Road Safety Advice for Drawing Light Trailers

Road Safety Advice for Drawing Light Trailers
Road safety advice
and driver licensing rules
for drawing light trailers
Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre
Road Safety Authority
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules
for drawing light trailers
Disclaimer
The contents of this guide are expressed in general terms and are not intended to be
a detailed analysis of the law.
This guide does not, and is not intended to, provide legal advice or to represent
a legal interpretation of the law. While we have made every effort to ensure the
accuracy of the information in the guide, the Authority, its servants and agents
assume no responsibility for and give no guarantee about the accuracy, completeness
or up-to-date nature of the information and do not accept any liability for any errors
or omissions.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Table of Contents
Foreword
4
Introduction
5
Glossary of terms
6
Section 1 – The law and driving licence entitlements
12
Section 2 – Roadworthiness
18
Section 3 – Coupling and uncoupling your trailer
22
Section 4 – Loading and unloading your trailer
26
Section 5 – Road safety tips for towing a trailer
28
Section 6 – Security – keeping your trailer safe
32
Section 7 – Preparing for your trailer driving test
33
Appendix A – List of frequently asked questions
36
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
3
Foreword
To improve the safety of you, your vehicle’s occupants and other road users it is
essential to have a strong knowledge and understanding of the Rules Of The Road.
When driving you need to know them and understand their relevance, as well as
possible consequences of not following them.
By fully concentrating on the task of driving and always obeying the Rules Of The
Road, you are reducing the risk of danger to yourself and others and demonstrating
safe and socially responsible driving.
Whilst all of the rules apply to all road users and must be complied with, some
address specific rules about towing. You can find advice and guidance about towing a
trailer in Section 5 of the Rules Of The Road.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Introduction
We have produced this booklet to help you to:
n understand what combinations of towing vehicles and trailers you are
allowed to tow depending on the category of driving licence you hold.
n
identify the towing capacity of your vehicle, and the load-carrying capacity
of your trailer.
We also give some information and advice about:
n
the safety of towed combinations (car and trailer)
n
coupling and uncoupling a trailer
n
loading a trailer
n
oing the practical BE driving test for towing trailers not covered by d
category B driving licence.
If you comply with the guidance in this booklet, you can be confident your journey
will be safe.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
5
Glossary of Terms
Auto Reverse Functionality:
auto reverse functionality facilitates reversing manoeuvres being carried out by
automatically disengaging a trailer’s service brakes without the driver of the towing
vehicle having to leave his/her seat and do it manually.
Approved Driving Instructor (ADI):
a person who has been approved by the Road Safety Authority (RSA) to provide driver
training to learner drivers, and who is officially registered as an approved driving
instructor on the online register.
Braked trailer:
a trailer constructed with brakes fitted. Trailers with a MAM (see page 8) greater
than 750kg or half the laden weight of the towing vehicle to which they are attached
require brakes. They must also be fitted with a parking brake and a breakaway brake.
Older trailers that don’t have a breakaway brake must have a secondary coupling (a
chain or wire rope) fitted instead.
Breakaway brake:
a breakaway brake fitted to a trailer is a braking device that can automatically stop
the trailer if it becomes detached from the towing vehicle while moving.
Coupling device:
a device used to connect a trailer to a vehicle. Most cars, vans and 4 x 4s use a 50mm
ball-type coupling. See Figure 1 on page 7.
Design Gross Combination Weight (DGCW):
this is the weight of a vehicle and trailer including the maximum load each can carry
in accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Design Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW):
this is the weight of a vehicle or trailer including the maximum load it can carry in
accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications. It is also known as the
Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM) (see page 8).
Drawing/Towing vehicle:
a vehicle used to tow a trailer; for example, a car, van or a 4 x 4 (a four-wheel
drive vehicle).
handbrake
50mm ball type coupling
breakaway cable
Figure 1: Image of 50 mm ball-type coupling.
Jockey wheel:
a jockey wheel is a retractable height adjustable wheel fitted to the front of trailers to
assist in the coupling and uncoupling process. See image below of jockey wheel.
jockey wheel
Figure 2: Jockey wheel
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
7
Laden weight:
the weight of vehicle or trailer when carrying a load, also known as the Gross Vehicle
Weight (GVW).
Light trailer:
(called simply ‘trailer’ in this booklet) is a trailer with a technically permissible
maximum laden mass (see definition below) of not more than 3,500kg. In other
words, the trailer and its load when fully laden must not weigh more than that
amount. This category of trailer includes anything from small domestic trailers
to general duty trailers including flatbed or plant trailers, car transporters, trailer
caravans, horse boxes, livestock trailers, and so on.
Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM)
this is the weight of a vehicle or trailer including the maximum load it can carry in
accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications. It is also known as Design
Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW).
Manufacturer’s statutory plate:
a plate fitted to a vehicle by the manufacturer that shows the technical information
needed to identify the vehicle, and gives the information about the permissible
maximum laden masses. Examples of manufacturers’ plates fitted to drawing vehicles
and trailers (along with explanations of the information they display) are shown in
Figures 3 and 4 below:
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Example of a manufacturer’s statutory
plate affixed to a
Example of a manufacturer’s
statutory plate
Drawing Vehicle
Light Trailers
Figure 3
Figure 4
All figures shown below are in Kilogrammes (kg)
FORD – vehicle manufacturer
a11*2222/22*3333 – This is the vehicle’s
type approval number.
*XYXYXYXYXYXYXYXYXYXY11111* vehicle’s identification number or VIN.
1900 –the technically permissible
maximum laden mass, also known as
Design Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW) or
Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM).
a00*1111/22*3333 – the trailer’s type
approval number
AAAAA0000A00000 - the trailers vehicle’s
identification number or (VIN)
2600kg –the technically permissible
maximum laden mass, also known as
Design Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW) or
Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM).
1-1400kg –the technically permissible
maximum mass of the front axle, also
known as Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
3100 –the technically permissible
maximum mass of the combination,
also known as Design Gross Combination 2-1400 –the technically permissible
maximum mass of the rear axle, also
Weight (DGCW) or combined Maximum
known as Axle 2 Design Axle Weight
Authorised Mass (MAM)
975 –the technically permissible
maximum mass of the front axle, also
known as Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
975 –the technically permissible
maximum mass of the rear axle, also
known as Axle 2 Design Axle Weight
150 –the technically permissible
maximum mass at the coupling point,
that is, the maximum weight to be
transferred by the trailer to the towing
vehicle at the coupling point.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
9
Nose weight:
the weight exerted by the trailer drawbar on the coupling device of the towing vehicle
Secondary coupling:
an additional coupling to the main coupling. The secondary coupling is usually a
safety chain or wire rope or other similar connection which ensures that a trailer stays
attached to its towing vehicle if the main coupling fails or becomes detached.
The secondary coupling is designed to prevent the trailer’s drawbar from touching the
ground and provides some level of steering.
Specified towing capacity:
this is the maximum weight that a vehicle can tow in accordance with the
manufacturer’s design specifications.
Suitably qualified individual (SQI):
a mechanical or automotive engineer, an automotive assessor or a person with similar
qualifications who is competent, experienced and independent, and is, therefore,
an appropriate person to assess the fitness and safety of a vehicle.
Technically permissible maximum laden mass:
this is the weight of a vehicle or trailer including the maximum load it can carry in
accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications. It is also known as Design
Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW), or Maximum Authorised Mass (MAM).
Technically permissible maximum laden mass of the combination:
this is the weight of a vehicle and trailer including the maximum load each can carry
in accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications. It is also known as
Design Gross Combination Weight (DGCW).
Technically permissible maximum mass at the coupling point:
the maximum weight that may be placed on the coupling point of the towing vehicle
by the trailer’s drawbar in accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Technically permissible maximum mass on the axle:
is more commonly known as ‘Design Axle Weight’ and means the maximum weight
the axle can bear based on its construction and design.
Technically permissible maximum towable mass:
is more commonly known as ‘specified towing capacity’ and it is the maximum weight
that a vehicle can tow in accordance with the manufacturer’s design specifications.
Towing vehicle:
a vehicle/drawing vehicle that is being used to draw a trailer. A towing vehicle could
typically be a passenger car, a van or a 4 x 4.
Unbraked trailer:
a trailer constructed without brakes fitted.
Unladen weight:
this refers to the weight of the drawing vehicle when not carrying a load, or the
weight of the trailer when not carrying a load.
Vehicle identification number (VIN):
the alphanumeric (letter and number) code assigned to a vehicle or trailer by the
manufacturer to give it a unique identity. This code is usually displayed on both the
manufacturer’s statutory plate and in a separate location on the vehicle chassis.
Wheel chock:
or chocks are wedges of sturdy material – for example,
wood – placed closely against a vehicle’s wheels to
prevent movement.
Figure 5
National Driver License Service (NDLS):
this is the body responsible for issuing learner permits and driver licences on behalf of
the Road Safety Authority.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
11
Section 1
The law and driving licence entitlements
Introduction
The driving licence category sets the type of vehicle a person may drive with that
licence, while the DGCW determines whether the particular vehicle and trailer
combination may be driven.
Whether you tow a trailer for work or for domestic reasons, it is important to know
your legal obligations and ensure you do not drive a vehicle or tow a trailer that your
driving licence may not cover. You also need to know the following:
n
the towing capacity of your vehicle
n
the load carrying capacity of your trailer
n
the unladen weight of the trailer
You must ensure that you do not exceed these. To find out the towing capacity of your
vehicle, consult your owner’s handbook or the manufacturer’s statutory plate affixed
to the vehicle.
To find out the load carrying capacity of your trailer, consult the manufacturer’s
statutory plate affixed to it for its MAM. You then need to find out its unladen weight.
If you are unsure what the unladen weight of your trailer is (as this information is not
always contained on the statutory plate), you should consult its manufacturer or their
authorised distributor. However, if they can’t give you this information, we recommend
you contact your Local Authority for a list of approved weighbridges in your area where
you can have your trailer weighed. Once you know its unladen weight, you can then
subtract this from the MAM listed on the manufacturer’s statutory plate to find out the
maximum weight of the load you can carry.
If your trailer does not have a manufacturer’s statutory plate affixed to it giving its
MAM and design axle weights (and the manufacturer or their authorised distributor
is unable to provide you with this information), you should get a suitably qualified
individual (SQI) to rate the trailer for you and affix a plate to it. This will ensure that
you know your trailer’s design capabilities. Furthermore, having the plate on the
trailer will assist enforcement officers conducting roadside checks.
Remember though, under no circumstances should you load a trailer to the extent
that it exceeds the manufacturer’s specified towing capacity for your towing vehicle.
The RSA has prepared a short video clip to provide you with a step by step guide
to trailer towing entitlements. The video is available from: www.youtube.com/
RSAIreland.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Category B Learner Permit – Car, van or 4 x 4
A Category B learner permit entitles the holder to learn to drive a vehicle covered by a
category B licence. See details below. However, the permit does not entitle the holder
to tow a trailer of any description.
A learner driver must display ‘L’ plates at the front and rear of their vehicle and be
accompanied at all times by a fully qualified driver (not a novice driver).
Category B Driving Licence – Car, van or 4 x 4
A category B driving licence holder is authorised to drive a car, van or 4 x 4 which
has a MAM not more than 3500 kg and is constructed to carry no more than eight
passengers in addition to the driver.
Since 1st August 2014, anyone who gets their first full driving licence must display ‘N’
plates at the front and rear of their vehicle for two years.
A vehicle which is authorised to be driven by the holder of a category B licence may
tow a trailer:
n
where the MAM of the trailer is not greater than 750kg, or
n
where the MAM of the trailer is more than 750kg but the combined MAM
of the towing vehicle and the trailer is not greater than 3500 kg.
B Licence
Car, van and trailer
MAM exceeding 750kg
DGCW: 3500kg. Max.
Large van or 4x4 and small trailer
Max. 3500kg MAM
Figure 6
750kg DGVW
DGCW 4250KG
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
13
As a general rule, a category B licence would not entitle the holder to tow a horsebox
or a livestock trailer because the DGCW would exceed 3500kg.
Take an example of a drawing vehicle with a MAM of 2010kg and a DGCW of 3680kg
- that is a towing capacity of 1670kg. A category B licence would be sufficient to
drive this vehicle towing a trailer with a maximum plated MAM of 1490kg as, even
though the trailer’s MAM exceeds 750kg, the combined MAM of the vehicle and trailer
combination (2010kg + 1490kg) does not exceed 3500kg.
However, if you want to fully use this vehicle’s towing capacity of 1670kg
(operate at a DGCW of 3680kg) a BE licence is required.
Note: A person must hold a category B driving licence before being eligible to apply
for a category BE learner permit (explained below).
Category BE Learner Permit – Car, van or 4x4
You will need a category BE learner permit if you want to learn how to tow a larger
trailer with a MAM of up to 3500kg (for example, a general duty, livestock trailer
or a horsebox). Once you have your BE learner permit, the Road Safety Authority
recommends that you get tuition in towing a trailer from a qualified Approved Driving
Instructor (ADI).
Once you hold a BE learner permit, you are entitled to drive a car, van or 4 x 4 with a
MAM not exceeding 3500kg and you can draw a trailer, provided the laden weight of
the trailer being towed does not exceed the manufacturer’s specified towing capacity
for your towing vehicle. The heaviest trailer that can be towed with a BE learner
permit is one with a MAM not more than 3500kg. Therefore, the DGCW of the towing
vehicle and trailer must not exceed 7000kg.
BE learner permit holders learning to tow a trailer must be accompanied by a qualified
driver who holds a full BE, C1E, CE, D1E or DE licence for at least two years.
Category BE Driving Licence
– Car, Van and 4 x 4
If you hold a current full category
BE driving licence (previously an EB
licence), you can tow a trailer where
the combined MAM of the vehicle and
trailer combination is greater than
3500kg. However, the laden weight
of the trailer (that is, the weight of
the trailer and its load) must not
Figure 7
14
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
exceed the manufacturer’s specified towing capacity for the towing vehicle. The
heaviest trailer that a person can tow with a BE licence is one with a MAM not more
than 3500kg. Therefore, the combined MAM for a BE driving licence holder must
not exceed 7000kg – that is, 3500kg in respect of the towing vehicle and 3500kg in
respect of the trailer.
If your trailer has a MAM exceeding 3500kg, it is classified as a ‘heavy trailer’ and
must be licensed with the Local Authority in which it is ordinarily kept. It must also
undergo an annual roadworthiness test at the network of CVR Test Centres. In order
to tow a heavy trailer, you will need a category C1E, CE, DE or a D1E driving licence
depending on the type of vehicle used to draw the trailer.
Light trailers – that is, those with a MAM not exceeding 3500kg – are not required to
undergo a compulsory roadworthiness test.
Please note that for BE licence holders, it is permissible to tow a trailer designed to
carry more weight than the specified towing capacity of the drawing vehicle provided
the combined weight of the trailer and the load being carried does not exceed the
specified towing capacity of the drawing vehicle.
Take an example of a vehicle with a MAM of 2015kg and a towing capacity of 1800kg
drawing a trailer with a plated MAM of 3500kg. You need a category BE driving
licence to drive this vehicle combination as the trailer’s MAM exceeds 750kg, and the
combined MAM of the vehicle and trailer combination (2015kg + 3500kg) is greater
than 3500kg. Note, however, that the laden weight of the trailer cannot exceed the
towing capacity of the drawing vehicle – in this example, 1800kg.
Finally, if you need to tow another vehicle with your vehicle using a rope or strap –
for example, a broken down vehicle – you should only do so to the nearest convenient
safe place of repair, and the driver of the towing vehicle must be the holder of a BE
driving licence.
Large van or “4 x 4” and large trailer
Max. 3500kg MAM
Max. 3500kg MAM
DGCW combination weight: 7000kg Max.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
15
What Driving licence do I need?
Example 1: A category ‘B’ licence
All figures below are expressed in kilogrammes – kg.
Manufacturer’s Statutory Plate
Affixed to the Car
Manufacturer’s Statutory Plate
Affixed to the Trailer
Figure 8
Figure 9
1900kg = the vehicle’s MAM
3100kg = the vehicle’s DGCW
975kg = Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
975kg = Axle 2 Design Axle Weight
Specified towing capacity = 1200kg
(3100kg minus 1900kg)
750kg = the trailer’s MAM
1-750kg = Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
75kg = the technically permissible
maximum mass at the coupling point.
That is, the maximum weight to be
transferred by the trailer to the towing
vehicle at the coupling point.
Q. What driving licence is required to drive this vehicle combination and why?
A. A category B licence is sufficient to drive this vehicle and trailer combination
as the vehicle’s MAM does not exceed 3500kg and the trailer’s MAM does not
exceed 750kg.
Note that a trailer with a MAM exceeding 750kg could be drawn with this towing
vehicle by a category B licence holder provided the MAM of the vehicle and trailer
combination is not greater than 3100kg and that the manufacturer’s specified
towing capacity of 1200kg (3100kg minus 1900kg) is not exceeded.
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Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Example 2: BE Licence
Manufacturer’s Statutory Plate Affixed
to the Jeep
Manufacturer’s Statutory Plate Affixed
to the Trailer
Figure 10
Figure 11
2600kg = the vehicle’s MAM
5400kg = the vehicle’s DGCW
1290kg = Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
1800kg = Axle 2 Design Axle Weight
Specified towing capacity = 2800kg
(DGCW 5400kg minus MAM 2600kg)
3500kg = the trailer’s MAM
1750kg = Axle 1 Design Axle Weight
1750kg = Axle 2 Design Axle Weight
Q. What driving licence is required to drive this vehicle combination and why?
A. A category BE licence is required as the trailer’s MAM exceeds 750kg and
the combined MAM of the vehicle (2600kg) and trailer (3500kg) combination
exceeds 3500kg.
However, as the towing capacity of the 4x4 (2800kg) is less than the trailers
MAM (3500kg) the operator must ensure that the trailer, when laden, does not
exceed 2800kg.
Note however, that if the MAM of the trailer was 900kg (instead of 3500kg) a driver
with a B licence could draw the trailer since the combined MAM of trailer and
vehicle would then not be greater than 3,500kg.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
17
Section 2
Roadworthiness
If you’re towing a trailer, it is your responsibility as the driver to ensure that both the
towing vehicle and trailer are:
n
safe and mechanically sound,
n
fit for purpose, and
n
legally compliant with all relevant Road Traffic legislation.
Remember, to be fully compliant, your towing vehicle must be taxed, insured
and have passed its roadworthiness test – that is, the NCT or Commercial Vehicle
Roadworthiness Test (CVRT) as appropriate.
Before attaching a trailer, bear in mind that the trailer you are about to tow may or
may not be your own, and it may have been parked or stored by someone else. In any
case, there are a number of things that you should do before towing the trailer away.
Firstly, you must ensure your vehicle is safe to drive before setting off on any journey.
After you’ve checked the drawing vehicle, carry out a walk-around check of the trailer.
Make sure you do the following checks:
n
Check that all windows and mirrors are clean, properly adjusted and in good condition so that you have a good view to the rear. If the mirrors are not adequate, you should fit ‘extension’ mirrors – these are towing mirrors to be used when the trailer is wider than the towing vehicle.
Figure 12. Extension Mirrors also
known as Towing Mirrors
18
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
n
Ensure that the tow bar or towing device is in good condition.
n
Ensure the trailer hitch is intact.
n
Test the safety clasp to ensure it can open and close freely.
n
Ensure the breakaway brake is working properly, or that the safety chain is correctly attached.
n
Check that the lighting cable is not damaged.
n
Ensure all lights and reflectors are the right colour, clean,
and working correctly.
n
ake sure all wheels are in good condition and
M
that the wheel nuts are correctly tightened.
Check that all tyres are free from cuts, bulges and
have adequate tread – the legal requirement is a
minimum of 1.6mm. For further information on
tyres, please refer to the Road Safety Authority’s
‘Tyre Safety’ booklet.
n
Check that the tyre pressure is correct.
All tyres (including the spare, if there is one)
should be at the same pressure. It is also
important that the tyre specification is suitable
for the axle weight and is capable of bearing the
weight of the load you’re going to carry.
Your Guide to
Tyre Safety
Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre
Road Safety Authority
Figure 13
n
Check that mudguards (if fitted) are in a satisfactory condition and are securely attached.
n
Check that the correct number plate is fitted – the registration displayed on the trailer should be the same as the towing vehicle.
n
Make sure the brakes (including the handbrake if one is fitted) are
functioning correctly.
n
F
inally, make sure you display your ‘L’ plate if you are a learner driver
accompanied by a fully qualified driver or ‘N’ plate if you got your first full
driving licence since 1st August 2014 at the front and rear of your vehicle and
trailer combination.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
19
Trailer brakes
All trailers with a MAM exceeding 750kg as specified by the manufacturer must have
brakes fitted – that is, they must be equipped with a service brake, a handbrake
(parking brake) and a breakaway brake.
New trailers manufactured since 1 June 2011 must be braked on all wheels with auto
reverse functionality, and those with a MAM exceeding 1.5 tonnes must be fitted with
a breakaway brake. A secondary coupling is sufficient (instead of a breakaway brake)
for older trailers with a MAM exceeding 750kg, and also those manufactured since 1st
June 2011 provided the MAM does not exceed 1.5 tonnes.
Note that it is not appropriate to equip light trailers with both a secondary coupling
and a breakaway brake as the former will prevent the latter from moving if the trailer
separates from the towing vehicle. Furthermore, is it not appropriate to replace a
broken breakaway brake with a secondary coupling as Road Traffic law places an
onus on vehicle owners/operators to maintain original braking systems (including a
breakaway brake where fitted) in efficient working order.
handbrake
service brake
breakaway cable
Figure 14. Shows brakes
Older trailers that don’t have a breakaway brake can have a secondary coupling
(a chain or wire rope) fitted instead.
For more information on trailer roadworthiness, visit www.rsa.ie.
20
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Trailer lights
Trailers attached to vehicles that are used in public places
must be equipped with:
n
functioning white side lamps,
n
red rear lamps,
n
red stop lamps,
n
amber directional indicators,
n
identification mark lighting, and
n
rear red reflectors.
Figure 15.
Any cracked or broken lenses must be replaced. Always make sure that your trailer
lights have been connected, are clean, working properly and clearly visible.
Figure 16
Important note:
The driver of the towing vehicle has the responsibility for the safe operation
of the trailer.
The RSA has prepared a short video clip to provide you with a step by step guide
to roadworthiness of your trailer. The video is available to view at
www.youtube.com/RSAIreland
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
21
Section 3
Coupling and uncoupling your trailer
‘Coupling’ a trailer means connecting it to a towing vehicle. ‘Uncoupling’,
therefore, is the opposite – disconnecting the trailer from the towing vehicle.
There are a number of important factors to consider when coupling or uncoupling
a trailer. (The advice provided below may not be applicable to all trailers and will
depend upon the fixtures and fittings of each particular trailer).
These include:
n
the safety of the driver and anyone else who is present or helping;
n
the safe attachment of the trailer to the tow ball on the towing vehicle;
n
connecting the lighting cable securely.
Before coupling a trailer, make sure you read the relevant sections of your vehicle and
trailer’s owners’ handbooks. Do not try coupling or uncoupling a trailer on your own
until you are fully familiar with all the steps and can complete them safely.
All drivers towing trailers are responsible for learning how to couple a trailer safely.
As with any manual handling task, proper training and instruction, along with
common sense and using proper techniques, will reduce the risk of personal injury.
For example, should you load the trailer before or after you hitch it to the drawing
vehicle? If possible, it makes sense to hitch an empty trailer to the drawing vehicle.
Figure 18. Coupling a trailer
22
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Coupling a trailer
First of all, make sure the area is safe and that the trailer appears secure and is parked
on level ground. Reverse slowly and safely in a straight line, keeping your vehicle in
line with the trailer using your mirrors for guidance.
Then:
n
everse until you are close to the trailer hitch, leaving about half a metre R
between the tow ball and the trailer hitch.
n
efore stepping out of the vehicle, make sure it is completely stationary by
B
putting on the handbrake and turning the engine off. The vehicle can be left
in gear for extra security in case the handbrake fails.
n
heck that the level of the tow ball ‘ride height’ on your vehicle is relatively
C
level with the trailer hitch. The ride height is the space from the ground to the
underside of the chassis or tow hitch.
n
heck that the trailer’s parking brake is on and that the trailer is secure.
C
If there is no parking brake, then use wheel chocks or wedges.
n
Now reverse the vehicle as close as possible to the trailer.
n
Adjust the trailer height if necessary using the jockey wheel’s winding handle.
n
onnect the secondary coupling or breakaway brake/cable. Make sure
C
that the breakaway brake/cable or secondary coupling is undamaged
and connected correctly to the coupling device of the drawing vehicle.
n
pen up the safety coupling and gently release the trailer handbrake
O
and replace the wheel chocks if necessary.
n
ove the trailer so that the trailer hitch is now
M
hovering over the tow ball (see figure 19).
n
ext, rotate the winding handle so it starts to
N
lower onto the tow ball. Watch for the safety
hitch locking onto the tow ball.
n
ow use the lock or padlock on the coupling
N
handle, ensuring it is in its ‘locked’ position.
n
T
hen, turn the winding handle so that the
trailer starts to rise. If the combination
is properly coupled, then the back of the
drawing vehicle will start to rise as well.
Figure 19
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
23
n
ext, keep turning the winding handle until the jockey wheel is fully raised
N
off the ground. The safety pin on the jockey wheel can now be opened to raise
the wheel into its highest unused position. Raise any corner steadies (such as
those often found on caravans) or prop stands are fully wound up and secure
in the ‘up’ position before moving off.
n
Connect the lighting cable.
n
ake sure that the jockey wheel locking mechanism securely holds the jockey
M
wheel well clear of the ground.
Figure 17: pin lighting connector
n
ake sure the trailer handbrake is off and remove any
M
wheel chocks or wedges used.
Figure 20: wheel chocks
A final ‘walk around’ check should also be carried out to ensure that:
n
all doors on the trailer are closed and the side boards are in a locked position,
n
your registration plate is secured and matches that of the towing vehicle,
n
y
our lights including indicators are intact, of the correct colour, are clean and
working properly.
The most important thing to remember is to never take any risks or skip any steps
when coupling a trailer. Safety checks are critical to ensure you travel safely when
you are towing a trailer and that the trailer is securely hitched. If in doubt,
seek expert help.
24
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Uncoupling a trailer
To uncouple your trailer, choose level, solid ground in a safe place where your trailer
and vehicle will not cause any obstruction, inconvenience or danger to others.
n
S
top the vehicle and trailer in a straight line. Apply its handbrake and then
switch off the ignition. The vehicle can be left in gear for extra security in case
the handbrake fails. Get out of the vehicle and put on the trailer’s handbrake.
If the trailer doesn’t have a handbrake, then use wheel chocks
or wedges.
n
Disconnect the electric cable and put it away safely.
n
Next, lower the jockey wheel to ground and lock into position.
n
Open the lock or padlock on the coupling handle.
n
Then open the safety clasp and lift the safety handle.
n
ow use the jockey wheel-raising mechanism – this is normally a rotating
N
handle - to raise the trailer away from the tow ball, usually by about 50mm.
Then, disconnect the safety chain or breakaway cable and put it away safely.
n
ouble check to make sure everything is disconnected. For example, check the
D
safety chain and the electrics.
n
eturn to your vehicle, start up and move away slowly – about half a metre.
R
Stop your vehicle safely and use the handbrake to ensure it is secure. Do a
final check that all is in order with the trailer.
n
If appropriate, remove the number plate from the trailer.
The most important thing to remember is to never take any risks or skip any steps
when uncoupling a trailer. If in doubt, seek help.
For more information on both coupling and uncoupling a trailer, visit www.rsa.ie.
The RSA has prepared a short video clip to give you a step by step guide to loading or
unloading your trailer. The video is available at: www.youtube.com/RSAIreland
Remember!
Don’t assume that everything is OK – always check.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
25
Section 4
Loading and unloading your trailer
Loads must be safely distributed and securely tied down. You should avoid carrying
loads that extend over the side of the trailer while it’s being towed. Loads may project
over the side and rear of trailers provided the following limits are not exceeded:
n
L
oads (other than poles intended for use by telephone or electricity services)
must not project more than 3 metres beyond the rearmost part of a trailer.
n
L
oads overhanging to the rear by more than 1 metre must be marked during
the day with a red flag or cloth which is at least 300 millimetres square (about
12 inches square). However, at night time, overhanging loads to the rear must
be fitted with a red reflector and a red light.
n
L
oads (other than loose agricultural produce which is not baled or in crates)
must not project more than 300 millimetres over the outermost point of either
side of the trailer. The vehicle width, together with its load, must not exceed
2.9 metres. At night time, such loads must be fitted with lights showing
a white light to the front and a red light to the rear. These lights must be
placed as close as possible to the outermost point of the load.
n
I
f possible, loads should be evenly distributed across the trailer and positioned
in such a way as to keep the nose weight (that is, the weight exerted by
the trailer drawbar on the coupling) within the recommended limits for the
drawing vehicle. Consult the owner’s handbook for further details. If you have
to carry a load that cannot be evenly distributed, make certain it is properly
restrained and that individual axles or the drawbar are not overloaded.
You might have to reduce the overall load to achieve this.
The greatest risks associated with poor loading are as follows:
26
n
I
n an emergency stop situation, the drawing vehicle might fail to stop if it
gets pushed on by an overloaded trailer.
n
L
oading either behind or in front of the centre of gravity can affect the steering
and the overall control of the combination. The trailer could fishtail or sway if
loaded behind the centre of gravity; loading in front of the centre of gravity could
cause excessive nose weight and strain on the tow bar. With these situations,
steering is less effective and overall control is reduced or lost completely.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
n
The load is unstable because it is loaded too heavily on one side or the other.
n
There is a serious loss of stability when loads are loose and move around.
n
There is a danger of loads falling off the trailer.
n
T
here is a danger of the load shooting forward when the vehicle combination
brakes. This is a particular risk if the load consists of planks, bars, and so on,
laid in line, front to back.
n
T
here is a very significant risk (with open trailers) of light items being lifted
out of a trailer by the slipstream. All items must be appropriately secured.
Therefore, when you’re loading a trailer you should:
n
make sure the load is properly secured,
n
distribute the weight of the load evenly,
n
keep to the recommended nose weight.
Important note:
It is an offence to carry an insecure load.
Therefore, when your trailer is loaded, ask yourself the following:
n
I
s the load evenly distributed and securely tied down, that is, not too much
or too little weight distributed to the front or rear of the trailer.
n
S
hould the trailer be equipped with brakes? Remember, if the trailer MAM
exceeds 750kg, it should be fitted with brakes, including a parking brake.
Further information is available in the Load Security information sheet (available on
www.rsa.ie) which has been produced by the RSA together with the Health & Safety
Authority and An Garda Síochána.
The RSA has prepared a short video clip to give you a step-by-step guide to loading or
unloading your trailer. The video is available from: www.youtube.com/RSAIreland
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
27
Section 5
Road Safety tips for towing a trailer
How your vehicle handles when you’re towing a trailer – either loaded or unloaded –
can be quite different to how your vehicle handles without a trailer. You need to
take special care and drive more defensively, anticipating the effect of the trailer.
For example, you need to ask yourself has your stopping distance increased –
in most cases, the answer will be yes.
Keep the following safety tips in mind when drawing a trailer:
28
n
Anticipate hazards earlier than normal.
n
emember that if you are drawing a trailer, you are not entitled to drive in the
R
outside lane of a motorway, as the maximum legal speed limit for a vehicle
drawing a trailer is 80km/h. However, an exception to this rule applies if there
are places where the speed limit is 80km/h or less, or there is a temporary
obstruction, such as a road vehicle breakdown, forcing you into the
outer lane.
n
P
ay particular attention when you’re accelerating and braking, especially
when approaching bends.
n
pply your brakes earlier and lighter than normal (this is sometimes referred
A
to as ‘progressive’ braking).
n
ake sure your driving action is smoother and more gentle than normal.
M
Avoid any unnecessary sudden braking or steering.
n
void braking sharply on a bend as this could possibly cause the trailer to jackA
knife. Instead, reduce your speed before the bend and select the appropriate
gear for the speed you are doing. Then, gently accelerate out of the bend.
n
L
eave more distance than usual between yourself and the vehicle in front.
Apply brakes early and gently. Allow plenty of extra time and space if you are
merging with moving traffic.
n
llow extra time and distance if you are overtaking other road users, but
A
remember the upper speed limit of 80 km/h. Make sure you are well past the
other road users before moving back to the left-hand side of the road.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
n
e careful when driving in wet, foggy or extremely bright conditions.
B
Be especially careful driving in high winds.
n
I
f possible and if it is safe to do so, consider pulling over regularly to allow
vehicles behind you to overtake.
n
ever let passengers travel in a trailer when you are drawing it (this includes
N
a caravan), as it is illegal to do so. All passengers must always travel in the
drawing vehicle, with their safety belts securely fastened.
n
I
f possible, reverse vehicle and trailer combinations into parking spots
(with someone else acting as a guide). This allows you to drive straight out
of them and makes it easier to see pedestrians and other motorists who may
be approaching.
n
Never reverse a trailer from a minor road on to a major road.
n
lan plenty of rest stops to avoid fatigue. Remember that the only cure
P
for fatigue or tiredness is sleep.
Remember…
The addition of a load on your trailer will affect your vehicle’s performance.
In particular, remember that:
n
moving off, particularly on hills, can be much more difficult;
n
y
ou will need to allow a greater distance to bring your drawing vehicle
and trailer to a stop;
n
riving around sharp bends and corners, and driving down hills requires
d
extra care.
General driving safety tips
n
lways carry a high visibility vest(s), warning triangle, torch (with working
A
batteries), fire extinguisher, first aid kit, spare wheel or puncture repair kit
in your vehicle in case of emergencies. Fire extinguishers should be securely
stowed in the boot of your vehicle.
n
ave all relevant emergency helpline numbers handy, including those for
H
emergency services, breakdown assistance and your insurance company.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
29
n
I
CE your phone – In case you are involved in a collision or need urgent
assistance, choose a responsible person to be your ‘In Case of Emergency’
(ICE) contact person and enter their telephone number with ‘ICE’ as the
contact name. If you choose to have more than one ICE contact, put a
number directly behind the word ICE in each one to prioritize them for the
emergency responders. For example: ICE1 – Tom, ICE2 – Dad, and so on.
Emergency responders are familiar with this system and if they need to
contact a close family member/next of kin they will examine your mobile
phone for ICE numbers.
Speed limits
The additional weight of the load on the trailer must also be considered when you
are deciding what speed is safest for your journey. Always drive at a speed that is
appropriate to your experience as well as the road and traffic conditions. Be aware
that the maximum legal speed limit for a vehicle drawing a trailer on any road is 80
kilometres per hour unless a lower speed limit sign is posted. These speeds apply even
if the towing vehicle is a 4 by 4.
What if I break down on the road?
If you break down on your journey, park as near to the left as you can. If you cannot
do this, try to warn other drivers by, for example, switching on your hazard
warning lights.
n
Be seen
Always carry a high visibility vest or jacket in your vehicle, and put it on at the first
available opportunity. If possible, passengers should also wear hi-viz vests or jackets,
and they should leave the vehicle by the left-hand side to avoid exiting into oncoming
traffic. Hi-viz jackets are available free of charge and can be ordered online from the
RSA on www.rsa.ie.
n
Warn others
If your vehicle is equipped with a warning triangle, carefully place it on the roadway
to the rear of your vehicle, but always make sure you are safe. Do not attempt to place
the triangle if you happen to break down on a motorway.
n
30
Phone for help
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Once you are parked, use your mobile phone to get help. State your exact location.
If you breakdown on a motorway, use the roadside phone to contact the emergency
services so that they can quickly determine your location. If you cannot use this
phone, use a mobile phone to call, but be prepared for the emergency services to
ask you about your location. Many motorways in Ireland now have location markers
sprayed on the hard shoulders in white paint. These help you to find the nearest
emergency phone by showing you which direction to walk in. They also give you
information about your precise location.
n
Find a safe place to wait
Be mindful of your own safety while you are waiting for help to arrive. Stay inside the
barrier and off the road on an embankment away from your vehicle. Do not wait in
the vehicle.
Remember, never try to do repairs yourself in circumstances which could be
dangerous to yourself and other road users.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
31
Section 6
Security – keeping your trailer safe
If possible, you should store your trailer on a property or in a building with security
features close to your house.
You should keep a record of the vehicle identification number (VIN): the alphanumeric
(letter and number) code assigned to a vehicle or trailer by the manufacturer to give it
a unique identity. This code is usually displayed on both the manufacturer’s statutory
plate and in a separate location on the vehicle chassis.
You should also consider putting your own unique marking on your trailer to help you
identify it if it is stolen. This can be an effective deterrent.
You should:
n
Photograph your trailer – if possible, you should be in the photo.
n
K
eep a record of the manufacturer’s make, model and vehicle identification
number (VIN). This is best achieved by taking a digital image of the
manufacturer’s plate and saving it in a secure location. You may also wish to
take images of any unique features on your trailer.
Trailer insurance
Insurance rules and policies can vary when towing trailers. We strongly recommend
that you consult your motor insurance policy documentation or contact your
insurance provider to find out if your policy covers towing trailers, and whether any
limitations are specified.
32
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Section 7
Preparing for your trailer driving test
If you do not hold a full category BE licence and you wish to tow trailers with a MAM
exceeding 750kg or vehicle combinations where the combined MAM of the vehicle
and trailer exceeds 3,500kg, you will need to pass a practical driving test. If you have
never passed a theory test, you will need to pass one before you can apply for your BE
learner permit.
Before you apply for a driving test, get plenty of training and practice with an RSA
Approved Driving Instructor (ADI).
Once you have your learner permit, you should visit www.rsa.ie to find an ADI who
provides category BE training. Names and contact details are available from the
section called ‘Find an Instructor’.
Your ADI will assess your knowledge and skill and will develop a training plan to help
you to practise and to prepare for your practical driving test.
Ask your ADI to go through the following topics before taking any training:
n
Driver licence requirements
n
Roadworthiness of the trailer and drawing vehicle
n
Coupling and uncoupling
n
Load security
Your training plan should include practice, first of all with an empty trailer, and then
a partially loaded one before you practise with an almost-fully or fully loaded trailer.
It is important for you to get a feeling for the effects of towing a trailer on the
handling of your drawing vehicle before you move on to towing a load.
Be guided by your ADI as to when you should apply for your practical driving test.
Bear in mind that you won’t have to wait six months for your test appointment
– it could quite possibly be scheduled for the week following your application.
Get plenty of practice – do not rush into taking a driving test you are not fully
prepared for. You can save a lot of time and money in the long run by ensuring
you are ready to take the test.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
33
Check that the vehicle and trailer you will be using for your test are ‘representative
of class’. For example, if you are taking a test for a BE driving licence, then the trailer
must have a total weight of at least 800kg. You will be required to load the trailer for
the test and details of this will be sent to you in your test appointment notification.
Only then can it be considered a representative vehicle for the BE licence. The Driver
Tester can then assess your ability to tow a loaded trailer.
Like your first driving test, the car and trailer test starts off with some questions on
the rules of the road, followed by some technical checks of the vehicle. Your ADI will
prepare you for all aspects of the test including the theory and technical aspects.
Before the practical side of the test begins, your Driver Tester will offer you a choice
of reversing into a roadway either to the left or to the right. However, during your
practice and preparation, you should prepare to be tested on both. The test will cover
about 10 km in distance and will include a question on coupling and uncoupling
your trailer.
When you are ready to apply for your test, you can do so by visiting www.rsa.ie and
applying online. Alternatively, you can get an application form at your local Garda
station, driving test centre or library. Your ADI may also carry some application forms.
Important note
Until you get a full BE licence you must always be accompanied by someone who
holds a full BE driving licence for towing trailers and who is experienced. You should
practise towing your trailer on different types of roads in different conditions,
including driving at night. Do not, though, practise on motorways.
After the test
Once you pass your practical driving test, you are eligible to hold a category BE driving
licence. You will need to exchange your pass certificate for your full licence at your
local NDLS centre. Once you do this, you are entitled to drive without the need to
have another full licence holder with you. However, be sure to check with your ADI
or Driver Tester to see if you are required to display ‘Novice’ or ‘N’ plates. Novice
plates were introduced on the 1 August 2014 as part of the Graduated Driver Licensing
system, and the N plate rules may apply to you.
34
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
If you do not pass your driving test, your Driver Tester will have given you feedback
that will help you to prepare for further practice sessions with your ADI. This feedback
will also help you to prepare for your next driving test.
The RSA has prepared a short video clip to give you a step by step guide to preparing
for and taking your trailer test. The video is available from: www.youtube.com/
RSAIreland
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
35
Appendix A
Frequently asked questions
The following questions have been put together to assist you with any questions you
may have. If your question is not shown, please ask your approved driving instructor
or visit www.rsa.ie for more information.
Can I tow a trailer on a car licence?
If you have a category B driving licence to drive a car, van or 4 X 4, you can tow a
small trailer such as a grass box trailer. If you want to tow a larger trailer, you must
have category BE on your licence. See examples in this booklet. For information on
licence categories, visit www.rsa.ie
Apart from the category of licence, what else affects my right to tow a trailer?
Even though your driving licence entitles you to tow a trailer, the weight of the trailer
you can tow depends on your vehicle specification. The owner’s manual will generally
set out a ‘towing capacity’ – sometimes called Towing Weights or Maximum Trailer
Weights – for the vehicle. Some small cars might not be allowed to tow any trailer,
while larger vehicles have restrictions set by their manufacturer on the size of trailer
that can be towed. In all such cases, the size of trailer you can tow will be the lesser
of that allowed by your driving licence or the towing capacity of your vehicle.
What trailers does my category B licence cover?
You can tow a trailer:
n
with a MAM no greater than 750kg, or
n
here the trailer’s MAM is more than 750kg but the combined MAM
w
(vehicle and trailer) does not exceed 3500kg.
As a general rule, your category B licence would not allow you to tow a horsebox or a
livestock trailer.
36
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
What trailers does my category BE licence cover?
You can tow a trailer:
n
here the MAM of the vehicle and trailer combination is greater than 3500kg
w
but not greater than than 7000kg.
n
here the MAM of the trailer is no greater than 3500kg. (However, note in the
w
previous question that, in certain cases, a category B licence will allow you to
tow a trailer over 750kg.)
How do I get a car, van, 4x4 and trailer licence?
n
You must hold a current full driving licence in the category B (car).
n
Y
ou must first pass a driver theory test in the category BW – work vehicles and
land tractors – if you haven’t already passed this to obtain a category
B licence.
n
Apply for a learner permit in category BE in an NDLS centre.
n
fter passing a driving test in the car or 4 x 4 and trailer, you can then apply
A
for the category BE to be added to your full driving licence.
What is the penalty for towing a trailer whose laden weight exceeds
the manufacturer’s specified towing capacity for the drawing vehicle?
The Road Traffic (Construction, Equipment & Use of Vehicles) Regulations, 1963 (S.I.
No. 190 of 1963 as amended) prescribe that loads carried on vehicles and trailers must
not exceed a reasonable weight, having regard to the engine capacity, brakes, tyres
and general construction of the vehicle.
Furthermore, loads must be of such a weight and size and so distributed, packed,
adjusted and attached to the vehicle that, so far as can reasonably be foreseen,
no danger is likely to be caused and that there is no interference with the stability
of vehicle.
Loads must also be carried in such a manner that they are not liable to fall onto the
road, or to drag on the surface of the road, so as to cause damage to the road or to be
liable to cause danger.
If you don’t comply with these provisions, you could receive a court summons if
stopped by a Member of An Garda Síochána. If you’re convicted, you could be fined
(up to €2,500), be given a prison sentence, or both. With the exception of where
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
37
it can be shown that the use of the vehicle is unauthorised, both the owner of the
vehicle and whoever is driving it when the offence is recorded can be fined.
Finally, if detected using a vehicle and trailer combination whose axles or laden
weight exceed those specified by the vehicle or trailer manufacturer respectively you
are liable to receive 1 penalty point and a €200 fine if paid within 28 days, rising
to €300 if paid within the subsequent 28 days, or 3 penalty points and a fine not
exceeding €2,500 if convicted in Court.
Is there a weight limit for a vehicle?
The vehicle owner’s manual will generally set a limit on the total weight of the vehicle
and its load. This is known as the maximum authorised mass (MAM) and is also
sometimes known as Design Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW). It covers the weight of the
vehicle, passengers, fuel as well as any load carried on a roof-rack. The manual will
also give the unladen weight of the vehicle – that is the weight of the vehicle without
any passengers or load.
To know the load which can be carried on your trailer, subtract the unladen weight
from the MAM. If, for example, the MAM is 2,010kg and the unladen weight is
1,535kg, then the load which can be carried is 475kg.
How can I find out more about towing capacity?
Consult the owner’s handbook for your vehicle. This will contain information on the
weight of the trailer that can be towed depending on whether or not it is fitted with
brakes. If you are having difficulty locating the owner’s handbook, you can look at
the manufacturer’s statutory plate affixed to the vehicle. These plates are usually
located near the driver’s door or in the engine compartment. The towing capacity can
be calculated by subtracting the Design Gross Vehicle Weight (DGVW) or Maximum
Authorised Mass (MAM) from the Design Gross Combination Weight (DGCW).
Worked examples are completed in Section 1 of this booklet on pages 16 and 17.
Why is it important that you tow the correct trailer for your vehicle?
If the weight of your trailer exceeds the manufacturer’s specified towing capacity
for your vehicle, you are not safe on the road. You are putting yourself and other road
users at risk. For that reason, you should take time to understand what size trailer you
can safely tow with your vehicle. Furthermore, you need to check that you hold the
correct driving licence to tow it. Failure to comply with these requirements is
an offence.
38
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
How should the load on the trailer be positioned?
Loads should always be placed in a safe and secure position. If possible, loads should
be evenly distributed across the trailer and positioned in such a way as to keep the
nose weight (that is, the weight on the trailer drawbar on the towing bracket) within
the recommended limits for the towing vehicle. Consult your owner’s manual for
this figure.
Figure 21: Image of a correctly loaded trailer.
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
39
Further Information
Where can I get further information?
If you need further information, please contact the RSA on 096 25000 from 8am to
6pm Monday to Friday.
Driver licensing queries should be directed by email to [email protected]
or by phone on 1890 41 61 41 or 096 25000.
Queries relating to braking and lighting requirements for trailers should be directed
to Vehicle Standards by email to [email protected] or by phone on 096 25014
For further information on how to prepare for your category BE driving test,
please visit www.rsa.ie
40
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Notes
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
41
Notes
42
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
Notes
Road safety advice and driver licensing rules for drawing light trailers
43
Working to Save Lives
Version: September 2015
Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre
Road Safety Authority
Páirc Ghnó Ghleann na Muaidhe, Cnoc an tSabhaircín, Bóthar Bhaile Átha Cliath,
Béal an Átha, Co. Mhaigh Eo.
Moy Valley Business Park, Primrose Hill, Dublin Road, Ballina, Co. Mayo.
locall: 1890 50 60 80 tel: (096) 25 000 fax: (096) 25 252
email: [email protected] website: www.rsa.ie
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