, PTI created a new architecture that is better suited
for responding to user needs. The strategy in designing
PSS/AOEPT was to decouple the interface from the engineering
analysis functions in PSS/U, and to make the new program a
familiar Microsoft Windows application.
In the process, PTI created the PSSIEngines™ suite of software libraries to carry out the core engineering calculations. Each
PSS/U engineering function was made into a separate calculation
server, or engine.
PSS/Engines are an integral part of PSS/AOEPT, but they are
open and available separately to developers who want to embed
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Due to T&D system support benefits, it has been said that one
kilowatt-hour of injected DG power at the distribution feeder level
provides the equivalent financial benefit to the utility of up to 2
kWh of central station power. Whether or not this is true depends
on system configuration details, however, in concept it makes
sense when one considers the market cost of central station
power relative to delivered energy.
Careful placement and sizing of the distributed generators are
needed to maximize these benefits and not all systems can realize
such dramatic benefits from DG. This analysis requires a location
and system-specific study of how the added generators would
impact loading conditions and demand cycles on specific feeders
and transformers. It also requires load flow analysis to assess
how generator placements would affect voltage support and loss
reduction.
Where there are significant system-wide distributed-generation
additions, the analysis needs to be extended to the entire utility
T&D system. An overall system planning analysis also would be
needed to determine how much bulk generation/transmission
capacity can be released or deferred by adding distributed generators, and to determine the optimum locations for the greatest
possible effect in deferring other equipment upgrades.
The ability of distributed generators to function in a reliable
fashion will become critical as penetration levels of DG increase.
Studies that investigate the dynamics and operational response of
DG to system disturbances are crucial to evaluating the true
capacity and reliability contributions that DG can provide to the
system. DG will offer little benefit and may actually worsen system
conditions if, for example, a transient system event causes many
units to trip off-line which were needed to carry the load and
maintain system stability!
The "dispatchability" of distributed generation capacity also
greatly impacts the potential T&D support benefits that can be
achieved. For maximum system support, these facilities need to be
operated or be available to operate at times of peak system load.
Fuel-powered generators under utility control like gas turbines,
fuel cells, and diesel. engines can be dispatched as needed, but
generators operated by customers not under utility control generally cannot. Still, a statistically reliable dispatch from a group of
such customers can be achieved if appropriate financial incentives
are offered or dispatch agreements are provided.
With intermittent, non-dispatchable, renewable resources like
wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, there is no guarantee that
renewable resources will be available when needed, and therefore
T&D-deferral values for solar and wind systems are derated from
their peak capacity ratings. Determining the derating factor
depends on many complex issues including the similarity between
the system demand cycle and the resource availability. Also, the
way in which the resource is to be used and where it is to be
placed will significantly impact its derating value.
For solar photovoltaic systems, a good match often can be
achieved with a utility that has system and local feeder loads that
peak in the summer and during mid-day periods. Experience indicates that under such conditions derated solar system capacity is
typically in the range of 50% to 80% of peak rated capacity;
however, these numbers could become much lower depending on
the nature of the capacity requirement. Given the variability and
uncertainty of solar and wind resources, it is often not advisable
for them to exceed 20% of peak feeder capacity unless analysis
shows that the system will work adequately without them.
Overall T&D support benefits can be significant, but achieving
them in practice will require careful attention to details and
advanced analyses of the system behavior under steady state and
dynamic conditions.
Distributed Generation and the
Deregulated Energy MarBle!
P.P. Barker, Senior Consultant
Distribution and Energy Services
[email protected]
H.W. Zaininger, Manager
Sacramento Office
[email protected],com
A new energy market is emerging due to the deregulation of
the utility industry. The cost, quality, and reliability of power will
be the guiding principles by which all electricity providers participating in this new market will be judged. A high value will also be
placed on energy sources with the most benign environmental
impact. Utilities that provide the best combination of these elements will be the winners of this market.
Distributed generation (DG) can playa significant role in the
deregulated energy market by offering environmentally sound
approaches for generating power and providing a means by which
cost, power quality, and reliability issues can be effectively
addressed for specific customers. Strategically located DG facilities can lower utility operating costs by deferring the need to
expand T&D infrastructure and central station generation. In
conjunction with these benefits, power quality and reliability of
service may also be improved at sites where DG is applied.
Technologies such as photovoltaics, fuel cells, wind turbines,
internal combustion engines, and microturbines are examples of
DG technologies that may be suitable to achieve these objectives.
Various technical, enVironmental, and economic factors will determine which energy source is most appropriate for each specific
application.
T&D SYSTEM SUPPORT VIA DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
Strategically applied DG at the distribution feeder level can
provide support for the bulk transmission and generation system
as well as for the local distribution system (see Fig.1). Here, the
need to generate and transport bulk power from a central generation facility to the load is reduced, providing the following system
benefits:
• reduced power losses on both the transmission and distribution system
• reduced peak loading of feeders, substations, and transmission lines
• reduced peak loading of the bulk generation system
• support for the local T&D system voltage
• potential deferment of new generation, transmission, and
distribution facilities
SUBSTATION
Injected
FEEDER
Power
~~~--------~~~~~~~--I
To transmission
system and bulk
generation
Distributed
Generation such as
Photovoltaics
Figure 1. Example of a distributed generation system
providing T&D support
(continued on page 6)
5
Many variations of this arrangement can be used.
Photovoltaics, fuel cells, microturbines, and/or energy storage can
all be employed with a UPS in a variety of configurations.
Advanced versions of this arrangement may have inverters capable of providing reactive power support and harmonic filtering
during normal system conditions which also provide benefit to the
T&D system. One example is a 125-kVA device called Power
Enhancement and Delivery System (PEDS), which has recently
been developed by PTI and is now operational at a test site near
Albany, New York (see Fig. 3).
Distributed Generation and the
Deregulated Energy Marh:et
(continued from page 5)
POWER QUAlITY AND RELIABILITY
Another area of focus for DG is its use as a tool to improve
power quality and reliability at specific customer sites. Ideal power
quality and reliability is a perfectly sinusoidal wave with no interruptions or transient disturbances, but in practice the power which
reaches customers is impacted by a wide range of disturbances
including long-duration interruptions, momentary interruptions,
voltage sags and swells, flicker, harmonic distortion, and various
sub-cycle transients.
With distributed generation, it is possible to make dramatic
enhancements in the quality and reliability of power enabling utilities to provide customers with a value-added energy service. The
marketing benefit of that service can match or even exceed the
cost-based contributions DG makes to traditional T&D support.
Several levels of improvement are possible, depending on the
type of distributed generation equipment used and its placement
on the system. The most basic installation is a backup generator
with automatic startup, mechanical transfer switch, and utility
paralleling equipment, including synchronizing relays, overcurrent,
and anti-islanding protection (see Fig. 2). It can eliminate longduration customer interruptions while serving as a distributed
generator during normal conditions, enabling the customer to use
it as a peak-shaving device to reduce demand charges. However,
because this arrangement typically requires 5 to 10 seconds to get
the generator on-line following a disturbance, it cannot be relied
on to eliminate unexpected voltage sags or momentary interruptions.
I _____________________ J
~
Figure 3. PEDS - An advanced package, such as PEDS,
upgrades the reliability and quality of power at a customer site
while also providing DG support to the T&D system. Inset photo
shows operational prototype [note: some switchgear elements
omitted in drawing for clarity]
PEDS will interface with a variety of distributed generation
sources and provide protection against outages, voltage sags, and
transient conditions as well as provide utility-system-friendly functions like low harmonic distortion and power-factor correction.
Ultimately, PEDS and other similar technologies are expected to
accelerate deployment of DG by combining the functions of power
quality and T&D support into a single package. Depending on
market conditions, such equipment could be available in sizes
from a few kilowatts to nearly a megawatt and is expected to fit
well into the new energy market.
COGENERATION BENEFITS ALSO EXIST
Since distributed generation is located at the customer site,
waste heat from the DG energy source may be used for industrial
processes, space heating, or water heating at the customer facility.
Not every DG source is capable of producing waste heat and not
every DG application will need or want to use it; however, in applications where it makes sense it can really add substantial payback
to the project. Microturbines, fuel cells, and internal combustion
engines are particularly well suited to cogeneration applications.
When the waste heat is used, the total efficiency of energy utilization (including electricity and heat) can be as high as 85%, more
than double the typical utility system efficiency.
Generator
Figure 2. A basic standby DG system might be employed for peak
shaving and as a means of standby power during long outages.
However, it cannot provide protection against voltage sags and
momentary interruptions in the configuration shown here.
Commercial and industrial loads such as data processing facilities, automated manufacturing, telecommunications sites, and
other critical loads cannot tolerate momentary service interruptions and consequently may require more sophisticated protection.
By combining the generation source of Figure 2 with a short-duration uninterruptible power supply (UPS), momentary interruptions
and sags can be prevented from reaching customer loads. The
generator can then pick up the load for longer duration outage
events prior to the exhaustion of the UPS battery.
PICKING THE RIGHT APPLICATIONS
In most current applications, distributed generation is not the
lowest-cost option when only traditional T&D support benefits are
considered. However, when power quality and reliability benefits
6
POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC~
J.t. A Stone & Webster Company
are included, many applications become viable. When waste heat
utilization and applications are included, DG may become the least
cost alternative for the customer. In order to take advantage of
these benefits, a significant change will be necessary in traditional
utility planning philosophies. In the past, utilities have placed the
emphasis on a central station generation approach that focuses on
robust T&D system design and economies of scale to achieve the
desired level of reliability and cost. Design and operating philosophies are now changing, and the idea of distributed generation
deployed as a tool for meeting these objectives will require utilities
to focus on specific smaller scale applications and services tailored
to meet individual customer needs.
Distributed generation is already being deployed by some utilities to meet these objectives, and many electricity customers have
also moved forward with their own installations to take advantage
of both cogeneration and reliability benefits. However, the costs of
DG have, until recently, been too high in most cases to allow a
widespread industry movement in this direction. Most DG solutions cost between $400 and $7,000 per kilowatt installed, with
internal combustion engines and small gas turbines occupying the
low end of this range, fuel cell technologies the middle of the
range, and photovoltaics the top end of the range. For applications
above $1,000 per kilowatt which also have associated fuel costs, it
is difficult to justify them in the current market based only on traditional T&D support benefits. If T&D support benefits are combined
with providing power quality, reliability, and/or cogeneration benefits, then higher installed cost solutions may make sense when the
total benefits over the lifetime are included. Currently, the economic
case for distributed generation is strongest for traditional internal
combustion engines, small turbines, and microturbines. Fuels cells
are rapidly progressing on a cost basis and will seriously compete
with these other energy sources in the near future. Photovoltaic systems are still too expensive to justify on a purely economic basis,
but may be justified for environmental reasons. Reductions in PV
cost are continuing and will likely make them justified on economics
alone within a few years.
The emerging DG market is in its early phases and, given the
current cost and maturity of DG equipment, the most successful
applications are those where power quality, reliability, T&D support, and cogeneration benefits can be mutually achieved. Many
electricity customers have already recognized this and have moved
forward with applications with an attractive cost-benefit relationship. Furthermore, as DG costs become less, many more applications will become viable and utilities risk losing considerable market share if they are not positioned to offer DG services and products. However, utilities need not abandon this market to others
and, in fact, may be better positioned in the long run to offer DG
services to customers as is allowed within the regulatory limitations imposed by governing authorities. There are many possible
approaches for utilities to be more DG-oriented. Utilities may sell
premium power to customers by installing utility owned DG equipment at the customer facility to provide premium grade power. The
customer would pay a premium rate over their normal rate for this
added service. The utility may also sell the waste heat from such a
facility to the customer. These extra service fees would offset much
or all of the cost of the DG unit while the utility enjoys the T&D
system support benefits. Another approach is that utilities could
sell DG equipment directly to customers and offer maintenance
services as justified by the market-this approach could also provide system support benefits while meeting customer expectations
for high reliability and low cost of service. There are many other
possible marketing approaches that could emerge and ultimately
what will occur will depend on the regulatory environment as well
as pricing strategies. Thus, while the future details of the market
are uncertain, it is clear that utilities need to move rapidly to
embrace the possibility of significant DG penetration and develop
plans for capitalizing on the emergence of this market or face the
threat of losing this market share to others.
D
RECENT PUBLICATIONS
Author(s) and (Affiliation)
Publication Title
Date & Dccasion of Presentation
D.A. Douglass, I.S. Grant, L.J. Oppel, SJ.
Mauser, and J.R. Stewart (PTI)
Environmental Advantage of Innovative
Transmission Designs
July-September 1998 - Water and
Energy International - Special Issue
ICOLD '98 New Delhi, pp. 63-71.
P.P. Barker, H.W. Zaininger (PTI), and F.
Goodman (EPRI)
Integration of Distributed Resources in Electric
Utility Systems: Current Interconnection Practice
and Unified Approach
October 21-23, 1998 - Distributed
Resources Week 1998: Strategies for
Successful Implementation
Conference, Milwaukee, WI
lA. Short (PTI)
Fuse Saving and Its Effect on Power Quality
October 22, 1998 - Presented at the
Electric Council of New England
Protective Relaying Committee
Meeting, Portsmouth, NH
J.w. Feltes and J.R. Willis (PTI)
Boiler Effects on Steam Turbine Response
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
w.G. Cain (PTI) and D.J. Ahner (TAG)
Distributed Generation - Major Advance or
Another Niche
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
D.A. Douglass, D.C. Lawry (PTI), and A.A.
Edris (EPRI)
Field Studies of Dynamic Thermal Uprating
Methods
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
7
RECENT PUBLICATIONS
(continued from page 7)
Author(s) and (Affiliation)
Publication Title
Date & Occasion of Presentation
A.S. Cook (PTI-Australia), W. Coste, and
G. Adams (IREMM)
Quantifying Market Presence: Competition,
Mergers and Market Power
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
R.J. Ringlee, B.P. Lam (PTI), Sallehhudin
(PTI-Asia), M.L. Philip, and M.Taib (Tenaga
Nasional Berhad)
Reliability Assessment of the Penang Submarine
Cable Link
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
A.S. Cook (PTI-Australia), W. Coste, and
G. Adams (IREMM)
Software Tools for the Development of
Strategies in Competitive Power Markets
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
R. Koessler (PTI), M. Cartabbia, N. Gassman
(Entidad Binacional Yacyreta), and E. Otegui,
ESIN Consultora)
Yacyreta: A Power Plant at the Heart of the
South American Power System
November 2-6, 1998 - Presented at
the 12th CEPSI Exhibition, Dusit
Resort Pattaya, Thailand
L.N. Hannett, J.w. Feltes (PTI), B. Fardanesh
(NYPA), w. Crean (Electricity Corp. of New
Zealand)
Modeling and Control Tuning of a Hydro Station
with Units Sharing a Common Penstock Section
January 3Hebruary 4, 1999 Presented at the IEEE/PES Winter
Meeting, New York, NY
'\]v- POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC~
.&.
For further Information
Contact: Jeanne M. Aviles
Power Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 1058
Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone 518-395-5000
Fax 518-346-2777
Address Service Requested
A Stone
&
Webster Company
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PO ER TECH OL
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,JI. A Stone & Webster Company
1999
PTI COURSE SCHEDULE
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Jun. 7-11
$1725
Sept. 8-10
Sept. 20-24
Sept. 27-29
Sept. 27 -Oct. 1
Oct. 4-6
Oct. 4-8
Oct. 13-15
Oct. 19-21
Oct. 19-21 (Oct. 22)
Oct. 25-29
Nov. 1-3
Nov. 2-4
Nov. 3-5
Nov. 4-5
$1510
$1725
$1510
$1725
$1510
$1725
$1510
$1510
$1510
$1725
$1510
$1510
$1510
$1025
Reliability Assessment Methods for Transmission Systems
and Operations
Nov. 8-12
$1725
Power Plant Performance and Monitoring
Power System Dynamics
Transient Analysis Using EMTP
Fundamentals of Protective Relaying
Distribution Planning & Reliability Assessment
Introduction to TPLAN Reliability Assessment
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
$1725
$1825
$1725
$1645 - Boston, MA
$1725
$1510
Power System Analysis
Fundamentals of Overhead Transmission Line Design
Marine Power Systems
Power Distribution Systems Economics
Substation Engineering and Design - Joint Course with
New York State Electric and Gas
Low Voltage Secondary Networks
Extruded Dielectric Transmission Cables
CD
•
CD
• •
• •
€I
•
TUITION & LOCATION
$1725
$1725
$1725
$1725
$1510
$1510
$1025
$1025 - Houston, TX
$1725
$1510
$1025
$1025 - Sacramento, CA
$1725
$1725
$1510
$1510
$1510 - Reno, NV
Application of Distributed Generation Technologies
•
III
DATE
Apr. 26-30
Sept. 20-24
Apr. 26-30
Oct. 18-22
May 4-6
Sept. 14-16
May 10-11
Dec. 1-2
May 10-14
May 11-13
May 17-18
Sept. 30-0ct. 1
May 17-21
Nov. 15-19
May 24-26
Oct. 26-28
Jun. 2-4
Planning & Operating in Modern Power Markets
•
•
COURSE NAME
Power Distribution Systems
•
CD
Courses will be presented at PTI Offices in Schenectady, NY, unless otherwise noted
Advanced Transmission Planning with Modern Network Analysis
Tools (PSS/E, TPLAN & OPF)
PSS/OPF - Optimal Power Flow
PSS/E - Introduction to Power Flow & Steady State Analysis
Real-Time Thermal Monitoring and Rating of Transmission Circuits
PSS/E - Introduction to Dynamic Simulation
Distribution System Losses
PSS/E - Advanced
PSS/E - IPLAN
Improving Reliability of Large Interconnected Systems
PSS/U and PSS/ADEPT (3 or 4 day version)
Increasing Power Transfer Capacity of Overhead Lines
Introduction to PSS/Engines
Fundamentals of Overvoltage and Insulation Coordination
Machine Parameter Measurements for Improved Modeling
Underground Cable Systems: Principles and Analytical Techniques Joint Course with Power Delivery Consultants, Inc.
15-19
29-Dec. 3
29-Dec. 3
6-9
6-10
13-15
- Sacramento, CA
- Las Vegas, NV
($1645)
- st. Petersburg Beach, FL
See more course listings on reverse side
SPECIAL COURSES OF STUDY
conducted at Power Technologies, Inc. Corporate Headquarters, Schenectady, NY
COURSE DESCRIPTION
COURSE TITLE AND DATES
Transmission line Design and Upgrading
- A Four-Week Course of Study May 1O-June 4
Power System Transmission Planning and Analysis
- A Six-Week Course of Study September 13 - October 22
This training program will allow both experienced and novice transmission line design engineers to review and
upgrade their skills and learn how to apply the latest materials and design techniques. The course will cover
both design of new lines and upgrading of existing lines over the full range of HV and EHV voltage levels.
A comprehensive approach to gaining the practical knowledge necessary to effectively use and apply power
engineering analytical tools and methodologies in transmission system planning. The course includes sessions
on planning concepts and principles are combined with intensive "hands-on" use of PTI's PSS/E program,
application workshops, and study tours of utility sites for a broad-based learning experience.
INTERNATIONAL COURSES
TUITION
COURSE TITLE
DATE
Europe - Manchester, United Kingdom
Application of Distributed Generation Technologies
£ 745
Jul. 12-13
Marine Power Systems
£ 795
Sept. 14-16
Introduction to PSS/E Power Flow and Steady-State Analysis
£ 795
Oct. 5-7
Introduction to PSS/E Dynamic Simulation
£ 795
Oct. 26-28
Cancellation Policy
Occasionally, unforeseen events or insufficient enrollment may necessitate the cancellation of a course. If a course is
canceled, PTI will attempt to notify each registrant no later than 14 days prior to the start of the course. PTI is not
responsible for any cancellation charges imposed by airlines, hotels, or travel agents.
Registration Note
It is recommended that you register one month before any course. Registrations will be accepted within the month time
frame but space may be limited.
For further Information on courses or registration
In the United States contact:
In Europe contact:
Educational Programs
Power Technologies, Inc.
1482 Erie Boulevard, P.O. Box 1058
Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone 518-395-5005
Fax 518-346-2777
E-mail [email protected]
Web www.pti-us.com
Charles A. Lynch
Power Technologies Ltd.
Cranford Court, King Street
Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8BW, UK
Telephone (44) 1565-650388
Fax (44) 1565-750376
E-mail [email protected]
See more course listings on reverse side
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