Kingspan Solar Technical Guide
COMPLETE COMMERCIAL
SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
TECHNICAL GUIDE
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
5
PRODUCT RANGE
31
SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS THE UK & IRELAND
6
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS PRODUCT OVERVIEW
32
HOW IT WORKS: SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM
7
KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
34
KINGSPAN SOLAR DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR
38
KINGSPAN SOLAR FRAMES
40
VARISOL, AWARD WINNING SOLAR COLLECTORS
42
FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS
44
UNIQUE FEATURES OF KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
46
•
•
46
47
BUSINESS CASE
•
•
•
WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?
IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?
MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS
8
10
12
ENGINEERING, SERVICE & SUPPORT
14
COMMITTED TO GREEN BUILDINGS
16
CASE STUDIES
19
TUBE DESIGN
BENEFITS
EVACUATED TUBE COMPARISONS
50
•
•
50
55
FIN-IN-TUBE COPY / SINGLE-WALLED TUBE
SYDNEY TUBE / DOUBLE-WALLED TUBE
KINGSPAN PUMP STATIONS
56
SYSTEM TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
59
CONTROLS & MONITORING
79
SIZING GUIDELINES
60
COLLECTOR LAYOUT & ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
72
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
80
87
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS
VARISOL HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
VARISOL DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS
HAIL IMPACT TEST CERTIFICATION
WARRANTY STATEMENT
88
89
90
92
93
95
97
INSULATED PANELS
98
BENCHMARK
99
INSULATION
100
INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS
101
ACCESS FLOORS
101
PLEASE VISIT:
KINGSPAN
www.makethesunwork.com
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
CONTROLS &
MONITORING
•
•
•
•
•
•
KINGSPAN
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
CERTIFICATION & WARRANTY STATEMENT
PRODUCT RANGE
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
This document is not for use as a design tool, it is for guidance only and designs should be reviewed by our technical team. All solar thermal systems should be fully designed by a competent engineer.
Kingspan Group plc or any of its companies do not take responsibility for any systems designed using the following details. We recommend that you review your design with us.
All descriptions and specifications of products and procedures in this manual are current at the time of printing. However, Kingspan Environmental is continually involved in product testing and
improvement, and specifications and procedures are subject to change. We reserve the right to amend specifications and procedures without prior notice.
Regulations and Standards
The solar thermal system should be installed in compliance with current building regulations, all local standards and Health & Safety regulations. These regulations are statutory documents and take
priority over all recommendations within this document. For installation and operating procedures, please refer to the Installation and Operating manuals provided with the product.
For system design assistance, please contact our technical support team: +44 (0) 28 38364500.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN
Kingspan Environmental is part of Kingspan Group,
global leaders in sustainable building products for
energy and water efficiency. With manufacturing and
distribution operations worldwide, Kingspan is recognised
throughout the construction industry for innovation,
design, quality, technical expertise and service.
Kingspan Environmental offer an array of products
and services that provide renewable energy,
water management and environmental solutions.
Our Kingspan Solar thermal package solutions,
have been used on prestigious buildings across the
globe with great success.
Kingspan Solar offer complete solar thermal solutions
for commercial, industrial, institutional and residential
applications. Our evacuated tubes use the original and
best technology and have been successfully on the
market for over 25 years. We pride ourselves on not
only our world class product, but on the design,
engineering, and technical service we provide our
customers every time.
2
25+
14million
years knowledge and experience
to support your business
evacuated tubes
installed worldwide
25
40+
offices across
Europe
countries in
which we operate
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
TOTALLY INTEGRATED
ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT OF INNOVATION FOR MORE THAN FIFTY YEARS.
Thought leaders in sustainability for the built environment, our ‘gold standard’ products feature in the world’s most
sustainable buildings and are tried and tested in more than 60 countries. And because we manufacture and design our own
world-class components, delivery is quick and reliable.
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Inspired thinking is at the heart of our renewable
energy offer. High performing wind turbines,
solar thermal tubes and panels, hot water
systems and heat pumps capture, store
and transform natural energy from the
sun and wind into reliable and highly
effective heating and cooling for
water and buildings.
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
WATER MANAGEMENT
Our high performance environmental
containers are at the forefront of plastics
technology while our award winning telemetry
solutions offer affordable level measurement
gauges and integrated energy management systems.
Our pioneering brands, Klargester for wastewater and
stormwater attenuation, and Kingspan Water for rainwater
harvesting, offer a portfolio of proven and ground breaking
water management technologies.
www.kingspanenv.com
www.kingspansolar.com
www.kingspanwind.com
As well as remarkable products, we offer world class
consultancy and environmental services, whether it’s a
Kingspan system or not.
3
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BRISTOL LIDO OUTDOOR POOL, BRISTOL, UK
4
INTRODUCTION
SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS THE UK & IRELAND
6
HOW IT WORKS: SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM
7
BUSINESS CASE
•
•
•
WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?
IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?
MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS
8
10
12
ENGINEERING, SERVICE & SUPPORT
14
COMMITTED TO GREEN BUILDINGS
16
CASE STUDIES
19
5
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS
THE UK AND IRELAND
SOLAR RADIATION IS A GENERAL TERM FOR THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EMITTED BY THE SUN.
It can be captured and converted into useful forms of energy, such as heat, using solar thermal collectors.
The technical feasibility and economical operation at a specific location depends on the available solar radiation.
The energy from the sun acting on the earth’s surface, over a 15 minute period, is more then the earth’s total energy
requirement for a year. The amount of yearly global radiation on a horizontal surface may reach over 2,200 kWh/m2 in
sunny regions. In Northern Europe, the maximum values are 1,100 kWh/m2 and are 943 kWh/m2 in London and 990 kWh/m2
in Rosslare, Ireland.
The supply of solar radiation in UK
and Ireland differs by a factor of 10
between summer and winter, e.g.
Rosslare: 6.36 kWh/m2/day in June;
0.64 kWh/m2/day in December.
Global radiation comprises direct and
diffuse radiation. As sunlight passes
through the atmosphere, some of it is
absorbed, reflected and scattered by air
molecules, clouds and dust particles,
this is known as diffuse radiation.
The portion of radiation that hits the
earth’s surface without any change in
direction is known as direct radiation.
In the UK and Ireland, diffused radiation
makes up between 40% (May) to 80%
(December) of the total solar energy
available in a year.
6
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HOW IT WORKS:
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM
A
Solar thermal technology
transforms direct and diffuse
solar radiation into useful heat
using a solar collector, which
should face as closely as possible
to the south at an angle
perpendicular to the sun.
1
E
D
2
PROCESS
All components work together to
heat water from sunlight:
4
C
B
1
Sunlight hits the solar
collector and heats thermal
transfer liquid passing
through it.
2 A pump circulates the heated
F
G
thermal transfer liquid from
the solar collector to the
water tank coil, where its
heat transfers to water
within the tank.
3
3
A Solar collector
the efficiency and quality of
the collector determines the
performance of the whole
system.
B Pump station
C Hot water storage tank
D Back-up heat source
E
Hot water distribution
system
F Solar controller
G Expansion tank
The pump returns the cooled
thermal transfer liquid to the
solar collector for reheating.
4 When needed, a back-up heat
source, such as a boiler,
on-demand water heater,
or electrical immersion
element, boosts the tank
water to the desired
temperature before it is
distributed to its end use.
The differential temperature
controller monitors and
regulates the circulation rate
of the thermal transfer liquid,
based on weather and hot
water demand.
The expansion tank regulates
system pressure as the
thermal transfer liquid
expands and contracts.
7
INTRODUCTION
FACTS
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BUSINESS CASE:
WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?
THE SUN - AN UNLIMITED ENERGY RESOURCE
Every year the sun provides over 8000 times as much
energy as we consume worldwide. A well designed solar
thermal system can provide up to 70% of a buildings
annual needs.
This is why solar thermal systems are one of the most
cost-effective and environmentally-friendly renewable
energy solutions available – reducing fuel bills and
greenhouse gas emissions.
Solar thermal energy enjoys many economic and
environmental advantages over other forms of energy
currently used, including:
REDUCE YOUR ENERGY BILLS
SUPERIOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
MARKET-BASED INCENTIVES
Cost effective: economical, mitigates
future energy shortages and price
increases.
Provides up to 96% solar energy
absorption with 5% emmissivity.
Government incentives, for example
the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).
Generates heat energy even on
overcast and cloudy days.
A solar hot water system can be cash
flow positive from day one.
High performance, tailored solutions
for hot water, central / space heating
and pool applications across a wide
range of building sectors.
A domestic solar hot water system
can last in excess of 25 years and
pay for itself many times over.
Immediate and permanent savings.
Enjoy FREE hot water all year round.
Safe, reliable, durable and time-tested
with a design life of over 30 years.
Rapid installation and low
maintenance.
8
NATIONAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES
NATIONAL TAX CREDITS
GROSS SYSTEM
COSTS
NET SYSTEM
COSTS*
* Dependent on available incentives
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
ACCESSIBILITY AND SECURITY
Non-toxic systems.
Security: the price of solar energy
does not fluctuate.
Non-polluting: solar hot water
generation produces no greenhouse
gas emissions.
Non-consumptive: the suns radiation
is a limitless resource.
Instant distribution: there are no
expensive transportation costs for
solar energy because the sun shines
everywhere.
Going ‘green’ for commercial projects
has now become a PR advantage.
9
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BUSINESS CASE:
IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?
WHEN CONSIDERING A SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM FOR YOUR BUILDING,
THERE ARE KEY FACTORS THAT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED.
As each project has individual requirements, Kingspan will develop a bespoke package, taking into account:
Location /
insolation level
Orientation
Limiting
factors,
e.g. shading
Roof pitch /
slope
KINGSPAN SOLAR TECHNICAL SERVICE
The checklist opposite provides an example of
a typical site assessment. To assist you further,
Kingspan Solar offers a simple site assessment
form (right) that, once completed, allows our
technical team to size, design, and estimate
savings on your project.
10
Roof area
Hot water,
heating and/or
cooling demand
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
11
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BUSINESS CASE:
MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS
Leisure – Hotels, camping
grounds, health clubs,
spas, and water parks.
Medical Facilities –
Hospitals, clinics and
retirement homes.
Education – Schools,
colleges, universities, and
campus accommodation.
Residential – Apartment
complexes.
Process and
Manufacturing – Drying,
industrial cooking,
pasteurisation, and
chemical manufacturing.
Office.
Sports Facilities.
Swimming Pools and
Water Parks.
LEISURE
SWIMMING POOLS
AGRICULTURE
RETAIL
OFFICE
12
HEALTHCARE
HOTEL
APARTMENTS
HOUSING
EDUCATION
UTILITIES
Commercial,
industrial, and
agricultural
businesses using
a high volume
of hot water
HOME AND SMALL
BUSINESSES:
Dish and laundry
washing.
Swimming pools.
Baths and showers.
Space and radiant
floor heating.
13
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
ENGINEERING,
SERVICE & SUPPORT
AT KINGSPAN SOLAR WE AIM NOT JUST TO MANUFACTURE AND SUPPLY HIGH QUALITY
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS, BUT PROVIDE ENGINEERING, SUPPORT AND SERVICE THAT IS
SECOND TO NONE THROUGHOUT YOUR PROJECT – OFFERING THE ULTIMATE, SINGLE-SOURCE
SOLAR SOLUTION.
Project
design concept
Energy
assessment
and system
specification
Cost and
payback
proposal
Proposal
review and
approval
Installation
training
Commissioning
support
Kingspan Solar Service
FULL-SERVICE ENGINEERING
We can provide project specific Auto CAD schematics and
roof layouts along with individual reports produced for
each project.
Each project is tailored to the exact specifications of the
individual brief and objectives. This means providing
world-class design consultancy, engineering expertise and
comprehensive advice from initial site visit and assessment
to detailed design drawings and concepts, delivery and
installation support.
We offer a fast, project specific, tender bid and specification
service. We use T*Sol & Polysun, the world renowned solar
simulation software, for system sizing.
We create a system tailored to the unique specifications of
your building and/or business, be it domestic, commercial or
industrial, in any country.
Call +44 (0) 28 38364500, to speak with one of our team,
or go online to submit an inquiry at www.kingspansolar.ie or
www.kingspansolar.co.uk, and we’ll respond to your inquiry
with tailored solutions.
At Kingspan Solar, we offer our customers over 25 years of
solar thermal expertise and experience to supply technical
designs and cost effective solutions on all projects.
Example schematics
as supplied by the
Kingspan Solar
Design Team
14
INTRODUCTION
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
GUINNESS BREWERY, DUBLIN, IRELAND
CUSTOMER SERVICE
WARRANTY
Our dedicated team provides focused customer service
including delivery scheduling and installer support, ensuring
a seamless, well co-ordinated customer experience.
The 20 year warranty on our evacuated tubes reinforces our
confidence in the quality and longevity of the product.
Please refer to our terms and conditions in the section
“Specification and Warranty Statement”, page 89.
To ensure high levels of satisfaction, we conduct customer
surveys to gather important feedback that help us keep a
pulse on the marketplace.
SITE SERVICE SUPPORT
Our technical team provides off- and on-site installation
training and support in order to guide our installers to
deliver products that fulfill customers’ requirements and
expectations. Our team of fully qualified engineers provide
system checks and start-up support, ensuring installations
are fully operational and working from day of completion.
We offer a site inspection service throughout the installation
process as well as advice on operation and maintenance.
15
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMMITTED TO
GREEN BUILDINGS
THE ROUTE TO NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS
IN MARCH 2007, THE HEADS OF STATE AND
GOVERNMENT OF THE 27 EU COUNTRIES
ADOPTED A BINDING TARGET OF 20% FINAL
ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM RENEWABLE
ENERGY BY 2020.
Kingspan solar thermal systems offer outstanding
performance and durability, providing a valuable contribution
to a buildings overall energy efficiency and carbon reduction
targets on the route to ‘net-zero energy’.
Attaining this goal requires that buildings be energy
efficient and include a means of producing energy from
renewable resources.
Education
Apartments
Healthcare
Office
Commercial
& industrial
Retail
Leisure
Processing
-CO2
EEMs
ENVELOPEFIRST™
Highly insulated building
envelope.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
MEASURES (EEMS)
Building services and controls.
16
INSULATE & GENERATE
EnvelopeFirst™ + integrated
renewable technologies,
e.g., Kingspan Solar.
NET-ZERO ENERGY
BUILDINGS
Optimised energy efficient
buildings that are energy
neutral over the course of
a year.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BREEAM
T*SOL
BREEAM sets the standard for best practice in sustainable
building design, construction and operation and assesses the
environmental performance of any type of building, new and
existing. BREEAM is used in a range of formats from country
specific schemes, adapted for local conditions, to
international schemes intended for the certification of
individual projects anywhere in the world.
All systems should be
designed using computer
software to predict the
overall system performance.
The computer software used
by Kingspan, T*SOL, is third
party software that utilises
weather data from various
locations across the UK and
Ireland, collected every hour
for a typical year at that location.
The software also considers the load
patterns and tank sizes to accurately size these parts of a
system. Collector performance is predicted using data taken
from the Solar Keymark ratings that are used in Europe.
A number of Government departments or other public
bodies either require or encourage the use of BREEAM.
SECTION WEIGHTING
Category
Part 1:
Asset rating
Part 2: Building
management rating
Part 3:
Organisational rating
Energy
26.5%
31.5%
19.5%
Water
8.0%
5.5%
3.5%
Materials and waste
13.5%
7.5%
16.0%
Health and Wellbeing
17.0%
15.0%
15.0%
Pollution
14.0%
13.0%
10.5%
The overall report produces a good picture of how a system
is going to perform during a typical year. Below are typical
calculations output by T*SOL.
Transport
11.5%
–
18.5%
SOLAR ENERGY CONSUMPTION AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION
Landuse and ecology
9.5%
12.5%
5.0%
–
15.0%
12.0%
Management
ASSESSMENT SCORE
ASSESSMENT RATING
STAR RATING
< 10
Unclassified
–
10 – 25
Acceptable
*
25 – 40
Pass
**
40 – 55
Good
***
55 – 70
Very Good
****
70 – 85
Excellent
*****
> 85
Outstanding
******
DAILY MAXIMUM COLLECTOR TEMPERATURE
17
INTRODUCTION
DESIGNING GREEN BUILDINGS
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMMITTED TO
GREEN BUILDINGS
OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY
“Energy efficiency and environmental sustainability
are at the forefront of our thinking.”
Kingspan’s primary contribution to meeting our global
environmental challenges is to design, develop and supply
new systems and solutions in a highly responsible and
efficient manner.
Gene M. Murtagh, Chief Executive, Kingspan Group.
integrated, more efficient, faster and safer. Kingspan always
selects materials and systems to minimise the overall
ecological impact of buildings.
Kingspan has set ambitious targets for reducing the effects
of our operations and products on the environment. In fact,
we have embarked on our own Net Zero Initiative, which in
essence aims to have all facilities running on entirely
renewable power by 2020. We continue to further our
engineering research and development programs to
maximise the life cycle performance and end of life
procedures of every product we manufacture.
VISION
“To be a global leader in sustainable business and establish
a leading position in providing sustainable, renewable and
affordable best practice solutions for the construction sector.”
SUSTAINABILITY POLICY
Striving for sustainability in all our business products and
operations is our corporate and personal responsibility.
Kingspan Solar aims to adopt and apply best practice
sustainability principles by ensuring environmental, social
and economic parameters are considered in an integrated
way in product and service delivery. To this end, Kingspan
Solar will:
Through its employees, Kingspan instills an environmental
awareness and responsibility that is reflected in the concept,
design, development and production of all its products
and services.
Kingspan promotes the use of construction techniques that
respect the environment in terms of manufacturing,
transportation, site installation, waste and end-of-life.
We believe these construction methods are better
Incorporate the ethos of sustainability into the vision and
values of the organisation.
Continually improve operational performance through the
setting of long-term objectives and targets related to
sustainability and review progress regularly.
Packaging
Distribution
Comply or exceed applicable legal and policy
requirements related to the environmental and social
aspects of the organisation.
Manufacturing
Optimise energy and raw material usage and prevent or
minimise pollution and environmental damage.
Communicate and actively promote awareness and
acceptance of this policy to everyone working for, or on
behalf of, the organisation (including employees,
shareholders, suppliers / sub-contractors and customers).
Ensure employees are given adequate training in
sustainability issues and are fully involved in helping
deliver the Sustainability Vision & Policy.
Usage
Materials
Disposal
18
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LOCATION
Bristol, UK
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water and pool heating
CLIENT
Bristol Lido / Solarsense
PRODUCT
720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
SAVINGS
Estimated associated fuel savings
of over £2201 per annum
INTRODUCTION
BRISTOL LIDO SPA & SWIMMING POOL
BRISTOL, UK
Bristol Lido, the oldest lido in the country, has been
transformed into a model of energy efficiency following
a two-year restoration.
The complex, including a 24-metre open-air swimming pool,
now features 720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated
tubes which generate up to 70% of the lido’s annual hot
water needs.
The owners of the 150 year old Grade II listed Lido, are great
believers in conservation and wanted to find a way to heat
the vast amount of water used at the lido without relying on
expensive, fossil fuel resources. They conducted a great deal
of research into sustainable energy options ahead of the
restoration and Kingspan Solar’s Heat Pipe collectors were
the obvious answer. They tick all the boxes and far surpass
the competition in terms of delivering premium performance
matched with financial benefits.
“SAVING UP TO 70%
OF ANNUAL HOT
WATER NEEDS”
The Heat Pipe collector enable the cost-effective heating of
water, whilst helping reduce carbon emissions in the process.
19
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
DAIRY FARM
TEIFI VALLEY, WALES, UK
LOCATION
Pembrokeshire, Wales, UK
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water
CLIENT
Hywel James / Llani Solar Ltd
PRODUCT
180 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated tubes
PRODUCTION
10,000 kWh per annum
SAVINGS
£1,500
An organic dairy farm in Pembrokeshire, has found the
perfect sustainable solution to its hot water needs.
The 500 acre farm, which houses a large organic dairy herd,
has installed 180 Heat Pipe evacuated tubes to generate
enough hot water to meet its demanding cleaning
requirements.
These high performance solar thermal collectors not only
generate up to 70% of the farm’s annual hot water needs,
they also deliver a dramatic reduction in its energy costs and
carbon emissions.
“PRODUCES 10,000 kWh
PER YEAR SAVING
AROUND £1,500”
Hywel James, who runs the farm in Pembrokeshire’s Teifi
Valley, needed to find a way to heat 500 litres of water to
90°C on a daily basis in order to clean the plant and its
equipment. Llani Solar Ltd specified 18m2 of Kingspan Solar
Heat Pipe collectors, installed on a specially constructed
south-facing canopy to maximise heat gain from the sun
and also to provide shelter outside the milking parlour.
The system is already reporting significant savings for the
farm, producing around 10,000 kWh of heat per year with
annual savings of around £1,500.
20
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LOCATION
Headingley, Leeds, UK
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water and space heating support
CLIENT
University Partnerships Programme (UPP)
PRODUCT
720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
SAVINGS
Estimated associated fuel savings
of circa £2000 per annum
INTRODUCTION
LEEDS METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY
LEEDS, UK
In preparation for the new intake of freshers, Leeds
Metropolitan University has unveiled a brand new
development of high quality purpose-built student flats.
In keeping with its ethical and environmentally sustainable
ethos, the six new cluster blocks feature 72m2 of Kingspan
Solar’s Heat Pipe evacuated tubes.
These superior performance solar thermal collectors not
only generate up to 70% of each building’s annual hot water
requirements, but also provide central heating support,
resulting in a dramatic reduction to both carbon emissions
and energy costs.
“SAVING UP TO 70%
OF ANNUAL HOT
WATER NEEDS”
Carnegie Village is a £26m development situated on
Headingley campus, a self-contained student community in
the heart of Leeds. The new flats have been fitted with 720
Heat Pipe evacuated tubes solar thermal collectors that heat
two 500 litre cylinders per block.
The large-scale solar installation, carried out by Kingspan
Solar Accredited Installers, sees Leeds Metropolitan
University leading the way in sustainable thinking.
21
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LEICESTER COLLEGE
LEICESTER, UK
LOCATION
Leicester, UK
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water
CLIENT
Leicester College
PRODUCT
300 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
SAVINGS
Up to 70% of hot water
Leicester College, which is one of the largest in the UK,
is one of the first in the country to adopt evacuated tube
collector technology to service its hot water needs as part
of its commitment to sustainability.
As part of a dramatic overhaul to upgrade its facilities for
students and in keeping with Building Regulations, the
college replaced its old gas boilers with 300 Kingspan Solar
evacuated tubes, which heat a 3,000 litre thermal store.
The Kingspan Solar Specification team has designed the
system to meet 70 percent of its hot water needs
all-year-round.
“SAVINGS OF UP TO
70% OF HOT WATER”
“The performance of the Kingspan Solar tubes has
been nothing but impressive. We get solar heated
water in record time and there is minimum
maintenance required.’’
Robin Dalby, Maintenance & Development Co-ordinator, Leicester College.
22
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LOCATION
NPRO Building, St. James’ Hospital, Dublin
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water
CLIENT
Health Service Executive
INSTALLER
Haughton & Young Mechanical Contractor
PRODUCT
48m2 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
INTRODUCTION
ST. JAMES’ HOSPITAL
DUBLIN, IRELAND
Kingspan solar thermal range has been used as part of
a €28m project to build a new three storey multi-discipline
facility. The new NPRO Building will provide treatment
areas, staff accommodation and training suites at
St. James’ Hospital in Dublin.
The Kingspan Solar Specification team provided the system,
which saw the installation of 48m2 Kingspan Solar
evacuated tubes to provide heating to 2 x 2000ltr calorifiers.
The system met the demands of the project to achieve
considerable reduction on fossil fuel reliance and
enhancement of green sustainability credentials.
“THE SYSTEM PERFORMS
EXTREMELY WELL AND WE
ARE DELIGHTED WITH THE
RESULTS”
“The system has performed extremely well and we are
delighted with the results to date even considering the
relatively poor year we have had weather wise. Again this
relates back to what we were told initially that evacuated
tube performance will not be compromised too much in
cloudy weather due to their ability to perform well in
diffused sunlight.”
23
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
BREFFNI PARK STADIUM
IRELAND
LOCATION
Cavan, Ireland
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water
CLIENT
Breffni Park Stadium
PRODUCT
300 Kingspan Solar Direct Flow tubes
PAYBACK
< 6 years
As part of a L300,000 renovation, Kingspan Breffni Park
Stadium became the exclusive home to the first-ever
Kingspan Solar fresh-water module system.
Reducing carbon emissions, hot-water costs and with
payback in less than four years, the GAA stadium has been
hailed as a shining example, for its effective use of
renewable technology.
“We have already been able to turn off our boilers,
which were powered by gas, saving us over L4,000
a year. Plus we are also able to use the hot water
generated by the system to heat our radiators.
Again saving us money!’’
“SAVING US OVER
k4,000 A YEAR”
Kieran Callaghan, Chairman of Kingspan Breffni Park committee
As part of the renovation project, Kingspan Environmental’s,
Rainwater Harvesting system was also installed. It is used to
recycle excess water from the roof and pitch. This water is
also used for all the toilets and watering the field when
needed.
24
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
INTRODUCTION
NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY
NOTTINGHAM, UK
LOCATION
Clifton Campus, Nottingham, UK
A multi-million pound new build development at Nottingham
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water
Trent University is benefiting from a major installation of
CLIENT
University Partnerships Programme (UPP)
3960 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated tubes, in what is
INSTALLER
MG Renewables
one of the UK’s largest ever solar thermal projects.
PRODUCTION
33,000 litres of hot water per day
The new Clifton Campus student accommodation was built using
PRODUCT
3960 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
the University Partnerships Programme’s (UPP) Eco Residence
SAVINGS
Estimated associated fuel savings
of over £1000 per annum
Model for sustainable development to considerably cut CO2
emissions and meet strict government targets.
Solar specialists MG Renewables specified 132 Kingspan Solar
evacuated tube collectors, covering over 6,000ft2 of roof area
“DELIVERING 33,000 LITRES
OF HOT WATER PER DAY”
across 12 accommodation blocks to service the hot water needs
of 727 students. Heat Pipe collectors were specified for their
high performance and reliability and are now delivering 33,000
litres of hot water every day, lowering energy bills and providing
a 61 tonnes per year reduction in CO2 emissions.
“People think the weather in the UK and Ireland isn’t
suitable for solar power to work well, but that is a myth.
Solar energy systems such as Kingspan Solar’s work
even on overcast days.’’
Gerry Kennedy, Director, MG Renewables, Nottingham.
25
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
SCOTTISH SEABIRD CENTRE
SCOTLAND, UK
LOCATION
North Berwick, East Lothian, Scotland, UK
APPLICATION
Hot water for kitchen and cafeteria
CLIENT
Scottish Seabird Centre
INSTALLER
Glendevon Energy
PRODUCT
90 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tubes
SAVINGS
6MWh and 1,600kg CO2 per year
A leading tourism attraction and independent charity, the
Scottish Seabird Centre offers visitors an interactive
experience with a Discovery Centre, gift shop and café.
The 9m2 installation of Kingspan Solar’s Heat Pipe evacuated
tube collectors is helping to dramatically reduce energy
costs and CO2 emissions as part of the Centre’s ongoing
environmental initiative, ‘Plan Green Zero’.
Heat Pipe collectors were specified and fitted by Kinross
renewables supplier and installer, Glendevon Energy to
pre-heat water for the gas boiler system, providing up to
70% of the annual hot water for the cafeteria and kitchen.
“PRODUCING 6MWh
PER YEAR”
“We opted for Kingspan Solar collectors because they
were able to complement the specific design elements
of the project perfectly, while still delivering the
highest quality performance to meet the Centre’s
hot water needs.’’
Jamie Adams, Director, Glendevon Energy.
The installation is expected to contribute 6MWh to the
Centre’s hot water system each year, helping to avoid more
than 1,600kg of CO2 emissions in the process.
26
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LOCATION
Huyton, Liverpool and Bullwell, Nottingham, UK
APPLICATION
Hot water, including 82 en-suite bedrooms
CLIENT
LNT Construction - Ideal Care Homes
INSTALLER
Solar Save UK - Kingspan Solar Accredited Installer
PRODUCTION
16.71 MWh per annum across two sites
PRODUCT
300 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
SAVINGS
Average savings of over £1000 per annum
INTRODUCTION
HURST PARK COURT CARE HOME, LIVERPOOL, UK
& FAIRWAY VIEW CARE HOME, NOTTINGHAM, UK
A major project to build 35 care homes over a two-year
period has kicked off with the installation of 300 Kingspan
solar thermal Heat Pipe tubes across two sites in Liverpool
and Nottingham.
LNT Construction specified Heat Pipe tubes to help provide
hot water for the homes, and comply with SBEM and Part L
Building Regulations. The 150-tube installation at each of the
first two sites feed into pre-heat systems to meet the homes’
domestic hot water needs. Across the two sites, the expected
annual contribution to the care homes’ hot water is 16.71 MWh,
helping avoid a significant 3,242kg of CO2 emissions.
“SAVING 3,242KG
OF CO2 EMISSIONS”
LNT Group Mechanical Engineer, Tom Nutt, said, “When
looking to integrate solar thermal technology into the project,
we wanted to be able to provide readily available hot water for
residents all year round. After Kingspan’s design team
produced an in-depth T*SOL simulation, it was clear that Heat
Pipe collectors would be the far superior choice, particularly in
terms of performance. What’s more, the tubes were installed
by Solar Save UK, a Kingspan Solar Accredited Installer, which
means we’re able to benefit from a 20 year warranty as well
as top quality workmanship.”
27
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
CHANGI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
SINGAPORE
LOCATION
Singapore
APPLICATION
Food preparation, cooking, washing and
staff showering
CLIENT
Singapore Changi International Airport
INSTALLER
Connections International Pte Ltd
PRODUCT
10,500 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tubes
SAVINGS
Up to h 50,000 per year on electricity bill
Singapore Changi International Airport, a major aviation
hub in Southeast Asia has installed one of the largest solar
thermal systems in Southeast Asia. The installation uses
more than 10,000 Kingspan Solar evacuated tubes.
Commissioned in 1996, the system comprises 350 evacuated
tube solar thermal collectors to heat 66,000 litres of water
in buffer tank storages.
The heat generated by the systems is used for staff
showering facilities in the Singapore Airport Terminal
Services (SATS) and for food preparation, cooling and
washing at in-flight catering centre in Changi International
Airport Services (CIAS).
“SAVING UP TO
k50,000 PER YEAR ON
ELECTRICITY BILL.”
28
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CASE
STUDIES
LOCATION
Ogunquit, Maine, USA
APPLICATION
Domestic hot water and space heating
CLIENT
Cliff House Resort & Spa
INSTALLER
Nelson & Small Energy Conservation
Products, Inc.
PRODUCT
70 Heat Pipe collectors
PAYBACK
< 6 years
INTRODUCTION
CLIFF HOUSE RESORT & SPA
MAINE, USA
Committed to sustainability and preserving the
environment, the 5 star Cliff House Resort & Spa has
installed one of Maine’s largest solar thermal systems.
The installation uses 2,100 tubes on 70 collectors.
This solar installation will save an estimated 50,000 litres of
propane annually and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by
more than 63.5 tonnes per year.
Solar energy will be used to provide heat and hot water for
the Resort’s Spa building, which includes 32 guest rooms and
10 treatment rooms. The Resort estimates it will reduce
fossil fuel consumption in this building by 30%. A grant from
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as federal tax
credits, helped offset project costs and reduce payback to
less than six years.
“SYSTEM PAYBACK
LESS THAN 6 YEARS.”
Kingspan Solar not only supplied the collectors, but
designed, specified and supplied all the components,
programmed the controls and commissioned the entire
system prior to handover, providing the ultimate solar
thermal solution.
29
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
ROBY LODGE CARE HOME, LIVERPOOL, UK
LONGFIELD ACADEMY FOR ARTS & SCIENCES, KENT, UK
30
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS PRODUCT OVERVIEW
32
KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
34
KINGSPAN SOLAR DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR
38
KINGSPAN SOLAR FRAMES
40
VARISOL, AWARD WINNING SOLAR COLLECTORS
42
FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS
44
UNIQUE FEATURES OF KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
46
•
•
46
47
TUBE DESIGN
BENEFITS
EVACUATED TUBE COMPARISONS
50
•
•
50
55
FIN-IN-TUBE COPY / SINGLE-WALLED TUBE
SYDNEY TUBE / DOUBLE-WALLED TUBE
KINGSPAN PUMP STATIONS
PRODUCT RANGE
PRODUCT RANGE
56
31
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
WE OFFER A RANGE OF SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS TO
SUIT EVERY APPLICATION.
KINGSPAN SOLAR EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR
KINGSPAN SOLAR'S UNIQUE VARISOL DESIGN
The Kingspan Solar collector is the most efficient, longest
lasting solar collector on the market today. Made in Europe
since 1982, our evacuated tubes have withstood the test
of time.
World leading evacuated tubes and a new click-fit design,
combine to make the world’s first modular solar thermal
collector.
Varisol technology provides
a modern and adaptable
alternative to traditional
rigid manifold systems.
Its precise sizing and
modular flexibility means it
can be sized to the exact
requirements of the end
user, so they only use and
pay for what is needed for
ultimate results.
Each collector consists of a highly insulated manifold and a
series of evacuated tubes. The vacuum inside each tube
provides perfect insulation, protecting the system from
outside influences, such as cold and windy weather or high
humidity.
Highly efficient – super fast heat transfer
Ease of installation and maintenance
Available in Direct Flow (DF400) and Heat Pipe (HP400
and HP450) options
‘Plug and play’ design
It is completely expandable so customers can grow their
solar systems as their needs change.
INSTALLATION COULDN’T BE EASIER
Insert Varisol tube...
click into position.
32
rotate down...
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Kingspan also offers a range of durable and very efficient
flat plate collectors to meet the needs of a wide range of
applications from small residential systems to large scale
commercial installations.
Kingspan also supplies a range of
components in order to provide complete
solar thermal solutions, including:
Cylinders
In a solar system, the tank is almost as
important to the collection of energy as
the collector.
Kingspan Tribune tanks are designed
specifically for solar systems to
maximize their output.
Expansion Tanks
In closed loop systems, an expansion
tank is required to compensate for fluid
expansion and contraction.
Different sizes available.
ASME and non-ASME rated
tanks available.
Solar Controllers
Differential Temperature Controllers
are required to activate circulating
pumps and motorized valves and
monitor system performance. They can
record data from all sensors in the solar
thermal system.
Kingspan offers a wide range of
controllers for different system types
and requirements.
Many different accessories available including
LAN module, data logger and BACnet module.
Propylene Glycol
Kingspan Solar recommends Tyfocor Propylene Glycol,
a high temperature glycol formulated specifically for
solar thermal systems.
33
PRODUCT RANGE
Pump Stations
Pump Stations contain a circulating pump
that circulates the heat transfer fluid
through the solar loop (see page 56).
Robust, durable and high performance, our flat plate panels
deliver excellent levels of efficiency combined with flexibility
in installation.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
Manifiold (glycol)
Condenser
Steam
Heat Pipe
Figure 1: How a Heat Pipe works.
HOW IT WORKS
The heat pipe is a very efficient method of transferring
the energy from the tubes to the glycol in the manifold.
Each tube plugs into a dry socket in the manifold where the
glycol runs past it. This allows for individual tubes to be
removed from the system without having to drain the glycol.
The system can also be commissioned, flushed and filled
prior to inserting the tubes into the collectors, an important
point for large systems that need to be commissioned
before a building is occupied. When the time comes, simply
insert the tubes into the system and it is ready to produce
hot water.
An absorber plate is located inside a glass tube where a
vacuum is pulled to keep the losses to the environment as
low as possible. 99.999999% of the air is removed from
inside the glass enclosure during the manufacture of the
tubes to mimimize heat loss. The heat pipe is the method of
heat transfer from inside the tube to the manifold, where a
water glycol mixture flows past the condenser heat at the
top of the heat pipe and pulls the energy away.
On the back of the copper absorber plate is welded a small
copper tube. This tube is sealed at the bottom and, before it
is sealed at the top, a small amount of fluid is added to the
tube and a vacuum pulled inside the tube. The vacuum
inside the heat pipe causes the water to boil at 29,4 °C
instead of its usual 100°C. The absorber plate collects
energy from the sun and becomes hot, causing the water in
the heat pipe to boil. The steam naturally rises up to the top
of the heat pipe and into the condenser head which is
located inside the manifold. Glycol flowing past the
condenser head causes the water to condense, heating the
glycol and causing the water to run back down to the bottom
of the heat pipe allowing the process to continue when
significant light is available (Figure 1).
Dry socket
Manifiold (glycol)
34
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
Cover
The manifold itself is formed from heavy duty aluminum
extrusions on the front and back. Inside is the condenser
manifold where the heat transfer occurs between the
condenser and the glycol flowing past. To install the tubes
simply open the manifold cover, line the tubes up with the
manifold, and press them into place. When finished, close the
manifold cover and this will retain the tubes in position.
The manifold is the only area of the system that becomes
hot and is not protected by a vacuum, so it is protected with
high tech melamine foam insulation. This insulation has a
very low U-value and is stable at the high temperatures the
collector can achieve.
Melamine Foam Insulation
Condenser Manifiold
PRODUCT RANGE
Condenser Socket
End
Connection
Retaining Strip
TiNOx Selective Coating
Rubber End
Bumper
Vacuum Area
Soda Lime Glass
Copper
Absorber Plate
Getter
Flexible Neck
Condenser
Head
Heat Pipe
If the vacuum is lost in one of the tubes, the getter will turn
white to indicate this. The TiNOx coating used on the tubes
is designed to absorb 96% of the sun’s energy that strikes it
while emitting only 4% back to the environment. This is
currently the best available coating for solar collectors.
The image above shows the other key components of the
heat pipe tube. The getter is a layer of barium that is
deposited on the inside of the tube after the vacuum is
drawn. This protects the vacuum over time from any air
molecules that may make their way through the glass.
35
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
OUR HEAT PIPE HAS A FEATURE THAT MAKES IT UNIQUE WHEN COMPARED TO ANY
OTHER EVACUATED TUBE ON THE MARKET TODAY:
THERMOSTATIC CONTROL
When the hot water storage reaches its maximum temperature, the solar pump stops and
additional heat will not be removed from the collector. This will cause the tubes to become
very hot. To protect the glycol in the manifold, our heat pipe tubes have a patented
thermostatic control device. This activates automatically in the condenser head and prevents
the temperature in the manifold from becoming hot enough to damage the glycol.
Normal
operation
We offer two options for the unique temperature limitation device. When the temperature
rises to 90˚C/135˚C, a stack of bimetallic disks flexes, closing a valve that will not allow
additional steam from the heat pipe to enter the condenser head.
When flow is restored to the collectors and the temperature falls below 90˚C/135˚C, the
disks snap back and the valve reopens restoring the system to normal operation.
The HP450 range is designed for industrial applications where high water temperatures
are required for the purpose of wash downs, process heat, etc. The HP400 range is
designed for applications that require a lower input water temperature such as washing
and showering needs.
36
Limiting
temperature
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CERTIFIED EFFICIENCIES
Keymark
Absorber
0.750
0.794
1
1.18
1.25
2
0.010
0.010
a
a
3m2
Number of tubes
20
30
Dimensions
Absorber Area (m2)
Overall Dimensions (mm)
Heat Pipe Collector Efficiency
0.9
0.8
0.7
Efficiency (-)
2m2
2.01
3.021
1952 x 1418 x 93
1952 x 2127 x 93
Width of Manifold (mm)
1418
2127
Length (tube and manifold) (mm)
1952
1952
Depth (mm)
93
93
Aperture Area (m2)
2.16
3.23
Fluid Volume (ltr)
1.2
1.7
Inlet and Outlet Dimensions (mm)
22
22
Weight (empty) (kg)
48
71
20-70
20-70
Mounting
0.6
Recommended Inclination (˚)
0.5
Performance Data
0.4
Efficiency
400 W/m2
600 W/m2
800 W/m2
1000 W/m2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Based on Aperture
Based on Aperture
Eta 0
0.75
0.75
a1 (W/m2K)
1.18
1.18
a2 (W/m2K2)
0.0095
0.0095
Solar Keymark Licence Numbers
20
30
40
50
60 70
80
90 100
110 120
130 140 150
HP400: 011-751793
Operating Data
Collector Temperature (˚C)
Flow Rate (ltr/h)
Rated
160
Minimum
120
180
Maximum
300
480
Maximum Operating Pressure
10 Bar
10 Bar
Stagnation Temperature (˚C)
166
166
Water / Glycol
Water / Glycol
Heat Transfer Fluid
240
Materials
Absorber
Copper
Copper
Coating
Selective Coating
Selective Coating
Absorbance (%)
95
95
Emissivity (5)
5
5
Stainless Steel,
Aluminium, EPDM
Stainless Steel,
Aluminium, EPDM
Low Iron - Transm. 0.92
Low Iron - Transm. 0.92
<10-6 mbar
<10-6 mbar
90 / 135
90 / 135
Yes
Yes
Mounting Frame and Clips
Glass
Vacuum
Temperature Limitation (˚C)
Quality Certification / Solar Keymark
37
PRODUCT RANGE
η0
Keymark
Aperture
HP400 / HP450
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN SOLAR
DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR
DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS ARE AVAILABLE IN
2 DIFFERENT SIZES
HOW IT WORKS
Direct flow solar collectors consist of a row of solar tubes
and a highly insulated manifold. The heat medium to be
heated is passed down through the collector tube within
a coaxial heat exchanger. The vacuum inside each tube
provides perfect insulation and therefore protects the
system from outside influences such as cold and windy
weather or high humidity. This vacuum insulation also
ensures that the energy collected from the sun is very
efficiently and effectively transferred into usable heat.
DF400
2
Number of Tubes
2m
3m2
20
30
Dimensions
Absorber Area (m2)
Overall Dimensions (mm)
THE VERSATILE SOLUTION
The flexible installation options of direct flow collectors
provide the perfect solution when the ideal position on the
building is not available.
2.010
3.021
1952 x 1418 x 93
1952 x 2127 x 93
Width of Manifold (mm)
1418
2127
Length (tube and manifold) (mm)
1996
1996
Depth (mm)
97
97
Aperture Area (m2)
2.15
3.23
Fluid Volume (ltr)
3.6
5.6
Inlet and Outlet Dimensions (mm)
22
22
Weight (empty) (kg)
51
78
Mounting
Direct flow systems can be installed on a pitched or
horizontal surface, and the tube can be rotated 25˚ to
compensate for installations that deviate from south.
As the collector is a fully pumped unit, there is no minimum
angle for the collector.
Recommended Inclination (˚)
0-90
0-90
Based on
Aperture
Based on
Aperture
Eta 0
0.773
0.779
a1 (W/m2K)
1.43
1.07
a2 (W/m2K2)
0.0059
0.0135
011 - 7S1946 R
011 - 7S1946 R
Rated
160
240
Minimum
120
180
Maximum
300
480
Maximum Operating Pressure
8 Bar
8 Bar
Stagnation Temperature (˚C)
286
286
Water / Glycol
Water / Glycol
Performance Data
Efficiency
This makes it most suitable for installations where the
product needs to be installed below 20˚ or above 70˚.
Solar Keymark Licence Numbers
Operating Data
Flow Rate (ltr/h)
Heat Transfer Fluid
Materials
Absorber
Copper
Copper
Coating
Selective
Coating
Selective
Coating
Absorbance (%)
95
95
Emissivity (5)
5
5
Stainless Steel,
Aluminium,
EPDM
Stainless Steel,
Aluminium,
EPDM
Glass
Low Iron Transm.
0.92
Low Iron Transm.
0.92
<10-6mbar
<10-6mbar
Yes
Yes
Mounting Frame and Clips
1
Ideal slope 40˚
2
3
Roof kit angled 40˚
4
Horizontal ideal slope
5
6
Horizontal façade
Vacuum
Flat
7
Vertical façade
Quality Certification /
Solar Keymark
Elevated 20˚
38
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
Rubber end bumper
0.9
TiNOx selective coating
0.8
Soda lime glass
0.7
Vacuum area
0.6
Copper absorber plate
0.5
Getter
0.4
400 W/m2
600 W/m2
800 W/m2
1000 W/m2
0.3
0.2
0.1
PRODUCT RANGE
Efficiency (-)
Direct Flow Collector Efficiency
0
20
30
40
50
60 70
80
90 100
110 120
130 140 150
Collector Temperature (˚C)
THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL
OF ARCHITECTURE, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
39
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN SOLAR
FRAMES
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Manifold
Tube Retainer
Evacuated Tubes
Frame
Connection Kit
Tube Retainer
MOUNTING HARDWARE (FRAMES) FOR OUR EVACUATED
TUBES (REFERS TO HEAT PIPE AND DIRECT FLOW)
Kingspan offers a selection of frames to hold the collector at
the proper angle. All Kingspan frames are made from
extruded aluminum supports and stainless steel hardware
for the ultimate durability. Frames are supplied partially
assembled with all clips in the correct locations and legs
bolted together, facilitating fast and accurate installation.
The connections at the end of the manifold use a redundant
double o-ring seal to allow for expansion and contraction,
if multiple manifolds are connected in series. The connection
kit provides the adaptors necessary to adapt this to 22mm
copper pipe at the end of
collector banks.
Connecting multiple
collectors is easy with the
interconnection kit. One
end of the manifold simply
slides into the other and
the interconnection kit
provides the hardware to
properly align these end
fittings.
Mounting the frame to the roof is another area that requires
particular attention. The mount will depend on the type of roof
and exactly how the collectors are to be mounted. Kingspan
Solar offers a wide variety of mounting hardware and provides
the experience to select the correct system for the application.
From asphalt shingle, to tile, to EPDM, we can help you choose
the correct mounting hardware for the application.
40
PRODUCT RANGE
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
APARTMENT BLOCKS, GERMANY
CLIFF HOUSE RESORT & SPA, MAINE , USA
41
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
VARISOL, AWARD WINNING
SOLAR COLLECTORS
THE REVOLUTIONARY NEW DESIGN OF VARISOL OFFERS A MODERN
AND FLEXIBLE ALTERNATIVE TO THE RIGID MANIFOLD SYSTEM.
ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
Delivering all the benefits of Kingspan Solar’s market-leading
evacuated tubes, Varisol offers the combination of total
flexibility, high quality and proven performance.
The evacuated tubes are pre-assembled with the Varisol
connector for ease of installation and collector sizes of up to
150 tubes. The technology is suitable for both domestic and
commercial applications and is completely expandable
enabling customers to grow their solar thermal systems as
their requirements change.
Precision sizing means customers only need to pay for
exactly what they need. For installers they are quick and
easy to install and distributors benefit from improved stock
control with no manifolds to stock or invest capital in. They
are also environmentally friendly, using 100% recyclable
polymer material.
Varisol has lowered its carbon footprint by eliminating the
need for brazing and welding as well as energy intensive
materials, such as copper and aluminium. The system is also
more lightweight and requires less packing and boxes,
therefore minimising the impact of transport.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
DF
HP
Dimensions (mm)
1950 x 70.9 x 70.9
1965 x 70.9 x 70.9
Weight (kg)
2.2
2.13
Volume (l)
0.19
0.05
Max. Operating pressure
6
6
Min. slope
0
20
Max. Slope
90
80
Max. Load
2.5
2.5
Heat transfer medium
Propylene Glycol
Propylene Glycol
Max. field size
150 tubes = 21m2 (gross) 150 tubes = 21m2 (gross)
A copper pocket is over-moulded into the
polymer header to house the condenser
and ensure a dry connection of the tubes.
“Quick and easy to install, Varisol allows
individual tubes to be simply clicked together
to create solar collectors of varying sizes.”
42
PRODUCT RANGE
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
RETIREMENT HOME, ITALIAN ALPS
“This versatile product provides the
perfect solution when the ideal position
on the building is not available.”
43
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
FLAT PLATE
SOLAR COLLECTORS
HOW IT WORKS
environment. On the front side of the panel is a plate of glass
that the sun shines through. The glass also provides insulation
for the collector plate from the cold environment outside.
Flat plates are a very simple method for capturing the
energy form the sun and turning it into hot water. A copper
plate is coated with a special coating that absorbs as much
of the sun’s radiation as possible. On the back of this plate
are a series of tubes that are welded directly to the back of
the plate. Glycol flows from a manifold on one end of the
collector to another manifold at the other end. As it passes
through the tubes on the back of the plate, it is heated by
the energy that the plate has absorbed from the sun.
A frame around the outside holds everything together and
keeps moisture out.
Both ends of the manifolds have union fittings that allow for
a connection kit to be attached, or another panel. For arrays
of multiple collectors, one collector simply screws into the
next and seals with a flat washer. A plug is screwed into one
end of each of the manifolds and the connection kit added to
connect up an array of collectors.
To keep as much energy in as possible, the collector plate is
surrounded on five sides by insulation. This insulation prevents
the loss of energy from the hot plate to the surrounding
“Kingspan offers three sizes of flat plate.
This allows for optimal placement of the
panels on the roof and significant
flexibility in the output of the system.”
44
PRODUCT RANGE
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
GUATEMALA
KEY FEATURES
SPECIFICATION / TYPE
There are many flat plate products on the market today,
differing significantly in terms of design, construction
quality, performance and size. Kingspan flat plate collectors
offer high efficiency, combined with robust design and
construction, providing solar thermal systems that are
designed to last and perform for many years.
Dimensions (mm)
Weight (kg)
FPW25
FPW21
FPW18
1988 x 1218 x 90
1988 x 1041 x 90
1927 x 927 x 90
44
37.2
34
Sealing Material
EPDM & Silicone & Aluminium Frame
Gross Area (m2)
2.42
2.07
1.79
Aperture Area (m2)
2.24
1.92
1.62
Absorber Material
Almeco Tinox Highly Selective Aluminium
Thickness (mm)
0.3
0.3
0.3
Absorptance (%)
95
95
95
Emittance (%)
4
4
4
Glass Material
Low Iron Tempered Glass
Insulation Material
Rockwool
Efficiency
eta 0 (zero loss efficiency - n0a)
0.785
k1 (W/m2K) (1st heat loss
coefficient - A1a)
3.722
2 2
45
k2 (W/m K ) (2nd heat
loss coefficient - A2a)
0.012
Stagnation Temperature
at 1000 W/m and 30˚C
203˚C
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
UNIQUE FEATURES OF
KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
TUBE DESIGN
‘FIN-IN-TUBE’ DESIGN
In a evacuated tube system, a copper absorber plate is
welded to a heat pipe tube and sealed inside a single wall
glass tube to collect the sun’s energy. Most other evacuated
tubes are a Sydney design in which two glass tubes are
formed into a vacuum flask with the selective coating
surface on the inner glass tube and the absorber plate and
hydraulic fittings are housed inside the cavity of an open
ended flask.
Heat Pipe Tube Cross Section
Sydney Tube Cross Section
Low-iron content
soda lime glass
Borosilicate glass
Selective coating
Selective coating
Vacuum
Copper heat pipe
Copper absorber fin
Borosilicate glass
Copper heat pipe
Absorber plate
Vacuum
Kingspan Solar's sealed glass tubes protect all components
inside a controlled environment where outside conditions
cannot affect heat production and heat transfer. Moisture will
not build up around the tube’s components and they will not
corrode.
46
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
PRODUCT RANGE
CARPE, SOUTH AFRICA
BENEFITS
There are three core objectives Performance
Longevity
Consistency
The Hail Impact Test
Kingspan Solar's evacuated tubes are one of the few tubes
from the major solar thermal manufacturers to have passed
this European trial that is covered under EN 12975-2
specification.
These main objectives are fulfilled through the following:
HIGH QUALITY GLASS
Outside air will seek to penetrate and compromise the
insulation properties of a vacuum – quality glass can prevent
this from happening.
Our tubes are constructed of low-iron content soda lime
glass. We generally think of glass as being completely
transparent, but glass actually absorbs some of the light
passing through it, typically allowing only 94% of light to
assist the heating process. Low-iron content soda lime glass
has one of the highest transmission characteristics of any
high-strength glass on the market today.
Shot impact point
The test involves firing a one inch ice ball at 50 mph, five
times at the same point on the tube (image above). Kingspan
tested borosilicate glass to quantify the performance
difference as compared to soda lime glass.
47
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
UNIQUE FEATURES OF
KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
STATE-OF-THE-ART MANUFACTURING
Kingspan Solar tubes are manufactured using European
sourced parts in a state-of-the-art facility in Northern
Ireland. The evacuated tube manufacturing process is fully
automated, removing the potential for human error and
providing consistently high levels of production quality.
48
UNIQUE GLASS TO METAL SEAL
SUPERIOR VACUUM
The seal between the glass and the heat pipe where the pipe
emerges from the neck of the tube is critical to maintaining
the vacuum and its insulation properties. The tubes feature a
patented hermetic seal that fuses metal and glass together.
The two materials are bonded so the seal remains intact
under all operating conditions.
The vacuum and its insulation properties are the most
important elements of an evacuated tube. The vacuum is
drawn to 1x10-6 mbar, signifying that 99.9999999% of the air
is removed from the tube. It is extremely difficult to remove
this much air from any space in a commercial production
environment without using state-of-the-art manufacturing
techniques.
“Kingspan Solar tubes maintain their vacuum,
continuing to perform for over 30 years.”
All evacuated tubes use a barium getter to attract and
collect outgassed air or stray molecules that can infiltrate
the evacuated tube and degrade the vacuum. our tubes
provide the largest getter surface area in the industry,
maintaining their vacuum and continuing to perform for
over 30 years in many cases. It is not surprising that
Kingspan Solar tubes contain one of the best vacuum
levels on the market.
Unique glass to metal seal
Inferior product
mechanical seal
49
PRODUCT RANGE
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR EVACUATED TUBES LAST
LONGER AND PERFORM BETTER THAN ANY
OTHER EVACUATED TUBE ON THE MARKET.
In the following section, competitor’s tubes have been
photographed and compared to the Kingspan Solar tube to
demonstrate the key differences in quality and production.
The two types of evacuated tubes are:
Fin-in-tube or single wall tubes – as discussed earlier, our
tube is a ‘Fin-in-Tube’ type design which has the heat pipe
sealed inside a single wall glass tube; and
Sydney Tube or double wall tubes – where two glass tubes
are formed into a vacuum.
This section aims to give an overview of the differences in
both types of tubes and outline of the main differences
between Kingspan Solar and other tubes on the market.
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. FIN-IN-TUBE COPY
HIGH QUALITY HEAT PIPE SEAL
Competitor tube
Kingspan Solar Tube
✗
Heat pipe sealed with
spin closing and TIG
weld. Double protection
with 100% automated
inspection.
Heat pipe sealed with
a plug.
50
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
FLEXIBLE NECK
Competitor tube
Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tube
High quality flexible stainless steel neck (relieves stress on the glass to
metal seal with high quality, UV stable EPDM rubber flange.
PRODUCT RANGE
✗
Stiff neck technology stresses the glass / metal seal.
TEMPERATURE LIMITATION DEVICE
Competitor tube
Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tube
✗
Unique patented and ‘patent pending’
temperature limiting technology used
within the Kingspan Solar condensers.
Empty heads – no mechanical
temperature limitation.
QUALITY GLASS WELDING & BLENDS
Kingspan Solar Tube
Competitor tube
✗
Highly visible glass blend lines
often with air bubbles in the glass
blends which can result in
fractures after installation.
30 years glass blending experience with
solar tubes. Processes perfected and
fully automated.
51
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. FIN-IN-TUBE COPY
HIGH QUALITY PROTECTIVE END BUMPER
Kingspan Solar Tube
Competitor tube
✗
High quality EPDM rubber end
protector on the tube.
Low cost option
– no end protection.
SINGLE PIPE
Kingspan Solar Tube
Competitor tube
✗
Heat pipe is a single
hermetically sealed
copper pipe within the
vacuum space.
Mechanical / soldered
join within the vacuum
space.
52
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HIGH QUALITY RUBBER FLANGE
Kingspan Solar Tube
Competitor tube
✗
PRODUCT RANGE
High quality rigid EPDM
rubber flange. Insulates
and protects the glass to
metal seal.
Thin rubber end flange to
hide the mechanical glass
to metal seal.
LARGER GETTER AREA, MORE ROBUST VACUUM
Kingspan Solar Tube
Competitor tube
✗
Getter flash shows consistent and
defined length at top end of tube.
Getter flash has undefined
length at centre of tube.
53
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. SINGLE WALL / FIN-IN-TUBE
KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBE
Tube Diameter 65mm
TiNOx Selective Coating
Rubber End
Bumper
Flexible Neck
Vacuum Area
Getter
Condenser
Head
Heat Pipe
SINGLE-WALLED TUBE
✗
Tube Diameter 102mm
Metal End Bumper
Al Nitrate Coating
Getter
Heat Pipe
Mechanical Glass
to Metal Seal
54
Condenser
Head
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. SYDNEY / DOUBLE-WALL TUBE
KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE TUBE
Flexible Neck
Condenser
Head
PRODUCT RANGE
TiNOx Selective Coating
Rubber End
Bumper
Vacuum Area
Getter
Heat Pipe
SYDNEY TUBE
Rubber End
Bumper
Al Nitrate Coating
(on inner glass)
Heat Pipe
Getter
Mechanical Glass
to Metal Seal
55
Outer
Glass
Vacuum
Area
Condenser
Head
Inner
Glass
✗
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN
PUMP STATIONS
ALL SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS
REQUIRE A PUMP SYSTEM TO MOVE FLUID
THROUGH THE SOLAR LOOP.
P
T
T
KINGSPAN SOLAR RECOMMENDS THE USE
OF CLOSED LOOP GLYCOL SYSTEMS AND
OFFERS A SERIES OF PUMP STATIONS
SUITED FOR USE IN THESE SYSTEMS.
Systems will differ in the number of collectors in them,
the length of piping and the type of heat exchanger used.
All of these parameters will affect the choice of the proper
pump station for the system. Kingspan Solar’s offering
includes a wide variety to handle from small systems with
only a few collectors to very large systems that require a
custom design.
Figure 2: Typical pump station without heat exchanger.
In a closed loop system, there are a large number of
components required to satisfy the maintenance and safety
requirements of the system. The pump station is a collection
of these components in one small preassembled package.
One main difference between the various offerings is if a heat
exchanger is offered in the pump station. This will depend on
whether or not the heat exchanger is included within the tank.
The various Kingspan Solar offerings have been categorised
based on if they include the heat exchanger or not.
P
T
T
Ball valve
Pressure
relief
All heat exchangers in the pump stations are double walled
with positive leak detection. Most codes will require these for
solar systems to separate the water and glycol mixture, even
though the glycol mixture is termed ‘non-toxic’.
Check valve
Pump
The controls are another thing that are closely tied with the
pump stations. The controls are required to activate the
pumps when there is energy to be harvested from the solar
collectors. The various different pump stations will require the
solar controllers to be programmed differently depending on
how the system is hooked up, etc. Kingspan Solar offers the
speciality controls that go with the pump stations and
provides a program for the particular system selected.
This ensures that the overall solar system will function as
intended.
Balance
valve
Flow meter
Heat
exchanger
Air
separator
Figure 3: Typical pump station with built-in heat exchanger.
56
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR PUMP STATIONS
A range of solar pumping stations are available for both
domestic and commercial applications. The selection of the
pump station depends on the size of the collector array, the
required flow rate and the overall pressure loss in the system.
A Kingspan Solar Pump Station provides a circulator for the
solar system. In addition, most features that are required on
hydronic systems are provided on the pumping station,
making the piping of the system much faster than if all the
devices had to be plumbed by hand. The pump operation is
controlled by the solar controller, which will activate the
pump when there is energy to be gained from the sun.
340
H
I
G
J
K
F
E
430
L
D
C
B
280
A
150
M
A
Flow meter
H
Supply temperature / check & ball valve
B
Flush / fill ports
I
Collector connections - 22mm
compression (KSP0025).
28mm ISO228 male (KSP0033).
C
Balance valve
D
Circulator pump
J
Flow temperature / check & ball valve
E
Expansion tank connection
K
Air trap bleed
F
Pressure gauge
L
Air trap
G
Pressure relief valve
M
Tank Connections - 22mm
compression (KSP0025).
28mm ISO228 male (KSP0033).
450
Figure 4: Solar pump station.
57
PRODUCT RANGE
Our Standard Flow 2-12 LPM pump station is shown below.
For other options, please contact us.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN
PUMP STATIONS
LARGER SYSTEMS
SMALLER PUMP SKIDS
Kingspan has a wide range of pump skids for larger projects
as well. The larger stations are built on skids with electrical
enclosures and all of the necessary components in place.
These units range from semi custom, all the way to full
custom pump skids, depending on the job and number of
collectors.
The smaller pump skids utilize up to three pumps in parallel
to achieve the desired flow rates. These pump stations are
available either with or without a heat exchanger. All pumps
used on these systems are variable speed to optimize the
electrical and thermal efficiency of the specific system.
All of these skids include all instrumentation required to
monitor the performance of the system and verify that it is
working properly. The controller included with these systems
comes preprogrammed for the particular system and all
documentation is included for the installation.
For larger systems, Kingspan offers a full custom pump skids
design service to fit your needs. These units can include
simplex or duplex pumps, fixed or variable speed pumps in
any configuration to meet your needs. If your project
requires a custom pump skid, please contact Kingspan for
design and specification assistance.
FULL CUSTOM PUMP SKIDS
58
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
60
COLLECTOR LAYOUT & ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
72
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
59
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS CAN BE USED IN A VARIETY OF OF COMMERCIAL AND
DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS.
SOLAR PERFORMANCE
When using solar thermal for a particular application,
there are many things to consider in designing the system.
This section provides information on what is required for a
solar thermal system and how Kingspan sizes based on
information about the building. This section is for guidance
only and designs should be reviewed by our technical team.
All solar thermal systems should be fully designed by a
competent engineer. Kingspan Group plc or any of its
companies do not take responsibility for any systems
designed using the following information.
We are all used to fossil fuels providing energy in our lives.
They provide the same energy regardless of the conditions
outside; a gallon of propane provides 26.96 kWh on a cloudy
and sunny day. Fossil fuels represent concentrated energy
that was provided by the sun millions of years ago.
“A Kingspan solar thermal system can
be very effective in replacing fossil fuel
usage for up to 30 years with very little
maintenance or replacement parts
necessary.”
USES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
There are many processes that require heat energy.
The most common usage of solar thermal collectors is to
heat domestic hot water. This is a simple application that
requires minimal disruption to the existing systems in the
building and excellent payback in most applications.
The sun produces an abundance of energy, but it is spread
out and requires much more collection area to provide
equivalent energy to fossil fuels. A 30 tube collector will
provide about as much energy on its peak day as a gallon of
propane. However, unlike a gallon of propane the collector
will continue to provide energy as long as it is exposed to
sunlight instead of ending up as carbon dioxide and water.
The energy created from the solar collectors can also be
used to heat buildings, pools or for AC reheat.
Most commercial buildings will use water or glycol for
transport of energy throughout the building for the heating
system and this is another application that is good to tap
into with solar thermal collectors.
Solar systems can be utilised to offset a large portion of the
fossil fuels that we currently use, but they require a different
method of sizing than traditional fossil fuel systems.
If everything is designed and sized correctly, the solar
system can be very effective in replacing fossil fuel usage for
up to 30 years with very little maintenance or replacement
parts necessary.
Pools require large amounts of heat energy in order to offset
the losses from evaporation and solar collectors can provide
a large portion of this energy that is required.
AC reheat is used when the air is over cooled to remove the
humidity and then heated by a separate coil to bring the air
back up to the desired temperature. This is a great
application for solar because the demand is usually the
highest when the sun is out and shining.
In addition, many industrial processes use large amounts of
heat. The solar thermal system can provide a good portion
of the overall energy needs for these processes. Breweries
are a great example where a lot of energy is needed to heat
the beer to the desired temperature during the brewing
process.
60
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS
Domestic hot water systems are the most common use for
solar thermal energy (Figure 5). They are typically sized
to provide up to 70% of the overall hot water demand for
the structure and the balance is made up by a backup hot
water heater.
The solar collectors are typically mounted on the roof of the
building and plumbed to a heat exchanger that is either
immersed in the tank, or an external plate type. When the
sun shines on the collectors, the solar pump activates and
runs glycol through the collector manifolds. The solar collectors
will raise the temperature of the glycol and this energy is
transferred to the water in the tank via a heat exchanger.
system, but the software will provide a far more accurate
calculation of what is needed. Kingspan Solar will be happy
to run these solar reports for your project with a completed
site assessment form.
The key information required for sizing these systems is how
much water is used on a daily basis, when it is used and how
much the solar collectors will produce. Determining the hot
water usage is the key factor in the design. The output of
the collectors is simulated in software using historical
weather data from the location that the collectors are going
to be installed, along with calculations based on the usage
pattern of the building. These are critical factors in
determining the number of solar collectors and the size of
the tanks. Information in this section can be used to
approximate the number of collectors and tank size in the
DETERMINING HOT WATER DEMAND
Solar hot water systems are sized very differently from
traditional water heaters. A traditional water heater will look
at the maximum possible demand of the building and then
size the tank and burner so that this demand can always be
met. The only consideration for this is how many taps there
are and how much they can flow.
The solar system will be sized to meet a portion of the hot
water for the structure, but not all of the demand. Typically
this will be between 20% and 70% of the yearly demand for
the structure. There are several reasons for this:
1. There are more sun hours in the summer than in the
winter. Sizing a system to meet the winter demand will
mean that it is much too large in the summer.
2. The weather affects the output of the solar system.
Often, the storage will be large enough to allow solar
energy to be carried over from a sunny day to a cloudy
day, but several successive cloudy days will deplete the
solar storage and require a backup system.
3. Energy produced above what can be used in the building
must be dissipated. This prevents the overheating of
the system and will ensure a long life for all components.
Any energy that must be dissipated will not contribute to
the payback of the system.
Figure 5: HP collectors (standard using dual stream pump)
61
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Kingspan Solar has a simple site assessment form that,
once completed, allows our technical team to size, design,
and estimate savings on each project.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
A solar system is not designed to provide all of the hot water
which is why a backup system is required. The backup
system should be sized normally because the minimum
contribution of a solar system is zero and the backup system
must insure that all demand is met under all circumstances.
The backup system will not run as often as it would if the
solar system were not there, but during some periods may
have to run at full capacity.
hot water, so one will have to be added. The simplest way to
measure hot water demand is using an ultrasonic flow meter.
This meter simply attaches to the outside of the cold water
pipe going into the water heater and will log how much
water enters the water heater. The hot water delivery
temperature and cold water temperature complete the data
needed to measure the hot water energy for the building.
“Kingspan will assist in the design,
sizing and specification of all
commercial solar thermal systems.”
There are two ways to determine the demand from a
structure; measurement and estimation. Measuring is the
best way to ensure that the solar system is sized properly.
Most buildings will not have a measurement system for the
GWU, FOGGY BOTTOM CAMPUS, WASHINGTON DC
Typical T*SOL report
62
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
Ground water temperature: Important for sizing both the
solar collectors and the tanks. This will vary with season
with the highest temperature coming around August and
the lowest in February or March.
90
12:00
80
Summer solstice
Solar elevation (degrees)
70
Shading: Also greatly affects the output of the collectors.
Any time the collectors are in a shadow, they will not
produce energy. This should be considered early on in the
project, as not all locations are a good fit for solar
systems. The sun’s path varies greatly depending on the
time of year, so a device called a solar pathfinder should
be used to check if the shading is an issue and when it
occurs. Figure 6, right, shows the sun’s path at different
times during the year.
10:00
60
Equinox
14:00
50
40
8:00
16:00
30
Winter
solstice
20
6:00
10
18:00
0
30
East
80
130
180
230
Solar azimuth (degrees)
280
330
West
Panel orientation: For optimal performance, the collectors
should face due south. Slight deviations from south will
not affect performance much; in fact they can be
orientated within 45° of south and still have about the
same performance.
Consumption Type
Building recirculation loop: Most commercial hot water
systems will have a recirculation loop on them to provide
instant hot water at the taps throughout the building.
This is a major source of energy loss from the hot water
system. It is important to know the length, insulation and
operating hours of the recirculation loop for aiding in
sizing the system. The solar system has to be oversized
in order to help provide this energy.
Hot water requirement per day and
person at a temperature of 60°C (Ltr)
Average
From - To
Retirement home
45
30 - 65
Kitchen - breakfast
2
2-3
Kitchen - noon / evening
5
4-8
Swimming pool - public / private
40/20
–
Sauna - public / private
70/35
–
80
60 - 120
Hospital
System operating temperature: Commercial systems
generally operate at high temperatures to protect against
legionella bacteria growth in the tank. Some systems for
laundry or dish service will operate at higher
temperatures than this. The higher the temperature,
the more solar collectors will be needed to provide the
energy for the system.
Sports facilities - total
–
35 - 50
Sports facilities - showers
25
20 - 30
Hotel (** - ***)
50
30 - 80
Hotel (**** - *****)
80
80 - 150
Guest house, inn
30
20 - 50
Holiday house
40
30 - 50
Camping site
20
15 - 35
Youth hostel, holiday hostel
20
15 - 30
Student hall of residence
25
15 - 60
Figure 7: Typical domestic hot water demand
63
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Figure 6: Sun position chart illustrating how the sun moves across the
sky throughout the year.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
(A) CALCULATE THE HOT WATER HEAT REQUIREMENT
The amount of energy to heat the daily hot water demand
(QHW) is calculated using the formula:
Again, continuing the example of the 4 person domestic
household:
QHW = Volume of Daily DHW x Cw x (ΔT)
Vcyl =
Volume of Daily Hot Water (l)
Cw
= Specific heat capacity of water
(1.16 Wh/kgK)
ΔT
= Temperature difference between cold
water temperature and desired
water temperature
2.40.4.(45-10)
(60 - 10)
= 224 Ltr
The tank size is rounded up to the nearest available size,
in this case = 250 Litres
(C) SIZING THE COLLECTOR AREA
To size the required collector area the following formula
is used:
Continuing example of 4 person domestic household:
QHW = 160 x 1.16 Wh/kgK x (60-10) = 9280Wh = 9.28kWh
AR =
Therefore the heat requirement = 9.28 kWh/day
(B) CALCULATE THE STORAGE VOLUME
For domestic solar systems typically the storage volume of
the tank should be equal to 2 times the daily hot water
demand.
ED
SC
Expanding this formula:
AR =
No. of Days x QHW x Solar Fraction
Yearly Solar Irradiation x Av. System Eff.
To correctly size the storage volume the following formula
should be used:
Vcyl =
Vcyl
Vn
P
Th
Tc
Tdhw
2.Vn.P. (Th - Tc)
(Tdhw - Tc)
= Minimum volume of tank (Ltr)
= DHW demand per person / day (Ltr)
= Number of people
= Temperature of hot water at outlet (°C)
= Temperature of cold water
= Temperature of stored water
APARTMENT BUILDING, ARNSTADT, GERMANY
64
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SYSTEM EFFICIENCY
In undersized systems with small collector areas, the solar
fraction is low but the system efficiency is high. In oversized
systems with large collector areas the solar fraction is high
but the system efficiency is low.
The system efficiency is strongly dependent on the solar
fraction of the system. When there is a high solar fraction
the system efficiency is lower.
High solar fractions result in a higher return temperature to
the solar collector, the effect of this is that less solar
irradiation can be absorbed by the collector, hence reducing
the system efficiency.
The counter effect of the 2 variables can be seen in
Figure 8 below:
Optimised for
contribution and cost
Maximum consumer
coverage
Solar Fraction SF
System Efficiency SE
SF
SE
Absorber Surface Area A
Figure 8: Relationship between solar fraction and system efficiency
65
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Maximum
collector yield
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
INSULATION
To simplify the selection of collector area, the following
graphs have been created to quickly determine the correct
collector size.
The insulation has to be UV stable where exposed to the
sunlight and has to be resistant to high temperatures in
excess of 170˚C. To prevent high heat losses through the
pipework it is recommended to use insulation with a
minimum thickness equal to half the pipe diameter and
an U value in [W/(mK)] of U ≤ 0.035 [W/(mK)].
If the same daily DHW demand was required using an
evacuated tube collector, from Figure 9 below we would see
a collector area of 3m2 for a solar fraction of 60%.
IMPORTANT
It should be noted that REIA recommend an insulation
thickness equal to 100% of the internal diameter.
For Kingspan Solar evacuated tube collectors we recommend
a minimum tank storage of 100 Ltrs per m2 of collector area,
in this case:
UNSUITABLE MATERIALS
We do not recommend the use of the following material to
be used in solar systems:
System sized as 3m2 of tube, therefore the tank volume
should not be less than 3 x 100 Ltrs = 300 Ltrs.
Plastic pipes (PEX)
Multi-layer aluminium / plastic pipes (ALU-PEX)
10
Galvanised metal pipes
Absorber area in m2
8
SUITABLE FITTINGS
6
4
60%
Compression fittings
50%
Press fittings (with gasket rated for temperatures above
150˚C)
40%
2
Brazed fi ttings
Fittings supplied with solar stainless steel tubing, i.e.
Waterway, Aeroline etc.
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
DHW demand in Ltr/day, 45°C
Note: The use of solder ring fi ttings on copper pipework is not recommended.
Figure 9: Thermomax DF & HP evacuated tube collectors
On long pipework, runs allowances should be made for
expansion in the pipework, please see Figure 10 below.
PIPEWORK AND PIPEWORK SIZING
Temperature Raise
(°C)
Steel Pipe
Expansion (mm/m)
Copper
Expansion (mm/m)
50
0.48
0.66
Black steel pipe (a.k.a. gun barrel)
100
1.08
1.49
Copper tubing
120
1.32
1.83
Suitable Materials
The following piping materials are suitable for use in a solar
system:
Figure 10: Pipe expansion due to temperature
Stainless steel tubing
66
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
PIPEWORK SIZING
Figure 11 below shows recommended pipe sizing for typical
domestic systems.
For domestic pipe sizing we recommend a minimum flow
rate of 60 Ltrs/hr/m2. For commercial systems lower
minimum flow rates of 40 Ltrs/hr/m2 can be used.
In order to minimise the pressure drop through the solar
pipework, we recommend that the flow velocity through the
solar pipework should not exceed 1 m/s.
Ideally flow velocities between 0.4 and 1m/s should be used,
resulting in a pressure drop of between 1 and 2.5 mbar/m
pipe length.
The required internal diameter of the pipework can be sized
using the following equation:
Vs
v
Flow Rate
Ltr/hr
Pipe Diameter
Copper
External (mm)
DF
(mbar)
HP
(mbar)
2
120
15 x 1
8.54
1.76
3
180
15 x 1
12.57
2.56
4
240
15 x 1
17.08
3.52
5
300
22 x 1
21.11
4.32
6
360
22 x 1
25.14
5.12
8
240
22 x 1
33.68
7.04
Figure 11: Typical domestic pipe sizing
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
i = 4.6
Where:
i = Internal diameter (mm)
Vs = System flow rate (Ltr/min)
= Velocity of fluid (m/s)
Collector
Area (m2)
Pipework with an outside diameter of less than 15mm should
never be used, in this example we would increase pipe size
from 8mm to 13mm (= 15mm OD pipe with a 1mm wall
thickness).
ANCHOR TRUST CARE HOME, SURREY, UK
67
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
STEAM REACH
Stagnation in a solar system can be caused by a number of
reasons such as:
During stagnation the heat transfer fluid in the collectors
may vaporise. The vapour will expand into the connecting
pipe work. In large systems with direct flow collectors, the
volume of heat transfer fluid in the collector will be large
and the vapour may travel a significant distance along the
connecting pipework.
Oversized systems
Undersized expansion vessel
Poor set up of the system – it is essential that all solar
systems are installed and commissioned by fully trained
and technically competent installers who fully understand
the requirements of a high performance solar thermal
system
Where sensitive components such as pumps, valves and
expansion vessels may be affected by the high temperature
vapour, a steam reach calculation should be performed to
assess the areas of the system that could be affected.
Air locks or leaks in the system
Prolonged periods of low hot water demand. Using our
range of control panels this can be overcome by using a
heat dissipation function
THE ALPS, ITALY
68
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
There are several ways to combat overheating:
1. design the system and size it correctly, thus avoiding need
for dissipation in many applications;
2. open a spill valve from at the top of the tank and allow
hot water to spill out when the tank reaches its maximum
temperature;
3. divert flow from the collectors through a wet or dry
cooler to cool the flow from the collectors once the tank
has reached temperature as per Figure 12;
Allowing the collectors to stagnate for an extended period of
time will cause issues with the system in the long term.
This is true of both flat plates and evacuated tube systems.
Some systems, however require heat dissipation:
1. systems with seasonal use, such as a resort that closes
down during the off season; and
Figure 12: Heat dissipation Option A
2. systems with changes in usage throughout the week,
such as a school or office building, where they are not
used, or underutilized on weekends.
This is why it is crucial to design systems properly. Adding
more collectors and increasing the solar fraction makes the
system more susceptible to stagnation where there are long
periods of sunlight. An error by which the system is
oversized by 30%, may create serious stagnation issues.
Therefore it is always best to undersize systems and
underestimate the number of collectors.
Kingspan Solar offers a full line of components for heat
dissipation and will assist in selecting the correct
components for each individual project.
69
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
4. utilise an existing facility to dump heat, such as an
oversized cooling tower, a section of snow melt tubing in
concrete, an AC reheat system or a pool.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SIZING GUIDELINES
SWIMMING POOL, GAIARINE, ITALY
We can assist you with designing solar systems for the
following applications:
summer. Pool systems do not typically have any external
storage, but rather use the water in the pool for energy
storage. This means that during the day the pool may rise in
temperature several degrees above the set point and then
cool off at night.
Swimming Pools
Process Heat
Heating System
If the temperature cannot vary above a limit in a pool, then a
system utilizing storage tanks can be used. At this point, the
system is designed much like a heating system with how the
storage interacts with the heating demand.
SWIMMING POOLS
Swimming pools are a great use for solar thermal energy.
The collectors can be used to heat just the pool, or it can act
as an additional energy sink for systems for hot water or
heating. Their low temperature provides for some of the
most efficient systems possible.
A heat exchanger suitable for pools is required for all pool
systems. The chlorinated water cannot be run through the
solar system in any circumstance. For fresh water pools, a
stainless steel heat exchanger must be used and for salt
water pools, a titanium heat exchanger is required.
Pools use an incredible amount of energy, much more than
most people would think. Indoor pools and outdoor pools are
very different in how the energy is lost and gained.
Since the flow rate of the water from the pool through the
existing boiler system is typically much higher than the solar
flow rate, the heat exchanger will generally be a shell and
tube type rather than a plate type.
SIZING POOL SYSTEMS
Pool systems are sized at a maximum of 50% solar fraction.
A system sized at an annual solar fraction of 50% will
produce 100% of the pool load on a sunny day in the
70
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
PROCESS HEAT
Process heat refers to any application that requires heat in
the form of hot water. Examples of this are in processing
milk, brewing beer, food products and other industrial
processes. These systems vary significantly, depending on
application, demand, existing infrastructure, temperature of
the application, and when the energy is used. Kingspan Solar
can assist with the design of these systems on a project
specific basis and advise what system specification is
required to achieve optimum operation.
temperature and then heated by a separate system back up
to the desired temperature. The overall energy provided in a
system such as this is around 25% of the load.
For further information on solar thermal systems for heating
applications, please contact Kingspan Solar.
There are many applications where solar thermal systems
can be utilised to save money. Kingspan Solar can advise,
design and size these systems specifically for a particular
application. The design of solar systems is different from
systems that use fossil fuels as energy and this must be
taken into account in the design. A well designed solar
system will provide years of performance and savings.
HEATING SYSTEMS
Heating systems are another use for solar thermal energy.
Kingspan Solar evacuated tubes are an excellent fit for
heating systems because of their high efficiency in cold
conditions. Heating systems can refer to systems that are
either used for traditional space heating or AC reheat, where
the air coming in to the building is cooled below the desired
“A well designed solar system will
provide years of performance and savings.”
NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN
71
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
COMMERCIAL BUILDING APPLICATIONS, REQUIRING MANY ROOF-MOUNTED
COLLECTORS, MUST BE CAREFULLY CONFIGURED SO ENERGY GENERATION
IS MAXIMIZED AND THE SYSTEM FITS THE ROOF SPACE AVAILABLE.
Choosing how many collectors are in a bank will affect the
choice for piping as well as the pump for the system. This
section examines the choices that must be made when
laying out collectors on the roof and how these choices
impact the overall performance of the system.
Inset: YARBOROUGH PAVILION, LINCOLN, UK
GWU, FOGGY BOTTOM CAMPUS, WASHINGTON DC
72
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COLLECTOR ANGLE
The solar fraction will also help determine the angle of the
collectors. As the solar fraction increases above 50%, the
panels should be tilted steeper to even out the summer and
winter production. Typically, a solar fraction of 50% will
indicate that some days during the summer will produce
more energy than the system can store, however this will
vary some by location. The production cannot be exactly
leveled by collector angle alone; even at 90° (horizontal) the
production will be more in the summer than the winter due
to the length of the days.
The majority of commercial applications will be installed on
flat roofs, so the chosen collector frame will have to hold the
collectors at the correct angle for optimum energy collection
and production. The angle affects when the production will
be the highest. Sunlight shining straight on to the collector
will produce the highest output.
For northern regions, collectors that are orientated at 0.7
times the latitude of the installation will produce the most
overall energy during the year; however the energy is
heavily biased to the summer time when the sun is the
highest in the sky.
Note: All collectors have restrictions on the angles at which
they can be installed. Please refer to individual data sheets
for further information.
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
To balance the production more evenly throughout the year,
the collectors should be set at the latitude of the installation.
The time of year when the energy is most required should be
examined. For example, if a school dormitory that is heavily
occupied during the school year is to have a solar system
added, then it should be tilted to the steepest angle possible
to bias the production away from the summer months when
it is not needed.
ARNSTADT, SCHILLERSTRASSE, GERMANY
73
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
SETTING FLOW RATES
The flow rate for the system should be selected carefully.
Flow rates that are too small will cause a large increase in
temperature across a bank of collectors, reducing efficiency
and potentially creating temperatures above where the
system is designed to operate. Flow rates that are too high
will cause the pump to shut on and off frequently causing
undue wear and tear on the pump. Ideally systems should
use a controller that measures the temperature increase and
adjusts the pump flow rate accordingly. Systems should be
designed so that the temperature rating of the components
is not exceeded.
All solar thermal collectors can operate at a variety of flow
rates, depending on the application. The flow rate will affect
the pressure drop of the collectors and also change the
temperature increase across the bank. Generally a low flow
rate is desired because it minimizes the pressure drop
through the system resulting in smaller pipes and less
energy to run the pump. The flow rate selected needs to take
the heat exchanger into account to ensure sufficient heat
transfer from the solar system to the tank.
The temperature increase across the collectors is driven by
the level of radiation, the angle of the sun and the outdoor
temperature. Once the energy output of the collector is
known, the increase in temperature can be computed.
Generally systems with a lower solar fraction and larger
storage will be able to utilise lower flow rates in the system.
Systems that have high solar fractions, smaller storage,
or those for heating, cooling, or high temperature industrial
applications will need higher flow rates.
VIESTE HOTEL, ITALY
74
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
PRESSURE DROP
With heat pipe collectors, the maximum number in series for
most applications is five. Depending on other components in
the system, this may be reduced to four. For flat plate
collectors, 8 vertical or 5 horizontal collectors may be
connected in series.
Kingspan solar thermal collectors are designed to connect to
each other to form banks with the use of an ‘interconnection
kit’. One end of the collector plugs directly into the other
end making a neat connection between the collectors.
Flat plate collectors connect to one another in parallel,
where as evacuated tube collectors connect in series.
This changes the pressure drop in a bank of collectors
drastically (Figure 13). Evacuated tubes will increase in
pressure drop as more are added where as flat plate
collectors will have similar drops in pressure as more
collectors are added to the bank.
Calculating the pressure drop for the entire system is a more
difficult task. The piping, heat exchangers, valves, elbows and
tees all make a difference in the pressure drop for the entire
system. This value is required for sizing the pump. Kingspan
Solar can assist in the correct sizing of the pump, as well as
the piping in the system to make sure the pump is sized
accurately.
BALANCING
Pressure Drop (foot of head)
12
The system flow will tend to go to the banks with the lowest
pressure drops in them, so a method of balancing the
collectors is needed. There are two methods of doing this:
10
8
REVERSE RETURN (TICHELMANN)
6
A reverse return or ‘Tichelmann’ system is a system where
the flow for any bank of collectors goes through the same
length of piping regardless of where it is located on the roof.
Figure 14 (overleaf) illustrates how this concept works.
The first collector connected to the return will be the last
collector connected to the flow. Both flow and return pipe
work will run next to each other in the array to insure that
both lengths are equal. The pipe diameter must be the same
length throughout the array so that the pressure drop is
always the same for the supply pipe and return pipe.
4
2
0
0
1
2
3
Flow Rate (GPM)
4
5
Figure 13: Pressure drop in heat pipe collector
There are many factors to consider how many collectors can
be connected in series before they have to be arranged in
parrallel banks. For evacuated tubes this is manily dependant
on the pressure drop for the overall system to size the pump,
but there is a constraint that a single bank of collectors
cannot exceed 4 GPM flow because of flow velocities in the
copper manifold. Flat plates can have more connected
together because they are connected in parallel rather in
series, but consideration must be given to how evenly the
flow will distribute through the collectors in parallel. As the
banks get larger, the flow will become more uneven in the
individual collectors within a bank.
75
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
14
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
Figure 14: Reverse return system
Figure 15: System with balancing valve
The advantage of this type of pipe system is that there is no
need for extra components to balance the system; in theory
it is naturally balanced. The disadvantage is that the largest
diameter of pipe must be used throughout the system,
increasing cost. The pipe run is generally longer as it must
meander past all collectors, but often these systems need
balancing valves because small differences in the system will
not allow it to be perfectly balanced. Additionally, all collector
banks must contain the same number of collectors, or the
system will not be balanced. Reverse return works well for
small systems where the collectors are tightly arranged on
the roof.
2. Where each of the collector banks are identical in
construction a reverse-return (Tichelmann) pipe
arrangement may be used.
Using balance valves allows collectors to be in banks with
different numbers of collectors and the pipe diameter to be
optimized for the flow rate going through it at any point in
the system. Balance valves do add an additional component
to each collector bank, but allow for quick and easy
adjustability in the system.
COLLECTOR SPACING
For systems with multiple rows of collectors, the banks must
be spaced sufficiently far apart so that they will not shade
each other. The general rule of thumb is that there should be
no shading from one bank to the next on the winter solstice
at noon. This will be the lowest that the sun will get in the
sky and will not prevent all shading between banks (the sun
is at zero degrees when it sets all year), but will leave the
collectors largely exposed during the critical times of day
throughout the year.
HYDRAULIC BALANCING
On collector arrays with multiple banks of panels it is
important that the correct flow rate is achieved on each bank
of collectors. Incorrect flow rates, in particular low flow rates
on individual banks can reduce the overall efficiency of the
system. In extreme cases the individual bank may stagnate
and this could result in damage to the collectors and other
system components.
MOUNTING
The two methods to best achieve the correct hydraulic
balance are high temperature balancing valves or a reversereturn (Tichelmann) pipe arrangement:
A wide variety of mounting kits is available to suit almost
any installation. Where collectors are arranged in banks or
laid flat, sufficient space of approximately 500mm should be
left between each bank to allow for servicing. Due to the
wind turbulence around the edges of the roof, we
recommend that approximately 1 metre should be allowed
between the collectors and the edge of the roof.
1. Individual solar rated balancing valves (flowsetters) on
each bank are the preferred method of achieving the
correct flow rates. Where the collector banks contain
varying numbers of panels or differently sized panels this
is the only method of achieving the correct flow rates.
76
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
Reference
Value
Unit
b
2.00
m
h
1.20
m
Beta
37.00
˚
Gamma
13.12
˚
Gamma at
21.12.12:00
-
Results
Reference
h
b
d1
β
Value
Unit
d
6.75
m
d1
5.16
m
γ
α
d
Figure 16: Diagram showing minimum spacing between collectors, data used = Dublin, collectors at 37˚
α = Roof pitch
β = Collector inclination + roof pitch
γ = Angle of sun above the horizon
b = Height of solar collector: 1952mm
Direct Flow collector = 1952mm
Heat Pipe collector = 1952mm
d1 = b x sin(β - α) / tan(γ - α)
d = (b x cos(β - α)) + d1
h = √ b2 – d2
CONCLUSIONS
The arrangement of the collectors on a roof depends on
many factors. The arrangement must be determined in order
to size other system components, such as pumps and heat
exchangers. By varying the flow rate through the system,
the temperature increase across the collectors can be
controlled. Different systems will utilise different flow rates,
depending on the purpose and solar fraction of the system.
Pressure drop through the system is important when sizing
pumps and piping. The system must be balanced to make
sure the flow through each collector bank is equal
(depending on the number of collectors) and is at the value
which is designed. Also, if the banks are to have isolation
valves, a pressure relief valve is required for safety.
These are all important considerations when designing a
solar system.
77
SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
commissioned, collector covers are available to prevent
exposure. It is also possible to rotate the tubes in Kingspan
Solar panels (DF range only) to prevent the selective
absorber coating (blue side) being exposed to the sun.
However, although this will minimise the solar irradiation
falling on the absorbers, it is only recommended for short
periods.
Collectors should NOT be left exposed for long periods
before commissioning. Long exposure to the sun when fluid
is not being circulated through the system will cause
significant degradation of the fluid and possible damage to
solar collectors. Collectors should only be installed when the
required plant, tanks, pipework and controls etc have been
installed and tested. Where collectors need to be installed
for more than a few days before the system is
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
TYRONE GAA, OMAGH, COUNTY TYRONE, NORTHERN IRELAND
78
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CONTROLS
& MONITORING
80
CONTROLS &
MONITORING
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
79
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS ARE AN INTEGRAL PART TO THE ENTIRE
SYSTEM. THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT OPTIONS FOR SOLAR THERMAL
CONTROLLERS THAT WILL PROVIDE THE NECESSARY FUNCTIONS FOR
CONTROLLING MONITORING AND REPORTING.
One option that is becoming more and more utilised is speed
control on the solar pump. This involves varying the speed of
the pump depending on the rise in temperature that the
collectors are producing. The pump will run faster when the
sun is intense and slower when there is less sunlight.
This reduces the energy consumed by running the pump,
as well as short cycling of the pump whereby it turns on and
off quickly because there isn’t much solar radiation.
Some controllers offer variable speed (0 – 10V) outputs
instead of straight relays to connect to an inverter and vary
the speed of the pump.
CONTROLLING A SOLAR SYSTEM
The basic algorithm for controlling a solar system is very
simple. A sensor is placed in the collector bank and another
in the bottom of the tank. When the difference in
temperature between the sensors exceeds a set point, a
relay in the controller will close and activate the solar pump.
The difference in temperature shows there is meaningful
energy to be collected. The pump will run until this
temperature difference falls below a threshold, meaning
there is no longer energy to collect.
Additionally, there are other points to monitor in the system.
The controller examines the temperature in the tank and
ensures that the maximum temperature is never exceeded.
The temperature in the solar loop is also monitored and the
controller will shut down the solar pump if the temperature
becomes so high that it may damage components in the
solar loop.
SOLAR CONTROLLERS
Solar controllers are devices that are manufactured
specifically to control solar systems. The controllers will
differ in the number and type of inputs, number and type of
outputs.
Solar controllers are a convenient and inexpensive way for
controlling commercial solar systems.
More complicated systems can utilise additional functions in
the controller. A system that uses two tanks will utilise a
function in the controller that switches a valve between the
tanks when a temperature set point is reached so that the
solar energy is diverted to the correct tank. More than two
tanks will simply utilise more inputs and outputs on the
controller. Systems with additional pumps can utilise
additional temperature sensors for activating the pumps.
They come preprogrammed with many of the common
systems already in them and are easy to connect to the
overall system. The units provide excellent data logging
capabilities and this data can be accessed over the Internet.
Where it is possible, Kingspan Solar includes a program on a
memory card that is customized to your exact system to
insure that all parameters are programmed properly in the
controls.
Because the controller has a large number of inputs and
monitors the temperatures in key locations within the
system, it is also often used for data recording. This usually
means that the temperatures and flow rates measured by
the controller are recorded on a memory card at regular
time intervals. This data can then be recalled and processed
to see how the solar system has been performing and
provide an estimate of the system savings.
80
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
NORTH OF TURIN, ITALY
SC300
SC400
SC500
System voltage
230 V (+_ 15 %), 50 Hz
optional 115 V (+_ 15 %), 60 Hz
115 ... 230 V~, 50/60 Hz
115 ... 230 V~, 50/60 Hz
Own consumption
_< 4 W
_< 0.8 W
_< 0.8 W
Inputs
6
T1 - T5: temperature recording (Pt1000)
5
T1-T4: temperature recording (Pt1000)
5
T1-T4: temperature recording (Pt1000)
T6: temperature recording
(Pt1000) or pulse recording
T5: temperature recording
(Pt1000) or pulse
T5: temperature recording
(Pt1000) or pulse
Additional input
1 x direct sensor (flow rate / temperature)
No additional inputs
1 x direct sensor (temperature / flow rate)
1 x direct sensor (temperature / pressure)
Outputs
3
2
2
R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control
R3: relay switched output
R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control
R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control
Additional output
1 x alarm output
1 x potential-free switching output for the safety
extra-lowvoltage
1 x potential-free switching output for the safety
extra-low voltage
Hydraulic schemes
40
11
11
Ambient temperature
0 °C ... +45 °C
0 ... +50 °C,
0 ... +50 °C
Data logging
SD card
No data logging
SD card
Degree of protection
IP 20 / DIN 40050
IP 22, DIN 40050 (without front panel: IP 20)
IP22, DIN 40050 (without front panel: IP20)
Dimensions (X x Y x Z)
170 x 170 x 46 mm
110 x 160 x 51 mm
110 x 160 x 51 mm
Weight
450 g
350 g
370 g
81
CONTROLS &
MONITORING
Solar Controller Summary
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
PERFORMANCE MONITORING
Not only the momentary values for each solar energy system
are visualised but also the changes in temperature over time
using simple diagrams. If a heat meter is also used then,
in addition to momentary values, the system is capable of
displaying energy balances and CO2 savings. By logging in
with a personal user name and password the operator can
use the Internet to monitor the system from any location in
the world.
The Internet remote display allows permanent monitoring and
performance analysis of one or more solar energy systems.
The Kingspan Solar router allows visualisation of the
operation of solar thermal systems.
Temperature and performance data are clearly displayed for
analysis in an Internet browser window.
This allows simultaneous management and monitoring for
correct operation of multiple systems. The raw data archived
on the server can be downloaded for detailed analysis with
the TS Analyzer 2 software. Historical information is
permanently available for comparative monitoring of system
functions. This allows malfunctions and the origins of faults to
be quickly recognised, analysed and corrected, which greatly
improves the operational reliability of the system.
OPERATION
A Kingspan Solar controller cyclically sends measurements to
the Inernet router. The device processes the data and
forwards it to a central server via cable modem. The server
archives this information and presents it visually in the
Internet - as system images, graphics, tables, diagrams and
even as a slide show. These visualisations can also be sent
from the router to a smartphone or laptop via WLAN or via
mediabox to a monitor or a projector.
Figure 17: Internet router system
WABASCA WATER WORLD & FITNESS CENTER, WABASCA, CANADA
82
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CONTROLS &
MONITORING
VARISOL INSTALLATION, IRELAND
APARTMENT BLOCKS, GERMANY
83
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
PUMPS
FIXED SPEED CONTROL
Pumps are a very important part of a solar system.
The sizing of pumps is covered in the components sizing
section, but here we look at the electrical side of the pumps.
The motors on pumps are rated terms of the voltage, phase
and horsepower and it is very important to understand the
meaning of these terms when choosing a pump for a
particular job.
The next thing that must be examined is the power rating on
the pump. The relays in all controllers have a maximum
current that they may provide to the motor and operate at
a particular voltage. The standard solar controllers, for
instance, are able to handle motors that draw up to about
2 Amps at 115V. Most BMS systems will have 24VAC as an
output and will require a magnetic starter, where as PLCs
can be customized with several different voltage outputs,
but their current output is quite small and will need to be
run through a magnetic starter as well.
Most of the time the motor for a particular pump can be
specified with several different voltages and phases. A site
visit to the building should examine the voltages that are
available and ensure that there is enough extra power on a
circuit to handle an additional pump or pumps. The first
thing to examine is what voltages are available. On small
systems, 120V will typically be used because it is readily
available and most small pumps are rated for this condition.
Larger systems will use either 240V or 480V because they
are more efficient at turning the pumps.
A magnetic starter is similar to a relay, but intended for
higher currents and they have overload protection on them
to stop the motor if it exceeds its capacity. They are switched
on via a small current that runs through a magnetic coil
and pulls an armature to another position to switch on a
much higher current through the contacts closed by the
armature. Figure 19 shows a cutaway of a relay exposing the
components within. The spring switches the magnetic starter
off when the current is switched off to the coil.
The voltage also helps determine the number of phases that
are available. 120V circuits in the North America are
automatically single phase. 240V circuits can be either
single phase (technically split phase), or three phase where
as 480V systems are more than likely three phase.
Determining the number of phases present is very important
because it will dictate the motor that is chosen on the
pump and the design of the motor contactors used in the
electrical system.
The magnetic starter can also operate at two different
voltages; the coil can be switched by 24VDC and the contacts
can connect 240VAC. The correct motor starters should be
chosen based on the horsepower and voltage of the motor
and the available switching voltage from the controller.
Contacts
Armature
Spring
Coil
Yoke
Figure 19: Magnetic starter
Figure 18: Contactor
84
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
The following table can be used to compute the current
rating of the motor.
115 V
Single Phase
230 V
Split phase
230V
3-phase
460V
3-phase
1/6
4.4
2.2
–
–
1/4
5.8
2.9
–
–
1/3
7.2
3.6
–
–
1/2
9.8
4.9
2.2
1.1
3/4
13.8
6.9
3.2
1.6
1
16
8.0
4.2
2.1
1 1/2
20
10
6.0
3.0
2
24
12
6.8
3.4
3
34
17
9.6
4.8
5
56
28
15.2
7.6
The VFD needs an input from an outside control as to
how fast it should spin the motor. This is usually a
0-10VDC, or 4-12mA signal. Some solar controllers can
supply this output (see Solar Controller Summary table
page 81). Most BMS will have the option for an analog
output and PLCs can be configured for this if specified
in advance. There is a program in the inverter that will
translate the signal from the controller into the motor
speed that will need to be programmed, along with the
motor parameters.
Note that these are peak currents and may vary by motor. Consult the literature provided by the pump
manufacturer to verify these values.
VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL
It is desirable in solar systems to vary the motor speed
depending on the amount of energy the solar system is
collecting. This will help ensure the maximum output from
the system and reduce the energy used to run the pumps
within the system. A desired increase in temperature across
the solar collector is set and the pump speed is varied to
maintain this value. This is all handled in the controller.
Often times the VFD is skipped in solar systems
because of its additional expense and the difficulty of
programming it. On large systems, the unit can pay for
itself within a few years with the electricity saved and
also provide an increase in the solar production.
These systems generally last longer because the motor
and pump aren’t being driven as hard as a fixed speed
set up and they are also not being switched on and off
as frequently.
Figure 20: Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
85
CONTROLS &
MONITORING
Motor
Horsepower
For larger systems, a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is
required. A VFD is a device that connects between the
power supply and the pump and varies the frequency of
the current going to the pump motor to achieve
different speeds. The speed of an AC motor is
dependent on frequency of the power being fed to it;
in the UK and Ireland, this is always 50 Hz. The inverter
can change this frequency and thus the rotational
speed of the pump. A pump motor must be VFD duty
rated in order to be used with a VFD.
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
VALVES
Motorized valves are also common components on solar thermal systems. They are used to
divert flow from one place to another and are actuated by the controls when a certain set of
conditions is met. Valves will commonly be either two way or three way valves.
A two way valve is a simple switch; in one position it will allow flow through and in the other
it blocks it. Two way valves are usually used in pairs where one valve will open and another
close to divert flow from one portion of the system to another. This is used commonly when
shifting flow between tanks.
Three way valves are another common type of valve in solar systems. They consist of an inlet
and two outlets where the flow will be diverted to depending on the position of the valve.
One outlet is considered the normally open position of the valve where flow will be diverted
when no power is applied to the valve and the other is the normally closed position where
flow will be diverted when the valve is activated. Valves can be power open, spring return
(as described above) or power open / power close where energy is required to change the
state of the valve in either direction.
Valves will have voltage and current ratings on them as well. For smaller valves, they will not
draw much current and can be connected to the controller directly. Larger valves will require
a relay to operate properly. To switch the valve form one position to another, a small motor
and gears are used.
GALDERMA R&D SNC, SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS, BIOT, FRANCE
86
Figure 21: Motorised 3 Port Valve
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS
VARISOL HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
VARISOL DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS
HAIL IMPACT TEST CERTIFICATION
WARRANTY STATEMENT
88
89
90
92
93
95
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
•
•
•
•
•
•
87
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HEAT PIPE
COLLECTORS
88
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
DIRECT FLOW
COLLECTORS
89
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
VARISOL HEAT PIPE
COLLECTORS
90
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
91
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
VARISOL DIRECT FLOW
COLLECTORS
92
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
TURIN, ITALY
93
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
HAIL IMPACT TEST
CERTIFICATION
94
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
WARRANTY
STATEMENT
KINGSPAN SOLAR WARRANTY STATEMENT FOR SOLAR
A. The 20 year warranty period on Vacuum Tubes is conditional on
installation by a Kingspan Solar Approved Installer, and subject to
the collector(s) being properly maintained according to the
manufacturer’s recommendations. (See Installation Manual for
further details). Otherwise a default 5 year warranty period on
Vacuum Tubes applies.
5.
Kingspan Solar shall be entitled to examine any Goods, which are the
subject of any claim by the Buyer, and to remove such Goods or any
part thereof for testing. No tests carried out by the Buyer will be
recognized by Kingspan Solar unless carried out strictly in
accordance with a method previously agreed by Kingspan Solar as
being suitable for the purpose.
B.
Kingspan Solar shall be under no liability in respect of any defect in
the Goods arising from any information drawing design or
specification supplied by the Buyer.
6.
C.
Kingspan Solar shall be under no liability in respect of any defect
arising from fair wear and tear, wilful or accidental damage,
negligence, abnormal working conditions, failure to follow the
Kingspan Solar’s instructions, misuse or alteration or repair of the
Goods without approval.
Any valid claim in respect of the Goods which is based on any defect
in the quality or condition of the Goods or their failure to meet
specification is notified to Kingspan Solar in accordance with these
Conditions. Kingspan Solar shall be entitled to repair or replace the
Goods (or the part in question) free of charge or at the Company’s
sole discretion refund to the Buyer the Price (or a proportionate part
of the Price) but Kingspan Solar shall have no further liability to the
Buyer.
D.
The above warranty does not extend to parts materials equipment
not manufactured by Kingspan Renewables in respect of which the
Buyer shall only be entitled to the benefit of any such warranty or
guarantee as is given by the manufacturer to the Company.
7.
E.
The defect has been reported by the Buyer to Kingspan Solar within
the warranty period.
F.
The installation of the Goods having been carried out by fully trained
and competent person(s).
Kingspan Solar shall not be liable to the Buyer by reason of any
representation (unless fraudulent) or any implied warranty condition
or other term or any duty at common law (including but without
limitation the negligence of Kingspan Solar its employees agents or
otherwise) or under the express terms of the Contract for any loss of
production loss of profits or anticipated profits loss of contracts
operation time or anticipated savings loss of business or of expected
further business loss of or corruption to data damage to the Buyer’s
reputation or goodwill damages costs or expenses payable by the
Buyer to any third party or any other indirect special or
consequential loss or damage or claim (whether caused by the
negligence of Kingspan Solar its employees agents or otherwise)
which arise out of or in connection with the supply of the Goods or
their use or resale by the Buyer.
8.
Without prejudice to the provisions of clauses 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 the
entire liability of the Buyer under or in connection with the Contract
shall not exceed the Price of the Goods.
9.
Kingspan Solar shall not be liable to the Buyer or be deemed to be in
breach of the contract by reason of any delay in performing or any
failure to perform any of the Company's obligations in relation to the
Goods if the delay or failure was due to any cause beyond the
Company's reasonable control. Without limiting the foregoing, due to
causes beyond the Company’s reasonable control.
G. The Goods having been subjected to neither “prolonged stagnation
conditions” nor exhibiting signs of “extreme temperature exposure”.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The Buyer shall not make any statement or representation or give
any warranty to any third party in respect of any Goods other than in
the terms made or given by Kingspan Solar to the Buyer nor shall
the Buyer have any authority to commit Kingspan Solar to provide
any service in relation to the Goods.
The Company’s liability to the Buyer for death or injury resulting
from its own or that of its employees’ agents’ or subcontractors’
negligence and damage suffered by the Buyer as a result of any
breach of the obligations implied by Section 12 of The Sale of Goods
Act 1979 shall not be limited.
If Kingspan Solar fails to deliver the Goods for any reason other than
any cause beyond the Company’s reasonable control or the Buyer's
fault then Kingspan Solar shall only be liable to the Buyer for and
the Company’s liability shall be limited to the excess (if any) of the
cost to the Buyer (in the cheapest available market) of similar goods
to replace those not delivered over the Price of the Goods.
10. For comprehensive details regarding “Warranties and Liability”
please refer to the “CONDITIONS OF SALES” section 7.
The Buyer shall examine all delivered Goods forthwith.
Any claim based on any defect in the quality or condition of the
Goods or their failure to correspond with specification shall be
notified to Kingspan Solar within 7 days from the delivery date or
where the defect was not apparent on reasonable inspection within a
reasonable time after discovery of the failure. If delivery is not
refused and the Buyer does not notify Kingspan Solar the Buyer shall
not be entitled to reject the Goods.
95
CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
Subject to the following provisions, Kingspan Solar warrants that the Goods will be free from defects in material and
workmanship for a period of 20 years in relation to VACUUM TUBES and a period of 5 years for MANIFOLDS and KITS
from their date of manufacture. “RESTRICTED PRODUCTS” are limited to a period of 12 months warranty. The warranty is
given by Kingspan Solar subject to the following conditions:
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL
OF ARCHITECTURE, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
96
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
INSULATED PANELS
98
BENCHMARK
99
INSULATION
100
INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS
101
ACCESS FLOORS
101
KINGSPAN
KINGSPAN
97
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
KINGSPAN
INSULATED PANELS
PowerPanel Integrated Solar PV Solutions
PowerPanel is a fully integrated insulated panel and solar
photovoltaic systems. The systems are suitable for new and
refurbishment applications and can be installed at the same
time as the insulated roof panels.
Kingspan Insulated Panels has established a leading global
position in design and manufacture of high quality, high
performance insulated panel systems for all sectors of the
construction industry.
Insulated Panels’ websites contain downloads for
construction details, model specifications and data sheets,
as well as product information, case studies, photo galleries
and much more.
CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS
Controlled Environment insulated panel systems are
designed for use within temperature controlled and
hygiene-safe environments.
INSULATED ROOF & WALL SYSTEMS
FireSafe, hygienic and fibre-free, these insulated panel
systems are suitable for internal and external walls, roofs
and ceilings with an internal ‘box within a box’ modular box
system also available.
Kingspan’s range of insulated panels have been successfully
used worldwide on retail, distribution, commercial, industrial,
leisure, residential, healthcare and education projects.
The performance advantages of Kingspan Insulated Roof &
Wall Systems are well recognised by property investors,
building owners, designers and contractors.
www.kingspanpanels.com
INTEGRATED SOLAR SOLUTIONS
Renewable energy products complement roof and wall
panels and can be easily integrated into any building project.
Renewable energy can contribute significantly to the energy
used within a building, thereby reducing bills and carbon
footprint.
EnergiPanel Solar Air Heating System
EnergiPanel™ is a new, innovative, insulated solar-air heating
system designed for wall applications as a supplement to the
main heating system.
98
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
BENCHMARK
DESIGN WALL SYSTEMS
BENCHMARK is your reference point for the complete
insulated building envelope. Benchmark brings together all
the elements to help create stunning architectural wall and
roof façades to fit your building designs and specifications.
The Design Wall Series features a range of premium
insulated panels with distinctive profiles, textures and
colours, laid vertically or horizontally, for complete design
flexibility.
With a wide choice in colour and texture, from modern
metallic to warm wood finishes, BENCHMARK combines style
and performance, offering the complete façade solution
without compromise.
ROOF SYSTEMS
A range of roof system featuring Envirodek insulated roof
deck designed for green roof systems, and Roofliner and
Topspan insulated panels that are ideal for
standing seam waterproofing systems
and single-ply membranes.
ENGINEERED FAÇADE SYSTEMS
BENCHMARK build options have been developed to
complement our range of metallic and non-metallic façades.
Two systems, featuring insulated panel technology, create
high performance envelopes that are simple and fast to
install, eliminating complexities in design when using one or
a mixture of façades.
www.kingspanbenchmark.com
Konnect Wall System
A revolutionary, factory pre-engineered multi-spanning
module with excellent thermal, structural and fire
performance providing the ideal platform for the
BENCHMARK façade range.
KINGSPAN
Karrier Panel System
an alternative building method to the Konnect
Wall System, BENCHMARK Karrier Panel System
is a unique insulated panel specifically
designed and tested to support the BENCHMARK
range of façades. The system provides excellent
weather resistance, thermal, acoustic, fire and
structural performance.
Manufacturing
Sales
99
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
INSULATION
Kingspan Insulation is a market leading manufacturer of
premium and high performance rigid insulation products and
insulated systems for building fabric and building services
applications.
ENGINEERED TIMBER SYSTEMS
Kingspan Insulation offers a range of highly insulated and
airtight engineered timber building fabric systems for both
domestic and non-domestic buildings. The solutions include:
INSULATION FOR ROOFS, WALLS & FLOORS
Kingspan Insulation has a vast product range including
premium performance rigid Kooltherm® insulation; high
performance rigid Therma® insulation; and Unidek high
performance rigid extruded polystyrene insulation.
Kingspan TEK® Building System
Kingspan TEK® Building System consists of structural
insulated panels (SIPs) connected with a unique jointing
system for walls and roofs, and intermediate floors using
I-beams or open web joists.
To complement the range Kingspan Insulation
have developed Optim-R™, the next
generation insulation solution that
is up to five times more energy
efficient than other commonly
available insulation materials.
Factory Insulated Timber Frame Systems
Kingspan insulated timber frame systems are widely used by
developers, contractors and self-builders across the private
and affordable housing market and are suitable for the
construction of buildings up to six storeys high.
www.kingspaninsulation.com
100
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR
INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS
ACCESS FLOORS
Kingspan manufactures a wide range of insulated door
panels and hardware components that are used within
Industrial and Residential sectional overhead doors.
Kingspan Access Floors is the world’s leading raised access
floor and underfloor service distribution solution provider
with extensive knowledge and experience across a wide
range of building types including office and data centre
applications.
These components are incorporated into completed
sectional door assemblies through approved partner
organisations who provide a complete supply, installation
and aftercare service package.
Floors voids are available with standard product from 20mm
up to 2000mm, but a project specific design service is
available for voids of any height.
www.kingspandoor.com
Kingspan Access Floors manufactures wide range of
products, including: steel encased chipboard core systems
ready to accept loose lay carpet; lock down panels for added
security; high quality laminated panels for data centres;
panels laminated with wood stone or granite; systems
offering enhanced acoustic properties; and even systems
that provide an economical raised flooring platform.
KINGSPAN
www.kingspanaccessfloors.com
101
180 Gilford Road,
Portadown BT63 5LF
Tel: +44 (0) 28 38364500
Fax: + 44 (0) 28 38364501
www.kingspansolar.ie
Tadman Street, Wakefield,
West Yorkshire WF1 5QU
Tel: +44 (0) 1924 376026
Fax: +44 (0) 1924 385015
www.kingspansolar.co.uk
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