Engine Aftertreatment Systems

Engine Aftertreatment Systems
Contents
Safety
1
Emergency
2
Controls
3
Driving
4
Maintenance
5
Information
6
Index
7
Contents
©2010 Paccar Inc - All Rights Reserved
This manual illustrates and describes the operation of features or equipment which may be either standard or optional on
this vehicle. This manual may also include a description of features and equipment which are no longer available or were
not ordered on this vehicle. Please disregard any illustrations or descriptions relating to features or equipment which are
not on this vehicle.
PACCAR reserves the right to discontinue, change specifications, or change the design of its vehicles at any time without
notice and without incurring any obligation.
The information contained in this manual is proprietary to PACCAR. Reproduction, in whole or in part, by any means is strictly
prohibited without prior written authorization from PACCAR Inc.
SAFETY
Safety
1
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Safety Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Illustrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1-1
Safety
Safety
About This Manual
Please take the time to get acquainted
with your vehicle by reading this
Operator’s Manual. We recommend
that you read and understand this
manual from beginning to end before
you operate your truck. This manual
explains the safe, efficient operation
and maintenance of your vehicle.
not discussed in this manual, consult
your dealer or the manufacturer of the
equipment. All information contained
in this manual is based on the latest
production information available at the
time of publication. PACCAR reserves
the right to make changes at any time
without notice.
1
NOTE: After you’ve read this
manual, it should be stored in
the cab for convenient reference
and remain with this truck when
sold.
Your vehicle may not have all the
features or options mentioned in this
manual. Therefore, you should pay
careful attention to the instructions
that pertain to just your vehicle. In
addition, if your vehicle is equipped
with special equipment or options
1-3
Safety
1
Safety Alerts
Please read and follow all of the
safety alerts contained in this manual.
They are there for your protection
and information. These alerts can
help you avoid injury to yourself, your
passengers, and help prevent costly
damage to the vehicle. Safety alerts
are highlighted by safety alert symbols
and signal words such as "WARNING",
"CAUTION", or "NOTE". Please do not
ignore any of these alerts.
1-4
WARNING
WARNING:
The safety message following this
symbol and signal word provides a
warning against operating procedures
which could cause injury or even death.
They could also cause equipment or
property damage. The alert will identify
the hazard, how to avoid it, and the
probable consequence of not avoiding
the hazard.
Example:
WARNING: Do not carry
additional fuel containers in
your vehicle. Fuel containers,
either full or empty, may leak,
explode, and cause or feed a
fire. Do not carry extra fuel
containers. Even empty ones
are dangerous. Failure to
comply may result in death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Safety
CAUTION
CAUTION:
The safety alert following this symbol
and signal word provides a caution
against operating procedures which
could cause equipment or property
damage. The alert will identify the
hazard, how to avoid it, and the
probable consequence of not avoiding
the hazard.
NOTE
1
NOTE:
The alert following this symbol and
signal word provides important
information that is not safety related
but should be followed. The alert
will highlight things that may not be
obvious and is useful to your efficient
operation of the vehicle.
Example:
Example:
CAUTION: Continuing to
operate your vehicle with
insufficient oil pressure
will cause serious engine
damage. Failure to comply
may result in equipment or
property damage.
NOTE: Pumping the accelerator
will not assist in starting the
engine.
1-5
Safety
1
Illustrations
General Information
Some of the illustrations throughout
this manual are generic and will not
look exactly like the engine or parts
used in your vehicle.
1-6
CONTROLS
Aftertreatment System (ATS)
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Regeneration Process . . .
Functionality / Notification Information . . .
DPF Regeneration . . . . . . . . . .
Stop an Automatic or Parked Regeneration
Idling in Freezing Temperatures. . . . .
3-4
3-4
3-6
3-11
3-13
3-14
3
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-16
3-1
Aftertreatment System (ATS)
Aftertreatment System
(ATS)
Introduction
The Aftertreatment System (ATS)
on your vehicle is made up of two
systems:
1.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
System
2.
Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR) System
They fulfill two primary functions;
particulate reduction & nitrogen oxide
(NOx) reduction.
This section of the manual describes
how to interact and control these two
systems. See the INFORMATION
section starting on page 6-1 of this
manual for more detailed information
about the aftertreatment process and
its components.
3
3-3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
3
Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) System
Controlling the
Regeneration Process
Introduction
Your vehicle is equipped with either
a two-position or three-position
Regeneration Switch, mounted on the
dash.
The DPF system consists of a
Hydrocarbon (HC) Doser, a Diesel
Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), and a DPF.
The DPF filters soot out of the exhaust.
When activated the HC Doser sprays
a small amount of diesel fuel (the HC)
into the exhaust. The catalyst in the
DOC reacts with the HC to generate
heat. The heat is used to clean
(regenerate) the DPF by reducing the
trapped soot to ash.
If equipped with a two-position
Regeneration Switch, the driver
can initiate a Parked Regeneration
when certain operating conditions are
suitable for regeneration, however,
you will NOT be able to Stop a
regeneration if the ATS has initiated
one automatically. Refer to " Parked
Regeneration on page 3-11 "
If your vehicle is equipped with a
three-position Regeneration Switch,
the driver can control the regeneration
by overriding the ATS when certain
operating conditions are not suitable
for regeneration. Refer to " Stop an
Automatic or Parked Regeneration on
page 3-13 "
3-4
WARNING: If you operate
in environments that
contain explosive vapors
or flammable materials,
look to see if your
vehicle’s Regeneration
Switch is equipped with
a STOP function. The
STOP function must be
activated prior to entering
the above environment(s)
to prevent automatic engine
regeneration from occurring,
which could cause an
explosion or fire. Failure to
equip your vehicle with the
proper switch (function) or
failing to activate the STOP
function before entering a
combustible environment
may cause an explosion or
fire that could lead death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
NOTE: To obtain a Regeneration
Switch with a STOP function,
contact your nearest authorized
PACCAR dealer to obtain
the proper switch and
reprogramming of your engine’s
ECU.
Two-Position Regeneration Switch
Three-Position Regeneration Switch
Three-Position Regeneration Switches
Start
Two-Position Regeneration Switch
NOTE: Refer to " DPF
Regeneration on page 3-11
" for instructions on how to start
or stop a ATS regeneration
(three-position switch only).
Start
Depressing the button in the START
direction for at least 4 - 8 seconds will
initiate a parked regeneration.
Depressing the button in the START
direction for at least 4 - 8 seconds will
initiate a parked regeneration.
Center (three position switch only)
NOTE: During normal vehicle
driving, the regeneration switch
must be in the CENTER
position.
CENTER is the normal position of
the switch. Unless you are manually
initiating a parked regeneration or
intentionally stopping a regeneration,
3-5
3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
the switch should be in this position.
Placing the switch in the center position
will allow an automatic regeneration to
occur if conditions allow.
Stop (three position switch only)
3
Aftertreatment System Warning
Lamps
Functionality / Notification
Information
ATS specific warning lamps and
indicator symbols are located on the
main gauge cluster.
The ATS will regenerate the DPF by
using hot exhaust gases normally
generated by the engine. This
typically occurs during highway
operation, is referred to as a "Passive"
Regeneration, and is transparent to
the operation of the vehicle.
When STOP is pressed the system will
not regenerate under any conditions.
CAUTION: Do not leave the
switch in the STOP position
unless you need to cancel or
stop a regeneration. Running
the engine with the switch in
the STOP position will result
in increased soot levels in
the DPF and could eventually
cause the engine to derate.
3-6
High Exhaust System
Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Warning Temperature (HEST)
Warning Lamp
Lamp Symbol
Symbol
Occasionally, the exhaust gases
are not hot enough for passive
regeneration. When this occurs,
the ATS will regenerate the DPF by
increasing the exhaust temperature.
This is referred to as an "Automatic"
Regeneration and is also transparent
to vehicle operation. An Automatic
Regeneration event typically lasts 30
minutes. During and shortly after the
event, the exhaust gases from the DPF
may reach temperatures in excess of
650° C (1200° F). See the information
in the table below on probable causes
and recommended actions related
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
to the warning lamps and indicator
symbols of the ATS.
The ATS may not be able to regenerate
the DPF when the vehicle is driven at
extended low speeds or with frequent
start and stops. In such cases,
warning lamps and indicator symbols
will alert the operator to take action.
The operator should be aware of
whether the lamps are on alone or in
combination with others. The following
table will describe each warning
lamp(s) and what actions are needed
from the operator.
3
3-7
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Notification of High Exhaust System Temperature:
Warning Indicator
HEST lamp on
3
3-8
Condition
Operator Actions
Any one or combination of these Follow all warnings listed below. Use the STOP function of the Regeneration Switch if
the situation requires. Follow the instructions described under " Stop an Automatic or
conditions:
•
Exhaust outlet temperature Parked Regeneration on page 3-13 ".
is elevated above normal (at
WARNING: Temperature of the tail pipe, exhaust pipe, diesel particular
least 450° C / 842° F) and
filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device and surrounding
vehicle slows below 5 mph /
components including enclosures and steps, will be elevated during and
8 kph.
shortly after a regeneration event or normal vehicle operation when engine
•
Normal driving but engine is
is under high or heavy loading. If the High Exhaust System Temperature
under heavy loading.
(HEST) warning lamp is on:
•
Automatic Regeneration in
•
Do not park in an area of combustible vapors or materials. You must
process
keep combustibles at least five (5) feet away from the exhaust (outlet)
•
Parked Regeneration in
steam (as it exits the tail pipe) while the HEST lamp is illuminated.
process
Always park your vehicle outside. Failure to do so could ignite an
explosion or harm bystanders which could result in serious injury.
•
Do not park in an area where people are close by. You must keep
combustibles at least five (5) feet away from the exhaust outlet while
the HEST lamp is illuminated. Failure to do so could result in serious
injury.
•
Temperature of the tail pipe, exhaust pipes, diesel particular filter
(DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device and surrounding
components including enclosures and steps becomes elevated during
engine operation or any regeneration event and can cause serious
burns to the skin. Allow adequate cooling time before approaching,
working on or near any part of the exhaust system or surrounding
components.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Notification That Regeneration Is Required:
Warning
Level
1
Warning
Indicators
Condition
The soot level in the DPF is above
the desired level and requires
regeneration.
DPF lamp on
The soot level in the DPF continues
to stay above the desired level and
requires regeneration.
2
DPF lamp flashes
Operator Actions
The DPF requires regeneration soon. Follow the instructions
described under " DPF Regeneration on page 3-11 ".
NOTE: If you ignore the warning lamp and do not
initiate regeneration at the soonest, safest possible
time, the DPF will become increasingly clogged with
soot and can lead to engine shutdown.
Regenerate the DPF as soon as safely possible. Follow the
instructions described under "DPF Regeneration on page 3-11
".
CAUTION: If you do not initiate regeneration
after the DPF warning lamp begins to flash, you
only have a short time before the Check Engine
lamp will illuminate and the engine will go into a
protection mode and derate power.
3-9
3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Warning
Level
3
Warning
Indicators
DPF lamp flashes
3
Condition
The soot level in the DPF continues
to stay above the desired level and
requires regeneration.
The engine will derate power if action
is not taken.
Operator Actions
Regenerate the DPF immediately. Follow the instructions
described under " Parked Regeneration on page 3-11 ".
CAUTION: If you do not initiate regeneration
after the DPF warning lamp begins to flash and
the Check Engine lamp is on, you only have
a short time before the Stop Engine lamp will
illuminate and the engine will automatically begin
to shutdown.
Check Engine lamp on
4
3-10
NOTE: Under some conditions after prolonged
stationary idling, a parked regeneration may be
required without a level 1 or level 2 warning.
The soot level in the DPF is now at full At this point, you CANNOT regenerate the DPF. Take your
vehicle to an Authorized PACCAR Dealer to have the DPF
capacity.
removed. They will either have to clean it or replaced it.
The engine will derate power and if
the engine is not an MX, it will begin a
WARNING: If the Stop Engine warning lamp
DPF lamp flashes (MX engine shutdown sequence.
illuminates, it means you have a serious engine
When
shutdown
sequence
is
complete,
only)
system problem. This should be considered an
the system will allow a restart.
emergency. You should stop the vehicle as safely
as possible and turn OFF the ignition. The vehicle
NOTE: The engine shutdown
must be serviced and the problem corrected
sequence is engine specific;
before driving again. Failure to comply may result
therefore to learn how
in death, personal injury, equipment or property
this system works on your
Stop Engine lamp on
damage.
vehicle, refer to the Engine
Manufacturer’s Operation and
Maintenance Manual supplied
with your vehicle.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
DPF Regeneration
Parked Regeneration
Carefully read the following instructions
to regenerate the DPF. If you have any
problems or difficulties contact your
nearest authorized PACCAR dealer for
assistance.
In very limited applications or
operations the DPF must be
regenerated by initiating a Parked
Regeneration. Follow these seven
steps to initiate a Parked Regeneration:
The ATS requires conditions typically
found in highway driving to regenerate
the DPF. If the DPF warning lamp is
illuminated, the easiest option is to
assist the ATS by proceeding to the
nearest highway.
1.
Pull the vehicle over to a safe
location.
2.
Ensure no one is in the immediate
vicinity to the tail pipe.
3.
Maintain a minimum of 5 feet
of clearance to any combustible
materials from the edge and top
of the vehicle.
•
•
Select a highway that has a posted
legal speed of more than 35 mph.
Drive your vehicle until the DPF
lamp goes off. This may take 30 45 minutes of speeds greater than
20 mph (32 kph).
If your operation or planned route in
the immediate future limits your ability
to reach highway speeds, proceed
to the next section titled Parked
Regeneration.
WARNING: Parking the
vehicle too close to any
combustible materials or
vapors may start a fire,
ignite an explosion or
burn someone standing
close by. Before pushing
the Regeneration switch
on the dash, walk around
your vehicle and ensure
you have at least five
(5) feet clearance from
the sides and top of
your vehicle to any
combustibles. Ensure no
one is in the immediate
vicinity to the tailpipe.
Failure to comply could
ignite a fire or cause an
explosion, resulting in
death, personal injury,
equipment or property
damage.
WARNING: Never initiate
a regeneration in a closed
building or enclosure.
Always park your vehicle
outside and ensure no
one is in the immediate
vicinity. Failure to comply
could ignite a fire or cause
an explosion, resulting
in death, personal injury,
3-11
3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
surroundings and ensure
that no combustibles
(materials or vapors) or
bystanders are close
by before initiating a
regeneration.
equipment or property
damage.
NOTE: Typical operation
areas or materials that can
contain explosive vapors,
flammable materials or
people in close proximity of
the vehicle are:
3
•
Fuel depots
•
Grain elevators
•
Dry grass, leaves or
trees
•
Transfer refuse
stations/dumps
•
Parking lots
•
Load/unload terminals
NOTE: While the list
above may appear
comprehensive, it is your
responsibility to take the
necessary precautions
and be aware of your
3-12
4.
Verify that the following conditions
are met before proceeding. A
Parked Regeneration will not
initiate if any of these conditions
are not met:
°
°
°
Parking brake is applied / set
°
Coolant is at operating
temperature
°
No throttle, brake or clutch
applied
°
°
°
PTO is disengaged
°
Engine brake switch is off
5.
Get out and walk all around
vehicle to ensure that the vehicle
is at least 5 feet away from all
combustible materials and no one
is in the immediate vicinity.
6.
Climb back into the vehicle.
7.
Push the Regeneration (START)
Switch located on the dash for at
least 4 - 8 seconds to initiate a
Parked Regeneration.
Engine is at low idle
DPF warning lamp is
illuminated or flashing
Transmission is in neutral
Cruise control switch is off
Regeneration Switch
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
NOTE: Acknowledgment
that a Parked Regeneration
has initiated will vary by
engine. The most predominant
acknowledgement to you will be
an increase in engine RPM and
overall engine noise.
NOTE: A Parked Regeneration
may take 30 or more seconds
to initiate as the ATS system
conducts various self-checks
to verify all the system
requirements have been
met.
If you are unable to initiate a
Parked regeneration and the DPF
warning lamp is illuminated, contact
your nearest PACCAR dealer for
assistance.
Stop an Automatic or Parked
Regeneration
NOTE: The information in this
section only applies to vehicles
equipped with a three-position
Engine Regeneration Switch
with a STOP position.
If an Automatic or Parked Regeneration
is in process and you want the
regeneration to stop, OR you want to
prevent a regeneration from occurring,
your vehicle is equipped with a switch
that can STOP an Automatic or Parked
Regeneration. Since Automatic
Regenerations can occur at any time,
you must depress the STOP portion
of the Regeneration Switch ANYTIME
you plan to drive your vehicle into
a building, enclosure or area where
the activation of a regeneration is not
allowed. If the regeneration does not
stop, turn the vehicle ignition OFF.
WARNING: Never allow an
Automatic regeneration to
automatically start while
inside a building such as
a service bay, shop or
building of any kind. Any
time you are parking your
vehicle inside a building or
enclosure, ALWAYS press the
Regeneration (STOP) switch
prior to entering the building.
Failure to comply could ignite
a fire or cause an explosion,
resulting in death, personal
injury, equipment or property
damage.
WARNING: Never initiate a
Parked Regeneration in a
closed building or enclosure.
Always park your vehicle
outside. Failure to comply
could ignite a fire or cause an
explosion, resulting in death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
3-13
3
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
WARNING: If you operate
in environments that
contain explosive vapors
or flammable materials,
look to see if your
vehicle’s Regeneration
Switch is equipped with
a STOP function. The
STOP function must be
activated prior to entering
the above environment(s)
to prevent automatic engine
regeneration from occurring,
which could cause an
explosion or fire. Failure to
equip your vehicle with the
proper switch (function) or
failing to activate the STOP
function before entering a
combustible environment
may cause an explosion or
fire that could lead to death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
3
3-14
NOTE: To obtain a Regeneration
Switch with a STOP function,
contact an authorized PACCAR
dealer to obtain the proper
switch and reprogramming of
your engine’s ECU.
Idling in Freezing
Temperatures
Idling the engine for 3 or more hours
in freezing temperatures causes the
build up of soot and moisture in the
DPF. Extra heat is required to oxidize
the soot and moisture by using the
following methods:
•
DPF Regeneration:
If the DPF Lamp turns on follow
the instructions described under "
DPF Regeneration on page 3-11 ".
NOTE: If you ignore the
warning lamp and do not
initiate regeneration at the
soonest, safest possible
time, the DPF will become
increasingly clogged with
soot and can lead to engine
shutdown.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
•
PACCAR MX Engine:
the aftertreatment temperatures
are suitable.
CAUTION: If the DPF lamp
has not turned on, raise
the engine speed to 1200
RPM and run the engine
fan for 10 minutes while
parked. Failure to warm
up the DPF in this gradual
manner could damage
the DPF requiring it to be
replaced.
•
3
PACCAR PX-6 and PX-8 Engines
and Cummins ISL Engine:
Regardless if the DPF lamp is
on or off, the engine speed will
automatically increase to 1000
to 1100 RPM and remain at this
speed for 10 minutes.
If necessary, the RPMs can
be lowered by depressing the
throttle, clutch, or brake pedal.
If the engine continues to idle,
the aftertreatment system will try
again to raise the idle speed until
3-15
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) System
are 4 stages to this warning (see
DEF Level Warning table on page
3-18).
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Gauge
Introduction
3
CAUTION: If the DEF
warning lamp turns on
due to the DEF level, refill
the DEF tank. Failure
to refill may cause the
engine to derate and limit
vehicle speed.
The SCR system consists of a Diesel
Emissions Fluid (DEF) Doser and
a SCR Catalyst. The DEF Doser
sprays a small amount of DEF into the
exhaust. The SCR catalyst reacts with
the DEF to break down the Nitrogen
Oxides (NOx) in the exhaust into
nitrogen and water vapor.
2.
1
DEF Symbol
2
DEF Warning Lamp
DEF is consumable and needs to be
replenished so monitor the DEF level
gauge as you would the fuel level
gauge.
The DEF warning lamp will illuminate
for the following 3 reasons:
1.
3-16
DEF Level Warning: To warn
you to refill the DEF tank. There
DEF Quality: If the engine
detects that DEF quality is below
acceptable levels. There are 3
stages to these warnings (see
DEF Quality Warning table on
page 3-19).
CAUTION: If the DEF
warning lamp turns on
due to DEF Quality, see
Contamination/Incorrect
Fluid on page 6-11 for
corrective action. Failure
to correct may cause the
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
engine to derate and limit
vehicle speed.
3.
SCR System Tampering: to warn
you if the engine system detects
failures that may be the result of
tampering with the SCR system.
There are 3 stages to this warning
(see SCR System Tampering
Warning table on page 3-20).
3
CAUTION: If the DEF
warning lamp turns on
due to System Tampering,
see your authorized
PACCAR dealer to have
this repaired. Failure
to repair the system
may cause the engine to
derate and limit vehicle
speed.
3-17
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
DEF Level Warning
Warning
Level
Warnings Indicators
Condition
Effect on Engine
0
None
DEF Level greater
than 10% (1/8 tank)
None
DEF Level at 10%
(1/8 tank)
None
DEF Level between
empty and 10%
(1/8 tank)
None
DEF Level
almost empty
Engine power
derated
DEF Level empty
Engine power
derated and/or
vehicle speed
significantly
limited
1
3
DEF Warning Lamp on
2
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
3
4
3-18
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
Check Engine Lamp
on
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(Not on MX engine)
Stop Engine Lamp
may be on
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
DEF Quality
Warning
Level
Warnings Indicators
Condition
Effect on Engine
0
None
No Quality Issue
None
Quality Issue
Detected
None
Detected
+ 10 hours
Engine power
derated
Detected
+ 20 hours
Engine power
derated and/or
vehicle speed
significantly
limited
1
2
3
DEF Warning Lamp
on
(MX engine only)
on
(Not on ISX Engine)
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
(MX engine only)
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
(MX engine only)
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
Stop Engine Lamp
may be on
3
3-19
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
SCR System Tampering
Warning
Level
Warnings Indicators
Condition
Effect on Engine
0
None
No Tampering
Issue
None
Tampering
Detected
None
Detected
+ 10 hours
Engine power
derated
Detected
+ 40 hours
Engine power
derated and/or
vehicle speed
significantly
limited
3
1
2
3
3-20
DEF Warning Lamp
on
(MX engine only)
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
(MX engine only)
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
DEF Warning Lamp
flashing
(MX engine only)
Check Engine Lamp
on
MIL Lamp
on
(ISX engine only)
Stop Engine Lamp
may be on
INFORMATION
Information
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Tampering with Aftertreatment System . . . 6-4
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Recommendations and Specifications
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contamination/Incorrect Fluid. . . . .
Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 6-7
. . 6-8
. . 6-9
. 6-10
. 6-11
. 6-11
. 6-12
6
6-1
Information
Information
1.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
System
Introduction
2.
Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR) System
The Aftertreatment System (ATS)
on your vehicle is made up of two
systems:
They fulfill two primary functions;
particulate reduction & nitrogen oxide
(NOx) reduction.
This section of the manual provides
more detailed information about
the aftertreatment process and its
components.
6
6-3
Information
Tampering with
Aftertreatment System
The aftertreatment system for your
vehicle as installed from the factory
was specifically designed to meet the
emissions requirements of the US
Environmental Protection Agency and
California Air Resources Board. Any
changes of component locations or
modifications of any aftertreatment
system components may reduce the
emission effectiveness and you may
be subject to fines under the United
States Clean Air Act.
6
6-4
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) System
catalyst in the DOC reacts with
the HC to generate heat. The heat
is used to clean (regenerate) the
DPF by reducing the trapped soot
to ash.
Overview
The DPF system consists of a
Hydrocarbon (HC) Doser, a Diesel
Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), and a DPF.
The components of the DPF system
perform the following functions:
•
•
Soot is composed of the partially
burned particles of fuel that occur
during normal engine operation
(black smoke).
•
Over time, both soot and ash
accumulate in the DPF and must
be removed. Soot is removed by
a process called regeneration.
Ash is removed by removing the
DPF and cleaning it at specified
intervals.
The ATS inlet and outlet adapt
the vehicle exhaust piping to the
ATS,and also provide a mounting
location for the aftertreatment gas
temperature sensors.
•
The DPF differential pressure
sensor measures the restriction
across the DPF.
•
The DPF filters soot out of the
exhaust.
•
When activated the HC Doser
sprays a small amount of diesel
fuel (the HC) into the exhaust. The
•
A vehicle with a DPF has up to
two additional indicator lamps on
the dashboard. The two additional
lamps, along with the check
engine lamp, alert the operator of
the status of the DPF.
CAUTION: Do not submerge
or allow water to enter the DPF
assembly. Components of the
assembly can be damaged
and effect the performance
of the aftertreatment system.
Failure to comply may result
in equipment or property
damage.
NOTE: Refer to your engine
manufacturer’s Operator’s
Manual for diesel particulate
filter (DPF) maintenance
information.
NOTE: Refer to your vehicle
or engine manufacturer’s
Operator’s Manual for additional
information on the engine
indicator lamps.
6-5
6
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) System
NOTE: Ultra low sulfur diesel
(ULSD) fuel is required for
engines equipped with an
aftertreatment diesel particulate
filter. If ULSD is not used,
the engine may not meet
emissions regulations, and the
DPF or aftertreatment diesel
oxidation catalyst (DOC) can be
damaged.
6
6-6
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) System
Overview
The SCR system is composed of
several main components:
1.
Diesel Emissions Fluid (DEF)
Controller
2.
DEF Dosing Unit
3.
DEF Dosing Valve
4.
SCR Catalyst
is sprayed into the exhaust gas prior to
the SCR catalyst. The DEF vaporizes
and decomposes to form carbon
dioxide and ammonia. The ammonia
reacts with the NOx emissions over the
aftertreatment SCR catalyst to form
nitrogen and water.
DEF:
•
may have a slight ammonia smell
•
is colorless
•
is non-toxic and non-polluting
•
is non-flammable
NOTE: It is unlawful to tamper
with, modify, or remove any
component of the SCR system.
It is also unlawful to use
DEF that does not meet the
specifications provided or to
operate the vehicle/equipment
with no DEF.
6
DEF is required for an engine equipped
with a SCR system. DEF is a fluid that
6-7
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Recommendations and
Specifications
WARNING: It is unlawful
to tamper with or remove
any component of the
aftertreatment system. It is
also unlawful to use a Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF) that does
not meet the specifications
provided or to operate the
vehicle/equipment with no
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).
WARNING: Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) contains urea.
Do not get the substance in
your eyes. In case of contact,
immediately flush eyes with
large amounts of water for
a minimum of 15 minutes.
Do not swallow internally. In
the event the diesel exhaust
fluid is ingested, contact
6
6-8
a physician immediately.
Reference the Materials
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for
additional information.
CAUTION: Never attempt to
create Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) by mixing agricultural
grade urea with water.
Agricultural grade urea does
not meet the necessary
specifications required and
the aftertreatment system
may be damaged.
PACCAR Inc requires the use of DEF
meeting ISO 22241-1. There is NO
acceptable substitute.
NOTE: Some locations may
reference the DIN 70070
standard. DEF specification
limits of this standard are
identical to ISO 22241-1.
PACCAR Inc is not responsible for
failures or damage resulting from
what PACCAR Inc determines to be
abuse or neglect, including but not
limited to: operation without correctly
specified DEF; lack of maintenance
of aftertreatment; improper storage,
or shutdown practices; unauthorized
modifications of the engine and
aftertreatment. PACCAR is also not
responsible for failures caused by
incorrect DEF or by water, dirt or other
contaminants in the DEF. Refer to
your engine and vehicle operator’s
manuals for maintenance, storage,
and shutdown information.
For engines using SCR operating in
the United States and Canada, it is
recommended that the DEF used be
certified by the American Petroleum
Institute (API).
NOTE: To ensure the correct
DEF is used, PACCAR Inc
recommends the use of TRP
CleanBlue Diesel Exhaust Fluid
which is available in different
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
able to contact the nearest dealer
location to you and arrange for an
emergency shipment of DEF to
your location 24 hours a day.
quantity options from small to
bulk containers.
Storage
NOTE: The following information
is for reference and is to be
used as a guideline only.
There are many factors that
determine Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) shelf life, with
temperature and duration being
two of the major determining
contributors. If in doubt,
replace the fluid with known
quality DEF. DEF has a limited
shelf life, both in the vehicle’s
diesel exhaust fluid tank and
in storage/bulk/transportation
containers.
The following are other common
names used for Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF):
•
•
DEF is readily available at truck
stops and at all PACCAR Engine
dealers. For assistance locating
DEF contact your local PACCAR
authorized repair location.
If your vehicle is out of DEF
and you are unable to locate a
source to purchase DEF, please
contact the vehicle OEM customer
care center at the telephone
number provided in the vehicle
operator’s manual. The vehicle
OEM customer care center will be
•
AUS 32 (Aqueous Urea Solution
32)
•
AdBlue
•
NOx Reduction Agent
•
Catalyst Solution
Regardless of what the DEF is called,
the DEF must meet the ISO 22241-1
specifications.
The following conditions are ideal for
maintaining DEF quality and shelf life
during prolonged transportation and
storage:
•
Storage temperature between
23°F and 77°F (-5°C and 25°C)
6-9
6
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
•
Store in sealed containers to avoid
contamination
•
Avoid direct sunlight
In these conditions, Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) has a minimum expected
shelf life of 18 months. If stored at
higher temperatures for extended
periods of time, the shelf life will
be reduced by approximately 6
months for every 5°C (9°F) above
the highest storage temperature
listed above. Long term storage in a
vehicle (in excess of 6 months) is not
recommended.
NOTE: To assist in preventing
DEF from deteriorating when
stored in the vehicle’s DEF
tank, locate and plug the
tank’s venting to seal the tank
exposure to the atmosphere.
6
6-10
Handling
CAUTION: If Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) is spilled on
metal surfaces (for example
the steps, fuel tanks or grab
handles) rinse and clean
immediately with water.
Failure to do so may leave
permanent corrosive stains
on the metal surfaces which
can not be removed.
•
Make sure to only use approved
containers to transport and
store DEF. Containers made of
polyethylene and polypropylene
are recommended.
•
If DEF is spilled, rinse and clean
immediately with water.
•
Avoid prolonged contact with skin.
In case of contact, wash with
immediately with soap and water.
If not washed immediately, when
the DEF dries, a white film will be
left that can be more difficult to
wash off.
NOTE: Spilled DEF if left to
dry or wiped away with a cloth
only will leave a white residue.
Failure to clean the spilled DEF
may result in an incorrectly
diagnosed leak of the DEF
Dosing system.
Before using containers, funnels,
etc. that will be used to dispense,
handle or store DEF, make sure
to wash thoroughly to remove any
contaminants and then rinse with
distilled water.
NOTE: Do not use tap water to
rinse components that will be
used to deliver diesel exhaust
fluid. Tap water will contaminate
the DEF. If distilled water is not
available, rinse with tap water
and then rinse with DEF.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Disposal
If disposing of Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF), always check with the local
authority regulations on proper
disposing process and requirements.
Contamination/Incorrect
Fluid
CAUTION: Never add water or
any other fluid besides what
is specified to the DEF tank.
The aftertreatment system
may be damaged.
Contact a local PACCAR Authorized
Repair location to determine the
appropriate repair direction. If only
water has been added to the DEF tank,
drain the DEF tank, flush with distilled
water and refill with new and/or known
good DEF.
In the event that the incorrect fluid
is added to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid
tank, such as, but not limited to:
•
Water
•
Diesel Fuel
•
Hydraulic Fluid
•
Coolant
•
Windshield Washer Fluid
6
6-11
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
Freezing
CAUTION: The Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) system purges
to prevent damage from
freezing. If your vehicle
is equipped with battery
disconnect switches do
NOT disconnect battery
power within two minutes of
switching the ignition key
off. Failure to comply may
result in vehicle or property
damage.
CAUTION: Do NOT add any
chemicals/additives to the
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in
an effort to prevent freezing.
If chemicals/additives are
added to the DEF, the
aftertreatment system may be
damaged.
6
6-12
DEF will freeze around -12°C (11°F).
The DEF system on the vehicle is
designed to accommodate this and
does not require any intervention.
Index
Index
A
About This Manual 1-3
Aftertreatment Information
aftertreatment inlet and outlet 6-5
alternate DEF names 6-9
contamination or incorrect
fluid 6-11
DEF controller 6-7
DEF dosing unit 6-7
DEF dosing valve 6-7
diesel oxidation catalyst 6-5
diesel particulate filter 6-5
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
differential pressure sensor 6-5
freezing 6-12
indicator lamps 6-5
recommendations and
specifications 6-8
regeneration 6-5
SCR catalyst 6-7
selective catalytic reduction
(SCR) 6-7
soot 6-5
storage, handling and disposal 6-8
ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD)
fuel 6-6
Aftertreatment System (ATS) 3-3, 6-3
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
system 3-4, 6-5
Aftertreatment System Description
DPF regeneration 3-11
functionality / notification
information 3-6
high exhaust system
temperature 3-8
notification that regeneration is
required 3-9
parked regeneration 3-11
regeneration (START) switch 3-12
stopping an automatic or parked
regeneration 3-13
Aftertreatment System Tampering 6-4
Aftertreatment System Warning
Lamps 3-6
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
warning lamp symbol 3-6
high exhaust system temperature
(HEST) warning lamp symbol 3-6
Automatic Regeneration 3-4
C
Caution 1-5
Cleaning 3-4, 6-5
Consumer information 6-3
Contamination/Incorrect Fluid 6-11
Controlling the Regeneration
Process 3-4
regeneration switch
(three-position) 3-5
regeneration switch
(two-position) 3-5
warning lamps 3-6
Index-1
7
Index
7
Controls
aftertreatment system (ATS) 3-3
controlling the regeneration
process 3-4
DEF level warning table 3-18
DEF quality 3-19
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
system 3-4
DPF regeneration 3-11
functionality / notification
information 3-6
high exhaust system
temperature 3-8
notification that regeneration is
required 3-9
parked regeneration 3-11
regeneration (START) switch 3-12
regeneration switch
(three-position) 3-5
regeneration switch
(two-position) 3-5
SCR system 3-16
SCR system tampering 3-20
stopping an automatic or parked
regeneration 3-13
Index-2
three-position regeneration
switch 3-4
two-position regeneration
switch 3-4
warning lamps 3-6
D
DEF Level Warning Table 3-18
DEF Quality 3-19
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
alternate DEF names 6-9
contamination or incorrect
fluid 6-11
disposal 6-11
freezing 6-12
handling 6-10
recommendations and
specifications 6-8
storage 6-9
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Gauge 3-16
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Recommendations and
Specifications 6-8
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
System 3-3, 3-4, 6-5
diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) 3-4
DPF 3-4
hydrocarbon (HC) doser 3-4
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Warning
Lamp Symbol 3-6
Disposal
diesel exhaust fluid 6-11
Doser 3-4, 3-16, 6-5
DPF Regeneration 3-11
F
Freezing 6-12
Functionality / Notification
Information 3-6
G
General Information 1-6
H
Handling
diesel exhaust fluid 6-10
Index
High Exhaust System Temperature
(HEST) Warning Lamp Symbo 3-6
High Exhaust System Temperature
Notification 3-8
Hydrocarbon (HC) 3-4, 6-5
I
Idle 3-10
Idling in Freezing Temperatures 3-14
Illustrations 1-6
Information
aftertreatment description 6-3
N
Note 1-5
Notification of High Exhaust System
Temperature 3-8
Notification That Regeneration Is
Required 3-9
P
Parked Regeneration 3-11
Passive Regeneration 3-6
R
Regeneration (START) Switch 3-12
Regeneration Is Required
Notification 3-9
Regeneration Switch
three-position 3-5
two-position 3-5
S
Safety
about this manual 1-3
caution example 1-5
general information 1-6
illustrations example 1-6
introduction 1-3
note example 1-5
safety alerts 1-4
warning example 1-4
Safety Alerts 1-4
SCR System Tampering 3-20
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
System 3-16, 6-7
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)
gauge 3-16
Soot 3-4, 6-5
Specifications
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) 6-8
Stop an Automatic or Parked
Regeneration 3-13
Storage
diesel exhaust fluid 6-9
Switches
regeneration switch
(three-position) 3-5
regeneration switch
(two-position) 3-5
T
Tampering
Aftertreatment System 6-4
SCR 3-17
Three-Position Regeneration
Switch 3-5
Two-Position Regeneration Switch 3-5
W
Warning 1-4
7
Index-3
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