7 F4–16AD–2 8-Channel Analog Input

7 F4–16AD–2 8-Channel Analog Input
F4–16AD–2
8-Channel
Analog Input
In This Chapter. . . .
Ċ Module Specifications
Ċ Setting the Module Jumpers
Ċ Connecting the Field Wiring
Ċ Module Operation
Ċ Writing the Control Program
7
7–2
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Module Specifications
ANALOG
The F4-16AD–2 Analog Input module
provides several features and benefits.
S
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
S
S
S
It accepts 16 single-ended voltage
inputs.
Analog inputs are optically isolated
from PLC logic components.
The module has a removable
terminal block, so the module can
be easily removed or changed
without disconnecting the wiring.
All 16 analog inputs may be read in
one CPU scan (D4–440 and
D4–450 CPUs only).
INPUT
16 CHANNELS
F4–16AD–2
0–5V
0–10V
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
CH8
0V
0V
CH9
CH10
CH11
CH12
CH13
CH14
CH15
CH16
24V
0V
24VDC @0.1A
F4–16AD–2
Analog Input
Configuration
Requirements
The F4–16AD–2 Analog Input module requires 16 discrete input points. The
module can be installed in any slot of a DL405 system, including remote bases. The
limitations on the number of analog modules are:
S For local and expansion systems, the available power budget and
discrete I/O points.
S For remote I/O systems, the available power budget and number of
remote I/O points.
Check the user manual for your particular model of CPU for more information
regarding power budget and number of local or remote I/O points.
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
7–3
The following table provides the specifications for the F4–16AD–2 Analog Input
Module. Review these specifications to ensure the module meets your application
requirements.
Input
Specifications
16, single ended (one common)
Input Ranges
0–5V, 0–10V
Resolution
12 bit (1 in 4096)
Active Low-pass Filtering
–3 dB at 20Hz, –6 dB per octave
Input Impedance
100K Ohm minimum
Absolute Maximum Ratings
130VAC / 100VDC
Conversion Time
0.4ms per channel (module conversion)
2 ms per selected channel minimum (CPU)
Linearity Error (End to End)
$2 count (0.050% of full scale) maximum
Input Stability
$1 count
Full Scale Calibration Error
(Offset error not included)
$12 counts maximum , voltage input
Offset Calibration Error
$3 counts maximum, unipolar voltage input
PLC Update Rate
16 Channel per scan max.
Digital Input Points Required
16 (X) input points total
12 binary data bits, 4 active channel bits,
Power Budget Requirement
75 mA (power from base)
External Power Supply
21.6–26.4 VDC, 100 mA, class 2
Accuracy vs. Temperature
$50 ppm / _C maximum full scale (including
maximum offset change of 2 counts)
Operating Temperature
0 to 60_C (32 to 140° F)
Storage Temperature
–20 to 70_C (–4° F to 158° F)
Relative Humidity
5 to 95% (non-condensing)
Environmental Air
No corrosive gases permitted
Vibration
MIL STD 810C 514.2
Shock
MIL STD 810C 516.2
Noise Immunity
NEMA ICS3–304
One count in the specification table is equal to one least significant bit of the analog data (1 in 4096).
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
General
Specifications
Number of Channels
7–4
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Setting the Module Jumpers
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Jumper
Locations
If you examine the rear of the module, you will notice two banks of jumpers. The
module has several options that you can select by installing or removing these
jumpers:
S A bank of two jumpers to set voltage input range for each bank of 8
channels.
S A bank of four jumpers to select the number of channels used.
The module is set at the factory for a 0–10 VDC signal range on all sixteen
channels. The following diagram shows how the jumpers are set at the factory and
describes the function of each jumper. When removing a jumper, store it by placing
it on a single pin to prevent losing it.
Voltage Input Range
Select
Jumper Locations
Channels 9–16
Number of
Channels
+8
+4
Jumper On = 10VDC
Off = 5VDC
Channels 1–8
+2
+1
7–5
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Selecting the
Number of
Channels
The jumpers labeled +1, +2, +4 and +8
are used to select the number of
channels that will be used.
Any unused channels are not processed
so if you only select channels 1–8, then
the last eight channels will not be active.
The following table shows which
jumpers to install.
+8 +4 +2 +1
Number of
Channels
Jumper
Channel(s)
Jumper
+8
+4
+2
+1
1
No
No
No
No
12
No
No
No
123
No
No
Yes
1234
No
No
12345
No
Yes
123456
No
1234567
12345678
Selecting Input
Signal Ranges
Channel(s)
+8
+4
+2
+1
123456789
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13141516
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
The following table shows the jumper selections for the 5V and 10V ranges. The
module comes from the factory set for the 10V operation (jumpers installed). See
note below.
Signal Range
Jumper Settings
0 to +5 VDC
Jumpers OFF
Channels 1–8
Jumper
Channels 9–16
Jumper
0 to +10 VDC
Jumpers ON
Channels 1–8
Jumper
Channels 9–16
Jumper
NOTE: The jumpers do not have to both be set On or Off (e.g. Channels 1–8 can
be selected for 5V and Channels 9–16 can be selected for 10V operation).
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Jumpers installed as shown
selects 16-channel operation
7–6
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Connecting the Field Wiring
Wiring
Guidelines
Your company may have guidelines for wiring and cable installation. If so, you
should check those before you begin the installation. Here are some general things
to consider.
S Use the shortest wiring route whenever possible.
S Use shielded wiring and ground the shield at the transmitter source. Do
not ground the shield at both the module and the source.
S Don’t run the signal wiring next to large motors, high current switches,
or transformers. This may cause noise problems.
S Route the wiring through an approved cable housing to minimize the
risk of accidental damage. Check local and national codes to choose
the correct method for your application.
User Power
Supply
Requirements
The F4–16AD–2 module requires a separate power supply. The Series DL405
CPUs, D4-RS Remote I/O Controller, and D4-EX Expansion Units have built-in 24
VDC power supplies that provide up to 400mA of current. If you only have a couple
analog modules, you can use this power source instead of a separate supply. If you
have more than four analog modules, or you would rather use a separate supply,
choose one that meets the following requirements: 24 VDC $10%, Class 2, 100
mA current (per module).
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Custom Input
Ranges
7–7
Occasionally you may have the need to connect a transmitter with an unusual
signal range. By changing the wiring slightly and adding an external resistor to
convert the current to voltage, you can easily adapt this module to meet the
specifications for a transmitter that does not adhere to one of the standard input
ranges. The following diagram shows how this works.
NOTE: Remove current jumper in module.
Module internal circuitry
Field wiring
IN
Analog switch
+
Current
Transmitter
0V
R
–
R=
Vmax
Imax
R = value of external resistor
Vmax = high limit of selected voltage range (5V or 10V)
Imax = maximum current supplied by the transmitter
Example: current transmitter capable of 50mA, 0 – 10V range selected.
10V
R = 200 ohms
R=
50mA
NOTE: Your choice of resistor can affect the accuracy of the module. A resistor that
has $0.1% tolerance and a $50ppm / _C temperature coefficient is
recommended.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
50mA
7–8
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Removable
Connector
The F4–16AD–2 module has a removable connector to make wiring easier. Simply
remove the retaining screws and gently pull the connector from the module.
Wiring Diagram
Internal
Module
Wiring
See NOTE 1
CH1
Voltage
Transmitter
CH1
CH3
–
+
F4–16AD–2
CH5
0–5V
0–10V
CH6
CH7
CH8
0V
0V
CH9
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH10
CH11
Voltage
Transmitter
CH7
CH8
CH11
–
+
0V
CH12
0V
CH13
CH9
CH14
CH13
Voltage
Transmitter
–
+
CH10
CH11
CH15
CH12
CH16
CH13
CH14
24V
CH15
+
–
0V
CH16
24V
0V
24VDC
INPUT
16 CHANNELS
CH4
CH3
Voltage
Transmitter
ANALOG
CH2
–
+
A to D Converter
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
NOTE 1: Shields should be grounded at the signal source.
OV
24VDC @0.1A
F4–16AD–2
If the power supply common of an external power supply is not connected to 0V on the
module, then the output of the external transmitter must be isolated.
7–9
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Module Operation
D4–430 Special
Requirements
Even though the module can be placed in any slot, it is important to examine the
configuration if you are using a D4–430 CPU. As you will see in the section on
writing the program, you use V-memory locations to extract the analog data. As
shown in the following diagram, if you place the module so the input points do not
start on a V-memory boundary, the instructions cannot access the data.
F4–16AD–2
Correct!
8pt
Input
16pt
Input
X0
–
X7
X10 X20 X40
–
–
–
X17 X37 X57
V40400
16pt
Output
16pt
Output
V40402
V40401
MSB
X
3
7
Wrong!
16pt
Input
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
8pt
Input
LSB
X X
3 2
0 7
X
2
0
F4–16AD–2
8pt
Input
16pt
Input
8pt
Input
16pt
Input
X0
–
X7
X10 X30 X40
–
–
–
X27 X37 X57
16pt
Output
16pt
Output
Data is split over two locations, so instructions cannot access data from a D4–430.
MSB
X
3
7
V40401
XX
3 2
0 7
LSB
X
2
0
MSB
X
1
7
V40400
XX
1 7
0
LSB
X
0
7–10
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Channel
Scanning
Sequence
Before you begin writing the control program, it is important to take a few minutes to
understand how the module processes and represents the analog signals.
The F4–16AD–2 module supplies one channel of data per each CPU scan. Since
there are sixteen channels, it can take up to sixteen scans to get data for all
channels. Once all channels have been scanned the process starts over with
channel 1. There are ways around this. Later we’ll show you how to write a program
that will get all sixteen channels in one scan.
Unused channels are not processed, so if you select only two channels, then each
channel will be updated every other scan.
Scan
Read inputs
Scan N
Channel 1
Scan N+1
Channel 2
Execute Application Program
Read the data
.
.
.
Store data
.
.
.
Scan N+15
Channel 16
Scan N+16
Channel 1
Write to outputs
Even though the channel updates to the CPU are synchronous with the CPU scan,
the module asynchronously monitors the analog transmitter signal and converts
the signal to a 12-bit binary representation. This enables the module to
continuously provide accurate measurements without slowing down the discrete
control logic in the RLL program.
7–11
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Input Bit
Assignments
You may recall the F4–16AD–2 module requires 16 discrete input points from the
CPU. These 16 points provide:
S An indication of which channel is active.
S The digital representation of the analog signal.
Since all input points are automatically mapped into V-memory, it is very easy to
determine the location of the data word that will be assigned to the module.
F4-16AD–2
8pt
Input
16pt
Input
X0
–
X7
X10 X20 X40
–
–
–
X17 X37 X57
V40400
16pt
Input
16pt
Output
16pt
Output
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
8pt
Input
V40402
V40401
MSB
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
X
3
7
LSB
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X X
3 2
0 7
0
X
2
0
Within this word location, the individual bits represent specific information about the
analog signal.
Active Channel
Indicator Inputs
The bits (inputs) shown in the diagram
MSB
indicate the active channel. The next to
last four bits of the V-memory location
1 1 1
indicate the active channel. The inputs
5 4 3
are automatically turned on and off on
each CPU scan to indicate the active
channel.
Channel
Scan
Inputs
Channel
Scan
N
0000
1
N+8
N+1
0001
2
N+9
N+2
0010
3
N+10
N+3
0011
4
N+11
N+4
0100
5
N+12
N+5
0101
6
N+13
N+6
0110
7
N+14
N+7
0111
8
N+15
V40401
LSB
1 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
2 10
– channel inputs
Channel
Inputs
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Channel
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
7–12
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Analog Data Bits
The first twelve bits represent the analog
data in binary format.
Bit
Value
Bit
Value
0
1
6
64
1
2
7
128
2
4
8
256
3
8
9
512
4
16
10
1024
5
32
11
2048
V40401
MSB
LSB
1 1 1 1 1 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
5 4 3 2 1 0
– data bits
Since the module has 12-bit resolution, the analog signal is converted into 4096
counts ranging from 0-4095 (212). For example, with a 0 to 10V scale, a 0V signal
would be 0, and a 10V signal would be 4095. This is equivalent to a a binary value of
0000 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 1111, or 000 to FFF hexadecimal. The following
diagram shows how this relates to each signal range.
0V – 10V
0V – 5V
+V
0V
0
4095
Each count can also be expressed in
terms of the signal level by using the
equation shown. The following table
shows the smallest signal levels that will
result in a change in the data value for
each signal range.
Range
Resolution + H * L
4095
H = high limit of the signal
range
L = low limit of the signal range
Signal Span
(H - L)
Divide By
Smallest Detectable
Change
0 to 5V
5V
4095
1.22 mV
0 to 10V
10 V
4095
2.44 mV
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
7–13
Writing the Control Program
If you have configured the F4–16AD–2 module, use the following examples to get
started writing the control program.
Multiple
Channels
Selected
Since all channels are multiplexed into a single data word, the control program must
be set up to determine which channel is being read. Since the module appears as X
input points to the CPU, it is very easy to use the active channel status bits to
determine which channel is being monitored.
8pt
Input
X0
–
X7
8pt
Input
16pt
Input
16pt
16pt
16pt
Input Output Output
X10 X20 X40
–
–
–
X17 X37 X57
V40400
V40402
V40401
MSB
LSB
Active
Channel Bits
Storing the
Channel Data to
V–Memory
Data Bits
The OUTX instruction used the following programming examples that follow
stores the channel data to an address that starts at V3000 plus the channel
offset. For example, if channel 2 was being read, the data would be stored in
V3002 (V3000 + 2).
Module Reading
Acc. Bits
Offset
Channel 1
0000
0
V3000
Data Stored in ...
Channel 2
0001
1
V3001
Channel 3
0010
2
V3002
Channel 4
0011
3
V3003
Channel 5
0100
4
V3004
Channel 6
0101
5
V3005
Channel 7
0110
6
V3006
Channel 8
0111
7
V3007
Channel 9
1000
8
V3010
Channel 10
1001
9
V3011
Channel 11
1010
10
V3012
Channel 12
1011
11
V3013
Channel 13
1100
12
V3014
Channel 14
1101
13
V3015
Channel 15
1110
14
V3016
Channel 16
1111
15
V3017
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
F4-16AD–2
7–14
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Reading Values
4 4 4
430 440 450
The following program example shows how to read the analog data into V-memory
locations with the D4–430 CPU. Since the D4–430 does not support the LDF
instruction, you can use the LD instruction instead as shown. The example also
works for D4–440 and D4–450 CPUs. This example will read one channel per scan,
so it will take sixteen scans to read all sixteen channels. Contact SP1 is used in the
example because the inputs are continually being updated.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
SP1
LD
V40401
ANDD
KFFF
BCD
LD
V40401
ANDD
KF000
SHFR
K12
OUTX
V3000
Note, this example
uses SP1, which is
always on. You could
also use an X, C, etc.
permissive contact.
Loads the complete channel data word from the module into the
accumulator. The V-memory location depends on the I/O
configuration. See Appendix A for the memory map.
This instruction masks the channel identification bits. Without this,
the values used will not be correct, so do not forget to include it.
Since the DL405 CPUs perform math operations in BCD, it is usually
best to convert the data to BCD immediately. You can leave out this
instruction if your application does not require it (such as for PID
loops, which require the process variable to be in binary format).
This load instruction reads the data into the accumulator again. The
channel data will be pushed into the first level of the stack.
This instruction masks the analog data values and leaves the
channel ID bits in the accumulator.
Now you have to shift the accumulator bits so the channel ID bits will
result in a value between 0 and 15 (binary format).
OUTX copies the value from the first level of the accumulator
stack to a source address offset by the value in the accumulator.
In this case it adds the above binary value (0–15) to V3000. The
particular channel data is then stored in its respective location:
For example, if the binary value of the channel select bits is 0,
then channel 1 data is stored in V-memory location V3000
(V3000 + 0) and if the binary value is 6, then the channel 7 data
is stored in location V3006 (V3000 + 6). See the table on page
7–13.
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Single Channel
Selected
4 4 4
430 440 450
7–15
Since you do not have to determine which channel is selected, the single channel
program is even more simple.
SP1
LD or LDF
BCD
The BCD instruction converts the data from binary to BCD.
You can leave out this instruction if your application does not
require it.
The OUT instruction stores the data in V3000.
Note: This example uses SP1, which is always on. You
could also use an X, C, etc. permissive contact.
* Remember, before the BCD instruction is executed, the D4–430 requires an additional
instruction to mask out the first four bits that are brought in with the LD instruction. An example
of how to do this using an ANDD instruction is shown in the previous section.
Reading Values
5 4 4
430 440 450
The following program example shows how to read the analog data into V-memory
locations with D4–440 and D4–450 CPUs. Once the data is in V-memory, you can
perform math on the data, compare the data against preset values, and so forth.
This example will read one channel per scan, so it will take sixteen scans to read all
sixteen channels.
SP1
LDF X20
K12
BCD
Loads the first 12 bits of channel data (starting with location X20) from
the module into the accumulator.
Converts the binary value in the accumulator to BCD and stores the
result in the accumulator. Use this BCD conversion if you want the
channel data to be stored as BCD. Do not use this instruction if you
are going to send the data to an internal PID loop because the PID
loop requires the PV (process variable) to be in binary format.
LDF X34
K4
Loads the binary value of the four channel indicator bits into the
accumulator and pushes the channel data loaded into the
accumulator from the first LDF instruction into the first level of the
stack. X34 = X20 + 14.
OUTX
V3000
OUTX copies the 16 bit value from the first level of the accumulator stack
to a source address offset by the value in the accumulator. In this case
it adds the above binary value (which is the offset) to V3000. The particular channel data is then stored in its respective location: For example,
if the binary value of the channel select bits is 0, then channel 1 data is
stored in V-memory location V3000 (V3000 + 0) and if the binary value
is 6, then the channel 7 data is stored in location V3006 (V3000 + 6). See
the table on page 7–13.
Note: This example uses
SP1, which is always on.
You could also use an X, C,
etc. permissive contact.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
OUT
V3000
When X34 is on, channel 1 data is being sent to the CPU. Use the
LD instruction when using a D4–430 CPU.*
7–16
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Reading Sixteen
Channels in
One Scan
5 4 4
430 440 450
The following program example shows how to read all sixteen channels in one scan
by using a FOR/NEXT loop. Before you choose this method, do consider its impact
on CPU scan time. The FOR/NEXT routine shown here will add about 32ms
(2ms/loop) to the overall scan time. If you do not need to read the analog data on
every scan, change SP1 to a permissive contact (such as an X input, CR, or stage
bit) to only enable the FOR/NEXT loop when it is required.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
NOTE: Do not use this FOR/NEXT loop program to read the module in a
remote/slave arrangement; it will not work. Use one of the programs shown that
reads one channel per scan.
K16
SP1
FOR
SP1
Starts the FOR/NEXT loop. The constant (K16) specifies how many
times the loop will execute. Enter a constant equal to the number of
channels you are using. For example, enter K4 if you’re using 4
channels.
LDIF X20
K12
Immediately loads the first 12 bits of the data word (starting with X20)
into the accumulator. The LDIF instruction will retreive the I/O points
without waiting on the CPU to finish the scan.
BCD
Since the DL405 CPUs perform math operations in BCD, it is usually
best to convert the data to BCD immediately. You can leave out this
instruction if your application does not require it (such as PID loops).
LDIF X34
K4
OUTX
V3000
This LDIF instruction immediately loads the four channel indicator
bits into the accumulator.
The OUTX instruction stores the channel data to an address that
starts at V3000 plus the channel offset. For example, if channel 2
was being read, the data would be stored in V3002 (V3000 + 2). See
the table on page 7–13.
NEXT
Note, this example
uses SP1, which is
always on. You could
also use an X, C, etc.
permissive contact.
Scaling the
Input Data
Most applications usually require
measurements in engineering units,
which provide more meaningful data.
This is accomplished by using the
conversion formula shown.
You may have to make adjustments to
the formula depending on the scale you
choose for the engineering units.
Units + A H * L
4095
H = high limit of the Engineering
unit range
L = low limit of the Engineering
unit range
A = Analog value (0 – 4095)
For example, if you wanted to measure pressure (PSI) from 0.0 to 99.9 then you
would have to multiply the analog value by 10 in order to imply a decimal place when
you view the value with the programming software or a handheld programmer.
Notice how the calculations differ when you use the multiplier.
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
7–17
Analog Value of 2024, slightly less than half scale, should yield 49.4 PSI
Example without multiplier
Units + A H * L
4095
Units + 2024 100 * 0
4095
Example with multiplier
Units + 10 A H * L
4095
Units + 20240 100 * 0
4095
Units + 49
Units + 494
Handheld Display
Handheld Display
V 3101 V 3100
V MON 0000 0494*
*Value is more accurate
Here’s how you would write the program to perform the engineering unit
conversion. This example uses SP1 which is always on. You could also use an X, C,
etc. permissive contact.
SP1
LDF X20
K12
Since we are going to perform some math operations in BCD, this
instruction converts the data format.
BCD
LDF
K4
OUTX
V3000
X1
Loads the first 12 bits of the channel data word into the accumulator.
The X address depends on the I/O configuration.
X34
This LDF instruction loads the four channel indicator bits, plus the
MSB, into the accumulator. The channel data from the first LDF
instruction is pushed into the stack. X34 = X20 + 14.
The OUTX instruction stores the channel data to an address that
starts at V3000 plus the channel offset. For example, if channel two
was being read, the data would be stored in V3001.
LD
V3000
When X1 is on, channel 1 data is loaded into the accumulator.
MUL
K1000
Multiplies the accumulator data by 1000 (to start the conversion).
DIV
K4095
Divides the accumulator data by 4095.
OUT
V3100
Stores the result in location V3100.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
V 3101 V 3100
V MON 0000 0049
7–18
F4–16AD–2 16-Channel Analog Input
Analog and
Digital Value
Conversions
Sometimes it is helpful to be able to quickly convert between the signal levels and
the digital values. This is especially useful during machine startup or
troubleshooting. The following table provides formulas to make this conversion
easier.
F4–16AD–2
16-Channel Analog Input
Range
If you know the digital value ...
If you know the signal level ...
0 to 5V
A + 5D
4095
D + 4095 (A)
5
0 to 10V
A + 10D
4095
D + 4095 (A)
10
For example, if you are using the 0V to
+10V range and you have measured the
signal at 6V, you would use the following
formula to determine the digital value
that should be stored in the V-memory
location that contains the data.
D + 4095 (A)
10
D + 4095 (6V)
10
D + (409.5) (6)
D + 2457
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