Sealed Valve Regulated (SVR) Gelled Electrolyte

Sealed Valve Regulated (SVR) Gelled Electrolyte
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TECHNICAL MANUAL
Sealed Valve Regulated (SVR)
Gelled Electrolyte
Lead-Acid Batteries
MK Battery and American Workshop
Introduction
– is non-spillable, and therefore can be operated in virtually
any position. However, installation upside-down is not
recommended.
Sealed gel technology (commonly referred to as “gel cell” technology)
was developed several years ago. Over the years, the gel battery has
evolved and developed into the battery of choice for discriminating
system designers, application engineers and sophisticated users.
* Connections must be retorqued and the batteries should be cleaned periodically.
How does a gel cell work?
In 1991, our plant began building gel cell batteries using tried
and true technology backed by more than 50 years experience.
Our unique computer-aided manufacturing expertise and vertical
integration have created a product that is recognized as the highest
quality, longest life gel battery available from any source.
A gel cell is a “recombinant” battery. This means that the oxygen
that is normally produced on the positive plate in all lead-acid
batteries recombines with the hydrogen given off by the negative
plate. The “recombination” of hydrogen and oxygen produces
water (H2O), which replaces the moisture in the battery. Therefore,
the battery is maintenance-free, as it never needs watering.
Applications
The oxygen is trapped in the cell by special pressurized sealing
vents. It travels to the negative plate through tiny fissures or cracks
in the gelled electrolyte.
Gel cells can be used in virtually any flooded electrolyte wet cell
application (in conjunction with well-regulated charging), as well as
applications where traditional wet cells cannot be used. Because of
their unique features and benefits, gel cells are particularly well
suited for:
The sealing vent is critical to the performance of the gel cell.
The cell must maintain a positive internal pressure. Otherwise the
recombination of the gasses will not take place, and the cell will
dry out and not perform.
Deep Cycle, Deep Discharge Applications
•
•
•
•
•
Marine Trolling
• Electronics
• RVs
Electric Vehicles
• Wheelchairs
• Sailboats
Portable Power
• Floor Scrubbers
• Golf Cars
Personnel Carriers
• Marine House Power
Commercial Deep Cycle Applications
In addition, the valve must safely release any excess pressure that
may be produced during overcharging. Otherwise the cell would be
irreparably damaged.
It’s important to note that a gel cell must never be opened once
it leaves the factory. If opened, the cell loses its pressure, and the
outside air will “poison” the plates and cause an imbalance that
destroys the recombination chemistry.
Standby and Emergency Backup Applications
• UPS (Uninterrupted Power Systems)
• Emergency Lighting
• Computer Backup
• Cable TV
• Telephone Switching
Hence the name: Sealed Valve Regulated (SVR) Battery.
Unusual and Demanding Applications
• Race Cars
• Off-road Vehicles
• Marine Starting
What is the difference between gel
cell and “starved electrolyte” batteries?
• Air-transported Equipment
• Wet Environments
• Diesel & I.C.E. Starting
Both are recombinant batteries; both are sealed valve regulated.
The major difference is that the “starved” or “absorbed electrolyte”
battery contains an amount of liquid electrolyte added at the factory
that soaks into the special separators. Therefore, it is non-spillable
because all the liquid electrolyte is trapped in the sponge-like
separator material. There is no “free” electrolyte to spill if tipped
or punctured.
What is a gel cell?
A gel cell is a lead-acid electric storage battery that:
– is pressurized and sealed using special valves, and therefore
should never be opened.
– is completely maintenance-free*.
– uses a thixotropic gelled electrolyte.
– uses the “recombination” technique to replace oxygen and
hydrogen normally lost in a wet cell (particularly in deep
cycle applications).
Because of this “acid-starved” condition, this type of battery does
not normally perform well in heavy, deep discharge applications.
The gel cell has more electrolyte available, therefore it is better
suited for deep discharge applications and can accept occasional
overcharging.
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What is the difference between
gel cell and traditional wet batteries?
For safety’s sake, these potentially explosive gasses must be
allowed to vent to the atmosphere and must never be trapped in
a hermetically sealed battery box or tightly enclosed space!
Wet cells do not have special pressurized sealing vents, as they do
not work on the recombination principle. They contain liquid electrolyte that can cause corrosion and spill if tipped or punctured.
Therefore, they are not air transportable without special containers.
They cannot be shipped via UPS or Parcel Post or used near
sensitive electronic equipment. They can only be installed “upright.”
Can our gel cell be used as
a starting battery as well?
Our gel cell will work in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition)
applications providing the voltage is regulated between 13.8 and
14.1 volts at 68°F. Most vehicle’s regulators are set higher than
14.1 volts. Therefore, the charging system must be adjusted for the
battery to recharge properly for best performance and longest life.
Wet cells lose capacity and become permanently damaged if:
– left in a discharged condition for any length of time (due to
sulfation). This is especially true of antimony and hybrid types.
– continually over-discharged, due to active material shedding.
This includes specially designed deep cycle wet cells,
but is especially true of automotive types.
Deep cycle antimony wet cells have seven times less shelf life as well.
What do the ratings and specifications
signify for this line?
Our gel cells have triple the deep cycle life of wet cell antimony alloy
deep cycle batteries, due to our unique design.
All ratings are after 15 cycles and conform to BCI specifications.
CCA = Cold Cranking Amps at 0°F (–17.8°C)
How do gel cells recharge?
Are there any special precautions?
Cold cranking amps equal the number of amps of current a new,
fully charged battery will deliver at 0°F (–17.8°C) for thirty seconds
of discharge and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for
a 12-volt battery).
While our gel cell will accept a charge extremely well due to its
low internal resistance, any battery will be damaged by continual
under- or overcharging. Capacity is reduced and life is shortened.
CA = Cranking Amps at 32°F (0°C)
Overcharging is especially harmful to gel cells because of their
sealed design. Overcharging dries out the electrolyte by driving the
oxygen and hydrogen out of the battery through the safety valves.
Performance and life are reduced.
RC = Reserve Capacity at 80°F (27°C)
Same as above, tested at 32°F (0°C). (Note: All cranking ratings
are guidelines. Gel batteries are designed for cycling foremost.)
The reserve capacity is the time in minutes that a new, fully charged
battery can be continuously discharged at 25 amps of current and
maintain at least 1.75 volts per cell (10.5 volts for a 12-volt battery).
If a battery is continually undercharged, a power-robbing layer of
sulfate will build up on the positive plate, which acts as a barrier
to electron flow. Premature plate shedding can also occur.
Performance is reduced and life is shortened.
Minutes discharged at 50, 25, 15, 8 and 5 Amps
Minutes discharged is the time in minutes that a new, fully charged
battery will deliver at various amps of current and maintain at least
1.75 volts per cell. These are nominal or average ratings.
Therefore, it is critical that a charger be used that limits voltage
to no more than 14.1 volts and no less than 13.8 volts at 68°F.
Batteries used in float service should be charged at 13.8 volts.
For deep cycle service, a maximum voltage of 14.1 should be used.
The charger must be temperature corrected to prevent under- or
overcharging due to ambient temperature changes. (See Charging
Voltage vs. Ambient Temperature chart on page 11.)
Ampere Hour Capacity at 20, 6, 3 and 1 Hour Rates
Ampere hour capacity is a unit of measure that is calculated by
multiplying the current in amperes (amps) by the time in hours
of discharge to 1.75 volts per cell. (These are nominal or average
ratings.)
Important Charging Instructions
EXAMPLE
10 amps for 20 hr. (10 x 20) = 200 Ah @ 20 hr. rate
8 amps for 3 hr. (8 x 3) = 24 Ah @ 3 hr. rate
30 amps for 1 hr. (30 x 1) = 30 Ah @ 1 hr. rate
Therefore, if you have an application that requires
a draw of 17 amps for 3 hours, you would need
a 51 Ah battery (@ 3 hr. rate)…(17 x 3 = 51).
However, the 51 amp hours delivered is
100% of the capacity of this 51 Ah battery.
The warranty is void if improperly charged. Use a good constant
potential, temperature corrected, voltage-regulated charger.
Charge gel cells to at least 13.8 volts but no more than 14.1 volts
at 68°F (20°C). Constant current chargers should never be used
on gel cell batteries.
Can gel cells be installed in
sealed battery boxes?
Most system designs will specify a battery that will deliver a
minimum of twice the power required. This means the battery
will discharge to 50% of its capacity. Using a 50% depth of
discharge (versus 80% or 100%) will dramatically extend the life
of any battery. Therefore, when helping to specify a battery for a
system, choose a battery with twice the capacity required for best
performance. If 50 Ah is required, specify at least a 100 Ah
battery.
NO! Never install any type of battery in a completely sealed
container. Although the normal gasses (oxygen and hydrogen)
produced in a gel cell battery will be recombined as described above,
and not escape, oxygen and hydrogen will escape from the battery
in an overcharge condition (as is typical of any type battery).
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CHART A
Independent Laboratory B.C.I.
E.V. Life Testing
PERCENT OF RATED CAPACITY
MK 8G27
MK Gel 27 vs. Competitive 27
Sealed Valve Regulated (Gel & AGM)
Brand C Gel
This chart demonstrates the superior
cycle life of our gel cell design
versus comparable types.
Brand D AGM
Brand B Gel
Brand A Gel
CYCLES
CHART B
G
D
Gel Line Ratings
F
C
B
This chart is useful for determining how
long a battery will run (to 10.5 volts) at
various loads. For example, if you need to
know how long the 8GU1 will run under a
10 amp load, find 10 amps on the vertical axis.
Follow it across to the intersection and
read as in the following example:
A
E
H
A 8GGC2
B 8GU1
C 8G22NF
D 8G24
E 8G27
F 8G4D
G 8G8D
H 8G31
The 8GU1 will run 2.5 hours at 10 amps
to 1.75 volts per cell.
A
B
C
D
E
CHART C
8GU1, 8GU1H
F 8GGC2
8G22NF
G 8G4D
8G24
H 8G8D
8G27
8G30H, 8G31, 8G31DT
Gel Reserve Capacity
Discharge at 25 Amps
This chart shows the discharge curves
(voltages) at 25 amps. The cutoff is 10.5 volts.
A
B
C
DE
F
G
H
Minutes
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CHART D
H
F, G
A 8GU1, 8GU1H
B 8G22NF
C 8G24
D 8G27
E 8G30H, 8G31, 8G31DT
F 8GGC2
G 8G4D
H 8G8D
Charging Hours vs.
Initial Charge Amps
Charging at 2.3 Volts Per Cell
This chart shows how many amps
of charge it would take to recharge
a gel cell from 100% discharge to 90%
full charge at 2.3 volts per cell at 68°F.
For example, an 8G8D would take
31⁄2 hours at 100 amps, 6 hours at
65 amps or 13 hours at 20 amps
of charging current.
E
D
C
B
A
CHART E
Gel Battery Capacity
Voltage vs. Percent Discharged
CHART F
% of Cycle Life (B.C.I. RV/Marine)
Percent Cycle Life vs.
Recharge Voltage
This chart shows the effect of overcharging
a gel cell battery. (e.g.: Consistently charging
at 0.7 volts above the recommended level
reduces life by almost 60%!)
Recharge Voltage (12-volt Battery)
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What are the features and benefits that
make MK Battery’s gel cell unique?
MK Expertise
Our exclusive formula is mixed using computer control in
every stage of the process. Computer control delivers superior
consistency for gel cell performance that is unequaled.
We build gel batteries to the highest standards. Our method features
improved process controls using state-of-the art computers and the
latest manufacturing technology and equipment. Therefore, the gel
cells produced by us consistently meet the highest quality performance and life standards.
Our temperature-controlled process and specially designed
equipment assure a homogenous gel. It is important to note that
our equipment was designed by our engineers specifically for gel
mixing…even down to the contour of the tank bottoms and feed
pipe locations. No other battery manufacturer has comparable
equipment.
Spillproof and Leakproof
A major advantage of gel cells is their spillproof and leakproof
feature. However, all gel cells are not created equal in their degree
of non-spillability. Some gels do not set properly; they remain
liquid and can leak or spill.
Multi-Staged Filling/Vacuuming Operation
Most other manufacturers fill their gel cells in a one step process,
vibrating the battery with hopes of releasing most of the air pockets.
This system is less than perfect and leaves voids or air pockets at
the critical gel-to-plate interface. These voids are non-reactive and
reduce overall battery performance.
However, our exclusive thixotropic gel is formulated, mixed
and controlled to assure proper “set” in every single battery.
Our computer-controlled gel mixing and filling equipment ensures
homogenization of the mix.
Our process fills and vacuums each cell several times. This multistep process assures complete evacuation of air and complete gelto-plate interface. Our computerized process also weighs every
battery before and after filling as a check for proper gel levels.
The benefit is more power-per-pound of battery.
This assures a gel cell battery that will not spill or leak. This feature
allows our gel cell to be operated in virtually any position. However,
we do not recommend an upside-down orientation. Any gel battery
permanently installed on its side may lose about 10% capacity.
Ultrapremium Sealing Valve
Tank Formed Plates
A critical feature of any SVR battery, gelled or absorbed, is the quality of the sealing valve. Not only must the valve keep the cell pressurized and safely release excessive pressure and gas due to overcharging, but it must also keep the cell from being contaminated by
the atmosphere. Oxygen contamination will quickly discharge a gel
cell and destroy the battery.
We are the only domestic battery manufacturer that uses tank
formulation to activate the battery plates. This process guarantees
a fully formed and voltage matched plate. The extra handling of
the plates provides an additional inspection step in the process to
verify plate quality.
Ultrapremium, Glass Mat, Dual Insulating Separators
Our valves are UL recognized and 100% tested after manufacturing.
Then they are tested again after installation on each battery.
The benefit is reliable performance and long life.
Another critical component is the separator, which insulates the
positive from the negative plate. The separator must allow maximum electron flow between the plates for maximum performance.
Separator failure is a leading cause of warranty claims and customer dissatisfaction.
Exclusive Gel Formula
The gelled electrolyte is another critical element in this type of
battery. Our gelled electrolyte contains sulfuric acid, fumed silica,
pure demineralized and deionized water, and a phosphoric acid
additive. The phosphoric acid is a key reason that our batteries
deliver 4 to 10 times longer cycle life than leading gel competitors
and 3 times longer cycle life than traditional wet cells.
We use ultrapremium grade separators in our gel cells. We believe
that this expense (which is 5 to 6 times higher than other types) is
worth the benefits of extended life and performance:
– The fiberglass mats imbed themselves into the surface
of the plates, acting like reinforcing rods in concrete.
This extra reinforcement locks the active material onto
the plate for longer life and extended performance.
Deep Discharge Protection
Our gel battery design does not allow self-destructive deep
discharging. This prevents the battery from “going into reverse,”
causing life shortening plate shedding. Therefore, our “special
limiting” design dramatically extends cycle life: 4 times more
than other gel cells and 10 times more than conventional wet cells.
The benefit is lower battery replacement cost.
– The ultra-clean separators have no oil contamination
or other impurities. Therefore, resistance is low and
battery performance is high.
– Excellent porosity allows maximum electron flow,
which means more power-per-pound.
Exclusive Computerized Gel Mixing
– Superior resistance to oxidation dramatically reduces
separator failure, which extends life.
Proper gel mixing is critical to life and performance. Inconsistency
in mixing means inconsistent reliability. We have designed and
built the newest, state-of-the-art gel battery manufacturing facility
in the world. An example is our proprietary computerized gel mixing
operation.
– Our separators are especially suited for gel batteries,
while others are using separators designed for wet
cell automotive batteries.
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Exclusive Thru-Partition Weld Seals
These pores and fissures are caused by the industry’s method of
casting posts and bushings. This method produces tiny air pockets
and paths which allow corrosive gas to escape, causing life shortening depressurization, cell dry-out and corrosion damage.
One of the causes of self-discharge in batteries is the minute electrical currents that flow between each cell through the partition at the
weld area. These currents accelerate the discharge of batteries not
in use.
We block these currents by using an exclusive weld seal or gasket.
This feature dramatically reduces self-discharge to less than 3%
per month: the lowest self-discharge rate of any battery manufacturer and seven times lower than many conventional batteries!
To eliminate this problem, we use forged terminal posts and
bushings, which are completely solid with absolutely no porosity.
The benefit is longer life, better performance and no leakage of
corrosive gas…especially important when installed in or near
sensitive electronic equipment.
Exclusive Patented Calcium/Copper Lead Alloy Grids
Acid Stratification Prevention
This exclusive alloy provides longer shelf life, more power-perpound and superior corrosion resistance. By using special grain
refiners, we can dramatically improve performance and life.
Acid stratification can occur in stationary and standby applications
in conventional wet cells. The lighter discharged acid rises to the
top of the cell, and the heavier charged electrolyte sinks to the
bottom. Therefore, the upper portion of the cell is discharged and
begins to sulfate, and the lower portion begins to corrode prematurely. Life and performance suffer.
Heavy-Duty Motive Power Style Grid Design
While other manufacturers cut costs by using automotive style
grids, we use a high-performance deep cycle gel cell grid.
This heavy-duty grid design is similar to the grid in a motive
power battery.
Because our electrolyte is immobilized, it cannot stratify. Therefore,
no high-voltage equalizing charge is necessary. Simply recharge
at the standard 13.8 to 14.1 voltage setting. This means longer life
and consistent performance in stationary and standby applications.
The hefty “power rods” designed into our grids not only lock the
active material onto the grid, but also act as “bus bars” to collect
and direct the energy to the terminals. The benefit is more powerper-pound of battery for your equipment and longer battery life.
Convenient Carrying Handles
Carrying handles are included on our 8GU1H, 8G24, 8G27, 8G30H,
8G31DT, 8G31, 8G4D and 8G8D models, unlike other gel cells.
This feature makes carrying, installation and removal easier,
more convenient and less time consuming.
Multiple Plate Lug Milling
Shiny, well milled plate lugs are critical to our superior caston-strap quality. Each of our plate lugs is automatically milled
to assure the highest quality strap with no loose or dropped plates.
Our lugs are then fluxed and tinned automatically for an additional
assurance of quality.
Dozens of Terminal Options Available
Our batteries are delivered with the most popular type of terminal.
On a special order basis, however, many terminal options are
available. This gives you total flexibility to specify the proper
terminal for your application… without making compromises.
Heavier Plate Straps
We use an exclusive lead/tin alloy in a unique multi-staged caston-strap operation. The result is heavier straps with outstanding
lug-to-strap knit. This eliminates dropped and loose plates,
thereby improving performance and life.
Proprietary Case and Cover
We design and mold our own rugged polypropylene cases and
covers in our on-site, state-of the-art plastics molding facility.
This provides ultimate control of our high performance designs,
quality and delivery to our manufacturing plant, assuring you the
highest quality battery and most reliable service.
Polyester Element Wrap
Another cause of deep-cycle battery failure is “mossing.”
This phenomenon occurs late in a battery’s life, as the positive
active material actually grows around the edge of the separator
and eventually “shorts” against the negative plate. This ends the
battery’s service life.
Environment and Worker Protection
It’s nice to know that every possible safeguard was designed into
our process to protect our co-workers and the environment…
special safeguards that are exclusive to our plant. One benefit
is assurance of a consistent source for batteries without fear of
governmental interference or delays.
To prevent life-shortening mossing, we use a special polyester
fiber sheet that is wrapped around the edge of each element,
similar to the wrap in an industrial battery. The result is longer
service life.
Exclusive Forged Posts and Bushings
“Black” posts and oxygen-contaminated batteries are often due to
porous lead terminal posts. A battery can lose its critical pressure
through tiny pores and fissures in the battery terminals. Pressure
loss is harmful to the battery and is evident by black posts, which
are caused by sulfuric acid fumes escaping from the battery through
and around the lead posts and bushings. These fumes can cause
corrosion and can damage sensitive electronic equipment.
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Over 250 Quality Assurance Checks
Hundreds of quality checks are performed to assure total
confidence in the performance and life of our batteries.
For example:
– 100% Cycling. After initial charging, every battery
is completely discharged and then recharged at the factory.
This allows us to check the performance of the battery and
give it a second charge that equalizes the cells for improved
performance and longer life.
It’s interesting to note that, as a cost-saving measure, we use
the current generated during the initial discharge to recharge
other batteries in this computer-controlled process.
– Extended Shelf Stand Test. Before shipment, every
battery is required to stand for a designated period of time.
Beginning and ending voltages are compared. This extra
quality assurance step verifies that the critical pressure
control valve is functioning properly.
– Filling Weight Control. During this computerized process,
batteries are weighed before and after filling. This assures
that the exact amount of gel is in each battery.
– Multi-Staged Filling and Vacuuming Process.
Every battery is filled and vacuumed several times during
this computerized process. Multi-staged vacuuming
assures complete gel-to-plate interface, with no powerrobbing air pockets.
– Computerized Polarity Check. Every battery is checked by
computer for proper polarity.
– Formed Element Inspection. Elements are assembled and
charged outside the battery container in a computerized
forming and drying process. This allows visual inspection of
every grid, plate, separator and formed element before being
sealed inside the battery, assuring perfect cell elements with
longest life and highest performance.
– Tank Formed Plates. Voltage matched plates are critical
in standby applications. Forming each plate individually,
outside the battery assures the highest quality, best matched
plates in the industry.
State-of-the-Art Technology
Within our multi-million dollar gel cell production facility, we have
incorporated state-of-the-art manufacturing processes that are
unmatched by any other battery manufacturer. This major addition
allows us to build the most modern and reliable gel cell battery in
the industry.
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How do MK’s battery features
compare with other types of batteries?
FEATURE
MK
GEL CELLS
OTHER GEL
CELLS
ALL STARVED
ELECTROLYTE
ALL WET
CELLS
1.
MK Expertise
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
2.
Spillproof and Leakproof
YES
YES
YES
NO
3.
Sealed Valve Regulated
YES
YES
YES
NO
4.
Ultra-Premium Sealing Valve
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
5.
Exclusive Gel Formula
YES
NO
NO
NO
6.
Deep Discharge Protection
YES
YES
YES
NO
7.
Exclusive Computerized Gel Mixing
YES
NO
NO
NO
8.
Tank Formed Plates
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
9.
Multi-Staged Gel Filling/Vacuuming
YES
NO
NO
NO
10.
Ultra-Premium Glass-Mat Dual Insulating Separators
YES
NO
NO
NO
11.
Exclusive Thru-Partition Weld Seals
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
12.
Exclusive Patented Calcium/Copper Lead Alloy Grids
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
13.
Heavy-Duty Motive Power Style Grids
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
14.
Grid Lug Milling, Brushing and Fluxing
YES
?
MK ONLY
NO
15.
Heavy-Duty Special Alloy Plate Straps
YES
NO
MK ONLY
NO
16.
Special Polyester “Moss Guard” Element Wrap
YES
NO
NO
NO
17.
Forged Posts and Bushings
YES
NO
MK ONLYY
NO
18.
Acid Stratification Prevention
YES
YES
YES
NO
19.
Carrying Handles
YES
?
LIMITED
LIMITED
20.
Dozens of Terminal Options
YES
?
MK ONLY
NO
21.
Highest Cycle Life
YES
NO
NO
NO
22.
Highest Performance
YES
NO
NO
N.A.
23.
Shelf Stand Test
YES
?
NO
NO
24.
100% Discharge and Equalizing Recharge
YES
?
NO
NO
25.
250+ Quality Assurance Checks w/ ISO 9001 Certification
YES
?
MK ONLY
NO
26.
State-of-the-Art Technology & Facility
YES
NO
MK ONLY
MK ONLY
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Answers to the Most
Frequently Asked Questions
NOTE: Before reviewing this section, be sure you understand the difference between gel SVR and absorbed SVR batteries.
How do we justify the premium price
of gel cell batteries to those unfamiliar
with this type of battery?
Absorbed Electrolyte Advantages:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Simply review the advantages, features and benefits, performance,
and impressive life cycle results. Based upon this and the lowest
cost-per-month or duty cycle you and/or your customer should
have no trouble choosing this battery.
However, please remember that these batteries are not for
everyone or every application. And always be aware of the
charging considerations. (See pages 11 & 12.)
Totally maintenance-free
• Air transportable
Spillproof/leakproof
• No corrosion
Installs upright or on side
Lower cost than gel cell batteries
Compatible with sensitive electronic equipment
Very low to no gassing (unless overcharged)
Excellent for starting and stationary applications
Superior for shorter duration/higher discharges
Absorbed Electrolyte Disadvantages:
• Shorter cycle life than gel or flooded in
deep cycle applications
• Automatic temperature-sensing,
voltage-regulated chargers must be used
• Water cannot be replaced if continually overcharged
• Charge voltage must be limited
(14.4 to 14.6 volts maximum at 68°F)
What are the advantages and
disadvantages of the different types
of battery designs?
Gelled Electrolyte Advantages:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Totally maintenance-free
• Air transportable
Spillproof/leakproof
• No corrosion
Superior deep cycle life
• Installs upright or on side
Very low to no gassing (unless overcharged)
Compatible with sensitive electronic equipment
Superior shelf life
Superior rechargeability
(from 10.5 volts to 90% in 31⁄2 hours)
• No recharge current limitation @ 13.8 volts
• Rugged and vibration-resistant
• Very safe at sea with no chlorine gas in bilge
(due to sulfuric acid and salt water mixing)
Flooded Electrolyte Advantages:
• Lowest initial cost
• Higher cranking amps
• Water can be added (if accessible)
• Excellent for starting applications
• Accepts higher recharge voltages
• Certain designs are good for deep cycle applications
• Replacements readily available
Flooded Electrolyte Disadvantages:
•
•
•
•
• Most versatile: Starting, Deep Cycle, Stationary
• Operates in wet environments…even under 30 feet of water
• Will not freeze to –20°F/–30°C (if fully charged)
• Lowest cost-per-month (cost ÷ months of life)
• Lowest cost-per-cycle (cost ÷ life cycles)
Spillable
• Operates upright only
Shorter shelf life than gel
• Shorter cycle life than gel
Cannot be installed near sensitive electronic equipment
Watering required (if accessible)
Why can’t SVR batteries be opened?
SVR (Sealed Valve Regulated), sometimes called SLA (Sealed LeadAcid), work on the recombination principle. This means that during
charging, the hydrogen produced on the negative plate recombines
with the oxygen produced on the positive plate to form H2O or
water. This water replaces the moisture in the gel or absorbed mat
separators. To work properly, this recombination process must take
place with positive internal pressure.
Gelled Electrolyte Disadvantages:
• Higher initial cost
• Heavier weight
• Water cannot be replaced if continually overcharged
• Automatic temperature-sensing,
voltage-regulated chargers must be used
• Charge voltage must be limited to extend life
(13.8 to 14.1 volts maximum at 68°F)
If an SVR battery is overcharged, the hydrogen and oxygen will be
produced faster than they can recombine and will be driven out of
the cell and lost to the atmosphere. The gel or absorbed separators
dry out and the battery prematurely fails.
If an SVR battery is opened, the cell loses its pressure and the negative plate becomes contaminated with excess oxygen, which damages the battery. In addition, when the valves are replaced, they may
leak which will damage the battery.
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If calcium grids don’t do well in flooded
deep cycle applications, how can
East Penn use calcium grids in gel cells
for deep cycle applications?
Why do our gel cells have
longer shelf life?
Our calcium/copper lead alloy premium separators and demineralized gel are ultra-pure. Impurities in the lead alloy, separators
and electrolyte cause tiny currents inside a cell which eventually
discharge the battery and shorten its shelf life. The purer the components, the longer the shelf life. No one can match MK’s purity!
Flooded calcium is a very efficient, low resistance battery. Therefore,
when deeply discharged, the plates release all their available power,
causing plate shedding and active material fall-out. In contrast,
with flooded antimony batteries, the antimony helps lock the active
material onto the grid. Therefore, the plate does not shed as easily,
which extends the deep cycle life of the battery when compared to
flooded calcium.
Our exclusive “weld seal gasket” blocks the minute cell-to-cell
currents that cause self-discharge. The better the weld seal, the
longer the shelf life. Weld seals are exclusive to MK gel
cell batteries.
Gelled calcium (Our exclusive patented alloy) is also very
efficient with low resistance. However, when deeply discharged,
the electrolyte is used before the plates are totally discharged
because the battery is acid-limited. This feature:
Does the depth of discharge
affect cycle life?
– limits the discharge the plates can deliver.
– protects the plates from shedding due to deep discharge.
– extends the life of the battery.
Yes! The harder any battery has to work, the sooner it will fail.
Typical* Gel Cell Cycling Ability
vs. Depth of Discharge
Why do our gel cells have a
longer cycle life than others?
Capacity Withdrawn
Typical Life Cycles
100% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
75% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750
50% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
25% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2500
10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6000
Some of the major features that contribute to long cycle life are:
– Our patented calcium/copper grid alloy delivers superior
performance due to the purity of the lead. Copper is added
as a “grain refiner.” This means that the microscopic grains
in our lead grids are odd-shaped, so they retard corrosion
and extend the life of our grid.
– Our thicker grids have more corrosion resistance than
thinner grids.
– Our gel cells are protected against deep discharge because
they are acid-limited. This means that the battery uses the
power in the acid before it uses the power in the plates.
Therefore, the plates are never subjected to destructive
deep discharges.
– With proper temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated
charging (between 13.8–14.1 volts at 68°F) the gel cell
never runs out of water.
– Our ultra-premium, glass-mat, dual-insulating separators will
not break down in service. The glass mat imbeds itself into
the plate, which retards life-shortening shedding.
– Our polyester element wrap retards “mossing” or active
material growth that causes short circuits.
– Over 250 quality control checks assure superior performance
and long battery life.
As you can see, the shallower the average discharge, the longer
the life. This is why it’s important to size a battery system to deliver
at least twice the average power required.
* You may experience longer or shorter life based upon application, charging regimen,
temperature, rest periods, etc.
Why can’t our gel cell be
discharged too low?
Our gel cells are designed to be “acid-limited.” This means that
the power (sulfate) in the acid is used before the power in the
plates. This design protects the plates from ultra-deep discharges.
Ultra-deep discharging is what causes life-shortening plate shedding
and accelerated positive grid corrosion which destroys a battery.
Why does temperature have such
a dramatic effect on batteries?
Temperature is a major factor in battery performance, shelf life,
charging and voltage control. At higher temperatures there is
dramatically more chemical activity inside a battery than at lower
temperatures because the ions and electrons move faster in heat
than in cold.
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The following charts graphically illustrate this fact.
Gel Charge and Float Voltages
at Various Temperature Ranges
A.H.
(%)
100
75
50
25
% RATED CAPACITY AVAILABLE
Self-Discharge of Gel Cell Batteries
at Different Temperatures
40°C
104°F
30°C
86°F
Temp.
°F
20°C
68°F
≥ 120
110 – 119
100 – 109
90 – 99
80 – 89
70 – 79
60 – 69
50 – 59
40 – 49
≤ 39
8°C
46°F
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
14
13
0°F (-17.8°C)
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTS
15
0°F (-17.8°C)
80°F (26.7°C)
120°F (48.9°C)
80°F (26.7°C)
AMPERES
5
10
15
Full Charge
20
25
30
35
Half Charge
12-Volt Gel Cell Batteries
CHARGE VOLTAGE
16.2
13.8
≥ 49
44 – 48
38 – 43
32 – 37
27 – 31
21 – 26
16 – 20
10 – 15
5–9
≤4
The chemical actions that take place within a battery during charging are basically the reverse of those that occur during discharge.
When a battery is charged, the lead sulfate (PbSO4) in both plates
is split into its original form of lead (Pb) and sulfate (SO4).
The water is split into hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). As the sulfate
leaves the plates, it combines with the hydrogen and is restored
to sulfuric acid (H2SO4). At the same time, the oxygen combines
chemically with the lead of the positive plate to form lead dioxide
(PbO2). The specific gravity of the electrolyte increases during
charging because sulfuric acid is being formed, replacing water
in the electrolyte.
40
Charging Voltage vs. Ambient Temperature
14.4
13.00
13.20
13.30
13.40
13.50
13.70
13.85
14.00
14.20
14.50
This process is the same for all types of batteries: liquid, gelled or
absorbed/starved electrolyte types.
0
15.0
12.80
12.90
13.00
13.10
13.20
13.40
13.55
13.70
13.90
14.20
How does a battery recharge?
120°F (48.9°C)
12
15.6
13.30
13.50
13.60
13.70
13.80
14.00
14.15
14.30
14.50
14.80
Gelled electrolyte is an immobilized electrolyte. When liquid electrolyte or acid stratifies, the heavier charged ions actually sink to
the bottom of the cell, leaving discharged acid or water at the top.
This allows the top of the plates to oxidize and corrode reducing
performance and shortening life. The bottoms of the plates also
corrode due to the action of the higher strength acid. This can
happen in stationary applications because the battery never moves
to mix the acid. Because our electrolyte is a thick-consistency gel,
this stratification cannot happen.
19
16
13.00
13.20
13.30
13.40
13.50
13.70
13.85
14.00
14.20
14.50
Temp.
°C
What is acid stratification?
How do our gel cells prevent it?
27
Effect of Temperature on Recharge Voltage
17
Float
STORAGE TIME (MONTHS)
0
18
Charge
Optimum Maximum Optimum Maximum
13.2
Any lead-acid battery will evolve gas while it is being charged.
Hydrogen is given off at the negative plate and oxygen at the
positive. These gases result from the decomposition of water (H2O).
A battery gasses and uses water because it is being charged at a
higher rate than it can accept. This event may happen if the battery
is already fully charged, if its plates are sulfated and cannot accept
the charge, or if it is too cold to accept a charge.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
(°C) –30
(°F) –20
–20
–4
–10
+14
0
+32
Optimum charge voltage limit
to achieve full charge vs.
ambient temperature extremes.
10
50
20
68
30
86
40
104
50
122
A battery will gas near the end of a charge because the charge
rate is too high for the battery to accept. A temperature-compensating, voltage-regulating charger, which automatically reduces
the charge rate as the battery approaches the fully charged state,
eliminates most of this gassing. It is extremely important
not to charge batteries for long periods of time at rates which
Maximum permissible short
term peak values, e.g.
superimposed ripple voltage
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Remember that voltage is electrical pressure and current (amps)
is electrical flow. Battery plates can be subjected to too much
charge (overcharging). If a battery’s plates are subjected to too
much electrical pressure (excessive on-charge voltage), they will
give off more hydrogen and oxygen than can be recombined.
The excess gas raises the pressure in the battery which is vented
outside through the safety pressure release valves. When this gas
is released, hydrogen and oxygen are lost and cannot be replaced.
With excessive charging, any SVR battery will dry out and fail
prematurely.
cause them to gas because they use water, which in sealed valve
regulated batteries cannot be replaced. Of course, no battery should
be overcharged for a long period of time…even at low rates using
so-called “trickle charges.”
In a fully charged battery, most of the sulfate is in the sulfuric acid.
As the battery discharges, some of the sulfate begins to form
on the plates as lead sulfate (PbSO4). As this happens, the acid
becomes more dilute, and its specific gravity drops as water
replaces more of the sulfuric acid. A fully discharged battery has
more sulfate in the plates than in the electrolyte.
Therefore, charging must be carefully regulated:
Illustrated below is the relationship between specific gravity
readings and the combination of the sulfate from the acid with
the positive and negative plates at various states of charge.
13.8–14.1V for gel cells.
14.4–14.6V for SAT absorbed-electrolyte models.
A reliable, automatic temperature-sensing, voltage compensating
charger must be used. NEVER leave any battery on a “trickle
charger.”
Typical “Flooded’ Battery
FULLY CHARGED
Specific
Gravity
1.265
FULLY DISCHARGED
Specific
Gravity
below 1.225
Specific
Gravity
1.190
Specific
Gravity
1.120
How long does it take to recharge
a fully discharged gel battery?
A specific time is difficult to determine because recharging
depends on so many variables:
▲
POS = PbO2
NEG = Pb
ACID = H2SO2
As battery discharges,
the sulfate from the electrolyte
forms on the plates.
▲
POS = PbSO4
NEG = PbSO4
Electrolyte = H2O
• Depth of discharge
• Temperature
• Size and efficiency of the charger
• Age and condition of the battery
As battery recharges,
the sulfate is driven back
into the electrolyte.
See the Gel Cell Charging Guide on page 13 for an estimated time
based upon the initial charge current the battery accepts.
How critical is recharge voltage?
Why are SVR batteries so charge
sensitive?
Charging Time vs. 90% and 100% State of Charge
60% of time
SVR (Sealed Valve Regulated) batteries work on the recombination
principle. This means that during charging, the hydrogen produced
on the negative plate and oxygen produced on the positive* are
recombined to produce H2O, or water. Water replaces the moisture
in the gel or in the absorbed mat separators.
State of 0%
Charge
EXAMPLE:
40% of time
90%
100%
31⁄2 hours
6 hours
It will take about 60% of the time to bring the battery from 10.5
volts to 90% of charge (12.75 volts). It will take the remaining 40%
of the charging time to put the last 10% of the charge into the battery (12.95 volts = 100% charge).
* All lead-acid batteries give off hydrogen from the negative plate
and oxygen from the positive plate during charging.
SVR batteries have special pressure-sensitive valves to keep the
cell at a specified internal pressure. This pressure is necessary
for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to work properly.
Without pressure, the hydrogen and oxygen would be lost to the
atmosphere, eventually drying out the gel or absorbed separators.
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How can you tell if an SVR battery has been
damaged by under- or overcharging?
Gel Cell Charging Guide
Charge Time vs.
Initial Charge Current to 90% Full Charge
The only way is with a load test. Use the same
procedure you would use with a wet cell battery:
(Using an automatic temperature-sensing, voltage-regulating charger
set at 13.8V. Totally discharged battery at 11.80–12.0 volts.)
a. Recharge if the open circuit voltage is below 75%.
b. If adjustable, set the load at 1⁄2 the CCA rating or
three times the 20 Ah rate.
Initial Amps
Part No.
13 hours*
8GU1, 8GU1H
8G22NF
8G24
8G27
8G30H, 8G31, 8G31DT
8G4D, 8GGC2
8G8D
6 Hours* 31⁄2 hours*
3
5
7
8
9
17
20
8
12
17
21
24
42
50
c. Apply the load for 15 seconds. The voltage should
stabilize above 9.6 volts while on load.
15
23
33
41
45
83
100
d. If below 9.6 volts, recharge and repeat test.
e. If below 9.6 volts a second time, recycle the battery.
What is a float charger?
What float voltage is recommended?
*approximate
HOW TO USE THIS CHART: When charger is first turned on,
read amps after about one minute. Initial amp reading will
indicate approximate charging time.
EXAMPLE
If an 8G24 reads about 17 amps charge current
when first turned on, the battery will be at 90%
in about 6 hours.
A float charger is sometimes called a “smart” charger. This type of
charger continually delivers a pre-set voltage to the battery, regardless of charge conditions.
When the charger senses that the voltage has dropped below the
designated setting (the float voltage), the charger automatically
turns on. It charges the battery until it comes back up to the proper
voltage, and then shuts off…or nearly off. Some keep a few milliamps of current flowing to the battery, which may be a problem if
this current is too high.
IMPORTANT: Always use an automatic temperaturesensing, voltage-regulated charger! Set charger at 13.8 to
14.1 volts at 68°F. Do not exceed 14.1 volts! Never open a
sealed gel battery!
These chargers are used in stationary, emergency back-up power,
emergency lighting, and other applications.
The frequency of discharge and temperature will dictate a more
exact setting. For example, the more frequent the discharge, the
higher the suggested recharge voltage, to a maximum of 2.35 volts
per cell (at 20°C/68°F).
How can continual undercharging
harm a battery?
Our recommended float voltage is 2.25 to 2.3 volts per cell for
gel and absorbed models.
In many respects, undercharging is as harmful as overcharging.
Keeping a battery in an undercharged condition allows the positive
grids to corrode and the plates to shed, dramatically shortening life.
Also, an undercharged battery must work harder than a fully
charged battery, which contributes to short life as well.
How do I know if a charger is
“gel friendly?”
Unfortunately, some chargers are falsely called “automatic,
temperature-sensing, adjustable voltage.” In addition, a charger
may be old, out of adjustment, or in need of repair.
How can you tell if an
SVR battery is fully charged?
Rule #1 : Only charge gel cells using a reliable, automatic,
temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated charger. Never use
a constant current charger. (Constant current charging will
overcharge any SVR battery.)
The only way is with a voltmeter.
Open Circuit Voltage vs. State of Charge Comparison*
%
Charge
100
75
50
25
0
Open Circuit Voltage
Flooded
Gel
Absorbed
12.70-12.60
12.95-12.85 12.90-12.80
12.40
12.65
12.60
12.20
12.35
12.30
12.00
12.00
12.00
11.80
11.80
11.80
Always keep charging current in the range of 13.8V to 14.1V
for 12-volt gel models (6.90 to 7.05 for 6-volt gel).
Always keep charging current in the range of 14.4V to 14.6V
for 12-volt absorbed models (7.2 to 7.3 for 6-volt gel).
NOTE: Divide values in half for 6-volt batteries.
* The “true” O.C.V. of a battery can only be determined after the battery
has been removed from the load (charge or discharge) for 24 hours.
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If you are not sure if a charger is performing properly, follow this
procedure:
Why do some gel batteries bulge?
Are there visual signs of a faulty or
plugged pressure relief valve?
a. Using a fully discharged gel cell battery (11.8V to 10.5V)
and a digital voltmeter, record the initial open circuit voltage
at the battery terminals.
b. Using an automatic charger as described above,
set voltage if adjustable (14.1V for gel, 14.6V for
absorbed models).
c. Connect and start charging. Record initial on-charge
voltage and current (amps).
d. Using the Gel Cell Charging Guide on page 13, estimate
the time required to bring to full charge, based on the
initial charging current noted in “c” above.
e. Each hour or so, check and record the on-charge voltage
across the battery terminals. Except for occasional, brief
“blips” or pulses, the voltage should not exceed the voltage
limits noted in “b” above.
f. At the end of charge (when the current is very low or goes
to zero) check and record the voltage. Note that the charger
may have turned off by then.
g. The disconnected battery should be at 100% or above
(due to “surface charge”).
In order to operate properly and for the recombination of hydrogen
and oxygen to take place, each cell is pressurized under approximately 11⁄2 psi.
Batteries with very large cells, such as the 8G4D and 8G8D, will
bulge somewhat as this normal pressure builds. This is especially
true in higher temperatures, because the polypropylene case is
more pliable. Therefore, a certain amount of bulge is normal.
However, if a battery bulges severely, such as to look like a football,
this is not normal and is an indication of a blocked valve. Such a
battery should be taken out of service.
How safe are SVR batteries?
Can they explode?
SVR batteries are very safe, unless abused. However, as with any
type battery, certain safety precautions must be taken.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES
WHEN WORKING AROUND BATTERIES!
During the charging time, the charger should not have exceeded
the limit (except for occasional, brief pulses). This indicates that
the charger is working properly.
!
Keep in mind that the voltage limit is at 68°F/20°C. Charging at
higher or lower temperatures will change this limit. (See the
chart on page 11: Effect of Temperature on Recharge Voltage.)
A temperature-sensing charger should always be used, as
manual adjustments are never accurate and will damage any
SVR battery.
DANGER / POISON
SHIELD
EYES.
EXPLOSIVE
GASES CAN
CAUSE BLINDNESS
OR INJURY.
Do gel cell batteries have a
“memory” like ni-cad batteries?
FLUSH EYES
IMMEDIATELY
WITH WATER.
NO
• SPARKS
• FLAMES
• SMOKING
SULFURIC
ACID
CAN CAUSE
BLINDNESS OR
SEVERE BURNS.
GET
MEDICAL
HELP
FAST.
KEEP OUT
OUT OF
REACHOF
OF CHILDREN.
CHILDREN.
KEEP
OFTHE
REACH
DO NOT DO
TIP. NOT
KEEP OPEN
VENT CAPS
TIGHT AND LEVEL.
BATTERIES.
DO NOT OPEN FLUSH COVER BATTERIES
One of the major disadvantages of nickel-cadmium, or ni-cad,
batteries is that when they are only partially charged after several
uses, they “remember” the charge limit and will not allow
recharging back to 100%, unless totally discharged and recharged
several times. Our gel cells have no such memory.
Because SVR batteries normally emit very little to no hydrogen gas,
they are safe near sensitive electronic equipment. They do not
cause corrosion of surrounding metals. No hydrogen gas means
no dangerous explosions… UNLESS SEVERELY OVERCHARGED!
Do not install any lead-acid battery in a sealed container or
enclosure. Hydrogen gas from overcharging must be allowed
to escape.
What is a safe charge rate or voltage
setting for outdoor applications with wide
temperature fluctuations if a temperaturesensing charger is not available?
DO NOT CHARGE IN EXCESS OF 14.1V @ 68°F- Gel Cells
DO NOT CHARGE IN EXCESS OF 14.6V @ 68°F- Absorbed
(See Voltage vs. Temperature Chart on page 11.)
NONE! As the chart on page 11 (Effect of Temperature on
Recharge Voltage) shows, charging voltage varies widely with
temperature. There is no fixed voltage setting or current that
will work. A temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated charger
must be used. Anything else will damage the battery and cause
premature failure!
Always use a reliable, temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated,
automatic charger.
Because SVR batteries have immobilized electrolyte, they cannot
spill or leak, even if punctured. That is why they are approved for
air transport by the International Commercial Airline Organization
(ICAO), International Airline Transport Association (IATA), and
Department of Transportation (DOT) as noted on the label.
Can an SVR battery be load tested
the same as a flooded battery?
Also, when protected against short circuits and securely braced/
blocked, our gel cell batteries “are not subject to any other
requirements of 49 CFR Parts 171-180…” for shipping.
Yes. See page 13 (How can you tell if an SVR battery has been
damaged by under- or overcharging?).
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Which way does current flow?
On which side should a circuit
breaker be installed?
Battery Installation
Series
A “series” system increases the voltage, but keeps the battery
capacity (cranking amps, amp hours, reserve minutes, and
minutes running time) the same. Therefore, two 12-volt
batteries connected in series (POS to NEG, NEG to POS) will
deliver 24 volts at the same rating as one battery:
Contrary to popular belief, current flows from the negative
electrode, through the load and back to the positive electrode.
Therefore, a fuse or circuit breaker is best installed between the
negative post and the load. This also works well because the
positive cable generally has several leads or taps connected to it.
What do I need to know about
installation, especially in salt water
marine applications?
Series hookup
increases voltage…
2 x 12V = 24 Volts
Wiring and Waterproofing
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES
WHEN WORKING AROUND BATTERIES!
a. Cabling of the approved gauge should be tinned copper.
If using untinned copper, allow plenty of spray silicone to
“wick” along the strands.
b. Install heat-shrink tubing with a silicone interior; the silicone
forms an excellent moisture barrier. Cut the tubing long
enough to cover the terminal lug and plenty of the insulated
portion of the cable. Slip tubing onto the cable.
c. Crimp on the appropriate terminal.
d. Position the heat-shrink tubing. Heat and inspect.
e. Clean battery terminals and connect. Be sure perfect metalto-metal contact is made, with no dirt, corrosion, grease or
foreign material to interfere with current flow.
f. Always attach the cable connected to the solenoid or starter
first. Attach the ground cable last! Tighten snugly, BUT DO
NOT OVERTIGHTEN, which will damage the terminals or crack
the battery cover. This will destroy the battery and VOID THE
WARRANTY.
g. Spray exposed terminals and connectors with several coats
of battery terminal corrosion protection spray. (Mask surrounding areas to protect against overspray.)
h. For batteries which may be exposed to very wet environments
(e.g. bilge mounted batteries) total encasement of the exposed
terminals and connectors is necessary. However, do not block
or cover the vents.
A battery terminal boot should be used. Install the boot on the
cable before crimping the terminal. Fill the boot with petroleum
jelly and fit over the sprayed connectors (as in “g” above).
During recharge, each battery receives the same amount
of current; e.g. if the charger is putting out 10 amps, both
batteries are getting 10 amps.
Parallel
A “parallel” system increases the capacity available, but keeps
the voltage the same. Therefore, two 12-volt batteries with 400
CCA, 110 R.C. and 65 Ah will deliver 12 volts, 800 CCA, 220
R.C. and 130 Ah.
Parallel hookup
keeps same voltage…
2 x 12V = 12 Volts
During recharge, the current (amps) is split between the batteries. The battery that is discharged the most will receive more
current than the other until both are brought up to full charge.
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Page 16
IMPORTANT: Do not install any type of battery in a completely
sealed box or enclosure. In the event of overcharging, the
potentially explosive gasses must be allowed to escape.
Note: Never mix different types and sizes of batteries in
the same bank.
To properly recharge, a sophisticated “battery isolator”
should be installed. Otherwise, one battery will be continually
overcharged and the other undercharged in a series/parallel
set-up.
UL Recognized Component
NOTES
MK Battery: 1645 South Sinclair Street • Anaheim, California 92806
Toll Free 800-372-9253 • Tel 714-937-1033 • Fax 714-937-0818 • Website: www.mkbattery.com • Email: [email protected]
16
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