How to Manage Asbestos in School buildings, AHERA Designated Person Self Study Guide

How to Manage Asbestos in School buildings, AHERA Designated Person Self Study Guide
How to Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: The AHERA Designated Person's Self Study Guide
January 1996
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pre-course Quiz .................................................................................................................................... ii
Chapter
1
Using the Self-Study Guide............................................................................... 1
Chapter
2
An Introduction to Asbestos ............................................................................. 5
Chapter
3
Asbestos Health Risks....................................................................................... 9
Chapter
4
What is Required of the LEA? ........................................................................ 14
Chapter
5
The AHERA Inspection.................................................................................. 20
Chapter
6
The Management Plan .................................................................................... 36
Chapter
7
Reinspections and Periodic Surveillance ........................................................ 52
Chapter
8
The Operations and Maintenance Program ..................................................... 55
Chapter
9
Training and Accreditation.............................................................................. 70
Chapter
10
Recordkeeping ................................................................................................ 76
Chapter
11
Related Regulations ........................................................................................ 80
FIGURES
Figure 5-1: Decision Tree to Determine Physical Assessment Categories ........................................... 26
Figure 6-1: Flow Charts of Possible Response Actions ....................................................................... 42
TABLES
Table 5-1:
Table 5-2:
Table 6-1:
Table 6-2:
Table 6-3:
Table 6-4:
Table 9-1:
Table 9-2:
Bulk Sampling Requirements ...................................................................................... 22
Inspection Report Compliance Checklist ..................................................................... 35
Contents of the Management Plan ............................................................................... 36
Implementation Requirements with the Management Plan .......................................... 45
Frequent Problems with Management Plans ................................................................ 47
Management Plan Compliance Checklist..................................................................... 49
LEA Employee Training Requirements ....................................................................... 73
Accredited Worker Training Requirements ................................................................. 74
LISTS
Glossary................................................................................................................................................ 88
Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................. 93
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PRE-COURSE QUIZ
The questions in this pre-course quiz are related to the information found in this guide. The quiz
will serve as an immediate self-assessment of your knowledge of some of the basic principles of the
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Please answer all of the following
questions. The answers to the questions immediately follow the quiz.
1. Asbestos that is easily crumbled into a powder by hand pressure when dry is:
A. Friable
B. Non-friable
C. Decomposable
D. Asbestos powder
E. None of the above
2. Exposure to asbestos may result in:
A. Asbestosis (a disease characterized by lung scarring)
B. Lung cancer
C. Mesothelioma (a cancer arising in the chest cavity or abdominal cavity)
D. All of the above
E. None of the Above
3. Asbestos-related diseases are ___________________ and have a latency period of _____.
A. dosed related, 15 to 30 years
B. fatal, 30 days
C. non-existent, 60 years
D. dangerous, 1 hour
E. serious, 10 years
4. The three main federal government agencies that regulate asbestos are:
A. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection
Agency
B. Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and
Health Administration
C. Department of Health and Human Services, Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational
Safety and Health Administration
D. General Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Occupational
Safety and Health Administration
E. No federal government agencies regulate asbestos
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Pre-Course Quiz
5. Which of the following are not the responsibility of the Local Education Agency?
A. must conduct periodic surveillance in each building under its authority at least once every six
months and use an accredited inspector to conduct the reinspections every three years
B. must attach a warning label immediately adjacent to any friable and nonfriable asbestos-
containing building material (ACBM) and suspected ACBM located in routine maintenance
areas, such as boiler rooms, at each school building
C. must send all notification, inspection, and periodic surveillance records to EPA on an annual
basis
D. ensure that complete and up-to-date records of inspections, reinspections, response activities,
periodic surveillances, and operations and maintenance activities are maintained
E. must comply with the notification requirements to workers, students, building occupants,
parents, and short-term workers
6. Which activities must be conducted by an accredited inspector?
A. Identify all homogeneous areas of material that are suspected to contain asbestos
B. Gather information on the uses and functions of the spaces within the homogeneous areas
C. Collect samples of material suspected to be ACBM and send them to the lab for analysis
D. Perform a physical assessment of the material and document the results in an inspection report
E. All of the above activities
7. Some of the most common uses of asbestos-containing building materials found include:
A. Fireproofing on structural members
B. Plaster, pipe and boiler insulation
C. Acoustical or sound proofing material
D. Flooring and ceiling tiles
E. All of the above 8. In addition to imposing other requirements, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act
requires that a Local Education Agency:
A. Close buildings in which asbestos is found
B. Perform inspections to identify asbestos-containing building materials in its buildings
C. Notify the Environmental Protection Agency on the locations of asbestos-containing building
materials in the schools of the district
D. Remove all asbestos-containing building materials from its buildings
E. B and D
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Pre-Course Quiz
9. A management plan must contain appropriate response actions. Which of the following is
not an appropriate response action:
A. Replace damaged asbestos-containing building materials with new undamaged asbestos-
containing building materials
B. Repair damaged asbestos-containing building materials to an undamaged or intact condition
C. Encapsulate asbestos-containing building materials with a material that surrounds or embeds
asbestos fibers
D. Enclose asbestos-containing building materials in an airtight, impenetrable permanent barrier
E. None, all of these are appropriate response actions
10. At least once every
months, the Local Education Agency must conduct a visual
inspection of all areas identified in the management plan as asbestos-containing building
materials (ACBM) or assumed to contain asbestos-containing building materials to
determine whether the condition of the ACBM or assumed ACBM has changed. This is
called a(n)
.
A. 12, periodic surveillance
B. 12, inspection
C. 6, periodic surveillance
D. 6, inspection
E. 24, reinspection
11. Final air clearance of a functional space after a response action to remove, encapsulate, or
enclose ACBM involves the following:
A. visual inspection
B. collection of air samples
C. analysis of samples by PLM
D. analysis of samples by TEM, unless the project involves less than 160 square feet or 260 linear
feet, in which PCM may be used
E. A, B, D
12. How can the Local Education Agency best minimize accidental disturbances of ACBM
during maintenance and renovations activities?
A. establish a permit system that calls for all work orders and requests to be processed through the
AHERA designated person
B. require the AHERA designated person to maintain AHERA inspector and management planner
accreditations
C. require the principals of all schools to attend asbestos awareness training
D. require all periodic surveillance inspections to be conducted by accredited inspectors
E. assure that all AHERA management plans are updated on an annual basis
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Pre-Course Quiz
13. A designated person must:
A. Receive training that provides basic knowledge of a number of asbestos-related subjects, as
listed in EPA's asbestos regulations
B. Complete EPA-or State-approved inspector course and become accredited
C. Have a college degree
D. Pass an EPA test on Designated Person roles and responsibilities
E. Complete no training
14. An asbestos management program is subject to which EPA statutes and regulations:
A. Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act
B. Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants
C. Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants, EPA Worker Protection Rule
D. Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants, EPA Worker Protection Rule and Asbestos School Hazard Abatement
Reauthorization Act
E. None of these
15. Local Education Agencies must conduct the following notifications:
A. annually to parents, teachers, and employee organizations on the availability of the asbestos
management plan
B. annually to workers, building occupants and their guardians on recent or planned asbestos
activities (such as inspections, response action, etc.)
C. to short-term workers (e.g. telephone repair workers, utility workers, or exterminators) who
may come into contact with asbestos on the locations of asbestos-containing building materials
(or assumed ACBM)
D. annually to EPA or state agencies on updates to the management plan.
E. A, B, C
16. The management plan must:
A. be kept in the Local Education Agency's administrative office
B. be kept in the administrative office of each school building
C. be available to persons for inspection without cost or restriction
D. be complete and up-to-date
E. all of the above
(1) A (2) D (3) A (4) B (5) C (6) E (7) E (8) B (9) A (10) C (11) E
(12) A (13) A (14) D (15) E (16) E
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1
USING THE SELFSTUDY GUIDE
Aim of the Guide
EPA requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator, called the "AHERA
designated person" to be responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities, including the
implementation of the plan for managing asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) in the
school buildings and compliance with the federal asbestos regulations.
Even though the AHERA requirements have been in place for some time, EPA inspectors have
found misunderstanding and confusion on how to implement the requirements, as well as how
to best manage asbestos in school buildings. EPA has designed this self-study guide to help the
designated person understand his or her responsibilities and comply with the federal asbestos
requirements. This manual is recommended for persons recently appointed to the position of
AHERA Designated Person, as well as persons who have held the position for some time.
Background
On October 22, 1986, Congress promulgated the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act
(AHERA), Public Law 99-519. AHERA mandated that EPA develop regulations to respond to
asbestos in schools. On October 30, 1987, EPA promulgated the Asbestos-Containing
Materials in Schools Rule (hereinafter referred to as the AHERA Rule), 40 CFR Part 763,
Subpart E. This rule requires that all of the nation's nonprofit elementary and secondary
schools, both public and private, inspect their school buildings for asbestos-containing building
materials (ACBM), develop a plan to manage the asbestos for each school building, notify
parents and staff regarding management plan availability, provide asbestos awareness training to
school maintenance and custodial workers, and other requirements described in detail in this
manual. A list of key responsibilities for school districts is located on page 18. (Note that
certain States consider pre-schools the first step of the elementary education process and
therefore have included pre-schools under their State AHERA regulations.)
The governing authority responsible for AHERA compliance is the Local Education Agency
(LEA). "Local Education Agency" means either any local educational agency as defined in
Section 198 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (often called school
district), the owner of any private, non-profit elementary or secondary school building, or the
governing authority of any school operated under the Defense Department's education system.
In July 1991, EPA released the results of an evaluation of AHERA implementation. The results
showed that certain elements of school asbestos programs were not being effectively
implemented. The agency concluded that schools needed better guidance on how to run their
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CHAPTER 1
Using the Self-Study Guide
asbestos programs. Shortly after, EPA hired a contractor to develop the Designated Person
Self-Study Guide. Due to the shortage of funding, this project was abandoned in 1992. Over the past seven years, EPA staff have observed that the quality of school asbestos programs
depend heavily on the dedication and work of the AHERA Designated Person (DP). Schools
without a competent DP tend to have more AHERA violations. Common violations are listed
on the table "Frequent Problems with the Management Plan" on
page 47. Schools with DPs who know the AHERA requirements can effectively prevent the
release of asbestos fibers through their own actions, as well as their ability to hire and oversee
the work of personnel conducting asbestos-related activities at their school buildings.
The AHERA Designated Person Self Study Guide is an important tool to improve LEA's
compliance with AHERA and to protect the health of school building occupants through
preventing the release of asbestos fibers. With the support from EPA HQ and all the other EPA
regional offices, the Seattle office of EPA undertook the task of updating and finalizing this
manual on August 1995.
Responsibilities of the AHERA Designated Person
The responsibilities of the AHERA Designated Person include:
•ensure that all activities of anyone who conducts the following are carried out in accordance
with the AHERA requirements: conduct inspections, reinspections, periodic surveillance;
develops, implements and updates management plans; and plans and implements asbestosrelated activities (such as maintenance or removal);
•ensure that all custodial and maintenance employees are properly trained;
•ensure that all workers, building occupants, students, and their parents are notified annually
about management plan availability and recent and upcoming asbestos-related activities;
•ensure that short-term workers who may come into contact with asbestos are provided
information regarding the location of this asbestos;
•ensure that all warning labels are posted; and
•consider any conflicts of interest that may arise when selecting accredited personnel to conduct
asbestos-related activities.
AHERA Designated Person Required Training
AHERA requires that the DP be adequately trained to carry out his or her responsibilities. Due
to the differing needs of school districts based on the size of the district and the amount and
condition of the ACBM, AHERA does not list a specific training course or specific number of
hours of training for the DP. Further, AHERA does not require the DP to be accredited.
Specifically, the regulations note the training must include the following topics:
•health effects of asbestos;
•detection, identification and assessment of asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM);
•options for controlling asbestos-containing building materials; and
•asbestos management programs.
•relevant Federal and State regulations concerning asbestos, including AHERA and its
implementing regulations and the regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health
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CHAPTER 1
Using the Self-Study Guide
Administration, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (See Chapter 11 for further information on regulations related to
AHERA.)
Instructions for Using this Guide
To use this guide effectively:
• Assemble all documents that appear in the list entitled "Documents Required for
Completion of Self-Study Guide."
• Make copies of the tables, figures and supplemental materials that appear in this guide to
use as working copies.
• Review the chapter summaries and supplemental materials at the end of each chapter as you
proceed through the guide.
• Take the Quiz before and after you have completed this Self-Study Guide.
Documents Required for Completion of Self-Study Guide
A designated person using this guide should have copies of the following documents for
reference:
• Environmental Protection Agency
40 CFR Part 763; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule (October 30,
1987), the Model Accreditation Plan, Interim Final Rule (February 3, 1994), and
Asbestos Abatement Projects; Worker Protection; Final Rule (February 25, 1987; note:
this rule must undergo revision to conform to the OSHA Worker Protection Rule, 29
CFR 1926.1101, 8/10/94).
100 Commonly Asked Questions About the New Asbestos-in-Schools Rule
(May 1988).
• Your School Asbestos Inspection Report/Management Plan
Choose a document that is representative of your school buildings if you have multiple
schools.
• Occupational Safety and Health Administration
29 CFR §1910.1001: General Industry Standard on Asbestos and 29 CFR §1926.1101:
Construction Industry Standard (August 10, 1994).
Useful References
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CHAPTER 1
Using the Self-Study Guide
A designated person may also wish to refer to one or more of the following EPA documents in
completing this guide:
• Environmental Protection Agency
40 CFR Part 61; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Asbestos
NESHAP Revision; Final Rule (November 20, 1990);
Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings (Purple Book):
(June, 1985; 560/5-85-024);
Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owners Guide to Operations and Maintenance
Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials (Green Book) (July, 1990; 20T-2003);
Asbestos in Buildings; Guidance for Service and Maintenance Personnel
(June 1985; 560/5-85-018);
A Guide to Performing Reinspections Under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response
Act (AHERA) (Yellow Book) (February 1992);
Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Reinspections Under AHERA
(May 1991);
Environmental Hazards in Your School: A Resource Handbook (October 1990).
Policy Clarification for the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act: Under What
Circumstances is Removal of Vinyl Asbestos Tile or Similar Materials a Response
Action under AHERA? (EPA, July 1992).
To obtain any of the documents listed above, contact the EPA Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA) Hotline at (202) 554-1404 or the U.S. Government Printing Office.
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2
AN INTRODUCTION
TO ASBESTOS
The History of Asbestos
The word "asbestos" is derived from the Greek language. The Greeks admired the "miracle
mineral" because of its softness and flexibility and its ability to withstand heat. The Greeks used
asbestos much like cotton, spinning and weaving it into cloth. Asbestos was not widely
available anywhere in the world until the late 1800s, when major deposits were found in
Canada. Thereafter, asbestos was used to make thermal insulation for boilers, pipes, and other
high temperature applications, and was also used as a fireproofing and reinforcement material.
During World Wars I and II, the military used asbestos extensively in ships and other
applications. Commercial usages of asbestos in buildings increased greatly thereafter, but
growing concerns about the health risks associated with asbestos exposure resulted in a
voluntary reduction in the use of asbestos beginning in the 1970s.
Characteristics of Asbestos
Asbestos is comprised of a group of natural minerals. Unlike other minerals, however, the
crystals of asbestos form long, thin fibers. Asbestos deposits are found throughout the world,
but the primary sites of commercial asbestos production are Canada, Russia, and South Africa.
Commercial mining of asbestos in the United States was halted in the 1980s.
Once extracted from the earth, asbestos-containing rock is crushed, milled (or ground), and
graded. This produces long, thread-like fibers of material. What appears to the naked eye as a
single fiber is actually a bundle of hundreds or thousands of fibers, each of which can be divided
even further into tiny fibers (fibrils), invisible without the aid of a microscope.
Asbestos materials are divided into two groups -- serpentine and amphibole. All asbestos in the
serpentine group is called Chrysotile. This is the most common type of asbestos found in
buildings in the United States, accounting for approximately 95 percent of the asbestos found in
the nation's buildings. It is commonly known as "white asbestos" because of its natural color.
The amphibole group contains five types of asbestos. Amosite, the second most common type
of asbestos found in buildings in the United States, is often referred to as "brown asbestos" for
the color of the natural mineral. Crocidolite, or "blue asbestos" has been used in high-
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CHAPTER 2
An Introduction to Asbestos
temperature insulation products and on chemical resistant surfaces, such as laboratory tables for
chemistry and biology classes (upon occasion, the custodial staff will drill holes in table tops for
new fixtures without realizing that the material may contain crocidolite. The remaining three
types of asbestos in the amphibole group -- Anthophyllite, Tremolite, and Actinolite -- are rare
and have little commercial value. They are occasionally found as contaminants or minor
constituents in asbestos-containing materials.
Uses of Asbestos
Asbestos has been used in thousands of products, largely because it is plentiful, readily available,
cheap, strong, does not burn, conducts heat and electricity poorly, and is resistant to chemical
corrosion. Products made with asbestos are often referred to as asbestos-containing materials
(ACM).
Asbestos proved particularly useful in the construction industry. Building materials that contain
asbestos are referred to as asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM). Commercial usage
of asbestos products in the construction industry was most common from about 1945 to 1980.
Some of the most common uses of ACBM include:
• Fireproofing material -- Usually spray-applied to steel beams used in construction of
multi-story buildings to prevent structural members from warping or collapsing in the
event of fire.
• Insulation material -- Usually spray-applied, trowel-applied, or manually installed after
being preformed to fit surfaces such as pipes for thermal insulation and condensation
control.
• Acoustical or soundproofing material -- Trowel- or spray-applied. May also be used
for decoration. Asbestos was mixed with other materials and sprayed onto ceilings and
walls to produce a soft, textured look.
• Miscellaneous materials -- Asbestos has been added to asphalt, vinyl, cement and other
materials to make products like roofing felts, exterior siding and roofing shingles,
wallboard, pipes for water supply, combustion vents, and flues for waste gases and heat.
Fibers in asbestos cement, asphalt, and vinyl materials are usually firmly bound into
materials in good condition and typically will be released only if the material is damaged
mechanically -- for example through drilling, cutting, grinding, or sanding. In addition,
asbestos in roofing shingles and siding exposed to weathering may slowly deteriorate
and has the potential to release fibers.
Examples of the more common ACBM found in schools are flooring, vinyl base,
mastic,
roofing materials, gaskets in heating and air-conditioning equipment, ceiling panels and tiles,
wallboard, joint compound, plaster, pipe and boiler insulation, duct-wrap insulation, duct joint
tape, duct vibration dampening cloth, fireproofing on structural members, fire brick for boilers,
fire doors, acoustical spray-on, cement pipes, and panels.
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CHAPTER 2
An Introduction to Asbestos
Friable vs. Nonfriable ACBM
Friable ACBM will release fibers into the air more readily than nonfriable ACBM. Therefore,
the AHERA Rule differentiates between friable and nonfriable ACBM. The regulations define
friable ACBM as material that may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand
pressure when dry. Friable ACBM also includes previously nonfriable material when it becomes
damaged to the extent that when dry it may it may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to
powder by hand pressure. Undamaged non-friable ACBM should be treated as friable if any
action performed on the material will make them friable.
Categories of Asbestos-Containing Building Materials
EPA identifies three categories of ACBM (See the definitions appearing in § 763.83 of the
AHERA Rule):
• Surfacing Materials -- Interior ACBM that has been sprayed on, troweled on, or
otherwise applied to surfaces (structural members, walls, ceilings, etc.) for acoustical,
decorative, fireproofing, or other purposes. This includes acoustical plaster, hard
plasters (wall or ceiling), fireproofing insulation, spray-applied or blown-in thermal
material, joint or patching compound (wall or ceiling), and textured paints or plasters.
• Thermal System Insulation -- Insulation used to control heat transfer or prevent
condensation on pipes and pipe fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts, and other parts
of hot and cold water systems; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)
systems; or other mechanical systems. These insulation materials include pipe lagging,
pipe wrap, HVAC duct insulation, block insulation, cements and muds, and a variety of
other products such as gaskets and ropes.
• Miscellaneous Materials -- Other, mostly nonfriable products and materials found on
structural components, structural members or fixtures, such as floor tile, ceiling tile,
construction mastic for floor and ceiling materials, sheet flooring, fire doors, asbestos
cement pipe and board, wallboard, acoustical wall tile, and vibration damping cloth.
"Miscellaneous materials" do not include thermal system insulation or surfacing
materials.
Please note that batt, blanket, and blown-in insulation should be placed in one of the above
categories according to use.
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CHAPTER 2
An Introduction to Asbestos
Chapter 2 Summary
Key Points About Asbestos
This chapter introduces some important terms used in the AHERA Rule. The designated
person should be especially familiar with the following:
Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM) -- Any material or product that contains more than
one percent asbestos.
Asbestos-Containing Building Material (ACBM) -- Surfacing ACM, thermal system
insulation ACM, or miscellaneous ACM that is found in or on interior structural members or
other parts of a school building.
Friable ACBM -- Material that may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand
pressure when dry. Friable ACBM also includes previously nonfriable material when it
becomes damaged to the extent that when dry it may it may be crumbled, pulverized, or
reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Nonfriable ACBM -- Material that, when dry, may not be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced
to powder by hand pressure.
Surfacing ACM -- Interior ACM that has been sprayed on, troweled on, or otherwise
applied to surfaces (structural members, walls, ceilings, etc.) for acoustical, decorative,
fireproofing, or other purposes.
Thermal System ACM -- Insulation used to control heat transfer or prevent condensation
on pipes and pipe fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts, and other parts of hot and cold
water systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; or other
mechanical systems.
Miscellaneous ACM -- Other, mostly nonfriable, products and materials (found on
structural components, structural members or fixtures) such as floor tile, ceiling tile,
construction mastic for floor and ceiling materials, sheet flooring, fire doors, asbestos cement
pipe and board, wallboard, acoustical wall tile, and vibration damping cloth.
Undamaged non-friable ACBM should be treated as friable if any action performed
would render these materials friable. When previously non-friable ACBM becomes
damaged to the extent that when dry it may it may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to
powder by hand pressure, it should be treated as friable.
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3
ASBESTOS HEALTH
RISKS
Health Effects Associated with Asbestos Exposure
The health effects associated with asbestos exposure have been studied for many years. Results
of these studies show that inhalation (breathing in) of asbestos fibers leads to increased risk of
developing several diseases. Exactly why some people develop these diseases remains a
mystery, but it has been well demonstrated that most asbestos-related illnesses are doseresponse related (i.e., the greater the exposure to airborne asbestos fibers, the greater the risk of
developing an illness).
Relative Hazards of Asbestos Exposure
Almost daily, we are exposed to some prevailing level of asbestos fibers in buildings or
experience some existing level in the outdoor air. Some fibers that are inhaled remain in the
lungs. Brief "bursts" of exposure, when added to the background level, increase the potential to
cause or trigger the development of an asbestos related disease. These brief bursts of exposure
occur in many ways. For example, when a carpenter drills a hole in an asbestos fire door
without taking any precautions, an increased amount of asbestos may be released into the air.
The more often these bursts of exposure occur, the greater the risk of breathing asbestos fibers.
People most at risk for this additional exposure are maintenance and construction workers who
work on and disturb asbestos in buildings. This clearly demonstrates the need for an active
asbestos policy and an ongoing operations and maintenance (O&M) plan for buildings that
contain ACBM.
It is important to recognize that the majority of people who have developed diseases because
of asbestos exposures are former asbestos workers. These workers were frequently exposed
to high levels of asbestos fibers each working day, with little or no protection. Today's asbestos
maintenance workers and AHERA-trained asbestos abatement workers are trained to follow
specific work practices and wear appropriate protection, including respirators, to minimize the
risk of exposure. However, increased risk may occur when a worker who does not use a
respirator or follow specific work practices disturbs any ACBM.
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CHAPTER 3
Asbestos Health Risks
The Respiratory System
The effects of asbestos exposure most often involve the lungs. Air breathed into the body
passes through the mouth and nose, continuing into the windpipe. The windpipe divides into
smaller and smaller tubes that end up in the lungs as air sacs called alveoli. It is in these air sacs
that respiration occurs. Oxygen is absorbed into tiny blood vessels (or capillaries), and waste
gases, such as carbon dioxide, pass out of the blood and are exhaled.
The body has several mechanisms to "filter" the air it breathes. First, large particles are removed
in the nose and mouth. Many smaller particles are caught on the mucus-coated walls of the
airway tubes. These airways have "hairy" linings (ciliate cells) that constantly propel mucus
upward. Particles caught in the mucus are swept up into the back of the mouth. From here
they are swallowed or expelled (spit out). Unfortunately, cigarette smoking temporarily
paralyzes these hair-like cells, disabling one of the body's natural defenses against unwanted dust
or fibers.
Despite natural bodily defenses, some dust particles inevitably reach the tiny air sacs in the
lungs. When this occurs the human immune system dispatches large cells called macrophages to
engulf the particles and "digest" them. These cells deposit a coating on the particles and may
begin forming scar tissue around them. This is just another natural defense mechanism the body
uses against unwanted debris in the lungs.
Asbestos-Related Diseases
If the body's defenses fail to control or remove asbestos fibers that enter the lungs, the risk of
developing an asbestos-related disease increases. Asbestos-related diseases include asbestosis,
lung cancer, mesothelioma, and other cancers.
• Asbestosis -- Asbestosis is a disease characterized by lung scarring.
It reduces lung
elasticity -- the ability to inhale and exhale in response to muscular contractions of the
diaphragm -- and makes breathing very difficult. Asbestosis is most common among
workers who have been exposed to large amounts of asbestos fibers over a period of
time. It is a serious disease and, in those persons exposed to high levels of asbestos, can
eventually lead to disability or death. All forms of asbestos are suspected to have the
potential to cause asbestosis. Like all diseases associated with asbestos exposure, it may
take many years for the disease to show up. The typical latency period for asbestosis is
15 to 30 years. Available data indicate that the frequency of occurrence of asbestosis
rises and the disease worsens with increasing dust exposure. The Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) Asbestos Standards were developed to minimize the
incidence of asbestosis among asbestos workers by reducing their exposure to asbestos.
• Lung Cancer -- As with asbestosis, there appears to be a dose-response relationship
between asbestos exposure and lung cancer. In addition, lung cancer arising from
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CHAPTER 3
Asbestos Health Risks
asbestos exposure also has a latency period before development -- typically 30 years or
longer. The risk of contracting lung cancer as a result of exposure to asbestos increases
if the worker is a cigarette smoker. Cigarette smokers who are exposed to asbestos are
over 50 times more likely to develop lung cancer than the normal, non-smoking
population. As a result, a program to help workers stop smoking and an asbestos
operations and maintenance program will help reduce the risk of lung cancer among
asbestos maintenance workers.
• Mesothelioma -- Mesothelioma is a cancer that occurs in the chest cavity lining or in the
lining of the abdominal (stomach) lining. This type of cancer spreads rapidly and is
always fatal. Cases of mesothelioma have been found in people who have had a limited
exposure to asbestos. The onset of this disease appears to be independent of smoking
behavior but related to dose and to time from first known asbestos exposure.
Mesothelioma tends to have a long latency period -- usually 30 to 40 years.
• Other Diseases -- Several other diseases seem to occur more frequently among people who
have been exposed to asbestos. These include cancer of the esophagus, stomach, colon,
and pancreas; pleural (fibrous) plaques; pleural thickening; and pleural effusion.
The risks of contracting any of these diseases make it extremely important that asbestos
maintenance workers utilize proper work practices and respiratory protection.
Risks Associated with Low Exposure
While studies of asbestos workers and laboratory animals clearly reveal that asbestos is
hazardous, the risks associated with low-level, non-occupational exposure (i.e., an occupant of a
building who is not actually disturbing the asbestos) have not been directly demonstrated.
Estimating low-level risks from exposure data is not a straightforward process, and the validity
of current methodologies is questionable.
Based on a thorough review of the literature available on the health effects of asbestos, the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has concluded that there is no
level below which the risks of contracting an asbestos-related disease are zero. This means that
there is no established safe level of exposure to asbestos.
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CHAPTER 3
Asbestos Health Risks
EPA Policy for Asbestos Control in Schools
EPA bases its policy for asbestos control in schools on the following premises:
• Although asbestos is hazardous, the risk of asbestos-related disease depends upon exposure
to airborne asbestos fibers.
• Based upon available data, the average airborne asbestos levels in buildings
seem to be
very low. Accordingly, the health risk to most building occupants also appears to be
very low.
• Removal is often not a building owner's best course of action to reduce asbestos exposure.
In fact, an improper removal can create a dangerous situation where none previously
existed.
• EPA only requires asbestos removal to prevent significant public exposure to airborne
asbestos fibers during building demolition or renovation activities.
• Asbestos that has been identified will pose little risk if it is well maintained under an
operations and maintenance program. Improper operations and maintenance also can
cause dangerous situations. Therefore, EPA requires a pro-active, in-place management
program whenever ACBM is discovered and is not removed.
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CHAPTER 3
Asbestos Health Risks
Chapter 3 Summary
Key Points About Asbestos Health Risks
Asbestos-related diseases are dose-response related (the greater the exposure to airborne
fibers, the greater the risk of developing an illness) and have a latency period (typically 15 to
30 years).
Exposure to asbestos may result in asbestosis (a disease characterized by lung scarring,
which reduces the lungs' ability to function), lung cancer, mesothelioma (always-fatal
cancer arising in the chest or abdominal cavity), and other diseases.
Risks associated with low-level, non-occupational exposure (e.g., a building occupant who is
not actually disturbing the asbestos) are not well established. The National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has determined, however, that there is no
established safe level of exposure.
Asbestos that has been identified will pose little risk if it is well maintained under an
operations and maintenance program. EPA only requires asbestos removal to prevent
significant public exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during building demolition or
renovation activities.
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4
WHAT IS REQUIRED
OF THE LEA?
Scope and Purpose of AHERA
Broadly stated, AHERA requires that each Local Education Agency (LEA) perform inspections
to identify asbestos-containing materials in each of the public and private elementary and
secondary schools under its authority; develop, implement and update asbestos management
plans; take appropriate response actions; safely maintain asbestos-containing building materials
(ACBM); and comply with AHERA's recordkeeping requirements.
The AHERA Rule outlines the general responsibilities of a LEA in § 763.84 and the specific
duties of the LEA in the succeeding sections of the rule.
General LEA Responsibilities
Under § 763.84 of the AHERA Rule, the LEA has the following general responsibilities:
• Ensure that the activities of any persons who perform inspections, reinspections, and
periodic surveillance, develop and update management plans, develop and implement
response actions, and conduct operations and maintenance activities are in compliance
with all of the AHERA requirements.
• Ensure that all custodial and maintenance workers are properly trained.
• Ensure that workers and building occupants or their legal guardians are notified at least
annually about activities relating to ACBM.
• Ensure that short-term workers who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are
provided the locations of ACBM and suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM.
• Ensure that warning labels are properly posted.
• Ensure that management plans are available for inspection.
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CHAPTER 4
What is Required of the LEA?
• Appoint a "designated person" to ensure proper implementation of the AHERA
requirements.
• Ensure that the designated person receives adequate training to perform duties assigned.
• Consider whether any conflict of interest may arise among personnel undertaking
activities related to the ACBM in a school or schools.
(See the Checklist of LEA General Responsibilities Under AHERA at the end of this chapter.)
Conflicts of Interest
The AHERA Designated Person (school asbestos coordinator) should take into consideration
any conflict of interest and determine whether it should influence their selection of contractors
to accomplish asbestos related work in their schools. The AHERA Rule identifies several
situations where a conflict of interest may arise. For example, the abatement contractor is not
allowed to conduct final air sampling for clearance by TEM analysis (See 40 CFR Part 763,
Appendix A to Subpart E ((II)(B)(2)). The group that determines whether an abatement site is
acceptable for re-occupancy should not be the same (or a related group) that is conducting the
abatement work. Similarly, if the LEA requires a management planner to sign a statement
certifying that the management plan is in compliance with AHERA, then the LEA may not want
the planner signing the statement to be the one who implements or will implement the plan. The
LEA may have unique concerns regarding potential conflicts that should be discussed with and
addressed by the designated person.
Specific Responsibilities of the LEA
Sections 763.85-763.99 of the AHERA Rule detail the specific responsibilities of the LEA.
These responsibilities are listed below, followed by brief descriptions. The responsibilities are
discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters of this guide.
• Inspections -- An accredited inspector must conduct inspections of each school building
under the authority of the LEA. This involves visually inspecting buildings for friable
and nonfriable ACBM, sampling such materials unless they are assumed to be ACBM,
and having samples analyzed in accordance with the AHERA regulations. Only
accredited laboratories may be used to perform bulk material sampling analyses.
• Reinspections -- An accredited inspector must conduct a reinspection of all friable and
nonfriable known or assumed ACBM in each school building at least once every three
years that a management plan is in effect. A management planner must review all three
year inspection reports.
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CHAPTER 4
What is Required of the LEA?
• Assessment -- For each inspection and reinspection, an accredited inspector must
provide a written assessment of all friable known or assumed ACBM in the school
building.
• Management Plans -- Each LEA must complete an asbestos management plan for each
school under its authority. An accredited management planner must prepare the
management plan based on the results of the inspection. In the management plan, the
management planner recommends appropriate response actions, prepares cost estimates
on the response actions, and schedules the response actions. The management plan
must be updated on a timely basis.
• Response Actions -- Based on the recommendations of the management planner, the
LEA must select the appropriate response actions consistent with the assessment of the
ACBM. The designated person must see to it that the response actions are carried out
in a timely manner and in compliance with the AHERA requirements. "Timely manner"
is not defined in the regulations but involves the joint development of a schedule for plan
implementation by the management planner and the designated person. Only accredited
laboratories may be used to perform final clearance air sample analyses.
• Operations and Maintenance -- The LEA must implement an operations and
maintenance (O&M) program whenever any friable ACBM is present or assumed to be
present in a building under its authority. Where material identified as nonfriable ACBM
or nonfriable assumed ACBM is about to become friable as a result of activities
performed in the building, it must be treated as friable and thus must also be subject to
an O&M program. EPA recommends that the LEA also manage nonfriable ACBM in
their school buildings under an O&M program.
• Training -- AHERA requires that building inspectors, management planners, project
designers, contractors/supervisors, and asbestos workers be accredited before they can
perform asbestos-related activities. The AHERA regulations details specific training
requirements for the designated person and for custodial and maintenance workers,
although these individuals are not required to complete any EPA-approved courses or
receive accreditation.
• Notification -- The LEA must issue the following notifications regarding asbestos
identified in its schools:
-- An annual notice to all workers and building occupants, or their legal
guardians, of all inspections, reinspections, and activities being conducted to
control asbestos exposure, including periodic surveillance and asbestos
removal, that are planned or in progress. This notification should be
documented in the management plan.
-- An annual written notice informing parent, teacher, and employee
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What is Required of the LEA?
organizations of the availability of the management plan for their review. A
dated copy of this notice must be maintained as part of the management
plan.
-- A notice to short-term workers (e.g., telephone repair workers, utility
workers, or exterminators) who may come into contact with asbestos in a
school identifying the location of ACBM or assumed ACBM in the building.
This notification should be documented in the management plan.
A description of all notification processes must be maintained as part of the management
plan. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) or school newsletter may be used as a
means to distribute the notifications to the students and their families.
• Periodic Surveillance -- The LEA must conduct periodic surveillance in each building
under its authority at least once every six months after a management plan is in effect.
The periodic surveillance inspection report must be kept in the management plan.
• Recordkeeping -- Records involving the inspection of and response to ACBM must be
kept in a centralized location in the administrative office of both the school and the LEA.
EPA recommends keeping these records in the management plan for each school
building and the overall management plan for all school buildings. Recordkeeping is the
responsibility of the designated person. The following records must be kept:
-- Descriptions of preventive measures and response actions taken for friable
and nonfriable ACBM and suspected ACBM
-- Sampling information
-- Training information
-- Periodic surveillance information
-- Information on initial and additional cleaning performed
-- Information on operations and maintenance activities, including information
on any maintenance activities disturbing friable ACBM
-- Notifications to parents, building occupants, and short-term workers
-- Information on any fiber-release episodes
• Warning Labels -- The LEA must attach a warning label immediately adjacent to any
friable and nonfriable ACBM and suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM located in
routine maintenance areas (such as boiler rooms) at each school building.
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CHAPTER 4
What is Required of the LEA?
Chapter 4 Summary
Key Points About LEA Responsibilities
The LEA must have an accredited inspector conduct inspections of each school building
under its authority. A reinspection of all friable and nonfriable known or assumed ACBM in
each school building must be conducted at least once every three years that a management
plan is in effect. A management planner must review all three year inspection reports.
For each inspection and reinspection, an accredited inspector must provide a written
assessment of all friable known or assumed ACBM in the school building.
The LEA must have an accredited management planner review the results of the
inspection/reinspection and the assessment and make written recommendations on
appropriate response actions. The accredited management planner also prepares the asbestos
management plan for each school under its authority.
The LEA must select the appropriate response actions consistent with the assessment of the
ACBM and the recommendations of the management planner.
The LEA must implement an operations and maintenance (O&M) program whenever
any friable ACBM is present or assumed to be present in a building under its authority.
Building inspectors, management planners, project designers, contractors/ supervisors, and
asbestos workers must complete EPA- or State-approved courses and receive accreditation
before they can perform any asbestos-related activities. The AHERA Rule also specifies
training requirements for LEA designated persons and custodial and maintenance workers,
although these individuals are not required to complete any EPA-approved courses or receive
accreditation.
The LEA must conduct periodic surveillance in each building under its authority at least
once every six months after a management plan is in effect.
The LEA must comply with the requirements to provide notification about asbestos
activities to workers, students, parents, teachers, and short-term workers.
The LEA must maintain records in accordance with the AHERA regulations.
The LEA must attach a warning label immediately adjacent to any friable and nonfriable
ACBM and assumed ACBM located in routine maintenance areas (such as boiler rooms) at
each school building.
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CHAPTER 4
What is Required of the LEA?
Checklist of the Local Education Agency's
General Responsibilities Under AHERA
The AHERA Designated Person must complete and sign a statement that the Local Education
Agency has met (or will meet) the responsibilities listed below. All references are to specific
provisions to the AHERA regulations (under § 763.84). The AHERA Designated Person should
be able to answer "yes" to each statement below.
1. The activities of any persons who perform inspections, reinspections, and
periodic surveillance, develop and update management plans, and develop and
implement response actions, including operations and maintenance, are carried out
in accordance with 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E.
2. All custodial and maintenance employees are properly trained as required in 40
CFR Part 763, Subpart E and all other applicable federal and/or state regulations
(e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos Standard for
Construction, the EPA Worker Protection Rule, or applicable state regulations).
3. All workers and building occupants, or their legal guardians, are informed at
least once each school year about inspections, response actions, post-response
action activities, including periodic reinspections and surveillance activities, that
are planned or in progress.
4. All short-term workers (e.g., telephone repair workers, utility workers, or
exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in school are provided
information regarding the locations of ACBM and assumed ACBM.
5. All warning labels are posted in accordance with § 763.95.
6. All management plans are available for inspection, and notification of this
availability has been provided in accordance with § 763.93(g).
7. The undersigned person designated by the LEA according to § 763.84(g)(1) has
received adequate training as required by § 763.84(g)(2).
8. The LEA has and will consider whether any conflict of interest may arise from
the interrelationship between accredited personnel, and whether this potential
conflict should influence the selection of accredited personnel to perform activities
under 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E.
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5
THE AHERA
INSPECTION
Introduction
An AHERA inspection must be conducted by an "accredited inspector," i.e., one who has
attended and successfully completed a course approved by EPA or an EPA-approved State
program, passed an exam and received an accreditation number and certificate. This
accreditation must be updated annually. Once an AHERA inspection is complete, the
inspector must submit the results to the LEA in an inspection report. There are two
elements to an AHERA inspection: identification and physical assessment.
Identification of ACBM
The initial inspection to identify all the ACBM in a building begins with locating and listing
all "homogeneous areas" of material that are suspected to contain asbestos. A
"homogeneous area" is an area of surfacing material, thermal system insulation, or
miscellaneous material that is uniform in color and texture. Suspected ACBM in a
homogeneous area or functional space must then be treated as ACBM unless samples are
taken and the sample analyses show the material to be non-asbestos. "Functional space"
means a room, group of rooms, or homogeneous area designated by a person accredited to
prepare management plans, design abatement projects, or conduct response actions.
Homogeneous Areas
As was discussed in Chapter 2, interior materials suspected of containing asbestos must be
categorized as one of the following three types:
Surfacing Materials
Thermal System Insulation (TSI)
Miscellaneous Materials
Once a material is classified as a particular type, the inspector should identify areas where
the materials are all of one type.
Note, EPA suggests that wings or additions added to a building should not be considered
homogeneous with the original structure. Building materials used in different buildings
should not be considered homogeneous. If there is any reason to suspect that materials
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The AHERA Inspection
might be different, even if they appear similar, they should be assigned to separate
homogeneous areas, and if it is determined that sampling is needed, such materials should
be sampled separately. It is important that the inspector correctly identify all homogeneous
areas in the inspection report.
(See Example Form 1 at the end of this chapter for an example of how to record
information about the homogeneous areas in a school building.)
Functional Spaces
Once the inspector has identified the homogeneous areas in a building, he or she must
gather information that will tie each area to the uses or functions occurring within it. The
management planner will use the information gathered by the inspector to determine
functional spaces. Under the AHERA Rule, a functional space is essentially a room, group
of rooms, or space in a building that has an identified use. Examples of functional spaces
are classrooms, hallways, offices, mechanical rooms, ceiling plenums, tunnels, and crawl
spaces.
(See Example Form 2 at the end of this chapter for an example of how to record
information relating each homogeneous area to a functional space.)
Bulk Sampling
Under the AHERA Rule, all material suspected to be ACBM must be assumed to be
ACBM unless:
The homogeneous area is sampled as required by § 763.86 of the AHERA Rule,
and the samples are analyzed as required by § 763.87 of the AHERA Rule and
found to be non-asbestos; or
The suspect or assumed ACBM is in a building built after October 12, 1988, that is
certified by an architect or developer as being asbestos-free.
Where sampling and analysis is performed on suspected ACBM, the procedures must be
properly documented and the sample's asbestos content must be below the EPA definition
of ACM (See Glossary in Appendices) in order for any of the suspect material to be treated
as asbestos-free.
Section 763.86 of the AHERA Rule sets forth requirements for bulk sampling based on the
type of material involved. Table 5-1 shows the number of samples required to be collected
from each type of homogeneous area to meet the regulation requirements.
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The AHERA Inspection
Table 5-1
Bulk Sampling Requirements
Type of Material
Samples Required
Friable Surfacing Material
Area £ 1,000 sq. ft.
3
Area > 1,000 sq. ft. but £ 5,000 sq. ft.
5
Area > 5,000 sq. ft.
7
Thermal System Insulation (TSI)
3
TSI not assumed to be ACBM
1
Patched TSI not assumed to be ACBM (if patched
section < 6 linear or sq. ft.)
Each insulated mechanical system not assumed to
be ACBM where cement or plaster is used on
fittings such as tees, elbows, or valves
Samples in a manner sufficient to
determine if material is or is not
ACBM*
Friable Miscellaneous Material not Assumed to Be
ACBM
Samples in a manner sufficient to
determine if material is or is not
ACBM*
Nonfriable Suspected ACBM not Assumed to Be
ACBM
Samples in a manner sufficient to
determine if material is or is not
ACBM*
* EPA recommends that three samples be taken to meet this requirement
Note: The designation of ACM for a homogeneous area based on one positive bulk
sample result is acceptable.
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The AHERA Inspection
The regulations do not indicate how many samples are required to meet the "in a manner
sufficient to determine." However, the EPA policy statement in the document 100
Commonly Asked Questions About the New AHERA Asbestos-in-Schools Rule
recommends that a minimum of three samples be taken from any homogeneous area to
prove that a material does not contain asbestos. However, the designation of ACM for a
homogeneous area based on one positive bulk sample result is acceptable.
Bulk samples are not required to be collected from any homogeneous area where the
accredited inspector has determined that the thermal system insulation is fiberglass, foam
glass, rubber, or other non-ACBM.
It is recommended that all samples taken always be analyzed, since one sample analysis is
rarely representative of a homogeneous area. EPA recommends the use of an improved
test method entitled "Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Building
Materials" in place of the 1982 procedures as found in 40 CFR Part 763, Appendix E to
Subpart E. Further EPA recommends that LEAs which have Polarized Light Microscopy
(PLM) laboratory results indicating floor tiles to be non-asbestos containing may want to
retest these materials using this new method. This method should be considered for the
following: 1) floor tiles which may contain thin fibers and which were analyzed under the
1982 method and found not be contain asbestos, and 2) materials such as hard wall and
acoustical plaster, stucco or other similar multi-layered materials or systems which were
not analyzed and reported by layers.
(See Example Form 3 at the end of this chapter for a form that is representative of a bulk
sampling log that should appear in your inspection report.)
Exclusions to the AHERA Inspection Requirements
Under the AHERA Rule, all ACM that are used as interior building materials in a school
must be identified by ACBM category so that they may be properly sampled and assessed
for appropriate response action. However, identification of ACM at schools is not required
for ACM that is not installed (stored on site) or for consumer products at the school
(auditorium curtains, electrical wiring stored on-site, fire blankets, etc.). ACM installed
outside of the building (such as roofing materials and siding) is also excluded from
inspection under AHERA. However, this exemption does not extend to the underside of
any portico or covered exterior hallway or walkway or to any exterior portion of a
mechanical system.
Section 763.99 of the AHERA Rule also excludes from the inspection requirements any
sampling area or homogeneous area of a school building where:
• An accredited inspector has determined that, based on sampling records, friable
ACBM was identified in the area during an inspection conducted before December
14, 1987. However, such ACBM must still be physically assessed by the accredited
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The AHERA Inspection
inspector.
• An accredited inspector has determined that, based on sampling records, nonfriable
ACBM was identified in the area during an inspection conducted before December
14, 1987. In such a case, the accredited inspector must identify whether material
that was nonfriable has become friable since the previous inspection and must assess
the newly friable ACBM.
• Based on sampling records and inspection records, an accredited inspector has
determined that no ACBM is present in the area and the records show that the area
was sampled before December 14, 1987, in substantial compliance with the AHERA
Rule.
• The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted
a waiver from the inspection requirements of the AHERA Rule has determined that,
based on sampling records and inspection records, no ACBM is present in the area.
The records must show that the area was sampled before December 14, 1987, in
compliance with the AHERA Rule.
• An accredited inspector has determined that, based on records of an inspection
conducted before December 14, 1987, suspected ACBM identified in the area is
assumed to be ACBM. In such a case, the inspector must identify whether material
that was nonfriable suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM has become friable
since the previous inspection and must assess any newly friable material and
previously identified friable suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM.
• Based on inspection records and contractor and clearance records, an accredited
inspector has determined that all ACBM was previously removed from the area.
• An architect or project engineer responsible for the construction of a new school
building built after October 12, 1988, or an accredited inspector signs a statement
that no ACBM was specified as a building material in any construction document
for the building or no ACBM was used as a building material in the building.
Physical Assessment
Once the inspector has identified all of the ACBM in a building, he or she must perform a
physical assessment of all TSI and friable material. Under § 763.88 of the AHERA Rule,
the physical assessment of ACBM involves classifying the material into one of the
following seven Physical Assessment Categories:
1. Damaged or significantly damaged thermal system insulation (TSI) ACBM
2. Damaged friable surfacing ACBM
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The AHERA Inspection
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Significantly damaged friable surfacing ACBM
Damaged or significantly damaged friable miscellaneous ACBM
ACBM with potential for damage
ACBM with potential for significant damage
Any remaining friable ACBM or friable suspected ACBM
The physical assessment may include the following considerations:
• Location and amount of the material
• Condition of the material, specifying:
-- Type of damage or significant damage
-- Severity of damage
-- Extent or spread of damage
•
•
•
•
Whether the material is accessible
Material's potential for disturbance
Known or suspected causes of damage or significant damage
Preventive measures that might eliminate the reasonable likelihood of undamaged
ACBM from becoming significantly damaged
To determine which of the seven Physical Assessment Categories a material should be
placed into, several terms must be defined. The preamble to the AHERA Rule, Federal
Register, October 30, 1987, p. 41830, examines the difference between "damaged material"
and "significantly damaged" material. According to the preamble, significant damage exists
where damage is evenly distributed across 10 percent or more of a functional space or is
localized over 25 percent of a functional space.
(See Example Form 4 at the end of this chapter for a form that may be used to show why
ACBM was assigned to a particular category.)
The preamble goes on to state that material has potential for significant damage, as
opposed to only potential for damage, if it is subject to major or continuing disturbance due
to factors such as accessibility or, under certain circumstances, vibration or air erosion. If
the accredited inspector determines that there is a high or strong likelihood of major
disturbance due to accessibility, vibration, or air erosion, there is a potential for significant
damage. If the likelihood of any of these factors occurring is moderate, there is only a
potential for damage. If the likelihood of any of these factors occurring is low, the
inspector should assign Physical Assessment Category No. 7 (any remaining friable ACBM
or friable suspected ACBM) to the material.
Because the physical assessment is used to determine which response actions will be chosen
to manage the asbestos, proper identification and assessment of ACBM are vital to the
effective implementation of the AHERA program. The decision tree that follows can help
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The AHERA Inspection
determine the correct assessment category for material in a functional space (See the
Exercise at the end of this chapter for a brief exercise for determining the correct Physical
Assessment Category for a functional space).
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The AHERA Inspection
The Inspection Report
The results of an AHERA inspection or reinspection must be documented in an inspection
report. All decisions regarding ACBM in the LEA's buildings will be based on the
information found in this report, so it is vital that the report information be correct. If
materials are incorrectly identified as containing asbestos, the LEA will take on needless
expense for preventive measures, while if materials are incorrectly identified as not
containing asbestos, the LEA may expose building occupants to increased health risks and
itself to legal liability.
Contents of the Inspection Report
Section 763.85 of the AHERA Rule lists the required elements of the inspection report:
General Inspection Information
• Date of the inspection
• Signature of each accredited person who conducts inspection-related activities
• Ideally, a copy of the accreditation certificate for each accredited person making the
inspection; at minimum, the state of accreditation and accreditation number of each
accredited person who conducts inspection-related activities.
Information on Sampling/Assumed ACBM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inventory of the locations of the homogeneous areas where samples are collected
Exact location where each bulk sample is collected
Dates that samples are collected
Homogeneous areas where friable suspected ACBM is assumed to be ACBM
Homogeneous areas where nonfriable suspected ACBM is assumed to be ACBM
Description of the manner used to determine sampling locations
Name and signature of each accredited inspector who collected the samples
State of accreditation of each accredited inspector who collected the samples
Accreditation number of each accredited inspector who collected the samples, if
applicable
Identification and Assessment Information
• List of whether the homogeneous areas identified in the report are surfacing
material, thermal system insulation, or miscellaneous material
• Assessments made of friable material and reasons for these assessments
• Name and signature of each accredited inspector making the assessment
• State of accreditation of each accredited inspector making the assessment
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• Accreditation number of each accredited inspector making the assessment, if
applicable
The inspection report should list the required elements in the order in which they are listed
above to promote uniformity and ease of comprehension. The inspection report should
also contain an introductory summary that briefly explains what will be found in the report.
Documentation such as field data sheets and optional photographs should appear in
appendices to the report.
(See the Inspection Report Compliance Checklist at the end of this chapter.)
Common Inspection Report Problems and Deficiencies
The designated person should ensure that the inspection report is complete. Asbestos in
Schools: Evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act: A Summary
Report identifies several areas in which inspection reports are often deficient. Examples
include:
• Many inspection reports failed either to indicate areas where ACBM were present
or did so incompletely.
• Vibration dampening cloth, duct insulation, fire doors and linoleum were not
regularly identified as suspect ACBM.
• Eighty-two percent of school buildings had at least one ACBM unidentified in the
original AHERA inspection.
The best time to review the inspection report for completeness is during a building walkthrough, which is usually performed during the 6 month periodic surveillance inspection.
Such problems as missing or confusing warning labels, improper identification of
homogeneous areas, incomplete lists of suspect materials, and inaccurate or unclear sample
locations may be identified during the walk-through. Correction of problems identified
should be started immediately.
The designated person should be aware that an adequate number of samples must be
collected in order to determine whether an area is considered asbestos-containing (See
Table 5-1 above). If an adequate number of samples was not collected, the area must be
considered to be ACBM regardless of the results of the analyses. In such a situation, the
management planner, who reviewed the inspection/reinspection report, may advise the
LEA to either collect additional samples or may update the management plan to assume
that the areas in question are ACBM.
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The AHERA Inspection
Chapter 5 Summary
Key Points About the AHERA Inspection
An AHERA inspection must be conducted by an accredited inspector.
The inspector must identify all homogeneous areas of material that are suspected to
contain asbestos. Homogeneous areas contain asbestos that is uniform (alike) in color
and texture.
All material suspected to be ACBM must be assumed to be ACBM unless the
homogeneous area is sampled, and the analysis of the samples shows them to be nonasbestos. Adequate number of samples must be taken or the area will be considered to
be ACBM regardless of the results of the analyses.
Once the inspector has identified all ACBM in a building, he or she must perform a
physical assessment of all TSI and friable ACBM. This involves categorizing the
material into one of seven Physical Assessment Classifications.
The results of an AHERA inspection and the assessment must be documented in an
inspection report. This report will be used by the management planner to make
written recommendations on appropriate response actions.
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Chapter 5 Forms
On the following are blank forms, similar to those used by AHERA accredited
inspectors.
Form 1 requires that the inspector enter information pertaining to homogeneous
areas of suspected and known ACBM in a school building. Using the inspection
report, the inspector will: 1) list all of the homogeneous areas in the school
buildings, 2) enter the number of linear or square feet for each area, 3) indicate
whether the material is friable or non-friable, 4) enter the type of ACBM that is
present, and 5) indicate whether the ACBM is assumed to be ACBM.
Form 2 requires that the inspector enter information in order to relate each
homogeneous area to a functional space. Using the inspection report, the
information entered on Form 1, and the building's floor plan, the inspector will 1)
link the homogeneous areas to a functional space, 2) assign a number to each
homogeneous area, 3) assign a letter to each functional space, and 4) create a key
for the numbers and letters that are used.
Form 3 is representative of a bulk sampling log that should be in the inspection
report.
Form 4 may be used to gather the information needed to show why a certain
category was assigned to ACBM.
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Example Form 1
Inspection Report: List of Homogeneous Areas
Project Name:
Address:
Area #
Area Description
Linear or
Sq. Ft.
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L
S
Friable
Y/N
Type
S/T/M
ACBM
Y/N
CHAPTER 5
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Example Form 2
Functional Spaces/Homogeneous Areas
Building:
Functional Space
Letter
Homogeneous Areas by Number (Obtained from Form 1)
Key: L/S = Linear Feet/Square Feet S/T/M = Surfacing/Thermal/Miscellaneous
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Example Form 3
Bulk Sample Log
School:
Date Sampled
Homogeneous Area
Sampler's Name
Functional Space/Room:
Accreditation No.
Linear Feet:
Type of Suspect Material
Square Feet:
Surfacing
TSI
Friable
Non-friable
Manner of Sampling:
AREA DESCRIPTION:
Number
Location
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Misc.
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Example Form 4
Individual Assessment Form
AREA #:
DESCRIPTION:
AHERA CATEGORY #:
1. Location & Amount
2. Condition, Type of Damage:
Severity of Damage:
Extent/Spread of Damage:
3. Accessibility:
4. Potential for Disturbance:
5. Causes of Damage:
6. Preventive Measures:
TYPE NAME:
ACCREDITATION
SIGNATURE:
STATE:
ACCREDITATION:
AGENCY:
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DATE ISSUED:
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The AHERA Inspection
Inspection Report Compliance Checklist
This checklist is designed to enable you to determine if the inspection report is complete and
contains each and every element required by law.
GENERAL:
1. The date of the inspection
2. The signature of each accredited person making the inspection
3. The State of accreditation of each accredited person making the inspection
4. If applicable, the accreditation number of each accredited person making the
inspection
INVENTORY OF LOCATIONS:
5. An inventory of the locations of the homogeneous areas where samples were
collected
6. The exact location where each bulk sample was collected
7. The date(s) that each sample was collected
8. The homogeneous areas where friable suspected ACBM is assumed to be
ACBM
9. The homogeneous areas where nonfriable suspected ACBM is assumed to be
ACBM
SAMPLING:
10. A description of the manner used to determine sampling locations
11. The name and signature of each accredited inspector who collected the samples
12. The State of accreditation of each accredited inspector who collected the
samples
13. If applicable, the accreditation number of each accredited inspector who
collected the samples
MATERIALS IDENTIFIED IN HOMOGENEOUS AREAS:
14. A list of whether the homogeneous areas identified are surfacing material,
thermal system insulation, or miscellaneous material
ASSESSMENTS:
15. Assessments made of friable material
16. The name and signature of each accredited inspector who made the assessment
17. The State of accreditation of each accredited inspector who made the assessment
18. If applicable, the accreditation number of each accredited inspector who made
the assessment
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6
THE MANAGEMENT
PLAN
Introduction
Once the accredited inspector has identified the ACBM in the building(s) and has
documented this information in the inspection report, an accredited management planner
will use the report to identify and address hazards or potential hazards relating to the friable
ACBM identified. The information from the inspection report will become part of the
management plan. The management plan, which is a site-specific guidance document that
the LEA designated person must follow in managing the ACBM present in each school
building, must be prepared by an accredited management planner. A management plan
must be updated to keep it current with ongoing operations and maintenance, periodic
surveillance, inspection, reinspections and response action activities.
Table 6-1 identifies the elements required to be in the management plan under
§ 763.93 of the AHERA Rule. These requirements are discussed in greater detail in the
remainder of this chapter. Table 6-1
Contents of the Management Plan
General Information
• List of the names and addresses of all school buildings
• Whether the school building contains friable ACBM, nonfriable ACBM, assumed
friable ACBM or assumed nonfriable ACBM
Designated Person Information
• Name, address, and telephone number of the LEA designated person
• Course name, dates, and hours of training taken by the designated person
Inspector Information
• Date of inspection or reinspection
• Name and signature of each accredited person making the inspection or
reinspection
• State and accreditation number of each accredited person making the inspection or
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reinspection (or copy of accreditation)
Information on Sampling/Assumed ACBM
• Blueprint, diagram, or written description of each school building that identifies
clearly each location and approximate square or linear footage of homogeneous
areas where material was sampled for ACBM
• Exact location where each bulk sample was collected
• Date of collection of each bulk sample
• Homogeneous areas where friable suspected ACBM is assumed to be ACBM
• Homogeneous areas where nonfriable suspected ACBM is assumed to be ACBM
• Description of the manner used to determine sampling locations
• Name and signature of each accredited inspector collecting samples
• State of accreditation and accreditation number of each accredited inspector
collecting samples (or copies of the accreditation certificates)
Analysis of Samples
• Copy of the analyses of any bulk samples collected and analyzed
• Name and address of any laboratory that analyzed bulk samples
• Statement that any laboratory used meets the accreditation requirements of §
763.87(a) of the AHERA Rule
• National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program number (or certificate)
• Dates of any analyses performed
• Name and signature of the person performing each analysis
Physical Assessment Information
• Description of the assessments required by § 763.88 of the AHERA Rule of all
friable ACBM and suspected ACBM assumed to be ACM.
• Name and signature of each accredited person making the assessments
• State of accreditation and accreditation number of each accredited person making
the assessment (or copies of the accreditation certificates)
Response Action Information
• Recommendations made to the LEA by (an) accredited management planner(s)
regarding response actions
• Name and signature of each person making the recommendations
• State of accreditation and accreditation number of each person making the
recommendations (or copies of the accreditation certificates)
• Detailed description of preventive measures and response actions to be taken,
including methods to be used, for any friable ACBM
• Locations where such measures and actions will be taken
• Reasons for selecting the response action or preventive measure
• Schedule for beginning and completing each preventive measure and response
action
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Information on ACBM Remaining after Response Actions
• A blueprint, diagram, or written description of any ACBM or suspected ACBM
assumed to be ACBM that remains in the school once response actions are
undertaken. This should be updated as soon as response actions are completed,
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Information on Future Activities
• A plan for reinspection under § 763.85 of the AHERA Rule
• A plan for operations and maintenance (O&M) activities under § 763.91 of the
AHERA Rule
• A plan for periodic surveillance under § 763.92 of the AHERA Rule
• Description of the management planner recommendations regarding additional
cleaning under § 763.91(c)(2) of the AHERA Rule as part of an O&M program
• The response of the LEA to any recommendation for additional cleaning
Information on Required Notifications
• Copies of the notifications and description of steps taken to inform workers and
building occupants (and their guardians) about inspections, reinspections, response
actions, and post-response actions, including periodic surveillance, and the location
and availability of the management plan on an annual basis
Periodic Surveillance Inspection Reports
Cost Estimate
• Evaluation of the resources needed to complete response actions and carry out
reinspection, O&M activities, periodic surveillance and training
Consultant Information
• Name of each consultant who contributed to the management plan and
accreditation certificates
Optional Information
• The LEA may require each management plan to contain a statement signed by an
accredited management plan developer that such person has prepared or assisted in
the preparation of such plan, or has reviewed such plan, and that such plan is in
compliance with AHERA. The statement should not be signed by a person who, in
addition to preparing or assisting in preparing the management plan, also
implements (or will implement) the management plan.
(See the Management Plan Compliance Checklist at the end of this chapter.)
The Laboratory Report
AHERA requires that laboratories that perform the bulk material sampling analysis and
final clearance air sample analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) be
accredited. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an
accreditation program for laboratories, known as the National Voluntary Laboratory
Accreditation Program (NVLAP). This program replaces the older EPA interim laboratory
proficiency program; after October 30, 1989, all laboratories accredited under the EPA
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interim laboratory proficiency program were required to become NIST accredited.
Laboratories performing analyses under AHERA must maintain appropriate NVLAP
certification. If analyses of either bulk material samples collected during the inspection
process or final clearance air samples collected after a response action and analyzed using
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are performed by a laboratory without current
NVLAP credentials, the analyses may not be used for AHERA compliance purposes.
Under § 763.87 of the AHERA Rule, a laboratory performing a bulk sample analysis must
submit the following documentation for inclusion into the management plan:
• The name and address of each laboratory performing an analysis.
• The date of the analysis.
• The name and signature of the person performing the analysis. The name and
signature requirements apply to the microscopist(s) who actually performed each
analysis; it is recommended that the laboratory manager also sign the reports.
• Proof that the laboratory has received NVLAP accreditation. This proof should
consist of a copy of the laboratory's NVLAP certificate, not just a statement that the
laboratory is accredited. For laboratory reports prepared before the NVLAP
program was started, proof of the laboratory's EPA interim accreditation is
acceptable but should include the laboratory's EPA laboratory accreditation number.
Response Actions
In the management plan, the accredited management planner must recommend an
appropriate response action (operations and maintenance, repair, encapsulation, enclosure,
or removal) for all areas of thermal system insulation (TSI) and friable ACBM. The final
decision on which action should be taken, however, rests with the LEA. Under AHERA,
the response action to be taken must be "sufficient to protect human health and the
environment." Once it is determined which response actions meet these criteria, the LEA
may choose the action that is the "least burdensome."
AHERA identifies five possible response actions for managing asbestos in schools:
• Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program -- This is a program of work
practices designed to maintain friable ACBM in good condition and ensure cleanup
of asbestos fibers previously released. An effective O & M program can prevent
further release by minimizing and controlling friable ACBM disturbance or damage.
(See Chapter 8 for a complete description of the O&M Program.)
• Repair -- This involves returning damaged ACBM to an undamaged condition or to
an intact state by replacing limited sections or patching damaged areas.
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• Encapsulation -- This involves the treatment of ACBM with a material that
surrounds or embeds asbestos fibers in an adhesive matrix to prevent the release of
fibers. The encapsulant either creates a membrane over the surface (bridging
encapsulant) or penetrates the material and binds its components together
(penetrating encapsulant). Both types of encapsulants are applied to the material
surface using airless spray equipment at low pressure to reduce release of fibers
during the application.
• Enclosure -- This involves creating an airtight, impermeable, permanent barrier
around ACBM to prevent the release of asbestos fibers into the air. The barrier is
typically attached physically or sprayed on. For example, materials such as PVC or
corrugated metal may be fastened around insulated piping, or a barrier may be
constructed around asbestos fireproofing on structural members by spraying material
that cures into a hard shell.
• Removal -- This involves the taking out or the stripping of substantially all ACBM
from a damaged area, a functional space, or a homogeneous area in a school
building.
Selecting the Appropriate Response Action
The LEA is required to implement an O&M program whenever any friable ACBM is
present or assumed to be present in a building. An O&M program is not appropriate as an
initial response action for any damaged or significantly damaged material, however. The
flow charts on Figure 6-1 on the following page illustrate when each response action is
appropriate.
Project Design
All persons who design response actions for schools or public and commercial buildings
(including removal, encapsulation, enclosure, or repair -- other than small scale, short
duration repairs) must be accredited as a project designer. A response action is defined by
AHERA as a method that protects human health and the environment from friable ACBM.
Activities which create a high probability that ACBM will be damaged or weakened to
such an extent that it would be rendered friable are also considered response actions.
Although a written design is not mandated, EPA cannot recommend them strongly enough.
To undertake a response action without the benefit of a written design plan to guide the
work in progress is not only highly imprudent, but may unnecessarily expose the public to
an asbestos fiber release and/or the building owner to certain liabilities. A written project
design must be prepared by an accredited project designer. An accredited project designer
is one who has received accreditation under AHERA by completing a prescribed training
course for project designers and passing an exam (See Chapter 9 for further information
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on accreditation).
Final Air Clearance After Response Actions
Final clearance of a functional space after a response action to remove, encapsulate, or
enclose ACBM or material assumed to be ACBM involves two steps: visual inspection and
the collection and analysis of air samples.
Visual Inspection
A visual inspection involves visually examining the asbestos removal area for evidence that
the abatement has been successfully completed, including thorough clean-up. Visual
inspections are also an important means of determining acceptable completion of smallscale, short-duration O&M or repair operations.
To avoid a potential conflict of interest, it is highly recommended that the visual inspection
be performed by an inspector not affiliated with the abatement contractor or anyone else
financially associated with the conducting of the asbestos response action.
The inspection should be conducted as rigorously as possible, with all spaces and surfaces
where the abatement was conducted being extensively examined for residual ACBM debris.
The inspection may involve:
• Scrutinizing every corner and crevice of the area within the containment barriers used
to isolate the functional space for the response action
• Using a ladder to inspect hard-to-physically-reach areas
• Brushing or wiping surfaces to detect dust
• Using a flashlight beam to detect loose debris or airborne residue
• Using a damp cloth to detect dust
• Inspecting permanent fixtures in the area, such as ceiling tile grid bars, pipes, ducts,
etc.
• Inspecting for asbestos-laden water, which may have leaked from the enclosure onto
floor surfaces beneath the abatement area
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• Examining surfaces for water and/or debris markings
• Checking crawl spaces on hands and knees; dirt floors may contain pulverized or
impacted asbestos debris
The aim of the visual inspection is to ensure that:
• Seals on windows, doors, and vents remain in place during final air monitoring
• Isolation barriers separating the abatement area from non-abatement areas are in
place
• No evidence of residue, debris, or dust is present in the abatement area
The presence of any visible residue on surfaces within the abatement area indicates a need
for additional cleaning of the surfaces. If an area passes visual inspection but then fails to
meet air sampling and analysis requirements after that inspection, the site must be recleaned
and an additional visual inspection be conducted to detect any material that may have been
uncovered or released during recleaning. Only after visual inspection clearance has been
completed may final air sampling be done.
The results of the visual inspection should always be documented and signed by the person
conducting the visual inspection.
Final Air Sampling and Analysis
Section 763.90 of the AHERA Rule requires that the LEA accomplish final air sampling
and analysis of all removal, encapsulation, or enclosure projects by using the transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) method, unless the project involves no more than 160 square
feet or 260 linear feet of ACBM, in which case phase contrast microscopy (PCM) may be
used. Note that no final air clearance is required for small-scale, short-duration O&M
projects. (See Appendix B of the AHERA Rule for information on the types of projects that
qualify as small-scale, short-duration.)
Sampling operations for airborne asbestos following an asbestos abatement action must be
performed by qualified individuals completely independent of the abatement contractor to
avoid possible conflict of interest. EPA recommends that the LEA obtain professional
assistance to perform the sampling and analysis.
• The TEM Method
The TEM Method involves the collection of at 13 samples (five samples inside the
functional space; five samples representative of air entering the abatement site; and three
quality control "blank" samples). The air samples must be collected using "aggressive"
methods or artificially disturbing the air in the functional space before and during sampling,
as described in Appendix A, Section III(B)(7)(d) of the AHERA Rule. In most cases, only
the 5 samples collected inside the functional space will be analyzed. If the average result of
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the five samples collected inside the functional space is less than 70 structures per square
2
millimeter (70 s/mm ), the response action is considered complete.
If the Z-test calculation is used, all 13 samples will be needed. The response action may be
considered complete when the average concentration of asbestos of the five air samples
collected within the affected functional space and analyzed by the TEM method is not
statistically significantly different from the average asbestos concentration of the five air
samples collected outside the affected functional space and analyzed in the same manner,
and the average asbestos concentration of the three quality control samples is below 70
2
2
s/mm . If the average of the three quality control samples exceeds 70 s/mm , the test is
voided and resampling must be done. If the difference in average asbestos concentration
between the indoor and outdoor samples is statistically significant, the contractor must
reclean the functional space and resampling must be done -- usually at the contractor's
expense.
• The PCM Method
The PCM method may only be used on functional spaces affecting ACBM up to 160
square feet or 260 linear feet or less. In all areas affecting larger amounts of ACBM, the
TEM method must be used.
The PCM method involves collecting at least five samples inside the work area by
aggressive methods as described in Appendix A, Section III (B)(7)(d) of the AHERA Rule
and having them analyzed on a PCM microscope. Unlike the TEM method, the PCM
method does not call for the samples to be averaged; each sample stands on its own. The
clearance standard for PCM is 0.01 fibers per cubic centimeter of air (0.01 f/cc). If all five
samples pass this standard, the response action is considered complete. If even one sample
fails to pass the standard, the contractor must reclean the area and resampling must be
done.
(See the Final Air Clearance Documentation Checklist at the end of this chapter; see
Chapter 10 for a further discussion on documenting final air clearances.)
Implementation of the Management Plan
The LEA designated person is responsible for ensuring that the management plan is
implemented and updated in a timely manner. Table 6-2 below identifies some of the
activities and time requirements that must be met to achieve compliance with the AHERA
Rule. If the designated person determines that an element has not been implemented as
required, it must be implemented as soon as possible to limit exposure and possible
enforcement actions against the school.
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Table 6-2
Implementation Requirements for Operations
Associated with the Management Plan
Requests
Deadline
The Management Plan
The plan must be kept current with ongoing
O & M, periodic surveillance, inspection,
reinspection, and response action activities,
including updating the locations of ACBM after
response actions and O & M activities.
O&M Program
Must begin immediately upon the identification of
any friable ACBM present or assumed to be
present in the building.
O&M Training
In order to work in a building that may contain
asbestos, custodial workers and maintenance staff
members must have completed the 2-hour training
class described in § 763.92(a)(1) within 60 days of
employment. Workers must have completed the
14-hour training requirement described in §
763.92(a)(2) to conduct O&M activities which
may disturb ACBM.
Periodic Surveillance
Under § 763.92(b)(1) of the AHERA Rule,
periodic surveillance must be conducted at least
once every 6 months after a management plan is in
effect.
Warning Labels
Must be posted as soon as possible after
identification of ACBM in any routine maintenance
area.
(cont.)
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Implementation Requirements for Operations
Associated with the Management Plan (cont.)
Requests
Deadline
Management Plan
Availability for Public
Review
The plan must have been made available for public
review in the administrative office of the LEA on
the date on which it was submitted to the
Governor for review. Notification of the plan
availability must be made annually.
Isolate a Functional
Space with Significantly
Damaged Friable
Surfacing ACBM
Must be isolated immediately and access restricted
if such measures are needed to protect human
health and the environment.
Repair and Maintain
Damaged or
Significantly Damaged
TSI
Must begin as soon as a management planner and
LEA determine that these conditions exist.
Common Management Plan Problems and Deficiencies
EPA has found two common problems in management plans:
• Although management plans were generally complete, in many instances the location
of homogeneous materials was not described clearly, and the material classification
(TSI, surfacing material, or miscellaneous) was often incorrect.
• Many management plans were not "user-friendly" and required specialized
instruction to understand. Because the management plan is the basis for all asbestos
work done in the school and is a guide for anyone who could disturb ACBM during
maintenance or custodial work, EPA recommends that the LEA review the
management plan for clarity and usability. In doing so, the LEA should ensure that
the response actions described in the plan are specific to the site and to the ACBM
involved, and that the implementation schedule is clear.
Management plans also often omit the description of final air sample clearance locations.
The designated person should check the management plan to see that all clearance criteria
were met and documented. Because of the complexity of the sampling requirements, it is
recommended that a professional consultant/air monitoring firm be retained to assist in this
activity.
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FREQUENT PROBLEMS WITH MANAGEMENT PLANS
The Asbestos Management Plans (Plan) should be considered "living" document.
Some Plans are left exactly the same as they were when they were created, with
no updates whatsoever. This is particularly true with respect to required records of
periodic surveillances, annual notifications, response actions or fiber releases, and
for records of the two-hour and sixteen-hour training for school employees and
maintenance workers. In fact, the administrative staff at individual schools are
sometimes unaware of the existence of management plans and/or do not know
where the school's copy of the plan is kept.
Copies of all pertinent certification credentials for AHERA inspectors,
management planners, project designers, workers and supervisors who have
participated in any response actions are required to be in the management plan, but
are not always included. Also proper documentation of air samplers' and
laboratories' accreditations are sometimes missing from Plans.
Homogeneous areas are often not clearly (and frequently are not properly)
defined on the basis of color, texture, size. Plaster and sheetrock are probably the
most often overlooked materials which are likely to comprise major areas of
suspected asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM). Sampling locations
within the individual homogenous areas are often not described precisely enough
to provide for any relocation of individual original sampling sites with any degree of
certainty.
Frequently insufficient numbers of samples are collected from individual
homogeneous areas (the correct minimum number being dependent upon the type
of building material and the homogeneous area size), and the sites for the sampling
which was done may have been selected in a manner other than as is set forth in the
management plan for how sampling locations were to have been determined. Also,
where warning signs are required, they may be missing, or if present, they may not
employ the prescribed text.
Sometimes functional areas are not taken into consideration in the preparation
of assessment and response actions recommendations. Also recommended
response actions may not have been carried out according to schedules shown in
the management plans and explanations or changes in the schedules may be absent.
Portable buildings on school grounds are sometimes overlooked in management
plans, or these units may have been moved onto or off of a school's grounds
without the school's management plan having been updated.
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Chapter 6 Summary
Key Points About the Management Plan
The management plan is a site-specific guidance document that the LEA
designated person must follow in managing the ACBM present in a school
building.
The management plan must be prepared by an accredited management
planner and must be updated in a timely manner.
The management plan must include the documentation required under § 763.87
of the AHERA Rule for each laboratory performing a bulk sample analysis and
the results of each analysis.
In the management plan, the management planner must recommend an
appropriate response action (operations and maintenance, repair,
encapsulation, enclosure, or removal) for all areas of TSI and friable ACBM
(including ACBM which has the potential of becoming friable).
All of the initial response actions implemented to control friable asbestos require
a project design specifying how to conduct the abatement project.
Final air clearance of a functional space after a response action to remove,
encapsulate, or enclose ACBM involves a visual inspection and the collection
and analysis of air samples.
Final air sampling must be done using the transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) method, unless the project involves no more than 160 square feet or 260
linear feet, in which case phase contrast microscopy (PCM) may be used.
The LEA designated person is responsible for ensuring that the activities related
to the management plan are implemented and that the management plan is
updated in a timely manner.
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Table 6-4: Management Plan Compliance Checklist
This checklist is designed to enable you to determine if a management plan contains each and every
element required by law. This checklist is for management plans created for inspections completed
on or after December 14, 1987. Unless otherwise noted, all statutory references are to the AHERA
Rule.
GENERAL INFORMATION
1. List of the name and address of each school building
2. Whether the school building contains friable ACBM, nonfriable ACBM, and
friable and nonfriable ACBM assumed to be ACBM
DESIGNATED PERSON INFORMATION
3. The name, address, and telephone number of the designated person
4. The course name, dates, and hours of training taken by the designated person to
carry out his or her duties
5. Signed statement by the AHERA designated person that the LEA responsibilities
under AHERA Rule has been or will be met
INSPECTOR INFORMATION
6. The date of inspection or reinspection
7. The name and signature of each accredited person making the inspection or
reinspection
8. The State, accreditation number, and name of training provider for each accredited
inspector making the inspection or reinspection (copy of certificate is ideal)
SAMPLING INFORMATION
9. A blueprint, diagram, or written description of each school building that identifies
clearly each location and approximate square or linear footage of homogeneous areas
where material was sampled for ACM
10. The exact location where each bulk sample was collected
11. The date of collection of each bulk sample
12. The homogeneous areas where friable suspected ACBM is assumed to be ACBM
13. The homogeneous areas where nonfriable suspected ACBM is assumed to be
ACBM
14. A description of how sampling locations were determined
15. The name and signature of each accredited inspector who collected the samples
16. State, accreditation number and name of training provider of each accredited
inspector who collected the samples (copy of accreditation certificate is ideal)
Management Plan Compliance Checklist (cont.)
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ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES
17. A copy of the analyses of any bulk samples collected and analyzed
18. The name and address of any laboratory that analyzed bulk samples
19. A statement that any laboratory used meets the accreditation requirements of
§ 763.87(a) (copy of the accreditation is ideal)
20. The dates of any analyses performed
21. The name and signature of the person performing each analysis
PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT INFORMATION
22. A description of the assessments required by § 763.88 of all friable ACBM and
suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM.
23. The name and signature of each accredited person making the assessments
24. The State, accreditation number and name of training provider for each person
making the assessments (copy of certificate is ideal).
RESPONSE ACTION INFORMATION
25. Recommendations made to the LEA regarding response actions
26. The name and signature of each person making the recommendations
27. The State, accreditation number, and name of training provider for each person
making the recommendations (copy of certificate is ideal).
28. A detailed description of preventive measures and response actions to be taken,
including methods to be used, for any friable ACBM
29. The locations where such measures and actions will be taken
30. The reasons for selecting the response action or preventive measure
31. A schedule for beginning and completing each preventive measure and response
action
INFORMATION ON ACBM REMAINING AFTER RESPONSE ACTIONS
32. A blueprint, diagram, or written description, updated as response actions are
completed, of any ACBM or suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM that remains in
the school once response actions are completed
INFORMATION ON OTHER ACTIVITIES
33. A plan for reinspection and copies of the reports required under § 763.85
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Management Plan Compliance Checklist (cont.)
34. A plan for operations and maintenance (O&M) activities under §
763.91
35. A plan for periodic surveillance and copies of the reports (see §
763.92)
36. A description of the management planner recommendations
regarding additional cleaning under § 763.91(c)(2) as part of an O&M
program and documentation of cleaning
37. A description of steps taken to inform workers and building
occupants about inspections, reinspections, response actions, and postresponse actions, including periodic surveillance
38. An evaluation of the resources needed to complete response actions
and carry out reinspection, O&M activities, periodic surveillance and
training
39. The name of each consultant who contributed to the management
plan
40. With respect to each consultant who contributed to the management
plan, a copy of the accreditation certificate (or name of training
provider, State and accreditation number)
41. The response of the LEA to any recommendation for additional
cleaning
Checklist of Final Air Clearance Documentation
This checklist will indicate whether each final clearance was properly documented.
1. The name and signature of any person collecting any air sample required
to be collected at the completion of a response action
2. The locations where those samples were collected
3. The name and address of the laboratory, analyzing the samples
4. The date(s) of analysis
5. The results of analysis
6. The method of analysis
7. The name and signature of the person performing the analysis
8. Evidence that the laboratory is NVLAP accredited
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7
REINSPECTIONS AND
PERIODIC SURVEILLANCE
Introduction
Every three years after implementation of a management plan, an accredited inspector must
conduct a reinspection of all friable and nonfriable known or assumed ACBM in every
school building in order to determine if there has been any change in the condition of the
ACBM. An accredited management planner must then review the reinspection report to
identify any new hazard potential and revise the management plan to address newly
identified hazards. Based on the updated data, new response actions to address these
hazards must be selected, and these actions must be carried out in a timely manner.
The reinspection process presents an ideal time for an accredited inspector and
management planner to address any problems found in the initial inspection report and
management plan. EPA's document A Guide to Performing Reinspections Under the
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) (March 1992) is useful in planning
and assessing the reinspection requirements.
Inspector Responsibilities
Under § 763.85(b) of the AHERA Rule, in conducting a reinspection, the inspector must:
• Visually reinspect and reassess the condition of all friable known or assumed
ACBM.
• Visually inspect material that was previously considered nonfriable and touch the
material to determine whether it has become friable since the last inspection or
reinspection.
• Identify any homogeneous areas in which material has become friable since the last
inspection or reinspection.
• Bulk samples may be collected and submitted for analysis for any homogeneous
area of newly friable material that is already assumed to be ACBM.
• Perform a physical assessment, in accordance with § 763.88 of the AHERA Rule, of
the condition of the newly friable material in areas where samples are collected and
of newly friable materials in areas assumed to be ACBM.
• Reassess the condition of friable known or assumed ACBM previously identified.
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• Record and submit the following information for inclusion in the management plan
to the LEA designated person within 30 days of the reinspection:
-- Date of the reinspection
-- Name and signature of the person conducting the reinspection
-- State, accreditation number, and training provider name for any person
conducting the reinspection (copy of certificate is ideal)
-- Exact locations where samples were collected during the reinspection
-- Description of the manner used to determine sampling locations
-- Name and signature of each accredited inspector who collected the samples
-- State, accreditation number, and training provider name for each inspector who
collected the samples (copy of certificate is ideal)
-- Any assessments or reassessments made of friable material
-- Name and signature of the accredited inspector making the assessments
-- State, accreditation number and training provider name for each inspector
making the assessments (copy of certificate is ideal)
Management Planner Responsibilities
Once a reinspection is completed, the management planner must:
• Review the results of the reinspection. This includes reviewing the original
inspection report, periodic surveillance records, and the completed reinspection
forms and report. The management planner should conduct school visits and gather
other information so that he or she can make effective response action
recommendations.
• Make written response action and preventive measure recommendations for each
area of friable surfacing and miscellaneous ACBM and each area of TSI ACBM.
The management planner should determine whether additional cleaning is necessary
and, if so, specify how, when, and where to perform cleaning. The management
planner should also include an implementation schedule for the recommended
activities and make an estimate regarding the resources (cost, personnel, equipment,
etc.) needed to conduct the activities.
• Review the adequacy of the Operations & Maintenance Program.
• The recommendations should include a record of the name, signature, State,
accreditation number and training provider name for the management planner (copy
of certificate is ideal) and the date on which the management planner submitted the
recommendations.
For further information on reinspection requirements, review A
Guide to Performing Reinspections Under the Asbestos Hazard
Emergency Response Act (AHERA) (March 1992).
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Periodic Surveillance
At least once every six months after a management plan is in effect, the LEA must conduct
periodic surveillance in each building that contains ACBM or is assumed to contain
ACBM. The surveillance does not have to be conducted by an accredited person, but it
should be conducted either by the LEA designated person (if he or she is trained) or by
someone who is appropriately trained on asbestos (such as a maintenance person).
Periodic surveillance involves a visual inspection of all areas that are identified in the
management plan as ACBM or assumed ACBM. In evaluating each homogeneous area,
the person conducting the surveillance must visually inspect all areas identified in the
management plan as ACBM or suspected ACBM and record whether there are any changes
in the condition of the material (including if there are no changes). The date of the
surveillance, the name of the person conducting the surveillance, and any change in
condition of the ACBM or assumed ACBM must be documented and included in the
management plan within a reasonable amount of time, such as 30 days from the periodic
surveillance.
Chapter 7 Summary
Key Points About Reinspections and Periodic Surveillance
As long as any ACBM remains in a school building, the building must be
reinspected at least once every three years.
The reinspection and assessments/reassessments must be conducted by an
accredited inspector. The results of the inspection must be submitted to the
Designated Person within 30 days to include into the management plan.
The management planner must: 1) review the results of the reinspection,
2) make written response action and preventive measure recommendations for
each area of friable surfacing and miscellaneous ACBM and each area of TSI
ACBM, 3) determine whether additional cleaning is necessary and, if so, specify
how, when, and where to perform cleaning, 4) include an implementation
schedule for the recommended activities and make an estimate regarding the
resources needed to conduct the activities, and
5) review the adequacy of the Operations & Maintenance Program.
At least once every six months after a management plan is in effect, the LEA
must conduct periodic surveillance in each building that contains ACBM or is
assumed to contain ACBM.
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8
THE OPERATIONS AND
MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
Introduction
As discussed in Chapter 6, the management planner is responsible for recommending
appropriate response actions for managing ACBM found in a school building. An
operations and maintenance (O&M) program must be implemented whenever any asbestoscontaining building materials are found in a the school building. The purpose of the O&M
program is to prevent the release of asbestos fibers through careful management of
asbestos-containing building materials.
Managing Asbestos in Place, A Building Owner's Guide to
Operations and Maintenance Programs for ACM (the "Green
Book") offers important information on how to implement an O&M
program effectively.
Objectives of the O&M Program
An O&M program consists of a set of procedures and practices for operating and
maintaining a building to keep it as free of asbestos contamination as possible. The
program should be designed specifically to address the ACBM present in the building
involved.
An O&M program has three main objectives:
• Clean up existing contamination.
• Minimize future fiber release by controlling access to ACBM and instituting proper
work practices.
• Properly maintain the ACBM until it is removed.
Since National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations
(See Chapter 11 for a discussion of NESHAP) require that friable and nonfriable ACBM
which is likely to become friable be removed from buildings before demolition, the O&M
program is not a permanent solution. In addition, the asbestos NESHAP may regulate the
removal of asbestos as part of a renovation. It is also not a means by which full-scale
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asbestos abatement can be accomplished. The intentional disturbance of ACBM should be
limited to the repair or removal of small areas of significantly damaged ACBM or to small
areas where removal is necessary to make maintenance or minor renovation activities
easier. Some small scale, short duration activities may be subject to asbestos NESHAP
requirements if enough ACBM will be disturbed during a calendar year. Larger abatement
projects that require extensive planning and technical expertise may not be part of the
AHERA O&M program. Limited encapsulation and enclosure could be used to enhance an
O&M program by reducing the likelihood of contact with the ACBM, however.
Required Elements of An O&M Program
Under § 763.91 of the AHERA Rule, the LEA must ensure that the O&M program involve
the following elements:
• Cleaning
• Specialized work practices and procedures for O&M activities disturbing
friable ACBM
• Training
• Emergency Response Procedures
Cleaning
All areas of a building where friable ACBM and suspected ACBM, or significantly
damaged TSI ACBM is present must be cleaned at least once after the completion of the
AHERA inspection. It must also be cleaned before the initiation of any response action
(other than O&M activities or repair). The exception would be where the building had
been cleaned using similar methods within the previous six months. The cleaning must
include the following:
• HEPA-vacuuming or steam-cleaning all carpets
• HEPA-vacuuming or wet-cleaning all other floors and all other horizontal surfaces
• Disposing of all debris, filters, mopheads, and cloths in sealed, leak-tight containers
The management planner may also recommend that additional cleaning be performed. The
methods and frequency of any additional recommended cleaning should be included in the
management plan.
Specialized Work Practices and Procedures
The LEA must ensure that the following procedures are followed for any O&M activities
disturbing friable ACBM:
• Restrict entry into the area by persons other than those necessary to perform the
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maintenance project.
• Post signs to prevent entry by unauthorized persons.
• Shut off or temporarily modify the air-handling system and restrict other sources of air
movement.
• Use work practices or other controls, such as wet methods, protective clothing, HEPA
vacuums, mini-enclosures, and glove bags, as necessary to inhibit the spread of any
released fibers.
• Clean all fixtures or other components in the immediate work area.
• Place the asbestos debris and other cleaning materials in a sealed, leak-tight container.
Training
Within 60 days of hire, maintenance and custodial staff who may work in a building that
contains ACBM must receive at least two hours of asbestos awareness training. Those
members of the maintenance and custodial staff who conduct any activity that will disturb
ACBM must receive an additional 14 hours of training. Other state and local training
requirements may apply. (See Chapter 9 for further information on training
requirements.)
Emergency Response Procedures
As long as ACBM remains in a building, there is a risk of a fiber release episode. Custodial
and maintenance workers should be aware of this and should always report any of the
following occurrences to the LEA designated person:
• Any debris found on the floor or other horizontal surface
• Any water or physical damage to the ACBM
• Any other evidence of possible fiber release
There are two types of fiber release episodes: minor episodes and major episodes. The
specific procedures that must be followed depend on which type of episode occurs.
Minor Fiber Release Episode
A minor fiber release episode consists of the falling or dislodging of three square or linear
feet or less of friable ACBM. Section 763.91(f)(1) of the AHERA Rule requires that when
such an event occurs, the LEA must ensure that:
• The debris is thoroughly saturated using wet methods
• The area is cleaned
• The asbestos debris is placed in a sealed, leak-tight container
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• The area of damaged ACBM is repaired with such materials as asbestos-free spackling,
plaster, cement, or insulation; sealed with latex paint or an encapsulant; or an
appropriate response action is implemented as required by § 763.90 of the AHERA
Rule
When a minor fiber release episode occurs, AHERA allows the designated person to assign
an appropriately trained O&M in-house team to clean up the debris and make repairs as
soon as possible. (See Chapter 9 on training requirements.) Note, however, that local
regulations may be more stringent than the AHERA requirements.
Major Fiber Release Episode
A major fiber release episode consists of the falling or dislodging of more than three square
or linear feet of friable ACBM. Section 763.91(f)(2) of the AHERA Rule requires that
when such an episode occurs, the LEA must ensure that:
• Entry into the area is restricted and signs posted to prevent entry into the area by
persons other than those necessary to perform the response action.
• The air-handling system is shut off or temporarily modified to prevent the distribution
of fibers to other areas in the building.
• The response action for any major fiber release episode is designed by persons
accredited to design response actions and conducted by persons accredited to
conduct response actions.
After a response action is implemented to manage a major fiber release episode, the final air
clearance requirements of AHERA must be met before the response action is considered
complete. (See Chapter 6 on the final air clearance requirements.)
Major and minor fiber-release episodes must be documented and included in the
management plan regardless of whether the LEA uses in-house staff or an outside
asbestos abatement contractor to implement an appropriate response action. If an
outside contractor is used, be sure that the contractor's crew has been properly trained or
certified before signing a contract.
(See the Fiber Release Episode Report at the end of this chapter.)
Other Elements of an O&M Program
In addition to the elements required by § 763.91 of the AHERA Rule, other elements are
either recommended or required by the rule or related regulations. These include:
• Notification
• Labeling
• Employee Protection and Medical Surveillance
• Maintenance and Renovation Permit System
• Special Work Practices for Maintenance Activities
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• Special Work Practices for Renovation/Remodeling
Notification
Once ACBM is identified or assumed to be present in a building, the LEA must provide an
annual written notification to building occupants, employees, and parents on the locations
of asbestos-containing building materials in the school buildings, the availability of the
asbestos management plan, and recent and upcoming asbestos activities, such as abatement
projects, reinspections, etc. Other types of information to include in the notification are:
what asbestos is and how it is typically used; the health effects associated with asbestos
exposure; the type(s) of ACBM present in the building; the location(s) of these materials;
how individuals can avoid disturbing the ACBM; how damage is recognized and to whom
it should be reported; how custodial and maintenance personnel are dealing with these
materials to prevent fiber release; the asbestos-related training for custodial and
maintenance personnel; the steps that will be taken to protect the health and safety of
building occupants; and the name and telephone number of the LEA designated person
responsible for asbestos-related activities in the building.
Such a notification alerts affected parties to a potential hazard in the building. Building
occupants, employees, and others who are aware of the presence of ACBM are less likely
to disturb the material and cause fiber release.
Notification of building occupants, employees, parents and others is best accomplished
through distributing written notices, which may be tailored to specific parties. A common
practice is to publish the notification in the school's newsletter, which is distributed to
school employees and parents. The designated person must document the notification
process and maintain records of all notifications made.
Labeling
Under § 763.95 of the AHERA Rule, the LEA must attach a warning label immediately
adjacent to any friable and nonfriable ACBM and suspected ACBM that is located in
routine maintenance areas (such as boiler rooms) at each school building. Such material
includes friable ACBM that was responded to by a means other than removal (e.g.,
encapsulation) and ACBM for which no response action was carried out.
The labels must be prominently displayed in readily visible locations, must be in print that is
readily visible due to its large size or bright color, and must remain posted until the ACBM
that is labeled is removed. The warning label must read:
CAUTION: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB
WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT.
Unlike notification, labeling is not intended as a way to disseminate general information.
Instead, it is a last line of defense to prevent unprotected individuals from unknowingly
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disturbing ACBM.
Employee Protection & Medical Surveillance Programs
The OSHA Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry and the EPA Worker
Protection Rule explain when employees are required to wear a negative-pressure
respirator and must be involved in a medical surveillance program (see also OSHA
Asbestos Standard for General Industry). The purpose of a medical surveillance program is
to determine whether or not an employee is healthy enough to wear a respirator and to
detect any health changes in an employee's body resulting from working in asbestoscontaminated areas. Changes in health may indicate the onset of an asbestos-related
disease.
In addition, any employee who works in an environment where fiber levels are at the
permissible exposure limit or higher or who wears a negative-pressure respirator as part of
his or her job must participate in a respiratory protection program. The only way to
determine whether these fiber levels exist is to collect air samples during projects that
disturb ACBM. In an O&M program, the use of negative-pressure respirators will make it
necessary for most custodial and maintenance workers to participate in both the medical
surveillance program and the respiratory protection program. Even if fiber levels are below
the permissible exposure limit described above, it is strongly suggested that an LEA
establish these programs and require that employees wear respirators any time they are
likely to disturb ACBM.
Maintenance & Renovation Permit System
One of the most difficult tasks that the LEA designated person faces is minimizing
accidental disturbances of ACBM during maintenance and renovation operations. One way
that a designated person can control such disturbances is by establishing a permit system
where all work orders or requests are processed through the designated person.
In a permit system, all requests for maintenance or renovation activities are given to the
designated person before a work order to proceed is issued. The designated person then
checks the management plan for information about the presence of ACBM where work is
to be performed and physically inspects the area in question to make sure that the records
reflect actual conditions. If no asbestos is present, the designated person can sign and issue
the work order. If ACBM is present, the designated person can sign the work order and
then either ensure that trained maintenance or renovation workers are properly equipped to
handle the ACBM or dispatch an "emergency response" team to remove the ACBM. In
situations where there are large amounts of ACBM, maintenance or renovation work that
does not have to be done immediately should be postponed until the ACBM in the area can
be removed by an accredited contractor. The permit system should be in place for all
facility maintenance work conducted by the LEA staff, outside contractors, and outside
short-term workers.
When outside contractors or short-term workers are likely to come into contact with
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ACBM in a school building, they must be notified of the locations of ACBM or suspected
ACBM in the building. This notification should be documented. These workers should
have documentation of appropriate training, should they disturb ACBM during their work.
Note that State licensing requirements vary.
(See Example Form 5 at the end of this chapter for an example of a maintenance and
renovation permit application.)
Special Work Practices for Maintenance Activities
In buildings where ACBM is present, routine maintenance activities, such as work on light
fixtures, plumbing fixtures and pipes, air registers, HVAC ducts, and other accessible parts
of a building's utility systems, can disturb ACBM and raise levels of airborne asbestos. As
a result, maintenance workers should be instructed not to perform any maintenance work
that could disturb ACBM unless they are appropriately trained and use specific work
practices. These work practices should be tailored to reflect the likelihood that an activity
will disturb the ACBM and cause fibers to be released. In determining which work
practices should be followed, activities should be placed in one of four categories:
• Contact with ACBM Unlikely -- In some buildings with ACBM, many routine
maintenance activities can be conducted without contacting the ACBM. Changing a
light bulb in a fixture that has asbestos-containing acoustical plaster nearby can
usually be performed without jarring the fixture, for example. (Note that under the
AHERA Rule, the top of the fixture should already have been wet-cleaned to
remove settled fibers.) In such situations where contact with ACBM is unlikely, the
only precaution other than normal care generally necessary is to ensure that
respirators and a HEPA vacuum are available if needed. These do not have to be
taken to the site of the project; they should just be available at a known location in
the building.
When maintenance is performed in parts of the building that are free of ACBM, no
special precautions are usually necessary. An exception would be work in an area
containing no ACBM that causes vibrations to be transferred to a location where
ACBM is present.
• Accidental Disturbance of ACBM Possible -- Where routine maintenance and repair
activities are conducted on fixtures or system parts that are located near friable
ACBM, maintenance workers may unintentionally disturb the ACBM and release
asbestos fibers. Maintenance work on ventilation ducts in an air-handling room
where asbestos fireproofing is on the structural beams could accidentally disturb the
fireproofing, for example.
For a discussion of the work practices needed where an accidental disturbance of
ACBM is possible, see the Green Book.
• Disturbance of ACBM Intended or Likely -- Some maintenance and repair activities
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will make ACBM disturbance almost unavoidable. Installing new sprinkler or
piping systems will make it necessary to hang pipes from structural members or
from the ceiling, and if the beams or ceilings are insulated with ACBM, the ACBM
will be scraped away to install hangers. Similarly, pulling cables or wires through
spaces with ACBM or ACBM debris is likely to dislodge pieces of the ACBM or
disturb ACBM debris and dust. Any time ceiling tiles are moved to allow for entry
into the space above a suspended ceiling, settled dust on top of the tiles will be
recirculated into the air. If the beams or decking above the ceiling are covered with
ACBM, the dust is likely to contain asbestos fibers.
A designated person should not allow such intentional disturbances of ACBM to
proceed in an uncontrolled manner. The designated person should ensure that the
elements required under § 763.91 of the AHERA Rule to be part of an O&M
program are implemented effectively and that the regulatory requirements of the
EPA Worker Protection Rule and the OSHA Asbestos Standard for the
Construction Industry are followed.
• A Large Amount of ACBM Will be Disturbed -- If the maintenance work is part of
general building renovation, federal regulations may require that ACBM be removed
before the project begins. Even if smaller amounts of ACBM are to be disturbed,
building owners should consider removing all ACBM from the area of the building
where the maintenance work is planned. Typically, an outside abatement contractor
would be hired for the removal project before the maintenance work begins. If the
LEA decides to use its own staff to remove the ACBM, these workers must be fully
trained and accredited in asbestos abatement. (See Chapter 9 for information on
the training and accreditation requirements for asbestos abatement.)
Maintenance of Vinyl Asbestos Tile
(Revised from a "Guidelines for the Maintenance of Asbestos-Containing Floor Coverings"
developed by Rhode Island Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, New
England)
Vinyl Asbestos Tile (VAT) is the most prevalent source of asbestos containing material in
our schools and most likely will be for years to come. Although VAT is considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on these materials during routine floor-care
maintenance operations can release asbestos fibers.
The principle types of floor covering maintenance performed routinely on resilient floor
tiles include:
1) spray-buffing and dry burnishing; and
2) wet scrubbing and stripping followed by refinishing.
The following are guidelines on the maintenance of asbestos-containing floor coverings.
When properly implemented, these guidelines should help you reduce the potential for the
release of asbestos fibers into the air. You may want to keep a copy of these guidelines in
the Operations and Maintenance section of your AHERA Management Plan.
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Stripping of Vinyl Asbestos Floor Coverings
Training
Custodial and maintenance personnel who are responsible for the care and maintenance of
asbestos containing floor coverings should be thoroughly trained to safely and properly
operate the machines, pads and floor care chemicals used at the facility.
Frequency of Stripping
Stripping of vinyl asbestos floor coverings should be done as infrequently as possible (e.g.,
once per year maximum and preferably when the building is unoccupied). Excessive
stripping of floors using aggressive techniques will result in increased levels of asbestos
fibers in the air.
Prior to Stripping
Prior to machine operation, apply an emulsion of chemical stripper in water to the floor.
Use a mop to soften the wax or finish coat.
Stripping Operations
When stripping floors becomes necessary, the machine used for stripping the finish should
be equipped with the least abrasive pad as possible (black pads are usually the most
abrasive and the white pad the least abrasive). Consult with your floor tile and floor finish
product manufacturer for recommendations on which pad to use on a particular floor
covering. Incorporate the manufacturer's recommendations into your floor maintenance
work procedures.
The machine used to remove the wax or finish coat should be run at a low rate of speed
(i.e., ranging between 175-300 rpm) during the stripping operation. There is a direct
correlation between machine speeds and the release of asbestos fibers from asbestos
containing floor coverings. The higher the machine speed the greater the probability of
asbestos fiber release.
Never perform dry stripping. Always strip floors while wet. Do not operate a floor
machine with an abrasive pad on unwaxed or unfinished floor containing-asbestos
materials.
Consult with floor tile and floor finish product manufacturers concerning specific or unique
problem(s) on the maintenance of your floors.
After Stripping
After stripping and before application of a high solids floor finish, the floor should be
thoroughly cleaned, while wet, preferably with a Wet-Vac HEPA filtration vacuum system.
Finishing of Vinyl Asbestos Floor Coverings
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Use of Sealer and Solids Finish
Prior to applying a finish coat to a vinyl asbestos floor covering, apply 2 to 3 coats of
sealer. Continue to finish the floor with a high percentage solids finish.
It is an industry recommendation to apply several thin coats of a high percentage solid
finish to obtain a good sealing of the floor's surface, thereby minimizing the release of
asbestos fibers during finishing work.
Spray-Buffing Floors
When spray-buffing floors, always operate the floor machine at the lowest rates of speed
possible and equip the floor machine with the least abrasive pad as possible. A recent EPA
study indicated that spray-buffing with high-speed floor machines resulted in significantly
higher airborne asbestos fiber concentrations than spray-buffing with low speed machines.
Burnishing Floors
When dry-burnishing floors, always operate the floor machine at the lowest rate of speed
possible to accomplish the task (i.e., 1200-1750 rpms), and equip the floor machine with
the least abrasive pad as possible.
Cleaning After Stripping & Sealing Floors
After stripping a floor and applying a new coat of sealer and finish, use a wet mop for
routine cleaning whenever possible. When dry mopping, a petroleum-based mop treatment
is not recommended for use.
Maintenance During Winter
During the winter months when sanding and/or salting of icy parking lots becomes
necessary, it is an industry recommendation that matting be used at the entrance way to the
school building and inside the doorway where feasible. This would significantly eliminate
the scuffing of floors by abrasive sanding materials brought into the building on the shoes
of building occupants. More frequent wet mopping and dry mopping of floors should be
performed during the winter months to minimize damage to the floors.
The same recommendations holds true of schools located on coastal areas where building
occupants could track sand into the schools.
Additional Precautions
Conditions of Glides
Check to see if chair and desk glides are in good condition and replace where indicated.
Worn glides can gouge the floor coverings and possibly cause asbestos fiber release.
Parking Lot/Walkway Maintenance
During the winter months, have parking lots and walkways swept to avoid tracking salt and
ice-melting compounds into the school by students. These materials can cause severe
scuffing of floor coverings and lead to the release of asbestos fibers into the school
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building(s).
Use of Mats
Where feasible, use mats at entrance ways to cafeterias, gymnasiums, libraries, etc., to
protect against possible scuffing of floor covering(s), etc. from salt and ice-melting
compounds and from ocean sand.
Special Work Practices for Renovation/Remodeling
Building renovation or building system replacement can cause major disturbances of
ACBM that are beyond the scope of school O&M programs. Moving walls, adding wings,
and replacing heating or air conditioning systems are likely to involve breaking, cutting, or
otherwise disturbing ACBM that may be present. It is highly recommended that ACBM
that may be disturbed be removed before any of these activities are begun. The LEA may
be required to remove the ACBM if the amount of ACBM that is likely to be disturbed
exceeds the threshold amounts of 160 square feet or 260 linear feet established by the
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. (See
Chapter 11 for further information on the Asbestos NESHAP regulations.)
Although remodeling projects change the building structure less dramatically than
renovation projects, disturbances of ACBM are still possible. When a remodeling project
involves direct contact with ACBM (such as painting or wallpapering over ACBM), the
O&M procedures described in § 763.91(d) of the AHERA Rule must be followed. If the
work to be done will make the material friable, the work must either be limited to smallscale, short-duration or be treated as a response action.
Handling and Disposing of Asbestos Wastes
The amount and type of asbestos present both determine whether the LEA must notify
EPA (or delegated states) and what procedures that the LEA must follow to control
asbestos emissions. If the amount exceeds the regulatory threshold, then a written
notification must be submitted ten working days prior to any asbestos stripping or removal
operation or demolition operation. EPA regulations (along with state and local
requirements) provide detailed instructions on the handling, transport, and disposal of
asbestos materials. This includes emission control methods (such as wetting and leak proof
wrapping), labels on the containers, recordkeeping and a trained representative on-site.
Waste must be disposed of at a site meeting federal, state and local requirements. For a
site in your area, contact the local public health department.
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Chapter 8 Summary
Key Points About the Operations and Maintenance Program
An O&M program must be implemented whenever any friable ACBM is present or
assumed to be present in a school building or whenever any nonfriable ACBM or
assumed nonfriable ACBM is about to become friable as a result of activities
performed in the school building.
Unless the building has been cleaned using similar methods in the previous 6
months, all areas of a building where friable ACBM, friable suspected ACBM
assumed to be ACBM, or significantly damaged TSI ACBM is present must be
cleaned using the methods described at § 763.91(c) of the AHERA Rule at least
once after the completion of the AHERA inspection and before the initiation of any
response action, other than O&M activities or repair.
Specialized work practices and procedures must be followed for any O&M activities
disturbing friable ACBM.
When a fiber release episode occurs, the work practices that must be followed
depend on whether the episode is minor or major in nature. A minor fiber release
episode consists of the falling or dislodging of 3 square or linear feet or less of
friable ACBM. A major fiber release episode consists of the falling or dislodging
of more than 3 square or linear feet of friable ACBM.
Once ACBM is identified or assumed to be present, the LEA should start a
notification and warning program to alert affected parties to a potential hazard in
the building and to provide basic information on how to avoid the hazard.
The LEA is required to attach a warning label immediately adjacent to any friable
and nonfriable ACBM and suspected ACBM that is assumed to be ACBM that is
located in routine maintenance areas.
Where employees work in areas where fiber levels exceed permissible exposure
limits or are required to wear pressure respirators, the LEA must establish medical
surveillance and respiratory protection programs.
A designated person can minimize accidental disturbances of ACBM during
maintenance and renovation activities by establishing a permit system that calls for
all work orders and requests to be processed through the designated person.
The specific work practices that must be followed when routine maintenance
activities are being conducted depend on the likelihood that the activities will disturb
the ACBM and cause fibers to be released.
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CHAPTER 8
The Operations & Maintenance Program
Fiber Release Episode Report
1.
Address, building, and room number(s) (or description of area) where episode occurred:
2.
The release episode was reported by
on
(date).
3.
Describe the episode:
4.
The asbestos-containing material was
/was not
cleaned up according to approved
proce
dures.
Descr
ibe
the
clean
up:
Signed
(Asbestos Program Manager)
Date:
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CHAPTER 8
The Operations & Maintenance Program
Example Form 5
Work Permit Application
1.
Address, building, and room number (or description) where work is to be performed:
2.
Requested starting date:
3.
Description of work:
4.
Description of any asbestos-containing material that might be affected, if known (include
location and type):
5.
Name and telephone number of requestor:
6.
Name and telephone number of supervisor:
Anticipated finish date:
Submit this application to the asbestos program manager:
NOTE: An application must be submitted for all maintenance work whether or not
asbestos-containing material might be affected. this authorization must then be signed
before any work can proceed.
Granted (Work Permit No.
)
Denied (See Asbestos Program Manager)
Denied (until further sampling is conducted)
Signed
Date:
Asbestos Program Manager
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9
TRAINING AND
ACCREDITATION
Introduction
AHERA requires that LEAs employ accredited persons to perform most of the activities
associated with asbestos management. Building inspectors, management planners, project
designers, contractors/supervisors, and asbestos workers must all complete EPA- or Stateapproved courses that result in accreditation. The specific training requirements for each
of these categories of workers are outlined in Appendix C to the AHERA Rule (the
AHERA Model Accreditation Plan). The AHERA Rule also details specific training
requirements for LEA designated persons and maintenance and custodial workers, although
these individuals are not required to complete any EPA-approved courses or receive
accreditation.
Designated Person Training
AHERA requires that the AHERA Designated Person be adequately trained to carry out
his or her responsibilities. Due to the differing needs of school districts based on the size of
the district and the amount and condition of the ACBM, AHERA does not list a specific
training course or specific number of hours of training for the DP. Further, AHERA does
not require the DP to be accredited. Specifically, the regulations note the training must
include the following topics:
• health effects of asbestos;
• detection, identification and assessment of asbestos-containing building materials;
• options for controlling asbestos-containing building materials; and
• asbestos management programs.
• Relevant Federal and State regulations concerning asbestos, including AHERA and its
implementing regulations and the regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (See Chapter 11 for further information on regulations related to
AHERA.)
The training completed by the designated person must be documented by course name,
dates, and hours of training. This documentation must be kept as a permanent part of the
management plan.
To determine whether reviewing this document would satisfy the training requirements for
the DP, school personnel should consult with the regional asbestos coordinator in the EPA
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Training and Accreditation
Regional Office serving their state.
Maintenance and Custodial Workers
The LEA must ensure that all maintenance and custodial staff who work in a building that
contains ACBM receive a minimum of two hours awareness training, whether or not they
are required to work with ACBM. New custodial and maintenance employees must be
trained within 60 days after the commencement of employment.
The awareness training must include, but is not limited to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms
Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure
Locations of ACBM identified throughout each school building in which they work
Information on how to recognize damaged, deteriorated, and delaminated ACBM
The name and telephone number of the LEA designated person
Information on the availability and location of the management plan
Staff that disturb ACBM must receive an additional 14 hours of training. Once this
additional training is completed, attendees will be adequately trained to conduct smallscale, short-duration activities and/or minor fiber release episode cleanup and repair
procedures. The additional training must include, but is not limited to:
• Descriptions of the proper methods for handling ACBM
• Information on the use of respiratory protection as contained in the EPA/NIOSH
Guide to Respiratory Protection for the Asbestos Abatement Industry (September
1986) and other personal protection measures
• The provisions of the AHERA Rule relating to O&M activities
(§ 763.91) and training and periodic surveillance (§ 763.92) as well as Appendices
A-E of the Rule, EPA regulations contained in 40 CFR Part 763, subpart G, and in
40 CFR Part 61, Subpart M, and OSHA regulations
• Hands-on training in the use of respiratory protection, other personal protection
measures, and good work practices
Maintenance and custodial worker training does not require EPA approval, although some
States may have more stringent training requirements. It is recommended that the LEA
check with its State on the training requirements for maintenance and custodial workers.
The completion of all training by maintenance and custodial workers must be documented.
(See Chapter 10 under "Training Information" for a discussion of the training records
that must be kept.)
Accredited Personnel
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CHAPTER 9
Training and Accreditation
Under AHERA, LEAs may employ the following individuals only if they have completed
EPA- or State-approved training courses, passed the exams, and received accreditation.
Building Inspectors -- Building inspectors must complete a minimum of three days (24
hours) of training. Training course information covers technical information needed to
identify and describe ACBM and information needed to write an inspection report.
Management Planners -- Management planners must complete a two-day (16 hours)
course after they have completed and passed the exam for the building inspector training
described above. This course is an extension of the building inspector training and teaches
how to develop a schedule (or plan) for implementation of response actions for hazards or
potential hazards identified in the inspection report, how to develop an O&M plan, and
how to prepare and update a management plan.
Project Designers -- Project designers must complete a three-day (24 hours) abatement
project designer training course. The project designer course teaches how to design
response actions and abatement projects. It also covers basic concepts of architectural
design, engineering controls and proper work practices as required by the regulation.
Contractors/Supervisors -- Contractors/supervisors must complete a minimum of five
days (40 hours) of training. The course teaches proper work practices and procedures and
covers contractor issues such as legal liability, contract specifications, insurance and
bonding, and air monitoring. The course fulfills the OSHA "competent person" training
requirement and the NESHAP "trained representative" requirement.
Asbestos Workers -- An asbestos worker must complete a minimum of four days (32
hours) of training. The course covers work practices and procedures, personal protective
equipment, health effects of asbestos exposure, and other information critical to individuals
who work in an abatement area with hazardous materials.
Update Training
All project designers, contractors/supervisor, and asbestos workers must complete a one
day annual refresher training course for reaccreditation. Building inspectors must complete
a half-day refresher course. Management planners must attend the half-day building
inspector refresher course as well as a half-day management planner refresher course.
Documentation of any annual training should be kept in the management plan.
Although not specifically required by the AHERA Rule, annual refresher/update training
for maintenance workers is recommended. OSHA requires annual training.
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Training and Accreditation
Table 9-1
LEA Employee Training Requirements
Job Title
Subject Matter of Training
Amount of
Training
(Hours)
Annual
Training
Update (Hours)
Designated
Person
Health effects of asbestos; detection,
identification and assessment of
ACBM; options for controlling
ACBM; asbestos management
program; related federal and state laws
Adequate
None
All
Maintenance
Workers
Asbestos and its uses and forms;
health effects associated with asbestos
exposure; locating ACBM identified
throughout each school building in
which they work; recognizing various
conditions of ACBM; name and
telephone number of LEA designated
person; information pertaining to the
availability and location of
management plan
2
None
Maintenance
Workers Who
Disturb
ACBM
Proper methods for handling ACBM;
information on proper use of
respiratory protection; hands-on
training in the use of respiratory
protection, other personal protection
measures, and good work practices;
information pertaining to various
regulations; technical information
16 (asbestos
awareness and
14 additional
hours)
None
* These 14 hours of training are in addition to the 2 hours of asbestos awareness
training that all maintenance workers receive
Note that state and local requirements may be more stringent.
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Training and Accreditation
Table 9-2
Accredited Personnel Training Requirements
Job Title
Amount of
Training
(Days)
Annual
Training
Update (Days)
Technical information needed to
identify and describe ACBM;
information needed to write an
inspection report
3
1/2
Management
Planners
Extension of the building
inspector training, plus how to
develop a schedule (or plan) for
implementation of response actions
for hazards or potential hazards
identified in the inspection report, how
to develop an O&M plan, and how to
prepare a management plan.
2
1
Project
Designers
How to design response actions
and abatement projects; basic
concepts of architectural design,
engineering controls and proper work
practices
3
1
Contractors/
Supervisors
Proper work practices and
procedures; contractor issues such as
legal liability, contract specifications,
insurance, and bonding; air
monitoring
5
1
Asbestos
Workers
Work practices and procedures,
personal protective equipment, health
effects of asbestos exposure, and other
critical information
4
1
Building
Inspectors
a
b
Subject Matter of Training
a
b
Management planners must first complete the building inspector training and pass the exam.
This includes the one-half day building inspector training update.
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Training and Accreditation
Chapter 9 Summary
Key Points About Training and Accreditation
AHERA does not require that designated persons complete EPA- or Stateapproved courses and become accredited, but § 763.84(g)(2) of the AHERA
Rule requires that training for the designated persons provide basic knowledge
of a number of asbestos-related subjects.
The LEA must ensure that all maintenance and custodial staff who may work in
a building that contains ACBM receive a minimum of two hours awareness
training, whether or not they are required to work with ACBM. All new
maintenance and custodial staff must receive asbestos awareness training within
60 days of hire.
Staff that may disturb ACBM must receive an additional 14 hours of training.
Building inspectors, management planners, project designers,
contractors/supervisors, and asbestos workers must successfully complete EPAor State-approved courses, pass an exam and receive accreditation before they
can perform any asbestos-related activities.
Building inspectors, management planners, project designers,
contractors/supervisors, and asbestos workers must complete annual EPA- or
State-approved refresher courses to maintain their accreditation.
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10
RECORD-
KEEPING
Recordkeeping of Management Plans
Under § 763.93(g) of the AHERA Rule, each LEA is required to keep in its administrative
office a copy of the management plans for each school. (See Table 6-1 for a
comprehensive list of the required contents of the management plan.) The management
plan must be available, without cost or restriction, for inspection by the public, including
teachers, other school personnel and their representatives, and parents, as well as by
representatives of EPA and the State.
In addition, each school is required to maintain in its administrative office a complete and
updated copy of the management plan for that school. The school must make the plan
available for inspection to those individuals listed above as well as to workers before work
begins in any area of a school building.
It is the responsibility of the LEA designated person to ensure that complete and up-to-date
records are maintained and included in the management plan. Section 763.94 of the
AHERA Rule requires that the LEA maintain the following records (Note that some of
these requirements have been listed in other portions of this guide).
Training Information
For each person required to be trained under §§ 763.92(a)(1) and (2) of the AHERA Rule
(maintenance and custodial worker training), the LEA must provide:
•
•
•
•
The person's name and job title
The date that training was completed
The location of the training
The number of hours completed in the training
Periodic Surveillance Information
Each time that periodic surveillance is conducted under § 763.92(b) of the AHERA Rule,
the LEA must record:
•
•
The name of each person conducting the surveillance
The date of the surveillance
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CHAPTER 10
Recordkeeping
Any changes in the conditions of the materials being examined
•
Cleaning Information
Each time that cleaning, as required under § 763.91(c), is conducted, the LEA must record:
The name of each person performing the cleaning
The date of the cleaning
The locations cleaned
The methods used to perform the cleaning
•
•
•
•
Small-Scale, Short-Duration O&M Activity Information
Each time that O&M activities under § 763.91(d) of the AHERA Rule are performed, the
LEA must provide:
The name of each person performing the activity
The start and completion date of the activity
The locations where such activity occurred
A description of the activity, including the preventive measures used
If ACBM is removed, the name and disposal site of the ACBM
•
•
•
•
•
Information on O&M Activities Other Than Small-Scale, Short-Duration
Each time maintenance activities are performed that are not of small scale and short
duration under § 763.91(e) of the AHERA Rule, the LEA must provide:
The name and signature of each person performing the activity
The State, accreditation number, and training provider name of each person
performing the activity (a copy of a certificate is ideal)
•
The start and completion dates of the activity
•
A description of the activity, including preventive measures used
•
If the ACBM is removed, the name and location of the ACBM storage or
disposal site
•
•
Information on Fiber Release Episodes
For each fiber release episode occurring as the result of O&M activities, the LEA must
provide:
The date and location of the episode
The method of repair, preventive measures or response action taken
The name of each person performing the work
If ACBM is removed, the name and location of the ACBM storage or disposal
•
•
•
•
site
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CHAPTER 10
Recordkeeping
Information on Response Actions and Preventive Measures
For each preventive measure and response action taken for friable and nonfriable ACBM
and friable and nonfriable suspected ACBM assumed to be ACBM, the LEA must provide:
A detailed written description of the measure or action, including the method
•
used
The location where the measure or action was taken
Reasons for selecting the measure or action
The start and completion dates of the work
If applicable, the names and addresses of all contractors involved with the work
If applicable, the State, accreditation number, and training provider name of all
contractors involved with the work (a copy of the certificate)
•
If ACBM is removed, the name and location of the ACBM storage or disposal
site
•
•
•
•
•
Air Sampling Information
In addition to the information required to be provided for each preventive measure and
response action taken for friable and nonfriable ACBM and friable and nonfriable suspected
ACBM assumed to be ACBM (See above), when air sampling is performed for final air
clearance of response actions, the LEA must provide:
The name and signature of any person collecting any air sample required to be
collected at the completion of a response action
•
The locations where samples were collected
•
The date(s) of collection
•
The name and address of the laboratory analyzing the samples
•
The date(s) of analysis
•
The results of the analysis
•
The method of analysis
•
The name and signature of the person performing the analysis
•
A statement that the laboratory is NVLAP accredited or EPA approved
•
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CHAPTER 10
Recordkeeping
Chapter 10 Summary
Key Points About Recordkeeping
Each LEA must maintain a copy of its management plan in its administrative
office, and the plan must be available to persons for inspection without cost or
restriction.
Each school must maintain a copy of the management plan for that school in
its administrative office, and the plan must be available to persons for inspection
without cost or restriction.
The LEA must also maintain records of events that occur after submission of the
management plan; these records include training information, periodic
surveillance information, cleaning information, small-scale, short-duration O &
M activity information, information on O & M activities other than small-scale,
short-duration, information on fiber release episodes, information on response
actions and preventive measures, and air sampling information. These records
should be included in the management plans in a timely manner.
For each homogeneous area where all ACBM has been removed, the LEA must
retain the records of events for three years after the next reinspection, or for an
equivalent period.
It is the responsibility of the LEA designated person to ensure that complete and
up-to-date records are maintained and included in the management plans.
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11
RELATED
REGULATIONS
Introduction
Although AHERA and its implementing regulations, the AHERA Rule, set out many of the
responsibilities of the LEA, there are several other federal regulations that the LEA should
be aware of when implementing an asbestos management program. These regulations
include:
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Construction Industry
Standard (29 CFR 1926.1101) and General Industry Standard
(29 CFR 1910.1001)
•
The EPA Worker Protection Rule (40 CFR § 763.121)
•
Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations governing the transport
and disposal of asbestos-containing materials (49 CFR Parts 171 and 172)
•
•
Each of these regulations is discussed in greater detail below. By following the
requirements of these related regulations, the LEA can protect not only the people in its
buildings from negative health effects but also may protect itself from legal liability. These
regulations should be considered to establish minimum standards; going beyond these
requirements may help keep buildings as safe as possible. For further information about
these related regulations, call the Asbestos Ombudsman Clearinghouse Hotline at (800)
368-5888 between 8:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Eastern.
National Emission Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants
The LEA (school district) must comply with the National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants for Asbestos (NESHAP) regulations when removing asbestos
materials. These regulations specify control requirements for most asbestos emissions, and
include work practices to be followed to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during the
handling, removal and disposal of asbestos waste materials. NESHAP regulations are
frequently enforced by the State or Local Agencies.
A significant term, which is used through NESHAP, is Regulated Asbestos-Containing
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Related Regulations
Materials (RACM). RACM is where the amount of friable asbestos-containing material
equals or exceeds the threshold amount of 260 linear feet, 160 square feet, or 35 cubic feet.
Prior to the beginning work, an AHERA accredited inspector must inspect the facility for
the presence of asbestos. The amount and type of asbestos present both determine whether
the LEA must notify EPA (or delegated states) and what procedures that the LEA must
follow to control asbestos emissions. If the amount exceeds the regulatory threshold, then
a written notification must be submitted ten working days prior to any asbestos stripping or
removal operation or demolition operation. The LEA must remove RACM from the
facility that is to be demolished or renovated before any other activity begins that would
break up, dislodge, or similarly disturb this material. The RACM must be handled in
accordance with the asbestos NESHAP regulations, including properly labeling the waste.
However, prior removal is not required if the RACM is in a condition that is excepted from
prior removal, e.g., it is on a facility component that is encased in concrete or other
similarly hard material and is adequately wet whenever exposed during demolition.
Of particular importance to the LEA are the standards for the demolition and renovation of
facilities (40 CFR § 61.145) and for waste disposal for demolition and renovation
operations (40 CFR § 61.150). The standard for asbestos waste disposal for demolition
and renovation operations require that the LEA to: (1) discharge no visible emissions to the
outside air during the collection processing, packaging, or transporting of any asbestoscontaining waste material; (2) adequately wet the asbestos-containing waste material; (3)
process the asbestos-containing waste material into nonfriable forms; or (4) use an
alternative emission control and waste treatment method that has received prior approval
by EPA or the delegated state.
As soon as possible, all asbestos-containing waste material must be taken to an asbestos
waste disposal site or an EPA-approved site that converts regulated asbestos-containing
material and asbestos-containing waste material into asbestos-free material as provided by
law. If non-RACM will not be made friable during the disposal processes, it may be
disposed of at a landfill that accepts normal building debris. Waste shipment records
(WSRs), which are only required for RACM, must be maintained by the LEA and contain
the information required by law. The WSRs must be retained for at least two years.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Construction Industry
Standard (29 CFR § 1926.1101) and General Industry Standard (29 CFR § 1910.1001)
establish minimum standards for the protection of workers involved in asbestos-related
work or employees exposed to asbestos-contaminated workplaces. OSHA regulations
exclude federal, state, or local government employees (including public school employees)
from its worker protection rules (except in states with OSHA approved programs).
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Related Regulations
However, EPA has promulgated Worker Protection Rules to cover these employees (see
below). These standards include required work practices, engineering controls, permissible
exposure limits, written programs for respiratory protection and medical surveillance,
methods for compliance, hazard communication, housekeeping, competent person training
and responsibilities, and required recordkeeping. Also included are demolition, removal,
alteration, repair, maintenance (such custodial workers who clean vinyl asbestos tile
floors), installation, clean-up of spills, transportation, disposal and storage of asbestos.
OSHA revised its standards on August 10, 1994. Significant changes to the standards
included the following:
- PEL decrease to 0.1 f/cc; action level deleted;
- Asbestos Containing Material defined as material containing more than 1% asbestos
(now consistent with EPA);
- Building owners are now covered and have specific duties to identify building materials
and notify/communicate with others;
- All asbestos work, regardless of exposure levels, requires at least basic controls and
work practices, and exposure monitoring;
- Construction work is classified according to friability of the asbestos and hazardousness
of the operation. Increasingly friable and hazardous operations require increasingly
stringent engineering controls, work practices, protective equipment, training and
monitoring; and
- Training requirements changed to correspond to EPA training.
Two programs are of particular importance to the LEA. OSHA requires establishment of a
respiratory protection program (29 CFR § 1910.134) that is designed to protect persons,
including the designated person and any employees, who do any work with ACBM. The
program requires that such persons be equipped with a respirator that provides adequate
protection against asbestos. Further, the program must include written standard operating
procedures governing the selection and use of respirators, selection of respirators based on
the hazards to which workers are exposed, an instruction and training program in the
proper use of respirators and its limitations, and requirements for the cleaning, disinfecting,
inspecting, and storing of respirators. The written program must be on the job site when
asbestos work is being conducted. (See Chapter 8 under the heading "Employee
Protection & Medical Surveillance Programs" for a further discussion of this program.)
(See the Model Respiratory Protection Program Checklist at the end of this chapter.)
The second program is the medical surveillance program, which requires that every person
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Related Regulations
who is assigned to work using a respirator must first have a medical examination to
determine whether he or she is fit to work in a respirator. A written assurance to that
effect signed by the examining physician is required and must be maintained with the
employee's medical surveillance records. The employer must keep proof of a medical
surveillance program on site where the asbestos work is being performed. (See Chapter 8
under the heading "Employee Protection & Medical Surveillance Programs" for a further
discussion of this program.)
(See the Medical Examination Checklist at the end of this chapter.)
EPA Worker Protection Rule
The OSHA asbestos standards do not cover all state and local government employees. The
EPA Worker Protection Rule (40 CFR § 763.121) extends the protection afforded by the
OSHA standards to all state and local government employees who are engaged in asbestos
abatement and who are not otherwise covered by OSHA or an OSHA-approved state plan.
Thus, when conducting asbestos abatement activities, an employee of a school district is
either covered by the OSHA asbestos standards or that employee is protected by EPA's
Worker Protection Rule.
Department of Transportation Regulations
Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations (49 CFR Parts 171 and 172) require that
asbestos-containing materials be labeled as Class 9 hazardous materials and establish
requirements relating to the shipment of ACBM by air, rail or motor vehicles, including the
type of packaging, labeling, shipping papers and placards required.
The designated person is responsible for having the ACBM properly transported from a
site. The LEA is the generator of the waste product and maintains this responsibility
during transportation and disposal. Disposal of asbestos waste also is subject to each
state's solid waste regulations.
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CHAPTER 11
Related Regulations
Chapter 11 Summary
Key Points About Related Regulations
An asbestos management program is subject not only to AHERA and the
AHERA Rule, but also may be subject to NESHAP, OSHA, and DOT
regulations, and the EPA Worker Protection Rule.
Relevant provisions of NESHAP establish work practices for asbestos air
emission control when a facility is being demolished or renovated, and for the
disposal of asbestos-containing waste material.
The OSHA established minimum standards for the protection of workers
involved in asbestos-related work or employees exposed to asbestoscontaminated workplaces. These standards include required work practices,
engineering controls, permissible exposure limits, written programs for
respiratory protection and medical surveillance, methods for compliance, hazard
communication, housekeeping, competent person training and responsibilities,
and required recordkeeping. OSHA excludes federal, state, or local government
employees from its worker protection rules (including public school employees).
The EPA Worker Protection Rule extends the protection afforded by OSHA
to all employees in asbestos abatement who may have been excluded from
protection by OSHA.
Relevant provisions of DOT regulations establish labeling, packaging and
shipping standards for the transporting of asbestos-containing materials.
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CHAPTER 11
Related Regulations
Model Respiratory Protection Program Checklist
Protecting workers from exposure is the responsibility of the employer. Employers are required
by law to establish and maintain an effective respiratory protection program as outlined in
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Z88.2-1969. (The more recent edition
of ASNI Z88.2 (1980) contains more comprehensive requirements which are not yet incorporated
in the OSHA regulation.) This checklist presents a model respiratory protection program for
asbestos abatement operations which meets or exceeds the requirements of the present OSHA
standard.
The recommendations of this guide not only satisfy the current respiratory protection
requirements of existing Federal regulations, but also include recommendations based on current
information on respiratory protection.
An effective respirator program should include:
1. A written statement of company policy, including assignment of individual
responsibility, accountability, and authority for required activities of the
respiratory protection program
2. A written standard operating procedures governing the selection and use of
respirators
3. Respirator selection (from NOISH/MSHA approved and certified models) on the
basis of hazards to which the worker is exposed
4. The medical examination of workers to determine whether or not they may be
assigned an activity where respiratory protection is required
5. User training in the proper use and limitations of respirators (which also is a
way to evaluate the skill and knowledge obtained by the worker through training)
6. Respirator fit testing
7. Regular cleaning and disinfecting of respirators
8. Routine inspection of respirators during cleaning, and at least once a month and
after each use for those respirators designated for emergency use
9. Storage of respirators in convenient, clean, and sanitary locations
(cont.)
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Related Regulations
Model Respiratory Protection Program Checklist (cont.)
10. Surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure
(e.g., through air monitoring)
11. Regular inspection and evaluation of the continued effectiveness of the program
12. Recognition and resolution of special problems as they affect respirator use
(e.g., facial hair, eye glasses, etc.)
13. Proper respirator use (e.g., procedures for putting on and taking off respirators
when entering and exiting the abatement area)
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Related Regulations
Medical Examination Checklist
A medical examination is the first step in a medical surveillance program. This checklist may be
used to determine the thoroughness of the medical examination administered. Although the scope
of a medical examination may vary among medical facilities, at a minimum it should include the
following:
1. Medical History (completed by examinee)
2. Initial or Periodic Medical Questionnaire for Asbestos Exposure
3. Respiratory History
4. Anthropometric Measurements
A. Height
B. Weight
5. Vital Signs
A. Blood Pressure
B. Pulse
C. Temperature
6. Ophthalmologic Screening
A. Visual Acuity - Near and Far
B. Color Vision
C. Depth perception
7. Urinalysis
8. Pulmonary Function Screen
9. Chest X-ray (administered at the discretion of the physician)
10. Complete Physical Examination by Physician
11. Physician Evaluation for Respirator Use/Clearance
12. Report of Medical Evaluation
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Glossary
Air erosion: the passage of air over friable ACBM which may result in the release of asbestos
fibers.
Asbestos: the asbestiform varieties of Chrysotile (serpentine); crocidolite (riebeckite); amosite
(cummingtonitegrunerite); anthophyllite; tremolite; and actinolite.
Asbestos-containing material (ACM): any material or product which contains more than 1 percent
asbestos.
Asbestos-containing building material (ACBM): surfacing ACM, thermal system insulation
ACM, or miscellaneous ACM that is found in or on interior structural members or other parts of a
school building.
Asbestos debris: pieces of ACBM that can be identified by color, texture, or composition, or means
dust, if the dust is determined by an accredited inspector to be ACM.
Damaged friable miscellaneous ACM: friable miscellaneous ACM which has deteriorated or
sustained physical injury such that the internal structure (cohesion) of the material is inadequate or,
if applicable, which has delaminated such that its bond to the substrate (adhesion) is inadequate or
which for any other reason lacks fiber cohesion or adhesion qualities. Such damage or deterioration
may be illustrated by the separation of ACM into layers; separation of ACM from the substrate;
flaking, blistering, or crumbling of the ACM surface; water damage; significant or repeated water
stains, scrapes, gouges, mars or other signs of physical injury on the ACM. Asbestos debris
originating from the ACBM in question may also indicate damage.
Damaged friable surfacing ACM: friable surfacing ACM which has deteriorated or sustained
physical injury such that the internal structure (cohesion) of the material is inadequate or which has
delaminated such that its bond to the substrate (adhesion) is inadequate, or which, for any other
reason, lacks fiber cohesion or adhesion qualities. Such damage or deterioration may be illustrated
by the separation of ACM into layers; separation of ACM from the substrate; flaking, blistering, or
crumbling of the ACM surface; water damage; significant or repeated water stains, scrapes, gouges,
mars or other signs of physical injury on the ACM. Asbestos debris originating from the ACBM in
question may also indicate damage.
Damaged or significantly damaged thermal system insulation ACM: thermal system insulation
ACM on pipes, boilers, tanks, ducts, and other thermal system insulation equipment where the
insulation has lost its structural integrity, or its covering, in whole or in part, is crushed,
water-stained, gouged, punctured, missing, or not intact such that it is not able to contain fibers.
Damage may be further illustrated by occasional punctures, gouges or other signs of physical injury
to ACM; occasional water damage on the protective coverings/jackets; or exposed ACM ends or
joints. Asbestos debris originating from the ACBM in question may also indicate damage.
Encapsulation: the treatment of ACBM with a material that surrounds or embeds asbestos fibers
in an adhesive matrix to prevent the release of fibers, as the encapsulant creates a membrane over
the surface (bridging encapsulant) or penetrates the material and binds its components together
(penetrating encapsulant).
Enclosure: an airtight, impermeable, permanent barrier around ACBM to prevent the release of
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asbestos fibers into the air.
EPA Worker Protection Rule: extends the protection afforded by OSHA to all employees in
asbestos abatement who may have been excluded from protection by OSHA.
Fiber release episode: any uncontrolled or unintentional disturbance of ACBM resulting in visible
emission.
Friable: when referring to material in a school building means that the material, when dry, may be
crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure, and includes previously nonfriable
material after such previously nonfriable material becomes damaged to the extent that when dry it
may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Friable asbestos-containing material (ACM): any material containing more than one percent
asbestos which has been applied on ceilings, walls, structural members, piping, duct work, or any
other part of a building, which when dry, may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by
hand pressure. Includes non-friable asbestos-containing material after such previously non-friable
material becomes damaged to the extent that when dry it may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to
powder by hand pressure.
Friable asbestos-containing building material (ACBM): any friable ACM that is in or on interior
structural members or other parts of a school or public and commercial building. Functional space: a room, group of rooms, or homogeneous area (including crawl spaces or the
space between a dropped ceiling and the floor or roof deck above), such as classroom(s), a cafeteria,
gymnasium, hallway(s), designated by a person accredited to prepare management plans, design
abatement projects, or conduct response actions.
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): refers to a filtering system capable of trapping and
retaining at least 99.97 percent of all monodispersed particles 0.3 mm in diameter or larger.
Homogeneous area: an area of surfacing material, thermal system insulation material, or
miscellaneous material that is uniform in color and texture.
Inspection: an activity undertaken in a school building, or a public and commercial building, to
determine the presence or location, or to assess the condition of, friable or non-friable
asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) or suspected ACBM, whether by visual or physical
examination, or by collecting samples of such material. This term includes reinspections of friable
and non-friable known or assumed ACBM which has been previously identified. The term does not
include the following:
(1) Periodic surveillance of the type described in 40 CFR 763.92(b) solely for the purpose of
recording or reporting a change in the condition of known or assumed ACBM;
(2) Inspections performed by employees or agents of Federal, State, or local government solely for
the purpose of determining compliance with applicable statutes or regulations; or
(3) Visual inspections of the type described in 40 CFR 763.90(i) solely for the purpose of
determining completion of response actions.
Local education agency:
(1) Any local educational agency as defined in section 198 of the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 3381).
(2) The owner of any nonpublic, nonprofit elementary, or secondary school building.
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(3) The governing authority of any school operated under the defense dependents' education system
provided for under the Defense Dependents' Education Act of 1978 (20 U.S.C. 921, et
seq.).
Major fiber release episode: any uncontrolled or unintentional disturbance of ACBM, resulting in
a visible emission, which involves the falling or dislodging of more than 3 square or linear feet of
friable ACBM. Management Plan: a site-specific guidance document that the LEA designated person must follow
in managing the ACBM present in a school building.
Minor fiber release episode: any uncontrolled or unintentional disturbance of ACBM, resulting in
a visible emission, which involves the falling or dislodging of 3 square or linear feet or less of
friable ACBM. Miscellaneous ACM: other, mostly nonfriable ACM, products and materials (found on structural
components, structural members or fixtures) such as floor tile, ceiling tile, construction mastic for
floor and ceiling materials, sheet flooring, fire doors, asbestos cement pipe and board, wallboard,
acoustical wall tile, and vibration damping cloth.
miscellaneous material that is ACM in a school building.
Miscellaneous material: interior building material on structural components, structural members
or fixtures, such as floor and ceiling tiles, and does not include surfacing material or thermal system
insulation.
Nonfriable: material in a school building which when dry may not be crumbled, pulverized, or
reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Operations and maintenance program: a program of work practices to maintain friable ACBM in
good condition, ensure clean up of asbestos fibers previously released, and prevent further release
by minimizing and controlling friable ACBM disturbance or damage.
Potential damage: circumstances in which:
(1) Friable ACBM is in an area regularly used by building occupants, including maintenance
personnel, in the course of their normal activities.
(2) There are indications that there is a reasonable likelihood that the material or its covering will
become damaged, deteriorated, or delaminated due to factors such as changes in
building use, changes in operations and maintenance practices, changes in occupancy,
or recurrent damage.
Potential significant damage: circumstances in which:
(1) Friable ACBM is in an area regularly used by building occupants, including maintenance
personnel, in the course of their normal activities.
(2) There are indications that there is a reasonable likelihood that the material or its covering will
become significantly damaged, deteriorated, or delaminated due to factors such as
changes in building use, changes in operations and maintenance practices, changes in
occupancy, or recurrent damage.
(3) The material is subject to major or continuing disturbance, due to factors including, but not
limited to, accessibility or, under certain circumstances, vibration or air erosion.
Preventive measures: actions taken to reduce disturbance of ACBM or otherwise eliminate the
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reasonable likelihood of the material's becoming damaged or significantly damaged.
Public and commercial building: the interior space of any building which is not a school building,
except that the term does not include any residential apartment building of fewer than 10 units or
detached single-family homes. The term includes, but is not limited to: industrial and office
buildings, residential apartment buildings and condominiums of 10 or more dwelling units,
government-owned buildings, colleges, museums, airports, hospitals, churches, preschools, stores,
warehouses and factories. Interior space includes exterior hallways connecting buildings, porticos,
and mechanical systems used to condition interior space.
Removal: the taking out or the stripping of substantially all ACBM from a damaged area, a
functional space, or a homogeneous area in a school building.
Repair: returning damaged ACBM to an undamaged condition or to an intact state so as to prevent
fiber release.
Response action: a method, including removal, encapsulation, enclosure, repair, operations and
maintenance, that protects human health and the environment from friable ACBM.
Routine maintenance area: an area, such as a boiler room or mechanical room, that is not
normally frequented by students and in which maintenance employees or contract workers regularly
conduct maintenance activities.
School: any elementary or secondary school as defined in section 198 of the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2854).
School building:
(1) Any structure suitable for use as a classroom, including a school facility such as a laboratory,
library, school eating facility, or facility used for the preparation of food.
(2) Any gymnasium or other facility which is specially designed for athletic or recreational activities
for an academic course in physical education.
(3) Any other facility used for the instruction or housing of students or for the administration of
educational or research programs.
(4) Any maintenance, storage, or utility facility, including any hallway, essential to the operation of
any facility described in this definition of "school building" under paragraphs (1), (2),
or (3).
(5) Any portico or covered exterior hallway or walkway.
(6) Any exterior portion of a mechanical system used to condition interior space.
Significantly damaged friable miscellaneous ACM: damaged friable miscellaneous ACM where
the damage is extensive and severe.
Significantly damaged friable surfacing ACM: damaged friable surfacing ACM in a functional
space where the damage is extensive and severe.
Small-scale, short-duration activities (SSSD): tasks such as, but not limited to:
(1) Removal of asbestos-containing insulation on pipes.
(2) Removal of small quantities of asbestos-containing insulation on beams or above ceilings.
(3) Replacement of an asbestos-containing gasket on a valve.
(4) Installation or removal of a small section of drywall.
(5) Installation of electrical conduits through or proximate to asbestos-containing materials.
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SSSD can be further defined by the following considerations:
(1) Removal of small quantities of ACM only if required in the performance of another maintenance
activity not intended as asbestos abatement.
(2) Removal of asbestos-containing thermal system insulation not to exceed amounts greater than
those which can be contained in a single glove bag.
(3) Minor repairs to damaged thermal system insulation which do not require removal.
(4) Repairs to a piece of asbestos-containing wallboard.
(5) Repairs, involving encapsulation, enclosure, or removal, to small amounts of friable ACM only
if required in the performance of emergency or routine maintenance activity and not
intended solely as asbestos abatement. Such work may not exceed amounts greater than
those which can be contained in a single prefabricated mini-enclosure. Such an
enclosure shall conform spatially and geometrically to the localized work area, in order
to perform its intended containment function.
Surfacing ACM: interior ACM that has been sprayed on, troweled on, or otherwise applied to
surfaces (structural members, walls, ceilings, etc.) for acoustical, decorative, fireproofing, or other
purposes.surfacing material that is ACM.
Surfacing material: material in a school building that is sprayed-on, troweled-on, or otherwise
applied to surfaces, such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural
members, or other materials on surfaces for acoustical, fireproofing, or other purposes.
Thermal system insulation: material in a school building applied to pipes, fittings, boilers,
breeching, tanks, ducts, or other interior structural components to prevent heat loss or gain, or water
condensation, or for other purposes.
Thermal system insulation ACM: insulation used to control heat transfer or prevent condensation
on pipes and pipe fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts, and other parts of hot and cold water
systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; or other mechanical systems
that is ACM.
Vibration: the periodic motion of friable ACBM which may result in the release of asbestos fibers.
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Acronyms
ACM: Asbestos-Containing Material
ACBM:Asbestos-Containing Building Material
AHERA:
Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act
ASHARA:
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthorization Act
DOT: Department of Transportation
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
HEPA: High Efficiency Particulate Air
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning
LEA: Local Education Agency
MAP: Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan
NESHAP:
National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NIOSH:
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
O&M: Operations and Maintenance
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PCM: Phase Contrast Microscopy
PLM: Polarized Light Microscopy
SSSD: Small Scale, Short Duration
TEM: Transmission Electron Microscopy
TSI: Thermal System Insulation
VAT: Vinyl Asbestos Tile
VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds
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