Teacher Handbook 3rd Year

Teacher Handbook 3rd Year
 Third Year
TEACHER HANDBOOK Third Year DRAFT Based on the 2016 Syllabus 1 Thirdyearhandbook
Contents
Page
3
Introduction
Section 1
Strand 3 (Number)
10
Section 2
Strand 1 (Statistics and Probability)
15
Section 3
Strand 2 (Synthetic Geometry 1)
21
Section 4
Strand 4 (Algebra)
26
Section 5
Strand 5 (Functions)
32
Section 6
Strand 4 (Relations without formulae)
33
Section 7
Strand 2 (Synthetic Geometry 2)
34
Section 8
Strand 2 (Coordinate Geometry)
36
Section 9
Strand 2 (Trigonometry)
38
Appendix A
Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels
40
The Van Hiele Theory
Appendix B
Appendix C
Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions
at all Levels
44
How to use CensusAtSchool
47
The strand structure of the syllabus should not be taken to imply that topics are to be studied in isolation.
Where appropriate, connections should be made within and across the strands and with other areas of
learning. (NCCA JC syllabus page 10 and LC syllabus page 8)
2 Thirdyearhandbook Resources which will allow teachers plan lessons, easily access specific learning outcomes in the syllabus
and relevant support material such as “Teaching & Learning Plans” and suggested activities to support
learning and teaching are available on the Project Maths website www.projectmaths.ie
3 Thirdyearhandbook Introduction: Student Learning
While this is a handbook for teachers, it must be emphasised that student learning and the process of
mathematical thinking and building understanding are the main focus of this document.
Information and Communications Technologies are used whenever and wherever appropriate to help
to support student learning. It is also envisaged that, at all levels, learners will engage with a dynamic
geometry software package.
Students with mild general learning disabilities
Teachers are reminded that the NCCA Guidelines on mathematics for students with mild general learning
disabilities can be accessed at
http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/PP_Maths.pdf
This document includes
 Exemplars (from page 7)
 Approaches and Methodologies (from Page 10)
Note on the Common Introductory Course
This first year handbook contains a suggested sequence for teaching First Year students. It includes the
material in the Common Introductory Course which is a minimum course for first year students and also
some other sections of the Junior Certificate syllabus which teachers may wish to deal with in first year. The
lesson ideas which include the Common Introductory Course are marked “CIC”.
Higher level material
Material which is higher level only is shown in bold typeface.
Note: Synthesis and problem solving listed below must be incorporated into all of the Strands.
The list of skills below is taken from Strand 1of the syllabus but, an identical list is given at the end of each
Strand in the syllabus.
4 Thirdyearhandbook Useful websites
http://www.projectmaths.ie/
http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/
http://www.examinations.ie/
Literacy and Numeracy Strategy
The National Strategy to Improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young People 20112020
Numeracy encompasses the ability to use mathematical understanding and skills to solve problems and
meet the demands of day-to-day living in complex social settings. To have this ability, a young person needs
to be able to think and communicate quantitatively, to make sense of data, to have a spatial awareness, to
understand patterns and sequences, and to recognise situations where mathematical reasoning can be applied
to solve problems.
Literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of communication
including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media.
5 Thirdyearhandbook Colour coding used in the suggested sequence below:
Strand 1
Strand 2
Strand 3
Strand 4
Strand 5
Statistics and
Probability
Geometry and
Trigonometry
Number
Algebra
Functions
6 Thirdyearhandbook Suggested sequence of topics
Section
number
Section1
Section 2
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
3.3
Corresponding
Lesson
Number
Title of lesson
idea
Page
number
3.1
Applied arithmetic to
include HL material
10
3.1 and 3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
1.4 & 1.5
3.7
1.4 & 1.5
3.8
1.4 & 1.5
3.9
1.4 & 1.5 &
1.6
3.10
1.1
3.11
1.2 &1.3
1.2 &1.3
3.12
3.13
1.2 &1.3
3.14
Real numbers
Indices
Numbers in standard
form/scientific
notation
Applied measure
Sets
Revising and building
on second year
material using a
statistical
investigation
Data handling cycle
using categorical data
including revision of
second year material
Data handling cycle
using categorical data
including revision of
second year material
Evaluate statistical
displays conducted by
others and compare
data sets using shape,
centre and spread
Revision of
fundamental principle
of counting and
second year material
Independent events 1
Independent events 2
Further probability
with playing cards,
spinners, containers
with different
coloured objects
7 10
11
12
12
13
15
16
16
17
18
18
19
19
Thirdyearhandbook Section
number
Section 3
Section 4
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Corresponding
Lesson
Number
2.1
3.15
2.1 & 2.4
3.16
2.1
3.17
2.1
3.18
2.1
3.19
2.1
3.20
4.1,4.2,4.3,4.4
3.21
4.6
3.22
4.5
3.23
4.7
3.24
4.7
3.25
4.7
3.26
Title of lesson
idea
Revision of second
year material -Lesson
Ideas 2.26 -2.33
Revision of second
year material – a
complete recap on
Lessons 2.34 -2.39
Investigating a square
Investigating a
rectangle
Theorem 11
Theorem 12 (HL only)
and theorem 13
Relations approach to
algebra- revision and
extension from second
year material
Evaluation of and
operations on
algebraic expressionsrevision and extension
of second year
material
Algebraic factors with
an extension to HL
material
Adding algebraic
fractions - revision
and extension of
second year material
Linear equations and
linear inequalities revision and extension
of second year
material
Solve quadratic
equations - revision
and extension of
second year material
8 Page
number
22
22
23
23
24
25
26
27
29
29
30
30
Thirdyearhandbook Section
number
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Corresponding
Lesson
Number
Title of lesson
idea
Page
number
4.6
3.27
Rearranging formulae
31
Section 5
5.1, 5.2
3.28
Section 6
4.5
3.29
Section 7
2.1
3.30
2.1
3.31
2.1
3.32
2.2
3.33
Section 8
Functions interpreting and
representing linear,
quadratic and
exponential functions
in graphical form
Relations without
formulae
Theorems 14 and 15
and Proposition 9
Constructions 13, 14
and 15
Theorem 19 and
Corollary 2 and 5 (HL
only) and Corollaries
3 and 4
Co-ordinate geometry
- revision and
extension of second
year material
32
33
34
34
35
36
The equation of a line
2.2
Section 9
3.34
2.3
3.35
2.3
3.36
2.3
3.37
36
Revision of
Pythagoras’ Theorem
14
Scaled diagrams
(T& L plan 8)
Introduction to
trigonometry
Trig ratios ( T& L
plan 8) Introduction to
trigonometry
9 38
38
39
Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Ideas
Section 1: Number
Lesson Idea 3.1
Title
Applied arithmetic to include HL material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Number systems  , ,  (revision)


Reciprocals
Factors, multiples and primes ( revision)

Further contexts with fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio and proportion involving:
o Solving problems e.g. mobile phone tariffs, currency transactions, shopping, VAT and meter
readings
o
Profit or loss, % profit or loss (on the cost price), discount and % discount, calculation of
selling price, mark up (profit as a % of cost price, margin (profit as a % of selling price)
o Problems involving calculating cost price
o Compound interest for not more than three years (OL), compound interest for more than
three years
o Income tax (standard rate only for OL)
o Net pay (including other deductions of specified amounts)
o Income tax and net pay including other deductions
o Making value- for- money calculations and judgments
Lesson Idea 3.2 Higher level only
Title
Real numbers
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
10 Thirdyearhandbook Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Number systems

Link between set and continuous numeric data in statistics

Operate on the set of irrational numbers \
, , , \ ,
Lesson Idea 3.3
Title
Indices
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to use and apply the rules for indices (where a   , p, q   ) continued from second year
a p aq  a pq
ap
 a p  q
q
a
a 
p q
 a pq
1
2

Use the notation a , a  
How to use and apply the rules for indices (where a, b   , p, q   ) at higher level
a p a q  a pq
ap
 a p q
aq
a 
p q
 a pq
11 Thirdyearhandbook 1
a0
a
a
1
q
 a , q  Z ,q  0 ,a  0
q
p
q
 a p , p,q  Z ,q  0 ,a  0
q

a- p
 ab 
p
1
ap
 a pb p
p
ap
a

b
bp
 
Lesson Idea 3.4
Title
Numbers in standard form /scientific notation
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


How to express rational numbers  1 , in the approximate form a  10 n , correct to a specified number
of decimal places and where n = 0 or n  N
Express non-zero positive rational numbers in the approximate form a  10 n where
n  Z, and 1  a  10
Lesson Idea 3.5
Title
Applied measure
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Application and interpretation of units of measure and time

Drawing and interpreting scaled diagrams
12 Thirdyearhandbook 
Problems involving perimeter and area of the following plane figures: disc, triangle, rectangle,
square and figures made from combinations of these

The relationship between the circumference of a circle, its diameter and 

The nets of rectangular solids

the nets of prisms (polygonal bases), cylinders and cones

The surface area of rectangular solids

Solution of problems involving surface area of triangular based prisms (right angle, isosceles,
equilateral), cylinders and cones

Solution of problems involving curved surface area of cylinders, cones and spheres

The volume of rectangular solids and cylinders

How to solve problems involving the volume of rectangular solids, cylinders, cones, triangular
base prisms(right angle, isosceles, equilateral), spheres and combinations of these

How to model real-world situations and solve a variety of problems (including multi –step problems)
involving surface areas and volumes of cylinders and prisms.
Lesson Idea 3.6
Title
Sets
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The concept of a set as being a collection of well defined objects, equality of sets

Venn diagrams, universal set, null set, sub-set, cardinal number, set builder notation

Union and intersection as operators on two sets

Set difference

Complement of a set

Investigate the commutative property for intersection , union and difference

Solve problems involving sets
13 Thirdyearhandbook 
Explore the operations of intersection, union (for three sets), set difference and complement

Investigate the associative property for intersection, union and difference

Investigate the distributive property of union over intersection and intersection over union
14 Thirdyearhandbook Section 2: Statistics and Probability
Lesson Idea 3.7 (Statistics)
Title
Statistics - Revising and building on second year material using a statistical investigation
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
The following learning outcomes from second year:














The use of statistics to gather information from a sample of the population with the intention of
making generalisations about the whole population
Misconceptions and misuses of statistics
How to formulate one (or more) questions that can be answered with data
How to plan an investigation involving statistics and conduct the investigation using the data
handling cycle:
o Pose one (or more) questions that can be answered with data
o Collect data
o Analyse the data
o Interpret the results
o Refine the question if necessary
The different ways of collecting data, e.g. CensusAtSchool questionnaire
How to select a sample (simple random sample)
The importance of representativeness so as to avoid biased samples
The different types of data:
o category (nominal and ordinal)
o numeric (discrete or continuous)
How to summarise data in diagrammatic form including spreadsheets
How to use bar charts, line plots, stem and leaf plots to display data
How to select appropriate graphical methods to describe the sample
Measures of central tendency: mean, mode, median
Range as a measure of spread
How to evaluate reliability of data and data sources
15 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.8 (Statistics)
Title
Data handling cycle for categorical data revising and building on second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



How to pose a question yielding categorical data (possibly from census at school questionnaire)
How to collect categorical data (possibly from census at school questionnaire)
How to use bar charts as a graphical representation of the categorical data using frequency on the y
–axis

How to use bar charts as a graphical representation of the categorical data using relative
frequency(percentages) on the y -axis
How to use a line plot as a graphical representation of categorical data
How to represent the data in a particular category as a proportion of all the data
How to use pie charts to compare “part to whole” using the concept of proportions
How to select appropriate graphical displays to describe categorical data and evaluate the
effectiveness of these different graphical displays
How to use the mode as a measure of central tendency
How to draw conclusions from graphical and numerical summaries, recognising assumptions and
limitations
How sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about
the population







Lesson Idea 3.9 (Statistics)
Title
Data handling cycle for continuous numeric data revising and building on second year material
Resources
Online Resources Junior Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



How to pose a question yielding numeric discrete or continuous data (possibly from census at school
questionnaire)
How to collect numeric discrete or continuous data (possibly from census at school questionnaire)
How to use a line plot, if feasible, as a graphical representation of the ungrouped continuous numeric
data
16 Thirdyearhandbook 
















How to use a stem and leaf plot as a graphical representation of the ungrouped continuous numeric
data
The effect of splitting stems in a stem and leaf plot if data is suitable
Range as a measure of spread
Recognise the existence of outliers
The use of stem and leaf plots to calculate quartiles and inter-quartile range
How to compare range and inter-quartile range as measures of spread
How to use back to back stem and leaf plots to display data
How to group data into equal class intervals in a grouped frequency table
Histograms with equal class intervals for numeric continuous data and relationship with stem and
leaf plots
Histograms with relative frequency (percentages) on the y - axis
The effect of interval width on the information conveyed by the histogram
How to select appropriate graphical displays to describe numeric data and evaluate the effectiveness
of these different graphical displays
The use of graphical representations to describe what is typical in the data using concepts of shape
and measures of central tendency: mean, mode, median
The mean of a grouped frequency distribution (HL only)
How to relate the interpretation to the original question posed
How to draw conclusions from graphical and numerical summaries, recognising assumptions and
limitations
How sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about
the population
Lesson Idea 3.10 (Statistics)
Title
Evaluate displays of statistical investigations conducted by others and use appropriate graphical displays to
compare data sets
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


How to evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in representing the findings of a statistical
investigation conducted by others
How to use appropriate graphical displays to compare data sets taking into account shape, centre and
spread
17 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.11 (Probability)
Title
Revision of fundamental principle of counting and second year probability
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:















How to list all possible outcomes of an experiment
How to apply the fundamental principle of counting
How to distinguish certain from uncertain events
How to describe events as being more or less likely from experience
How to order events from least likely to most likely and be able to justify their choice
How to use the scale from 0 to 1 to informally place everyday chance-related events
How to represent and interpret probabilities as fractions, decimals and percentages
How to represent the probability of an event as a fraction or decimal between 0 and 1 or as a
percentage
Equally likely outcomes
How to list all possible outcomes for practical experiments such as rolling a fair die
That the outcomes on successive throws of a die are independent of each other
How to calculate the relative frequency for each outcome by experiment and note how it approaches
the theoretical probability as the number of trials increases
The principle that, in the case of equally likely outcomes, the probability is given by the number of
outcomes of interest divided by the total number of outcomes
The following terminology: trial, outcome, set of all possible outcomes, relative frequency, event,
theoretical probability, equally likely outcomes
How to estimate probabilities from experimental data
Lesson Idea 3.12 (Probability)
Title
Independent events 1
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:




How to list all the possible outcomes for throwing two dice (or similar experiments) using a two way
table
How to relate the number of outcomes to the fundamental principle of counting
What the concept of fairness means in a game with two dice or similar games
How to come up with rules for a game which make it fair/unfair
18 Thirdyearhandbook 



How to construct a probability table
How to use set theory to discuss experiments, outcomes, sample spaces
The relationship between an event and its complement
How to determine the probability of an event using the results of an experiment and use this to
predict the result of a repetition of the experiment, for equally likely outcomes
Lesson Idea 3.13 (Probability)
Title
Independent events 2
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:








How to list the possible outcomes when tossing a coin (or similar experiment) and calculate the
probability of getting a head or a tail
How to list all the possible outcomes when tossing 2 coins (or similar experiment)
How to use a tree diagram and two way table to list all the possible outcomes when tossing a coin
How to relate the number of outcomes to the fundamental principle of counting
How to determine the probability of an event using the results of an experiment and use this to
predict the result of a repetition of the experiment, for equally likely outcomes.
The use of the term “independent events”
How to use tree diagrams and two way tables in other scenarios
How to use binary/counting methods to solve problems involving successive random events
where only two possible outcomes apply to each event

Lesson Idea 3.14 (Probability)
Title
Further probability with playing cards, spinners, containers with different coloured objects
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


A standard deck of playing cards, knowing the names of the 4 suits, how many cards in a pack, how
many in each suit, and the names of the cards in each suit
How to calculate the theoretical probability of picking different cards from the pack
19 Thirdyearhandbook 
Probabilities with spinners or containers with different coloured objects (or similar experiments)
20 Thirdyearhandbook Section 3 : Synthetic Geometry 1
While proofs are not the issue as regards informal introduction, it is important that students are kept
aware that the theorems build logically.
Concepts relevant to this section in synthetic geometry:
Set, plane, point, line, ray, angle, real number, length, degree. Triangle, right-angle, congruent
triangles, parallel lines, area, line segment, collinear points, distance, reflex angle, ordinary angle,
straight angle, null angle, full angle, supplementary angles, vertically-opposite angles, acute angle,
obtuse angle, angle bisector, perpendicular lines, perpendicular bisector of a line segment, isosceles
triangle, equilateral triangle, scalene triangle, right-angled triangle, exterior angles of a triangle,
interior opposite angles, alternate angles, corresponding angles, transversal line, circle.
This is a suggested sequence for teaching Third Year students. It includes the material in the Common
Introductory Course and also deals with some triangle constructions and congruence of triangles. Refer to
the syllabus for the “Geometry for Post - primary School Mathematics” which sets out the agreed course
in geometry for both Junior Certificate Mathematics and Leaving Certificate Mathematics. Strand 2 of the
relevant syllabus document specifies the learning outcomes at the different syllabus levels.
Refer to Appendix A: “Geometry - Thinking at different levels - The Van Hiele Theory”
Refer to Appendix B for the “Guide to Axioms, Theorems and Constructions for all Levels”. In
Appendix B, * indicates that proof of the relevant theorem is required for JCHL and LCHL and **
indicates that proof of the relevant theorem is required for LCHL only.
Teachers are also strongly recommended to use the Geometry Lesson Idea ideas in the “Junior Certificate
Guidelines for Teachers” (DES 2002, Government Publications Sales Office). It is also available to
download at www.projectmaths.ie.
As outlined at the workshops, the use of manipulative products such as “geostrips”, “anglegs”, geo-boards
etc. can make the learning so much more enjoyable for students of all perceived abilities.
The first 2 lesson ideas for Geometry of year 3 are designed to give the students a chance to revisit the
material met in first and second year Geometry. It is recommended that new activities and challenges be
introduced during this revision so that students do not see it as too much repetition and that they can see new
ways of investigating familiar situations.
Note on experimentation and experimental results:
With experimentation, when we measure, the results are only approximations and won’t agree exactly. It is
important for students to report faithfully what they find e.g. for a triangle they could find that the sum of the
angles to be 1790 or 181 etc. The conclusion is that the angles appear to add up to 1800. This is a plausible
working assumption. There is a distinction between what you can discover and what you can prove.
In first year we were experimenting and using words. In second year we start to problem solve in concrete
situations and then in third year we prove things.
See Section 8.2 (From Discovery to Proof) of Geometry for Post - primary School Mathematics.
21 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.15
Title
Revision of second year material – Lesson Ideas 2.27 -2.34
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set, Dynamic software package
Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers (DES 2002, Government Publications Sales Office). It is also
available to download at www.projectmaths.ie.
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:







The use of the term: theorem, proof, axiom, corollary and implies
Axioms 1, 2, 3 and 5
Constructions 8, 9, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4 and (7 for higher level)
Theorems 1 – 6
Proof of Theorems 4 and 6
Axiom 4 : Congruent triangles (SSS, ASA, SAS)
Alternate angles and corresponding angles
Lesson Idea 3.16
Title
Revision of second year material – Lessons 2.35 -2.39
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set, Dynamic software package
Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers (DES 2002, Government Publications Sales Office). It is also
available to download at www.projectmaths.ie.
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:





Translations, axial symmetry, central symmetry and rotations
Properties of parallelograms
Square, rhombus, parallelogram, rectangle
Theorems 9,10
Proof of Theorem 9
22 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.17
Title
Investigating a Square
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
 The properties of a square
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following investigations about a square
Draw a square ABCD
Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E
Are the two diagonals equal in length? (Measure)
Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC
(say why they are equal)
Can you see why triangles ADE and BEC are congruent? Give a reason
Are the triangles AEB and DEC congruent? Give a reason
Are there 4 congruent triangles in the square?
Are the diagonals perpendicular? Give a reason
Do the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the square?
How many axes of symmetry does the square have?
Does the square have a centre of symmetry? If so, where is it?
Lesson Idea 3.18
Title
Investigating a Rectangle (which is not a square)
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
23 Thirdyearhandbook Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The properties of a rectangle(which is not a square)
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following investigations about a rectangle
Draw a rectangle ABCD (not a square)
Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E
Are the two diagonals equal in length? (Measure)
Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC
(Say why they are equal.)
Can you see why triangles ADE and BEC are congruent? Give a reason
Are the triangles AEB and DEC congruent? Give a reason
Are there 4 congruent triangles in the rectangle?
Are the diagonals perpendicular? Give a reason
Do the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the rectangle?
How many axes of symmetry does the rectangle have?
Does the Rectangle have a centre of symmetry? If so, where is it?
Possible extra activity:
Repeat the above investigations for the rhombus ABCD
Lesson Idea 3.19 (Higher level only)
Title
Theorem 11
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Theorem 11:
If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some
transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on any
other transversal. (Higher Level only)
24 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.20
Title
Theorem 12 (Higher level only) and Theorem 13
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set, Dynamic software package
Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers (DES 2002, Government Publications Sales Office).
It is also available to download at www.projectmaths.ie.
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Theorem 12: Let ABC be a triangle. If a line l is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in the ratio : ,
then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio.
(Higher level only)

The meaning of similar triangles and the difference between similar and congruent triangles.

Theorem 13: If two triangles are similar, then their sides are proportional, in
order (and converse)
Suggested class activities
See Geometry Lesson Idea 12 in “Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers”, page 70. This gives students
an opportunity to discover the difference between similar and congruent triangles.
Available at www.projectmaths.ie
25 Thirdyearhandbook Section 4: Algebra
Lesson Idea 3.21
Title
Relations approach to algebra- revision and extension from second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to develop generalising strategies and ideas (considering those of others), present and interpret
solutions, explaining and justifying methods, inferences and reasoning in the following:
o The use of tables to represent a repeating pattern situation
o Generalise and explain patterns and relationships in words and numbers
o The use of tables, diagrams , graphs words and formulae as tools for representing and
analysing linear patterns and relations

Discuss rate of change and the y - intercept. Consider how these relate to the context
from which the relationship is derived and identify how they can appear in a table, in
a graph and in a formula.

Write arithmetic expressions for particular terms in a sequence

Find the underlying formula written in words from which the data is derived

Find the underlying formula algebraically from which the data is derived (linear,
quadratic)

Decide if two linear relations have a common value (decide if two lines intersect and
where the intersection occurs).

Relations of the form y  mx (proportional relationships) as distinct from
relationships of the form

Recognise problems involving direct proportion and identify the necessary
information to solve them

The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of outputs
where each input is related to only one output
26 Thirdyearhandbook o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing
quadratic patterns and relations

Recognise that a distinguishing feature of quadratic relations is the way change varies

Find the underlying formula algebraically from which the data is derived

The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of outputs
where each input is related to only one output
o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing
exponential patterns and relations (exponential relations limited to doubling and trebling)

Recognise that a distinguishing feature of exponential relations is the way change
varies

The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of outputs
where each input is related to only one output
Lesson Idea 3.22
Title
Evaluation of and operations on algebraic expressions- revision and extension of second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Terms, coefficients and expressions

Generating algebraic expressions from simple contexts

Evaluating expressions
27 Thirdyearhandbook ax  by
a  x  y
x 2  bx  c
ax  by
cx  dy
axy
where a, b, c, d , x, y  Z
ax 2  bx  c
x 3  bx 2  cx  d where a, b, c, d , x, y  Q

Adding and subtract algebraic expressions of forms such as:
 ax  by  c    dx  ey  f 
 ax
2
 bx  c    dx 2  ex  f 
 ax  by  c   .....   dx  ey  f 
 ax

2
 bx  c   .....   dx 2  ex  f  where a, b, c, d , e, f  Z
Multiplying terms and expressions (using a model such as the array model) using the associative and
distributive properties to simplify such expressions as:
a  bx  cy  d   e  fx  gy  h 
a  bx  cy  d   .....  e  fx  gy  h
a  bx 2  cx  d 
ax  bx 2  c  where a, b, c, d , e, f , g , h  Z
 x  y  x  y 
 x  y  x  y 
How to multiply expressions of the form:
 ax  b  cx  d 
 ax  b   cx 2  dx  e  where a, b, c, d , e  Z

How to divide expressions of the form:
ax 2  bx  c  dx  e, where a, b, c, d , e  

ax 3  bx 2  cx  d  ex  f , where a , b, c, d , e  Z
28 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.23
Title
Algebraic factors with an extension to HL material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Use of the distributive law to multiply expressions
Factorising expressions such as:
ax, axy where a  Z
abxy  ay where a, b  Z
sx  ty  tx  sy where s, t , x, y are variable
ax 2  bx where a, b  Z
x 2  bx  c, where b, c  Z
x2  a2
Higher level material:
ax 2  bx  c, a  N, b, c  Z
a 2 x 2  b 2 y 2 , where a , b  N
Lesson Idea 3.24
Title
Adding algebraic fractions - revision and extension of second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


The addition of expressions such as:
ax  b dx  e

where a, b, c, d , e, f  Z
c
f
ax  b
dx  e
 ... 
where a , b, c , d , e, f  Z
c
f
a
p

where a , b, c, p, q, r  Z
bx  c qx  r
29 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.25
Title
Linear equations and linear inequalities - revision and extension of second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The concept of equality and what is meant by an equation

How to identify the necessary information, represent problems mathematically, making correct use
of symbols, words, diagrams, tables and graphs
o The use of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic and mental) for finding solutions to
equations of the form:

First degree equations in one or two variables with coefficients elements of
solutions in , including equations of the form:
ax  b dx  e g

 where a, b, c, e, f , g , h  Z
c
f
h
and
o The use of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric and algebraic) in the solution of first
degree equations in one or two variables, with coefficients elements of and solutions
also in
o The use of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric and algebraic) in the solution of linear
inequalities in one variable of the form:

g  x   k where g  x   ax  b, a  N and b, k  Z

k  g ( x )  h where g ( x )  ax  b and k , a , b, h  Z and x  R

How to graph solution sets on the number line for linear inequalities in one variable
Lesson Idea 3.26
Title
Solve quadratic equations - revision and extension of second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
30 Thirdyearhandbook Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to identify the necessary information, represent problems mathematically, making correct use
of symbols, words, diagrams, tables and graphs
o The use of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic and mental) in the solution of
quadratic equations of the form x 2  bx  c  0 where b, c  Z and x 2  bx  c is factorisable
o The use of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric and algebraic) in the solution of quadratic
equations of the form ax 2  bx  c  0 where a, b, c  Q and x  R
o Form quadratic equations give whole number roots
o Solve simple problems leading to quadratic equations
Lesson Idea 3.27
Title
Rearrange formulae (HL)
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Rearranging formulae including the use of various contexts
31 Thirdyearhandbook Section 5: Functions
Lesson Idea 3.28
Title
Functions -interpreting and representing linear, quadratic and exponential functions in graphical form
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The concept of a function, domain, co - domain and range

How to make use of function notation f ( x )  ,

How to interpret simple graphs

How to plot points and lines

How to draw graphs of the following functions and interpret equations of the form f ( x )  g ( x ) as a
f : x , and y 
comparison of functions
f ( x)  ax  b where a, b  Z
f ( x)  ax 2  bx  c, where a  N; b, c  Z; x  R
f ( x )  ax 2  bx  c, where a , b, c  Z; x  R
f ( x )  a 2 x and f ( x )  a3 x where a  N, x  R
 How to use graphical methods to find approximate solutions where f ( x )  g ( x ) and interpret the
results
 How to find maximum and minimum values of quadratic functions from a graph
 How to interpret inequalities of the form f ( x )  g ( x ) as a comparison of functions of the above
form; use graphical methods to find approximate solution sets of these inequalities and
interpret the results
32 Thirdyearhandbook Section 6: Algebra
Lesson Idea 3.29
Title
Relations without formulae
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Graphs of motion



How to make sense of qualitative graphs and drawing conclusions from them
The connections between the shape of a graph and the story of a phenomenon
How to describe both quantity and change of quantity on a graph
33 Thirdyearhandbook Section 7: (Synthetic geometry Part 2)
Lesson Idea 3.30
Title
Theorems 14 and 15 and Proposition 9
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers (DES 2002, Government Publications Sales Office ). It is also
available to download at www.projectmaths.ie.
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

*Theorem 14: [Theorem of Pythagoras] (proof required for Higher Level only)

Theorem 15: [Converse to Theorem of Pythagoras] If the square of one side of a triangle is the sum
of the squares of the other two sides, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle.

Proposition 9: If two right-angled triangles have hypotenuse and another side equal in length
respectively, then they are congruent. (RHS)
Suggested class activities
See Geometry Lesson Idea Ideas 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 in “Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers” Pp 66-69.
Available at www.projectmaths.ie
Geometry Lesson Idea 3.31
Title
Constructions 13, 14 and 15
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Construction 13: Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side

Construction 14: Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles (several cases)

Construction 15: Rectangle given side lengths
34 Thirdyearhandbook Geometry Lesson Idea 3.32
Title
Theorem 19 and Corollaries 2 and 5 (higher level only) and Corollaries 3 and 4
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
*Theorem 19: The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc is twice the angle at any
point of the circle standing on the same arc. (Proof required for Higher Level only)
Corollary 2:


All angles at points of a circle, standing on the same arc, are equal
(and converse)
Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right- angle,
then [BC] is a diameter.
Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then opposite angles sum to 180°,
(and converse)
35 Thirdyearhandbook Section 8: Coordinate Geometry
Lesson Idea 3.33
Title
Co-ordinate geometry - revision and extension of second year material
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:











Plane, points, lines, line segments, rays, collinear points, length of a line segment
Coordinating the plane
Locating points on the plane using coordinates
The relationship between the midpoint and the length of a line segment
The midpoint formula in coordinate geometry
The distance formula in coordinate geometry (Relate the formula to Pythagoras’ theorem.)
The concept of slope as “rise/run”
Links between slope and rate of change (e.g. growth of plant) and other real life contexts
Interpreting slope in context
The formula for the slope of a line
Parallel and perpendicular lines and the relationship between the slopes
Lesson Idea 3.34
Title
The equation of a line
Resources
Online Resources Junior Certificate document
Graph paper, mathematical set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
 Links to real life context (e.g. growth of plant)
 Using table, graphs and diagrams in relation to the equation of a line
 The connection between the y-intercept, slope and the equation of a line
36 Thirdyearhandbook 

Link positive, negative and zero slope to real lie contexts.
The equation of a line in the forms:
y  y1  m  x  x1 
o
y  mx  c
o






ax  by  c  0 (HL only) where , , are integers and
is the slope of the line
The connection between the x and y intercepts and the equation of a line from a graphical and
algebraic perspective
Points on a line (and not on a line) from a graphical and algebraic perspective
Properties of the equation of a line
How to find the slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines from their equations
How to recognise parallel and perpendicular lines from their equations
How to find the point of intersection of two lines graphically and algebraically
37 Thirdyearhandbook Section 9: Trigonometry
Lesson Idea 3.35
Title
Revision of Pythagoras’ Theorem
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Graph paper, calculator,
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
NCCA Mathematics Resources for Students – Junior Certificate Strand 2
Mathematics Junior Certificate Guidelines for Teachers Pages 66-69
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
 Pythagoras’ Theorem using a visual geometric model and using algebra
 The properties of a right-angled triangle generated by Pythagoras’ Theorem (differentiate between
the hypotenuse and any other side, finding length of unknown side, verify if a triangle is (or is not)
right-angled
 Apply the theorem of Pythagoras to solve right – angled triangle problems of a simple nature
involving heights and distances
 Proof of Theorem 14 (Pythagoras’ Theorem)
Lesson Idea 3.36
Title
Revision of scaled diagrams from second year
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Graph paper, calculator,
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
NCCA Mathematics Resources for Students – Junior Certificate Strand 2
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The use of a scaled diagram to measure angles of elevation and depression and unknown lengths
(Trigonometric ratios are not being used yet. See pages 12 to 14 for ordinary-level, pages 12 to 17
for higher-level, of Teaching and Learning Plan 8 : Introduction to Trigonometry)
38 Thirdyearhandbook Lesson Idea 3.37
Title
Trigonometric ratios in right-angled triangles (sine, cosine, tangent)
Resources
Online resources on the Project Maths website
Graph paper, calculator,
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
NCCA Mathematics Resources for Students – Junior Certificate Strand 2
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:










The labelling of the sides of a right-angled triangle (opposite, adjacent and hypotenuse)
The meaning of complementary angles
Similar right – angled triangles and practical uses
The trigonometric ratios:
o Understanding tan (tangent) as the ratio of opposite to adjacent in a right-angled triangle and
link to slope of a line (rise/run)
o Understanding sine and cosine as ratios between the sides of the right-angled triangle
The use of these trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving angles (integer values ) between
0° and 90°
The use of these trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving right – angled triangles
The use of a clinometer in conjunction with trigonometry to solve practical problems
How to work with trigonometric ratios in surd form for right –angled triangles with angles of
300, 450 and 600
The solution of problems involving surds
The manipulation and measure of angles in both decimal and DMS forms
39 Thirdyearhandbook Appendix A
Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels
The Van Hiele Theory
The Van Hiele model describes how students learn geometry. Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof,
mathematics teachers from the Netherlands, observed their geometry students in the 1950's.The following is
a brief summary of the Van Hiele theory. According to this theory, students progress through 5 levels of
thinking starting from merely recognising a shape to being able to write a formal proof. The levels are as
follows:
*Visualisation (Level 0)
The objects of thought are shapes and what they look like.
Students have an overall impression of a shape. The appearance of a shape is what is important. They may
think that a rotated square is a “diamond” and not a square because it is different from their visual image of
a square. They will be able to distinguish shapes like triangles, squares, rectangles etc but will not be able to
explain, for example, what makes a rectangle a rectangle. Vocabulary: Students use visual words like
“pointy”, “curvy”, “corner” as well as correct language like angle, rectangle and parallelogram.
*Analysis (Level 1)
The objects of thought are “classes” of shapes rather than individual shapes.





Students think about what makes a rectangle a rectangle and can separate the defining characteristics
of a rectangle from irrelevant information like size and orientation. They recognize its parts (sides,
diagonals and angles) and compare their properties (similar, congruent)
They understand that if a shape belongs to a class like “rectangle”, then it has all the properties of
that class (2 pairs of equal sides, right angles, 2 equal diagonals, 2 axes of symmetry).
Vocabulary: words like parallel, perpendicular and congruent relating to properties within a figure
and the words all, always, sometimes, never, alike, different.
A concise definition of a figure, using a sufficient rather than an exhaustive list of properties is not
possible at this level.
They do not deal with questions like “Is a square a parallelogram?” but just look at the properties of
each class of shape, without comparing the classes.
*Some visualisation and analysis is covered in Primary School.
Relational/ Ordering/Informal Deduction (Level 2)
The objects of thought are the properties of shapes.

Students are ready to understand interrelationships of properties within figures and between figures.
Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and opposite angles are equal.
40 Thirdyearhandbook 




A rectangle is a parallelogram since it has all the properties of a parallelogram as well as all 900
angles.
Students can recognise the difference between a statement and its converse. All squares are
rectangles (true) is different from all rectangles are squares (not true).
Capable of “if –then” thinking – if a shape is a rectangle then all the angles in it are right angles. If
|<A |= |<B |and |<B| = |<C| then |< A| =|<C|
They can select one or two properties to define a figure rather than an exhaustive list. If a
quadrilateral has 4 equal sides and one right angle it must be a square.
Students can discover new properties by simple deduction. The 2 acute angles in a right angled
triangle add to 900 because all the angles in a triangle add up to 1800. They can explain logically
without having to measure everything.
Formal deduction (Level 3)
Students learn how to use an axiomatic system to establish geometric theory. This is the level at which proof
of Theorems is learned. The sequence of theorems given in the appendix is arranged in such a manner that
each theorem builds on the previous theorem(s).
Rigor (Level 4)
Comparing different axiomatic systems – not done at secondary level
Characteristics of these levels: Students cannot function at any particular level unless they are
competent at all previous levels. The teacher’s role is crucial in structuring activities to bring students from
one level to the next.
How does the teacher bring students from any one level to the next?
5 phases of learning:
1. In an informal discussion of the topic, students are asked to give their initial observations.
2. The teacher provides structured activities such as drawing, making and measuring.
3. The students then verbalise and write down what they have learned and report back in groups to the
class, which leads to a class discussion.
4. The teacher then provides an activity which will require students to apply what they have discovered
5. In the last stage students are required to summarise all they have learned and should be able to
remember it as they have discovered it through guidance.
41 Thirdyearhandbook A PowerPoint presentation of the Van Hiele theory can be got at www.projectmaths.ie (Workshop 2
Show 2) http://www.projectmaths.ie/workshops/WS2_NR/WS2_NR_PPTS.zip
A mind map of the Van Hiele theory can be found at
http://agutie.homestead.com/files/mindmap/van_hiele_geometry_level.html
42 Thirdyearhandbook Appendix B
Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels*
This is intended as a quick guide to the various axioms, theorems and constructions as set out in the
Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics. You can get this from the project maths website:
www.projectmaths.ie
It is not intended as a replacement for this document, merely as an aid to reading at a glance which material
is required to be studied at various levels. The sequence of theorems as given must be followed.
As stated in the heading, these theorems and constructions are underpinned by 46 definitions and 20
propositions which are all set out in the Geometry for Post-Primary School Mathematics, along with many
undefined terms and definable terms used without explicit definition.
*An axiom is a statement accepted without proof, as a basis for argument
*A theorem is a statement deduced from the axioms by logical argument. Theorems can also be deduced
from previously established theorems.
* A proposition is a useful or interesting statement that could be proved at this point, but whose proof is not
stipulated as an essential part of the programme. Teachers are free to deal with them as they see fit, but they
should be mentioned, at least (Appendix p. 20, footnote).
*The instruments that may be used for constructions are listed and described on page 38 of the Appendix
and are a straight edge, compass, ruler, protractor and set-square.
Terms
Students at Junior Certificate Higher level and Leaving Certificate Ordinary level will be
expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive
reasoning:
Theorem, proof, axiom, corollary, converse, implies.
43 Thirdyearhandbook Synthetic Geometry
Guide to Axioms, Theorems and Constructions for all Levels
Interactive files are available in the Student Area on the Project Maths website.
Axioms and Theorems
(supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions)
*proof required for JCHL only
** proof required for LCHL only
 These results are required as background knowledge for
constructions and/or applications of trigonometry.
Axiom 1: There is exactly one line through any two given
points
Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance
between points.
Axiom 3: Protractor Axiom (The properties of the degree
measure of an angle).
1
2
3
4*
5
6*
7
8
9*
10
Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure.
Axiom 4: Congruent triangles conditions (SSS, SAS,
ASA)
In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides
are equal. Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the
triangle is isosceles.
Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly
one line through P that is parallel to l.
If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines
then the lines are parallel. Conversely, if two lines are
parallel, then any transversal will make equal alternate
angles with them.
The angles in any triangle add to 180⁰.
Two lines are parallel if, and only if, for any transversal, the
corresponding angles are equal.
Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the
interior opposite angles.
The angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than
the angles opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side
opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side
opposite the lesser angle.
CMN
Introd.
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Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third.
In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite
angles are equal. Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a
convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram;
(2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal,
then it is a parallelogram.
Corollary 1. A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two
congruent triangles.
The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one
another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
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Thirdyearhandbook 11**
12**
13**
14*
15
16
Axioms and Theorems
(supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions)
*proof required for JCHL only
** proof required for LCHL only
 These results are required as background knowledge for
constructions and/or applications of trigonometry.
If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some
transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on
any other transversal.
Let ABC be a triangle. If a line l is parallel to BC and cuts
[AB] in the ratio m:n, then it also cuts [AC] in the same
ratio.
Conversely, if the sides of two triangles are in proportion,
then the two triangles are similar.
If two triangles are similar, then their sides are
proportional, in order (and converse)
[Theorem of Pythagoras]In a right-angled triangle the
square of the hypotenuse is the sum of the squares of the
other two sides.
[Converse to Pythagoras]. If the square of one side of a
triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the
angle opposite the first side is a right angle.
Proposition 9: (RHS). If two right-angled triangles have
hypotenuse and another side equal in length respectively,
then they are congruent.
For a triangle, base x height does not depend on the choice
of base.
Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by
the height.
CMN
Introd.
Course
JC
ORD
JC
HR
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FDN
LC
ORD
LC
HR
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17
A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area.
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18
The area of a parallelogram is the base x height.
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19*
The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc
is twice the angle at any point of the circle standing on the
same arc.
Corollary 2†: All angles at points of a circle, standing on
the same arc are equal (and converse).
Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
20
21
Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at
some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a
diameter.
Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then
opposite angles sum to 180⁰(and converse).
(i)
Each tangent is perpendicular to the radius that
goes to the point of contact.
(ii)
If P lies on the circle S, and a line l is
perpendicular to the radius to P, then l is a
tangent to S.
Corollary 6: If two circles intersect at one point only,
then the two centres and the point of contact are collinear.
(i)
The perpendicular from the centre to a chord
bisects the chord.
(ii)
The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes
through the centre.
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† The corollaries are numbered as in the Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics; corollary 2 is the first one relating to
theorem 19
♦ These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry
45 Thirdyearhandbook Constructions
(Supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions, 5 axioms and 21
theorems)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Bisector of an angle, using only compass and straight edge.
Perpendicular bisector of a segment, using only compass and
straight edge.
Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
not on l.
Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
on l.
Line parallel to given line, through a given point.
Division of a line segment into 2 or 3 equal segments without
measuring it.
Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments,
without measuring it.
CMN
Introd.
Course
JC
ORD
JC
HR
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LC
FN
LC
ORD
LC
HR
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Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm.
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Triangle, given lengths of 3 sides.
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Triangle, given SAS data.
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Triangle, given ASA data
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Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side
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Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles.
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Rectangle given side lengths.
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Line segment of a given length on a given ray.
9
16
17
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Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only
straight edge and compass.
Incentre and incircle of a triangle of a given triangle, using only
straight edge and compass.
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18
Angle of 60⁰ without using a protractor or set square.
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19
Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it.
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20
Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the
angles.
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Centroid of a triangle.
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Orthocentre of a triangle.
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46 Thirdyearhandbook
Appendix C
How to register for CensusAtSchool, complete the online questionnaire and retrieve class data for analysis and interpretation
Part 1: Registration
www.CensusAtSchool.ie Click “Teacher Registration” under “Take Part” in the main menu This is the Irish CensusAtSchool homepage. Click “Take Part” under the main menu. 1 2 Fill out and click on “Submit” Click “ONLINE REGISTRATION FORM” Once your registration form has been
received and approved an email with
a personal username and password
will be dispatched to you. Check your
email spam folder if you do not
See “Forgotten Log In
Details”
Queries:
[email protected]
receive these details
within 48 hours.
3 4 47 Thirdyearhandbook Part 2: Accessing the questionnaire
Click “Take Part”, “Questionnaires” and then click on the latest questionnaire which will be at the top of the list. Click “Take the CensusAtSchool* online questionnaire” 6 5 Part 3: Filling out the questionnaire
Each student must fill in accurately; the school roll number and the teacher’s username (sent by email) Click on “Next”
When the questionnaire is completed, the student clicks “Submit”.
7 8 48 Thirdyearhandbook Logging in to retrieve data
Part 4 Now that my students have filled in the data – what next?
Fill in your username and password. (If you have forgotten them ,click on the “forgot your password or username” link.) Under “Get Data” click on “Request your class data” Click “Login”. 9 10 Your data will look similar to the spreadsheet below.
Once logged in you will be asked for your school roll number and username. Select whichever questionnaire (phase) your students have completed. Click on “Submit” and your data will be returned to you in spreadsheet form. 12 11 49 
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

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