# Teaching and learning plan on introducing e

```Teaching & Learning Plans
Introducing e
Leaving Certificate Syllabus
Higher level
The Teaching & Learning Plans
are structured as follows:
Aims outline what the lesson, or series of lessons, hopes to achieve.
Prior Knowledge points to relevant knowledge students may already have and also
to knowledge which may be necessary in order to support them in accessing this new
topic.
Learning Outcomes outline what a student will be able to do, know and understand
having completed the topic.
Relationship to Syllabus refers to the relevant section of either the Junior and/or
Leaving Certificate Syllabus.
Resources Required lists the resources which will be needed in the teaching and
learning of a particular topic.
Introducing the topic (in some plans only) outlines an approach to introducing the
topic.
Lesson Interaction is set out under four sub-headings:
i.
Student Learning Tasks – Teacher Input: This section focuses on possible lines
of inquiry and gives details of the key student tasks and teacher questions which
move the lesson forward.
ii.
Student Activities – Possible Responses: Gives details of possible student
reactions and responses and possible misconceptions students may have.
iii. Teacher’s Support and Actions: Gives details of teacher actions designed to
support and scaffold student learning.
iv. Assessing the Learning: Suggests questions a teacher might ask to evaluate
whether the goals/learning outcomes are being/have been achieved. This
evaluation will inform and direct the teaching and learning activities of the next
class(es).
Student Activities linked to the lesson(s) are provided at the end of each plan.
Teaching & Learning Plans:
Introducing e
Aims
• To introduce the number e as the base rate of growth for all continually
growing processes
Prior Knowledge
Prior knowledge and experience of handling fractions and percentages is required.
Students have prior knowledge of
• Patterns with numbers
• Exponential functions such as y = a2x, y = a3x, where a
∈ N, x ∈ R
• Indices
• Compound interest and the compound interest formula
• Logarithms
Learning Outcomes
As a result of studying this topic, students will be able to
• Link continuously compounded interest and the number e
• Understand the relationship between e and the natural logarithm (loge)
Real Life Context
The following examples could be used to explore real life contexts.
• Continuously compounding interest
• Bacterial growth
• Rate of chemical reaction
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Relationship to Leaving Certificate Syllabus
Sub-Topic
Students
In addition students working at HL should be able to
5.1 Functions
–– recognise surjective, injective and bijective functions
–– find the inverse of a bijective function
–– given a graph of a function sketch the graph of its inverse
–– express quadratic functions in complete square form
–– use the complete square form of a quadratic function to
•find the roots and turning points
•sketch the function
–– graph functions of the form
• ax2 + bx + c where a, b, c ∈ Q, x ∈ R
• abx where a, b ∈ R
•logarithmic
•exponential
•trigonometric
–– interpret equations of the form
f(x) and g(x) as a comparison of the above functions
–– informally explore limits and continuity of functions
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Lesson Interaction
Teacher Input
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
Teacher’s Support and
Actions
Assessing the Learning
Teacher Reflections
Review of exponential functions
y = abx where a represents
the starting value, b is the
»» Remind students of the
pocket money example
and the story surrounding
the payment by the Grand
Vizier in grains of wheat
for the invention of the
game of chess.
»» Are students able to recognise
that in exponential functions
the variable is in the exponent
and not in the base?
»» Do students know that when
a function is exponential
there is a constant called
a growth factor and that
during each time interval, the
amount present is multiplied
by this growth factor?
»» Can they recall that
exponential functions such as
y = a2x, where a ∈ N, x ∈ R
are always increasing?
»» What are the variables and
constants in this equation?
• The starting value a and
the rate of growth b, are
constant and the variable x
appears in the exponent.
»» Write the equation y = abx
on the board.
»» Are students able to
distinguish the variable
from the constants in an
exponential function?
»» Plot a graph of y = 2x
• Students draw up a table of »» With GeoGebra draw
values and plot the graph
y = ax and move the slider
to change the value of a to
values of y between 0 and
highlight this.»
1 but never negative values
(See page 16 on how to do
of y.
this using GeoGebra).
• No. No value of x will give
negative y.
»» What exponential functions
have you met to date?
•
constant rate of growth for
a given time interval and x
is the number of those time
intervals.
• In the pocket money
example, if you started with
each day you would have
3(2)4 euro after 4 days.
»» What is the effect of
negative exponents? What if
we worked out 2-1000?
»» Is it possible for this function
to give negative y values?
Note: Point out the similarity
between this and geometric
sequences.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Teacher Input
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
Teacher’s Support and
Actions
Assessing the Learning
»» What do you notice about • You need to compress the scale »» Remind students of
»» Do students see that
the scales you are using for
on the y axis relative to the x
the constant difference
exponential functions
the x and y axes for the
axis scale. The y values start
between successive outputs
grow quickly because
graph of y = 2x?
very small and are very close to
for linear functions of the
of the multiplicative
Are they the same?
0 initially but once the y values
form y = a + bx and the
nature of the
start to grow they grow faster
constant second differences
relationship?»
and faster. When x increases by
E.g. 2x + 1 = 2.2x
1 more than its previous value,
2x + 2 = 22.2x
y increases to twice more than
it had been. There is a constant
ratio between the output
values for successive input
values.
»» What is meant by
exponential growth when
everyday terms?
• Growing slowly initially then
growing faster and faster.
»» Can you think of any
examples of exponential
growth?
• Bacterial growth 2x, population »» Tell students that
population growth can
growth
approximate to, or be
modelled by, exponential
growth, but the growth
factor in reality is not
exactly constant.
»» Exponentials functions
always have a positive
number other than 1 as
a base. What does this
mean?
•
© Project Maths Development Team 2012
Teacher Reflections
»» Are students able to
come up with examples
of exponential growth?
b in the formula y = abx is
always positive
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Teacher Input
Student Activities: Possible Responses
»» Recall the compound
interest formula.
What do the variables
signify?
•
»» Compare this with the
formula y = abx.
What are the
similarities?
• It is the same type of formula where a = P,
the growth factor b is represented by (1 + i)
and the variable x is the number of periods of
compounding.
•
Assessing the
Learning
»» Remind students to »» Are students
F = P (1 + i)t
use their Formulae
familiar with the
F = final value,
and Tables book.
compound interest
P = principal (starting value), i = annual interest
Teacher Reflections
formula or do they
need short revision
on it?
rate,»
t = time in years.
»» Let us have another
look at our “doubling”
function and relate
it to the compound
interest formula. Start
with €1 at time t = 0,
make a table to show
the effect of doubling
after each unit of time.
»» What is i in the above
“doubling” function?
Use the C.I. formula to
work out each value?
Teacher’s Support
and Actions
Time t
Final value F
0
1
1
2
2
4
3
8
4
16
»» Inform students
that the banks use
different kinds
of compounding
schemes – yearly,
half yearly,
quarterly, monthly,
weekly and daily.
»» Write on the board » »» Do students see
i = 100%
t
t
y = (1 + 1)t
that the formula
t = 1: F = P (1 + i) = 1 (1 + 100/100) = (1 + 1) = 2
t
2
y = 2t and the
t = 2: F = P (1 + i) = 1 (1 + 1) = 4
compound interest
t = 3: F = P (1 + i)t = 1 (1 + 1)3 = 8
t
4
formula with »
t = 4: F = P (1 + i) = 1 (1 + 1) = 16
i = 100% and
P = €1 give the
same results?
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
»» The compound interest formula assumes
growth occurs in discrete steps, not
continuously. Let y = 2x represent the
growth of 1 bacterium after x periods
of time. A new bacterium does not
suddenly appear after 1 unit of time. It
is continuously growing from t = 0 to t =
1. Let us see what would happen if we
reduced the intervals of time for which
interest was compounded so that it
simulated natural growth which occurs
continuously and not in jumps.
»» Let us first split up the year into 2
•
periods so that interest is added every
•
instead of 100% interest per year we get
50% every 6 months. Use the C.I. formula
to compute the final value at the end of
the year.
where they've met
“continuous” and
“discrete” before?
»» Are students
associating the idea
of continuous and
discrete growth
with continuous and
discrete data which
they encountered in
statistics?
Teacher Reflections
F = 1 (1 + 1/2)2 = 2.25
• After 6 months the €1
earned 50% interest giving
€1.50 which then earned
50% interest giving »
€1.50 + €0.75 = €2.25.
»» If we now have interest added after 4
equal intervals in the year with interest
at (100/4)% after each interval what is
the final value at the end of 1 year?
•
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Assessing the
Learning
F = P (1 + i)t
»» We now have €2.25 after 1 year instead
of €2 after 1 year with 100% interest
added at the end of the year. Explain.
© Project Maths Development Team 2012
Teacher’s Support
and Actions
F = 1 (1 + 1/4)4 = €2.44
»» Can students see a
pattern emerging
i.e. the formula»
F = 1 (1 + 1/n)n?
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Student Learning
Student Activities: Possible Responses
Teacher’s Support and Assessing the
Actions
Learning
»» What do you notice • The final value is greater the shorter the time
period used for adding on interest.
as you compound
more often?
»» Will this trend
continue?
Investigate in pairs
using Student
Activity 1.
• Students fill in the table for Student Activity 1.
»» Distribute Student
Activity 1.
Teacher Reflections
»» Check the accuracy
of students’ work.»
»» Allow students, who
reach the limit of
their calculators’
computing ability, to
»» Did all students
getting closer
and closer to
some “limit”? Did
some students
try to reduce the
time further and
reach the limit of
their calculators’
computing ability?
KEY: » next step
»» Encourage students
to look for patterns.
»» What conclusion
have you reached?
• As the time interval for compounding decreases
this becomes more like continuous growth.»
• The more often we compound the greater the
final value. However further increases in the
number of compoundings per year seem only to
cause changes in less and less significant digits.»
• The rate of growth if we continually compound
100% on smaller and smaller time intervals
seems to be about 2.7182 (to four decimal
places) as those digits do not change as we
reduce the time.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
»» This rate of growth is a number called »
e = 2.71828........ and is the base rate of growth
shared by all continuously growing processes. It is
a fundamental constant like π and it is irrational
like π. What does this mean?
»
»
• A number is irrational when it
cannot be written in the form
a/b where a, b ∈ Z.
»» What does π represent?
Teacher’s Support Assessing the
and Actions
Learning
»» Can students
articulate what
an irrational
number is and
what is meant
by π?
• Irrational numbers when
expressed as decimals are nonterminating and non- repeating.»
Teacher Reflections
»» Can they recall
any other
irrational
numbers?
• π is the ratio of the
circumference of any circle to its
diameter.
»» We have only approximated e here as we haven’t
actually shown continuous growth – only for
intervals of 1 second.
»» The number e shows up in population growth and
in radioactive decay – in systems which exhibit
continuous growth or decay.
»» Can you generalise the formula you were using
where n represents the number of time intervals?
•
F = 1 (1 + 1/n)n
»» If we find the limiting value of F = 1 (1 + 1/n)n as n • Using the calculator:»
e1 ≈ 2.71828183
goes to infinity we have the number e.
We write this as »
»
»
»» The Swiss mathematician Euler was the first to use
the notation e for this irrational number in 1731.
»» Use your calculators to find an approximate value
for e.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Input
Student Activities: Possible Responses
»» Have you any comments on the
interest rate we used?
• 100% interest – this is not realistic –
no bank will ever give 100% interest.
»» What if growth was 50% per
year (i= 0.5) instead of 100%
on a principal of €1 ,given n
compounding periods per year
and the interest rate for each
compounding period = i/n, how
would the final value relate to e?
• A rate of 50% would give:»
F = 1 (1 + 0.5/n)n
Teacher’s Support Assessing the Learning
and Actions
Teacher Reflections
»» Express F in terms of x by letting
»
and »» First write n in terms of x.
»
»» Assume that compounding is
continuous – how will that affect
n, the number of compounding
periods?»
•
n will tend to infinity.
• As n = 0.5x, as n tends to infinity, x
will also tend to infinity.
»» How will n tending to infinity
affect x?
»» What is the limiting value for F as
x tends to infinity?
© Project Maths Development Team 2012
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»» Were students able
to conclude that x
would tend to infinity
if n tends to infinity?
»» Did students spot e in
the formula for the
limiting value for F?
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Teacher Input
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
Teacher’s Support and
Actions
Assessing the Learning
»» For any yearly interest
rate i, and n compounding
periods per year, where i/n
is the compound interest
rate per period, can you
write the final value at the
end of the year in terms
of e, assuming continuous
compounding i.e. as n
tends to infinity?
»» When the rate is 100% or
1, the final value after 1
year is e1. When the rate
is 50%, the final value
after 1 year is e0.5. Can
you generalise what is
happening?
Teacher Reflections
• Final value after 1 year for
continuous compounding of
€1 when the yearly interest
rate is i is ei.
»» If the time is t = 3 years for • F = (ei) (ei) (ei) = e3i = (ei)3
instance, and continuous
F = erate x time
compounding occurs yearly where r is the rate and t is the
at interest rate of i what is
time.
the final value?
»» The exponent of e in the
above equation could be
called x = it.
»» If x is 0.20 what could the
possible whole number
values of i and t be?
© Project Maths Development Team 2012
•
i could be 20% for 1 year or
10% for 2 years or 5% for 4
years or 4 % for 5 years or 2%
for 10. All will yield a final
value of e0.2 = 1.22 (to 2 d.p.)
if €1 is invested and interest
compounded continuously.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Teacher Input
»» When we invest €1 at 5%
continuous compound
interest for t years the final
value is 1eit where i = 0.05.
What is the final value if
we invest €10 at 5% for t
years?
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
• F = eit
• F = 10e0.05t
Teacher’s Support and Actions Assessing the
Learning
Teacher Reflections
»» We saw that a 100%
increase became
approximately a 171.8%
increase after 1 year of
continuous compounding.
»» Can students
distinguish between
the final value of
2.1718 and the
increase of 1.1718?
»» Let’s see the difference
continuous compounding
and annual compounding
makes for “normal”
amounts of money,
interest rates and times.
»» Calculate the final value
if €5,000 is invested for
5 years at 3% per annum
or if it is invested at 3%
continuous compounding.
•
F = P (1 + i)t
•
F = 5,000 (1 + 0.03)3 = 5,796.37
•
F = Peit = 5,000e(0.03) (5) = 5,809.17
• Difference = €12.80
»» Wrap up: What have you
•
e is a fundamental constant like
π.
• It shows up as the base growth
rate for continuously growing
systems.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Teacher Input
Student Activities: Possible
Responses
Teacher’s Support and
Actions
Assessing the Learning
• If we calculate the final
value when €1 is invested
at 100% compound interest
for 1 year where the
interest is compounded
for increasingly smaller
intervals we arrive at an
approximation of e.
»
Teacher Reflections
•
Homework
»» Use a computer software
package such as GeoGebra
or Excel to plot graphs of
y = a ex.
»» How does the value of a
affect the graph?»
»» Plot a graph of »
y = a e-x, a > 0.
•
a affects the rate of change »» Use GeoGebra here to
of the function. When»
a > 1, the graph passes
through (a, 0) and the
larger a is the greater
the rate of change of the
function.»
• When a is negative the
graph of y = a ex is a
reflection of the graph of»
y = a ex in the x-axis when a
is positive.»
see that the slope of the
tangent is increasing and
reinforce the concept:»
y = aex
dy/dx = aex
»
The effect of a is that
the slope increases by a
multiple of a.
»» What do you notice about
the y values now compared • The y values are decreasing,
to the y values for
very quickly initially and
y = a ex, a > 0
then slowing down.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Student Activity 1
Invest €1 for 1 year at 100% compound interest.
Investigate the change in the final value, if the annual interest rate
of 100% is compounded over smaller and smaller time intervals. (The
interest rate i per compounding period will be calculated by dividing
the annual rate of 100% by the number of compounding periods per
year.)
Compounding
period
Final value F = P (1 + i)t where i is the interest rate for a given period and t
is the number of compounding periods per year. Calculate F correct to eight
decimal places.
Yearly:
i=1
Every 6 months:
i=½
Every 3 months:
i = _______
Every month:
i = _______
Every week:
i = _______
Every day:
i = _______
Every hour:
i = _______
Every minute:
i = _______
Every second:
i = _______
Conclusion:
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
Student Activity 1 (Continued)
Solutions
How often interst Final Value
is compounded
Yearly
Every 6 months
Every 3 months
Every month
Every week:
Every day
Every hour
Every minute
Every second
Conclusion:
Conclusion: The final value gets bigger and bigger but the rate at which it is
growing slows down and seems to be getting closer and closer to some fixed
value close to 2.718.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
GeoGebra Tutorial
GeoGebra File to illustrate the sequence with general term un = 2n
1. Plot the function f (x) = 2x in the Input Bar.
2. When you press Return the graph of the function is drawn. The diagram
below shows the function drawn in Graphics View and the expression for
the function in Algebra View.
3. Hide the graph of the function by clicking on the function button in
Algebra View.
4. Create a slider by clicking on the Slider Button and then on Graphics View.
In the dialogue box that then appears set the increments to 1 and click Apply.
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Teaching & Learning Plan: Introducing e
GeoGebra Tutorial (Continued)
5. In the Input Window type (a, f(a)) and press Return and the corresponding
point appears in Graphics View.
6. Right click on the point (a, f(a)) and select "Show Trace" from the dialogue
box which results. Move the slider to show the locus of the point (a, f(a)).
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