TM-9-1300-200

TM-9-1300-200
TM 9-1300-200
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY TECHNICAL MANUAL
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
This copy is a reprint which includes current
pages from Changes 1 through 5.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
OCTOBER 1969
TM 9-1300-200
C5
CHANGE )
)
No. 5
)
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 30 September 1993
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
TM 9-1300-200, 3 October 1969, is changed as follows:
1. Make the following pen-and-ink note on page 1-9, Table 1-2, Ammunition Color Coding:
"NOTE: The color coding for Smoke, WP and PWP w/explosive burster for both the 2nd Generation and the 3rd
Generation are identical. The correct color coding for both these generations of WP and PWP ammunition is a yellow
band with red markings, as shown in the 2nd Generation."
2. Remove old pages and insert new pages as indicated below. New or changed material is indicated by a vertical bar in
the margin of the page.
Remove pages
Insert pages
A
i thru v (vi blank)
1-1 and 1-2
1-2.1 and 1-2.2
1-13 (1-14 blank)
2-9 and 2-10
2-19 and 2-20
3-1 and 3-2
3-17 and 3-18
4-1 and 4-2
4-5 and 4-6
4-23 and 4-24
4-29 and 4-30
6-1 and 6-2
6-3 and 6-4
6-15 (6-16 blank)
7-1 and 7-2
7-4.1 (7-4.2 blank)
7-11 and 7-12
8-1 and 8-2
8-11 and 8-12
8-15 thru 8-18
8-21 and 8-22
9-1 thru 9-4
9-7 and 9-8
9-20.1 thru 9-20.3 (9-20.4 blank)
10-1 thru 10-23 (10-24 blank)
A-1 and A-2
Index 1 and Index 2
Index 5 and Index 6
A and B
i thru vi
1-1 and 1-2
1-2.1 and 1-2.2
1-13 and 1-14
2-9 and 2-10
2-19 and 2-20
3-1 and 3-2
3-17 and 3-18
4-1 and 4-2
4-5 and 4-6
4-23 and 4-24
4-29 and 4-30
6-1 and 6-2
6-3 and 6-4
6-15 and 6-16
7-1 and 7-2
7-4.1 and 7-4.2
7-11 and 7-12
8-1 and 8-2
8-11 and 8-12
8-15 thru 8-18
8-21 and 8-22
9-1 thru 9-4
9-7 and 9-8
9-20.1 thru 9-20.4
10-1 and 10-2
A-1 thru A-4
Index 1 and Index 2
Index 5 and Index 6
TM 9-1300-200
C5
3. File this change in front of the publication for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
04899
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-34-E, Block 805, Requirements for TM 9-1300-200.
TM 9-1300-200
Change 4
CHANGE
)
No. 4
)
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 1 September 1989
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
TM 9-1300-200, 3 October 1969 is changed as follows:
1. Make the following pen-and-ink change:
Cross out text (using a large X) on pages as listed below and retain color illustrations as indicated.
Cross out
1-3
1-5
1-12
Retain color illustration
1-4
1-6
1-11
2. Remove old pages and insert new pages as indicated below. New or changed material is indicated by a vertical bar in
the margin of the page. Added or revised illustrations are indicated by a black bar adjacent to the identification number.
Remove pages
A
iii and iv
iv.1 and iv.2
v and vi
1-1 and 1-2
None
None
2-5 and 2-6
2-13 and 2-14
2-19 and 2-20
3-1 and 3-2
6-3 and 6-4
7-1 thru 7-4
None
7-5 and 7-6
Insert pages
A
iii and iv
None
v (vi blank)
1-1 and 1-2
1-2.1 thru 1-2.4 (blank)
1-13 (1-14 blank)
2-5 and 2-6
2-13 and 2-14
2-19 and 2-20
3-1 and 3-2
6-3 and 6-4
7-1 thru 7-4
7-4.1 (7-4.2 blank)
7-5 and 7-6
3. File this change in front of the publication for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
CARL E. VUONO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with DA From 12-34B-R, Requirements for Ammunition, General.
TM 9-1300-200
C3
CHANGE
)
No. 3
)
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 4 June 1983
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
TM 9-1300-200, 3 October 1969, is changed as follows:
1. Remove old pages and insert new pages as indicated below. New or changed material is indicated by a vertical
bar in the margin of the page. Added or revised illustrations are indicated by a vertical bar adjacent to the
identification number.
Remove Pages
1-3 thru 1-12
2-19 and 2-20
8-17 and 8-18
Insert Pages
1-3 thru 1-12
2-19 and 2-20
8-17 and 8-18
2. File this change in front of the publication for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
E. C. MEYER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
ROBERT M. JOYCE
Major General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-40, General Information applicable to all organizations which
have a conventional munitions mission.
TM 9-1300-200
C2
CHANGE
No. 2
}
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, DC 4 March 1977
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
TM 9-1300-200, 3 October 1969, is changed as follows:
1. Remove old pages and insert new pages as indicated below. New or changed material is indicated by a vertical
bar in the margin of the page. Added or revised illustrations are indicated by a vertical bar adjacent to the
identification number.
i and ii
v
1-1 and 1-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-7 and 4-8
None
11-1 through 11-9
A-1 and A-2
Index 1 and Index 2
Index 7 and Index 8
i and ii
v/(vi Blank)
1-1 and 1-2
4-1 and 4-2
4-7 and 4-8
4-8.1 through 4-8.
11-1 through 11A-1 and A-2
Index 1 and Index 2
Index 7 and Index 8
2. File this change in front of the publication for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
BERNARD W. ROGERS
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
PAUL T. SMITH
Major General, United States Army
The Adjutant General
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-40, General Information Applicable to all Organizations which
have a conventional munitions missions.
TM 9-1300-200
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES.
DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
NOTE
The portion of the text affected by
the changes is indicated by a vertical
line in the outer margins of the page.
Changes
to
illustrations
are
indicated by a vertical line adjacent
to the identification number.
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 242
CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
Page
No.
* Change
No.
Cover
A and B
i
ii
iii
iv thru vi
1-1
1-2
1-2.1
1-2.2 and 1-2.3
1-2.4 blank
1-3 blank
1-4
1-5 blank
1-6 thru 1-10
1-11
1-12 blank
1-13 and 1-14
2-1 thru 2-4
2-5
2-6 thru 2-9
2-10
2-11 and 2-12
2-13
2-14 thru 2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21 thru 2-23
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Page
No.
2-24 blank
3-1 and 3-2
3-3 thru 3-16
3-17 and 3-18
3-19
3-20 blank
4-1 and 4-2
4-3 thru 4-4
4-5 and 4-6
4-7
4-8
4-8.1 thru 4-8.4
4-9 thru 4-22
4-23 and 4-24
4-25 and 4-26
4-27 and 4-28
4-29 and 4-30
4-31 and 4-32
5-1 thru 5-16
6-1 thru 6-4
6-5 thru 6-14
6-15 and 6-16
7-1 and 7-2
7-3
7-4
7-4.1 and 7-4.2
7-5
7-6 thru 7-10
* Zero indicates an original page.
Change 5 A
*Change
No.
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TM 9-1300-200
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES cont.
Page
No.
* Change
No.
7-11 and 7-12
7-13
7-14 blank
8-1 and 8-2
8-3 thru 8-10
8-11 and 8-12
8-13 and 8-14
8-15 thru 8-18
8-19 and 8-20
8-21 and 8-22
8-23 thru 8-25
8-26 blank
9-1 thru 9-4
9-5 and 9-6
9-7 and 9-8
9-9 thru 9-16
5
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No.
*Change
No.
9-17 thru 9-20
9-20.1 thru 9-20.4
10-1 and 10-2
10-3 thru 10-24 blank
11-1 thru 11-8
12-1 thru 12-6
13-1 thru 13-7
13-8 blank
A-1 thru A-4
Index 1 and 2
Index 3 and 4
Index 5
Index 6
Index 7 and 8
Authentication page
* Zero indicates an original page.
Change 5 B
1
5
5
Deleted
2
0
0
0
5
5
0
1
5
2
0
* TM 9-1300-200
TECHNICAL MANUAL
No. 9-1300-200
}
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, DC, 3 October 1969
AMMUNITION, GENERAL
Paragraph
CHAPTER 1.
Section I.
II.
CHAPTER 2.
Section I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
CHAPTER 3.
4.
Section I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
CHAPTER 5.
Section I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
CHAPTER 6.
Section I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
CHAPTER
7.
8.
9.
10.
CHAPTER 11.
Section I.
II.
Page
GENERAL
Introduction ....................................................................................................................1-1
1-1
General discussion .........................................................................................................1-3
1-1
EXPLOSIVE AND CHEMICAL AGENTS
Solid propellants ............................................................................................................2-1
2-1
Liquid propellants ...........................................................................................................2-7
2-5
Low explosives ............................................................................................................2-11
2-6
High explosives ............................................................................................................2-15
2-11
Chemical agents ..........................................................................................................2-19
2-19
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION ........................................................................................3-1
3-1
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION
General ..........................................................................................................................4-1
4-1
Complete rounds ............................................................................................................4-5
4-3
Fuzes ...........................................................................................................................4-12
4-18
Practice, dummy, blank and subcaliber ammunition .....................................................4-15
4-26
Precautions ..................................................................................................................4-19
4-29
Packing and marking ...................................................................................................4-21
4-30
ROCKETS
Introduction ....................................................................................................................5-1
5-1
Complete round .............................................................................................................5-5
5-3
Warhead ........................................................................................................................5-7
5-3
Motor ............................................................................................................................5-13
5-4
Launchers .....................................................................................................................5-15
5-6
Fuzes............................................................................................................................5-17
5-6
Identification and packing..............................................................................................5-19
5-7
Shoulder-fired rockets ..................................................................................................5-29
5-11
Ground-to-ground rockets ............................................................................................5-23
5-13
Aircraft rockets .............................................................................................................5-25
5-12
Precautions in storage and handling..............................................................................5-21
5-13
Firing precautions ........................................................................................................5-27
5-14
GRENADES
Introduction ....................................................................................................................6-1
6-1
Hand grenades ...............................................................................................................6-3
6-3
Rifle grenades ................................................................................................................6-4
6-6
Identification and packing ...............................................................................................6-6
6-12
Precautions in storage and handling ...............................................................................6-7
6-15
Precautions in firing .......................................................................................................6-9
6-15
LAND MINES..................................................................................................................7-1
7-1
DEMOLITION MATERIALS ...........................................................................................8-1
8-1
PYROTECHNICS ..........................................................................................................9-1
9-1
BOMBS ................................................................................................................................. DELETED
SCATTERABLE MINES
Introduction ..................................................................................................................11-1
11-1
Mine dispersing subsystem, aircraft: M56 .....................................................................11-3
11-1
*This manual supersedes TM 9-1900/TO 11A-1-20, June 1956 including all changes.
Change 5 i
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Page
CHAPTER 12. GUIDED MISSILES .....................................................................................................12-1
12-1
13. PROPELLANT ACTUATED DEVICES..........................................................................13-1
13-1
APPENDIX....................................................................................................................................................................A-1
INDEX.....................................................................................................................................................................Index 1
Figure No.
1-1
1-2
1-3
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-6.1
4-6.2
4-6.3
4-6.4
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Title
Page
Color identification of typical pyrotechnic items .................................................................................... 1-4
Deleted
Color identification and typical marking of packing boxes and fiber containers .................................. 1-11
Shapes and forms of propellant grains ................................................................................................ 2-2
Relative sizes of propellant grains ....................................................................................................... 2-2
Burning of propellant grains.................................................................................................................. 2-3
Progressive burning of propellant grains (multiperforated) ................................................................... 2-3
Ball powder X25 .................................................................................................................................. 2-4
Explosive trains-artillery ammunition ................................................................................................... 2-7
Detonating wave amplified by use of a booster ................................................................................. 2-12
Schematic arrangements of explosive train components ................................................................... 2-14
Typical cartridge (sectioned) ................................................................................................................ 3-1
7.62-mm bullets (sectioned) ................................................................................................................ 3-2
5.56-mm and caliber .50 spotter-tracer bullets (sectioned) ................................................................... 3-3
Caliber .30 bullets (sectioned) .............................................................................................................. 3-4
7.62-mm cartridges .............................................................................................................................. 3-5
5.56-mm cartridges .............................................................................................................................. 3-6
Caliber .30 cartridges .......................................................................................................................... 3-7
Caliber .30 carbine and caliber .45 cartridges ...................................................................................... 3-8
Caliber .50 cartridges .......................................................................................................................... 3-9
20-mm cartridges .............................................................................................................................. 3-10
Typical 30-mm cartridges .................................................................................................................. 3-11
Caliber .22 cartridges ......................................................................................................................... 3-12
Caliber .38 cartridges ......................................................................................................................... 3-13
12-gage shotgun shells ...................................................................................................................... 3-14
Linked 7.62-mm cartridges ................................................................................................................ 3-14
Links for caliber .30 and caliber .50 ammunition ................................................................................ 3-15
Bandoleer, magazines, filler and clips ................................................................................................ 3-16
Cartridges in 20-round cartons in ammunition box ............................................................................. 3-17
Cartridges, link belt, cartons, bandoleers and ammunition box .......................................................... 3-18
Ammunition boxes in wire bound box ................................................................................................ 3-18
Types of complete rounds ................................................................................................................... 4-2
High-explosive projectile ..................................................................................................................... 4-4
High-explosive rocket-assisted projectile ............................................................................................. 4-5
High-explosive antitank projectile......................................................................................................... 4-6
Burster chemical projectile .................................................................................................................. 4-7
BE chemical (smoke) projectiles ......................................................................................................... 4-8
155-mm projectile, HE, M483A1 ....................................................................................................... 4-8.1
Warhead M251 ................................................................................................................................ 4-8.2
Typical CBU ..................................................................................................................................... 4-8.2
Dual purpose munition ..................................................................................................................... 4-8.3
Illuminating projectiles ......................................................................................................................... 4-9
Armor-piercing projectile .................................................................................................................... 4-10
Armor-piercing capped cartridge ....................................................................................................... 4-11
Antipersonnel (APERS) cartridge ...................................................................................................... 4-12
Canister cartridge .............................................................................................................................. 4-13
Flash reducer .................................................................................................................................... 4-13
Propellant temperature indicator with thermometer ........................................................................... 4-14
Percussion primer ............................................................................................................................. 4-15
Combination electric and percussion primer ...................................................................................... 4-16
Burster charge ................................................................................................................................... 4-16
Booster charge................................................................................................................................... 4-17
Base-detonating fuze ........................................................................................................................ 4-19
Point-initiating, base-detonating fuze ................................................................................................. 4-20
Point-detonating fuze ........................................................................................................................ 4-21
Impact fuze ....................................................................................................................................... 4-22
Change 2 ii
TM 9-1300-200
Figure
No.
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-36
4-37
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-3.1
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
7-19
8-1
8-2
8-3
Title
Page
Time fuse, powder train ................................................................................................................... 4-23
Time fuse, gear trains ...................................................................................................................... 4-24
Proximity fuses ................................................................................................................................ 4-25
Concrete-piercing fuse ..................................................................................................................... 4-26
Recoilless rifle, target practice cartridge........................................................................................... 4-26
Mortar target practice cartridge ........................................................................................................ 4-27
(Deleted)
(Deleted)
(Deleted)
(Deleted)
(Deleted)
(Deleted)
Dummy projectile ............................................................................................................................. 4-28
Blank cartridge ................................................................................................................................. 4-28
(Deleted)
Typical wooden packing box ............................................................................................................ 4-31
Principles of rocket propulsion.......................................................................................................... 5-2
Major components of rocket motor ................................................................................................... 5-4
Packaging of small, complete round rocket ...................................................................................... 5-7
Typical rocket motor container for large motor ................................................................................. 5-8
Typical warhead container for large warhead.................................................................................... 5-8
Hermetically sealed container for proximity fuze .............................................................................. 5-9
Metal container for proximity fuze .................................................................................................... 5-9
Wooden packing box for proximity fuzes.......................................................................................... 5-9
Exterior and cross section of 66-mm LAW rocket ............................................................................. 5-10
6mm LAW system............................................................................................................................ 5-10
Typical 1.6-lnch rocket ..................................................................................................................... 5-11
Long range, ground-to-ground rocket................................................................................................ 5-12
Typical 2.75-inch aircraft rocket ....................................................................................................... 5-13
Representative grenades ................................................................................................................. 6-2
Hand grenade types ......................................................................................................................... 6-4
Illuminating hand grenade ................................................................................................................ 6-5
Hand grenade simulator ................................................................................................................... 6-5
Grenade launcher ............................................................................................................................ 6-6
Grenade cartridge ............................................................................................................................ 6-7
Projection adapter ............................................................................................................................ 6-8
HEAT rifle grenade .......................................................................................................................... 6-9
Burning-type (colored smoke) rifle grenade ...................................................................................... 6-10
Bursting-type (WP smoke) rifle grenade........................................................................................... 6-11
Typical fiber container for rifle grenade ............................................................................................ 6-12
Typical packing boxes for grenades ................................................................................................. 6-14
Representative types of land mines.................................................................................................. 7-2
APERS mine ready for firing-A, by observer; B, by enemy ............................................................... 7-3
Typical bounding-type practice APERS mine ................................................................................... 7-4
Typical Nonmetallic practice APEAS mine, M17 .............................................................................. 7-4.1
Nonmetallic APERS mine ................................................................................................................ 7-5
Heavy AT mine ................................................................................................................................ 7-5
Heavy AT mine with fuse installed (cross section) ............................................................................ 7-6
AT mine activator............................................................................................................................. 7-6
Nonmetallic AT mine and fuse ......................................................................................................... 7-7
Light AT mine and fuse .................................................................................................................... 7-8
Off-route AT mine ............................................................................................................................ 7-8
Practice heavy AT mine ................................................................................................................... 7-9
Insert light AT mine and Inert fuze.................................................................................................... 7-9
Installation of a boobytrapped AT mine ............................................................................................ 7-9
Incendiary burster ............................................................................................................................ 7-10
Representative methods of using firing devices in boobytrap installation.......................................... 7-11
Packing box for APERS mine........................................................................................................... 7-12
Packing box for APERS practice mine and replacement parts.......................................................... 7-12
Heave AT mine as shipped .............................................................................................................. 7-12
Metal packing box for 8 AT mines and 8 AT mine fuzes or 12 light AT
practice mine without fuzes .............................................................................................................. 7-12
Tetryol demolition block ................................................................................................................... 8-2
Plastic demolition charges................................................................................................................ 8-3
Composition C4 block charge........................................................................................................... 8-3
Change 4 iii
TM 9-1300-200
Figure
No.
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-16
8-17
8-18
8-19
8-20
8-21
8-22
8-23
8-24
8-25
8-26
8-27
8-28
8-29
8-30
8-31
8-32
8-33
8-34
8-35
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
9-8
9-9
9-10
9-11
9-12
9-13
9-14
9-15
9-16
9-17
9-18
9-19
9-20
9-21
9-22
10-1 thru 10-26
Title
Page
Cratering-type block demolition charge .........................................................................................8-4
15-Pound shaped demolition charge .............................................................................................8-5
40-Pound shaped demolition charge ............................................................................................8-5
8-Second delay friction detonator ..................................................................................................8-7
8-Second delay friction detonator ..................................................................................................8-7
15-Second delay friction detonator ................................................................................................8-7
8-Second delay percussion detonator............................................................................................8-8
15-Second delay percussion detonator..........................................................................................8-9
Universal explosive destructor ......................................................................................................8-9
Explosive destructor......................................................................................................................8-10
Friction tinge blasting fuse igniter ..................................................................................................8-11
Weatherproof time-blasting fuse igniter.........................................................................................8-11
Time blasting fuse (safety fuse).....................................................................................................8-12
Time blasting fuse.........................................................................................................................8-12
Typical detonating cord .................................................................................................................8-13
Delay-type demolition firing device................................................................................................8-13
Pressure-type demolition firing device...........................................................................................8-14
Pull-release type demolition firing device ......................................................................................8-14
Pull-type demolition firing device...................................................................................................8-15
Pressure-release type demolition firing device ..............................................................................8-15
Release-type demolition firing device............................................................................................8-16
Percussion primer .........................................................................................................................8-16
Blasting caps.................................................................................................................................8-16
Use of explosive priming adapter ..................................................................................................8-17
Bangalore torpedo demolition kit ...................................................................................................8-19
Earth rod explosive kit...................................................................................................................8-20
Demolition charge assembly .........................................................................................................8-21
Demolition priming assembly ........................................................................................................8-21
Projected charge demolition kit-arrangements of components in case...........................................8-22
Projected charge demolition kit-laying cable over antipersonnel mine fields ..................................8-23
Typical projected charge (rigid type) being pushed by a medium tank ...........................................8-24
Linear projected charge.................................................................................................................8-25
Linear projected charge (cover removed) ......................................................................................8-25
Types and comparative sizes of military pyrotechnics ...................................................................9-2
Representative ignition train..........................................................................................................9-4
Aircraft parachute (illuminating) flare.............................................................................................9-5
Aircraft parachute flare with shade ................................................................................................9-6
Airport flare ...................................................................................................................................9-8
Surface trip flare ...........................................................................................................................9-9
Guide flare ....................................................................................................................................9-10
Ramjet engine igniter ....................................................................................................................9-11
Aircraft signal patterns ..................................................................................................................9-12
Handheld marine smoke signal .....................................................................................................9-13
High drift signal .............................................................................................................................9-14
Aircraft float light...........................................................................................................................9-15
Grenade-launcher ground signal ...................................................................................................9-16
Rocket-propelled ground signal .....................................................................................................9-17
Air burst simulator .........................................................................................................................9-18
Boobytrap simulator ......................................................................................................................9-18
Ground burst simulator..................................................................................................................9-19
Artillery flash simulator..................................................................................................................9-20
Hand grenade simulator ................................................................................................................9-20.1
Explosive simulator.......................................................................................................................9-20.1
Packing box for ground signals......................................................................................................9-20.2
Packing box for aircraft signals .....................................................................................................9-20.2
.....................................................................................................................................................Deleted
Change 5 iv
TM 9-1300-200
Figure
No.
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-7
12-1
12-2
12-3
13-1
13-2
13-3
13-4
13-5
13-6
13-7
13-8
13-9
13-10
Title
Page
Sequence of mine functioning ........................................................................................................... 11-1
Mine dispersing subsystem, aircraft: M56 .......................................................................................... 11-2
Canister assembly ............................................................................................................................. 11-2
Mine dispersing subsystem, aircraft: M56 mounted on UH-1H helicopter
(the struts, pylon assembly, pylon support, and support assembly comprise the
multi-armament kit) ............................................................................................................................ 11-3
Shipping and storage container CNU-79/E ......................................................................................... 11-4
Mine canister shipping and storage container M602 (as used in reload kit) ........................................ 11-5
Mine dispersing subsystem, M56 dispenser (DISP) control panel ...................................................... 11-7
Typical guided missile showing location of components .................................................................... 12-1
High explosive fragmentation warhead............................................................................................... 12-4
Safety and arming device .................................................................................................................. 12-5
Explosive embedment anchor ........................................................................................................... 13-2
Mechanically fired cutter ................................................................................................................... 13-3
Electrically fired cutter ....................................................................................................................... 13-4
Parachute ejector .............................................................................................................................. 13-4
Stores ejector cartridge ..................................................................................................................... 13-5
Fire extinguisher cartridges ............................................................................................................... 13-6
Cable cutter cartridges ...................................................................................................................... 13-6
Escape system cartridge set .............................................................................................................. 13-7
Training catapult cartridge.................................................................................................................. 13-7
Parachute release delay cartridge ..................................................................................................... 13-7
Change 5 v
TM 9-1300-200
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Change 5 vi
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL
Section I. INTRODUCTION
than routine cases in accordance with AR
75-1.
Malfunctions involving auxiliary gear or nonexplosive
components, not involving contributory safety hazards
This manual contains basic information on identification,
(e.g., premature arming), will be reported in accordance
classification,
and
physical
characteristics
of
with TB 9-1100-803-15.
conventional ammunition. With TM 90 1300-206, it
constitutes a source book on military ammunition.
e. Report of Safety Problems Involving Military
Explosives or Ammunition.
The Armed Services
1-2. Forms and Reports
Explosives Safety Board must be kept informed of
safety problems relating to development, manufacture,
testing, handling, transportation, storage, maintenance,
a. Authorized Forms. DA Pam 738-750 contains
salvage and disposal of ammunition and explosives.
instructions on use of the forms required to report
Commanders of major commands will forward reports of
incidents involving the ammunition covered in this
such problems to the Board through the Deputy Chief of
manual.
AR's 380-5, 380-6, and 380-40 cover
Staff for Personnel, ATTN: Director of Safety,
classification of records and reports.
Department of the Army, Washington, DC 20310.
b. Accidents. Responsibilities and procedures for
General
schematic
plans,
siting
plans,
and
recording and reporting accidents involving injury to
specifications
for
construction
of
new
facilities
or
major
personnel or damage to equipment or property are
modifications to existing facilities for manufacturing,
contained in AR 385-40. Use of DA Form 285 is
handling, transporting, storing, or testing military
required.
explosives or ammunition will be referred to the Board
c. Fire Reports. As prescribed by AR 420-90, DA
for review, through the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Form 2324 and 2324-1 will be used to report technical
Logistics and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel.
information and actions relating to fires or explosions
See AR 385-60 for further information.
followed by fire, incident to an Army operation or activity
f. Errors, Omissions and Recommended Changes.
in other than officially designated combat zones. DA
Reporting
of errors, omissions, and recommendations
Forms 2324 and 2324-1 are required in addition to the
for
improving
this publication by the individual user is
accident reports prescribed by AR 385-40.
encouraged. Reports should be submitted on DA Form
d. Malfunction. Malfunction of Class V ammunition
2028 (Recommended
(e.g., bulk explosives, demolition materials, cartridges,
Changes to Publications) and forwarded direct to:
propelling charges and projectiles) will be reported
Commander, ARDEC, ATTN: SMCAR-LMB, Picatinny
immediately by the commanding officer (or senior
Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000.
individual) in charge of the unit. Reports will be directed
1-1. Scope
to the ammunition officer under whose supervision the
ammunition is maintained or issued. The ammunition
officer, after thorough investigation, will report other
Section II. GENERAL DISCUSSION
1-3. Classification
based on the following:
a. Ammunition is classified according to its
physical characteristics.
The basic types-artillery
ammunition, grenades, rockets, etc.-are defined in this
paragraph, in JCS Pub 1, or in AR310-25 Further
classification within these basic types is
(1) Standardization
(standard,
substitute
standard, or limited standard).
(2) Use (service, practice, dummy, or blank).
Change 5 1-1
TM 9-1300-200
(3) Form (fixed, semifixed, separated, or
separate loading).
(4) Kind of filler (explosive, chemical, leaflet,
or inert).
b. For purposes of handling and storage,
ammunition is identified by the following:
(1) Quantity-distance class.
(2) Storage compatibility group.
(3) Burning or explosive characteristics.
These categories are discussed in detail in TM 9-1300206.
c. Further classification for handling and shipping
is based on the following:
(1) Department of Transportation Shipping
Regulations (see AR's 55-228 and 55-355 and Bureau of
Explosives Tariff BOE 6000).
(2) Security regulations (see AR 380-5).
1-4. Identification
Army adopted items of materiel which have been type
classified in accordance with AR 700-20, and
component items designated reportable in accordance
with Circular 310-70 are officially identified by logistical
terms to facilitate supply in the field. Thus, the standard
nomenclature, code symbols, etc., must be used in
messages, requisitions, and records.
a. Standard Nomenclature.
Standard nomenclature for the ammunition covered in this manual
consists of an item name and a model designation.
Sufficient additional information differentiates between
items having the same item name. For example:
CARTRIDGE, 152 MILLIMETER: HE, M657E2w/fuze,
PD, M720E1.
b. Federal Item Identification.
A National Item
Identification Number (NIIN) is an approved item
identification for an item of supply to which a Federal
Stock Number (FSC) in assigned. It consists of the data
adequate to establish the essential characteristics of the
item which make it unique and differentiate it from other
item of supply.
c. Department of Defense Ammunition Code
(DODAC). An eight-character number divided into two
parts separated by a hyphen. The first part consists of
four numerals; e.g., 1320, which forms the Federal
Supply Classification (FSC) code number assigned to
the items covered by the ammunition generic
description (see SB 700-20). The second part consists
of a letter and three numerals assigned to an
ammunition generic description with the FSC class; e.g.,
D548, assigned to Projectile, 155 Millimeter, Smoke,
HC.
d. NSNs and DODAC's. The National/NATO
Stock Number, e.g., NSN
1325-00-028-5298, has
replaced the Federal Stock Number (FSN). There is a
different NSN for each item of supply. The first four
digits in an NSN are always the FSC class to which the
item belongs. The next seven digits constitute the NIIN.
The dash between the third and fourth digits in the NIIN
serves to reduce errors in transmitting. There is a
different NIIN for each item. A Department of Defense
identification code (DODIC) is added as a suffix to the
NSN, e.g., 1325-00o-28-5298E450. The DODAC is an
eight-character representation consisting of the fourcharacter FSC code number and a second part
consisting of a letter and three digits (DODIC). Thus, for
example, 1325-E450, a typical DODAC, consists of FSC
class 1325 and DODIC E450. The DODIC, when
suffixed to more than one NSN, indicates items are
interchangeable for issue and use.
e. Mode. To identify a particular design, a model
designation is assigned at the time the model is
classified as an adopted type. This model designation,
an essential part of the nomenclature, is included in the
marking of the item. A model designation consists of an
M followed by an Arabic numeral M1 is an example.
Modifications are indicated by adding an A and the
appropriate Arabic numeral. Thus M1A1 indicates the
first modification of an item for which the original model
designation was Ml. An XM designation signifies that
the Item is under development. An E designates an
experimental or noncertified change to an item (e.g.,
Propellant M26E1 indicates an experimental change to
Propellant M26).
f. Lot Number.
(1) When ammunition is manufactured, an
ammunition lot number is assigned in accord with
pertinent specifications. As an essential part of the
marking, this lot number is stamped or marked on the
item, size permitting, as well as on all packing
containers. It is required for all purposes of record,
including reports on condition and functioning, and for
accidents in which the ammunition is involved.
(2) To provide for the most uniform
functioning, all of the components in any one lot are
manufactured under as nearly identical, conditions as
practicable. To obtain the greatest accuracy when firing
fixed or semifixed ammunition, successive rounds
should be of the same lot number; when firing separateloading ammunition, successive rounds should consist
of projectiles of one lot.
Change 4 1-2
TM 9-1300-200
number, propelling charges of one lot number, fuzes of
one lot number and primers of one lot number.
(3) An X appearing after the lot number of a
cartridge case indicates a steel case. Lots reworked or
renovated once have an A after the lot number; twice, a
B, etc.
(4) The ammunition data card (DD 1650), a
basic reference document, is a 5-by 8-inch card
prepared for each lot of accepted ammunition. DD 1650
is furnished with the shipping ticket with each shipment
of ammunition, except small arms ammunition.
Information on the data card includes lot number, date
packed, identity of components, expected pressures and
Instructions. National/NATO Stock Numbers, etc.
g. Calibration of Lots. Calibration data for certain
lot of artillery ammunition are computed to improve the
relative accuracy of predicted fire. The data account for
variations in performance due to the employment of
individual ammunition-weapon combinations. TC 6-40
contains detailed information on methods of calibration
and the application of calibration data.
1-5. Marking
a. The marking stenciled or stamped on
ammunition includes all the information necessary for
complete identification.
In addition to standard
nomenclature and lot numbers, marking may include
such information as the model and type of fuze, and the
weapon in which the item is fired. In the case of
separate-loading artillery ammunition, marking includes
the weight of the projectile. Except on small arms
cartridges, marking does not include grade. In the case
of some rounds of small caliber artillery ammunition, the
muzzle velocity may appear on the packing box;
otherwise, this information can be obtained from firing
tables and ammunition data cards.
b. Service components or rounds that have been
inserted for training purposes are marked as follows:
(1) Components
such
as
cartridges,
projectiles, fuzes, boosters, artillery primers, cartridge
cases, bombs, and flares in which all explosives,
Incendiary, or toxic materials have been simulated by
substitution of inert material are identified by Impressed
INERT markings.
(2) Such
components
as
cartridges,
projectiles, fuzes, boosters, artillery primers, cartridge
cases, bombs, and flares In which all explosives,
incendiaries and toxics have been omitted are identified
by stamped EMPTY markings.
(3) Such components as empty projectiles,
bombs, inert-loaded and empty cartridge cases, In
addition to being marked INERT or EMPTY, have four
holes, not smaller than one-quarter of an inch, drilled 90'
apart, if size permits. Exceptions are Inert projectiles,
such as those used in target practice, practice bombs,
and other Inert items, the designed use of which would
be Impaired by the presence of drilled holes. Such
items are considered suitably identified when they are
INERT marked.
(4) Inert, cloth-covered components, such as
bagged propelling charges, are marked with durable,
waterproof, sunfast ink.
(5) Inert mortar propellant increments have
INERT cut through each increment.
1-6. Painting
Ammunition is painted to prevent rust and to provide, by
the color, a means of identification or camouflage. A
color coding system is employed to indicate the primary
use of items of ammunition, the presence of a
hazardous (explosive, flammable, irritant or toxic) filler
and/or the color of tracers, dye loads and flash signals.
Table 1-1 lists the generally used color schemes for
ammunition.
a. Primary Use. The color Indicating primary use
Is applied, preferable, to the entire exterior surface as
the background color of the item. However, if either
tactical or technical considerations indicate a different
background color, primary use may be indicated by the
color of the markings and/or a band of color not more
than 2 inches wide. Discs, squares, or triangles of the
appropriate color can also be used to Indicate the
primary use of the item. The most prevalent use of this
exception to the rule is found in the fact that a vast
majority of HIGH EXPLOSIVE loaded ammunition is
simply painted olive drab and marked in yellow.
b. Hazardous Filler. Items with hazardous fillers
(not Indicated by the primary, use code) employ bands
of color, data markings, etc., to indicate the nature of
the hazard. For example, the background color of a WP
smoke round may be a light green to indicate its primary
use.
Markings in red will indicate incendiary
characteristics, and a yellow band will indicate the
presence of an explosive burster.
Change 5 1-2.1
TM 9-1300-200
c. Tracers. The presence of a tracer (if the color is
significant) is indicated by a series of T's in the same
color as the tracer; dye loads, by D's in the color of the
dye; and flash signals (color bursts) by C's tin the
appropriate color.
d. Color Coding. Ammunition color coding is now
in its third generation. Since ammunition has a long
shelf life, some very old items may occasionally be
encountered. The three generations of color coding are
illustrated in Table 1-2. Ammunition manufactured prior
to 1962 vas generally painted as shown for the first
generation color code. The second generation coding
vas used between 1962 and approximately 1976 when
the third generation code came Into use.
e. Application of Color Coding. The color code in
Table 1-2, applies to all ammunition items in this
manual, except the following:
(1) Small arms ammunition (see Chapter 3).
(2) Blank ammunition.
Figure 1-2. Deleted.
(3) Cartridge cases.
(4) Propelling charges.
(5) Fuzes.
(6) Propellant-actuated devices.
(7) Pyrotechnic devices. (Color to used in
pyrotechnic item to indicate the pyrotechnic effect. The
tops of ground signals (fig. 1-1), for example, are
painted in the color of the signal and embossed for ease
in identification).
(8) Demolition accessories and ammunition
components which do not require color coding for
identification purposes.
Table 1-1. Generally Used Color Schemes for Ammunition (see Table 1-2)
Type of Ammunition
Body
Markings
Band
High Explosive,(HE),
Olive Drab
Yellow
None
Yellow
Black
None
Olive Drab
Yellow
Broken
except 20MM
High Explosive, (HE),
20m
Explosive Binary
Munitions
High Explosive
Yellow
Olive Drab
Yellow
Black
Black
Yellow
None
Olive Drab
Yellow
Yellow
Plastic (HEP)
High Explosive Antitank (HEAT)
Antipersonnel and
anti-tank mines
Triangles
Incendiary
Light Red
Black
None
High Explosive
Yellow
Black
Light Red
Black
White
Light Red
Black
Yellow
None
Black
White
None
Canister
Olive Drab
White
None
Flechette loaded
Olive Drab
White
None
Incendiary (HEl)
Armor Piercing
Incendiary (API)
Armor Piercing (AP)
(a) with bursting
charge
(b) without bursting
charge
Change 4 1-2.2
TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-1. Generally Used Color Schemes for Ammunition (see Table 1-2) (continued)
Type of Ammunition
Body
Markings
Band
Illuminating
(a) separate
loading
(b) fixed or
semi-fixed
Olive Drab
White
White
White
Black
None
Blue
White
Blue
White
Brown
Blue
White
Yellow
Blue
White
None
Light Green
Black
None
Light Green
Light Red
Yellow
Bronze,
Gold,
Brass
Black
None
Gray
Red
Red
Gray
Violet
Violet
Gray
Dark Green
Dark Green
Gray
Dark Green
Broken Dark
Green
Practice
(a) with low
explosives to
indicate functioning
(b) with high explosive
to indicate
functioning
(c) Without explosive
to indicate
functioning
Screening or Marking
Smoke Ammunition
(a) Filled with other
than white
phosphorus
(b) Filled with white
phosphorus
Inert (training) ammunition
not designed to be delivered
in a delivery system
Chemical
(a) Filled with a
riot control
agent
(b) Filled with an
incapacitating
agent
(c) Filled with a
toxic chemical
agent other than
binary agents
(d) Filled with
a toxic chemical
binary nerve agent
Change 4 1-2.3 (1-2.4 blank)
C3, TM 9-1300-200
number, propelling charges of one lot number, fuzes of
one lot number and primers of one lot number.
(3) An X appearing after the lot number of a
cartridge case indicates a steel case. Lots reworked or
renovated once have an A after the lot number; twice, a
B, etc.
(4) The ammunition data card (DD 1650), a
basic reference document, is a 5-by 8-inch card
prepared for each lot of accepted ammunition. DD 1650
is furnished with the shipping ticket with each shipment
of ammunition, except small arms ammunition.
Information on the data card includes lot number, date
packed, identity of components, expected pressures and
instructions, Federal Stock Numbers, etc.
g. Calibration of Lots. Calibration data for certain
lots of artillery ammunition are computed to improve the
relative accuracy of predicted fire. The data account for
variations in performance due to the employment of
individual ammunition-weapon combinations. FM 640
contains detailed information on methods of calibration
and the application of calibration data.
holes, not smaller than one-quarter of an inch, drilled
90° apart, if size permits.
Exceptions are inert
projectiles, such as those used in target practice,
practice bombs, and other inert items, the designed use
of which would be impaired by the presence of drilled
holes. Such items are considered suitably identified
when they are INERT marked.
(4) Inert, cloth-covered components, such as
bagged propelling charges, are marked with durable,
waterproof, sunfast ink.
(5) Inert mortar propellant increments have
INERT cut through each increment.
1-5. Marking
a. Primary Use. The color indicating primary use
is applied, preferably, to the entire exterior surface as
the background color of the item. However, if either
tactical or technical considerations indicate a different
background color (e.g., olive drab for certain explosive
items), primary use may be indicated by a band of color
not more than 2 inches wide. If neither background
color nor bands are feasible, primary use may be
indicated by disks or squares in the appropriate color.
Data markings (nomenclature, lot numbers, etc.),
usually in black or white, may also be color coded. This
applies if the primary color cannot be applied elsewhere,
or if a need for more than one color code is indicated.
1-6. Painting
Ammunition is painted to prevent rust and to provide, by
the color, a means of identification or camouflage. A
color coding system is employed to indicate the primary
use of items of ammunition, the presence of a
hazardous (explosive, flammable, irritant or toxic) filler,
and/or the color of tracers, dye loads and flash signals.
a. The marking stenciled or stamped on
ammunition includes all the information necessary for
complete identification.
In addition to standard
nomenclature and lot numbers, marking may include
such information as the model and type of fuze, and the
weapon in which the item is fired. In the case of
separate-loading artillery ammunition, marking includes
the weight of the projectile. Except on small arms
cartridges, marking does not include grade. In the case
of some rounds of small caliber artillery ammunition, the
muzzle velocity may appear on the packing box;
otherwise, this information can be obtained from firing
tables and ammunition data cards.
b. Service components or rounds that have been
inerted for training purposes are marked as follows:
(1) Components
such
as
cartridges,
projectiles, fuzes, boosters, artillery primers, cartridge
cases, bombs, and flares in which all explosives,
incendiary, or toxic materials have been simulated by
substitution of inert material are identified by impressed
INERT markings.
(2) Such
components
as
cartridges,
projectiles, fuzes, boosters, artillery primers, cartridge
cases, bombs, and flares in which all explosives,
incendiaries and toxics have been omitted are identified
by stamped EMPTY markings.
(3) Such components as empty projectiles,
bombs, inert-loaded and empty cartridge cases, in
addition to being marked INERT or EMPTY, have four
Table 1-1.
Color
Yellow
Brown
Cray
Light green
Light red
White
Black
Aluminum/silver
Light blue
Bronze
Primary Use Code
Primary use
High explosive
Low explosive
Chemical
Smoke
Incendiary
Illuminating/pyrotechnic
Armor defeating
Countermeasure
Noncombat (practice)
Noncombat (training)
b. Hazardous Filler. Items with hazardous fillers
(not indicated by the primary use code)
1-3
TM 9-1300-200
RA PD 167581
Figure 1-1. Color identification of typical pyrotechnic items.
1-4
C3, TM 9-1300-200
all ammunition items in this manual, except the
following:
employ bands of color, data markings, etc., to indicate
the nature of the hazard. For example, the background
color of a WP smoke round may be a light green to
indicate its primary use. Markings in red will indicate
incendiary characteristics, and a yellow band will
indicate the presence of an explosive burster.
(1) Small arms ammunition (see ch 3).
(2) Blank ammunition.
Figure 1-2. Deleted.
c. Tracers. The presence of a tracer (if the color is
significant) is indicated by a series of T's in the same
color as the tracer; dye loads, by D's in the color of the
dye; and flash signals (color bursts) by C's in the
appropriate color.
d. Color Coding. Ammunition color coding is now
in its third generation. Since ammunition has a long
shelf life, some very old items may occasionally be
encountered The three generations of color coding are
illustrated in table 1-2. Ammunition manufactured prior
to 1962 was generally painted as shown for the first
generation color code. The second generation coding
was used between 1962 and approximately 1976 when
the third generation code came into use. e. Application
of Color Coding. The color code in table 1-2 applies to
(3) Cartridge cases.
(4) Propelling charges.
(5) Fuzes.
(6) Propellant-actuated devices.
(7) Pyrotechnic devices. (Color is used in
pyrotechnic items to indicate the pyrotechnic effect.
The tops of ground signals (fig. 1-1), for example, are
painted in the color of the signal and embossed for ease
in identification.)
(8) Demolition accessories and ammunition
components which do not require color coding for
identification purposes.
1-5
C3, TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-2. Ammunition Color Coding
1-6
C3, TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-2. Ammunition Color Coding - Continued
1-7
C3, TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-2. Ammunition color Coding - Continued
1-8
C3, TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-2. Ammunition Color Coding - Continued
1-9
C3, TM 9-1300-200
Table 1-2. Ammunition Color Coding - Continued
1-10
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 1-3. Color identification and typical marking of packing and fiber containers.
1-11
C3, TM 9-1300-200
1-7. Packing and Marking
Ammunition is packed, and packing containers marked
(fig. 13) in accordance with pertinent drawings and
specifications. Containers are designed to withstand
conditions normally encountered in handling, storage,
and transportation, and to comply with Department of
Transportation (DOT) regulations.
Marking of
containers includes all information required for complete
identification of contents and for compliance with DOT
regulations (see also TM 9-1300-206).
1-8. Inspecting and Grading
a. Ammunition is manufactured to rigorous
specifications and is thoroughly inspected before
acceptance.
Ammunition in storage is periodically
inspected and tested in accordance with specific
instructions of the U.S. Army Munitions Command
(USAMUCOM).
b. Each lot of small arms ammunition is graded
primarily on qualities that make the lot especially
suitable for use in a particular class of weapons, such as
aircraft and antiaircraft machineguns, rifles, and ground
machineguns.
c. Other than small arms ammunition is graded, as
a result of surveillance tests, on the basis of
serviceability and priority of issue. (See the appropriate
ammunition serviceability list for grading of specific
items.) Stocks of inappropriate grade on hand for
immediate use in the field should be transferred from
one station to another within the Army command.
1-9. Priority of Issue
a. Subject
to
special
instructions
from
USAMUCOM, ammunition of appropriate type and
model will be used in the following order: limited
standard, substitute standard, standard. Within this rule,
ammunition with the longest or least favorable storage
will be used first. Among lots of equal age, priority of
issue will be given the smallest lot.
b. Proper distribution must be made of those items
which, because of their scarcity, cost or highly technical
or hazardous nature, are characterized as regulated
items (In this connection, see AR 711-35.)
c. Priority of issue for given lots of ammunition is
published in special instructions and in SB 700-1300-1.
1-12
1-10. Precautions
a. Handle explosive ammunition carefully at all
times-explosive elements, such as primers and fuzes,
are sensitive to shock and high temperature.
b. Store ammunition in original container in dry
well ventilated place; protect from direct rays of sun and
other sources of excessive heat.
Keep sensitive
initiators, such as blasting caps, igniters, primers, and
fuzes, separate from other explosives.
c. Keep ammunition and its containers clean and
dry; protect from damage.
d. Do not disassemble ammunition components,
such as fuzes and primers, unless so authorized.
WARNING
Any alteration of loaded ammunition,
except as authorized in Paragraph 32 of AR 385-63, is hazardous and
must not be undertaken.
e. Do not open sealed containers or remove
protective or safety devices, except as required for
inspection, until just before use.
f. Return ammunition prepared for firing but not
fired to its original packing and mark appropriately. Use
such ammunition first in subsequent firings in order to
keep stocks of opened packings to a minimum.
WARNING
Use of live ammunition for training
purposes as a substitute for
authorized drill ammunition is
prohibited. Such substitution must
be considered hazardous and is not
permitted under any circumstances.
g. Mark unserviceable ammunition appropriately
and return to issuing agency.
1-11. Firing Data
Firing data for ammunition covered in this manual are
given in applicable firing tables indexed in DA Pam 3103.
TM 9-1300-200
1-7. Packing and Marking
Ammunition is packed, and packing containers marked
(fig. 1-3) in accordance with pertinent drawings and
specifications. Containers are designed to withstand
conditions normally encountered in handling, storage,
and transportation, and to comply with Department of
Transportation (DOT) regulations.
Marking of
containers Includes all information required for complete
identification of contents and for compliance with DOT
regulations (see also TM 9-1300-206).
1-8. Inspecting and Grading
a. Ammunition is manufactured to rigorous
specifications and is thoroughly inspected before
acceptance.
Ammunition in storage is periodically
inspected and tested in accordance with specific
instructions of the U.S. Army Armament, Munitions and
Chemical Command (AMCCOM).
b. Each lot of small arms ammunition is graded
primarily on qualities that make the lot especially
suitable for use in a particular class of weapons, such as
aircraft and antiaircraft machineguns, rifles, and ground
machineguns.
c. Other than small arms ammunition is graded, as
a result of surveillance tests, on the basis of
serviceability and priority of issue. (See the appropriate
ammunition serviceability list for grading of specific
items.) Stocks of inappropriate grade on hand for
immediate use in the field should be transferred from
one station to another within the Army command.
1-10. Precautions
a. Handle explosive ammunition carefully at all
times-explosive elements, such as primers and fuses,
are sensitive to shock and high temperature.
b. Store ammunition in original container in dry
well ventilated place; protect from direct rays of sun and
other sources of excessive heat.
Keep sensitive
initiators, such as blasting caps, igniters, primers, and
fuzes, separate from other explosives.
c. Keep ammunition and its containers clean and
dry; protect from damage.
d. Do not disassemble ammunition components,
such as fuzes and primers, unless so authorized.
WARNING
Any alteration of loaded ammunition,
except by direction of the technical
source
concerned
and
under
supervision of a commissioned
officer of that service, is hazardous
and must not be undertaken.
e. Do not open sealed containers or remove
protective or safety devices, except as required for
inspection, until just before use.
f. Return ammunition prepared for 5ring but not
fired to its original packing and mark appropriately. Use
such ammunition first in subsequent firings in order to
keep stocks of opened packings to a minimum.
WARNING
Use of live ammunition for training
purposes as a substitute for
authorized drill ammunition is
prohibited. Such substitution must
be considered hazardous and is not
permitted under any circumstances
g. Mark unserviceable ammunition
appropriately and return to issuing
agency.
1-9. Priority of Issue
a. Subject
to
special
instructions
from
USAAMCCOM, ammunition of appropriate type and
model will be used in the following order: limited
standard, substitute standard, standard. Within this rule,
ammunition with the longest or least favorable storage
will be used first. Among lots of equal age, priority of
issue will be given the smallest lot.
b. Proper distribution must be made of those items
which, because of their scarcity, cost or highly technical
or hazardous nature, are characterized as regulated
items.
c. Priority of issue for given lots of ammunition is
published in special instructions and in SB 700-1300-1.
1-11. Firing Data
Firing data for ammunition covered in this manual are
given in applicable firing tables indexed in DA Pam 2530.
Change 5 1-13
TM 9-1300-200
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Change 5 1-14
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 2
EXPLOSIVE AND CHEMICAL AGENTS
Section I. SOLID PROPELLANTS
and physical requirements, rather than on the basis of
composition. As a given composition may be suitable
for use in several different applications, it is not
practicable to classify propellants on the basis of use.
2-1. General
Solid propellants are low explosives used to propel
projectiles, rockets, etc. Nitrocellulose, though unstable,
is a general ingredient of propellants. Stabilizers are
added to counteract acid breakdown products of
nitrocellulose.
Propellant compositions, generally
referred to as smokeless powders (a misnomer), burn at
characteristic, linear rates affected by initial
temperatures and pressures. Propellants are identified
by M or T numbers. See TM 9-1300-214 for specific
coverage on United States propellants.
2-3. Characteristics
a. Form. Propellant grains take the form of strips,
flakes, balls, sheets or cords; single-perforated or
multiperforated cylinders; and rosette cylinders (fig. 21). Grains vary in size and form with the weapons. In
rockets, for example, grains are considerably larger than
those used for artillery. Figure 2-2 shows the relative
size of grains used in some artillery propellants. Small
grains require no perforation or a single perforation.
Larger gains require more equally spaced perforations,
usually seven, to provide a greater burning surface.
The United States Army and Navy have favored the
multiperforated grain form for use in weapons.
b. Burning.
(1) General.
Unconfined, nitrocellulose
propellant burns relatively slowly and smoothly but,
when confined, its rate of burning increases with
temperature and pressure. In order not to exceed the
permissible chamber pressure of the weapon in which it
is to be used, the rate of burning is proportional to the
propellant free to burn (fig. 2-3). Therefore, propellants
are made into accurate sizes and definite shapes.
(2) Degressive burning. As strips and cords
burn, the burning surface decreases continuously until
the grain is consumed. Such burning is characterized
as degressive.
(3) Neutral burning. A single-perforated grain
burns in opposite directions. By controlling the initial
diameter of the perforation, the total burning surface
hardly changes during burning.
Such burning is
characterized as neutral.
2-2. Classification
a. From the viewpoint of composition, modern
propellants are classified as follows:
(1) Single base. These compositions contain
nitrocellulose as their chief ingredient. In addition to a
stabilizer, they may contain inorganic nitrates,
nitrocompounds and such nonexplosive materials as
metallic salts, metals, carbohydrates, and dyes.
(2) Double base. A double-base composition
contains nitrocellulose and a liquid organic nitrate, such
as nitroglycerine, capable of gelatinizing nitrocellulose.
Like single-base powders, double-base powders
frequently contain additives in addition to a stabilizer.
(3) Composite.
Composite propellants
contain neither nitrocellulose nor an organic nitrate.
Generally, they consist of a physical mixture of an
organic fuel (such as ammonium picrate), an inorganic
oxidizing agent (such as potassium nitrate) and an
organic binding agent. A composite propellant has a
heterogeneous physical structure.
b. Use of propellant compositions is not in
accordance with the foregoing classification. While
single-base compositions are used in cannon, small
arms and grenades, double-base compositions are used
in cannon, small arms, mortars, rockets and jet
propulsion units. Composite compositions are used in
rocket assemblies and jet propulsion units. Choice of
propellant for a specific use is determined by ballistic
2-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 2-1. Shapes and forms of propellant grains.
Figure 2-2. Relative sizes of propellant grains.
2-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 2-3. Burning of propellant grains.
Figure 2-4. Progressive burning of propellant grains (multiperforated).
2-4. Single-Base Propellants
a. Pyrocellulose Powder. The first nitrocellulose
propellant standardized by the U.S. Army and Navy
was termed pyrocellulose powder.
As first
manufactured, pyrocellulose powder consisted only of
carefully purified nitrocellulose gelatinized in a mixture
of ether and ethanol and extruded in the form of a cord
with one or more perforations.
b. E.C. Powder. This partially colloided propellant
was one of the earliest nitrocellulose compositions
developed. Because it contains some ungelatinized
nitrocellulose, E.C. powder is distinctly
(4) Progressive burning. A triperforated grain
can be so designed that the burning surface actually
increases until burning is nearly completed and slivers
are formed. Such a grain is said to burn progressively.
This characteristic can be made more pronounced if the
grain is multiperforated (fig.
2-4).
When a
multiperforated grain is not completely consumed,
portions of the grain remain in the form of slivers.
These may be ejected as such from the weapon. The
rosette or Walsh grain, with a scalloped periphery,
reduces the amount of slivers produced by a
multiperforated
grain.
2-3
TM 9-1300-200
more sensitive to friction than completely colloided
powders.
Data indicate that the composition is
sufficiently sensitive and powerful to be used as a high
explosive as well as a propellant. For this reason, the
powder has been used in hand grenades as well as in
blank ammunition.
c. Flashless and Smokeless Compositions. The
class of propellants known as flashless and smokeless
(formerly designated as FNH and NH) comprises
compositions used chiefly in artillery.
Whether a
composition is flashless depends upon the gun in which
it is used. For example, the M1 composition is flashless
when used in a 75-mm gun, but not in the 8-inch gun.
d. Small-Arms Powders. Both single-base and
double-base propellants now are used in small arms.
The earlier type of single-base powder for this purpose
was known as IMR.
e. Standardization of the caliber .30 carbine
permitted use of a double-base composition in the form
of spheres 0.02 or 0.03 inch in diameter, instead of
flakes or grains (fig. 25). Commonly called ball powder,
this composition is produced by dissolving wet
nitrocellulose in a solvent (e.g., ethyl acetate), adding
diphenylamine and chalk, and then nitroglycerine. Upon
agitation and addition of a protective colloid, the solution
is dispersed in the form of small globules. When the
volatile solvent is removed by heating, the powder
solidifies in the form of spherical pellets. A wide variety
of single-base or double-base compositions may be
produced by this process.
f. Essentially all propellants for rockets are of the
double-base or composite type, as are those for rocket
motors. Rocket propellants are manufactured in much
larger grains than the largest cannon powder grains, and
rocket motor grains are manufactured in very large
sizes. The smallest rocket powder is 0.37 inch in
diameter and 4.15 inches long. Rocket motor grains
may exceed 12 inches in diameter and 6 feet in length.
The smaller grains of rocket powder are manufactured
by the solvent process. The larger grains are produced
by rolling sheeted powder into a carpet roll, which is
then extruded.
(1) Solid propellants for rockets are primarily
of two types. The more common type is a double-base
composition consisting principally of
2-5. Double-Base Propellants
a. Prior to World War II, double-base propellants
were used in the United States for mortar and smallarms ammunition but not in cannon. Since then,
double-base compositions have been standardized for
use in the smaller guns. Requirements for rocket
propellants have resulted in standardization of a number
of such compositions.
b. Standard double-base cannon powders are used
in the form of perforated grains.
Although these
propellants have considerably greater ballistic potential
than the single-base compositions, they are less stable.
c. Double-base mortar powders include those used
for propellant charges and those used in the ignition
cartridges, both being in the form of flakes. In general,
high nitroglycerine content gives double-base mortar
propellant compositions very high ballistic potential
values. These compositions, however, are the least
stable of the standard propellants. This is due, in part,
to the small grain size. Powders having large specific
surfaces have been found to give lower test values than
those in large grains.
d. Double-base propellants for small arms have
been used for many years. At one time, these were of
the ballistite type, in flake, disk, and grain forms.
However, these compositions have been replaced by
double-base compositions containing less nitroglycerine.
The single-perforated grains having these compositions
are coated with dinitrotoluene or centralite and glazed
with graphite. Although they have some that less
ballistic potential than the ballistite type of powders, they
are more stable, cause less erosion of rifles, and have
less tendency to flash.
Figure 2-5. Ball powder, X25.
2-4
TM 9-1300-200
a colloided mixture of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.
The other type consists of a mixture of an organic fuel,
an inorganic oxidizing agent and a binding agent. In
either case, the mode of burning and the limitations
under which the compositions are used are the same.
(2) Most
rocket
motors
accommodate
maximum pressures developed by the propellants of the
order of 3,500 psi. When the propellant charge is
ignited, pressure within the rocket chamber generally
increases within 0.0005 to 0.05 second. Maximum
value of this pressure is determined by burning rate of
the propellant and diameter of the nozzle orifice.
Thereafter, the charge burns at a nearly constant rate.
Steady-state pressure is maintained constant or
decreases very slowly until the propellant is completely
consumed.
2-6. Composite Propellants
a. Difficulty In manufacturing double-base rocket
and rocket motor propellants in large grains coupled with
undesirable ballistic effects with change in initial
temperature have led to the development of composite
propellant.
Containing
no
nitrocellulose
or
nitroglycerine, composite propellant is a mixture of an
organic fuel, an inorganic oxidizing agent and an
organic binding agent.
b. A representative composite propellant is the T9
composition, which consists of the following:
Ammonium picrate................................
Potassium nitrate ..................................
Ethyl cellulose.......................................
Chlorinated wax ....................................
Calcium stearate ...................................
40.7
40.8
4.6
4.6
0.5
Such a composition can be manufactured by a simple
mixing operation and can be molded in the desired form
by pressing. While it has a desirably low temperature
sensitivity, with respect to the burning rate, the
composition tends to become brittle and crack when
subjected to low temperatures. It therefore cannot be
used safely at temperatures below -12° C. (10° F.). A
further disadvantage is the relatively large amount of
white smoke produced when the propellant is burned.
of the fuel with the oxidizer (hydrazine with nitric acid,
for example) or by such external influences as electrical
spark ignition or catalysts.
Section II. LIQUID PROPELLANTS
2-7. General
Liquid propellants, which can be better controlled in
combustion than solid propellants, have been developed
for large rockets, missiles and projectiles.
Such
propellent compounds are either composite (fuel and
oxidizer combined) or independent (fuel and oxidizer in
separate containers). The propellant reacts rapidly to
produce gaseous products which can propel the rockets
at supersonic velocities
2-9. Characteristics
Burning rate and specific impulse of solid propellant are
controlled by propellant composition and grain design In
liquid propellant rockets, however, the fuel/oxidizer mix
can be adjusted in flight to regulate the burning rate and
specific impulse. Like some chemical agents and
explosives, liquid propellants are hazardous, toxic,
flammable, sensitive and inherently dangerous.
2-8. Classification
Liquid propellants are classified by the type of reaction
system, as follows:
a. Monopropellant. This system consists of fuel
and oxidizer stored in one tank, and delivered by a
pump or pressurized tank for eventual reaction in the
chamber of a rocket. To initiate, a separate source of
ignition is required.
b. Bipropellants. These systems consist of an
organic fuel and an oxidizer, in separate containers, for
dual feed, carburetion and combustion within the
reaction chamber. Reaction may be initiated by contact
2-10. Materials
Listed below are the most common combustible and
flammable materials used as fuels and oxidizers with
liquid propellants:
a. FueI-alcohols
(ethyl,
methyl,
furfural);
hydrocarbons (kerosene, aviation gasoline, octane,
heptane, pentane); aniline, monoethylaniline, hydrazine,
diborane, pentaborane, liquid hydrogen and anhydrous
ammonia.
b. Ozidizer-white fuming and red fuming, nitric
acids (WFNA and RFNA); oxygen, hydrogen peroxide,
chlorine trifluoride and dinitrogen tetroxide.
Change 4 2-5
TM 9-1300-200
Section III. LOW EXPLOSIVES
2-11. General
Rates of transformation of explosives have been found
to vary greatly. One group, which includes smokeless
and black powders, undergoes combustion at rates that
vary from a few centimeters per minute to
approximately 400 meter per second. These are known
as low explosives.
Some high explosives (e.g.,
nitrocellulose) can, by physical conditioning, be
rendered capable of functioning as a low explosive
when ignited.
a. Definition. An explosive is a material that can
undergo very rapid self-propagating decomposition, with
formation of more stable materials, liberation of heat,
and development of a sudden pressure effect. An
explosive may be solid, liquid or gaseous. It may be a
chemical compound, a mixture of compounds, or a
mixture of one or more compounds and one or more
elements. Military explosives are chiefly solids or
mixtures formulated to be solid at normal temperatures.
b. Deflagration.
If a particle of an explosive
reaches a temperature at which the rate of
decomposition becomes significant, deflagration or
spattering of the particles from the surface occur prior to
decomposition. At a characteristic temperature, heat
output is sufficient for the reaction to proceed and be
accelerated without input of heat from another source.
At this temperature, called the ignition temperature,
deflagration, a surface phenomenon, begins. Gaseous
reaction products flow away from the unreacted material
below the surface. Deflagration of all the particles in a
mass of finely divided explosive occur almost
simultaneously.
In a confined space, pressure
increases, which, in turn has the effect of increasing the
rate of reaction and temperature. The final effect of
deflagration under confinement is explosion, which may
be violent deflagration or even detonation. In the case
of low explosives, such as loose black powder and
pyrotechnic compositions, only violent deflagration can
take place. Nitrocellulose propellants can burn, or if
confinement is sufficient, deflagrate so rapidly as to
detonate.
c. Characteristic. To qualify for military use, a low
explosive (propellant) must evidence the following:
(1) A controlled burning rate.
(2) Capability for instant ignition and
combustion.
(3) Stability over extended periods of storage
under normal conditions.
(4) Balance for complete combustion,
producing a minimum amount of residue and weaponbore erosion.
(5) Minimal toxic and explosive hazard.
(6) Capability of withstanding mechanical
shock incident to loading, transportation and handling by
commercial and military carriers.
d. Low-Explosive Train.
An explosive train
consists of combustibles and explosives arranged
according to decreasing sensitivity. This arrangement
serves to transform a small impulse into one sufficiently
large to function a main charge. A fuze explosive train,
for example, may consist of primer, detonator, delay,
relay, lead and booster charge, one or more of which
may be omitted or combined. Addition of a bursting
charge renders such a train a bursting charge explosive
train (fig. 2-6). A propelling charge explosive train (fig.
2-6), on the other hand, may consist of primer, igniter
(or igniting charge-usually black powder) and some type
of propellant.
(1) Small-arms
ammunition
(cartridges)
explosive trains have percussion primers, relatively
small propelling charges and no igniter. Initially, the
firing pin explodes the primer. The flame then passes
through the vent leading to the powder chamber and
ignites the propelling charge. Expansion of the resultant
gases ejects the bullet.
(2) In artillery ammunition, the low explosive
train includes an auxiliary charge of black powder,
called the primer charge or igniter charge. The auxiliary
charge between the primer and the propelling charge is
necessary to intensify the small flame produced by the
primer composition sufficiently to initiate combustion of
the large quantity of propellant. As in fixed ammunition,
the primer or igniter charge may be contained in the
body of the primer. This makes one assembly of the
percussion element of the primer and the primer charge.
Otherwise, the primer or igniter charge may be divided
between the primer body and the igniter pad attached to
separate-loading propelling charges.
(3) In jet propulsion weapons (rockets and
rocket motors), the low-explosive train consists of
propelling charge (single-perforated or multiperforated
grain of double-base or composite propellant), igniter
(usually a black powder mixture) and initiator (electric
squib or squibs).
2-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 2-6. Explosive trains-artillery ammunition.
2-7
TM 9-1300-200
(3) Sensitivity. Black powder is less sensitive
than tetryl, but is very sensitive to ignition by flame,
incandescent particles or electric spark. Black powder
ignites spontaneously, for example, at about +300°C.
(+540°F.). Sodium nitrate black powder is slightly less
sensitive to impact than potassium nitrate black powder.
(4) Stability and moisture absorption. In the
absence of moisture, black powder is highly stable. Its
ingredients are essentially nonreactive with each other,
even at +120°C. (+250°F.). Heating black powder
above +70°C. (+160°F.) tends to vaporize the sulfur.
This results in a change in composition or uniformity of
composition. Black powder picks up moisture more
because of the charcoal present than because of the
moisture-absorbing nitrate. While moisture does not
cause black powder to become unstable, it can react
with and corrode such metals as steel, brass and
copper.
When sodium nitrate is substituted for
potassium nitrate a composition is obtained that picks
up moisture more readily than potassium nitrate black
powder. Both black powders are comparable in stability.
c. Uses. Black powder finds application in ignition
of rocket and missile propulsion units, primers, delay
elements, bursting charges, saluting charges, spotting
charges, expelling charges, bursters, igniters, smokepuff charges and catapult charges. Other uses include
the following:
(1) Ignition. Black powder is used for ignition
charges for smokeless powder. The grains are glazed
with graphite. Burning of black powder produces many
finely divided, incandescent solid particles. These make
black powder a better igniting material for smokeless
powder than finely divided smokeless powder itself.
(2) Fuzes. Black powder is used for loading
the time-train rings of fuzes. The grains of fuze powder
are not glazed with graphite. Because fuze powder
having the standard composition burns too rapidly for
use in some fuzes, a slow-burning powder is used
having the following composition:
2-12. Black Powder
a. General. Black powder, the name originally
applied to a mixture of charcoal, sulfur, and potassium
nitrate, now applies also to compositions containing
bituminous coal instead of charcoal, and sodium nitrate
instead of potassium nitrate.
(1) Standard black powder contains 74.0 ±
1.0 percent potassium nitrate, 15.6 ± 1.0 percent
charcoal, and 10.4 ± 1.0 percent sulfur. Its principal
combustion products are CO2, CO, N2, K2CO3, K2SO4,
and K2S.
(2) The sodium nitrate black powder used for
military purposes and blasting operations has the
following composition:
Percent Sodium nitrate..........................
Charcoal ...............................................
Sulfur ....................................................
72 ± 2
16 ± 2
12 ± 2
The grains of powder are glazed with graphite.
b. Characteristics. In appearance, black powder
varies from a very fine powder to dense pellets. These
may be black, or grayish-black because of a graphiteglazed surface.
(1) Burning rate. The type of charcoal used
in manufacture of black powder is reflected by the
burning rate of the powder. Black powder made -from
willow or alder charcoal burns much more rapidly than
that made from oak charcoal. An increase in burning
rate also results from confining black powder. Decrease
in burning rate, on the other hand, is caused by the
following:
(a) Increase in percentage of nitrate
with corresponding decrease in percentage of charcoal.
(b) Presence of more than 0.2 percent
of moisture.
(c) Simple mixing (rather than milling)
of ingredients.
(d) Substitution of sodium nitrate for
potassium nitrate.
(2) Granulations. Military black powder is
manufactured in a range of grain sizes: from coarser
than 4 mesh to finer than 200 mesh. Sodium nitrate
black powder for military use is granulated in three
classes: A, B and C, according to particle size. Military
applications of sodium nitrate black powder include the
following:
Potassium nitrate ...........................
Semibituminous coal......................
Sulfur .............................................
Percent
70.0 ± 1.0
14.0 ± 1.0
16.0 ± 1.0
Like fuze powders having the standard composition,
slow-burning fuze powders is not glazed with graphite.
(3) Special fuses. Black powder used in
manufacture of time blasting or safety fuse may have
the standard black powder composition, be a
modification of the proportions of the ingredients of this,
or contain such inert diluents as graphite, brick dust or
borax. The most common type of fuse burns at a rate of
about 1 foot in 40 seconds.
Powder class
Use
A ............................Saluting charges
B ............................Practice bombs
C ............................Torpedo impulse charges
2-8
TM 9-1300-200
containing chlorates are especially hazardous as
regards to fires and explosions. Because they contain
powdered metals, pyrotechnic compositions may
become hazardous in the presence of moisture.
(4) Squibs.
Squibs for military use are
caused to function by heat developed by an electrical
resistance wire. This may ignite a charge of either
potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate black powder, or an
ignition composition, and, in turn, the main charge of
black powder. In some cases, the black powder charge
is ignited by a matchhead composition.
d. Precautions.
Black powder, which is very
sensitive to friction, heat and impact, is one of the most
dangerous explosives to handle. It will deteriorate
rapidly on absorption of moisture but retains its
explosive properties indefinitely if kept dry. Black
powder may be desensitized by placing it in water.
Discarding the water separately from the residue,
however, permits wet black powder to dry out and regain
some of its explosive properties. Combustible materials
which have absorbed liquids leached from black powder
constitute a severe fire hazard and may become
explosive.
b. Main Charge Pyrotechnic Compositions.
(1) The earliest pyrotechnic compositions
consisted of varying constituents of black powder:
charcoal, sulfur and niter (potassium or sodium nitrate).
Other materials, such as iron filings, coarse charcoal or
realgar (arsenic sulfide), were added to produce special
effects. Many other materials were added or substituted
as additional knowledge was acquired.
(2) Present-day pyrotechnic compositions
generally consist of various chemicals. In some cases,
a single material may perform more than one of the
functions in (a) through (f) below.
(a) Oxidizers, such as chlorates,
perchlorates, peroxides, chromates and nitrates, provide
oxygen for burning. Additional oxygen may be obtained
from the air. Nongaseous powders, such as barium
chromate-boron mixtures, which do not require oxygen
from the air, are used in delay columns.
(b) Fuels, such as aluminum and
magnesium powder, their alloys, sulfur, lactose and
other easily oxidizable materials.
(c) Combustible
binding
and
waterproofing agents, such as shellac, linseed oil,
resins, resinates and paraffin.
(d) Color intensifiers, such as polyvinyl
chloride, hexachlorobenzene or other organic chlorides,
mixed with barium and copper salts to produce green, or
with strontium salts to produce red.
(e) Dyes,
such
as
methylaminoanthraquinone to produce red, and
auramine to produce yellow.
(f) Coolants, such as magnesium
carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.
(3) Pyrotechnic smoke compositions are of
two general types:
(a) Those that burn with practically no
flame but give off a dense, colored smoke as a
combustion product.
(b) Those that burn at a temperature so
low that an organic dye ((2)(e), above) in the
composition will volatilize instead of burn and, therefore,
color the smoke.
2-13. Black Powder Substitutes
a. Benite. Benite is used in igniter compositions of
artillery primers or in base igniter bags for separateloading ammunition. Benite takes the form of extruded
strands of black powder (KNO3, charcoal, sulfur)
embedded in nitrocellulose.
b. Eimite. Eimite is another substitute for black
powder in artillery primers. When used in initiating type
elements, delays and similar components, eimite takes
the form of solid granulation.
c. Boron-Potassium Nitrate.
Boron-potassium
nitrate is used in many ignition applications. As an
igniter composition, it is used in granular form, or as
pellets. Its function in a delay element is to ignite and
set off the rest of the explosive train at a predetermined
time.
d. Mox-Type Mixtures. Mox-type mixtures are
filler explosives, not igniter materials.
Although
classified as explosives, these mixtures are used for
specialized applications. The most common mixture,
MOX 2B, is used as a spotting charge in place of black
powder. Unlike other filler explosives, MOX 2B was
developed commercially.
2-14. Pyrotechnic Compositions
a. General.
Standard military pyrotechnic
compositions consist of such compounds as
perchlorates and nitrates to provide oxygen; powdered
metals for fuel; salts of sodium, barium or strontium for
ccqor; and binding and waterproofing materials. These
compositions are sensitive to heat, flame, static
electricity discharges and, particularly, to friction. Those
2-9
TM 9-1300-200
(4) A friction igniter consists of a primer cup and a ripple wire. The primer cup contains a mixture of
potassium chlorate, charcoal and dextrin binder. The ripple wire is coated with red phosphorus in shellac and has a
nitrocellulose coating. The wire extends through the primer cup.
(5) Quickmatch is a term applied to strands of cotton soaked in a mixture of black powder and gum Arabic and
coated with mealed powder. It is used as an initiator to transmit flame to igniting, priming or pyrotechnic charges.
(6) The priming charge is a dried black powder paste in intimate contact with the firstfire composition. Newer
pyrotechnic items use a special nonhygroscopic priming paste containing barium nitrate, zirconium hydride, silicon,
tetranitrocarbazole and a plastic binder.
(7) The first-fire composition is generally a mechanical mixture of illuminant charge and black powder.
However, for certain items, it may be a special nonhygroscopic, easily ignitable composition that burns with a higher
temperature.
c. Characteristics. Pyrotechnic compositions are generally compressed into definite shapes or forms. On ignition
and combustion, these compositions produce considerable light and decompose or burn by a process known as
deflagration. Functional characteristics of pyrotechnic compositions include candlepower, burning rate, color, color value
and efficiency of light production. Other important characteristics are sensitivity to impact and friction, ignitibility, stability
and water absorption. Table 2-1 shows burning performance characteristics of black powder, nitrocellulose composition
and pyrotechnic compositions.
d. Uses. Pyrotechnic compositions are used in items of ammunition to produce, through chemical reaction, a
desired effect or combination of effects, such as light (instantaneous or continuous), smoke, heat, noise, delay timing and
gas pressure. These items are used for such purposes as signaling, illumination, simulation of battlefield effects,
warning, marking, tracking, screening, igniting, and incendiary effects. Pyrotechnic items produce their effect by burning
and are consumed in the process. The effect produced generally falls into one of the following pyrotechnic classes:
(1) Photoflash cartridges. These produce a single flash of light for photographic purposes.
Table 2-1. Characteristics of Low Explosives
Burning rate
In minutes
In seconds.
Pyrotechnic
2-14
---compositions
Black powder
---4
Nitrocellulose
---7-12
compositions
(2) Flares. A flare produces illumination,
generally of high candlepower and substantial duration.
Flares may be parachute supported, towed or stationary,
while their primary function is illumination, they may be
used for identification, ignition, locating, or warning.
(3) Signals. There are two types of effects
obtained with signals: light and smoke. A particular
model may produce both effects. Light producing
signals are much smaller and faster burning than flares.
They may consist of a single parachute-supported star
or one to five freely falling stars, with or without colored
tracers. Smoke signals are of either the slow-burning,
streamer type, which leaves a trail of smoke, or the
parachute-suspended type, which produces a cloud of
smoke.
(4) Simulators. Simulators, which duplicate
battle sounds and flashes of light produced by service
items of ammunition, are designed for use in training.
Heat liberated
Temperature
developed
Cal/GM
500-2,500
°C
800-3,500
655
700-1,300
2,700
1,700-3,300
(5) Miscellaneous types. Pyrotechnics other
than those in (1) through (4), above, have a variety of
uses.
(a) In illuminating artillery ammunition,
the pyrotechnic elements are assembled in artillery
projectile bodies.
The projectiles are used in
conjunction with other artillery ammunition (TM 43-000128.
(b) Smoke grenades have the form of
high-explosives hand and rifle grenades but resemble
smoke signals in effect (TM 9-1330-200-12 and TM 91330-200-34).
e. Precautions. Pyrotechnic compositions contain
materials of a hazardous nature.
Although the
ingredients themselves may be relatively stable, any
one of them may, in time, react with
Change 5 2-10
TM 9-1300-200
flame, friction and static electrical discharges from the
one or more of the other materials in the mixture to
human body.
cause detonation.
Some pyrotechnic compositions
(mixtures) may become more sensitive because of
exposure to moisture. Mixtures are sensitive to heat,
Section IV. HIGH EXPLOSIVES
(b) A
device
containing
a
2-15. General
spontaneously combustible material, such as white
High explosives are usually nitration products of such
phosphorus, used to ignite fillings of incendiary bombs
organic substances as toluene, phenol, pentaerythritol,
and flamethrower fuels at the time of dispersion or
amines, glycerin, and starch.
Otherwise, high
rupture of the bomb casing.
explosives may be nitrogen-containing inorganic
(c) A device used to initiate burning of
substances or mixtures. A high explosive may be a
the fuel mixture in a rocket combustion chamber.
pure compound or an intimate mixture of several
(4) Delay. A delay is an explosive train
compounds with additives, such as powdered metals
component that introduces a controlled time delay in
(aluminum), plasticizing oils, waxes, etc., which impart
functioning of the train.
desired stability and performance characteristics. A
(5) Relay. A relay is an element of a fuze
high explosive is characterized by the extreme rapidity
explosive
train that augments an otherwise inadequate
with which its decomposition occurs. This is known as
output
of
a
prior explosive component. Thus, a relay
detonation. When initiated by a blow or shock, high
reliably
initiates
a succeeding train component. Relays,
explosives will decompose almost instantaneously,
in
general,
contain
a small single explosive charge, such
either in a manner similar to extremely rapid combustion
as
lead
azide,
and
are not usually employed to initiate
or with rupture and rearrangement of the molecules
high-explosive
charges.
themselves. In either case, gaseous and solid products
(6) Lead.
A lead is an explosive train
of reaction are produced. The disruptive effect of the
component
that
consists
of a column of high explosive,
reaction makes some explosives valuable as a bursting
usually small in diameter. A lead transmits detonation
charge but precludes their use as a propellant. This is
from one detonating component to a succeeding highdue to the fact that the gases formed would develop
explosive component. It is generally used to transmit
excessive pressures that might burst the barrel of the
detonation from a detonator to a booster charge.
weapon.
(7) Booster charge. A booster charge is the
a. Terms and Definitions.
final
high-explosive
component of an explosive train
(1) Primer. A primer is a relatively small and
that
amplifies
the
detonation
from the lead or detonator.
sensitive initial explosive train component which, on
Thus, a booster charge reliably detonates the main highbeing actuated, initiates functioning of the explosive
explosive charge of the munition.
train. The primer itself will not reliably initiate high(8) Fuze explosive train. A fuze explosive
explosive charges. In general, primers are classified by
train is an arrangement of a series of combustible and
method of initiation, such as percussion, stab, electric,
explosive elements consisting of a primer, a detonator,
friction, chemical, etc.
a delay, a relay, a lead and a booster charge, one or
(2) Detonator. A detonator is an explosive
more of which may be either omitted, or combined. The
train component that can be activated by a
explosive train serves to accomplish controlled
nonexplosive impulse or action of a primer. A detonator
augmentation of a relatively small impulse into one of
is capable of reliably initiating secondary high explosive
sufficient energy to cause the main charge of the
charges. When activated by a nonexplosive impulse, a
munition to function.
detonator includes the function of a primer. In general,
(9) Primer
compositions.
A
primer
detonators are classified, according to the method of
composition
is
an
explosive
that
is
sensitive
to
a
blow,
initiation, as percussion, stab, electric, friction, flash,
such as that imparted by a firing pin. A primer
chemical, etc.
composition transmits shock or flame to another
(3)
Igniter.
An igniter is definable as
explosive, a time element or a detonator. Most mil
follows:
(a) A device containing a composition,
usually in the form of black powder, which burns readily.
Such an igniter is used to amplify initiation of a primer in
functioning of a fuze.
2-11
TM 9-1300-200
built up sufficiently to assure a high-order detonation for
a bursting charge. Fundamentally, an explosive train
consists of a detonator, booster and bursting charge.
This sequence is often interrupted by a delay or relay.
The example of a 2,000-pound bomb filled with TNT,
with a fuze of the firing pin type, illustrates the principle
of the explosive train. The TNT by itself will not
detonate from release of the firing pin. This is so
because the initial source of energy, a friction or
percussion effect of the firing pin, is insufficient and
must be stepped up to where it will detonate the TNT.
This is always accomplished by means of an explosive
train, as follows:
(1) When initiated by stab action of a firing
pin or by a flame, the detonator sets up a high-explosive
wave. This wave is so small and weak that it will not
initiate a high-order detonation in the bursting charge
unless a booster is placed between the two. The
booster picks up the small explosive wave from the
detonator and amplifies it. The bursting charge is thus
initiated and a high-order detonation results (fig. 2-6
and 2-7).
(2) To gain control of the time and place at
which an explosive will function, it is necessary to
itary priming compositions consist of mixtures of one or
more initial detonating agents, oxidants, fuels,
sensitizers and binding agents. Many compositions
contain potassium chlorate, lead thiocyaate, calcium
silicide, antimony sulfide, lead azide, lead styphnate,
mercury fulminate and a binding agent. The potassium
chlorate acts as an oxidizing agent; the lead thiocynate
and calcium silicide act as the fuel, and as desensitizer
to the chlorate; and the explosive acts as the detonating
agent. Other materials, such as ground glass and
carborundum, may be added to increase sensitivity to
friction. Priming compositions for electic primers and
squibs may contain barium nitrate as the oxidizing agent
instead of potassium chlorate, and lead styphnate or
DDNP (diazodinitrophenol) as the initiating explosive.
Primer mixtures are used in percussion elements of
artillery primers, in fuzes and in small-arms primers, and
as the upper layer of a detonator assembly.
(10) Bursting charge. This is an encased
explosive designed to break the metal casing into small
fragments.
b.
High-Explosive Train.
An explosive
train is a means by which a small amount of energy is
Figure 2-7. Detonating wave amplified by use of a booster.
2-12
TM 9-1300-200
Incorporate other components in a high-explosive train.
The action desired may be a burst in the air, a burst
instantly upon impact with the target, or a burst shortly
after the projectile has penetrated the target. The
components to give these various actions may be a
primer, a black powder delay pellet or train, an upper
detonator or any combination of these components.
Arrangement of the components does not change the
basic chain. Other components are simply placed in
front of the basic chain (fig. 28).
(3) Placing a primer and a black powder time
train in front of the basic chain causes a projectile to
burst in air. When the projectile leaves the weapon (or
the bomb is dropped), the primer ignites the time-train
rings. After the time-train rings burn the requisite time,
the primer initiates action of the detonator, booster and
bursting charge (schemes A and C, fig. 2-8).
(4) To burst the projectile promptly upon
impact with the target, a superquick or instantaneous
action is necessary. This action is usually obtained by
placing an upper detonator in the extreme front of the
fuse, and lower detonator in the body near the booster
charge.
The detonating wave is thus transmitted
instantly to the bursting charge (scheme D, fig. 2-8).
(5) To permit the projectile to penetrate the
target, a delay action is necessary. This is obtained by
placing a primer and delay element ahead of the
detonator. In some cases, this combination of primer
and delay is inserted between an upper and lower
detonator (scheme E, fig. 2-8).
(6) A variation of the high-explosive train is
found in chemical projectiles In this train, there s no
large bursting charge " in high-explosive project It is
only necessary to rupture the projectile and allow the
chemical contents to escape. Actual bursting of the
projectile is accomplished by an enlarged booster,
known as a burster charge, contained in a tube running
through the center of the projectile.
2-16. Classification
High explosives are classified according to their
sensitivity as initiating, booster and bursting explosives
a. Initiating.
Initiating high explosives are
extremely sensitive to shock, friction and heat. Under
normal conditions, they will not burn, but will detonate if
ignited. Their strength and brisance are inferior, but are
sufficient to detonate high explosives Because of their
sensitivity, they are used in munitions for Initiating and
intensifying high-order explosions. Mercury fulminate,
lead azide, lead styphnate and diazodinitrophenol are
examples of such explosives.
b. Booster. Explosives of this type include tetryl,
PETN and RDX. They have intermediate sensitivity
between initiating explosives and explosives used as
bursting charges. Booster explosives may be ignited by
heat, friction or impact and may detonate when burned
in large quantities.
c. Bursting. Bursting explosives include explosive
D, amatol, TNT, tetryl, pentolite, picratol, tritonal,
composition B, DBX, HBX and others.
2-17. Demolition and Fragmentation Explosives
a. Tetryl.
(1) Characteristics. Tetryl
2, 4, 6 trinitrophenylmethylnitramine is a fine yellow crystalline
material. When heated, it melts, decomposes and then
explodes. It burns rapidly, is more easily detonated than
TNT or ammonium picrate (explosive D) and is much
more sensitive than picric acid. It is detonated by
friction, shock or spark.
It is insoluble in water,
practically nonhygroscopic.
Tetryl is stable at all
temperatures that may be encountered in storage. It is
toxic when taken internally; on contact, it discolors skin
tissue (resembles tobacco stain) and causes dermatitis.
(2) Detonations. Brisance tests show tetryl to
have a very high shattering power. Tetryl is greater in
brisance than TNT and is exceeded in standard military
explosives only by PETN and RDX.
(3) Uses.
(a) Charges. Tetryl is the standard
booster explosive and is sufficiently insensitive when
compressed to be used safely as a booster explosive.
Violence of its detonation assures a high-order
detonation of the bursting charge. Tetryl is used in the
form of pressed pellets. It is the standard bursting
charge for small-caliber (20-mm and 87mm) projectiles.
It produces appreciably better fragmentation of these
projectiles than TNT. It is also more readily detonated,
and yet, in small-caliber cartridges, withstands the force
of setback in the weapon. It is also a constituent of
tetrytoL
(b) Detonator.
When it is used in
detonators, tetryl is pressed into the bottom of the
detonator shell and covered with a small priming charge
of mercury fulminate, lead azide or other initiator.
Change 4 2-13
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 2-8. Schematic arrangement of explosive train components
2-14
TM 9-1300-200
(2)
Exudation.
When stored in warm
climates or during warm summer months, some
ammunition loaded with TNT may exude an oily brown
liquid. This exudate oozes out around the threads at the
nose of the projectile and may form a pool on the floor.
The exudate is flammable and may contain particles of
TNT. Pools of exudate should be removed.
(3) Detonation. TNT in crystalline form can
be detonated readily by a No. 6 blasting cap or, when
highly compressed, by a No. 8 blasting cap. Cast TNT
requires a booster charge of compressed tetryl or an
explosive of similar brisance to assure complete
detonation.
(4) Uses.
b. PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate). PETN is
one of the strongest high explosives known. It is more
sensitive to shock or friction than TNT or tetryl. In its
pure form, PETN is a white crystalline powder; however,
it may turn light gray from impurities. It will detonate
under long, slow pressure. PETN in bulk must be stored
wet. Its primary use is in booster and bursting charges
in small-caliber ammunition; in upper detonators in
some land mines and projectiles; and as the explosive
core of primacord detonating fuze. It may be issued in
sheet form. Suspended in TNT, with which it forms a
pentolite explosive of high brisance.
c. RDX. RDX, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, one
of the most powerful explosives, is commonly known as
cyclonite; hexogen (German); T4 (Italian); and
Tanoyaku (Japanese). It is a white crystalline solid
having a melting point of +202°C. (+397°F.) and is very
stable. It has slightly more power and brisance than
PETN. It is more easily initiated by mercury fulminate
than is tetryl. RDX has been used mainly in mixtures
with other explosives, but can be used by itself as a
subbooster, booster, and bursting charge. It is also
combined with nitrohydrocarbons, which permit castloading, or with waxes or oils for press-loading. It has a
high degree of stability in storage.
d. TNT (Trinitrotoluene).
The 2, 4, 6trinitrotoluene, commonly known as TNT, is a
constituent of such explosives as amatol, pentolite,
tetrytol, tritonal, picratol and composition B.
(a) Bursting charge. TNT is used as a
bursting charge for high-explosive rounds and bombs,
either alone or in a mixture, such as tritonal or
composition B. TNT is also used in mines and for parts
of certain rounds and bomb bursters. Flake TNT is used
in fragmentation hand grenades.
(b) Demolition.
TNT is used to
demolish bridges, railroads, fortifications and other
structures. For such purposes, it is used in the form of a
large shaped charge or a small, highly compressed
block inclosed in a waterproof fiber container. This
protects the TNT from crumbling in handling. Triton
blocks used by the Corps of Engineers are of pressed
TNT inclosed in cardboard containers.
(c) Blasting. TNT is suitable for all
types of blasting. It produces approximately the same
effect as an equal weight of dynamite of 50 to 60
percent grade. TNT is also used as a surround in some
amatol-loaded ammunition.
(1) Characteristics. TNT in a refined form is
one of the most stable of high explosives. It is relatively
insensitive to blows. or friction and can be stored for
long periods of time. Confined TNT, when detonated,
explodes with violence. When ignited by a flame,
unconfined TNT burns slowly, does not explode, and
emits a heavy, oily, black smoke; however, burning or
rapid heating of large quantities, especially in closed
vessels, may cause a violent detonation. TNT is
nonhygroscopic and does not form sensitive compounds
with metals. It is, however, readily acted upon by
alkalies to form unstable compounds that are very
sensitive to heat and impact. TNT usually resembles a
light brown sugar; in the pure state, it is crystalline and
nearly white. When melted and poured into a projectile
or bomb, it forms a solid crystalline explosive charge.
TNT is a very satisfactory military explosive. The
melting point of standard grade 1 TNT is 80.2°C.
(+176°F.). Ammunition loaded with TNT can be stored,
handled, and shipped with comparative safety.
e. Amatol.
(1) General characteristics.
Amatol, a
mixture of ammonium nitrate and TNT in various
percentages, has the same general characteristics as
TNT. Amatol is crystalline, yellow or brownish, and
insensitive to friction. However, it may be detonated by
severe impact. It is less sensitive to detonation than
TNT, but is readily detonated by mercury fulminate and
other detonators. Amatol is hygroscopic and, in the
presence of moisture, attacks copper, brass and bronze,
forming dangerously sensitive compounds.
Amatol
50/50 has approximately the same rate of detonation
and brisance as TNT, while 80/20 amatol is slightly
lower in velocity and brisance than TNT. Amatol 80/20
produces a white smoke on detonation, and amatol
50/50 produces a smoke less dark than straight TNT.
2-15
TM 9-1300-200
(b)
Although less sensitive than TNT,
ammonium picrate can be exploded by severe shock or
friction. It is highly flammable and may detonate when
heated to a high temperature.
(2) Composition and form. Amatol 50/50
consists of 50 percent ammonium nitrate and 50 percent
TNT by weight. When hot, amatol is sufficiently fluid to
be poured or cast like TNT. Amatol 80/20 consists of 80
percent ammonium nitrate and 20 percent TNT. It
resembles wet brown sugar. When hot, it becomes
semiplastic (like putty) and can be pressed into rounds
and bombs.
(3) Uses. Amatol is a substitute for TNT.
Except for 80/20 amatol, amatols are obsolete. The
primary use of 80/20 amatol is in bangalore torpedoes.
(3) Uses. Explosive D is used as a bursting
charge for armor-piercing rounds and in other types of
projectiles that must withstand severe shock and stress
before detonating.
h. Picratol. Picratol is a mixture of 52 percent
explosive D and 48 percent TNT. It can be poured like
straight TNT and has approximately the same resistance
to shock as straight explosive D. The brisance of
picratol is between that of explosive D and TNT.
Picratol is nonhygroscopic. Picratol is a standard filler
employed for all Army semi-armor-piercing bombs.
i. Pentolite. Pentolite, a 50/50 mixture of PETN
and TNT also known as pentol (German) and pentritol,
has largely been displaced by composition B. Pentolite
should not be drilled to form booster cavities; forming
tools should be used. It is superior to TNT in explosive
strength and is less sensitive than PETN. Pentolite may
be meltloaded and is satisfactory for the following uses:
f. Picric Acid (Trinitrophenol).
(1) General.
Picric acid, 2, 4, 6trinitrophenol, a nitrated product of phenol under the
name of melinite, was adopted as a military high
explosive by the French in 1886. It has been used more
extensively as a military explosive by foreign nations
than by this country. The British designate it as lyddite.
(2) Characteristics. Picric acid is a lemonyellow crystalline solid. It is stable but reacts with
metals when moist, in some cases forming extremely
sensitive compounds.
Picric acid is more readily
detonated by means of a detonator than TNT but has
about the same sensitivity to shock. It is not so toxic as
TNT. Although slightly soluble in water, picric acid is
nonhygroscopic. Picric acid has a high melting pointapproximately +122°C. (+251.6°F.).
(1) As a bursting charge in small-arms
ammunition (e.g., 20-mm).
(2) In shaped-charge ammunition of many
types (e.g., antitank, rifle grenades and bazookas).
(3) In some ammunition, as a booster or
booster-surround.
(4) In rockets and shaped demolition charges.
g. Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D).
(1) Characteristics. Ammonium picrate is the
least sensitive to shock and friction of all military
explosives. This makes it well suited for use as a
bursting charge in armor-piercing projectiles. A product
of picric acid, it is slightly inferior in explosive strength to
TNT. When heated, it does not melt but decomposes
and explodes. It reacts slowly with metals; however,
when wet, it may form sensitive and dangerous
compounds with iron, copper and lead. It is difficult to
detonate. When ignited in the open, it will burn readily
like tar or resin.
j. Tetrytol. Tetrytol is a uniform mixture of 65 to
75 percent tetryl and the remainder TNT. Tetrytol has
higher brisance than TNT and is more effective in
cutting through steel and in demolition work. It is less
sensitive to shock and friction than tetryl and only
slightly more sensitive than TNT.
Tetrytol is
nonhygroscopic and is suitable for underwater
demolition, since submergence for 24 hours does not
appreciably affect its characteristics. Tetrytol is used in
chain and individual demolition blocks and in certain
destructors. Tetrytol is stable in storage but exudes at
+65°C. (+149°F.).
k. Nitrostarch Explosives.
(2)
Special precautions.
(a) Ammonium picrate removed from a round
is much more sensitive to shock or blow than fresh
ammonium picrate. In contact with lead, iron or copper
it forms sensitive compounds.
(1) Characteristics.
Nitrostarch is nitrated
starch. Obtained from corn, tapioca and similar starchy
material, it is used to sensitize combustibles and
oxidizing agents in much the same manner that
nitroglycerin is used in dynamite. It is gray, highly
2-16
TM 9-1300-200
flammable, can be ignited by the slightest spark, and
burns with explosive violence.
Nitrostarch is less
sensitive than dry guncotton or nitroglycerin. As a
demolition explosive, it is as insensitive to impact as
explosive D and as sensitive to initiation as TNT.
Nitrostarch explosives are readily detonated by a No. 6
blasting cap.
(a) Not to be issued or used for
destruction of duds.
(b) Not to be supplied for training in use
of demolition equipment.
(c) Not to be used in coastal defense
submarine mines or mine batteries.
(d) Not to be carried in combat vehicles
subject to extremes of temperature.
(2) Uses. A nitrostarch demolition explosive
has been adopted as a substitute for TNT. It is available
in 1-pound blocks, 1/2-pound blocks, and 1/4-pound
units. Each 1/4-pound unit contains three 1/12-pound
pellets (briquets) wrapped in paraffined paper, with
markings to indicate the location of holes for the blasting
caps. TNT formulas for computing small charges are
directly applicable to the nitrostarch demolition
explosive. It should be noted that fragmented blocks
may cause detonation.
m. Tritonal.
Tritonal is a generic term for
explosives containing TNT and powdered aluminum,
generally in the ratio of 80/20.
Because of the
aluminum powder, inclusion of moisture in the mixture
must be avoided. Tritonal is used in light-case and
general purpose bombs. It produces a greater blast
effect than TNT or composition B.
n. HBX. HBX compositions (HBX-1, HBX-3, and
H6) are aluminized (powdered aluminum) explosives
used primarily as a replacement for the obsolete
explosive, torpex. They are employed as bursting
charges in mines, depth bombs, depth charges, and
torpedoes. HBX-1 consists of 40 percent RDX, 38
percent TNT, 17 percent aluminum and 5 percent
desensitizer. HBX-3 consists of 31 percent RDX, 29
percent TNT, 35 percent aluminum, and 5 percent
desensitizer. H-6 consists of 45 percent RDX, 30
percent TNT, 20 percent aluminum, and 5 percent
desensitizer. HBX-1 compares with torpex in brisance,
but is less sensitive to impact and initiation. HBX-3 and
H-6 have lower sensitivity to impact and much higher
explosion test temperatures than torpex.
o. Composition A. Originally, composition A was
a semiplastic mixture containing 91 percent RDX and 9
percent beeswax. When the beeswax was replaced by
a wax derived from petroleum, and the method of
adding the desensitizer changed, the designation was
changed to composition A-2. Recently, the composition
has been redesignated as composition A-3, because of
changes in granulation of RDX and method of
manufacture. Composition A-3 is granular in form,
resembling tetryl in granulation. It is usually buff colored
and is press-loaded in 20-mm, 37-mm and 40-mm
cartridges. It is 30 percent stronger than TNT, its
strength depending on the amount of wax binder. It is
used as a filler for HEP rounds.
p. Composition B. Composition B (comp B) is a
60/39/1 mixture of RDX, TNT and desensitizer. Its color
varies from dirty white to light yellow to brownish yellow.
It is less sensitive than tetryl but more sensitive than
TNT. It is intermediate between TNT and RDX with
respect to sensitivity and initiation. It is only inferior to
l. Dynamite.
Commercial blasting explosives,
with the exception of black powder, are referred to as
dynamite. There are several types, each subdivided
into a series of grades, all differing in one or more
characteristics.
Dynamite consists essentially of
nitroglycerin absorbed in a porous material. Each
composition generally is designated as straight,
ammonia, gelatin or ammonia-gelatin dynamite. It is
available in paraffin-coated, 1/2pound sticks or
cartridges, rated according to the percent, by weight, of
nitroglycerin content.
(1) Characteristics. Dynamite of from 50percent to 60percent nitroglycerin content is equivalent (on an equal
weight basis) to TNT in explosive strength. Dynamite of
40-percent nitroglycerin content is equivalent to TNT in
the ratio of 11/4 pounds dynamite to 1 pound TNT.
Straight dynamite is more sensitive to shock and friction
than TNT and is capable of being detonated by a rifle
bullet. Generally, the higher percentages of dynamite
have very good water resistance. Explosion of the
common types of dynamite produces poisonous fumes,
which are dangerous in confined places. Dynamite, as
well as other nitroglycerin explosives, is adversely
affected by extreme cold. Nonfreezing dynamite (NG
type) freezes at -30°C. (-22°F.); low-freezing dynamite
freezes at 0°C. (+32°F.); and 60-percent NG dynamite
freezes at +10°C. (+50°F.).
(2) Uses. Dynamite is used as a substitute
for nitrostarch or TNT for training purposes. It is also
employed by the Corps of Engineers for trench, harbor,
dam, flood control, and mining demolitions.
The
following restrictions apply:
2-17
TM 9-1300-200
tritonal and torpex with respect to blast effect.
Composition B is an authorized filler for Army-Navy
(AN) standard aircraft bombs, mines, torpedoes,
antitank artillery ammunition (76-mm and 105-mm),
demolition charges and rockets.
Composition B
containing 60 percent RDX and 40 percent TNT,
exclusive of wax, is known as composition B2, a
nonstandard explosive.
Because of its greater
sensitivity to impact, composition B2 is less suitable
than composition B for use in bombs. Composition B4,
used as a burster in chemical projectiles, consists of a
60/39.5/0.5 mixture of RDX, TNT and calcium silicate.
in color, less sensitive, more stable, less volatile, and
more brisant than composition C3.
It is a
nonhygroscopic material that has found application in
demolition blocks and specialized uses. It hardens
below -57°C. (-70°F.) and exudes when stored above
+77°C. ( +170°F.).
q. Composition C (Series).
(1) General. Composition C, sometimes referred to as
PE, is a plastic explosive, an 88/12 mixture of RDX and
a nonexplosive plasticizer composition. It is brown,
plastic in form, and about the consistency of putty. It
has a tendency to leach (sweat) out plasticizing oils,
leaving pure RDX, which is too sensitive for use in the
field.
(1) Octol 70/30 (70% HMX/30% TNT)
(2) Octol 75/25 (75 % HMX/25%o TNT)
(3) HTA-3 (49%o HMX/29% TNT/22%
Aluminum)
(4) Both octols and HTA-3 are used for HE
filler in projectiles and bombs.
r. HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine) is
almost as powerful as RDX, but is seldom used by itself
in military explosive applications. It is usually mixed
with a compound, such as TNT. Variations of such
compositions, their properties and uses follows:
2-18. Initiating and Priming Explosives
(2) Composition C2.
This putty-like
composition is an 80/20 mixture of RDX and an
explosive plasticizer composition. It is approximately 35
percent stronger than TNT, and was developed as a
replacement for composition C as a demolition charge.
(3) Composition C3. This is a yellowish,
putty-like mixture of 77 percent RDX and 23 percent of
an explosive plasticizer.
It is slightly inferior to
composition B as an explosive for producing blast
effect, and is considerably less sensitive than TNT. It
may not always be detonated by a No. 8 blasting cap,
but can be detonated by the special Corps of Engineers
blasting cap. It was designed to replace Composition
C2, and is used principally as a commando and
demolition explosive or as a filler in some types of
munitions. If its plasticity is lost by long storage at low
temperatures, it may be restored to satisfactory
plasticity by immersion in warm water and molding with
the hands. It must not be exposed to open flame, as it
catches fire easily and burns with an intense flame. If
burned in large quantities, the heat generated may
cause it to explode. Its explosion produces poisonous
gases in such quantities that its use in closed spaces is
dangerous.
It is hygroscopic, volatile at elevated
temperatures and hardens at temperatures below -29°C.
(-20 F.).
(4) Composition C4. This is a 91/9 mixture of
RDX and plastic nonexplosive composition. It is a
semiplastic, putty-like material, dirty white to light brown
a. Lead Azide. Lead azide, one of the most stable
initiators, is used to detonate high explosives. Because
of its superior properties, it has replaced mercury
fulminate.
Lead azide flashes at much higher
temperatures, stands up better in storage, and is less
hazardous to manufacture. A smaller amount of lead
azide is required than mercury fulminate to detonate an
equal amount of TNT. Dextrinated lead azide (93%o
lead azide, 4% lead hydroxide and 3 % dextrin and
impurities), used for military purposes rather than
crystalline (pure) lead azide, is a white-to-beige, powderlike material which can be compressed. Lead azide is
used in primer mixtures, detonators and fuzes.
b. Lead Styphnate.
This explosive, 2, 4, 6trinitroresorcinate, is widely employed commercially and
as an initiator for both foreign and domestic explosives.
It is pale straw, deep yellow, orange-yellow or reddishbrown in color. Lead styphnate is slightly less sensitive
to impact than mercury fulminate and has about the
same strength and stability as lead azide. However,
lead styphnate is more easily ignited by an electrical
spark than is mercury fulminate, lead azide, or DDNP.
As a primer, lead styphnate produces a very good
flame. It should be stored under water in conductive
rubber containers.
In primer compositions, lead
styphnate offers sensitivity, stability, and ample flame.
It is incapable of initiating the detonation of any of the
military high explosives except PETN.
2-18
TM 9-1300-200
c. Diazodinitrophenol (DDNP).
Extensively
employed in commercial blasting caps, this explosive
serves in military priming compositions and detonators.
It is nonhygroscopic and greenish yellow to brown in
color. It is extremely sensitive to impact; however, its
sensitivity to friction is about that of lead azide. If
pressed into a blasting cap shell with a reinforcing cap,
and a piece of black powder safety fuse is crimped in
the shell, a charge of DDNP undergoes detonation
when ignited. DDNP is a better initiator of the less
sensitive high explosives (explosive D and cast TNT).
For the more sensitive high explosives, DDNP is not
superior to lead azide. It is used to some extent in
loading fuze detonators and the manufacture of priming
compositions.
Section V. CHEMICAL AGENTS
2-19. General
A military chemical agent is a substance that produces a
toxic (casualty) or an irritating (harassing) effect, a
screening smoke, an incendiary action, or a combination
of these. For specific information on chemicals, see FM
3-7.
2-20. Classification
Chemical agents are compounds and mixtures other
than pyrotechnics and are used as fillers in artillery and
mortar ammunition, grenades, rockets and bombs.
They are classified according to tactical use,
physiological effect and purpose, as follows.
a. Military Gases. A military gas is any agent or
combination of agents that can produce either a toxic or
irritating physiological effect It may be in solid, liquid or
gaseous state, either before or after dispersion. The
gases may be persistent (remaining effective at point of
release for more than 10 minutes) or nonpersistent
(becoming ineffective within 10 minutes). Persistent
gases are further divided into moderately persistent
(remaining effective in the open 10 minutes to 12 hours)
and highly persistent (remaining effective in the open
longer than 12 hours). Military gases are classified in
accordance with their toxic and irritating effects as
follows:
(1) Casualty gases:
Blister gases.
Choking gases.
Blood and nerve poisons.
(2) Training and riot control gases:
Vomiting.
Tear gases.
b. Screening Smokes. A screening smoke is a
cloud that consists of small particles of solids, liquids, or
both, dispersed and suspended in air.
c. Incendiaries. An incendiary may be a solid,
liquid, or a gelled semiplastic material. By their intense
heat and flame, incendiaries can start fires, scorch
combustible and noncombustible materials, injure and
incapacitate personnel.
d. Simulated Military Gases. These agents are
essentially mild, nontoxic, irritants (substitutes for the
real agents). They are designed specifically for training
purposes.
2-21. Blister Gases (Casualty)
Blister gases are agents that affect the nose, throat,
eyes, lungs and exposed skin tissue. They harass, and
produce casualties from inflammation, blisters and
destruction of body tissue. The principal gases in this
group are mustard, mustard mixtures, nitrogen mustards
and lewisite.
a. Mustard Gas (H).
Mustard gas (2,2'
dichlorodiethylsulfide) is a dark brown liquid that slowly
evaporates to a colorless gas having the odor of garlic.
Its principle physiological effect is to produce skin
blisters, although the blistering does not actually appear
for several hours after contact. If inhaled, mustard gas
vapors have a choking, lung-irritating effect. Both
protective masks and clothing are necessary for
complete protection. Tactically, mustard gas and its
mixtures are used to neutralize areas, contaminate
materiel, restrict aggressor movement, and inflict
casualties.
Except as indicated below, these
characteristics are common to all mustard derivatives
and mixtures.
b. Distilled Mustard (HD). Distilled mustard is
similar to pure mustard gas except that it has less odor,
greater blistering power, and is more stable in storage.
c. Nitrogen Mustards (HN-1, HN-2, HN-3).
(1) HN-1 (2,2' dichloro-triethylamine), ranges
from a colorless, to pale yellow liquid with a faint odor
varying from fishy to musty. Both the liquid and the
vapor are dangerous and, because virtually odorless,
harmful effects may be produced without warning. HN-1
attacks the respiratory tract, as H gas does, but to a
lesser degree. It has specially dangerous effects on the
eyes and may cause permanent injury or blindness.
Change 5 2-19
TM 9-1300-200
C3
(2) HN-2 (2,2' dichloro-diethyl-methylamine)
is somewhat more toxic than HN-1. HN-2 has a
somewhat fruity odor, is highly unstable, and is no
longer considered a chemical agent.
(3) HN-3 (2,2"-trichlorotriethylamine) has no
odor when pure.
d. Mustard-T Mixture (HT). HT is a mixture of 60
percent HD and 40 percent T. T, a sulfur and chlorine
compound similar in structure to HD, is a clear,
yellowish liquid with an odor similar to HD. HT has a
strong, blistering effect. It is more stable than HD, has a
more enduring effectiveness, and a lower freezing point.
e. Lewisite Gas (L).
Lewisite [dichloro
(2chlorovinyl) arsine] is a dark brown liquid that
evaporates to a colorless gas having the odor of
geraniums. In addition to being a blister and choking
gas, it acts as an arsenical poison. Protective masks
and clothing are necessary for complete protection.
Lewisite is best destroyed by bleach, DANC solution or
an alcoholic solution of caustic soda. If it is destroyed
by burning, there is danger of contaminating the
atmosphere with poisonous arsenic oxide. The tactical
use of Lewisite and the methods of projection are the
same as those for mustard gas. Lewisite renders food
and water permanently unfit for use.
f. Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL).
A variable
mixture of HD and L, HL provides a low-freezing mixture
for use in cold weather operations or as a high-altitude
spray. Its odor is predominantly garlic-like.
2-22. Choking Gases
a. Choking gases affect the nose, throat and lungs
of unprotected personnel.
They cause casualties
resulting from a lack of oxygen. The principal gases in
this group are phosgene and diphosgene.
b. Phosgene (CG) appears on initial dispersion as
a whitish cloud. It changes to a colorless gas with an
odor similar to green grass or new-mown hay. In high
concentrations, one or two breaths may be fatal in a few
hours. CG produces only a slight irritation of the
sensory nerves in the upper air passages; therefore, any
personnel exposed to this gas are likely to inhale it more
than they would equivalent concentrations of other
olfactory sensitizing gases. Phosgene is insidious in its
action; consequently, personnel exposed to it often have
little or no warning symptoms until it is too late to avoid
serious poisoning. CG as a chemical agent can be
employed effectively at very low temperatures, since it
freezes only below -155°F.
c.
Diphosgene
(DP)
(trichloromethylchloroformate) is a colorless liquid with
an odor similar to new-mown hay or green corn.
2-23. Blood and Nerve Poisons
Blood and nerve poisons, when absorbed by the blood
stream, affect the nervous system, respiratory system
and muscular functions of the body. Temporary or
permanent paralysis or instant death results. These
poisons can immobilize aggressor forces by rendering
them helpless.
a. Nerve gases are usually colorless to light brown
at the point of release. Their odor is faint, sweetish,
fruity or nonexistent.
On exposure, personnel
experience nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
These
effects are followed by muscular twitching and
convulsions.
Because of extreme toxicity, even
extremely low concentrations of these gases act rapidly
and effectively.
Protection requires impermeable
clothing and the protective mask.
b. Hydrocyanic acid (AC) is a colorless gas upon
release. Its odor is faint and similar to that of bitter
almonds or peach kernels. It is not readily detected in
the field. On exposure, personnel experience a rapid
stimulation of the respiratory system followed by deeper
inhalation. Death by paralysis of the respiratory system
may occur in a few minutes.
c. Cyanogen chloride (CK) is a colorless liquid.
On release in the field, it changes into a colorless gas
about twice a heavy as air. CK sometimes may be faint
in odor; otherwise, its odor is sharp and pungent. On
contact or exposure, CK will irritate flesh and stimulate a
strong flow of tears. Its action is rapid after inhalation,
producing paralysis of the respiratory system. Unlike
AC, it first produces an involuntary spasm (a warning of
its presence) of short duration of the upper respiratory
tract.
d. GB (Sarin) (methylisopropoxyfluorophosphine
oxide) is a fast-acting, colorless liquid with
approximately the same volatility as water. It has a
scarcely detectable odor. Intake into the body is by
inhalation, absorption or ingestion. GB causes blurred
vision, spasms, mental confusion, convulsions and
death.
Change 4 2-20
TM 9-1300-200
e.
CS (O-chlorobenzolmalononitrile) is a
white crystalline powder having a pepper-like odor. The
pure crystalline form is used as a filler for burning-type
grenades. A mixture of 5 percent crystalline agent and
5 percent silica gel is used as a filler for bursting-type
grenades and in all bulk irritant dispersers.
Physiological effects include extreme burning of the
eyes accompanied by a copious flow of tears, coughing,
difficulty in breathing, and dizziness.
f. Adamsite (DM) (diphenylamine chloroarsine)
typifies the vomiting gases. It is a yellow or green solid
when pure. It is dispersed by burning type minitions,
such as candles and grenades, and appears as a yellow
smoke having an odor like coal smoke. Physiologically,
it causes lacrimation, violent sneezing, intense
headache, nausea and temporary physical debility. For
protection, a protective mask is required. DM has only a
slight corrosive effect on metals. It renders food and
water permanently unfit for use. Arctic conditions
impose no special limitations on DM or its mixture with
CN (CN-DM burning mixture) when dispersed by hand
grenade.
g. CN-DM mixture (chloroacetophenone and
diphenylamine chloroarsine) is a solid mixture of CN
and DM with a burning ingredient, nitrocellulose. When
ignited, the mixture emits an irritating, yellowish white
smoke.
CN-DM vapors cause headache, nausea,
sneezing, depressed sick feeling, intense eye irritation
and temporary disability. Under tropic conditions, it will
irritate exposed skin. A protective mask gives adequate
protection against CN-DM smokes and vapors.
e. VX is an odorless nerve agent similar to GB. Its
effectiveness, however, lasts for a longer period.
2-24. Training and Riot Control Gases
Chloroacetophenone
and
liquid
mixtures
of
chloroacetophenone in hydrocarbon solvents are the
principal vomiting and tear gases. They are used for
training and riot control. When vaporized or dispersed,
they take the form of suspended particles in the
atmosphere. They cause partial or complete temporary
disability of personnel.
a. Chloroacetophenone (CN), a common tear gas,
has a fruity, apple blossom odor and is typical of such
agents. It is a solid material, white to black in color.
When converted into a gas, gas-aerosol, or finely
divided particles, it will cause a profuse flow of tears,
unless a protective mask is worn. CN in normal
concentrations has no permanent injurious effect on the
eyes. In high concentrations, it irritates the skin,
producing a burning and itching sensation. Food and
water contaminated by CN possess a disagreeable
taste. CN is the principal constituent in the filler used in
CNC, CNS, CNB mortar rounds and CNC and CN-DM
grenades. It can be used in bursting-type munitions in
arctic regions.
b. CNC is a liquid chloroacetophenone solution
with an odor like chloroform. It causes a profuse flow of
tears and skin irritation. It consists of a 30 percent
solution of chloroacetophenone in chloroform.
c. Tear gas solution CNB is a 10 percent solution
of chloroacetophenone in equal parts of benzene and
carbon tetrachloride. It is a less severe lacrimator and
skin irritator than CNS. CNB is used as a filler in hand
grenades, artillery and mortar projectiles, bombs and
aircraft spray for training purposes.
It has a
characteristic fruity-benzene odor.
d. Tear gas solution CNS is a 23.2 percent solution
of chloroacetophenone in equal parts of chloropicrin and
chloroform. CNS has an odor similar to flypaper. The
protective mask is effective against CNS and CNB.
CNS as well as CNB can be used in grenades, mortar
projectiles, small bombs and aircraft spray.
2-25. Screening Smokes
A screening smoke is produced by dispersion of
particles in the atmosphere through burning of solids or
spraying of liquids. Such a smoke is used to obscure
military movements, blanket the enemy from
observation, spot artillery fire and bombing and to
disguise cloud gas.
NOTE
Materials producing smoke screens are
rated in units for their top obscuring power
(TOP). TOP is a relative value that indicates
the amount of obscurity (due to reflection
and refraction of light rays) that 1 pound of
smoke-producing material will develop
under standard and controlled conditions
against a 25-candlepower light source.
2-21
TM 9-1300-200
The principal smoke-producing agents, ordered
according to their obscuring powers, are treated below:
d.
Hexachloroethane-zinc mixture (HC),
with a 2,000 unit TOP, is a combination of zinc powder,
hexachloroethane,
ammonium
perchlorate
and
ammonium chloride. When ignited, it produces zinc
chloride that passes into the air as a dense grayish-white
smoke. HC is toxic to unprotected personnel exposed to
heavy concentrations for short periods or to light
concentrations for extended periods of time.
A
protective mask offers adequate protection against light
concentrations.
For heavy concentrations and
prolonged exposure, a self-contained oxygen mask is
required. Food and water are not spoiled by HC, but
acquire a disagreeable odor. HC in canisters, dispersed
by base-ejection artillery projectiles, is not effective for
use on terrain covered with deep loose snow. Under
these conditions, canisters bury themselves and
become smothered. However, they can be employed
effectively on hard packed snow or ice. HC is dispersed
effectively from fixed and floating smoke pots, baseejection artillery projectiles, mortar projectiles and
grenades under favorable (humid atmosphere and hard
terrain) arctic or tropic conditions, or in temperate
zones.
a. White phosphorus (WP), with a 3,500 unit TOP,
is a white to light yellow, waxlike, luminous substance
(phosphorescent in the dark). On ignition, it produces a
yellow-white flame and dense white smoke. WP is
poisonous when taken internally; its smoke or fumes are
not. When dispersed by ammunition, as small particles,
WP ignites spontaneously on exposure to air.
It
continues to burn on contact with solid materials, even
when embedded in human flesh.
WP smoke is
unpleasant to breathe but harmless. The particles,
however, will poison food and water. WP is used in
bursting-type projectiles, artillery and mortar rounds,
grenades, rockets and bombs. It is used as an igniter in
incendiary ammunition that contains flammable fuels
(IM, NP, PT1). When used in projectiles that burst on
terrain covered with soft deep snow, it is smothered and
produces approximately 75 percent less smoke.
b. Plasticized white phosphorus (PWP) is a finely
divided form of WP suspended in a thick-ended and
gelled xylene rubber mixture.
Like WP, it is an
effective, double-purpose, screening and incendiary
agent that can be dispersed under arctic and tropic
conditions, and in temperate zones.
c. Sulfur trioxide-chlorosulfonic acid (FS), with a
2,240 unit TOP, is a liquid with an acrid and acid odor.
It produces dense white smoke when dispersed in a
humid atmosphere.
FS smoke is nonpoisonous;
however, its liquid irritates and inflames skin tissue on
contact. A protective mask is required for protection
against exposure to heavy concentrations. The mask
and protective clothing should be used for protection
against combination FS gas and liquid sprays. Liquid
FS renders food and water unfit for use; the smoke
merely imparts an unpleasant taste.
Liquid FS
possesses the corrosive properties of strong mineral
acids, such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. Accordingly,
during use and handling, stringent precautions should be
observed for protecting nonaggressor personnel and
noncombat forces and materiel. FS is dispersed from
mortar rounds, grenades and by aircraft spray from
cylinders. Under tropical and high humidity conditions,
FS performs very effectively. FS is ineffective as
smoke under conditions of low temperature and low
humidity.
2-26. Incendiaries
Incendiaries are agents that can be used under field
conditions to set fire to buildings, industrial installations,
ammunition and fuel dumps, and so forth. Modern
military incendiaries may be divided into three
categories-oil, metal, and a combination of oil and
metal. Incendiaries may also be classified as those
which owe their effect to a self-supporting, heatgenerating reaction and those which, for their
combustion, depend upon oxygen in the surrounding
atmosphere.
a. Thermite (TH) is an intimate, uniform mixture of
approximately 27 percent powdered aluminum and 73
percent iron oxide. On ignition, it produces intense heat
(approximately 4,300°F.) in a few seconds, with the
formation of a white hot mass of molten iron and slag.
TH is used in cartridges, bombs, grenades and mortar
and artillery projectiles. TH-1 as a filler is included in
thin-walled nonmagnesium metal containers.
b. Thermate (TH-3 and TH-4) is essentially a
thermite, barium nitrate, sulfur and binder contained in a
heavy-wall body, usually magnesium or a magnesium
alloy. When initiated by electrical or mechanical means,
the contents and body burn with an intense heat of
about +3,700°F.
Thermate fires are difficult to
extinguish.
c. Magnesium, in fine powder, thin ribbon or solid
form, is a material that ignites and burns with intense
heat (3,630°F.) and white light. It is used extensively in
pyrotechnic mixtures and incendiary munitions.
2-22
TM 9-1300-200
b.
Thickened fuels consisting of a fuel,
mainly gasoline, gelled with aluminum soap thickeners
or rubber-type thickeners. Thickened fuel increases the
range of flame-throwers, imparts slower burning
properties, gives clinging qualities, and causes flames to
rebound off walls and go around corners.
d. Incendiary oil (IM), such as an 88 percent
gasoline mixture thickened with fatty soaps, fatty acids
and such special chemical additives as isobutyl
methacrylate polymer and naphthenic acid, is a typical
example of a thickened fuel. It may or may not contain
metallic sodium or WP particles for ignition. In addition,
small amounts of a peptizer, such as cresylic acid, are
added to aid in cold weather dispersion.
When
dispersed and ignited, IM adheres to both combustible
and noncombustible surfaces. It burns like ordinary
gasoline with a hot orange flame and gives off a black
smoke. IM is used as a filler in bombs, grenades and
portable and mechanized flame-throwers. Winterized
IM incendiary fuels can be dispersed from bombs or
grenades and is effectively employed under arctic
conditions.
e. Incendiary oil, napalm (NP), is a flammable fuel,
principally aviation gasoline (approximately 88 percent),
thickened with a special gelling mixture of fatty acids,
fatty soaps and antiagglomerate additives. As a filler,
with or without metallic sodium or WP particles, NP can
be used in munitions in the same manner as IM.
f. Incendiary mixtures (PT1 and PTV) are complex
mixtures of gasoline, magnesium, thickening agents and
conditioning agents. The same type of incendiary effect
is obtained with PT1 and PTV as with oil incendiaries.
2-28. Miscellaneous
a. Simulated Mustard Agents.
(1) Molasses residuum (MR) is a nontoxic (25
percent solution) of a thick, syrupy, viscous liquid with a
molasses odor. It is used as a simulant for mustard (H
or HD) agent.
(2) Asbestine suspension (AS) is a nontoxic
suspension of finely ground asbestos in water. It may or
may not include butyric acid, a material that imparts a
disagreeable lingering scent like rancid butter. With
butyric acid, AS is known as an asbestine-butyric acid
suspension; without butyric, it is known as an asbestine
suspension. AS is dispersed as a spray from aircraft.
When dispersed, it will adhere like MR to surfaces and
personnel and show up in contrast to the surrounding
medium.
b. Chlorine. Chlorine, a choking agent, was the
first chemical agent to be dispersed on a major scale in
wartime. It was released by the Germans against the
British during World War I. Chlorine is no longer used
as a war gas, having been succeeded by phosgene and
diphosgene.
However, it is still used for training
purposes.
2-27. Flame-thrower Fuels
Flame-thrower fuels are either unthickened or thickened
gasoline and oil mixes.
When dispersed and
simultaneously ignited by mechanical, electrical or
chemical means, they cause destruction of materiel and
casualties by burning or scorching with hot flame. The
main flame-thrower fuels are as follows:
2-29. Marking and Identification
a. All ammunition containing chemical agents is
identified and marked with distinctive symbols or letters
and colors, as indicated in chapter 1.
b. For the purpose of storage, chemical agents and
munitions are segregated into four groups, according to
the nature of the filling and their inherent hazards as
follows:
(1) Group A(blister and nerve gases)includes chemical agents requiring complete protective
clothing plus protective masks.
(2) Group B - (toxic and smoke)-includes
chemical agents requiring protective masks.
(3) Group C - includes spontaneously
flammable chemical agents, such as WP.
(4) Group D - includes incendiary and readily
flammable chemical agents.
a. Unthickened fuels consisting of gasoline
blended with light fuel oils or lubricating oils. Ingredient
proportions are determined by the tactical situation and
type of climate in which the flame-thrower is to be used.
Unthickened fuel is used only in portable flamethrowers. It may be used when thickened fuel is not
available or may be used in jungle operations.
2-23
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 3
SMALL-ARMS AMMUNITION
3-1. General
3-2. Cartridges
Small-caliber ammunition, as used herein, describes a
cartridge or families of cartridges intended for use in
various types of hand-held or mounted weapons through
30 millimeter. Within a caliber designation, these
weapons may include one or more of the following:
rifles (except recoilless), carbines, pistols, revolvers,
machineguns and shotguns.
For purposes of this
publication, smallarms ammunition may be grouped as
cartridges intended primarily for combat or training
purposes (API, HEI, tracer or ball); for training purposes
only (blank or dummy); or for special purposes (rifle
grenade or spotter-tracer). Refer to TM 9-1305-20120&P, TM 9-1305-201-34&P, and TM 43-0001-27 for
more detailed information on small arms ammunition.
In general, a small-arms cartridge is identified as an
assembly of a cartridge case, primer, a quantity of
propellant within the cartridge case, and a bullet or
projectile. Blank and rifle grenade cartridges are sealed
with paper closure disks in lieu of bullets. Dummy
cartridges are composed of a cartridge case and a
bullet. Some dummy cartridges contain insert granular
materials to simulate the weight and balance of live
cartridges. A typical cartridge and the terminology of its
components are shown In figure 8-1.
a. Case. Although steel, aluminum, zinc and
plastic materials have been used experimentally, brass,
a composition of 70 percent copper and 80
Figure 3-1. Typical cartridge (sectioned).
Change 5 3-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-2.
7.62 MM bullets (sectioned
Change 5 3-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-3.
5.56MM and caliber .50 spotter tracer bullets (sectioned).
3-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-4. Caliber .30 bullets (sectioned).
3-4
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-5.
7.62MM cartridges.
3-5
TM 9-1300-200
percent zinc, is the most commonly used material for
cartridge cases. Steel, as well as brass, is an approved
material for caliber .45 cartridge cases. Brass, paper
and plastic are used for 12 gage shotshell bodies and
aluminum is used for military-type .410 gage shotshell
bodies. Configurations of cartridges and bullets are
illustrated in figures 3-2 through 3-11.
b. Propellant. Cartridges are loaded with varying
weights of propellant. This is to impart sufficient
velocity (within safe pressures) to the projectile to obtain
the required ballistic performance. These propellants
are either of the single base (nitrocellulose) or doublebase (nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin) type.
The
propellant grain configuration may be cylindrical with a
single, lengthwise perforation, spheroid (ball) or flake.
Most propellants are coated with a deterrent (to assist in
controlling the rate of combustion) and with a final
coating of graphite (to facilitate flow of propellant and
eliminate static electricity in loading cartridges).
c. Primer. Small-arms cartridges contain either a
percussion or electric primer. The percussion primer
consists of a brass or gilding metal cup that contains a
pellet of sensitive explosive material secured by a paper
disk and a brass anvil. The electric primer consists of
an electrode button in contact with the priming
composition, a primer cup assembly and insulators. A
blow from the firing pin of the weapon on the center of
the percussion primer cup base compresses the primer
composition between the cup and the anvil. This causes
the composition to explode. The function of the electric
primer is accomplished by a firing pin with electrical
potential, which contacts the electrode button. This
allows current to flow through the energy-sensitive
priming composition to the grounded primer cup and
cartridge case, exploding the priming composition.
Holes or vents in the anvil or closure cup allow the
flame to pass through the primer vent in the cartridge
case and ignite the propellant. Rimfire ammunition,
such as the caliber .22 cartridge, does not contain a
primer assembly. Instead, the primer composition is
spun into the rim of the cartridge case and the propellant
is in intimate contact with the composition. On firing,
the firing pin strikes the rim of the cartridge case,
compressing the primer composition and initiating its
explosion.
d. Bullet. With few exceptions, bullets through
caliber .50 are assemblies of a jacket and a lead or steel
core. They may contain other components or
Figure 3-6.
5.56MM cartridges.
3-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-7. Caliber .30 cartridges.
3-7
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-8. Caliber .30 carbine and caliber .45 cartridges.
chemicals which provide the terminal ballistic
characteristics of the bullet type. The bullet jacket may
be either gilding metal, gilding-metal clad steel, or
copper plated steel. Caliber .30 and 7.62mm frangible
bullets are molded of powdered lead and a friable plastic
which pulverizes into dust upon impact with the target.
The pellets used in shotgun shells are spheres of lead
alloys varying from 0.08 inch to 0.33 inch in diameter.
e. Projectile. All 20-mm and 30-mm projectiles are
assemblies of a steel shell containing a brass rotating
band and a point-detonating nose fuze or an aluminum,
steel or plastic nose plug.
3-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-9. Caliber .50 cartridges.
3-9
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-10.
20mm cartridges.
bullet's in-flight path or trajectory and the point of
impact. It is used primarily to observe the line of fire. It
may also be used to pinpoint enemy targets to ignite
flammable materials and for signaling purposes. The
tracer element consists of a compressed, flammable,
pyrotechnic composition in the base of the bullet. This
composition is ignited by the propellant when the
cartridge is fired. In flight, the bullet emits a bright
flame which is visible to the gunner. Trace burnout
occurs at a range between 400 and 1,600 yards,
depending upon the caliber of ammunition.
3-3. Ball Cartridge
The ball cartridge is intended for use in rifles, carbines,
pistols, revolvers and/or machineguns against personnel
and unarmored targets. The bullet, as designed for
general purpose combat and training requirements,
normally consists of a metal jacket and a lead slug.
Caliber .50 ball bullet and 7.62-mm, Ball M59 bullet
contain soft steel cores.
3-4. Tracer Cartridge
By means of a trail of flame and smoke, the tracer
cartridge is intended to permit visible observation of the
3-10
TM 9-1300-200
3-5. Match Cartridge
The match cartridge is used in National and
International Match Shooting competitions. The bullet
consists of a gilding-metal jacket over a lead slug. The
cartridges are identified on the head face with the
designation NM (National Match) or Match.
3-6. Armor-Piercing Cartridges
The armor-piercing cartridge is intended for use in
machineguns or rifles against personnel and light
armored and unarmored targets, concrete shelters, and
similar bullet-resisting targets. The bullet consists of a
metal jacket and a hardened steel-alloy core.
In
addition, it may have a base filler and/or a point filler of
lead.
3-7. Armor-Piercing-lncendiary Cartridge
The armor-piercing-incendiary cartridge is used in rifles
or machineguns as a single combination cartridge in lieu
of separate armor-piercing and incendiary cartridges.
The bullet is similar to the armor-piercing bullet, except
that the point filler is incendiary mixture instead of lead.
Upon impact with the target, the incendiary mixture
bursts into flame and ignites flammable material.
3-8. Armor-Piercing-lncendiary Tracer Cartridge
The bullet of the armor-piercing-incendiary-tracer
cartridge combines the features of the armor-piercing,
incendiary, and tracer bullets and may be used to
replace those cartridges. The bullet consists of a hard
steel core with compressed pyrotechnic mixture in the
cavity in the base of the core. The core is covered by a
gilding-metal jacket with incendiary mixture between the
core point and jacket. This cartridge is for use in caliber
.50 weapons only.
3-9. Duplex Cartridge
The duplex cartridge contains two special ball-type
bullets in tandem. The front bullet is positioned partially
in the case neck, similarly to a standard ball bullet. The
rear bullet, positioned completely within the case, is held
in position by a compressed propellant charge. The
base of the rear bullet is angled so that in flight, it
follows a path slightly dispersed from that of the front
bullet.
Figure 3-11. Typical 30mm cartridge.
3-11
TM 9-1300-200
3-10. Spotter-Tracer Cartridge
3-15. High-Explosive-lncendiary Cartridge
The spotter-tracer cartridge is intended for use in
coaxially mounted caliber .50 spotting rifles. The bullet
trajectory closely approximates that of 106-mm
projectiles. Thus, this cartridge serves as a fire control
device to verify weapon sight settings before firing 106mm weapons. The bullet contains an impact detonator
and incendiary composition which identify the point of
impact by flash and smoke.
The 20-mm high-explosive-incendiary cartridge is a
combat round used on aircraft and ground vehicles. It
contains a projectile consisting of a steel body and
point-detonating fuze. The steel body contains a highexplosive incendiary mixture which is detonated on
impact as the fuze strikes the target. The fuze, a highprecision device, arms shortly after leaving the muzzle
of the weapon. On impact, the fuze releases a small
firing pin which sets off the charge in the fuze and
detonates the HEI.
3-11. Blank Cartridge
3-16. Target-Practice Tracer Cartridge
The blank cartridge is distinguished by absence of a
bullet.
It is used for simulated fire, in training
maneuvers, and for saluting purposes. It is fired in rifles
and machineguns equipped with blank firing
attachments.
The 20-mm target-practice-tracer cartridge contains a
target-practice projectile with a tracer cavity. The
cavity, filled with pyrotechnic composition, is in the rear
of the body. This cartridge is generally linked with the
target-practice cartridge in a ratio of 1 to 7.
3-12. Grenade Cartridge
The grenade cartridge is used to propel rifle grenades
and ground signals from launchers attached to rifles or
carbines. All rifle grenade cartridges are distinguished
by the rose petal (rosette crimp) closure of the case
mouth. For information pertaining to grenades, see
chapter 6.
3-13. Frangible Cartridge
The caliber .30 frangible cartridge, designed for aerial
target training purposes, is also used in rifles and
machineguns for target shooting. Caliber .30 and
7.62MM frangible cartridges are used in tank
machineguns, firing single shot, for training in tank
gunnery. At its normal velocity, the bullet, which is
composed of powdered lead and friable plastic, will
completely disintegrate upon striking a 3/16-inch
aluminum alloy plate at 100 yards from the muzzle of
the gun. These cartridges are not to be used on any but
well ventilated indoor ranges to preclude buildup of toxic
bullet dust. Inhalation of bullet dust may be injurious to
health.
3-14. Incendiary Cartridge
The incendiary cartridge was designed for aircraft and
ground weapon use to ignite combustible targets (e.g.,
vehicular and aircraft fuel tanks). The bullet contains a
compressed incendiary mixture which ignites upon
impact with the target. The incendiary cartridge has
been superseded by the API and APIT cartridges
because of their improved terminal ballistic effects.
Figure 3-12. Caliber .22 cartridges.
3-12
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-13. Caliber .38 cartridges.
3-13
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-14. 12 gage shotgun shells.
3-17. Target-Practice Cartridges
The 20-mm target-practice cartridge is the conventional
steel shell with steel nose plug. It is used primarily for
training purposes. This is not a combat cartridge;
hence, no fuze is used in the assembly.
(a) 12 gage #00 Buck for guard duty.
(b) 12 gage #4 Buck for guerrilla
purposes.
3-18. Special Purpose Cartridges
a. Cartridges of various calibers (fig. 3-12 through
3-14), which consist of different types of projectiles and
bullets, are used for training and special purposes.
They include the following:
(1) Caliber .22 long rifle and caliber .38 and
.45 wad-cutter cartridges for target shooting.
(2) Caliber .45 blank cartridges fired in
exercises to condition dogs to gun fire.
(3) Caliber .22 hornet and .410 shotgun
cartridges for firing in Air Force combination (survival)
weapons for hunting purposes.
(4) Caliber .45 line-throwing cartridges for
firing in caliber .45 line-throwing rifles. The Navy uses
these for throwing lines from ship-to-ship. The Army
Signal Corps uses these for projecting signal wires over
elevated terrain
(5) Shotshells containing the designated shot
sizes as required for the following:
Figure 3-15. Linked 7.62-mm cartridges.
3-14
TM 9-1300-200
only by armorers and weapons mechanics for proof
firing of weapons (rifles, pistols, machine guns) at place
of manufacture, test and repair. Because of excessive
pressures developed by this type of ammunition, and
the potential danger involved in firing, proofing of
weapons is conducted only by authorized personnel
from fixed and shielded rests by means of a lanyard or
other remote control methods.
(c) 12 gage #6, 71/2 and 8 shot for clay
target shooting for training purposes.
(d) .410 gage #7 shot for caliber
.22/.410 survival weapons maintained in aircraft.
b. Special purpose cartridges also include the
following types of military cartridges:
(1) Dummy. The dummy cartridge is used for
practice in loading weapons and simulated firing to
detect flinching of personnel when firing weapons. It
consists of a cartridge case and a ball bullet. Cartridge
identification is by means of holes through the side of
the case or longitudinal corrugations in the case and by
the empty primer pocket.
(2) Dummy inert-loaded.
This cartridge
consists of a cartridge case, a ball bullet and inert
granular material in the case simulating the weight and
balance of a live cartridge. The exterior of the cartridge
is identified by a black chemical finish and by the
absence of a primer.
This cartridge is used by
installations for testing weapon function, linkage and
feed chutes.
(3) High-pressure test. High-pressure test
ammunition is specially loaded to produce pressures
substantially in excess of the maximum average or
individual pressures of the corresponding service
cartridge. This cartridge is not for field issue. It is used
3-19. Metallic Links and Clips
a. Metallic links (fig. 3-15 and 3-16) are used with
caliber .30, caliber .50, 5.56-mm, 7.62-mm and 20-mm
cartridges in machine guns. The links are made of
steel, surface treated for rust prevention. They are used
to assemble cartridges into linked belts of 100 to 750
cartridges per belt. The links must meet specific test
and dimension requirements to assure satisfactory
ammunition feed and functioning in the machine gun
under all training and combat service conditions.
b. Different configurations of cartridge clips permit
unitized packages of ammunition.
This facilitates
transfer of cartridges to appropriate magazines for
caliber .30, 7.62-mm and 5.56-mm -rifles. The caliber
.30 eight-round clip feeds eight cartridges as a unit into
the receiver of the rifle.
Figure 3-16. Links for caliber .30 and caliber .50 ammunition.
3-15
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-17. Bandoleer, magazines, filler and clips.
The caliber .45 clip feeds three cartridges as a unit into
the revolver cylinder. Five-round and eight-round clips
are used with caliber .30 cartridges; five-round clips with
7.62-mm cartridges; ten-round clips with caliber .30
carbine and 5.56mm cartridges; and three-round clips
with caliber .45 cartridges.
b. Identification Markings. Each outer shipping
container and all inner containers are fully marked to
identify the ammunition. Wirebound boxes are marked
in black and ammunition boxes are painted olive drab,
with markings in yellow. When linked ammunition is
functionally packed, component lot numbers are
replaced by a functional lot number. Typical packing
and identification markings are illustrated in figures 3-17
through 3-20.
3-20. Packing and Identification Marking
a. Packing. Containers and methods for packing
military small-arms ammunition are specified in
drawings, specifications or, as required, in the
procurement contract.
Military containers presently
being manufactured have been limited to a few standard
types designed to withstand all conditions commonly
encountered in handling, storage and transportation of
ammunition. Military cartridges, except 20-mm, are
packed in metallic ammunition boxes, overpacked in
wooden wire-bound crates. Twenty millimeter cartridges
are packed in ammunition boxes only.
When
commercial cartridges are not packed in a military pack,
they are packed in accordance with standard
commercial practices. For detailed description of the
variety of packings, refer to SC 1305/30-IL.
3-21. Care, Handling and Preservation
a. General.
Small-arms
ammunition
is
comparatively safe to handle. It is packed to withstand
transportation, handling and storage conditions normally
encountered in the field. However, consideration should
be given to the general information on care, handling
and preservation of ammu-
3-16
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-18. Cartridges in 20-round cartons in ammunition box.
nition outlined in chapter 1 and in TM 9-1300-206.
In addition:
b. Special Precautions.
(1) Never use oil or grease on small-arms
cartridges. Oil or grease might produce excessive and
hazardous chamber pressures in weapons when fired
and cause damaging abrasives to collect in automatic
weapons.
(2) Whenever practicable, store small-arms
ammunition under cover. This applies particularly to
tracer and shotgun ammunition.
(3) Segregate stored ammunition by caliber,
type and ammunition lot.
(4) When only partial boxes of ammunition
are issued or contents are not used, protect ammunition
remaining in box by firmly fastening cover.
Precautions to be taken in firing and handling of
ammunition in the field, as prescribed in chapter 1 and
in AR 385-63, TM 9-1300-206 and TM 43-0001-27,
apply generally. In addition, observe the following:
a. Do not fire ammunition until it has been
identified by ammunition lot number, and until TB 91300-385 has been checked to determine whether lot
has been suspended or restricted.
b. Do not fire cartridges which have been mashed
or perforated, or those having loose bullets or
projectiles.
c. Never use armor-piercing (AP, API and APIT)
ammunition in training demonstrations involving
manned tanks and vehicles.
3-22. Precaution in Firing
Change 5
3-17
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 3-19. Cartridges, link belt, cartons, bandoleers and. ammunition box.
Figure 3-20. Ammunition boxes in wirebound box.
Change 5
3-18
TM 9-1300-200
NOTE
In using armor-piercing ammunition,
it is well to remember that the core of
a bullet that fails to penetrate the
target may ricochet. The radius of
ricochet for armor-piercing bullets
depends on several factors, but may
safely be taken at a maximum of 100
yards for caliber .30 and 7.62-mm
bullets, 200 yards for caliber .50
bullets, and 500 yards for 20mm
projectiles.
d. Do not fire cartridges elevated, as by exposure
to direct radiation of sun or other sources of heat, to
temperatures of +135°F. or more. Dangerously high
chamber pressures may result. When returned to lower
temperatures, these cartridges are safe to fire.
e. Do not permit cartridge to remain in chamber of
very hot weapon when firing is interrupted; remove
round promptly to prevent cook-off.
3-19
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 4
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION
Section I. GENERAL
4-1. Scope
Artillery ammunition is designed for use in guns,
howitzers, mortars and recoilless rifles ranging from 37
millimeters through 280 millimeters.
This type of
ammunition is covered in detail in TM 43-0001-28.
Typical rounds and major components are treated in
general terms below.
4-2. Identification
Ammunition is identified by painting and marking on the
packing container, on the item proper, and/or on
individual components. These markings include, as
appropriate, Federal stock number, Department of
Defense Ammunition Code, caliber and type of weapon,
type and model of projectile/cartridge, weight, zone
markings, ammunition lot number and loader's symbol,
functional markings, characteristics, and other
appropriate information. See chapter 1 for detailed
information on painting and marking.
4-3. Classification
Artillery ammunition is classified according to filler as
chemical, inert or explosive. It is classified according to
use as service, practice, blank or dummy.
a. Service Ammunition. Depending upon the type
of projectile, service ammunition is classified as
antipersonnel (APERS), high-explosive (HE), highexplosive rocket assisted (HERA), high-explosive plastic
(HEP), high-explosive antitank (HEAT), armor-piercing
(AP) or armor-piercing capped (APC) (with explosive
filler), hypervelocity armor-piercing (HVAP), armorpiercing discarding sabot
(APDS),
high-explosive
dual purpose (HEDP), incendiary, canister, chemical
(gas or smoke), illuminating of leaflet.
b. Practice Ammunition.
Target practice (TP)
ammunition is used for training in firing the weapon.
(Inert-loaded items designed for use with delivery
systems are considered practice ammunition.) In most
instances, target practice ammunition simulates a
Change 5
service round in weight, configuration and ballistic
properties. It is used because it is less expensive and
less hazardous. While the propelling charge is live, the
projectile may be inert, or have a small quantity of
explosive filler, such as black powder, to serve as a
spotting charge.
c. Blank Ammunition. Blank ammunition is used
for simulated fire. In certain artillery weapons, it is used
for limited firing practice, maneuvers and saluting.
Blank cartridges contain black powder, but no
projectiles.
d. Dummy Ammunition. This kind of ammunition
represents, or looks like actual items. However, it is not
designed for use in conjunction with delivery systems.
(Inert-loaded items not designed for use with delivery
systems are considered dummy ammunition). Lack of
internal, functional components makes dummy
ammunition suitable for exhibits (e.g., permanent
museum displays), for such training operation as
assembly and handling, and for dry-run operation of
weapons and weapon systems.
4-4. Types
Artillery ammunition comprises several types designed
(fig. 4-1) for ease in handling and loading. Fixed
rounds are used in gun cannons and recoilless rifles;
semifixed, in howitzers and mortars; separated, in tank
and antiaircraft guns; and separate-loading, in large
caliber guns and howitzers.
a. Fixed. In this type of ammunition, the complete
round is issued with the cartridge case (containing a
nonadjustable propelling charge and a primer)
permanently crimped or otherwise attached to the
projectile. The complete round is loaded into the
weapon as a unit.
b. Semifixed.
(1) In howitzer ammunition, the cartridge
case is loose-fitted over the base of the projectile.
4-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-1. Types of complete rounds
Change 5
4-2
TM 9-1300-200
separate operations; however, the complete round is
loaded into the gun and rammed as a unit.
d. Separate-loading.
In
separate-loading
ammunition, the major
components-projectile,
propelling charge and primer-are issued unassembled
and are loaded into the weapon separately. This type of
projectile is generally issued unfuzed, with an eyebolt
lifting plug threaded in the fuze well. (Fuzes are
assembled to the projectile in the field.) The projectile is
inserted into the breech and rammed. Thus, the rotating
band seats in the forcing cone. The propelling charge,
loaded in cloth bags, is adjustable. It is loaded into the
weapon immediately to the rear of the projectile. After
the breechblock has been closed and locked behind the
charge, with igniter, the primer is inserted into the firing
mechanism of the breechblock.
The propelling charge, bagged inside the cartridge case,
can be adjusted to obtain the desired range. The
complete round, like that of fixed ammunition, is loaded
into the weapon as a unit.
(2) In mortar ammunition, an adjustable
propelling charge, either sheet or granular, is attached to
either the mortar fins or the cartridge container. At the
base of the mortar projectile is the ignition cartridge;
also, the primer, which initiates the propellant after the
projectile is dropped into the mortar tube.
c. Separated. Separated ammunition consists of a
sealed projectile and a sealed, primed cartridge case
containing a propelling charge. The propelling charge is
nonadjustable. To facilitate handling, the cartridge case
and the projectile are lifted onto the loading tray in two
Section II. COMPLETE ROUNDS
surface in contact with the lands of the bore. Only the
bourrelet and rotating band bear on the lands.
d. Rotating Band.
The rotating band is a
cylindrical ring of comparatively soft metal, or similar
substance. It may also be of steel pressed into a
knurled or roughened grooves near the base of the
projectile (or attached to the base of the projectile, as in
the 4.2-inch mortar). The rotating band affords a
closure for the projectile in the forcing cone of the
weapon in separate-loading projectiles and centers the
rear end of the projectile in the bore of the weapon. In
fixed ammunition, the rotating band may not seat in the
forcing cone until the instant of initial movement upon
firing. As the projectile moves forward, the rotating
band is engraved by the lands of the bore. Metal
displaced during the engraving process flows into
annular relief grooves (cannelures) cut in the rotating
band. In the case of 4.2-inch mortar projectiles, the
rotating band is bell shaped; it is expanded into the
grooves of the mortar rifling by pressure of the
propellant gases on a pressure plate. Since the rifling of
the weapon is helical, engagement with the band
imparts rotation to the moving projectile. The rotating
band also provides obturation. It prevents escape of the
propellant gases forward of the projectile by completely
filling the grooves of the rifling. In the case of recoilless
rifle projectiles, the
4-5. General
A complete round of service ammunition comprises all
components used in firing a weapon once: projectile,
cartridge case and/or propelling charge, primer and
fuze. Complete rounds of several different types are
shown in figure 4-1. The major components of a
complete round are described below.
4-6. Projectile
a. Ogive and Windshield. The forward portion of
the projectile from the bourrelet to the point is called the
ogive. The length of the ogive influences the flight of
the projectile. In older projectiles, the generated radius
of the ogive varied from 6 to 11 calibers. Projectiles of
recent design, however, have long ogives of radii that
exceed these values appreciably. Since kinetic-energy,
armor-piercing projectiles have an ogive with a short
radius, for purposes of penetration, a windshield is
placed over the armor-piercing head to impart desirable
ballistic qualities to the projectile.
b. Bourrelet.
The bourrelet is the machined
surface that bears on the rifling lands of the weapon
tube. It centers the front end of the projectile in its
travel through the bore. Generally, the bourrelet is
located in the forward end of the projectile, immediately
behind the ogive. Some projectiles of large caliber have
front and rear bourrelets.
c. Body. While generally applicable to the entire
projectile, the term, body, is used to designate the
cylindrical portion of the projectile between the bourrelet
and the rotating band. It is generally machined to a
smaller diameter than the bourrelet to reduce the
4-3
TM 9-1300-200
is crimped, caulked or welded to the base of the
projectile. HE rounds are provided with base covers.
These give additional assurance hot gases of the
propelling charge will not penetrate the base of the
projectile and come in contact with the explosive filler.
Caulking or sealing rings, rather than base covers, are
ordinarily provided for projectiles with HE fillers and BD
fuzes.
h. Tracer. A tracer in the base of some projectiles
provides for observation of fire. The tracer in certain
aircraft and antiaircraft projectiles contains a shelldestroying (SD) element. The tracer, after burning a
prescribed number of seconds, ignites a pellet. This
detonates the explosive filler
rotating band is pre-engraved. Some projectiles may be
provided with two rotating bands or an obturating band
and a rotating band.
e. Type of Base. When the surface to the rear of
the rotating band is tapered or conical, it is known as
boat-tailed; when cylindrical, the projectile is described
as having a square base. Nonrotating projectiles have
fins at the rear for stabilization.
f. Base Plug.
All base-ejection, chemical
projectiles are closed at the base with steel plugs either
threaded to the projectile or secured by shear pins.
Some armor-piercing projectiles are also closed with
base plugs. The base plug may or may not contain a
tracer or fuze.
g. Base Cover. The base cover, a thin metal disk,
Figure 4-2. High-explosive projectile.
4-4
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-3. High-explosive rocket-assisted projectile.
Change 5
4-5
TM 9-1300-200
and destroys the round, should the round fail to impact
against the target.
i. Types of Projectiles.
(1) High-explosive (HE).
This type of
projectile (fig. 4-2), usually made of forged or cold
extruded steel, has comparatively thin walls and a large
bursting charge of high explosive. It is used against
personnel and materiel targets, producing blast or
mining effect and fragmentation at the target. It may be
fitted with time or impact, concrete-piercing, or proximity
(VT) fuze, according to the type of action desired.
(2) High-explosive rocket-assisted (HERA).
The high-explosive rocket-assisted projectile (fig. 4-3) is
an HE projectile with a rocket motor assembled to the
base. The projectile functions as a normal HE projectile
if the rocket selector cap remains in place. If the rocket
selector cap is removed, the propellant gases ignite the
pyrotechnic delay mixture, which then ignites the rocket
propellant in flight. Functioning of the rocket motor adds
thrust to the projectile, increasing its range.
(3) High-explosive plastic (HEP). Description
and functioning of this ammunition are classified. See
TM 43-0001-28-1.
(4) High-explosive antitank (HEAT). This is a
high-explosive shaped-charge projectile (fig. 4-4) used
against armor plate. Its effect is dependent upon the
shape of the charge. A conical windshield or spike
assembly provides standoff for the charge. The round is
fitted with a BD or PIBD fuze having nondelay action.
(5) Chemical.
(a) Bursting type (fig. 4-5). These
projectiles are similar in external appearance to HE
projectiles and have similar ballistic properties. The
steel projectile has a centrally oriented burster type
containing an explosive burster and is fitted with a
mechanical time fuze. The projectile is loaded with
persistent gas or with white phosphorus. When the fuze
functions, the burster is detonated. This ruptures the
projectile body and disperses the chemical filler.
(b) Base-ejection type (fig. 4-6). These
projectiles are the base-ejection type containing a
payload of canisters generally loaded with colored
smoke composition. The projectile is assembled with a
mechanical time fuze, an expelling charge and a
threaded base plug. When the fuze functions, the
expelling charge is ignited. This, in turn, ignites and
expels the canisters and base plug from the projectile.
The burning canisters produce a smoke cloud for
screening and spotting purposes.
NOTE
The canister in this type of projectile
Figure 4-4. High-explosive antitank projectile.
Change 5
4-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-5. Burster chemical projectiles.
heat-treated alloy steel to have a hard exterior surface
and a relatively soft core. On impact, the hardened
exterior of the cap destroys the surface of the armor.
The softer core of the cap protects the hardened point of
the projectile by distributing impact stresses over a large
percentage of the area of the head. The projectile
ultimately penetrates the target by kinetic energy. A
tracer may be present in the base end of the fuze.
(c) Armor-piercing discarding sabot
(APDS) projectiles consist of a dense core of tungsten
carbide covered with a steel sheath and a bore-andsleeve assembly (sabot). The sabot, which converts the
core of the projectile to the same size as the gun barrel,
is discarded after the projectile leaves the bore of the
weapon.
(d) Hypervelocity (velocities above
3,500 fps) armor-piercing (HVAP) projectiles are
relatively lightweight with an armor-piercing core of
tungsten carbide. The core, a steel base containing a
tracer element, an aluminum body and
should not be confused with the canister that is a
component of a fixed-round projectile.
(6) Illuminating. This type of projectile (fig. 47) is used to illuminate a target area under conditions of
reduced visibility. The projectile is hollow and contains
a payload consisting of a parachute and illuminant
assembly. The illuminant is ignited and the parachute
and illuminant assembly are ejected from the projectile
by an expelling charge adjacent to a time fuze. The
parachute and burning illuminant assembly slowly
descend, lighting the target area.
(7) Armor-piercing.
(a) Armor-piercing (AP) projectiles (fig.
4-8) contain a core of heat-treated, high-carbon alloy
steel. The head is hardened steel for penetration of
armor. The body is tough to withstand impact and
twisting action of the projectile at high angles of
obliquity. A windshield is generally secured to the head
of the projectile to assure adequate ballistics. A tracer is
present in the base of the projectile.
(b) Armor-piercing
capped
(APC)
projectiles (fig. 4-9) are designed to penetrate facehardened armor plate. The nose is capped with forged,
4-7
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-6. BE chemical (smoke) projectiles.
nose plug, and an aluminum windshield comprise the
HVAP-T projectile.
(8) Antipersonnel (APERS). Antipersonnel
cartridges are employed against enemy personnel and
light materiel. The projectile of APERS cartridges (fig.
4-10} carries a payload of flechettes (fin-stabilized steel
fragments). These cartridges are fitted with MT fuses
which may be set for muzzle action or range.
(9) Canister. The canister projectile (fig. 4-11)
consists of a light metal case filled with flechettes, steel
slugs or, in some projectiles of early design, steel balls.
It contains no explosive and is fired point blank at short
ranges (up to 600 feet) for effect against personnel.
When the projectile leaves the muzzle of the weapon,
the case breaks open, scattering the steel slugs or balls
in the manner of shot from a shotgun shell. Flechettes
are dispersed in conical pattern.
(10) Leaflet. These projectiles are essentially
Change 2
BE projectiles adapted for dispersing literature.
(11) Improved Conventional Munitions (ICM).
These munition embody a unique design to control the
number, size, and distribution of fragments produced
when the munition functions. Projectiles 105MM or
larger (fig. 4-6.1), warhead sections (fig. 4-6.2), and
cluster bomb units (CBU) (fig. 4-6.3) carry a payload of
small, individually fused munitions. These items have
fusing and release systems which dispense the
submunitions at an altitude sufficient to permit arming
prior to striking the target. Hand grenades, 40MM
cartridges, and land mines each contain a highexplosive fragmentation unit.
(12) Dual purpose munitions. These munitions
(fig. 4-16.4) combine the capabilities of penetrating steel
armor and inflicting personnel casualties in the vicinity
of the target.
4-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-6.1. 155-mm projectile, HE, M483A1..
Change 2
4-8.1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-6.2. Warhead M251.
Figure 4-6.3. Typical CBU.
Change 2
4-8.2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-6.4. Dual purpose munition
Change 2 4-8.3
TM 9-1300-200
4-7.
Cartridge Cases
a. A cartridge case made of drawn brass, spiralwrapped or multipieced drawn steel, or felted
nitrocellulose serves as the container for the - propelling
charge in round of fixed, semi-fixed, and separated
artillery ammunition. Cartridge case and weapon
Change 2
chamber generally conform in profile. However, the
cartridge case is slightly smaller to facilitate
chambering. The base of the metal case is relatively
heavy to provide for firm attachment of a primer, and
has a flange or groove to permit mechanical extraction.
Rounds
4-8.4
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-7. Illuminating projectiles.
used in automatic guns have cartridge cases with an
extracting groove instead of a flange or rim.
grains. Liners are made of various materials, such as
paper, rayon, plastic, etc. In the rupture-disk type of
cartridge case, the propellant is contained in a silk bag
positioned around the tail boom or primer tube.
b. In nonadjustable (fixed) rounds, the cartridge
case is crimped to the projectile.
In adjustable
(semifixed) rounds, the case is fitted free to the
projectile. In separated ammunition, the case is plugged
and separate from the projectile.
Having a
nonadjustable propellant charge, separated ammunition
may be considered a special type of fixed ammunition.
c. Brass or steel cartridge cases of special
composition are processed to provide obturation in
recoil-type weapons. Obturation, expansion of the
cartridge case against the chamber wall under pressure
of burning propellant gases, prevents escape of these
gases from the rear of the weapon.
d. The cartridge case in recoilless weapons either
is perforated or has a rupture disk to allow propellant
gases to escape through nozzles in the breech of the
weapon. The interior of the perforated type of case
contains a liner that covers the perforations in the case.
This prevents entrance of moisture and leakage of
propelling charge
4-8. Propelling Charges
a. Description.
(1) Propelling charges consist of a quantity of
propellant in a container (cartridge bag for separateloading and semifixed ammunition) and an igniter and/or
primer. The propellant itself is carefully designed for the
particular role of the ammunition. Factors considered
include chemical composition, grain size, and charge
weight. Propellants are described in chapter 1.
(2) In fixed and semifixed rounds, the igniter
charge (black powder) is present in the primer. In some
models of separated ammunition, an auxiliary igniter
charge is placed around the primer or on the distance
wadding to assure proper ignition of the propellant. In
most separate-loading rounds, the igniter charge is in an
igniter bag
4-9
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-8. Armor-piercing projectile.
sewn to the base end of the propelling charge. In some
designs, the igniter forms a core running through the
center of the propelling charge bag. Cartridge-igniter
pads are made of tightly woven silk or synthetics to
prevent the black powder from sifting through. Cloth
used for the igniter charge is dyed red to indicate
presence of the black powder igniter. Pads of early
manufacture (undyed) are marked IGNITER.
(2)
Semifixed.
(a) In semifixed howitzer ammunition,
the charge, which is divided into parts or increments for
zone firing, is in several cloth bags. The full charge,
with all increments in proper order, is in the cartridge
case, which is a free-fit over the rear end of the
projectile. Each part of the charge is numbered, the
base charge being numbered 1. For example, to
arrange a 105-mm propelling charge in proper order for
firing charge 4, the increments would be arranged in the
order 1, 2, 3, and 4, increment 4 being placed
uppermost.
(For firing less than full charge, all
increments above the charge to be fired are removed.)
Dualgran. the charge for 105-mm howitzer ammunition,
consists of a charge in which a quick-burning propellant
of single-perforated grains is used in charges 1 and 2
and a slow-burning propellant of multi-perforated grains
in charges 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. This charge is used with a
long primer (no charge-retaining spring required) and
incorporates a lead foil in charge 5 as a decoppering
agent. Increments are
b. Types of Propelling Charge.
The type of
propelling charge depends upon the type of ammunition
(fixed, semifixed, separated, or separate loading) and
size of the complete round.
(1) Fixed. The propelling charge in a round
of fixed ammunition is loose (or in a polyethylene or
polyethylene/rayon bag) in the cartridge case. When
the charge does not fill the case completely, a spacer or
distance wadding, usually a cardboard disk and cylinder,
is inserted in the neck of the cartridge case, between the
charge and the base of the projectile.
4-10
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-9. Armor-piercing capped cartridge.
4-11
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-10. Antipersonnel (APERS) cartridge.
4-12
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-11. Canister cartridge.
charge consists of a base section or charge and one or
more increments. The increments may be equal or
unequal in weight. The base section is
of the flat-bag type and are folded around the primer.
Less muzzle flash than with single granulation charges,
improved uniformity of performance, and greater
accuracy are obtained with the dualgran charge.
(b) The adjustable semifixed propelling
charges used in mortar ammunition consist of either thin
sheets of propellant or bags of granular propellant. In
either case, this propellant is fitted around the stabilizing
fins or to the cartridge container boom at the base of the
projectile.
(3) Separated.
This propelling charge
consists of looseloaded propellant in a primed brass or
steel cartridge case closed by a plastic or asphalt
composition plug. It is not adjustable.
(4) Separate-loading. Propellant in separateloading ammunition is contained in acrylic cotton cloth
bags, divided into multisection charges. This type of
charge permits the gun-crew to vary size of the
propelling charge and facilitate handling of larger and
heavier charges. Multisection charges are subdivided
into base-and-increment and unequal-section types.
(a) Base-and-increment. This type of propelling
Figure 4-12. Flash reducer.
4-13
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-13. Propellant temperature indicator with thermometer.
4-14
TM 9-1300-200
always fired; the increments may or may not be. An
igniter pad is attached to the base end of the base
section only. A propelling charge may have a core
igniter in the base section and in the increments.
and cartridge case). The thermometer can be read
through plastic lenses placed in the head of the
assembly.
The assembly is then placed with an
ammunition lot so that the temperature may be noted.
Since firing tables are based on the temperature of the
propellant at +70°F. at the time of firing, any deviation
from this temperature has to be considered in making
firing data corrections.
(b) Unequal section. In howitzer ammunition,
the charge is made up of unequal sections. In gun
cannon ammunition, the charge is made up of several
equal sections and two or more unequal sections. This
type of propelling charge permits firing at reduced
velocity and provides maximum flexibility.
(c) Color. In certain howitzer ammunition,
two base and increment charges are provided, one for
inner, the other for outer zone charges (green bag
charges) to distinguish them from the outer zone
charges contained in undyed (white) bags (white bag
charges).
(d) Flash reducers. Flash reducers (fig. 412), cloth pads filled with flash-reducing salts, are used
with certain separate-loading propelling charges to
eliminate flash. Used with white bag charges only, in
155-mm and 8-inch howitzers, they are inserted
between increments or tied around the base charge.
Green bag charges require no flash reducers for these
howitzers. The precautions that apply to black powder
also apply to flash reducers.
4-9. Primers
a. General. The primer is that component in a
propelling charge explosive train which produces the
flame that ignites the propellant.
(1) Artillery primers contain a small quantity
of sensitive explosive and a larger quantity of black
powder or other propellant in a cylindrical housing of
metal, cardboard or other appropriate material. In
mortar ammunition, an ignition cartridge, which ignites
the propellant, is used with the primer and may or may
not be assembled to it. Unassembled, the primer and
the ignition cartridge are considered separate
components; assembled, the primer becomes a
component of the ignition cartridge.
(2) In fixed, semifixed and separated
ammunition, the primer and/or ignition cartridge is
assembled to the ammunition at the time of
manufacture.
In separate-loading ammunition, the
primer is inserted into the breechblock of the weapon by
the user immediately prior to firing.
b. Types. Most artillery primers are classified
according to the method of firing as electric, percussion,
and percussion-electric.
(1) Electric. This type of primer is fired by
heat generated when an electric current passes
(e) Propellant
temperature
indicators.
Propellant temperature indicators (fig. 4-13), used in
antiaircraft batteries, make it possible to take propellant
temperatures either at battery level or in storage at the
ammunition supply point (ASP).
A propellant
temperature indicator consists of a thermometer
inserted into the packed propelling charge (through the
fiber container
Figure 4-14. Percussion primer.
4-15
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-15. Combination electric and percussion pimer.
Figure 4-16. Burster charge
through a resistance wire in the ignition mixture or a
conductive primer mixture embedded in the primer. The
electric primer is distinguished by the black insulation
that surrounds it in the head of the cartridge case
(2)
Percussion. This type of primer (fig.
P14) is fired by a blow of the firing pin. Percussion
primers used in fixed, semifixed and separated artillery
ammunition contain sufficient black powder to ignite the
propellant in the cartridge
4-16
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-17. Booster charge.
4-17
TM 9-1300-200
case. Those used with separate-loading propelling
charges contain only enough black powder to ignite the
igniter charge attached to the propelling charge.
assure high order detonation. Use of more sensitive
explosives, such as mercury fulminate or lead azide, in
the quantities required would create excessive hazards
in handling and firing. Consequently, such explosives
are used only in small amounts as initiating and
intermediate detonating charges. A separate charge of
somewhat less sensitivity (usually tetryl) is provided for
detonating the high-explosive charge.
Because it
increases or boosts effectiveness of the explosive train,
this charge is known as a booster charge.
(3) Percussion-electric. This type of primer
(fig. 4-15), fired either electrically or by the blow of a
firing pin, is used with separate-loading rounds.
4-10. Burster Charge
A burster charge (fig.
4-16) is an auxiliary high
explosive element used in certain types of chemical
projectiles to rupture the projectile and disperse the
chemical agent. It consists of a high-explosive charge
in a metal tube which is contained in the projectile
burster casing. It may be used in conjunction with the
burster initiator used in 75mm, 76-mm, and 90-mm
chemical projectiles.
b. The booster charge (fig.
4-17) may be
incorporated in the fuze itself. It may also be encased in
a thin casing of metal or plastic attached to a threaded
metal body.
c. Boosters are generally provided with a
boresafety mechanism (arming delay) and incorporate,
in addition to the main charge, one or more other
charges (e.g., a detonator and a booster lead charge).
Some boosters incorporate delay arming mechanisms
which prevent arming until the projectile is the desired
minimum distance from the weapon.
4-11. Booster Charge
a. Since burster charges in high-explosive
projectiles are relatively insensitive to shock, a
comparatively large detonating charge is necessary to
Section III. FUZES
4-12. General
An artillery fuze is a mechanical device used with a
projectile to cause it to function as required.
(2)
There are three types of time fuzes:
powder train, mechanical and proximity. Powder train
fuzes (fig. 4-22) make use of compressed black powder
rings that burn for a predetermined length of time and
then initiate the high-explosive element in the fuze.
Mechanical time fuzes (fig. P23) incorporate a clocklike mechanism. Through a gear train and escapement,
this mechanism trips a firing pin at a predetermined
time, causing the fuze to function. Proximity fuzes are
discussed in (3), below.
4-13. Classification
a. Fuzes are classified according to their position
on the projectile and method of functioning. Examples
include base-detonating (BD) (fig. P18), point-initiating
base-detonating (PIBD) (fig. P19), and point-detonating
(PD) (fig. 4-20) fuzes. They are classified according to
method of functioning as impact, time, proximity, or a
combination of these.
(3) The proximity (VT) fuze (fig. 4-24) is
essentially a self-powered radio transmitting and
receiving unit. Shortly after the projectile leaves the
muzzle of the weapon, the fuze becomes armed and
begins sending out radio waves. As the projectile
approaches an object, the waves are reflected and
picked up by a receiving unit in the fuze. Interaction of
the outgoing and incoming waves results in beats.
When the beats reach a predetermined intensity, an
electronic switch is tripped, thereby closing an electric
circuit. An electric charge is permitted to flow through
an electric firing squib thus initiating the explosive train.
Newer type proximity fuzes are designed for bracket
arming for antiaircraft artillery use and adjustable delay
arming for field artillery use.
(1) Impact fuzes (fig. 4-21) are classified by
type of action as superquick, delay or nondelay. The
superquick fuze functions immediately upon impact with
the target. The nondelay type represents the fastest
action possible for the inertia type fuze. This type of
fuze is inherently slower than the superquick, since its
action depends on deceleration during penetration of the
target. Delay time of delay fuzes ranges from 0.025 to
0.05 second after impact. (On time fuzes, the time
refers to the length of time between the firing of the
weapon and the functioning of the fuze.)
4-18
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-18. Base-detonating fuze.
4-19
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-19. Point-initiating base-detonating fuze.
of a suitable target, the fuze will cause self-destruction
of the projectile soon after the set time. e fuze also
contains an impact element. This will function the
projectile if impact with a resistant object occurs at any
time after arming of the impact element, but before
arming and functioning of the fuze by the proximity
element.
The bracket-arming type has a time ring; the adjustabledelay-arming type has a graduated time scale which
must be set for the predicted time to target. When fired,
the proximity element of the fuze becomes armed a
short time before reaching target and functions on
proximity approach. If the fuze does not come within
the influence range
4-20
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-20. Point-detonating fuze.
4-21
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-21. Impact fuze.
4-22
TM 9-1300-200
(4) The concrete-piercing (CP) fuze (fig. 25)
is a special, point-detonating impact type assembled to
HE projectiles. This type fuze is used against highly
resistant targets.
b. Because of their standard contour and equal
weight, many PD fuzes are interchangeable and can be
employed with several types of projectiles. See TM 430001-28 for fuze interchangability.
4-14. Safety Features
a. Safety wires, cotter pins and other devices are
used to hold internal fuze components in an unarmed
position and to prevent accidental arming of the fuze
before the projectile has left the weapon.
b. In some fuzes, bore safety is provided by
interrupting the explosive train. Interruption is generally
provided by out-of-line components, or interrupter
blocks or sliders, which prevent functioning while the
projectile is still in the bore of the weapon.
Figure 4-22. Time fuze, powder train.
Change 5
4-23
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-23. Time fuze, gear train
4-24
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-24. Proximity fuzes.
4-25
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-25. Concrete-piercing fuze.
Section IV. PRACTICE, DUMMY, BLANK AND SUBCALIBER AMMUNITION
projectiles for mortars (fig. 4-27) contain a black powder
charge, propellant, ignition cartridge, and percussion
primer. However, training projectiles for mortars have
an inert body and no propellant as such, being propelled
only by an ignition cartridge.
4-15. Practice Ammunition
a. General. Target practice rounds (fig. P26) of
fixed, semifixed and separated ammunition are used for
training in marksmanship. The rounds have the same
weight and contour as the service rounds they simulate.
Moreover, since practice ammunition is fired at practice
targets, the rounds may be fuzed and have the same
propelling charges as the service rounds they simulate.
Because they have fuzes and live propelling charges,
practice rounds must be handled as carefully as service
ammunition. Thus, where indicated by firing table titles,
the same firing data are used for firing practice rounds
as are used in firing their service counterparts. Some
practice projectiles are cast iron while others are service
projectiles loaded with sand or other inert material.
Certain practice projectiles contain a black powder
spotting charge that emits a smoke puff to simulate
functioning and to assist in spotting. Target practice
b. Identification.
CAUTION
In some older fixed or semifixed
practice rounds, inert projectiles
were inadvertently painted black,
even
though
cartridge
case
contained live propellant (explosive).
In handling any round in which
projectile is painted black, whether
or not marked INERT, be sure to note
complete
Figure 4-26. Recoilless rifle, target practice cartridge.
4-26
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 4-27. Mortar target practice cartridge.
4-27
C1, TM 9-1300-200
miniature carriage. Four units mounted on a firing
platform make up a field artillery training battery. 'The
ammunition for this trainer consists of a 1-inch,
commercial, steel ball (the simulated projectile)
weighing about 21/3 ounces, and air pressures (which
simulate a semifixed, adjustable propelling charge) up to
80 pounds per square inch. The maximum range is 85
yards at 800-mil (45°) elevation.
identifying marking of round and
whether or not any components
contain explosive.
For identification purposes, practice projectiles are
painted blue with marking in white. The blue signifies
that the round, of which the projectile is a component, is
for target practice and includes a propelling charge or
other prescribed explosive. See chapter 1 for marking
of inert ammunition.
4-16. Dummy Ammunition
Dummy cartridges, projectiles and propelling charges
are used for training in loading and unloading of
weapons. Such ammunition consists of completely inert
replicas of service rounds or components. Dummy
propelling charges are filled with wood grains simulating
live propellant grains, and the color of the propelling
charge bags
c. Simulators. Several types of simulators are
used in artillery training to create the effects of actual
battle.
Considered pyrotechnic items, they are
described and illustrated with other pyrotechnic items in
chapter 9.
d. Field Artillery Trainer. This trainer, which is
used in preliminary artillery training, is a compressed air
unit consisting of a miniature gun mounted on a
Figure 4-34. Dummy cartridge.
Figure 4-35. Blank cartridge.
4-28
TM 9-1300-200
is the same as that of service charges. Otherwise, color
is not significant. 'Representative ammunition of this
type is shown in figure 4-34. As dummy ammunition is
completely inert, no special safety precautions are
necessary.
NOTE
The same precautions are observed
in firing subcaliber ammunition as in
firing service and practice rounds.
4-17. Subcaliber Ammunition
a.
General.
Subcaliber guns are auxiliary
devices used with tactical weapons during training and
practice. Bore wear i-n the larger caliber weapons is
reduced by training with smaller caliber weapons firing
smaller caliber ammunition at shorter ranges.
Subcaliber guns are designed for interior mounting
(inside the bore of the weapon) or exterior mounting (on
top of the gun tube). Interior-type subcaliber guns are
used with 75mm howitzers, 76-mm guns, 90-mm guns
and 105-mm howitzers. 'External-type subcaliber guns
are used with 155-mm guns and howitzers and -8-inch
howitzers. Special subcaliber equipment is designed for
4.2-inch mortars.
Figure 4-28. Deleted.
Figure 4-29. Deleted.
4-18. Blank Ammunition
a. General. Blank ammunition is used for a
limited type of artillery firing practice, for maneuvers, for
firing the morning and evening gun and for saluting. A
representative type of blank ammunition is shown in
figure 4-35.
b. Complete Round. A complete round of blank
ammunition consists of a cartridge case, primer, black
powder charge and a closing cup secured in the mouth
of the case. The primer is fitted to the cartridge case as
in fixed or semifixed rounds of service ammunition.
Weight of the black powder charge varies-from 0.87 to
2.0 pounds-depending upon caliber and type of round.
The blank cartridge contains no projectile.
Figure 4-32. Deleted.
Figure 4-30. Deleted.
Figure 4-31. Deleted.
b. Ammunition. Small arms cartridges are used
as subcaliber ammunition in small artillery weapons.
Medium and large caliber weapons use either 37-mm
HE cartridges with black powder substituted for the HE
charge or 75-mm service cartridges.
Figure 4-33. Deleted.
c. Charge. The black powder charge for blank
rounds consists of loose potassium or sodium nitrate
black powder in cotton cloth bags.
Section V. PRECAUTIONS
4-19. Precautions in Handling
a.
General.
For applicability of general
precautions in handling explosives and ammunition, see
chapter 1. In the same connection, see also TM 430001-28, TM 9-1300-206 and appropriate weapons
manuals.
b. Projectiles.
(1)
Inspect projectiles periodically,
particularly under conditions of abnormally higher
temperature and moisture.
(2)
Because projectiles
explosives, check for exudation.
contain
high
(3) Check for gas leaks, which can cause
injury to personnel.
(4) Keep illuminants from coming in contact
with moisture. They are particularly hygroscopic and
subject to deterioration.
c. Propelling Charges.
(1) Protect propelling charges of all types
from moisture.
(2) Examine separate-loading propelling
charges at appropriate times.
(3)
discoloration.
deterioration.
Check propelling charge bag for
This usually indicates propellant
d. Cartridge Case.
CAUTION
Cartridge
cases
composed
of
lightweight brass or steel or felted
nitrocellulose are easily damaged.
(1) Inspect packages (inner containers) and
packings (shipping boxes) periodically for evidence of
damage that might indicate corroded, deformed or
ruptured cases.
(2) To prevent serious damage to weapon,
do not use cartridges with damaged cases.
Change 5 4-29
C1, TM 9-1300-200
(3)
Protect felted nitrocellulose cases,
which are nonmetallic, from such sources of ignition as
smoldering residue, lighted cigarettes or open flame.
e. Fuzes.
CAUTION
Do not disassemble any fuze at any
time without specific instructions
from the Army Materiel Command.
Handle fuzes carefully. 'They contain small amounts of
sensitive high explosives, such as mercury fulminate,
lead azide and lead styphnate.
f. Primers.
(1) Primers contain black powder which is
particularly hygroscopic.
Inspect periodically for
evidence of corrosion.
(2) Keep fuzes and primers in hermetically
sealed containers.
4-20. Precautions in Firing
For general precautions and regulations in firing
ammunition, see TM 43-0001-28 and AR 385-63.
a. Inspect ammunition prior to firing. Assure that
it is clean and free of dents or corrosion.
b. Do not use ammunition with serious dents,
burs or other defects. Firing such ammunition may
result in serious blowback or malfunction.
c. Protect semifixed propelling charges (such as
howitzer or mortar increments), which are exposed
briefly to weather during preparation for firing, against
moisture and extreme temperatures.
Assure that
charges are clean and undamaged.
d. Remove and discard U-shaped packing stop
before attempting to load round into weapon.
90-mm, 105-mm and 120-mm separate-loading
projectiles and mortar rounds, from their hermetically
sealed containers until just prior to use. When screwing
fuze into projectile, .tighten with appropriate fuze wrench
and set, when required, with appropriate fuze setter.
f. Handle complete rounds, particularly rounds
with fuzes, with care at all times. Explosive elements in
fuzes and primers are particularly sensitive to shock and
high temperature.
g. Remove safety wire from fuze just before firing
and at no other time.
h. Drop mortar rounds, fin end first, into muzzle
of mortar, with bore-riding pin in place. When cartridge
is released to slide down barrel, remove hands instantly
from muzzle.
i. To prevent accidental detonation of highly
sensitive primer, be especially careful in handling all
rounds employing cartridge case with base-affixed
primer.
j. Do not break moisture-resistant seal on fiber
container until ammunition is to be used.
k. Do not handle or move duds. Their fuzes may
be armed. Destroy duds in place in accordance with TM
9-1300-206.
l. Take following precautions with cartridges
containing electric primers: (1) Do not have rounds in
gun chamber when electric leads are exposed.
(2) Check for conditions conducive to static
charge buildup. Static charges can be produced when
personnel wear furs or clothing of wool or synthetic
fibers.
(3) Assure that aircraft are electrically
grounded during ammunition loading operations.
e. Do not remove certain separately issued fuzes,
such as proximity fuzes which are assembled in field to
Section VI. PACKING AND MARKING
4-21. Packing
a.
Fixed, semifixed and separated artillery
ammunition items are packed in moisture-resistant fiber
containers overpacked in wooden boxes. (: See fig. 430 and illustrations in chapter 1.) Crates may be used
for additional protection for certain propelling charges,
for projectiles with windshields, and for dummy
projectiles.
b. Some fuzes and primers may be packed in
hermetically sealed cans overpacked in wooden or
metal boxes.
c.
Separate-loading projectiles are usually
shipped palletized. A grommet is used to protect the
rotating band and an eyebolt-lifting plug is threaded in
the fuze hole. Airtight steel containers are used to pack
separate-loading propelling charges. In packings of
recent design, a primer is packed in the container with
each propelling charge.
Change 5 4-30
C1, TM 9-1300-200
4-22. Marking
d. Except for training ammunition, which may be
requisitioned by components, mortar ammunition is
packed as complete rounds. Each round is packed in a
metal container or wooden packing box. Jungle wrap is
used on certain rounds as additional protection.
Representative markings on ammunition items and
packing boxes are discussed and illustrated in chapter 1.
Figure 4-36. Deleted.
Figure 4-37. Typical wooden packing box.
4-31
C1, TM 9-1300200
This page intentionally left blank.
4-32
C1, TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 5
ROCKETS
Section I. INTRODUCTION
5-1. General
5-3. Principles of Rocket Propulsion
a. A rocket is a missile propelled by a discharging
jet of gas. The gas is produced by the burning of a
propelling charge within the rocket. Military rockets are
distinguished from guided missiles, which are similarly
propelled. by the fact that the trajectory of a rocket
cannot be guided or controlled in flight.
a. Gas under pressure in a closed container
exerts pressure equally in all directions (A, fig. 5-1);
therefore, no movement of the container will occur.
b. When a hole is made in one end of the
container (B, fig. 5-1), the pressurized gas flows out,
since the atmosphere is at a lower pressure. Because
the hole reduces the area over which the pressure acts,
the total force acting on the end with the hole is less
than the total force acting on the closed end. For this
reason, the container will move in the opposite direction
of the escaping gas. It is not only the escaping gas
pushing on the air which provides thrust, but also the
force of the pressure exerted on the closed end of the
motor.
b. A military rocket consists essentially of a head,
a fuze and a motor. The head contains the element
required to produce the desired effect at the target,
usually an explosive or chemical filler. The fuze
initiates the functioning of the filler at the time and under
the circumstances desired. The motor propels the
rocket to the target, and includes the propelling charge,
the nozzle (or nozzles) and means of igniting the
propellant. The rocket is stabilized in flight by fins,
attached to the motor, or rotation (spin).
c. A rocket launcher is employed to aim the
rocket along a definite trajectory.
c. The overall efficiency of the rocket motor is
increased by the addition of the nozzle (C, fig. 5-1),
which reduces friction and controls the expansion of
gas.
5-2. Application
5-4. Classification
a. Because rocket launchers are generally light
and portable, rockets can be fired from aircraft and from
ground areas inaccessible to conventional artillery.
a. General. Rockets are classified basically as
shoulder-fired, ground-to-ground or aircraft (air-to-air or
air-to-ground).
b. Used in applications similar to conventional
artillery, rockets complement artillery by extending the
area covered and the types of targets that can be
engaged. The forces of setback are relatively small, but
provide a comparatively long period of acceleration.
This permits the use of light-case projectiles of higher
capacity and less expensive construction than
equivalent artillery projectiles. Rockets also use fuzes
of lighter construction than those required for artillery.
b. Use. Rockets are classified according to use
as service, practice, drill, or subcaliber. 'Service rockets
are used for effect in combat; practice rockets, for
training and target practice; and drill rockets, for training
in handling. subcaliber rockets are smaller rockets
designed for practice purposes.
For reasons of
economy, subcaliber rockets are fired from standard
launchers with a subcaliber launcher inserted in the
bore.
c. Rockets are relatively inexpensive, easily
launched, and economical in the use of personnel.
However, they have the disadvantage of requiring the
protection of operating personnel and flammable
material from backblast.
c. Filler. Rockets are classified according to filler
as antipersonnel, high-explosive, chemical, smoke,
spotting and practice.
d. For detailed information on rockets, see TM 91950.
5-1
C 1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 5-1. Principles of rocket propulsion.
5-2
C1, TM 9-1300-200
(1) Antipersonnel rockets contain a filler of
fin-stabilized steel fragments called flechettes.
They are employed against enemy personnel and light
materiel.
(2) High-explosive rockets contain a filler of
high explosive for blast, fragmentation, mining or
demolition effect. The high-explosive antitank (HEAT)
rocket, which contains a filler consisting of a shaped
charge of Composition B or other high explosive, is
used for penetration of armored targets.
(3) Chemical rockets contain a chemical
agent and a burster to disperse the agent at the target.
'The chemical agent may be a gas for producing a toxic
or harassing effect, an incendiary or a combination of
these.
(4) Smoke rockets contain a filler of white
phosphorus which produces smoke for screening and
signaling.
(5) Spotting (red/yellow marker) rockets
contain colored dye pellets and are used as target
markers.
(6) Generally, practice rockets are assembled
with completely inert warheads and dummy fuzes.
However, warheads for large ground-to-ground practice
rockets contain spotting charges and MT fuzes. All
practice rockets are assembled with motors which
contain the same propelling charge and igniter as the
service rocket. Drill rockets, designed for training in
service of the piece, are completely inert, both warhead
and motor.
Section II. COMPLETE ROUND
a. High-Explosive Train. Sensitive explosives
that can be detonated by impact of a firing pin or by
electrical means are safe to handle in small quantities,
highly compressed and enclosed in a capsule. They are
used in fuze primers, detonators and squibs. Since the
small flame from a primer, detonator or squib will not
properly detonate a large charge of comparatively
insensitive explosive, it is necessary to interpose a
booster between the initiating element and the main
high explosive charge. Such an arrangement is called a
high-explosive train. This train, which is in the warhead,
consists essentially of a primer, detonator or squib, and
a booster and the high-explosive charge. A delay
element sometimes is incorporated in the fuze to meet
requirements for delay action.
5-5. General
A complete round consists of all the components which
comprise one rocket. The complete round may be
issued as a single assembled unit or as separate
components to be assembled in the field.
a. The motor, which propels the rocket, contains
the propelling charge and the igniter and is assembled
to the rear of the warhead or base-detonating fuze. It
consists of a tube closed at the forward end with one or
more nozzles at the rear end. The propelling charge, in
stick form, is held in place by a trap, grid, or cage.
Contact rings, fixed connections to fin shrouds, or cable
and plug, depending on design of the launcher,
electrically connect the igniter to the external firing
circuit.
b.
Propellent Explosive Train.
Sensitive
explosives that can be detonated by electrical means
are safe to handle when in small quantities, highly
compressed and enclosed in a capsule. They are used
in electric squibs. Since the small spit of flame from an
electric squib will not properly ignite a large charge of
comparatively insensitive propellant, it is necessary to
interpose an igniter 'between the initiating element and
the propellant.
Such an arrangement is called a
propellent explosive train. This train, which is in the
motor, consists essentially of an electric squib, igniter
(black powder) and the propellent charge.
b. The warhead is that component which contains
the high-explosive charge or other filler, the booster,
and the fuze. Its purpose is to produce the desired
effect at the target.
5-6. Explosive Train
The large quantities of explosives in warheads and
motors must be comparatively insensitive to permit safe
handling in storage and transit. Yet, means of initiating
these explosives at the desired time must be
dependable.
Section III. WARHEAD
grain steel flechettes, and an integral base-detonating
fuze.
5-7. Flechette
The flechette warhead consists of a plastic and metal
nose cone, an extruded aluminum body loaded with 205-3
C1, TM 9-1300-200
detonating, base-detonating or mechanical time fuzes,
with a burster well extending along the axis of the
warhead from the fuze seat. Smoke warheads, similar
to chemical in construction, contain a filler of white
phosphorus.
5-8. High Explosive
Some high-explosive warheads are of thin-walled
construction for maximum capacity of explosive and
blast effect; some have heavy walls to permit
penetration of light armor before exploding; and others
have medium thick walls to provide a maximum number
of effective fragments.
Point-detonating, basedetonating and proximity fuzes are used with HE
warheads.
5-11. Spotting (Red/Yellow Marker)
Spotting warheads are assembled from metal parts
originally designed for high-explosive warheads. This
type of warhead is fitted with a point-detonating fuze and
loaded with a baratol burster, a tetryl pellet and red or
yellow dye pellets.
5-9. High-Explosive Antitank (HEAT)
HEAT warheads, containing a shaped charge of high
explosive, are designed to penetrate armor and other
highly resistant targets. Current production models are
assembled with point-initiating, base-detonating fuzes
which function faster and assure greater penetration
than the inertia type base-detonating fuzes used in older
warheads.
5-12. Practice
The 762-mm practice warhead contains a spotting
charge and is fitted with a mechanical time fuze. All
other practice heads are completely inert. They consist
of high-explosive warhead metal parts loaded with inert
material or specially designed metal parts which
simulate the weight and configuration of service
warheads. They may be fuzed with inert or dummy
fuzes, or unfuzed.
5-10. Chemical and Smoke
Chemical warheads usually have thin walls, and contain
a filler of casualty or harassing gas. They use point-
Section IV. MOTOR
detonating fuze. Generally, the motor consists of the
following major components (fig. 5-2):
5-13. General
a.
A motor, which propels the rocket, is
assembled to the rear of the warhead or base-
(1) Motor body (combustion chamber)
Figure 5-2. Major components of rocket motor.
5-4
C1, TM 9-1300-200
with highspeed aircraft rockets have straight nozzles.
Nozzle closures or seals prevent moisture from entering
the motor. In some cases, the closure or seals aid
ignition of the propellant by causing pressure to build up
within the chamber when the igniter is 'fired. Special
safety devices (pressure relief valves, etc.) limit
pressure and prevent rupture of the chamber.
(2) Propelling charge
(3) Igniter assembly
(4) Nozzle(s)
(5) Trap assembly (optional)
(6) Resonance rod assembly (optional)
f. A grid-like trap assembly may be located on the
approach side of the nozzle to prevent ejection of
unburned portions of the propellant. Some propelling
charges are suspended in the motor body in a manner
which eliminates the need for a trap.
The base of the motor is constricted to form the throat of
one or more nozzles. Flight of the rocket is stabilized by
fins attached to the rear of the motor, or by spin of the
rocket about its axis. This spin is produced by highvelocity gases passing through canted nozzles in the
base of the motor. In some larger motors, an assembly
of spin rockets provides the initial thrust required to
rotate the rocket.
5-14. Functioning
a. When the propellant in the rocket motor is
ignited, pressure in the chamber generally rises within
0.005 to 0.05 second to a maximum value.
b. The motor body, usually a hollow metal
cylinder fitted with a nozzle at the rear, is either closed
at the forward end or threaded for assembly with the
warhead. The body houses the propelling charge and
the igniter assembly.
This value is determined by the burning rate of the
propellant and the diameter of the nozzle orifice.
Depending on the design of the propellent grain and the
presence of ballistic modifiers, the charge burns at a
nearly constant rate. This steady state pressure is
maintained constant or decreases (tails off) very slowly
until the propellant is completely consumed. Complete
consumption takes from a fraction of a second to a
minute or more. At very high operating temperatures,
the burning of the propellant is usually completed before
the rocket leaves the launcher. At low operating
temperatures, burning may continue after the rocket is
launched and a phenomenon known as afterburning will
occur. With all rockets at all temperatures a blast from
the rear of the launcher (backblast) occurs.
c. 'The propelling charge consists of one or more
grains of solid propellant, either double-base or
composite. Double-base propellant consists principally
of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. Composite propellant
is a mixture of an organic fuel, an inorganic oxidizing
agent and a binding agent. To control the burning rate,
propellent grains may be coated with sheets of a slower
burning inhibitor material. However, if the propellant
has center perforated grains, resonance rods running
through these perforations serve the same purpose by
dampening pressure waves created by the burning
propellant.
b. Each type of propellent composition has a
critical pressure. Below this pressure, the composition
burns nonuniformly and gives erratic ballistic effects. In
addition, composite propellant, burning below the critical
pressure, burns until it is extinguished by ashes which
form on the surface of the grain. When the ashes sluff
off, the propellant reignites and the process is repeated,
creating an erratic sound pattern called "chuffing." c.
The critical pressure is also affected by cracks in the
propellent grain. Cracks increase the burning surface
and, subsequently, the pressure. This can result in an
overpressure sufficient to rupture the rocket motor.
d. The igniter assembly consists of a charge of
black powder housed in a cylindrical plastic container,
and one or more electric squibs.
e.
The nozzle is convergent-divergent
(Venturitype) in shape to eliminate turbulence and to
provide a relatively frictionless flow of escaping gas.
The throat (constricted portion) of the nozzle may be
lined with a refractory substance, such as graphite. This
prevents heat of the propellent gases from changing
dimensions of the throat. A small change in throat area
affects functioning of the motor by altering flow rate and
direction of the escaping gases. Nozzles on most rocket
motors are canted (scarfed). However, motors used
5-5
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Section V. LAUNCHERS
monopod are normally used for firing in a prone
position. Multiple-tube launchers consist of a number of
tubes in a cluster mounted on a carriage, vehicle, or
aircraft.
5-15. General
The rocket launcher holds the rocket and provides initial
guidance and electric contacts for firing. In some
launchers, the source of electricity for ignition is integral
with the launcher, as a magneto or batteries; in others,
electrical energy is derived from an outside source, such
as an aircraft's electrical system.
b. Rail. These launchers are equipped with
railtype launching beams traversed and elevated to
provide guidance and spin to the rockets. Rockets fired
from this type of launcher are generally stabilized by a
combination of fins and spin.
5-16. Types
a. Tube. The launcher proper, as distinct from
the mount, consists of a tube or a set of tubes with a
means of holding the rocket in place and a mechanism
for igniting the rocket motor. Some tube launchers are
expendable (c below) ; that is, they are used for only
one firing and discarded. This type launcher may be
used as the shipping container for the rocket. Singletube launchers can be fired from the shoulder in
standing, kneeling, or sitting position. A bipod and rear
c. Expendable. Typically, an expendable
launcher consists of a plastic or metal alloy tube in
which the complete rocket is shipped. The launcher is
used once and discarded. Some expendable launchers
have mounting hardware (tripods, azimuth and elevation
adjustment devices, etc.) attached.
Shoulder-fired,
expendable launchers are complete with sights and
firing mechanism.
Section VI. FUZES
powder normally contained in the delay element has
been removed.
5-17. General
A fuze is a device used to function a rocket at the time
and under the circumstances desired. Rocket fuzes are
classified according to location in the warhead as point
detonating (PD), base detonating (BD), or point
initiating, base detonating (PIBD). They are classified
according to method of functioning as time, proximity, or
impact.
b.
CAUTION
Rockets fuzed with proximity fuzes
may function prematurely if fired too
close to trees or other intervening
objects. There should be at least 250
feet clearance from objects short of
the target.
5-18. Types
The proximity fuze detonates the warhead at a distance
from the target to produce optimum blast effect. It is
essentially a radio transmitting and receiving unit and
requires no prior setting or adjustment. Upon firing,
after the minimum arming time, the fuze arms and
continually emits radio waves.
As the rocket
approaches the target, the waves are reflected back to
the fuze. The reflected waves produce a beat. When
received by the fuze with a predetermined intensity, as
on approaching close to the target, this beat operates an
electronic switch in the fuze. This permits electric
current to flow through an electric squib, initiating the
explosive train and detonating the rocket. Proximity
fuzes for rockets are of two types-one for ground-type
rockets, the other for aircraft-type rockets. Proximity
fuzes are physically interchangeable with other standard
fuzes in ground-type rockets having deep fuze cavities.
a. Time fuzes function a preselected number of
seconds after the round is fired. Impact fuzes function
upon impact with superquick, delay, or nondelay action.
(1) In the case of superquick action, the
warhead functions almost instantaneously on impact,
initiated by a firing pin driven into a detonator.
(2) In delay action fuzes, the warhead
functions a fixed time after impact to permit penetration
of the target before the warhead explodes. The amount
of delay, usually between 0.025 and 0.15 second,
depends on the delay element incorporated in the fuze.
Arming may be accomplished by mechanical means
utilizing gear trains, air stream (air arming), spring
action, centrifugal force or inertia, gas pressure
(pressure arming), or a combination thereof.
(3) Nondelay action, somewhat slower than
superquick, occurs in delay-action fuzes when the black
5-6
C1, TM 9-1300-200
which will actuate the fuze if impact does not initiate the
piezoelectric crystal.
c. The PIBD fuze detonates the rocket on impact
with the target. The fuze consists of a nose assembly
and a base assembly connected by a wire passing
through a conduit in the rocket head. Pressure of
impact on a piezoelectric crystal in the nose assembly
generates a surge of electricity. This is transmitted to a
low-energy detonator in the base assembly, detonating
it. Some PIBD fuzes have a graze-sensitive element
d. Boresafe rocket fuzes are those in which the
explosive elements are so separated as to prevent
explosion of the warhead before the rocket leaves its
launcher. Explosion is prevented even if the more
sensitive elements (primer or detonator) should
accidentally function.
Section VII. IDENTIFICATION AND PACKING
5-19. Marking and Painting
5-20. Packing
a. Marking. Rockets are identified by standard
nomenclature and lot number. Such identification is
marked on all containers and, unless the item is too
small, on the ammunition itself. Rocket motors are also
marked to indicate temperature limits and performance
characteristics. Dimensions and weights of packing
boxes and other packing and shipping data are marked
on the packing box.
Packing boxes containing
assembled complete rounds are also marked to indicate
the nose end of the rocket.
a. Small rockets are packed as assembled rounds
in sealed fiber or metal containers overpacked, in
quantities of 1 to 25, in wooden boxes (fig. 5-3).
b. Rockets fired from expendable launchers are
packed and shipped in the launcher, which constitutes
the packing container.
b. Painting. In general, rocket motors are painted
brown or olive drab. Rockets themselves are color
coded to indicate the type of filler. See chapter 1 for
color coding.
Figure 5-3. Packaging of small complete round rockets.
5-7
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 5-4. Typical rocket motor container for large motors.
Figure 5-5.
Typical warhead container for large warheads.
5-8
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 5-6. Hermetically sealed container for proximity fuze.
c. Large ground-to-ground rockets are shipped
unassembled, with the motor (fig. 5-4) and the warhead
(fig. 5-5) packed separately.
overpacked in metal (fig. 5-7) or wooden (fig. 5-8)
packing boxes; others are packed in the same container
with the assembled motor and warhead, but are not
assembled to the warhead.
d. Certain PD fuzes are assembled to rockets.
Others are packed separately in hermetically sealed
containers or wooden boxes. Some proximity fuzes are
packed in hermetically sealed containers (fig. 5-6),
e. Complete packing
published in SC 1340/IL.
and
shipping
data
Figure 5-7. Metal container for proximity fuze. Figure 5-8. Wooden packing box for proximity fuze.
5-9
are
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 5-9. Exterior and cross section of 66-mm LAW rocket
Figure 5-10. 66-mm LAW system.
5-10
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 5-11. Typical 3.5-inch rockets.
Section VIII. SHOULDER-FIRED ROCKETS
5-21. General
5-22. Types
Shoulder-fired rockets, ranging in size from 66
millimeters to 3.5 inches, are relatively light rockets
used primarily against armored targets. They are also
used for screening and practice. The 66mm rocket is
distinguished by the fact that it is issued with a
disposable launcher, as one unit. The rocket/launcher
unit constitutes a complete Light Antitank Weapon
(LAW) System.
a. Depending on the type of warhead, these rockets are
designated HEAT, practice or smoke (WP).
b. The 66-mm LAW system (fig. 5-9 and 5-10), has the
following characteristics:
Rocket:
Velocity ..................500 fps
Range ....................325 m
5-11
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Weight ..............................2.3 lb
Length...............................20 in
Type..................................HEAT
Fuze .................................PIBD
Stabilization ......................Fin
c. The 3.5-inch rockets
following characteristics:
(fig. 5-11)
have
the
Velocity .............................500 fps
Range ...............................1,198 m
Weight ..............................7.3-9 lb
Length...............................23 in
Type..................................HEAT, smoke
(WP) practice
Fuze..................................BD
Stabilization ......................Fin
Launcher ...........................Tube
Launcher:
Weight ..............................2.5 lb
Length, closed ..................25.7 in
extended ..........................35.2 in
Type..................................Disposable
Section IX. GROUND-TO-GROUND ROCKETS
5-23. General
a. Ground-to-ground rockets are large (762-millimeter), free flight, solid propellant field artillery ammunition. They
follow a ballistic trajectory similar to cannon-fired artillery projectiles, and are stabilized in flight by a combination of spin
and fins. They have a maximum range capability of approximately 35,000 meters.
b. The complete round (fig. 5-12) consists of a warhead section, motor body and fin assembly. The fuze is
considered a component of the warhead. The most commonly used is a mechanical time fuze which can be set to
function at 5 to 120 seconds.
c. These rockets are distinguished by an assembly of spin rockets mounted in pairs around a pedestal assembly
located between the warhead and the motor. When ignited, the spin rockets produce thrust which imparts a clockwise
spin to the rocket and reduces the effects of misalinement. Spin is maintained in flight by the cant of the tail fins. The
rocket is fired by remote control from a rail launcher.
Figure 5-12. Long range ground-to-ground rocket.
5-12
C1, TM 9-1300-200
5-24. Types
Velocity .....................................1,980-2,200 fps
Range .......................................26,000--35,000 m
Weight ......................................4,720-5,930 lb
Length.......................................25--27 ft
Type..........................................HE, chemical
and practice
Fuze..........................................MT
Stabilization ..............................Fins and spin
Launcher...................................Straight rail
a. Conventional warheads used with these rockets
include HE, chemical and practice (flash-smoke).
b. The 762-mm
characteristics:
rockets
have
the
following
Section X. AIRCRAFT ROCKETS
5-25. General
5-26. Type
a. Aircraft rockets can be employed effectively
against other aircraft, personnel, personnel carriers,
ammunition storage areas, fuel tanks, radar equipment
and similar targets.
a.
Depending upon the type of warhead
used, the complete round rocket (fig. 5-13) is classified
as
high
explosive,
high-explosive
antitank,
antipersonnel, spotting, smoke or practice.
b. The folding fin aircraft rocket (FFAR) is a 2.75inch air-to-air, air-to-ground rocket designed for
deployment from highspeed fighter and attack aircraft.
b.
These rockets, consisting of a warhead,
fuze, and motor-and-fin assembly, have the following
characteristics:
Velocity ........................ 1600-2200 fps
Range .......................... 500-800 m
Weight ......................... 18--29 lb
Length.......................... 48.8--2.8 in.
Type ..............................HE, HEAT, APERS, spotting,
......................................smoke and practice
Fuze............................. PD, PROX, PIBD
Stabilizer...................... Fin
Launcher...................... Aircraft (multiple, nested tubes)
c. The low-spin, folding fin aircraft rocket
(LSFFAR) is a 2.75-inch air-to-ground rocket deployed
from rotary wing and other low speed aircraft. It differs
from the FFAR primarily in that the nozzles are scarfed
to produce the low rate of spin required for launch at low
speeds.
Figure 5-13. Typical 2.75-inch aircraft rocket.
Section XI. PRECAUTIONS IN STORAGE AND HANDLING
5-27. General
5-28. Care and Handling
Assembled rockets (complete rounds) are generally
similar to rounds of artillery ammunition. In the event of
fire, however, unlike artillery ammunition, rockets ignited
accidentally may be propelled over wide areas, and the
range of the rocket must be considered in establishing
danger areas (TM 9-1300-206). Because of this unusual
explosive hazard, the precautions listed below will be
observed in addition to those in chapter 1.
a. Because solid propellant compositions in rocket
motors deteriorate readily, especially under extremes of
temperature and humidity, keep rockets dry and cool.
b. Do not expose rockets to direct rays of sun.
c. Never store rockets where temperatures exceed
limits marked on items.
d. See that no moisture enters fuze or motor.
5-13
C1, TM 9-1300-200
e. Examine nozzle closures of rockets subjected to
wide temperature fluctuations for evidence of looseness
that may have permitted moisture to enter motor.
Moisture may damage propellant and affect accuracy.
f. Do not allow ice to accumulate on any part of
motor. Such accumulation may cause erratic flight.
NOTE
At time of manufacture, warheads, motors
and fuzes are made as nearly waterproof as
practicable.
g. Do not remove such relatively delicate items as
proximity fuzes from hermetically sealed containers until
just prior to assembly of fuze to rocket.
h. Do not remove separately packed igniters from
their packings, and do not break moisture resistant seals
until unit is to be used.
i. Do not place complete round on its tail. This
may damage fins or electrical connections. If necessary
to stand round on end, point nose downward, so that it
would bury itself in the ground if ignited accidentally.
j. Handle rocket motor or packings that contain
rocket motors gently. Rough handling may damage
components and create hazards. Cracked and broken
propellant, for example, can cause dangerous pressures
in motors when fired.
k. Prevent extraneous electrical currents (such as
static) or induction by electromagnetic radiation (from
such sources as high-amperage circuits and
transmitters)
from
igniting
rockets.
Section XII. FIRING PRECAUTIONS
c. To avoid injury by accidental ignition of rockets
during loading, see that loader does not stand directly
behind launcher and rocket.
a. Where requirements call for application of
electrical energy to the igniter circuit of a rocket for
d. Do not use rockets with dented motors or fins.
testing continuity (such as during manufacture,
They may cause erratic flight.
renovation, or preparation for shipment), the testing
e. Do not assemble rockets issued unassembled in
devices used must be approved by the engineering
amounts greater than immediate requirements.
agency responsible.
f. During installation of rocket motors, assure
b. To provide for safety of personnel, select areas
security of mounting and attachment. An improperly or
for these operations which are remote from sources of
insecurely installed motor may break loose on firing and
electrical currents, which might result in accidental
travel at a high velocity in an uncontrolled and
ignition of the rocket.
unpredictable manner.
c. Do not conduct continuity testing of circuits in
g. Remove safety devices as specified in
rockets in ground launchers immediately prior to firing,
preparation for firing, but at no other time.
or in rockets positioned on aircraft launchers
h. Do not attempt to disassemble fuze or to
immediately prior to takeoff, except under authority of,
remove base fuze.
and with testing equipment approved by, the chief of the
i. Take care in firing through screen of brush or
technical service concerned.
trees. Contact with limb, branch, etc., may deflect
rocket or cause it to detonate.
5-30. Special Precautions
5-29. General
a. Do not permit personnel to remain in triangular
area directly behind rocket, where backblast occurs,
unless they are protected by adequate shelter.
b. Always protect eyes when firing. Protect face
and hands when firing at temperatures below freezing.
WARNING
Safe firing temperature limits are marked
on each rocket. Firing at temperatures
outside these limits may result in
dangerously high pressures, erratic flight,
duds or other malfunctions.
5-14
WARNING
Misfires or hangfires may occur, especially
under extreme weather conditions or other
adverse circumstances (e.g., exposed
electric lead wires and connections). Since
misfires
cannot
be
immediately
distinguished from hangfires, certain
periods of waiting before proceeding with
firing are prescribed.
C1, TM 9-1300-200
j. Regard duds (fired rockets in which warhead failed to explode) as dangerous. Do not handle. Have them
destroyed in place by authorized personnel (TM 9-1300-206).
5-15
C1, TM 9-1300-200
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5-16
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 6
GRENADES
Section I. INTRODUCTION
6-1. General
6 2. Classification
A grenade is a small missile weighing between one and
1-1/2 pounds. Filled with high explosive or chemical, it
is used against enemy personnel or materiel at relatively
short ranges. There are two types: hand grenades and
rifle grenades (fig. 6-1). For detailed information on
hand and rifle grenades, see TM 9-1330-200-12 , TM 91330-200-34, and FM 23-30.
a. The hand grenade, thrown by the user,
supplements small arms in close combat. It produces
screening smoke and irritating gases and incendiary
effects.
b. The rifle grenade is projected by a specially
designed blank cartridge from a standard Army rifle
equipped with a grenade launcher or adapter. Used
against enemy tanks and for screening and signaling
purposes, it covers ranges between the maximum for
hand grenades and the minimum for mortar projectiles.
a. General. Grenades are classified according to
method of projection as hand or rifle; according to use,
as service, practice or training; and according to filler,
as explosive chemical, illuminating inert or with a
spotting charge filler.
b. Method of Projection. The basic classification of
grenades is according to method of projection. Certain
grenades are designed to be thrown by hand. Others
are designed to be projected from a rifle by means of
grenade launcher and a special grenade launching
cartridge. Certain hand grenades are projected from
rifles by means of grenade projection adapters and
special blank grenade cartridges.
Change 5 6-1
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-1. Representative grenades.
Change 5 6-2
TM 9-1300-200
Section II. HAND GRENADES
6-3. Types
a. Service. Service hand grenades are classified
according to use as fragmentation, offensive, chemical
(burning or bursting) and illuminating.
(1) Fragmentation.
Warning
Do not use fragmentation grenades for
training unless personnel have adequate
cover.
The fragmentation grenade (A, fig. 6-2) has a thin metal
body about the size and shape of a lemon, and weighs
one pound. It is approximately 2.25 inches in diameter
at the center and 3 inches long, unfuzed (3.9 inches
long, fuzed). The body is lined with a notched, wire,
fragmentation coil and contains 6 ounces of
Composition B filler.
This type of grenade was
developed to replace the earlier model fabricated with a
deeply serrated cast iron body (the pineapple World
War I grenade). Fragmentation grenades are fused with
either impact detonating or delay detonating fuzes
composed of a striker, primer and delay charge
detonator. A booster may be included. A safety lever,
curved to conform to the shape of the grenade body, is
hooked to the top of the fuze. The lever is held in place
by a safety pin (pull ring), which protects the striker from
action of the striker spring. In addition, grenades may
have a second safety clip which fits around the lever.
This provides a second means of restraining striker
action. Safety pin removal is required immediately
before the grenade is thrown.
NOTE
The procedure for throwing hand grenades
is described in FM 23-30 and TM 9-1330200-12 and TM 9-1330-200-34.
When the grenade is thrown, the striker, under the force
of the spring, pushes the safety lever free. This permits
the fuze to function either on impact or delay, depending
on the type and model. Grenades fuzed with impact
detonating fuzes are designed to detonate on impact
with the target. However, Impact fuzes also contain a
delay action system which will detonate the grenade
within 3 to 7 seconds after the lever is released. Delay
detonating fuses contain a delay charge which Is ignited
by the primer. The primer, activated by the striker when
the safety lever is released, ignites a delay charge. This
explodes the detonator and the bursting charge after a
4to 5-second delay, fragmenting the grenade body and
the fragmentation coil.
(2) Offensive. Offensive hand grenades (C,
fig.
6-2) are cylindrical and about the size of
fragmentation grenades. This type of grenade has a
press-fiber (cardboard) body loaded with approximately
one-half pound of flaked TNT. It employs a delay
detonating fuze. Since the body of the grenade is
cardboard, the main effect of the grenade is blast.
However, some metal fragments from the fuze may be
projected.
This type of grenade is designed for
demolition, final assault and use in rooms, caves and
other closed areas.
(3) Chemical. The two types of chemical
grenades, burning and bursting, are similar in size and
shape. "hey differ primarily in filler and fuze. A typical
chemical grenade (D, fig. 6-2) has a cylindrical body
about 2% inches in diameter and 4% inches long, with
the top and bottom crimped in place. Two less common
body types, with serrated sides and a tapered end,
describe a sphere and a modified cylinder, respectively.
In burning-typing grenades, there are emission holes
(gas ports) to permit escape of the agent.
(a) Burning.
These grenades are
usually fitted with igniting fuses which function with a
1.2to 2-second delay. Functioning of the fuze ignites
the first-fire (starting) mixture which ignites the filler.
The burning filler creates sufficient pressure to blow the
tape (covering the gas ports) free and allow the
chemical agent to escape. The following chemical
agents are used as fillers:
1. CN-DM-Tear gas (CN), vomiting
agent (DM), smokeless powder:
burns 20 to 60
seconds; used for riot control.
2. CN-Tear gas:
burns 20 to 60
seconds; used for riot control.
3. CS-Eye, nose and throat irritant:
burns 15 to 35 seconds; used for riot control and training
(as a simulated casualty agent).
4. HC-White smoke: burns 105 to 150
seconds; used for signaling.
5. Colored smoke--Green, red, violet,
yellow: burns 50 to 90 seconds; used for signaling.
6. THS-Incendiary thermate: burns 80
seconds at +4,300°F.; used to destroy equipment.
Change 5 6-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-2. Hand grenade types.
Change 5 6-4
TM 9-1300-200
(b) Bursting. These grenades are fuzed with delay
fuzes which contain high-explosive detonators. The
detonators rupture the grenade body and disperse the
filler. There are two types of filler:
1. CN-1-Tear .gas: used in special purpose,
spherical-shaped riot control grenades.
Figure 6-3. Illuminating hand grenade.
Figure 6-4. Hand grenade simulator.
6-5
TM 9-1300-200
igniter charge. The illuminant burns for approximately
25 seconds at 55,000 candlepower, illuminating an area
approximately 200 meters in diameter.
Although this type of grenade functions by bursting, it
creates the same effect as burning grenades.
2. WP-White phosphorus: burns 60
seconds; used for signaling, smoke screening, and for
antipersonnel and incendiary purposes. When WP is
released, it ignites spontaneously on contact with the air,
burning with intense heat and forming a dense white
smoke.
(4) Illuminating. This type of grenade
(fig.
6-3) is used for signaling and battlefield
illumination. Because the illuminant compound burns
with a very hot flame, this type can also be used for
incendiary purposes against flammable targets.
A
typical illuminating grenade is similar in size and
function to burning-type chemical grenades. It consists
of three basic components: a thin, sheet-metal body, an
illuminating charge, and a special, igniter-type fuze.
The igniter consists of a quick-match contained in a
bushing.
The illuminating charge consists of a
pyrotechnic composition, a first-fire composition and an
b. Practice, Training and Simulating.
(1) A typical practice grenade (B, fig. 6-2)
contains a small spotting charge of black powder and is
fuzed with a 4to 5-second delay igniting fuze. This type
of grenade is used to simulate operation and functioning
of service grenades.
(2) Training grenades are unfuzed and
completely inert. They resemble service rounds in size
and shape, and are used for training in handling and
throwing.
(3) Simulators (fig.
6-4) provide realistic
battle noises and effects during troop maneuvers. They
consist of sealed paper tubes containing photoflash
powder, a short piece of time blasting fuse, and a fuse
igniter.
Section III. RIFLE GRENADES
depending on the groove at which the grenade is
placed.
Rifle grenades are fin-stabilized projectiles launched
from rifles equipped with grenade launchers. The
propelling force for the grenade is provided by a special
b. A launcher positioning clip is used to aid in
gas-producing grenade cartridge.
uniform and rapid positioning of multiple grenades fired
from the same position on the launcher. The clip is a
a. A grenade launcher (fig. 6-5) functions as an
5/16-inch, steel strip bent to fit around the launcher. It
extension of the rifle barrel. It is attached to the muzzle
may be moved to different numbered positions on the
by a clip latch fitted over the bayonet stud of the rifle. A
launcher to facilitate rapid fire.
hollow stabilizer tube on the grenade fits over the barrel
c. Grenade cartridges (fig. 6-6) are specially
of the launcher and is secured by a clip retainer spring.
designed blanks which generate a large volume of high
(Some newer model springs are designed to hold the
pressure gas. When the grenade cartridge is fired, this
grenade in position in the rifle barrel without requiring a
gas provides the thrust necessary to propel the rifle
separate launcher.) Numbered annular grooves on the
grenade
from
the
launcher
to
the
target.
barrel of the launcher provide variations in range,
6-4. General
Figure 6-5. Grenade launcher.
6-6
TM 9-1300-200
contains about 12 ounces of high explosive shaped
around a copper cone. The fuze is an electric, pointinitiating, base-detonating type.
A piezo-electric
element in the nose of the grenade provides the power
source for the fuze. On impact, the piezoelectric
element generates and electric current which initiates
the explosive train in the fuze. The main charge is
detonated by a booster. Detonation of the charge
creates a jet of hot gas and metal particles which
penetrate the target.
b.
Smoke rifle grenades are designed
primarily for producing smoke: either for signaling or
screening purposes. One type of smoke grenade, the
white phosphorus (WP) grenade, also has incendiary
capabilities. It may be used to ignite flammable targets
or inflict injury on personnel. There are three basic
types of smoke rifle grenades: the WP smoke grenade,
the colored smoke grenade, and the colored smoke
streamer grenade. The WP smoke grenade functions
on impact, bursting the body and scattering particles of
burning white phosphorus over a large area. The
colored smoke grenade functions on impact, emitting a
cloud of colored smoke for approximately one minute.
The colored smoke streamer grenade functions on
firing, emitting a stream of colored smoke as a trail
during its trajectory.
Figure 6-6. Grenade cartridge.
A 5-point, rose-petal crimp on the wad end of the
cartridge distinguishes grenade cartridges from other
blank rifle cartridges.
(The two types not
interchangeable.)
d. Grenade projection adapters (fig. 6-7) are used
to convert high-explosive and chemical hand grenades
to rifle grenades. A typical adapter consists of a
stabilizer fin assembly. Three springsteel claws on the
stabilizer grip the grenade body. A frangible arming clip
is assembled to one claw. When the grenade is placed
in the adapter, the safety lever of the grenade is
inserted in the arming clip to hold the lever in place until
the grenade is fired. (The safety pin is removed prior to
firing.) On firing, the arming clip moves to the rear,
breaking free from the adapter. This releases the
grenade lever, which initiates the fuze.
c.
Practice rifle grenades are designed for
training personnel in care, handling and use of rifle
grenades prior to training with live or service grenades.
This type of grenade is completely inert (no filler or
fuze). It may be fired to the target with only minimal
effect on the practice target used.
6-5. Types Rifle grenades are classified according to
use as service (fragmentation, high-explosive antitank
and chemical) and practice. Types designed exclusively
for projection by rifle are the high-explosive antitank,
practice and smoke rifle grenades.
d.
Certain fragmentation, chemical and
practice grenades can be changed to rifle grenades by
fitting standard model hand grenades with projection
adapters (fig. 6-7). Colored smoke and WP grenades,
adapted for rifle projection, are illustrated in figures 6-9
and 6-10.
a.
The high-explosive antitank grenade
(fig. 6-8) which is used against tanks and armored
vehicles, consists of a fuze, a body assembly, an
adapter, a stabilizer tube and a fin assembly. The body
6-7
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-7. Projection adapter.
6-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-8. HEAT rifle grenades.
6-9
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-9. Burning-type (colored smoke) rifle grenade.
6-10
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-10. Bursting-type (WP smoke) rifle grenade.
6-11
TM 9-1300-200
Section IV. IDENTIFICATION AND PACKING
6-6. General
b. Marking includes all information required:
(1) For complete identification of contents.
(2) By the Department of Transportation for
shipping, including addresses of consigner and
consignee and shipping designation of the contract.
(3) For handling, storage and use.
c. For detailed information on packing and
marking, refer to TM 9-1330-200.
a. Grenades are packaged and marked in
accordance with pertinent specifications and drawings.
Inner (fiber) and outer packages are designed to
withstand conditions ordinarily encountered in handling,
storage and transportation, and to comply with
Department of Transportation regulations. Packing and
marking data are given in chapter 1; also, in SC
1305/30-IL and SC 1340/ 98-IL. Typical packing and
markings are illustrated in figures 6-11 and 6-12.
6-12
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-11. Typical fiber container for rifle grenades.
6-13
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 6-12. Typical packing boxes for grenades.
6-14
TM 9-1300-200
Section V. PRECAUTIONS IN STORAGE AND HANDLING
6-7. General
Grenades must be handled with care at all times.
Fuzes, particularly, are easily damaged by mishandling
and may become hazardous. Grenades and fuzes,
either stored or issued, should be protected against
moisture and excessive changes in temperature.
6-8. Care and Precautions in Handling
General precautions covering use of ammunition are
outlined in chapter 1 and in TM 9-1300-206 and AR 38563. Specific precautions pertaining to grenades are
contained in TM 9-1300-200-12, TM 9-1300-200-34 and
FM 23-30.
a. Treat all grenades and components as
potentially dangerous, whether fully loaded or those
designated as inert.
b. Avoid striking or dropping, or handling in other
than manner prescribed for explosive loaded (live)
items.
c. Treat inert-loaded grenades and components
with same degree of caution as their explosive or
chemical-loaded (live) counterparts.
d. Do not lift or handle hand grenades by pull ring
attached to safety pin of fuze. Remove safety pin just
before throwing or just before launching if hand grenade
is fitted to grenade-projection adapter, and at no other
time.
e. Once a hand grenade has been inserted into
grenade-projection adapter, do not remove without first
reinserting safety pin.
f. Do not lift or handle rifle grenades by pull ring
attached to safety pin. Handle with care to prevent
damage to stabilizer assembly.
g. Do not place grenade on launcher unless it is
intended to be fired immediately. If grenade is not fired,
render it safe by replacing safety pin before removing it
from launcher.
Section VI. PRECAUTIONS IN FIRING
6-9. General
Detailed information concerning safety precautions to be
observed in firing grenades is contained in AR 385-63,
TM 9-1330-200-12, TM 91330-200-34, and FM 23-30.
6-10. Special Precautions
a. Do not recover live grenades that have failed to
explode (duds). Dispose of duds in, accordance with
provisions of TM 9-1300-206.
b. Use appropriate rifle grenade and prescribed
combination of launcher and cartridge.
c. Assure that hand grenades are attached to
adapter and prescribed combination of launcher and
grenade cartridge is used to launch hand grenades from
rifle.
d. Never launch rifle grenades or adapted hand
grenades with other than special grenade launching
cartridges provided for that purpose.
e. Do not use bulleted cartridge to project grenade
or ground signal from launcher under any
circumstances. Injury to personnel and damage of
weapon may result.
f. Do not pull safety pin until just before throwing
or launching grenade.
g. During safety pin removal, hold safety lever
firmly in place (as prescribed in FM 23-30) until grenade
is thrown, tossed, or placed in position.
h. Silent type fuzes (identified by T-lug which
protrudes from top of fuze to slot in safety lever) are
used in most grenades. Therefore, never consider
projected grenades as duds because no noise, smoke,
or sparks are observed upon release of safety lever.
Change 5 6-15
TM 9-1300-200
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Change 5 6-16
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 7
LAND MINES
7-1. General
A land mine is a device filled with high explosive or
chemicals, intended for placement on the ground or
beneath the surface. It is designed to destroy or
damage vehicles, hinder movement of enemy
personnel, or contaminate strategic areas. It may be
detonated when its target touches or moves near it or by
remote control. Land mines, their components, and
ammunition for simulated boobytraps and land mine fire
are listed in SC 1340/98-1L For technical information on
land mines, see TM 9-1345-203-12&P and TM 43000136; for tactical information, see FM 20-32.
7-2. Classification and Identification
a. Classifications.
Land mines are classified
according to purpose as service or practice, and
according to filler u high explosive, chemical or Inert.
They are further classified according to use as
antipersonnel (APERS) or antitank (AT). An APERS
mine is designed for use against enemy personnel An
AT mine is designed to immobilize or destroy enemy
tanks or other vehicles.
b. Identification.
(1) In the case of service AT mines, the
designation HE (high explosive) appears in the
nomenclature. Practice mines are marked PRACTICE,
INERT OR EMPTY. Nomenclature Is marked on the
Items and on the packing boxes.
(2) Land mines are painted in accordance
with the color coding indicated in chapter 1.
7-3. Service APERS Mines
a. General.
Service APERS mines are used
primarily to restrict or delay movement of enemy foot
troops. These mines consist of an amount of high
explosive, generally less than one pound, In a container
fitted with a fuse. The fuse is activated by pressure or
release of pressure, by pull on a trip wire, or by cutting a
taut trip wire.
b. Fuzes. Functioning of APERS mines is initiated
by various types of fuzes The fuse serves to transform
mechanical action, such as pressure on the fuse or pull
of a trip cord. For example, a detonating fuse provides
an explosive force which detonates the high-explosive
charge. An igniting fuze provides a burning action
which ignites the propelling charge of a bounding-type
APERS mine.
c. Types. APERS mines consist of two basic
types (fig. 7-1):
fragmentation and blast.
Fragmentation types are further defined as bounding,
fixed directional and fixed non-directional.
(1) Bounding type. This type mine (fig. 7-1)
is placed beneath the surface of the ground. When the
mine functions, a fragmentation projectile is expelled
from the mine body. The ascending projectile explodes
at a height of approximately 1 to 2 meters (3 to 6 feet)
above the ground, propelling fragments in all direction.
(2) Fixed-directional type. This type (fig. 7-1)
is placed on the ground or attached to an obstacle, such
as a tree or pole, In the expected path of the enemy (fig.
7-2). When the mine explodes, fragments fan outward
In a 60 degree arc above the ground.
(3) Blast type. This type (figs. 7-1 and 7-4)
depends for effect on direct force developed by
explosion. The mine functions without delay while still
in contact with the enemy who has initiated it. The mine
has an all plastic body and an integral plastic fuze with a
steel firing pin. Because it is practically nonmetallic, the
mine is non-detectable by magnetic mine detectors.
The fuze detonates the main charge directly.
7-4. Practice and Inert APERS Mines
a. General.
Practice mines have the same
features and weight a the service mines they represent.
Practice mines usually contain small quantities of
explosive (usually black powder) or smoke or
noisemaking composition to simulate functioning of a
service mine. Inert mines, which are completely inert,
are used for practice In handling.
Change 5 7-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-1. Representative types of land mines.
Change 5 7-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-2. APERS mine ready for firing:
A---by observer
B---by enemy
7-3
TM 9-1300-200
b. Fuzes.
Practice mines are provided with
practice fuzes having firing mechanisms fitted with
primers and igniters.
When initiated, the firing
mechanism ignites the spotting or propelling charge in
the mine. Inert mines are provided with completely inert
fuzes.
c. Types. Practice APERS mines simulate the
basic type:
(1) Bounding-fragmentation type.
This
practice mine (fig. 7-3) has no projectile. Otherwise, it
has the same metal parts as the corresponding service
mine. Actuation of the firing mechanism causes the
firing pin to hit the primer. The primer ignites a delay
train which burns for 4 or 5 seconds before initiating the
igniter. When the igniter charge ignites the smoke
pellets and expels the mine cap, yellow smoke is
emitted from the igniter tube and smoke pellets.
(2) Deleted.
(3) Nonmetallic practice APERS mine, N17.
This mine (fig7-3.1)is the practice version of mine,
antipersonnel, NM, M14, with integral fuze. The Nl7 like
the N14, is detectable by metallic-type mine detectors,
and is not reusable. Unlike the H14, the M17 provides a
1 to 2 second delay between activation and functioning.
The mine cannot cause injury to the person initiating it
or personnel in the immediate vicinity. To provide the
visible and audible signal required for the practice mine,
the N17 contains an expelling charge, a smoke charge
and two small firecrackers. The expelling charge blows
the fuze portion of the mine and the two firecrackers out
of the ground. The firecrackers function either in the air
or on top of the ground. The smoke charge stays in the
ground and burns for approximately 5 seconds, causing
a smoke cloud to issue from the hole made by the
expelled fuze. The N17 practice mine has the following
characteristics: Force of 20 to 35 pounds applied to the
pressure plate of the armed mine will cause the mine to
function. A man's weight is sufficient to activate a mine
M17 buried to a depth of 1/2inch or less. The N17 is
designed to withstand exposure to alternate freezin8 and
thawing periods. Until the mine is armed, the safety clip
prevents downward motion of the pressure plate. If the
safety clip is removed, the nine remains safe until the
pressure plate is turned from the safe (S) position to the
armed (A) position (fig.7-3.1). This motion disengages
the key lock from the lock ring and turns the pressure
plate clear of the spider, permitting downward motion of
the pressure plate. Any weight on the pressure plate will
then be transmitted to the firing pin spring assembly. If
a weight of 20 to 35 pounds is so applied, the belleville
spring will snap through center, causing the firing pin to
initiate the primer charge. The initiating charge then
ignites the fuse delay which burns for I to 2 seconds
before initiating the igniter. The igniter
Figure 7-3. Typical bounding-type practice APERS
mine.
Change 4 7-4
TM 9-1300-200
initiates the prime charge igniters which in turn initiate
the smoke charge and the firecrackers. The igniter TM
9-1300-200 also initiates the expelling charge which
blows the fuze assembly out of the ground.
Figure 7-3.1. Typical nonmetallic practice APERS mine.
b. Fuzes and Other Components. Fuzes are used
to activate AT mines. The fuze functions when a load is
applied to the fuze pressure plate. Pressure on the
a. General. Service AT mines (fig. 7-5 and 74) are
plate causes the firing pin to be driven Into the fuze
explosive devices placed on, or slightly below the
detonator, exploding it. In turn, this explodes the
surface of the ground. They are used primarily to
booster and the main charge.
AT mines employ
restrict or delay movement of enemy vehicles. AT
boosters to amplify the explosive force of the detonator
mines will usually destroy a small unarmored vehicle.
In the fuze and to assure initiation of the main charge in
Although they may not always destroy an armored tank,
the mine. Most AT mines are provided with secondary
AT mines can be relied on to Incapacitate it, usually by
fuze wells for use in boobytrapping. A secondary fuze
damaging Its tracks Unless they are run across, heavy
usually consists of a standard firing device threaded Into
AT mines are usually not dangerous to foot troops.
an activator (fig. 7-7) which serves as an adapterHowever, by use of secondary fuze wells and suitable
detonator for the firing device. These activators are
firing devices, AT mines can be boobytrapped. Most AT
essentially detonator-boosters. The activator performs
mines are of the blast type. They depend on the force
the function of an adapter for the firing device.
developed by the explosion to break tank tracks or
e. Types. Service AT mines consist of four basic
propel a mass of steel upwards into the tank. AT mine
types:
heavy metallic, heavy nonmetallic, light
and fuse technical data, details of construction, and
(obsolete) and off route.
methods of handling Individual mines are covered in TM
9-1345-203-12&P
Performance and tactical use are
covered in FM 20-32.
Change 5 7-4.1
7-5. Service AT Mines
TM 9-1300-200
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Change 5 7-4.2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-4. Nonmetallic APERS mine.
(1) Heavy metallic type. Heavy metallic nines
derive effectiveness against armor from ,energy
produced by the high-explosive charge.
This propels a mass of steel in an upward direction at a
velocity sufficient to penetrate the tank armor.
(2) Heavy nonmetallic type. Mines of this
type (fig. 7-8) derive effectiveness from energy
produced by the high-explosive charge. This creaks or
damages tank tracks. This mine cannot e detected with
small magnetic detectors.
(3) Light type. The light AT mine (fig. 7-9) s
intended for use against light tanks and vehicles. By
use of secondary fuze wells and firing devices, it can be
adapted for boobytrapping.
This nine derives its
effectiveness from the blast effect produced by
explosion of the high-explosive charge.
(4) Off-route type. The off-route mine (fig. 710) is intended for use against heavy-duty, wheeled and
tracked vehicles (tanks, etc.). It employs a rocket
launcher containing a HEAT pocket. The launcher is
mounted approximately 50 o 100 feet off the route or
line of target travel. It is initiated by a pressure-actuated
tape stretched cross the target route. Pressure on
adjacent segments of the tape closes electrical circuitry
to a ring device which fires the rocket. The rockets
Figure 7-5. Heavy AT mine
Change 4 7-5
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-6. Heavy AT mine, with fuze installed – cross section.
7-6. Practice AT Mines
a. General. Practice AT mines are of the same
size, shape, weight and casing material as the service
mines they simulate. These practice mines contain no
high explosive. However, they do contain small smokepuff and noisemaking charges of low explosive (black
powder or pyrotechnic composition) to simulate
explosion of the service mine. Practice mines are used
for training in identification, care, handling and use of
service AT mines.
b. Fuzes. Practice mines are fitted with fuzes
which contain igniter charges and a smoke composition.
The fuze functions like the service fuze. However, in
the practice fuze, the igniter charge ignites the smoke
composition. This explodes, emitting a cloud of smoke
and creating a noise.
c. Types. Practice mines simulate the two basic
service types: heavy metallic and light. Representative
heavy and light types are illustrated in figures 7-11 and
7-12.
Figure 7-7. AT mine activator.
7-7. Boobytrapping and Improvisation
a. Boobytrapping AT Mine. A boobytrapping AT
mine equipped with an anti-removal device (fig. 7-13) is
one that, in addition to its main fuze, is fitted with one or
more secondary fuzes. These are intended to act as an
anti-lift device and to cause the mine to explode when
an attempt is
are capable of tank armor penetration. Deployment of
the pressure-actuated tape in a plane perpendicular to
the line of target travel will activate the mine against
wheeled or tracked vehicles. Deployment of the tape at
a slight angle (about 15°) to the perpendicular will
activate the mine only against tracked vehicles. This
allows for a degree of target discrimination.
7-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-8. Nonmetallic AT mine and fuze.
made by the enemy to remove the mine. In the case of
heavy service or practice AT mines, a secondary fuze
consists of a firing device (para 7-9) and the appropriate
activator (fig. 7-7). In the case of a light service or
practice AT mine, a secondary fuze consists of a firing
device fitted with a non-electric blasting cap. Secondary
fuzes may be
fitted to an AT mine or to another mine or explosive
charge laid beneath or beside it. Mines or charges and
firing devices in such an arrangement are connected by
wires and so laid as to avoid detection. Thus, attempted
removal by an unsuspecting enemy causes the whole
arrangement to explode.
7-7
TM 9-1300-200
b. Improvisation. All types of land mines are
subject to a variety of improvised uses: in combination
with each other; with all types of explosive charges and
firing devices; with bombs or artillery projectiles or with
dummy mines.
7-8. Chemical Mines and Incendiary Bursters
a. Chemical Mines. Chemical mines are used for
contaminating purposes. Exploded either by remote
control or by trip action, these mines spread chemical
agents in either liquid or vapor form.
(1) One type of chemical mine, consisting of a
rectangular, one-gallon metal can (fig. 7-1), has two
short copper wires soldered to one of its sides. These
wires are used for attaching a burster (detonating cord).
The mine contains a liquid chemical agent. Functioning
of the burster bursts the mine (can) and disperses the
chemical agent over a wide area.
(2) The second type of chemical mine is similar in
appearance and functioning to an AT mine. When
activated by the fuze, the mine explodes, spreading a
nerve agent.
Figure 7-9. Light AT mine and fuze.
Figure 7-10. Off-route AT mine.
7-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-11. Practice heavy AT mine.
Figure 7-12. Inert light AT mine and inert fuze.
Figure 7-13. Installation of a boobytrapped AT
mine.
b. Incendiary Burster. An incendiary burster (fig.
7-14) is used, primarily, with field-improvised incendiary
munitions. When immersed in a container (5-gallon
can, used shell case, 55-gallon drum) filled with
thickened fuel, the burster will
rupture the container and scatter flaming fuel over a
large area. The burster can be fired either electrically or
mechanically: by fuze, blasting cap, detonating cord or
any standard boobytrap firing device.
7-9
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-14. Incendiary burster.
well trained troops. All types of mines must be handled
with care at all times.
a. As fuzes, primers, detonators, activators and
firing devices contain particularly sensitive explosives,
protect boxes containing these items against shock,
friction and high temperatures. Ground to prevent
accumulation of static electricity.
b.
Protect mines and components in their
packings against moisture.
c. Raise packed mines stacked in the open on
dunnage. Cover with double thickness of paulin. Leave
enough space all around stack for circulation of air.
Support paulins so as to provide 12inch space between
top layer of mines and paulins.
d. Do not open packing boxes containing mines
or components within 100 feet of any magazine, or at
any ammunition dump. Preferably, in unpacking and
repacking operations, use safety non-sparking tools
made of copper or wood.
e. Do not remove safety pins, safety forks, safety
clips and similar devices for preventing initiation of mine
while being handled, until just
7-9. Firing Devices
A firing device is used to initiate a train of fire for
detonation of demolition charges, boobytraps or mines
usually, but not necessarily, as part of a nonelectric
system. A firing device is a separate item of issue. It
must be requisitioned separately from land mines, or
from demolition charges, which are used for making
improvised land mines. Firing devices are of two
general shapes: tubular and box. Initiating actions for
firing devices are shown in figure 7,15. When a firing
device is used as a secondary fuze for boobytrapping
heavy AT mines, a blasting cap is not used. The base
coupling of the firing device is threaded directly into a
secondary fuze well of the mine into which an activator
has been assembled. When a firing device is used with
APERS mines or light AT mines, a blasting cap is used
with the firing device. Inert devices are provided for
training.
7-10. Care and Precautions in Handling
Laying APERS and AT mines and installing antiremoval devices, boobytrapping and improvisations are
specialized operations performed only by
7-10
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-15. Representative methods of using firing devices in boobytrap installation.
Change 5 7-11
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 7-18. Heavy AT mine as shipped
Figure 7-16. Packing box for an APERS mine.
Figure 7-17. Packing box for an APERS practice
mine and replacement parts.
before arming. In disarming armed mines, restore
safety devices, as prescribed in TM 9-1345-20312&P
and FM 20-32.
f. In employment of inert mines for training in
handling, and of practice mines for simulating actual
service conditions, observe rules, regulations and
precautions that pertain to high-explosive service mines.
Figure 7-19. Metal packing box for 8 AT mines and
8 AT mine fuzes or 12 light AT practice mines
without fuze.
7-11. Packing and Marking
a. APERS Mines. Bounding APERS mines are
packed with fuzes and spools of steel wire in cartons.
The cartons are overpacked in wooden boxes stained
light brown, with marking in yellow, or unstained, with
marking in black (fig. 7-16). Nonmetallic APERS mines
are packed in cartons overpacked in wooden boxes
which also contain detonators and wrenches. Practice
APERS mines are packed in wooden boxes which have
markings in black, a blue center band and blue vertical
end cleats, or in unpainted boxes, with markings in black
(fig. 7-17).
b. AT Mines. AT mines, together with fuzes and
activators each in individual metal containers, are
packed in wooden boxes (fig. 7-18). Wooden boxes
Change 5 7-12
TM 9-1300-200
boxes. Boxes are painted with a blue band around the
center and have blue cleats on the ends. Both service
and practice activators are also packed, each in an
individual metal container, in wooden boxes. Inert
mines without fuzes and without activators are packed in
wooden boxes.
containing high-explosive mines are stained light brown,
with markings in yellow, or are unstained, with markings
in black. Metal boxes are painted olive drab, with
markings in yellow. Practice AT mines (fig. 7-19),
together with fuzes in individual metal containers, are
packed in wooden
7-13
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 8
DEMOLITION MATERIALS
8-1. General
a. The term, demolition materials, covers a
variety of explosive charges and related equipment. It
also includes initiating devices and other explosive and
nonexplosive equipment. These materials function in
destruction of earthworks, fortifications, railroads, dams,
bridges and buildings, and in excavation for construction
projects. Demolition materials are also employed to
clear mine fields. For the convenience of military units
performing, or in training for demolition work, certain
demolition materials are grouped into kits and mineclearing devices.
b. Demolition materials, components, auxiliary
items and kits for service and training, together with
packing data, are listed in SC 1340/98-IL. For complete
technical information on demolition materials, see TM 91375-213-12, TM 9-1375-21334 and TM 43-0001-38.
For tactical information pertaining to demolition
materials, see FM 5-250.
items, containers and carrying attachments. They are
intended for special demolition tasks.
Demolition
training kits are designed for such demolition operations
as mine-field clearing or preparation of excavations.
d. Mine-Clearing Devices. These are long,
slender explosive charges which are projected into
minefields and detonated in order to clear a path
through the field.
Two basic types are used:
(1) Rocket-towed line charge.
This is a
flexible line charge towed out over the mine field by
rocket, and allowed to fall onto the field.
(2) Demolition projected charge
(snake).
This is a long, semirigid metal-encased charge. It is
assembled on the edge of the minefield and pushed out
onto the field by tank.
8-3. Demolition Charges
8-2. Classification
Demolition materials are classified according to
composition as explosive or nonexplosive; according to
use, as service or training; and according to type, as
demolition charges, priming and initiating material,
demolition equipment kits and mine-clearing devices.
a. Demolition Charges. These consist of high
explosives in various sizes and shapes. They are used
as the main charge with certain detonating devices, as
in the case of demolition blocks or commercial dynamite
sticks for general demolition. They are also used in the
form of charges for special mechanical apparatus, such
as mineclearing devices.
b. Priming and Initiating Materials. These consist
of explosive and nonexplosive, electric and mechanical
equipment and accessories. They are used to initiate
demolition charges.
c. Demolition Equipment Kits. These kits are
made up of selected explosive and nonexplosive
Change 5
These charges are used in general demolition
operations, such as cutting, breaching and cratering.
They are composed of high-velocity explosives RDX,
PETN, amatol, composition B, composition C series,
tetrytol and TNT, and the low-velocity explosive
ammonium nitrate. Most charges are made in the form
of rectangular blocks. Some are made in cylindrical
form, such as the 1/4-pound TNT charge. Recent
studies show that a thinner layer of explosive spread out
over a larger area is more efficient than a thick block of
the same weight. In line with these studies, newer
demolition charges are thinner than the older charges
and are fitted with pressure-sensitive adhesive on one
side for quick emplacement on practically any surface.
a. Cutting and Breaching Types.
(1) Tetrytol blocks. These blocks (fig. 8-1),
composed of 75 percent tetryl and 25 percent TNT,
have a threaded cap well in each end and a tetryl
booster pellet. The threaded cap well is designed to
receive a detonator, a primed firing device, or a priming
adapter with an electric or nonelectric blasting cap.
Tetrytol blocks are effec8-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-1. Tetrytol demolition block.
tive as a cutting or breaching charge but not as a
cratering charge. Tetrytol is only slightly soluble in
water. It is brittle and breaks very easily. Each block is
wrapped in olive-drab, asphalt-impregnated paper.
(2) Composition C2 or CS blocks. These
blocks (fig. 8-2) are plastic explosives. They may be
molded at temperatures between -20°F. and +125°F.
Although composition charges are difficult to mold at
temperatures below freezing, body heat can keep the
material pliable. Gases emitted, however, under these
conditions, cause sickening headaches. Plasticity of the
material permits it to be molded by hand, like putty;
confinement of the material, as in the case of packing it
into irregular-shaped objects, gives it high demolition
efficiency. Insoluble in water, block demolition charges
of composition C2 and C3 are suitable for underwater
demolition. Initiation may be by detonating cord tied in
a double knot, with the plastic explosive molded into a
ball around the knot or by a special blasting cap inserted
into the explosive.
(3) Composition C4 blocks. Composition C4
has many advantages over composition C3: It is more
powerful; it may be molded over a broader range of
temperatures (-70°F. to +170°F.); it is more stable, less
sticky and will not adhere to
hands; and it is less subject to water erosion when used
for underwater work. This explosive is issued in thin
blocks (fig. 8-3) or packed in white plastic containers
with a threaded cap well in each end.
(4) TNT blocks. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is one
of the most powerful of military explosives. It has a high
detonating velocity and is therefore used in general
demolitions for cutting and breaching. It can be burned
in the open in small quantities without exploding. It is
relatively insensitive to shock. TNT is insoluble in water
and can be used in underwater charges. TNT block
demolition charges are available in three sizes: 1/4
pound, 1/2 pound and 1 pound. The 1/4-pound block
demolition charge is issued in a cylindrical, olive-drab,
plastic container. The 1/2-pound and 1-pound charges
are issued in rectangular, olivedrab, plastic containers.
All three have threaded cap wells at one end to receive
detonators, primed firing devices, and priming adapters
with electric or nonelectric special blasting caps.
b. Cratering Type. Ammonium nitrate or H-6
blocks (fig. 8-4) are used for cratering operations.
Ammonium nitrate is the least sensitive of military
explosives. It has a low detonating velocity and is,
Change 5 8-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-2. Plastic demolition charges.
Figure 8-3. Composition C4 block charge.
therefore, unsuitable for cutting and breaching.
However, the low detonating velocity produces a
pushing or heaving effect. This makes it well suited for
cratering and ditching operations.
c. Shaped Demolition Charges. These charges
consist of cylindrical blocks of high explosive. They
have a conical or hemispherical, metal-lined cavity in
one end, and a conical shape with
8-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-4. Cratering-type block demolition charge.
8-4
TM 9-1300-200
filled ordnance by initiating low-order detonation. When
containers are filled with plastic explosive, the liners
mold the explosive to produce a shaped charge.
Shaped demolition charge containers, available in
several shapes and sizes, are designed for various
types of operations.
blasting cap well at the other end. Detonation of the
charge starts at the cap well and travels to the cavity.
There, the detonation wave is focused to produce a
narrow concentrated detonation jet. This results in
penetration greater than that produced without the
cavity. With this effect, called Munroe effect, boreholes
can be blasted in steel, concrete and similar material.
Maximum penetration of a shaped charge is obtained
when it is exploded at a certain characteristic distance,
called standoff, from its target. Standoff is provided for
by a fiber sleeve or metal legs supporting the charge at
the time of firing. See TM 9-1375-200 for precautions in
use of shaped charges.
(1) 15-Pound shaped demolition charge. This
charge (fig. 8-5) consists of an explosive charge of
Composition B and a 50/50 pentolite booster in a
moisture-resistant fiber container. The top of the charge
has a threaded cap well for receiving a blasting cap and
adapter or any standard firing device. A cylindrical fiber
base slips on the end of the charge to hold the charge at
the proper standoff distance. The cavity liner is a cone
of highdensity glass. This charge will pierce 36 inches
of reinforced concrete. In a wall of greater thickness, it
will produce a hole 30 inches deep and 2 to 31/2 inches
in diameter.
(2) 40-Pound shaped demolition charge.
This charge (fig. 86) consists of a larger quantity of
Composition B than the 15-pound charge, and a 50/50
pentolite booster in a metal container. The cavity liner
is made of metal. A threaded cap well is provided for
receiving a blasting cap and adapter or any standard
firing device. A metal tripod for gaging correct standoff
distance is shipped unassembled, nested with the
charge in the same container.
This charge will
penetrate 60 inches of reinforced concrete, producing a
hole tapering from 5 inches to 21/2 inches in diameter.
(3) Shaped demolition charge containers.
These containers are used in opening explosive-
d. Dynamite. Dynamite, the most common com-
Figure 8-6.
Figure 8-5. 15-Pound shaped demolition charge.
8-5
40-Pound shaped demolition charge.
TM 9-1300-200
mercial high explosive, may be one of several types:
straight dynamite, ammonia dynamite, ammonia gelatin
dynamite and gelatin dynamite.
These types are
produced in various grades designated by a weightstrength marking expressed as a percentage. Dynamite
is exploded by a No. 6 (or larger) commercial blasting
cap or by military blasting caps termed Special.
Dynamite is normally issued in paraffin-treated paper
cartridges (also called sticks), packed 50 pounds per
wooden box. The standard cartridge size is 11/4 inches
in diameter by 8 inches long. The number of cartridges
per box varies in inverse proportion to the density of the
particular type and grade of dynamite. A cartridge of
40-percent dynamite for example, 11/4 inches in
diameter by 8 inches long, weighs approximately 1/2
pound.
(1) Straight dynamite.
The percentage
designation of straight dynamite is the percent, by
weight, of nitroglycerin it contains. (In other than
straight dynamite, the percentage indicates equal
strength, weight for weight, with straight dynamite
containing that percent of nitroglycerin.) Straight
dynamite consists of nitroglycerin absorbed in a porous
material
that
contains
other
energy-producing
ingredients. Increasing the percent of nitroglycerin
decreases the amount of other energy-producing
ingredients. Hence, the actual blasting power of the
dynamite does not increase directly with an increase in
the percentage designation. Fifty to sixty percent
straight dynamite is roughly equivalent to TNT and may
be substituted for it. This dynamite does not resist water
as well as TNT, but may be used under water if fired
within 24 hours after submersion.
(2) Ammonia dynamite.
In ammonia
dynamite, part of the nitroglycerin is replaced by
ammonium nitrate. This change in composition results
in less poisonous fumes, less fragmentation and less
water resistance than for straight dynamite of the same
strength. Ammonia dynamite is not satisfactory for
underwater use.
(3) Ammonia gelatin dynamite. This is a
plastic dynamite that has an explosive base of
nitrocotton dissolved in nitroglycerin with ammonium
nitrate added. It produces less poisonous fumes than
straight dynamite, which it equals in water resistance.
(5) Gelatin dynamite. This dynamite is a
plastic type that has an explosive base of nitrocotton
dissolved in nitroglycerin. It is insoluble in water. Its
high velocity, when confined, produces a quick,
shattering action. It is used for submarine blasting and
blasting in extremely hard rock.
8-4. Priming and Initiating Materials
These materials comprise the initiating and priming
components, accessories and tools used in conjunction
with demolition charges. The variety of initiating and
priming components and accessories available permits
considerable flexibility in the design of demolition
rounds. Thus, specific demolition projects may be
accomplished with the efficiency and safety appropriate
to the tactical situation.
a. Initiating Component. The initiating component
is that component which receives the initiating action,
such as a pull on a fuse igniter. Initiating components
include time blasting fuse and igniters, firing devices
and blasting machines. Detonators combine functions
of initiating and priming components.
b. Priming Component. The priming component
is that component which receives the action initiated by
the initiating component. The action may be a flame or
an electrical impulse. Priming components include
destructors, detonating cord and blasting caps.
8-5. Detonators
a. General. Detonators are explosive devices
sensitive to mechanical initiation. They are used to
detonate explosive charges.
Detonators combine
functions of firing devices and blasting caps in a single
unit. They may or may not incorporate a time-delay
mechanism. Detonators used in demolition work are
classified according to initiating action as friction,
percussion and concussion.
b. Types.
(1) Delay friction type.
Delay friction
detonators (fig. 8-7 and 8-8) consist of a cylindrical,
olive-drab, plastic housing containing a pull wire coated
with friction material. The pull wire is set in a flash
compound. A tube set in the lower end of the housing
contains either an 8-second or 15second delay fuse.
The tube also contains a small detonator charge about
the size of a blasting cap. Markings on the surfaces of
the delay housings and the type of pull rings distinguish
the 8-second and 15-second delay detonators. The 8second type has a T-shaped pull ring; the 15-second
type has a circular pull ring. With the safety pin
removed, pulling on the pull ring draws the coated wire
through the flash compound. The flash ignites the delay
fuse. At the end of the delay period, the burning fuse
initiates the attached detonator charge.
8-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-7.
8-Second delay friction detonator.
Figure 8-8.
15-Second delay friction detonator.
8-7
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-9.
8-Second delay percussion detonator.
are supplied with the detonator. The blue tablet gives a
delay of approximately 31/2 minutes; the yellow, a delay
of approximately 7 minutes.
(2) Delay percussion type. Delay percussion
detonators (fig. 89 and 8-10) consist of a two-section
cylindrical body with a firing pin assembly joined to a
delay housing and primer assembly. A special blasting
cap is crimped to an integral coupling base on one end
of the delay and primer assembly. With the safety pin
removed, a pull on the pull ring releases the firing pin.
The firing pin strikes the percussion primer. The flame
ignites the delay charge. At the end of the delay period,
the burning delay charge fires the blasting cap.
(3) Concussion detonator kit. The concussion
detonator kit is essentially a mechanical firing device
with a blasting cap attached. The kit is actuated by a
detonation wave from a high-explosive blast. Several
demolition charges fitted with this type of firing device,
in water or air, can be fired simultaneously when within
range of the blast from an initiating charge or within
range of each other. Demolition charges so fitted and
placed need not be connected by detonating cord or
other firing arrangements. A concussion wave strong
enough to overcome the snap diaphragm causes the
detonator, when armed, to function. For safety while
arming the device in water, blue and yellow watersoluble, time-delay, salt tablets
8-6. Explosive Destructors
a. General. Explosive destructors are used to
adapt ammunition and other explosive material, which
cannot be reliably detonated by special blasting caps,
for use in demolition work, boobytraps and improvised
mines. Explosive destructors are also used to destroy
deteriorated or abandoned ammunition.
b. Types.
(1) Universal explosive destructor.
The
universal explosive destructor (fig. 8-11) is a high
explosive charge initiated by means of blasting caps or
mine actuators and standard firing devices.
The
destructor is essentially an adapter booster with a
threaded bushing that will fit in 1.5-, and 1.7-, and 2-inch
standard, right-hand threaded fuze cavities. It is used in
preparing loaded projectiles and bombs as improvised
mines, boobytraps and demolition charges. It is also
used by disposal units to destroy deteriorated or
abandoned ammunition. The destructor is composed of
8-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-10. 15-Second delay percussion detonator
Figure 8-11. Universal explosive destructor
8-9
TM 9-1300-200
a plastic closing plug, standard priming adapter, blasting cap bushing, activator bushing, two booster cups (containing
tetryl pellets) and an ammunition bushing. Booster cavities of bombs large projectiles should be filled completely by
adding booster caps to the destructor, as required.
(2) Explosive destructor. The explosive destructor (fig. 8-12) consists of an explosive-filled, cylindrical body
with a removable ogive. The ogive may be removed and discarded if not needed for a particular operation. This
destructor is primed with a delay detonator, a delay firing device with special blasting cap, a nonelectric special blasting
cap initiated with time blasting fuse or detonating cord, or an electric special blasting cap. The cap well, on each end of
the body, is threaded to accept firing device coupling bases or priming adapters.
8-7. Time Blasting Fuse Igniters
These igniters are initiating components used in place of matches to light time blasting fuses. Fuse igniters are usually
more reliable than matches. Use of igniters, therefore, is almost mandatory in rainy and windy weather. Fuse igniters
consist of two types: friction and weatherproof.
a. Friction type. A friction, time-blasting, fuse igniter (fig. 8-13) consists of a paper tube containing friction powder.
Prongs inside the open end of the fuse igniter permit the time-blasting fuse to be inserted but prevent removal, except by
force. A pull on the loop or handle at the closed end of the igniter mechanically ignites the friction compound. This, in
turn, fires the powder in the fuse.
b. Weatherproof. A weatherproof, time blasting, fuse igniter (fig. 8-14) consists of a barrel that holds the firing
mechanism, and a coupling base that contains a percussion cap primer and has a pronged fuse retainer. Plastic sealing
material is used to waterproof the joint of the time blasting fuse and fuse igniter. When the release pin is pulled, the
firing pin strikes a percussion cap primer. This, in turn, ignites the fuse. This igniter will ignite the smooth surfaced fuse
under any weather conditions, also under water.
8-8. Time Blasting Fuse
Time blasting fuse is used to transmit a flame from a match or igniter to a nonelectric blasting cap or other explosive
charge. This fuse also provides a time delay during which personnel may retire from the danger zone. Time blasting
fuse consists of two types: a corrugated, outer-surface type and a plastic-cover, outer-surface type (fig. 8-15 and 8-16).
The latter type has single bands painted at 1-foot or 18-inch intervals and double yellow bands painted at 5-foot or 90inch intervals, depending on the time of manufacture. Both fuses are similar, however, in use and functioning. The fuse
is used in demolitions on land and underwater. When ignited by a match or a
Figure 8-12. Explosive destructor.
8-10
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-13. Friction time-blasting fuse igniter.
Figure 8-14. Weatherproof time-blasting fuse igniter
time-blasting fuse igniter, the black powder of the time blasting fuse transmits a flame to a nonelectric blasting cap that
may be installed in a demolition charge. The 40 seconds per foot, however, will vary for the same or different roll under
different atmospheric and/or climatic conditions, from a burning time of 30 seconds or less per foot to 45 seconds or
more per foot. When used under water, the rate of burning is increased significantly. Therefore, each roll of fuse must
be tested shortly before use.
8-9. Detonating Cord
Detonating cord (fig. 817) may be used as a detoChange 5
8-11
TM 9-1300-200
nonelectric, should be used to initiate detonating cord.
When properly initiated, detonating cord will explode
over its entire length and detonate any properly
connected demolition charge.
Figure 8-15. Time-blasting fuse (safety fuse)
Figure 8-16. Time-blasting fuse.
nating agent, a primary agent, or alone as an explosive
charge. It may be used for detonating single or multiple
charges. It will transmit a detonating wave from one
point to another at a rate of at least 5,900 meters per
second. Detonating cord consists of a core of PETN in
a textile tube coated with a layer of asphalt. The asphalt
layer has an outer textile cover which is finished with a
wax gum composition or plastic coating. See TM 91375-213-12 and TM 91375-213-34 for various
detonating cords available. A blasting cap, electric or
8-10. Firing Device and Components
a. General. A firing device is designed to initiate a
train of fire or detonation of demolition charges,
boobytraps or mines, principally by initiation of a
nonelectric blasting cap or a mine activator. It is a
separate item of issue and is packed in its own box.
Firing devices are of two general types: tubular and
box. The coupling base, fitted to all types, has a
standard thread and nipple and always contains a
percussion cap primer. The coupling base may be
removable or permanently attached (as in the pullfriction and delay types), depending on firing device
model. Firing devices may be used interchangeably, as
indicated by the task to be accomplished. They may be
used with demolition charges and heavy antitank mines
(if fitted to activators), light antitank mines or
destructors. When a firing device is used with a service
activator or a practice activator (see TM 9-1345-20312&P), a blasting cap cannot be used. When used with
light antitank service mines or with demolition charges
or a universal destructor, a firing device requires a
crimped-on blasting cap.
b. Types.
(1) Tubular type.
Tubular firing devices,
consisting generally of head, case, coupling base and
percussion cap primer, are arranged for actuation by
pressure, pull, release of pull or chemical action.
(a) The delay-type demolition firing
device (fig. 8-18) is a chemical device used with
delayaction mines and demolition blocks. It contains a
glass capsule filled with corrosive liquid, located in a
thin-walled portion of the case. An identification and
safety strip, color-coded to indicate the delay time of the
device, is visible through an inspection hole in the
coupling base. The nominal delay time (at +75°F.) is
color-coded as follows: 9 minutes, 'black; 15 minutes,
red; 1 hour, white; 21/2 hours, green; 51/2 hours, yellow;
and 11½ /2 hours, blue. The nominal delay time is
subject to temperature correction in accordance with a
table furnished with the firing device.
(b) The pressure-type demolition firing
device (fig. 8-19) is used in setting up boobytraps. On
removal of the safety pin between the firing pin and
primer, a pressure of about 20 pounds on
Change 5 8-12
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-17. Typical detonation cord
Figure 8-18. Delay-type demolition firing device
8-13
TM 9-1300-200
the pressure cap acts to release the spring-loaded firing
pin that fires the primer.
(c) The
pull-friction
type,
which
contains a friction-initiated primer, is actuated by a pull
wire. This type is used in setting up boobytraps. The
body is plastic and the base is nonremovable. A coated
wire, to which a spring and pull ring are attached,
passes through the body, and through the friction
compound into a nipple on the base. A direct pull of 3 to
11 pounds on the trip wire (pull wire) stretches the
spring. This draws the coated wire through the friction
compound. As a result, the friction compound ignites.
(d) The pull-release type (fig. 820) is a
mechanical device actuated by either an increase (pull)
or a decrease (release) of tension in a taut trip wire.
This type is used with antipersonnel mines or in setting
up boobytraps. Either a direct pull of 6 to 10 pounds on
the trip wire or a release of tension (such as cutting or
detaching the trip wire) releases the spring-loaded firing
pin that fires the primer.
(e) The pull type is a mechanical
device actuated by a pull on a trip wire (fig. 8-21). This
type is used with some antipersonnel mines or for
boobytrapping antitank mines. A direct pull of 3
Figure 8-19. Pressure-type demolition firing device
Figure 8-20. Pull-release type demolition firing device
8-14
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-22. Pressure-release type demolition firing
device
(b) The release-type firing device (fig. 8-23)
is used in setting up boobytraps. A restraining weight of
at least three pounds is applied on the top face of the
latch at the time of installation. After the safety pin has
been removed, displacement of the restraining weight
releases the latch. This allows a spring lever to actuate
the firing pin that strikes the primer.
Figure 8-21. Pull-type demolition firing device
to 5 pounds on the trip wire releases the springloaded
firing pin that fires the primer.
(2) Box type. Box-type firing devices, consisting of
a rectangular steel body and primed coupling base, are
actuated by release of pressure.
(a) The pressure-release-type firing device
(fig. 822) is a mechanical device used to activate
antitank mines equipped with supplementary fuze wells
(cap wells). This type is also used for general boobytrap
installations with charges having a threaded capwell.
This device is activated by a spring-loaded firing pin,
which fires the primer, when a restraining load of at least
5 pounds is removed from the release plate.
Change 5
(3) Inert firing devices. Inert firing devices used for
training purposes are to be employed in exactly the
same manner and with the same care and precautions
as the explosive items they simulate. It is essential that
personnel in training fully understand the procedures
and instructions given in the manuals pertaining to
explosives and firing devices, see TM 9-1375-213-12,
TM 9-1375-213-34 and FM 5-250.
(4) Percussion cap primers. When struck by a
firing pin, percussion cap primers (fig. 824) produce a
small, intense flame to initiate a blasting cap or igniter
charge. The primer body is a flanged copper or gildingmetal cup with a hole in the bottom. The body contains
an inner inverted cup, an initiating charge and an anvil.
8-15
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-23. Release-Type demolition firing device
Figure 8-24. Percussion primer
Figure 8-25. Blasting caps
Firing devices are issued with this type of primer
installed in the coupling base. The primer is also issued
separately for repriming firing devices used with practice
mines and boobytraps.
(5) Blasting caps. Commercial and Army
blasting caps, electric and nonelectric, are used to
initiate explosives (fig. 8-25). Army types consist of a
thin, tubular, metallic shell about 21/2 inches long and
1/4-inch in diameter filled with small charges of
sensitive high explosives. In priming, the caps are
inserted directly into the cap wells of demolition
explosives. The electric cap has wires for attachment to
a blasting machine; the nonelectric cap may be crimped
to any standard firing device. Nonelectric caps may
also be crimped to safety fuse (time blasting fuse) fitted
Change 5
with a fuse igniter, or crimped to detonating cord.
Special Army caps, electric and nonelectric, loaded with
pentaerythrite (PETN), are used to detonate the less
sensitive military explosives, such as TNT and
ammonium nitrate. Commercial caps may be used to
detonate the more sensitive explosives, such as
dynamite, gelatin dynamite or nitrostarch. For detailed
information on blasting caps, see FM 5-250, TM 9-1375213-12 and TM 9-1375-213-34.
c. Miscellaneous Accessories and Tools.
(1) Priming adapter. The explosive priming
adapter (fig. 8-26) is a small, hollow, plastic, hexagonalhead cylinder that is threaded on one end.
8-16
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-26. Use of explosive priming adapter.
The adapter simplifies priming of military explosives
having threaded cap wells. The adapter may be used
with an electric blasting cap, with a nonelectric blasting
cap and safety fuse or with detonating cord.
Change 5
(2) Detonating cord clip. The detonating cord
clip is a small metal device used to join detonating cord.
(3) Waterproof
blasting
cap
sealing
compound. Waterproof blasting cap sealing compound
8-17
TM 9-1300-200
is used to moistureproof the connection between a
nonelectric blasting cap and safety fuse.
This
compound is also used to moistureproof dynamite
primers. The compound does not make a permanent
waterproof seal. The newer compound is an RTV (room
temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber which seals
better but takes longer to set up.
(4) Electric wire and cable. Single-conductor
No. 20 AWG annunciator wire is issued for making
connections between electric blasting caps or between
cap and firing wire. The No. 18 AWG twoconductor
table is the standard firing wire and is carried on 500foot firing wire reels.
(5) Blasting galvanometer.
The blasting
galvanometer is used to test electrical firing wire
circuits. It contains an electromagnet, a small, special,
silver chloride dry cell, and a scale with an indicator
needle. This device is being replaced by the M51
blasting cap test set.
(6) Blasting machines.
The
blasting
machines are small electric generators that produce
current for firing electric blasting caps. There are three
types in Army use: the 10-cap, twisting-handle type, the
30-, 50-, and 100-cap push-down-handle (rack bar), and
the newer M32 (10 cap) and M34 (50 cap) squeezehandle types. The capacity of a blasting machine is the
number of electric blasting caps that it will fire if
connected in series and operated correctly Detailed
information on blasting machines is contained in TM 91375-213-12, TM 9-1375-213-34 and FM 5250.
(7) Cap crimper. Cap crimpers are designed
to squeeze the shell of the nonelectric cap tightly
enough around the safety fuse or detonating cord to
prevent separation. This crimp, however, does not
interfere with burning of the powder train in the fuse.
The standard cap crimper (with fuse cutter) has a narrow
jaw that crimps a waterresistant groove.
8-11. Demolition Kits
a.
General.
Demolition kits contain
explosive and nonexplosive items for performing
various demolition tasks. Some kits are designed for
general demolition; others, for specific demolition tasks.
Kits include accessories, tools and other specialized
components in specially designed containers.
b. General Blasting Kits.
These kits are
designated Demolition Kit, Blasting: Explosive Initiating,
Electric and Nonelectric, and Demolition Kit, Blasting:
Explosive Initiating, Nonelectric.
They contain
explosives and equipment needed for most general
demolition work. Components of these kits are listed in
TM 9-1375-213-12 and TM 9-1375-213-34.
c. Bangalore Torpedo Demolition Kit.
The
bangalore torpedo demolition kit (fig. 8-27), composed
Change 5
of single, high-explosive-filled steel tubes or multiple
lengths with connecting sleeves, is used for blasting a
path through wire entanglements or other obstructions.
The individual tubes, called loading assemblies, may be
used as explosive charges for other demolition
purposes. The bangalore torpedo kit consists of 10
loading assemblies, 10 connecting sleeves, and 1 nose
sleeve. The loading assembly is a 5-foot-long, steel
tube filled with explosives. The M1Al torpedoes have a
main filler of approximately 9 pounds amatol with a TNT
booster surrounding the cap wells at each end. The
MIA2 torpedoes have a main filler of approximately 10
pounds Comp B with a Comp A3 booster at each end
Each end of the tube contains a threaded cap well. This
well accommodates a blasting cap which may be fitted
to any standard firing device or other means of initiation.
A few turns of detonating cord wrapped around the MIAl
loading assembly will also initiate it when detonated.
The Ml A2's booster is less sensitive and cannot reliably
be initiated by detonating cord. The connecting sleeve
is a short tube which accommodates 2 loading
assemblies that can be held by 3 spring clips. The nose
sleeve, which is held in place by a spring clip, has a
rounded point for ease in pushing the torpedo through
obstacles.
d. Earth Rod Explosive Kit. The earth rod kit is
used for making holes in earth or soft shale, not in rock
or other hard material. Holes may be as deep as 6 feet
and several inches in diameter. The assembled holemaking unit of the earth rod kit (fig. 8-28) consists of a
6-foot steel rod, a detachable point that fits the lower
end of the rod, and a cylindrical firing chamber that
screws on at the upper end. A propelling charge placed
in the firing chamber, when exploded by a primer
attached to a piece of time blasting fuse and a fuse
igniter, drives the rod into the earth. A tripod with
adjustable legs is used to hold the rod steady for firing.
A removable handle, an extractor that grips and lifts the
rod, and an extension that can be used to lengthen the
rod are used to pull the rod from the earth. A forked,
inserting rod is furnished for inserting a small linear
charge (or an improvised linear charge made of
detonating cord) into the hole made by the rod.
e. Demolition Charge Assembly. The demolition
charge assembly (fig.
8-29) consists of 8 block
demolition charges, 8 block demolition charge hook
assemblies, and 2 demolition priming assemblies. The
priming assembly (fig. 8-30) consists of a length
(approximately 5 feet) of detonating cord, 2 hexagonalshaped, plastic adapters, each holding a booster, and 2
detonating cord clips. The adapters attached to the
cord, one at each end, are threaded to fit the cap well of
demolition blocks or light antitank mines. Each booster
contains a charge of 13.5 grains of RDX. The clips, on
the
8-18
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-27. Bangalore torpedo demolition kit
8-19
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-28. Earth rod explosive kit
folding stand of aluminum angles, is used to hold the
rocket motor in position for firing. The cable is issued
either with or without the rocket motor. In the latter
case, the rocket motor is requisitioned separately. One
fuse igniter is provided for igniting the rocket motor.
The entire assembly is contained in a carrying case,
which is a cylindrical aluminum can with removable lids,
provided with carrying handles on both ends. The
loaded case weighs 92 pounds.
(2) Projected charge demolition kit (antitank
mine clearing).
These kits (fig.
8-33) are used
principally to breach minefields. They may also be used
to breach bands of log posts, steel rails, antitank ditches
and some small concrete obstacles. Some demolition
kits consist of sections of two parallel linear explosive
charges encased between corrugated metal plates or
tubes. These are bolted together to form a rigid
assembly that can be towed or pushed by a light or
medium tank. The charge is exploded by action of a
bullet impact fuze actuated by fire from a machinegun
on the tank. Another type (fig. 8-34 and 8-35) consists
essentially of a waterproof skid, a rocket motor, and a
linear demolition charge. It is towed to the edge of a
mine field. The towing vehicle is then moved out of the
danger zone by its operator, who electrically initiates a
thruster on the kit to remove the main cover. Automatic
elevation of a
cord about 20 inches from either end of the assembly,
are for making junctions on main lines of detonating
cord in a demolition system. The demolition charge
assembly, main lines and their initiators are used to
form a demolition system with one or more demolition
blocks as the main explosive charge.
f. Mine-Clearing Devices.
(1) Projected
charge
demolition
kit
(antipersonnel mine clearing). This kit (fig. 8-31 and 832) is a flexible linear charge used to clear narrow lanes
in antipersonnel mine fields.
The nylon-covered
detonating cable (fig. 8-31) is 170 feet long, about 1
inch in diameter, weighs 63 pounds and contains 46
pounds of oil-soaked PETN. This charge consists of 19
strands of special detonating cord, each strand
containing approximately 100 grains of PETN per foot.
Regular detonating cord should not be used as a
substitute. One end of the cable has a cable grip with
loops for anchoring the cable to a stake driven in the
ground. This end contains a booster charge and a
threaded cap well for inserting a 15-second delay
detonator for exploding the cable. In the carrying case,
the cable is coiled around a cone, which is removed
before the unit is fired. The cable is projected across
the minefield by a rocket motor (fig. 8-32) and then
drops onto the field. The cable is then exploded by the
detonator in the anchored end. A launcher, which is a
8-20
TM 9-1300-200
rocket launcher tube occurs as the cover slides from the
kit. The operator then electrically ignites the rocket
motor which carries the linear charge across the
minefield. When the linear charge stops moving, the
operator initiates the fuze. This causes the charge to
explode.
8-12. Care and Precautions in Handling
See TM 9-1300-206, TM 9-1375-213-12, TM 91375-21334, TM 750-244-5-1, FM 5-250 and AR 385-63 for
detailed information concerning appropriate safety
precautions to be observed in handling demolition
material. Also, observe the following:
a. Handle demolition charges in accordance with
sensitivity of explosive comprising charge.
b. Do not expose demolition blocks of plastic
explosive to open flame. They ignite easily and burn
with intense heat. Burned in large quantities, they may
explode.
c. Handle dynamite with extreme care. Dynamite
is more sensitive than other explosives. It may be
exploded by flame, sparks, friction, and sharp blows,
including impact from bullets or shell fragments.
8-13. Packing and Marking
Figure 8-29. Demolition charge assembly M37
a. Packing.
(1) Explosive charges.
Block demolition
charges are packed in haversacks or plastic bags within
wooden boxes. TNT explosives are packed in wooden
boxes. The ammonium nitrate cratering charge is
packed one per wooden box. From 1 to 8 shaped
charges are packed in wooden boxes, depending on
weight of the charge. Dynamite is usually packed 50
pounds per commercial wooden box. High-explosive
destructors are packed 1 per fiber container and 50
containers per wooden box. Some newer items are
packed in wirebound wooden boxes.
(2) Priming and initiating components,
accessories and tools.
Concussion detonators are
packed in individual metal containers, 50 containers per
wooden box. Delay detonators are packed 10 per
package, 5 packages per inner package, 4 packages
(200 detonators) per wooden box. Weatherproof fuse
igniters are packed 5 per waterproof carton, 60 cartons
per wooden box.
Figure 8-30. Demolition priming assembly
Change 5
8-21
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-31. Projected charge demolition kit-arrangements of components in case .
Time blasting fuse is packed in 50-foot coils, 2 coils per
package, 5 packages per sealed metal can, 8 cans
(4,000 feet of fuse) per wooden box. The 2-coil
packages are also packed either 30 or 60 per wooden
box. Detonating cord is issued in spools of 50, 100,
500, or 1,000 feet. The 50-foot spools are packed 100
per wooden box; 100-foot spools, 50 per wooden box;
500and 1,000-foot spools, 8 per wooden box. Firing
Change 5
devices are packed 5 or 10 devices per inner box. Trip
wires are packed with pull-type firing devices. Inner
boxes are packed in wooden boxes that contain from
120 to 250 devices. Primers are packed 2,500 to
10,000 per wooden box. Blasting caps are packed 350
to 500 per wooden box or as required. Most accessories
and tools are packed as required.
8-22
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-32. Projected charge demolition kits-laying cable over antipersonnel mine fields
(3) Demolition kits.
Explosive items of
blasting demolition kits are packed, shipped and stored
separately from nonexplosive items. Standard packing
is used for explosive components.
Nonexplosive
components are issued initially in a chest, but may be
requisitioned separately as replacement items. Earth
rod kits are packed in plywood boxes. Demolition
charge assemblies are packed in haversack-type
carrying cases, with priming assemblies attached to the
top of each case. Bangalore torpedo kits are packed in
wooden boxes. Demolition training kits are packed in
the standard platoon demolition chest.
(4) Mine-clearing devices.
Antipersonnel,
mine-clearing detonating cable, including accessories, is
contained in a waterproof aluminum carrying case,
overpacked in a wooden box. Antitank, mine-clearing
devices are packed in large wooden crates.
b. Marking.
In addition to nomenclature and
ammunition lot number, packages prepared for
shipment are marked with the Department of
Transportation (DOT) shipping name or classification of
the article, volume and weight.
8-23
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-33. Typical projected charge (rigid type) being pushed by a medium tank
8-24
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 8-34. Linear projected charge.
Figure 8-35. Linear projected charge (cover removed).
8-25
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 9
PYROTECHNICS
9-1. General
(d) Organic dyes or inorganic salts are
used to produce colored smokes.
Military pyrotechnics (fig. 9-1) are used for illumination,
signaling, and simulation of battle noises and effects.
Artillery projectiles and hand grenades used for
illumination and signaling are described in chapters 4
and 6, respectively. Photoflash and target-identification
bombs are described in chapter 10. Other pyrotechnic
items are described below and in TM 9-1370-203-20&P
a. Complete Round.
Pyrotechnics are usually
issued in the form of complete rounds, each consisting
of all the elements necessary for firing once.
Components of large aircraft pyrotechnics (photoflash
and target-identification bombs, etc.) are issued
separately and assembled in the field.
b. Ignition Train. Pyrotechnics generally function
by means of an ignition train (fig. 9-2), similar to the
explosive train of other ammunition. The train is
initiated by means of a percussion, friction or electric
primer. The flame produced on initiation is transmitted
successively to a propelling charge, delay element,
expelling charge, and pyrotechnic composition. One or
more of the intermediate elements between initiator and
pyrotechnic composition may be omitted, depending
upon the requirements of the item.
c. Pyrotechnic Compositions.
(1) In general, pyrotechnic compositions
consist of various combinations of the following elem
(a) Oxidizers, such as chlorates,
perchlorates, peroxides, chromates, and nitrates that
provide some oxygen for burning.
Pyrotechnic
compositions may not always contain sufficient oxygen
for burning and, in such cases, must use oxygen from
the air.
(b) Fuels, such as aluminum and
magnesium powder, sulfur, lactose, and other easily
oxidizable materials.
(c) Binders and waterproofing agents,
such as asphalt, shellac, linseed oil, resins, resinates
and paraffin, are still being used in limited quantities.
They are gradually being replaced, however, by newer
polymeric materials, such as epoxy and polyester resins
and synthetic rubber.
Change 5
(e) Color intensifiers, such as polyvinyl
chloride, hexachlorbenzene, and other organic
chlorides.
In some cases, a single material may
perform more than one of the functions in (a) through
(d), above.
(2) Pyrotechnic smoke compositions are of
two general types:
(a) Those that burn with practically no
flame but with the formation of a dense colored smoke
as a product of combustion.
(b) Those that burn at a temperature so
low that an organic dye ((1)(d), above) in the
composition will only volatilize and color the smoke,
rather than burn.
d. Identification.
As indicated in chapter 1,
pyrotechnic items are identified by markings (in black)
on the item and by bands or patches in the color of the
signal produced. The top of a launcher-type ground
signal is painted the color of the signal and is also
marked with two embossed letters for identification in
the dark. Overage flares and those of substitute
composition, assigned to training, have a 2-inch blue
band stenciled around the body; they may also be
stenciled FOR TRAINING USE ONLY. Certain aircraft
flares have the word FRONT stenciled on the front of
the case. Location of suspension bands is indicated by
black bands painted on the case. Guide flares have a
patch on the closing cover indicating the color of the
flare. Embossed points at the center of the patch permit
identification in the dark. One, two or three embossed
points identify white, red and green flares, respectively.
e. Projection.
(1) Mechanical equipment, mounted in an
aircraft, or a pyrotechnic pistol is usually required to
launch or project aircraft pyrotechnics.
(2) Signals that are fired from the ground are
either hand-held or projected from the following:
9-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-1. Types and comparative sizes of military pyrotechnics.
(a) Pyrotechnic projectors or pistols.
(b) Small arms rifles equipped with
grenade launchers and special blank cartridges.
(c) Hand-held expendable launchers
that form part of the signal assembly for rocket- assisted
signals.
(d) Manually operated (lanyard-type)
ground signal projectors mounted on staff-like supports
that are anchored to the ground by spikes.
(3) The white smoke puff charge is fired from
a smoke-puff discharger; powder from the charge, which
is ignited by a smoke-puff percussion cap, serves as the
propellant.
Change 5 9-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-1.--Continued.
(4) The gunflash simulator is fired from
a steel firing tube embedded in earth or sand bags.
Some simulators burn in place; others are thrown by
hand.
illuminants, signals and simulators; according to use, as
aircraft and ground.
9-2.Classification
a. The principal factors controlling
visibility of pyrotechnics are design, position, and natural
conditions of light and atmosphere.
Pyrotechnics are classified according to purpose as
Change 5
9-3.
9-3
Visibility
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-2. Representative ignition train.
(1) Factors of design include luminous
intensity (candlepower); color (hue and degree of
color saturation); and degree of separation of a
composite signal.
9-4. Types
(2) Factors of position include height at which
the flare or signal functions; distance of observer from
signal; distance of flare from object to be illuminated;
background; and relative position of flare, object and
observer.
b. Purpose. Flares are designed to provide a
strong light (e.g., to illuminate terrain for various air and
ground tactical operations) for an appreciable period.
Types include aircraft flares (projected from aircraft),
ground flares used on, or projected from, the ground),
guide flares and ignition flares. Signals are designed for
both aircraft and ground use for various types of
signaling in tactical and protective operations.
Photoflash cartridges are designed for use in connection
with aerial photography during reconnaissance missions.
Pyrotechnic training items are used as targets for
antiaircraft gunnery practice and to simulate combat
conditions for troop training.
(3) Natural conditions of light and atmosphere
are influenced by degree of natural illumination; color
and brightness of the sky; and clarity of the atmosphere
as affected by presence of haze, fog, dust, smoke, rain
or snow.
b. A table of pyrotechnical data pertaining to
specific items is published in TM 9-1370-203-20&P
Tables of factors, including candlepower of specific
items and optimum height, area illuminated, and
distance for pyrotechnics suitable for battlefield
illumination, are published in pertinent field manuals.
Table 9-1 shows candlepower of various types.
Table 9-1. Pyrotechnic Types and Candlepower.
Type
Candlepower
Trip flare or tow target............... 50,000
Illuminating projectile ................ 300,000 to 1,000,000
Airport flare, fusees .................. 60,000
Aircraft parachute ..................... 60,000-750,000900,000
Reconnaissance and landing..... 800,000
Photoflash cartridge ................. 120,000,000 peakduration 0.30 second
Photoflash bomb....................... 80,0000.000 candle
second for optimum
0.040 second*
Signals-white ........................... 50,000 for 20 to 30
seconds
green ........................... 5,000 for 20 to 30
seconds
amber .......................... 4,000 for 20 to 30
seconds
red ............................... 20,000 for 20 to 30
seconds
a. General. Pyrotechnics (fig. 9-1) consist of
flares, signals, photoflash cartridges and items designed
for various kinds of training.
9-5. Aircraft Flares
a. Aircraft flares provide illumination for target
marking,
battlefield
visibility,
reconnaissance,
observation, bombardment, landing, and practice firing
for antiaircraft guns. While details of flares vary from
model to model, flares for illumination (fig. 9-3) have
certain characteristics in common.
(1) Candlepower. Flares produce white or
colored lights of intensities ranging from 60,000
candlepower for 1 minute to 3,000,000 candlepower for
3 minutes.
(2) Parachutes. Most flares are parachutes
supported to retard speed of fall and provide a longer
interval of illumination.
(3) Ignition. All flares have a form of delayed
ignition to assure their clearing the aircraft or reaching a
specified altitude before starting to burn. Delayed
ignition is effected by a mechanical time fuze, a quick
match, or delay fuze initiated by the pressure which
occurs when the parachute opens. Another method
depends upon an expelling charge which concurrently
ejects the candle and parachute assemblies from the
flare case and initiates the ignition train (fig. 9-2).
* 3,000,000,000 to 4,000,000,000 candlepower at peak.
Change 5 9-4
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-3. Aircraft parachute (illuminating) flare.
9-5
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-4. Aircraft parachute flare with shade.
9-6
TM 9-1300-200
b. Certain flares used below the aircraft, as in
bombardment, are provided with shades (fig. 9-4) to
shield bombardiers from the glare.
c. Flares released from aircraft launching tubes or
racks are equipped with an arming wire, hangwire, firing
lanyard, or rip cord assembly, each of which is attached
to the arming pawl of the tube or rack. Flares may be
released armed or safe. When the flare is released
armed, the hang-wire remains attached to the aircraft
and actuates the flare. If released safe, the flare will not
function in the air but may ignite on impact. This
possibility must be kept in mind when releasing flares
over friendly territory.
When an arming wire is
employed, it remains attached to the aircraft and allows
the fuze to arm.
d. Towed flares are used as assembly markers in
aircraft flight formation. These flares function like other
aircraft flares, except that they are towed by the aircraft
at the end of a 60-foot length of steel cable or manila
rope.
9-6. Ground Flares
Ground flares are designed for illumination of aircraft
landings in emergency fields, for lighting airports in case
of power failure, or to warn of attempted infiltration by
enemy troops. Certain ground flares, such as fusees,
may be used as recognition signals. The following are
representative:
a. The airport flare (fig.
9-5), a 20-pound,
cylindrical charge of illuminant (candle) encased in a
zinc-sheathed, box-board tube fitted with a means of
ignition. It burns with a yellow flame visible for 5 to 7
minutes at a distance of 20 to 30 miles, depending upon
atmospheric conditions.
b. The red fusee, a 20-minute, red-fire candle,
used to outline airport boundaries.
c. Surface trip flares, outwardly resembling
antipersonnel mines or hand grenades (fig. 9-6). These
are used primarily to warn of infiltrating troops by
illuminating the field. They are also employed as
signals and -may be used as boobytraps.
9-7. Guide Flares
Guide flares are electrically ignited flares intended for
use with bombs. The red, green and white flares (fig. 97) are similar, except for color, markings and
candlepower. They burn for 45 to 60 seconds and
produce from 650,000 to 900,000 candlepower.
9-8. Ramjet Engine Igniters
Ramjet engine igniters (fig. 9-8) are electrically ignited
pyrotechnic items used to ignite fuel-air mixtures in
ramjet engines of guided missiles. They contain a
pyrotechnic composition that releases sufficient heat to
maintain ignition of the fuel-air mixtures for 10 to 90
seconds, depending on the specific model.
9-9. Tracking Flares
Tracking flares are used in tracing the path of guided
missiles. They have nominal burning times of 75 to 95
seconds with 70,000 to 150,000 candlepower.
9-10. Signals
Pyrotechnic signals are designed to produce light of
various intensities, duration and color; smoke of various
colors and densities; sound of various degrees; or any
combination of these. Signals may consist of a single
parachute-supported star or a number of free-falling
stars or clusters of various colors. Smoke signals are
usually of the slow burning type designed to leave trails
of smoke. For complete information on signals, see TM
9-1370-203-20&P For a guide to the employment of
pyrotechnic illuminating devices, see pertinent field
manual.
a. Tactical Aircraft Signals. Aircraft signals used
directly in connection with combat operations were
originally intended for air-to-air or air-to-ground
signaling.
However, since the introduction of
pyrotechnic pistols and hand-held pyrotechnic
projectors, aircraft signals have been used by ground
troops for ground-to-ground and ground-to-air signaling.
Single-star signals, double-star signals, and tracerdouble-star signals (fig. 9-9) contain green, red or
yellow candles of pyrotechnic composition. Stars may
be distinguished at distances of approximately 5 miles
at night and 2 to 3 miles in daylight. Total burning time
is 7 to 13 seconds for both single-star and double-star
signals. The tracer in the tracer-double-star signals
burns for 2 1/2 to 4 seconds; each star burns for 3 to 4
1/2 seconds.
b. Distress Signals. Marine signals, generally used
for distress signaling, produce illumination (stars) for
night use; a brilliant orange smoke for day use; or a
combination of stars and smoke for either day or night
use. Marine signals (fig. 9-10), generally small enough
to be carried in the pocket of life vests, flight suits or life
rafts, are designed for firing by hand or pistol.
Change 5 9-7
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-5. Airport flare.
Change 5
9-8
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-6. Surface trip flare.
9-9
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-7. Guide flare.
9-10
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-8. Ramjet engine igniter.
c. Drift Signals, Markers and Lights.
These
pyrotechnic devices aid in navigation of aircraft over
water by providing a stationary reference point. They
are also used to mark the location for emergency
landing at night. The signals contain a pyrotechnic
candle that ignites on impact. Floating nose down, the
signals emit flame and smoke from the tail. One type of
marker produces a slick on the water surface. The other
types, which produce smoke and flame, are called night
drift signals or aircraft float lights. Drift signals and
markers are thrown overboard from an aircraft.
(3) The aircraft float light (fig. 9-12) provides
a long-burning surface marker for night or day use. It
may be thrown overboard from an aircraft or launched
from wing racks. The signal contains four, 3-unit
pyrotechnic candles which emit flame and smoke
through a hole in the base of the body.
d. Ground Signals.
(1) Grenade-launcher ground signals (fig. 913) are projected from a grenade launcher attached to
Rifle M1 or M14. A propelling charge in the signal
supplements a special blank cartridge (the standard
grenade cartridge) supplied with the signal, to attain the
required altitude. The signal rises to a height of 600 to
700 feet before functioning.
(1) The slick marker is for daytime use and
contains a 21/4-pound cylinder of uramine, a soluble
dye salt, in a brittle plastic case. The marker, although
not a pyrotechnic, has a somewhat similar effect. It
produces a colored film or slick on the surface of the
water when the case is shattered by impact. The
yellowish-green, fluorescent slick produced by the
uramine is approximately 20 feet in diameter. The slick
persists for at least 2 hours and can be seen 10 miles
away from an altitude of 3,000 feet.
(a) The parachute-supported star signal produces a
single star that burns from 20 to 80 seconds. Different
models produce amber, green, red or white stars.
Candlepower and visibility vary according to the color of
the star.
(2) Night drift signals (fig. 9-11), identified as
aircraft smoke and illumination signals, produce flame
and smoke which can be observed on a clear day for a
distance of 6 or 7 miles. A representative signal has a
flat-faced, metal tail fin assembly. The body contains
from 1 to 3 candle units which burn from 180 to 900
seconds, depending on the model.
(b) The cluster-type star signal produces five freefalling stars, all of one color, with a burning time of 4 to
10 seconds. Different cluster models produce stars of
the same colors as the single-star parachute models.
Parachute and cluster signals are similar in appearance
and design.
9-11
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-9. Aircraft signal patterns.
9-12
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-10. Handheld marine smoke signal.
9-13
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-11. Night drift signal.
9-14
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-12. Aircraft float light.
9-15
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-13. Grenade-launcher ground signal.
9-16
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-14. Rocket-propelled ground signal.
9-17
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-15. Air burst simulator.
(c) Smoke signals produce six freefalling smoke pellets of the same color. Each pellet
leaves a stream of colored smoke that extends
approximately 250 feet. The burning time is 4 to 8
seconds. Different models produce red, yellow, green
and violet colored smoke. (Violet is used for training or
demonstrations only.)
launching mechanisms. The signals are composed of
three main units: an aluminum rocket barrel; a firing cap
with firing pin; and the signal, which includes the body,
rocket motor, and folding-fin stabilizing device. The
signals rise to a height of 650 to 750 feet.
(a) Parachute star signals, used for
battlefield illumination, produce a
(2) Rocket-propelled ground signals (fig. 914) are hand-held, fin-stabilized signals with integral
Figure 9-16. Boobytrap simulator.
9-18
C1, TM 9-1300-200
parachute-supported red or white star. Red stars burn at
16,000 candlepower for a minimum of 50 seconds; white
stars, at 125,000 candlepower for 25 seconds.
(b) Cluster star signals produce five
free-falling green, red or white stars that burn 8 ± 2
seconds.
(c) Smoke parachute signals, which
produce a single red or green parachute-supported
smoke pellet, emit smoke for 6 to 18 seconds. They
produce a smoke cloud which lasts approximately one
minute.
9-11. Photoflash Cartridges
a. General.
These cartridges, fired from
electrically powered projectors, are used in connection
with aerial photography during reconnaissance missions.
b. Service Cartridge.
A service photoflash
cartridge consists of an electrically primed cartridge
case containing a cased photoflash charge and delay
fuse assembly, and a small propelling charge.
c. Practice Cartridge.
A practice photoflash
cartridge consists of a solid, inert unit and a small
propelling charge in an electrically primed cartridge
case.
9-12. Training Pyrotechnics
a. Pyrotechnic items used as training devices
include tow-target flares, aircraft parachute flares,
photoflash cartridges, and a variety of simulators.
b. Simulators are used to create the effect of
specific items of ammunition. The primary types of
simulators are described briefly below.
(1) The air burst simulator (fig. 9-15), used
with a smoke puff discharger, simulates the burst of an
artillery projectile near the ground by producing a puff of
white smoke.
(2) The boobytrap simulator (fig. 9-16) is
used during maneuvers and troop training. This device
provides training in installation and use of boobytraps.
When triggered, the simulator functions with a loud
report and flash.
(3) The ground burst simulator (fig. 9-17) is
used to create battle noises and effects during troop
maneuvers. It produces a high-pitched whistle which
lasts 2 to 4 seconds. In exploding, it produces a flash
and loud report.
(4) The artillery flash simulator (fig. 9-18)
produces a flash, a puff of smoke, and a loud report. Its
flash is similar to that of 90-mm guns and 155-mm
howitzers. This simulator is used to train artillery
observers and may actually be employed in forward
combat areas as a decoy.
(5) The hand grenade simulator (fig. 9-19)
provides battle noises and effects during troop
maneuvers. It is thrown in the same manner as a live
grenade and creates a loud report and flash 5 to 10
seconds after ignition.
(6) The explosive simulator (fig. 9-20) is
Figure 9-17. Ground burst simulator.
9-19
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-18. Artillery flash simulator.
9-20
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-19. Hand grenade simulator.
used in boobytraps, land mine detection and
deactivation training programs. It is used to simulate
hand grenades, boobytraps, land mines, and rifle or
artillery fire.
9-13. Care and Precautions in Handling
a. General.
Pyrotechnic compositions are
particularly susceptible to deterioration by moisture.
They are especially hazardous since they ignite more
readily than other types of high explosives. Information
concerning precautions in handling pyrotechnics is
contained in TM 9-1300-206 and TM 9-1370-203-20&P.
b. Types of Pyrotechnics. The specific precautions
in (1) through (3) below apply to the type of pyrotechnic
indicated.
(1) Flares.
(a) Avoid damage to fiber cases and rip
cords located outside casing of certain types of flares.
Figure 9-20. Explosive simulator.
Change 5 9-20.1
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Figure 9-21. Packing box for ground signals.
Figure 9-22. Packing box for aircraft signals.
deformed, or cracked barrels, or with loose closing caps.
(b) Before lead wires of electrically ignited
flares are connected, assure that there is no electrical
(b) Guard against blows to primer,
energy in electrical circuit.
which could ignite signal.
(2) Signals.
(3) Photoflash Cartridge. Do not remove
(a) Do not use signals with dented,
Change 5 9-20.2
TM 9-1300-200
shunt cap from cartridge until just prior to loading
cartridge into projector.
203-20&P. For regulations in firing ammunition, see
AR 385-63.
9-15. Packing and Marking
9-14. Precautions in Firing
a. Fire pyrotechnics in such a manner that burning
material or burned out signals will not fall on friendly
personnel, into boxes of pyrotechnics or on other
ammunition. Exercise care when firing through trees or
other obstructions.
b. Anticipate heavy recoil when firing projected
pyrotechnics (except rocket-propelled ground signals).
c. Observe safety precautions found in TM 9-1370-
a. Pyrotechnics are packed and marked in
accordance with Department of Transportation
Regulations and pertinent specifications and drawings.
Inner and outer packings are designed to withstand
conditions ordinarily encountered in handling, storage
and transportation, and to protect against moisture.
Typical packing and markings are illustrated in figures 921 and 9-22.
b. Packing and marking data are given in detail in
SC 1340/98 - IL and in TM 9-1370-203-20.
Change 5 9-20.3
TM 9-1300-200
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Change 5 9-20.4
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 10
BOMBS
DELETED
Change 5 10-1
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Change 5 10-2
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 11
SCATTERABLE MINES
Section I. INTRODUCTION
11-1. General
Scatterable mines are similar in purpose to conventional
land mines. Scatterable mines differ, however, in that
they are designed for accurate dispersion over a
designated area from rotary-wing aircraft, fixed wing
aircraft, artillery, and ground dispensers, and lie on the
surface of the ground.
11-2. Scope
a. This chapter describes the Mine Dispersing
Subsystem, Aircraft:
M56, which is the only
scatterable mine system adopted to date.
The
sequence of operations for the subsystems is depicted
in figure 11-1. For information on handling, use, and
maintenance of the subsystem refer to TM 9-1345-20130&P.
b. For operational procedures, refer to TM 91345201-12.
c. As other systems are adopted their description
will be added to this manual.
Figure 11-1. Sequence of mine functioning.
Section II. MINE DISPERSING SUBSYSTEM, AIRCRAFT: M56
11-3. General
The Mine Dispersing Subsystem, Aircraft: M56 (fig. 112), consists of bomb (mine) dispenser SUU-13 D/A and
a payload of antitank/antivehicular mines in canisters
(fig. 11-3). Mine
Change 2
batteries, which are stored in a refrigerator and which
are inserted prior to flight, are shipped separately. The
rectangular shaped, electrically-fired sub-system is
externally installed on UH-1H aircraft (fig. 11-4). A
pallet is attached to the
11-1
TM 9-1300-200
underside of the subsystem for handling and safety
purposes. Initially, the subsystem is issued completely
loaded with mines and is packed one per reusable
shipping and storage container CNU79/E (fig. 11-5).
Loaded replacement mine
canisters (40 to a container) are shipped and stored in
mine canister shipping and storage container M602 (fig.
11-6). Both containers are sealed and desiccated.
Figure 11-2. Mine dispersing subsystem, aircraft: M56.
Figure 11-3. Canister assembly.
11-2
Change 2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 11-4. Mine dispersing subsystem, aircraft: M56 mounted on UH-IH helicopter (the struts,
pylon assembly, pylon support, and support assembly comprise the multi-armament kit).
Change 2
11-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 11-5. Shipping and storage container CNU-79/E.
11-4 Change 2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 11-6. Mine canister shipping and storage container M602 (as used in reload kit).
11-4. Practice and Inert Scatterable Mines
a. General.
(1) The Mine Dispersing Subsystem, Aircraft,
Practice: M132, which contains inert mines with
Change 2
live ejection charges, is used by aircraft crews to gain
experience in dispersing mines.
(2) The Mine Dispersing Sybsystem, Aircraft,
Training: M133, is utilized for training in handling
11-5
TM 9-1300-200
of the subsytem and contains inert mines with inert
ejection charges.
b. Types.
(1) The M132 subsystem consists of a dispenser
SUU-13D/A
containing
three
practice
canister
assemblies. The loaded dispenser is packed in the
shipping and storage container CNU-79/E.
Each
practice canister contains two dummy mines and one
ejection charge M198. The reload kit for the M132
subsystem consists of 40 practice canister assemblies.
Handling, loading, electrical tests, and repairs of the
subsystem are the same as those specified for the
service subsystem.
(2) The M133 subsystem consists of one dispenser,
bomb SUU-13D/A containing 40 canisters, mines:
training (empty) and is packed in the shipping and
storage container CNU-79/E and 40 mine canister
assemblies packed in the M602 shipping and storage
container. The dispenser containing empty canisters is
sued to simulate a dispenser as returned from a
mission. The canisters packed in the M602 container
are weighted and configured to simulate the service
items. They are used to reload the dispenser, provide
the means for conducting the required electrical tests,
and serve as the method for gaining "hands-on"
experience.
Two suspension lugs are assembled to the dispenser for
attaching to the aircraft or for handling with a sling and
hoist. The dispenser contains 40 vertical aluminum
canister assemblies, each containing two mines (fig.
11-3).
b. Canister Assembly. Each canister assembly
consists of an aluminum dispenser cylinder, obturator,
mine ejection cartridge M198, and two mines. The
mines are retained in the cylinder by four shear pins,
two per mine.
c. Mine Release. The mine dispenser is designed
to provide release of mines from the 40 canisters with
application of current through the intervalometer, which
is the sequencing component of the dispenser, to the
mine ejection charge M198. Release of mines from all
40 canisters is accomplished within a variable time span
which is controlled by the helicopter pilot. A quickrelease safe pin with an attached REMOVE BEFORE
FLIGHT red flag is installed in the intervalimeter through
an access hole in the bottom of the aft fairing to prevent
accidental activation of the intervalometer before flight.
The helicopter pilot can control the dispensing intervals
from the DISPENSER control panel (fig. 11-7).
d. Dispenser Pallet.
A removable wood and
aluminum pallet, colored red, is attached to the bottom
of the dispenser. A REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT red
flag is attached to the forward end. The pallet protects
the mines while handling the subsystem and prevents
accidental expulsion of mines prior to flight.
11-5. Description
a. Mine Dispenser. The M56 subsystem utilizes a
bomb (mine) dispenser, SUU-13D/A (fig. 11-2). This
dispenser has a rounded top surface, an aerodynamic
nose fairing, and a flat rear fairing.
11-6 Change 2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 11-7. Mine dispersing subsystem, M56 dispenser (DISP) control panel
e. Firing.
(1) The subsystem is fired by depressing the FIRE
button of the control panel (fig. 11-7). The firing
sequence will continue until the quantity of mines
selected have been ejected from the subsystem. After
the FIRE button is depressed, the firing sequence may
be terminated by resetting the SAFE-STBY-ARM switch
to the STBY (standby) position. When the switch is
again set in the ARM position and the FIRE button is
again depressed, a new firing sequence is initiated.
(2) The electrical impulse from the dispenser
control panel and through the intervalometer,
Change 2
initiates the ejection charge in each canister assembly.
Gases from the ejection charge apply an expelling force
to the obturator which forces the mines from the canister
and the subsystem. As the leave the canister, the bore
rider pin in each mine is released, freeing the
mechanical component of the mine fuze to start the
arming sequence upon impact with the ground. When
the mines are free of the canister, the fins open, causing
mine separation and orientation of the mine for
controlled impact with the ground.
(3) The mine has a self-destruct capability.
11-7
TM 9-1300-200
desiccant cage, retainer, air vent and cover, and
humidity indicator plug are located at the forward end of
the container base assembly.
11-6. Shipping and Storage Containers.
a. General. The dispersing subsystem M56 is
stored and transported in the reusable, steel, shipping
and storage container CNU-79/E. Forty replacement
canisters are stored and shipped in the reusable, steel,
shipping and storage container M602. Both containers
are stored and transported in the horizontal position.
b. Container CNU-79/E.
The subsystem is
supported by a resilient-mounted suspension frame
assembly that is attached to the container base
assembly. Two flexible strap assemblies, one at each
end, secure the subsystem M56 to the suspension frame
assembly. The cover assembly is secured to the base
assembly by 26 quick-acting T-bolts. Locating pins are
provided to properly aline the cover assembly with the
base assembly. All openings are provided with gaskets
to make the container airtight. A rubber gasket on the
base assembly flange makes an airtight seal between
the cover and base assemblies. Desiccant is used to
absorb excessive moisture within the container. A
c. Container, M602. (As used in Reload Kit.) This
reuseable steel container is rectangular and is provided
with a gasket between the base assembly and the cover
to make it airtight. The cover assembly is secured to
the base assembly by 14 quick-acting T-bolts. Two
cover handles are provided for manual lifting of cover
from base assembly.
A desiccant door, pressure
equalizing valve, and humidity indicator are located at
the forward end of the container base assembly.
11-7. Painting and Marking
a. The M56 bomb (mine) dispenser is olive drab
with yellow markings. One yellow band located directly
behind the forward fairing indicates highexplosive
loading.
b. The shipping and storage container CNU79/E
and M602 (reload kit) are painted olive drab with
markings in yellow.
Change 2
11-8
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 12
GUIDED MISSILES
12-1. General
(2) Control system-The pilot component which
keeps the missile in a stable flight attitude and makes
changes in course direction and altitude in response to
signals from the guidance system. The control system
operates the control surfaces and the propulsion unit.
(3) Guidance system-The source of continuous
target intelligence (course data) that guides the missile
to its target.
(4) Propulsion system-The power supply for the
missile.
(5) Warhead-The component which carries the
payload. The mission of a guided missile is delivery of
the warhead with maximum effect on its target.
a. The term, guided missile, refers to a missile
directed to its target while in flight or motion, either by a
preset or self-reacting device within the missile or by
radio command outside the missile, or through wire
linkage to the missile.
b. Guided missiles are shipped completely
assembled and ready for use, or in major components
which must be assembled in the field. In general, a
guided missile is composed of the seven basic
components illustrated in figure 12-1 and defined below:
(1) Aerodynamic
structure-The
fabrication of the missile body.
design
and
Figure 12-1. Typical guided missile showing location of components.
12-1
TM 9-1300-200
missile components and provide the necessary
superstructure for assembly of the missile. It can be
constructed from steel or aluminum alloys, depending
on strength of weight characteristics desired.
(6) Safety and arming device-The component which
causes the warhead to function at the time and under
the circumstances desired.
(7) Electrical power system-The source of electricity
for operation of guidance, control, and safety and
arming systems.
b. The aerodynamic structure is designed to give
least resistance to flight of the missile. The radome or
missile nose cover, and the wing or fin structure, the
most important components, are usually streamlined
and swept to provide stabilization with minimum
resistance at supersonic speeds.
12-2. Classification
a. General.
Guided missiles are classified
according to origin of missile launch, destination and
mission. They are designated by model number and
modification letter, popular name and other
designations.
b. Basic Designations Based on Origin and
Destination.
AAM-Air-to-air-missile
ASM -Air-to-surface missile
AUM-Air-to-underwater missile
SAM -Surface-to-air missile
SSM -Surface-to-surface missile
SUM-Surface-to-underwater missile
UAM-Underwater-to-air missile
USM -Underwater-to-surface missile
UUM-Underwater-to-underwater missile
12-5. Control and Guidance Systems
a. General. Control and guidance are parts of an
integrated system for automatically directing flight of the
missile.
b. Control System. The control system includes
components necessary for automatic control of a missile
in flight. The system receives intelligence from a radio
signal or other electrical device (wire or wireless) and
makes corrections for changes in yaw, pitch and roll.
The system usually includes a gyroscope, signal
amplifier, servomotor and control surface. The system
may also receive internal or external guidance signals in
order to adjust the path of a missile.
(1) The gyroscope is used to fix a reference
c. Basic Designations Based on Missile Mission.
direction.
(2) The amplifier increases signal strength to
a sufficient level to control the servomotor.
(3) The servomotor powers the control
surfaces to change the flight path of a missile.
(4) The control surface changes the missile
path by application of some force in response to a
directing signal. This change in path (steering) is
accomplished by one or more of the following devices:
air vanes, jet vanes, movable jet motor or side jets.
High explosive
Antiaircraft
Antimissile
High Explosive Antitank
d. Model Number and Modification Number. Each
basic designation contains a model number and
modification number (e.g., Guided Missile, Antiaircraft
XM50E1).
e. Popular Names. Names, such as Hawk, Nike,
Falco and Sidewinder, may be assigned to guided
missiles.
c. Guidance System.
The main functions
performed by the guidance system are tracking,
computing and directing. Tracking is the process of
determining location of a missile and its target with
respect to the launcher, and locating missile and target
with respect to each other and some other reference.
Computing is the process of calculating directing signals
for the missile by use of tracking information. Directing
is the process of sending the computed signal to the
missile. Directing may also be accomplished from
within a missile. The directing signals are sent to the
control system, thus giving control of missile flight.
12-3. Identification
Guided missiles and their components are identified by
painting and marking. Marking includes such data as
name of component, model designation, lot number and
manufacturer, date of manufacture, type of warhead and
the like.
Conventional warheads are painted in
accordance with the color coding table in chapter 1.
12-4. Aerodynamic Structure
a. The aerodynamic structure, which includes the
entire external surface of the missile, determines flow
characteristics of the missile through air or water. This
structure also serves to package
12-2
TM 9-1300-200
c.
Jet Engine. A jet engine may be one of
the following types: pulse jet, ram jet or turbo jet.
These engines use liquid fuel and atmospheric oxygen
as the oxidizer. They are classified as air breathing
engines.
d. Rocket Motors. Rocket motors are non-airbreathing propulsion systems, which use solid propellant
(fuel and oxidizer combined) or liquid fuel with an
oxidizer. (Fuels and propellants for jet engines and
rocket motors are covered in chapter 2.)
12-7. Warheads The payload of a guided missile
varies with the target and the effect desired.
Consequently, the warheads, which carry the payload,
are classified according to their function and the effect
they create, as indicated below:
Some basic guidance systems are described in (1)
through (8) below.
(1) A preset guidance system, set into the missile
before launching, is one which employs a predetermined
ballistic path, and cannot be adjusted after launching.
(2) A terrestrial reference guidance system employs
a predetermined path which can be adjusted after
launching. Adjustment is accomplished by devices
within the missile that react to some phenomena of the
earth.
(3) A radio navigation guidance system employs a
predetermined path which can be adjusted. Adjustment
is accomplished by devices within the missile that are
controlled by external radio signals.
(4) A celestial navigation guidance system has a
predetermined path which can be adjusted by use of
continuous celestial observation.
(5) An inertial guidance system employs a
predetermined path which can be adjusted after
launching by devices within the missile.
(6) A command guidance system is one which
permits the path of the missile to be changed after
launching. Change is accomplished by directing signals
from some device outside the missile.
(7) A beam climber guidance system is one in
which direction of the missile can be changed after
launching. Change is accomplished by a device in the
missile that keeps it in a beam of energy.
(8) A homing guidance system provides for
changing direction of the missile after launching.
Change is accomplished by a device in the missile that
reacts to some distinguishing characteristic of the target.
a. High Explosive-Destroys target by blast.
b. High-Explosive Fragmentation (fig.
122)Projects warhead fragments at high velocity.
Blast at the point of functioning causes additional
damage to the target and nearby objects.
c. High-Explosive
Antitank-Employs
shaped
charge effect to penetrate steel armor.
d. Chemical-Releases toxic chemical agents to
produce casualties.
e. Atomic-Produces
casualties
by
thermal
radiation, blast and nuclear radiation; causes destruction
and damage to structures and equipment, and/or denies
use of an area because of residual radioactive effects.
f. Practice-Simulates service warheads for training
in handling, fuzing, loading and firing.
12-8. Safety and Arming Devices (Fuzes)
12-6. Propulsion System
a. General.
a. General.
The propulsion systems used in
guided missiles employ either a jet engine or a rocket
motor.
These systems consist essentially of a
combustion chamber and a nozzle. Fuel burned in the
combustion chamber produces thrust. This results from
products of combustion which expand and pass through
the nozzle.
b. Operation.
The missile propulsion system
generally operates in two phases: the boost phase,
during which the missile is accelerated to its cruising
speed; and the sustainer phase, which maintains missile
velocity and acceleration at the cruising level. In other
cases, the missile propulsion system does not require a
booster unit and operates only in one phase.
(1) The fuzing systems used in guided missile
warheads are called safety and arming devices. They
arm the system at the required distance and function the
warhead at the time and under the circumstances
desired.
(2) One or more safety and arming devices may be
used in conjunction with any of the warheads described
in paragraph 12-7. Depending on the type of target and
the effect desired, the safety and arming device may be
impact, proximity, ground-controlled, or a combination
of two or three of these types. Figure 123 shows a
typical safety and arming device.
12-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 12-2. High-explosive fragmentation warhead.
12-4
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 12-3. Safety and arming device.
a. Battery supply, with or without electronic rectifier
and transformer circuit. This type is suitable for small,
short range missiles.
b. An alternating-current generator, using a turbine
driven by wind, battery, engine or compressed air. This
type is suitable for long-range missiles.
b. Types.
(1) Impact. An impact safety and arming
device is actuated by striking the target. Functioning
time after impact depends upon design of the device
and nature of the target.
(2) Proximity. Proximity safety and arming
devices function on approach to a target. Each type of
proximity device is actuated by some characteristic of,
and at a predetermined distance from, the target. The
five basic types are
(a) Radio
(b) Pressure
(c) Electrostatic
(d) Photoelectric
(e) Acoustic
12-10. Launchers
a. General. Launchers are mechanical structures
that provide support and control during initial stages of
motion.
Launchers enable the missile's control,
guidance, and propulsion systems to function
effectively.
b. Types of Launchers. Some basic types of
launching devices are trainable platform, vertical tower,
vertical ramp, ramp or rail (other than vertical), zero
length (a launcher on which there is negligible travel by
the missile), gun, catapult and aircraft.
c. Firing. Firing of guided missiles from a launcher
is usually accomplished electrically by remote control.
d.
Blast Protection.
Because of the
dangerous blast of flame emitted by guided missiles, the
launching site must be cleared of personnel and
unnecessary equipment.
Unprotected combustible
material must also be removed from the launching area.
(3) Ground-controlled. In ground-controlled safety and
arming devices, the mechanism for determining target
proximity is on the ground instead of in the device.
When the proper proximity relationship is reached
between the missile and the target, a signal to detonate
is sent to the missile.
12-9. Electrical Power System
This system supplies electrical power for operation of
the guidance and control mechanism and for fuzing of
the warhead. There are two different types of electrical
power systems:
12-5
TM 9-1300-200
12-11. Care, Handling and Preservation In general,
the same safety regulations apply to guided missiles as
to other types of ammunition.
However, certain
components of the missile require special handling.
(1) Fuzes and warheads
are packed in
wooden or metal containers.
(2) Propellants, which include fuel, oxidizer,
reducer and solid and liquid propellants, are packed in
specially designed tanks, metal drums, glass bottles or
fiber containers overpacked in wooden boxes.
(3) Control
equipment
and
guidance
equipment are packed in specially constructed packings
designed to protect the precision instruments.
(4) Propulsion systems are packed in metal
crates or wooden boxes, crates and containers.
a. Protect control equipment, which includes such
sensitive items as gyroscopes, homing devices,
electronic equipment, and other precision instruments,
from rough or careless handling.
b. Take special precautions with certain fuels and
oxidizers, because of fire, explosion, contact and
inhalation hazards.
c. Use protective clothing and masks when
handling certain fuels and oxidizers.
d. Carefully train personnel in safety measures,
procedures for handling, and precautions in use of
guided missile explosive or flammable components.
b. Marking. The packing boxes, crates, drums and
containers in which guided missile components are
packed are marked for easy identification. They may or
may not be coded for a specific guided missile complete
round. Packings of propellant and components of
propellants, fuzes and warheads are also marked to
indicate the Department of Transportation shipping
name and important instructions in handling or storage.
12-12. Packing and Marking
a. Packing. The components of guided missiles
are packed in appropriate containers.
12-6
TM 9-1300-200
CHAPTER 13
PROPELLANT ACTUATED DEVICES
ignitor contacts in a way that facilitates simultaneous
firing of both anchors.
c. Cartridge. The cartridge (para 13-6) is not a
stock item. It is furnished with the explosive anchor,
unassembled. Ordnance personnel assemble cartridges
and anchors on site.
13-1. General
a. Propellant actuated devices (PAD) are designed to
do a specific task by use of the energy in propellant
gases.
The propellant may be contained in a
replaceable cartridge or permanently sealed into the
device. The basic design for most devices consists of a
piston and cylinder combination.
13-4. Cutters
Hot, propellant gas is used to cause the piston to extend
or retract. There are many variations of this basic
design: those in which the piston is allowed to separate
from the cylinder; some in which the piston remains
sealed through the full stroke; and others in which the
velocity and thrust of the piston are controlled by means
of a built-in damper.
a. General. Cutters are used to sever one or more
textile or metal cable (e.g., parachute reefing line or
rescue hoist cable).
b. Ignition Methods. Ignition is either by a springloaded firing pin striking a percussion primer or by
electric current passing through an electrical primer. A
mechanically fired cutter is shown in figure 13-2. An
electrically fired cutter is shown in figure 13-3.
c. Delay Feature. Reefing line cutters are made in
delay times ranging from one to twenty seconds. The
cutter is so rigged in the parachute that the firing pin
strikes the primer when the suspension lines are
extended. A built-in pyrotechnic delay element burns for
a specified period of time and then ignites the main
propellant charge. This energy moves a cutter blade to
sever line or cable.
b. For a detailed technical discussion of propellant
actuated devices, see TB 9-1377-200; for maintenance
information, see the maintenance manual for the system
in which the item is installed. Propellant actuated
devices, specialized repair parts, and cartridges for the
devices are listed in SC 1340/98IL.
13-2. Identification
Nomenclature is marked on the item and on the outer
packing. The packing box is also marked with the
Federal Stock Number and lot number, if the item is
Government developed.
Commercially developed
items may show only the commercial nomenclature and
part number.
13-5. Parachute Ejector
a. General. Parachute ejectors forcibly remove a
personnel reserve parachute from its pack. Figure 13-4
shows a representative ejector, which contains two
cartridges. Another type contains only one cartridge. In
basic makeup, the ejector is a long, slender pistoncylinder assembly. Gas pressure is supplied by one or
two cartridges contained in chambers called initiators.
When the ejector is fired, the piston remains in the
cylinder. The whole device remains gas tight.
b. Ignition Method. Ignition is by a springloaded
firing pin striking a percussion primer in the cartridge.
The firing pin is both cocked and released when the
firing pin ring is pulled.
13-3. Explosive Embedment Anchor
a. General. The explosive embedment anchor
(fig. 13-1) is currently used to secure underwater
pipelines.
Two anchors, each bearing a cartridge
containing 31/2 pounds of propellant, are mounted on
the pipeline sled. Anchors are fired after the end of the
pipeline has been pulled into its final position. This item
has other possible underwater applications.
b. Ignition Method. Ignition is by electric current.
Prior to launching, a firing wire is connected to the
13-1
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 13-1. Explosive embedment anchor.
13-2
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 13-2. Mechanically fired cutter.
13-3
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 13-3. Electrically fired cutter.
c. Safety Pin. Ejectors are packed with a safety
pin installed to prevent accidental firing by a pull on the
firing pin ring. This pin must remain installed until after
the ejector is packed into a chute. It must be reinstalled
on removal of the ejector from the parachute.
13-6. Cartridges
a. General.
(1) Replaceable cartridges are used in
aircraft stores ejectors (fig. 13-5), parachute cargo
releases, aircraft fire extinguishers (fig.
13-6),
parachute drogue guns, and cable cutters (fig. 3-7).
(2) Cartridges are also used in reefing line
cutters (aircraft seat catapults), and parachute ejectors.
In these applications, however, the cartridges are
handled only at depot level.
(3) The size and form of cartridges vary
broadly.
Differences depend on the amount of
propellant required, method of firing, and mounting
arrangement.
(4) Commercial cartridges are identified by a
variety of names, depending on the internal design and
intended use. Some examples of commercial names
follow: squib, dual squib, initiator, cutter cartridge, fire
extinguisher cartridge, primary cartridge, secondary
cartridge, and explosive cartridge.
Figure 13-4. Parachute ejector.
13-4
TM 9-1300-200
(5) Some of these devices are included in
Federal Stock Class 1377, while others carry the class
of the equipment with which they are associated. For
example, an aircraft stores ejector may be classed as an
air frame structure, but the cartridge is classed as a
propellant actuated device.
b. Types. All cartridges are divided into two
general categories:
impulse cartridges and delay
cartridges. Both types are actually impulse generating
devices but the word, delay, indicates that ignition takes
place some time after the primer is set off.
(1) Delay cartridges are designed with
specific delay times for specific purposes. Delay times
range from less than a second to about 20 seconds.
Manufacturing tolerances allow a variation in actual
delay times of about 20 percent. For example, a delay
cartridge labeled as a 1-second delay will have an
actual delay time ranging between 0.8 second and 1.2
seconds.
(2) An impulse cartridge will fire almost
instantaneously with activation of the primer.
Figure 13-5. Stores ejector cartridge.
13-5
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 13-6 Fire extinguisher cartridges.
c. Priming Methods.
(1) Percussion. Some cartridges are fired by
mechanical means. In this case, the primer is a
percussion primer, which must be struck to fire. A
familiar example of use of a percussion primer is in
ammunition for the service rifle.
(2) Electrical. Some cartridges are fired by
passing electrical current through the primer. In this
case, the primer is heat sensitive rather than percussion
sensitive.
d. Applications. Removable and replaceable
cartridges are used in stores ejectors (fig. 13-5),
extinguishers (fig. 13-6), cutters (fig. 13-7), aircraft seat
catapults (fig. 13-8), training catapults (fig. 13-9), cargo
parachute releases (fig. 13-10), towline rockets and
power tools.
Figure 13-7. Cable cutter cartridges.
13-6
TM 9-1300-200
Figure 13-8. Escape cartridge set.
Figure 13-9. Training catapult cartridge.
13-7. Care and Precautions in Handling
a. Handle all types of cartridges with care at all
times. Have installation and removal of cartridges
performed only by trained personnel.
When not
installed, store cartridges in shipping containers.
b. Short terminals of electrically fired cartridges by
means of specifically designed cap, or by wrapping in
metal foil.
This prevents accidental firing, should
terminals come in contact with electrical power.
c. Observe recommendations for care, handling
and preservation of ammunition given in chapter 1-they
apply generally to all types of propellant actuated
devices.
Figure 13-10. Parachute release delay cartridge.
13-7
TM 9-1300-200
APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
A-1. Administrative Publications
a. Army Regulations.
Transportation by Water of Hazardous Cargo ...............................................................................
Defense Traffic Management Regulation .....................................................................................
Malfunctions Involving Ammunition and Explosives .....................................................................
Responsibilities and Procedures for Explosive Ordnance Disposal ...............................................
Dictionary of United States Army Terms .......................................................................................
Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes ................................................................................
Department of the Army Information Security Program ................................................................
Laser Guidance System Security Classification Guide .................................................................
Policy for Safeguarding and Controlling Communications
Security (COMSEC) Material .................................................................................................
Army Safety Program ...................................................................................................................
Use of Explosives and Pyrotechnics in Public Demonstrations,
Exhibitions, and Celebrations .................................................................................................
Safety Color Code Markings and Signs ........................................................................................
Accident Reporting and Records ..................................................................................................
Coordination with Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board ...............................................
Policies and Procedures for Firing Ammunition for Training,
Target Practice, and Combat ........................................................................................................
Identification of Inert Ammunition and Ammunition Components ..................................................
Fire Protection .............................................................................................................................
Ammunition Peculiar Equipment Program (APE) .........................................................................
Defense Standardization and Specification Program ....................................................................
Requisitioning, Receipt, and Issue Items ......................................................................................
Reporting of Item and Packaging Discrepancies ...........................................................................
AR 55-228
AR 55-355
AR 75-1
AR 75-15
AR 310-25
AR 310-50
AR 380-5
AR 380-6
AR 380-40
AR 385-10
AR 385-26
AR 385-30
AR 385-40
AR 385-60
AR 385-63
AR 385-65
AR 420-90
AR 700-20
AR 700-47
AR 725-50
AR 735-11-2
b. DA Pamphlets.
Consolidated Index of Army Publications and Blank Forms ..........................................................
Index of Graphic Training Aids (GTA) ..........................................................................................
The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS) ..............................................................
DA Pam 25-30
DA Pam 25-37
DA Pam 738-750
A-2. Blank Forms
Discrepancy of Shipment Report ..................................................................................................
Report of Discrepancy ..................................................................................................................
Packaging and Improvement Report .............................................................................................
Accident Report ...........................................................................................................................
Request of Issue and Turn-in of Ammunition ................................................................................
Munition Surveillance Report - Descriptive Data of Ammunition
Represented By Sample ...............................................................................................................
Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms ...........................................................
Ammunition Condition Report ......................................................................................................
Ammunition Stores Slip ................................................................................................................
Ammunition Data Card .................................................................................................................
Fire Incident Report ......................................................................................................................
Fire Emergency Report ................................................................................................................
Change 5 A-1
SF 361
SF 364
DA Form 6
DA Form 285
DA Form 581
DA Form 984
DA Form 2028
DA Form 2415
DA Form 3151-R
DD Form 1650
DD Form 2324
DD Form 2324-1
TM 9-1300-200
A-3. Doctrinal, Training, and Organizational Publications
Chemical Reference Handbook ..............................................................................................
Flame Fuels ...........................................................................................................................
Explosives and Demolitions ...................................................................................................
Camouflage, Basic Principles and Field Camouflage .............................................................
Mine/Countermine Operations ................................................................................................
Grenades and Pyrotechnic Symbols .......................................................................................
Military Training Management ................................................................................................
Operational Terms and Symbols ............................................................................................
Field Artillery, Manual Cannon Gunnery .................................................................................
FM 3-7
FM 3-11
FM 5-250
FM 20-3
FM 20-32
FM 23-30
FM 25-2
FM 101-5-1
TC 6-40
A-4. Equipment Manuals
a. Technical Manuals.
Storage, Shipment, Handling, and Disposal of Chemical Agents and
Hazardous Chemicals ......................................................................................................
Data Sheets for Ordnance Type Materiel ................................................................................
Ammunition and Explosives Standards ..................................................................................
Military Explosives .................................................................................................................
Organizational Maintenance Manual (Including Repair
Parts and Special Tools List) for Small Arms Ammunition
to 30MM inclusive (FSC 1305) .........................................................................................
Direct Support and General Support Maintenance Manual
(Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) for Small
Arms Ammunition to 30MM inclusive (FSC 1305) ............................................................
Operator's and Unit Maintenance Manual for Grenades ..........................................................
Direct Support and General Support Maintenance
Manual for Grenades .......................................................................................................
Operator's and Organizational Maintenance Manual for Mine
Dispersing Subsystem, Aircraft: M56 and Mine Dispersing
Subsystem, Aircraft, Practice: M132 ................................................................................
Direct Support Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Mine Dispersing Subsystem, Aircraft: M56 ....................................
Operator's and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair
Parts and Special Tools List) for Land Mines ....................................................................
Organizational Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Military Pyrotechnics .....................................................................
Operator's and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts
and Special Tools List) Demolition Materials ....................................................................
Direct Support and General Support Maintenance Manual
(Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) Demolition Materials ................................
Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Small Caliber Ammunition (FSC 1305) .............................
Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Artillery Ammunition:
Guns, Howitzers, Mortars, Recoilless Rifles, Grenade Launchers,
and Artillery Fuzes (FSC 1310, 1315, 1320, 1390) ...........................................................
Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Grenades .........................................................................
Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Land Mines (FSC 1345) ...................................................
Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Demolition Materials .........................................................
Storage and Materials Handling ..............................................................................................
Destruction of Conventional Ammunition and Improved Conventional
Munitions to Prevent Enemy Use (Excluding Toxic and
Incapacitating Chemical Agents) (For Combat Use) .........................................................
Change 5 A-2
TM 3-250
TM 9-500
TM 9-1300-206
TM 9-1300-214
TM 9-1305-201-20&P
TM 9-1305-201-34&P
TM 9-1330-200-12
TM 9-1330-200-34
TM 9-1345-201-12
TM 9-1345-201-30&P
TM 9-1345-203-12&P
TM 9-1370-203-20&P
TM 9-1375-213-12
TM 9-1375-213-34
TM 43-0001-27
TM 43-0001-28
TM 43-0001-29
TM 43-0001-36
TM 43-0001-38
TM 743-200-1
TM 750-244-5-1
TM 9-1300-200
b. Technical Bulletins.
Department of Defense Explosives Hazard Classification Procedures ..........................................
Munitions, Restricted or Suspended .............................................................................................
Propellant Actuated Devices ........................................................................................................
Army Nuclear Weapon Equipment Records and Reporting Procedures ........................................
TB 700-2
TB 9-1300-385
TB 9-1377-200
TB 9-1100-803-15
c. Supply Bulletins.
Army Adopted/Other Items Selected For Authorization/List
of Reportable Items ......................................................................................................................
Federal Supply Classification: Part 1, Groups and Classes............................................................
Department of Defense Ammunition Code (Cataloging Handbook H3) ..........................................
Ammunition Packing Material and Certain Specified Ammunition
Components .................................................................................................................................
SB 700-20
SB 708-21
SB 708-3
SB 755-1
A-5. Supply Catalogs
FSC Group 13 Ammunition and Explosives (Classes 1305-1330) .................................................
FSC Group 13 Ammunition and Explosives (Classes 1340-1398) .................................................
Change 5 A-3
SC 1305/30-IL
SC 1340/98-IL
TM 9-1300-200
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
Change 5 A-4
TM 9-1300-200
INDEX
Paragraph
Accidents, reports. ....................................................................................................................... 1-2b
Adamsite (DM) ............................................................................................................................ 2-24f
Aerial Mines:
General.................................................................................................................................. 11-1
Tactical fighter dispenser systems: ....................................................................................... 11-8
Description ..................................................................................................................... 11-9
General ........................................................................................................................... 11-8
Operation ...................................................................................................................... 11-10
Packing ......................................................................................................................... 11-11
Painting and marking .................................................................................................... 11-12
Support Subsystems:
Description ..................................................................................................................... 11-4
General ........................................................................................................................... 11-3
Operation ........................................................................................................................ 11-5
Packing .......................................................................................................................... 11-6
Painting and marking....................................................................................................... 11-7
Scope ................................................................................................................................... 11-2
Amatol ...................................................................................................................................... 2-17e
Ammonium picrate .................................................................................................................... 2-17g
Ammunition, basic types:
Aerial mines ..............................................................................................................11-1— 11-12
Artillery ammunition .......................................................................................................4-1— 4-22
Bombs (Deleted)
Demolition materials ...................................................................................................... 8-1–8-13
Grenades ·...................................................................................................................... 6-1–6-10
Guided missiles ......................................................................................................... 12-1–12-12
Land mines ..................................................................................................................... 7-1–7-11
Propellant actuated devices .......................................................................................... 13-1–13-7
Pyrotechnics .................................................................................................................. 9-1–9-15
Rockets .......................................................................................................................... 5-1–5-12
Rocket motors .............................................................................................................. 5-13–5-17
Small arms ammunition ................................................................................................. 3-1–3-22
Artillery ammunition:
Blank .................................................................................................................................... 4-18
Boosters ............................................................................................................................... 4-11
Burster charge ....................................................................................................................... 4-10
Cartridge case ........................................................................................................................ 4-7
Classification .......................................................................................................................... 4-3
Dual purpose munitions ................................................................................................... 4-6i(12)
Dummy ammunition .............................................................................................................. 4-16
Fuzes ........................................................................................................................... 4-12–4-14
Identification ........................................................................................................................... 4-2
Improved conventional munitions (ICM) ........................................................................... 4-6i(11)
Marking.................................................................................................................................. 4-22
Packing.................................................................................................................................. 4-21
Practice rounds...................................................................................................................... 4-15
Precautions in firing .............................................................................................................. 4-20
Precautions in handling ......................................................................................................... 4-19
Primers .................................................................................................................................... 4-9
Projectiles................................................................................................................................ 4-6
Propellant temperature indicators ..................................................................................4-8b(4)(e)
Propelling charges ................................................................................................................... 4-8
Subcaliber ammunition ......................................................................................................... 4-17
Types....................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Bangalore Torpedoes ................................................................................................................ 8-11c
Basic types of ammunition. (See Ammunition, basic types.)
Change 5 Index 1
Page
1-1
2-21
11-1
11-7
11-7
11-7
11-7
11-7
11-7
11-2
11-1
11-3
11-3
11-3
11-1
2-15
2-16
11-1— 11-8
4-1— 4-34
8-1–8-21
6-1–6-15
12-1–12-6
7-1–7-12
13-1–13-7
9-1–9-19
5-1–5-7
5-7–5-12
3-1–3-17
4-31
4-18
4-18
4-8
4-1
4-8
4-29
4-18–4-23
4-1
4-8
4-34
4-26
4-33
4-32
4-15
4-3
4-15
4-9
4-29
4-1
8-18
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Benite ....................................................................................................................................... 2-13a
Bipropellant system (liquid propellants) ........................................................................................ 2-8b
Black powder .............................................................................................................................. 2-12
Blank ammunition (artillery) ......................................................................................................... 4-18
Basting machines................................................................................................................... 8-10c(6)
Blister gases ............................................................................................................................... 2-21
Blood and nerve poisons .............................................................................................................. 2-23
Bombs:
DELETED
Page
2-9
2-5
2-8
4-31
8-18
2-19
2-20
Boobytrapping................................................................................................................................ 7-7
Boosters, artillery ammunition ..................................................................................................... 4-11
Boron-Potassium nitrate ............................................................................................................ 2-13c
Bourrelet (projectile) .................................................................................................................... 4-6b
Burster charge, artillery ammunition ............................................................................................ 4-10
Calibration...................................................................................................................................... -5g
Cap crimpers ....................................................................................................................... 8-10c(17)
Card data ..................................................................................................................................... 1-10
Care and precautions. (See Specific items.)
Cartridges
Grenade (rifle) ...................................................................................................................... 6-4a
Photoflash ............................................................................................................................. 9-11
Chemical agents (see also Gases):
Blister gases ......................................................................................................................... 2-21
Blood and nerve poisons ....................................................................................................... 2-23
Choking gases ...................................................................................................................... 2-22
Classification ........................................................................................................................ 2-20
General ................................................................................................................................. 2-19
Identification of ammunition containing chemical agents........................................................ 2-29
Incendiaries .......................................................................................................................... 2-26
Marking of ammunition containing chemical agents .............................................................. 2-29
Miscellaneous ........................................................................................................................ 2-28
Screening smokes ................................................................................................................. 2-25
Training and riot control gases ............................................................................................... 2-24
Choking gases (phosgene) ......................................................................................................... 2-22b
Classification:
Ammunition ............................................................................................................................. 1-3
Chemical agents ................................................................................................................... 2-19
CN-DM (tear gas and Adamsite).............................................................................................. 2-24c, f
Color coding ................................................................................................................................ 1-6d
Composite propellants. (See Propellants.)
Composition A.............................................................................................................................. 2-17
Composition B............................................................................................................................ 2-17p
Composition C (series) .............................................................................................................. 2-17q
Cyanogen chloride (CK) ..............................................................................................................223c
DDNP ........................................................................................................................................ 2-18c
Definitions, general (see also Specific items) ................................................................................ 1-3
Demolition explosives ................................................................................................................. 2-17
Demolition materials:
Care and precautions in handling .......................................................................................... 8-12
Classification ........................................................................................................................... 8-2
Demolition charges ........................................................................................................ 8-3--8-lle
Demolition kits ...................................................................................................................... 8-11
Detonating cord ...................................................................................................................... 8-9
Detonators ............................................................................................................................... 8-5
Destructors .............................................................................................................................. 8-6
7-6
4-18
2-9
4-3
4-18
1-3
8-18
1-12
Change 5 Index 2
6-6
9-18
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-19
2-19
2-23
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-21
2-21
2-20
1-1
2-19
2-21
1-5
2-17
2-17
2-18
2-20
2-19
1-1
2-13
8-21
8-1
8-1
8-18
8-11
8-6
8-8
TM 9-1300-200
Firing devices ......................................................................................................
General ...............................................................................................................
Igniters.................................................................................................................
Packaging and marking........................................................................................
Priming and initiating materials ............................................................................
Double-base propellants. (See Propellants.)
DP (diphosgene) ........................................................................................................
Dynamite ..................................................................................................................
Earth rod explosive kit ...............................................................................................
Eimite ........................................................................................................................
Explosive and chemical agents:
Chemical agents .................................................................................................
High explosives ...................................................................................................
Low explosives ....................................................................................................
Propellants...........................................................................................................
Explosive charges. (See Demolition charges.)
Explosive destructors .................................................................................................
Explosive trains:
Fuze explosive ....................................................................................................
High explosive ....................................................................................................
Low explosive ......................................................................................................
Propellant explosive.............................................................................................
Fires, reports of..........................................................................................................
Firing data..................................................................................................................
Firing devices, demolition ..........................................................................................
Flame-thrower fuels ...................................................................................................
Flares. (See Pyrotechnics.)
Forms ........................................................................................................................
Fragmentation explosives ..........................................................................................
FS ............................................................................................................................
Fuzes:
Artillery ammunition .............................................................................................
Bombs .................................................................................................................
Guided missiles (Safety and arming devices).......................................................
Land mines ..........................................................................................................
Rockets................................................................................................................
Galvanometer, blasting ..............................................................................................
Gases (see also Chemical agents):
Blister ..................................................................................................................
Blood and nerve poisons......................................................................................
Casualty...............................................................................................................
Choking ...............................................................................................................
Military.................................................................................................................
Simulated military ................................................................................................
Training and riot control .......................................................................................
GB gas.......................................................................................................................
Grading ammunition...................................................................................................
Grenades:
Adapters and clips ...............................................................................................
Care and precautions in handling ........................................................................
Classification .......................................................................................................
General 2.............................................................................................................
Grenade cartridges ..............................................................................................
Hand....................................................................................................................
Grenade launcher ................................................................................................
Packing................................................................................................................
Painting and marking ...........................................................................................
Precautions in firing .............................................................................................
Rifle grenades......................................................................................................
Special precautions..............................................................................................
Types...................................................................................................................
Index 3
Paragraph
8-10
8-1
8-7
8-13
8-4
Page
8-12
8-1
8-10
8-21
8-6
2-22c
2-17l
8-11d
2-13b
2-20
2-17
8-18
2-9
2-19–2-29
2-15–2-18
2-11–2-14
2-1–2-9
8-6
2-12c(2)
2-15–5-4a
2-11
5-4b
2-19–2-23
2-11–2-18
2-6–2-9
2-1–2-5
8-8
2-8
2-11–5-2
2-6
5-2
1-2c
1-11
8-10
2-27
1-1
1-12
8-12
2-23
1-2
2-17
2-25c
1-1
2-13
2-22
4-12
10-4
12-8
7-3b, 7b,
7-5b
5-13
8-10c()
4-18
10-11
123
7-1, 7-4
-21
2-23
2-20a(1)
2-22
2-20a
2-20d
2-20a(2)
2-23d
1-8
2-19
2-20
2-19
2-20
2-19
2-20
2-19
2-20
1-12
6-4b, d
6-7
6-2
1
6-4c
6-3
6-4a
6-6
6-6
6-9
6-4
6-10
6-5
5-7
8-18
6-6, 6-7
615
6-1
6-1
6-6
6-3
6-6
6-12
6-12
6-15
6-6
6-15
6-7
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Guided missiles:
Aerodynamic structure ......................................................................................................12-4
Care, handling, and preservation ......................................................................................12-11
Classification ....................................................................................................................12-2
Control and guidance systems ..........................................................................................12-5
Electrical power system ....................................................................................................12-9
General.............................................................................................................................12-1
Identification .....................................................................................................................12-3
Packing and marking ........................................................................................................12-12
Launchers .........................................................................................................................12-10
Propulsion system.............................................................................................................12-6
Safety and arming devices................................................................................................12-8
Warheads .........................................................................................................................12-7
Hand grenades. (See Grenades.)
H (mustard gas) ......................................................................................................................2-21a
HBX
...................................................................................................................................2-17n
HC
...................................................................................................................................2-25d
HD
...................................................................................................................................2-21b
HL
...................................................................................................................................2-21f
HMX ...................................................................................................................................2-17r
HN-1 ...................................................................................................................................2-21c(1)
HN-2 ...................................................................................................................................2-21c(2)
HN-3 ...................................................................................................................................2-21c(3)
HT
...................................................................................................................................2-21d
High explosives:
Classification ....................................................................................................................2-16
Definition and terms..........................................................................................................2-1a
Demolition and fragmentation ...........................................................................................2-17
General.............................................................................................................................2-15
High explosive train ..........................................................................................................2-15b
Initiating and priming:
Diazodinitrophenol (DDNP).........................................................................................2-18c 2-19
Lead azide..................................................................................................................2-18a
Lead styphnate ...........................................................................................................218b
Primer compositions ...................................................................................................2-15a(9)
Hydrocyanic acid (AC) ...............................................................................................2-23b
Identification of ammunition:
Ammunition containing hazardous filler.............................................................................1-6b
Data card ..........................................................................................................................1-4f (4)
DODAC ...........................................................................................................................1-4c
FIIN ..................................................................................................................................
1-4b
FSN ..................................................................................................................................
1-4d
Lot number .......................................................................................................................
1-4f
Marking ............................................................................................................................
1-5
Model................................................................................................................................
1-4e
Standard nomenclature.....................................................................................................
1-4a
Type designation...............................................................................................................
1-4
Igniters (time blasting fuse) .....................................................................................................
8-7
Incendiaries:
Flame-thrower fuels .........................................................................................................
2-27
Incendiary mixture (PTI) (PTV) .........................................................................................
2-26f
Incendiary oils (IM and NP)...............................................................................................
2-26d, e
Magnesium .......................................................................................................................
2-26c
Thermate ..........................................................................................................................
2-26f
Thermite ...........................................................................................................................
2-26a
Inspection ...............................................................................................................................
1-8
Land mines:
Antipersonnel mines .........................................................................................................
7-3, 7-4
Antitank mines ..................................................................................................................
7-5, 7-6
Boobytrapping...................................................................................................................
7-7
Care and precautions in handling ......................................................................................
7-10
Chemical mines ................................................................................................................
7-8a
Classification and identification .........................................................................................
7-2
Index 4
Page
12-2
12-6
12-2
12-2
12-5
12-1
12-2
12-6
12-5
12-3
12-3
12-3
2-19
2-17
2-22
2-19
2-21
2-21
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-13
2-11
2-13
2-11
2-12
2-18
2-18
2-11
2-20
1-3
1-3
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-2
1-2
1-2
8-10
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-22
2-23
2-22
1-12
7-1
7-4
7-6
7-10
7-8
7-1
C1, TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Land mines-Continued
Firing devices ..................................................................................................................
7-9
General.............................................................................................................................
7-1
Incendiary bursters............................................................................................................
7-8b
Packing and marking ........................................................................................................
7-11
Launchers, rocket....................................................................................................................
5-1
Lead azide ..............................................................................................................................
2-18a
Lead styphnate........................................................................................................................
2-18b
Lewisite (L)..............................................................................................................................
2-21e
Liquid propellants. (See Propellants.)
Lot number..............................................................................................................................
1-4f
Low explosives:
Black powder ...................................................................................................................
2-12
Characteristics ..................................................................................................................
2-11c
Definition .........................................................................................................................
2-11a
General ............................................................................................................................
2-11
Low-explosive train ...........................................................................................................
2-11d
Pyrotechnic compositions .................................................................................................
2-14
Magnesium .............................................................................................................................
2-26c
Malfunctions............................................................................................................................
1-2d
Marking (see also Specific items): ..........................................................................................
1-7
Mines (See Land or Aerial mines.)
Monopropellant system (liquid propellants) .............................................................................
2-8a
Mox-type mixtures...................................................................................................................
2-13d
Mustard gas (H) ......................................................................................................................
2-21a
Mustard gas, simulated ...........................................................................................................
2-28a
Nerve poisons .........................................................................................................................
2-23a
Nitrocellulose propellants ........................................................................................................
2-2a
Nitrostarch explosives ............................................................................................................
2-17k
Nomenclature..........................................................................................................................
1-4a
Ogive (projectile) ....................................................................................................................
4-6a
Packing (see also Specific items)............................................................................................
1-7
Painting...................................................................................................................................
1-6
PETN ......................................................................................................................................
2-17b
Pentolite..................................................................................................................................
2-17i
Phosgene (CG) .......................................................................................................................
2-22b
Photoflash cartridges...............................................................................................................
9-11
Picratol....................................................................................................................................
2-17h
Picric acid ...............................................................................................................................
2-17f
Precautions (handling and firing). (See also Specific items.)
Precautions in use of ammunition ...........................................................................................
1-10
Primer compositions (high explosives) ....................................................................................
2-15a(9)
Primers:
Artillery ammunition ..........................................................................................................
4-9
Demolition equipment .......................................................................................................
8-4
Small arms ammunition ....................................................................................................
3-2c
Priming and initiating materials (demolition equipment)...........................................................
8-4
Priority of issue .......................................................................................................................
1-9
Projectiles. (See Artillery ammunition.)
Propellant actuated devices:
Care and precautions in handling ......................................................................................
13-7
Cartridges .........................................................................................................................
13-6
Cutters..............................................................................................................................
13-4
Explosive embedment anchor...........................................................................................
13-3
General.............................................................................................................................
13-1
Identification .....................................................................................................................
13-2
Parachute ejector..............................................................................................................
13-5
Propellant temperature indicators............................................................................................4-8b(4)(e)
Index 5
Page
7-10
7-1
7-9
7-12
5-6
2-18
2-18
2-20
1-2
2-8
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-9
2-22
1-1
1-12
2-5
2-9
2-19
2-23
2-20
2-1
2-16
1-2
4-3
1-12
1-3
2-15
2-16
2-20
9-18
2-16
2-16
1-12
2-11
4-15
8-6
3-6
8-6
1-12
13-7
13-4
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-1
4-1
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Propellants:
Characteristics ...........................................................................................................
Classification .............................................................................................................
Composite .................................................................................................................
Double-base ..............................................................................................................
For small arms...........................................................................................................
General......................................................................................................................
Liquid ......................................................................................................................
Nitrocellulose .............................................................................................................
Single-base................................................................................................................
Solid ......................................................................................................................
Propelling charges. (See Artillery ammunition.)
Pyrotechnics:
Bombs (Deleted)
Candlepower (table 9-1).............................................................................................
Care and precautions in handling ..............................................................................
Classification .............................................................................................................
Complete round .........................................................................................................
Flares:
Aircraft.................................................................................................................
Ground ................................................................................................................
Guide ..................................................................................................................
Ramjet engine igniters .........................................................................................
Tracking ..............................................................................................................
General......................................................................................................................
Identification ..............................................................................................................
Ignition train...............................................................................................................
Packing and marking .................................................................................................
Photoflash cartridges .................................................................................................
Precautions in firing ...................................................................................................
Projection ..................................................................................................................
Pyrotechnic compositions ..........................................................................................
Signals .....................................................................................................................
Training pyrotechnics.................................................................................................
Types ......................................................................................................................
Visibility .....................................................................................................................
2-3
2-2
2-6
2-5
2-4d
2-1
2-7-2-10
2-2a
2-4
2-1–2-6
2-2
2-1
2-5
2-4
2-4
2-1
2-5
2-1
24
2-1–2-6
9-3
9-13
9-2
9-1a
9-3
9-20.1
9
9-1
9-5
9-6
9-7
9--8
9-9
9-1
9-1d
9-1b
9-15
9-11
9-14
9-1e
9-1c
9-10
9-12
9-4
9-3
9-4
9-7
9-7
9-7
9-7
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-19
9-19
9-19
9-1
9-1
9-7
9-19
9-4
9-3
RDX
......................................................................................................................
2-17c
Recommended changes...................................................................................................
1-2f
Reports
......................................................................................................................
1-2
Rifle grenades (See Grenades.)
Rockets:
Aircraft ......................................................................................................................
5-25, 5-26
Application.................................................................................................................
5-2
Classification .............................................................................................................
5-4
Complete round, general............................................................................................
5-5
Explosive train ...........................................................................................................
5-6
Fuzes ...................................................................................................................... 5-17, 5-18
General......................................................................................................................
5-1
Ground-to-ground ......................................................................................................
5-23, 5-24
Identification ..............................................................................................................
5-19
Launchers ..................................................................................................................
5-15 ,5-16
Marking......................................................................................................................
5-19
Motors ......................................................................................................................
5-13, 5-14
Painting .....................................................................................................................
5-19
Packing......................................................................................................................
5-20
Precautions................................................................................................................
5-27— 5-30
Principles of rocket propulsion
Shoulder-fired ............................................................................................................
5-21, 5-22
Warheads ..................................................................................................................
5-7— 5-12
Rotating band (projectile) .................................................................................................
4-6d
Safety, reports..................................................................................................................
1-2e
Scope of manual .............................................................................................................
1-1
Change 5 Index 6
Page
2-15
1-1
1-1
5-13
5-1
5-1
5-3
5-3
5-6
5-1
5-12, 5-13
5-7
5-6
5-7
5-4, 5-5
5-7
5-7
5-13, 5-14
5-11
5-3, 5-4
4-3
1-1
1-1
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Scatterable mines:
Canister assembly ....................................................................................................
11-5b
Container CNU-79/E ..................................................................................................
11-6b
Container M602 ........................................................................................................
11-6c
Dispenser pallet ........................................................................................................
11-5d
Firing ......................................................................................................................
11-5e
General......................................................................................................................
11-3
Mine dispenser ..........................................................................................................
11-5a
Mine release .............................................................................................................
11.5c
Operational procedures .............................................................................................
11-2b
Painting and marking .................................................................................................
11-7b
Practice and inert types .............................................................................................
11-4b
Shipping and storage containers ...............................................................................
11-6
Screening smokes:
Hexachloroethane-zinc (HC) ......................................................................................
2-25d
Sulfur trioxide-chorosulfonic acid (FS) .......................................................................
2-25c
White phosphorus (WP) and plasticized white phosphorus IPWP) .............................
2-22a,b
Security classification.......................................................................................................
1-3c(2)
Shipping regulations, classification of ammunition............................................................
1-3c
Signals, pyrotechnic. (See Pyrotechnics.)
Simulators ......................................................................................................................
9-12
Single-base propellants. (See Propellants.)
Small arms ammunition:
Care, handling and preservation ................................................................................
3-21
Cartridges:
Armor-piercing.....................................................................................................
3-6
Armor-piercing-incendiary ...................................................................................
3-7
Armor-piercing-incendiary-tracer .........................................................................
3-8
Ball .....................................................................................................................
3-3
Blank ..................................................................................................................
3-11
Duplex ................................................................................................................
3-9
Dummy (See Special purpose.)
Frangible ............................................................................................................
3-13
Grenade .............................................................................................................
3-12
High-explosive incendiary....................................................................................
3-15
High-pressure test ...............................................................................................
3-18
Incendiary ...........................................................................................................
3-14
Match .................................................................................................................
3-5
Special purpose...................................................................................................
3-18
Spotter-tracer .....................................................................................................
3-10
TP, TP-T ............................................................................................................
3-16,3-17
Tracer..................................................................................................................
3-4
General......................................................................................................................
3-1
Metallic links and clips ..............................................................................................
3-19
Packing and identification marking ............................................................................
3-20
Precautions in firing ..................................................................................................
3-22
Types of cartridges ....................................................................................................
3-3–3-18
Smoke, screening. (See Screening smoke.)
Solid propellant. (See Propellants.)
Subcaliber ammunition ....................................................................................................
4-17
Change 2 Index 7
Page
11-6
11-8
11-8
11:6
11-7
11-1
11-6
11-6
11-1
11-8
11-6
11-8
2-22
2-22
2-20
1-2
1-2
9-19
3-16
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-10
3-12
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-15
3-12
3-11
3-14
3-12
3-12
3-10
3-1
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-10
4-29
TM 9-1300-200
Paragraph
Page
Tables:
Primary use code (table 1-1) ...........................................................................................
1-6
1-3
Ammunition color coding (table 1-2) ................................................................................
1-6
1-3
Characteristics of low explosives (table 2-1) ....................................................................
2-14
2-9
Pyrotechnic types and candlepower (table 9-1) ................................................................
9-3
9-3
Tear gas (CN, CNB and CNS) .........................................................................................
2-24
2-21
Tetryl ............................................................................................................................
13
Tetrytol ............................................................................................................................
2-17
2-16
Thermate (TH) ................................................................................................................
22
Thermite (TH) ..................................................................................................................
2-26a
2-22
TNT
............................................................................................................................
2-17a
2-15
Trainer, artillery field .......................................................................................................
4-15d
4-28
Training (practice):
Artillery ammunition .........................................................................................................
4-15
4-26
Gases ............................................................................................................................
2-24
2-21
Grenades ........................................................................................................................
6-3b(2)
8-1-6
Inert firing devices............................................................................................................
8-10b(3)
8-15
Practice mines .................................................................................................................
7-4,7-6
7-1,7-6
Pyrotechnics ...................................................................................................................
9-12
9-19
Small-arms ammunition ...................................................................................................
3-17,3-18 3-14
Tritonal ............................................................................................................................
2-17m
2-17
VX gas ............................................................................................................................
2-23e
2-21
Warheads:
Chemical and smoke........................................................................................................
5-10
5-4
Flechette .........................................................................................................................
5-7
5-3
High explosive ................................................................................................................
5-8
5-4
High-explosive antitank ....................................................................................................
5-9
5-4
Practice ...........................................................................................................................
5-12
5-4
Spotting ...........................................................................................................................
5-11
5-4
White phosphorus (WP) and plasticized white phosphorus (PWP) ...................................
2-25a, b
2-22
Windshield (projectile)......................................................................................................
4-6a
4-3
Change 2 Index 8
TM 9-1300-200
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
KENNETH G. WICKHAM,
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.
Distribution:
Active Army:
USASA (2)
DCSLOG (2)
CNGB (1)
CofEngrs (4)
USAMB(2)
USAMC(12)
USAECOM(2)
USAMECOM(2)
USAWECOM(2)
USAMUCOM(10)
USAMICOM(10)
USATACOM(2)
USATECOM(2)
USCONARC(3)
ARADCOM(2)
ARADCOM Rgn (2)
OS Maj Comd (2) except
USAREUR (5)
LOGCOMD (2)
MDW (1)
Armies (2) except
First (5)
Corps (2)
Div (2)
Instl (2)
Svc Colleges (20)
Log Con Ofc (2)
W. C. WESTMORELAND,
General, United States Army,
Chief of Staff.
Br Svc Sch (12) except
USAOC&S (200)
USACMLCS (100)
USA FA Sch (100)
USAARMS (100)
USA Msl & Muns CEO & Sch (300)
Army Dep (2) except
SVAD
(50)
LEAD
(4)
Gen Dep (2)
Ord Sec, Gen Dep (5)
Ord Dep (5)
Arsenals (4) except
Edgewood (10)
Picatinny (75)
PG (2)
PMS Sr Div Ord Units (1)
POE (2)
USARMIS (2)
MAAG (2)
MTMTS (2)
EAMTMTS (2)
WAMTMTS (2)
JBUSMC (2)
JUSMAAG (2)
Fld Comd, DASA (1)
ARNG: State AG (3); units-same as Active Army except allowance is one (1) copy each
USAR: None
PIN: 027356-000
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