Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools

Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for
California Schools
Emergency Medical Services Authority
California Health and Human Services Agency
EMSA #196
Original 1994
Revised 2004
Revised 2013
EMERGENCY FIRST AID GUIDELINES FOR
CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS - 2013 EDITION
Special Recognition
Ohio Department of Public Safety, Division of EMS, EMS for Children Program;
North Dakota EMS for Children Program
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for Schools - Pilot Project Staff (First Version)
Les Gardina, MSN, RN, EMSC Coordinator, County of San Diego EMS
Cynthia Frankel, RN, EMSC Coordinator, Alameda County EMS
Kris Helander-Daughtery, RN, BSN, Prehospital Care Coordinator, Alameda County EMS
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following for their review and contributions to the development of these
guidelines:
County of San Diego School Nurse Resource Group
California EMSC Technical Advisory Committee
California EMSC Coordinators Group
San Diego Unified School District
Jim Harley, MD, San Diego Chapter of American Academy of Pediatrics, COPEM
Chris Riccitelli, RN, School Nurse Program Specialist, San Diego Office of Education
Barbara Muller, Coordinator for Bay Region IV, Alameda County Office of Education
Terri Christofk, Shannon Brandt, Jan Bagdasar, Meg Pesavento, San Marcos Unified
Frank De Luca, Chula Vista Elementary School
Anita Gillchrist, RN, School Nurse, San Ysidro Elementary
Stacy Hanover, RN, ED Supervisor, Children’s Hospital, Oakland, CA
Ruth Hawkins, RN, School Nurse, Encinitas Union Elementary
Patricia Murrin, RN, MPH, EMS Coordinator, County of San Diego EMS
Dale Parent, Chula Vista Elementary School
James E. Pointer, MD, Medical Director, Alameda County EMS
Mary Rutherford, MD, Director ED, Children’s Hospital, Oakland, CA
Augusta Saulys, MD, Emergency Department, Children’s Hospital, Oakland, CA
Pat Stalcup, RN, School Nurse, Ramona Unified
Gary Vilke, MD, Medical Director, County of San Diego EMS
The San Diego project developed these guidelines with “Funding provided by the State of California Emergency Medical
Services (EMS) Authority under Special Project Grant #EMS-1055 and EMS-2062.”
Funding for the Ohio project was supported by project MCH #394003-0 from the Emergency Medical Services for Children
Program (Section 1910, PHS Act), Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau and
the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
ii
Acknowledgements
EMS for Children Technical Advisory Subcommittee
Erin Dorsey, RN
School Nurse
Huntington Beach High School
Cynthia Frankel, RN, MSN
Prehospital Care Coordinator
Alameda County EMS Agency
Marianne Gauche-Hill, MD, FACEP, FAAP
Professor of Medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Director of EMS
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Nancy McGrath, RN, MN, CPNP
Pediatric Liaison Nurse
Harbor UCLA Medical Center
California Emergency Medical Services Authority
Howard Backer, MD, MPH, FACEP
Director
Farid Nasr, MD
Specialty Care Systems Specialist
Sandy Salaber
Associate Health Program Adviser
Tonya Thomas
EMS for Children Program Coordinator
California Department of Education
Gordon Jackson
Assistant Superintendent
Tom Herman
Education Administrator
San Joaquin County Office of Education
Cheri Coburn, Ed.D, MS, RN
Director of Comprehensive Health Programs
Sacramento State University
Jan Sampson, RN, DNP, CNE
Associate Professor
School of Nursing
The EMS Authority would like to acknowledge and express appreciation for the support of the
EMS for Children Technical Advisory Committee. List of committee members:
http://www.emsa.ca.gov/tech_committee
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABOUT THE GUIDELINES ....................................................................................................................... 4
HOW TO USE THE EMERGENCY GUIDELINES ..................................................................................... 6
KEY TO SHAPES & COLORS .................................................................................................................. 7
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ................................................................................................................. 8
9-1-1 GUIDELINES FOR SCHOOLS ........................................................................................................ 9
WHEN TO CALL EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES (9-1-1) .............................................................. 10
DEVELOPING AN EMERGENCY PLAN ................................................................................................. 11
PLANNING FOR PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS ............................................................................ 12
MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION in SCHOOL SETTINGS .................................................................... 13
INFECTION CONTROL .......................................................................................................................... 16
ALLERGIC REACTION ........................................................................................................................... 17
.................................................................................. 18
.............................................................................................................. 19
BITES (HUMAN & ANIMAL) .................................................................................................................... 20
.................................................................................................................... 21
BITES & STINGS (MARINE) ................................................................................................................... 22
BITES & STINGS (SNAKE) ..................................................................................................................... 23
.............................................................................................................................................. 24
............................................................................................................... 25
................................................................................................................................................ 26
................................................................................................................................................... 27
CPR ........................................................................................................................................................ 29
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATORS (AED) ....................................................................... 30
............................................................................................................................ 31
............................................................................ 32
CHOKING ............................................................................................................................................... 33
CHEST PAIN – (Heart Attack) ................................................................................................................. 34
CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT ................................................................................................................... 35
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES ................................................................................................................ 36
DIABETES .............................................................................................................................................. 37
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIARRHEA ............................................................................................................................................. 38
DROWNING/NEAR DROWNING ............................................................................................................ 39
EARS ...................................................................................................................................................... 40
ELECTRICAL INJURY ............................................................................................................................ 41
EYES (INJURY) ...................................................................................................................................... 42
FAINTING ............................................................................................................................................... 44
FEVER & NOT FEELING WELL ............................................................................................................. 45
FINGERNAIL/TOENAIL INJURY ............................................................................................................. 46
FRACTURES, DISLOCATIONS, SPRAINS OR STRAINS ...................................................................... 47
FROSTBITE ............................................................................................................................................ 48
HEAD INJURIES ..................................................................................................................................... 49
HEADACHE ............................................................................................................................................ 50
HEAT EXHAUSTION/HEAT STROKE .................................................................................................... 51
HYPOTHERMIA (EXPOSURE TO COLD) .............................................................................................. 52
LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS ................................................................................................................ 53
MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS ..................................................................................................................... 54
MOUTH & JAW INJURIES ...................................................................................................................... 55
NECK & BACK PAIN ............................................................................................................................... 56
NOSE ...................................................................................................................................................... 57
POISONING & OVERDOSE ................................................................................................................... 59
PREGNANCY ......................................................................................................................................... 60
RASHES ................................................................................................................................................. 61
SEIZURES .............................................................................................................................................. 62
SERIOUSLY ILL/SHOCK ........................................................................................................................ 63
SPLINTERS or IMBEDDED PENCIL LEAD ............................................................................................ 64
STOMACH ACHES/PAIN ........................................................................................................................ 65
SUICIDE (See BEHAVORIAL EMERGENCIES)
TEETH & GUMS ..................................................................................................................................... 66
TETANUS IMMUNIZATION .................................................................................................................... 68
TICKS ..................................................................................................................................................... 69
VOMITING .............................................................................................................................................. 70
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
WOUNDS (CUTS, SCRATCHES & SCRAPES INCLUDING ROPE & FLOOR BURNS) ......................... 71
WOUNDS (PUNCTURE) ......................................................................................................................... 72
WOUNDS (STABS & GUNSHOT) ........................................................................................................... 73
RECOMMENDED FIRST AID EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES FOR SCHOOLS ...................................... 74
EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS ......................................................................................................... 75
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
3
ABOUT THE GUIDELINES
The Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools’ document was initially developed by
San Diego and Alameda Counties, funded in part by a grant from the California Emergency
Medical Services (EMS) Authority. The Guidelines were originally based on the second edition
of the Ohio Emergency Guidelines for Schools, 2000. The Emergency First Aid Guidelines for
California Schools manual is meant to provide recommended procedures for school staff in
responding to medical emergencies when the school nurse is not available and until emergency
medical services responders arrive on scene. These guidelines provide recommended actions
and do not supersede or invalidate any laws or rules established by a school system, a school
board, or the State.
Due to declining school district budgets, school nurses are not always present on school
grounds when medical emergencies occur. It is not uncommon to have a school nurse present
for only two hours a week per campus. Currently, only fifty percent (50%) of school districts in
California have a school nurse on staff. The Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California
Schools was developed over a two-year period and piloted in thirteen schools in San Diego
County and three schools in Alameda County. They were enthusiastically received in the pilot
areas by school nurses and educators as a layperson’s emergency medical reference tool.
Once the pilot projects were completed, the draft Guidelines were reviewed and revised by the
local Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Coordinators Group and the EMSC
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). Extensive comments and revisions were made by these
committees. The EMSC Coordinators Group is composed of local EMSC program managers
and the TAC membership is composed of emergency physicians, nurses, prehospital and
administrative experts in EMSC. The EMSC TAC first approved the draft Guidelines during its
January 29, 2004 meeting and forwarded the document to the EMS Authority for review and
approval.
During the first revision of the Guidelines document in 2004, the EMS Authority collaborated with
the California Department of Education and the California School Nurses Association. The
revised Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools’ document was sent out for a 30day public comment period from April 16, 2004 to May 17, 2004. Comments and suggested
revisions received have been incorporated into the Guidelines and/or responded to as
appropriate. The Emergency First Aid Guidelines for Schools document was approved on June
23, 2004 by the Commission on EMS. One hard copy and a CD of the Guidelines were
distributed to approximately 10,000 California schools.
The current version, the second revision, is based on 2010 American Heart Association
Guidelines for CPR and ECC, which was approved by the EMSC TAC and EMSC Coordinators
Group on January 26-27, 2012.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
4
ABOUT THE GUIDELINES (CONT.)
Please take some time to familiarize yourself with the format and review the “How to Use the
Guidelines” section on page 6 prior to an emergency situation. The guidelines are
recommended procedures for when advanced medically trained personnel are not available on
the school site. It is strongly recommended that staff who are in a position to provide first
aid to students complete an approved first-aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
course. Please consult your school nurse if you have any questions concerning the
recommendations contained in the guidelines.
These guidelines should not delay calling 9-1-1 in the event of an emergency.
Periodically, the EMS Authority may send out updates on procedures dealing with the medical
emergencies that are in the guidelines. When received, please remove the old information and
replace with the updated information.
We welcome comments, suggestions, or experiences using these guidelines.
Email address: firstaidguidelines@emsa.ca.gov
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
5
HOW TO USE THE EMERGENCY GUIDELINES
The last page of this document provides space for important emergency phone numbers in your
area. It is important to complete this information, when you receive the document, to have this
information ready in an emergency situation.
A colored flow chart format is used to guide you easily through all symptoms and management
steps from beginning to end. See the Key to Shapes and Colors (pg. 7).
Emergency Procedures for an Injury or Illness section (pg. 8) gives a general overview of the
recommended steps in an emergency situation and the safeguards that should be taken.
Additional information includes when to call EMS (pg. 10), developing a school wide emergency
plan (pg. 11), infection control procedures (pg. 12), and planning for persons with special
healthcare needs (pg. 12).
If medical assistance is needed, have someone contact the 9-1-1 system as soon as possible.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
6
KEY TO SHAPES & COLORS
This note provides
background information.
START
HERE
This type of box should be
read before emergencies
occur.
Initial Information, questions, actions
NO
?
?
Question Being Asked
You need to choose based on
person’s condition or response.
Follow the pathway for your answer.
YES
Provides First-Aid
Instructions
STOP HERE
This is the final
instruction
Additional Information
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
7
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
FOR INJURY OR ILLNESS
1.
Remain calm and assess the situation. Be sure the situation is safe for you to
approach. The following dangers will require caution: live electrical wires, gas leaks,
chemical exposure, building damage, unstable structures, fire or smoke, traffic,
agitated or violent students.
2.
A responsible adult should stay at the scene and give help until the person
designated to handle emergencies arrives. For serious injury or illness, call 9-1-1
without delay.
3.
Notify the responsible school nurse or administrator designated to handle
emergencies. Upon arrival this person should take charge of the emergency.
4.
Do NOT give medications unless there has been prior written approval by the
person’s parent or legal guardian and doctor. Administer medications according to
local school board policy and state or federal laws and regulations.
5.
Do NOT move a severely injured or ill person unless absolutely necessary for
immediate safety. If moving is necessary, protect the neck by keeping it straight to
prevent further injury, see the “Neck and Back Pain” guideline (pg. 56).
6.
Call Emergency Medical Services (EMS 9-1-1), if appropriate, or arrange for
transportation of the ill or injured person, if necessary. Provide EMS personnel with
copies of physician/parents’ signed record of medical instructions for emergencies
(i.e., pupil emergency card).
7.
The responsible school nurse, administrator, or a designated employee should notify
the parent/legal guardian of the emergency as soon as possible to determine the
appropriate course of action.
8.
If the parent/legal guardian cannot be reached, notify a parent/legal guardian
substitute and call either the physician or the hospital designated on the Emergency
Information Card, so they will know to expect the injured or ill person.
9.
Each person should have an emergency information record (i.e., student emergency
card) on file that provides essential contact information, medical conditions,
medications and an emergency care plan if appropriate. Provide a copy of student’s
emergency information to EMS upon arrival, if authorized by parent/legal guardian.
10. Fill out a report for all injuries and illnesses requiring above procedures if indicated
by school policy.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
8
9-1-1 GUIDELINES FOR SCHOOLS
CALL 9-1-1 FOR:
Difficulty Breathing Caused by





Absent or labored breathing (pg. 32)
Choking (pg. 33)
Wheezing due to allergic reaction
Near drowning (pg. 39)
After bee sting (pg. 17)

Loss of Consciousness (pg. 53)
For any reason, including
 After any injury
 With history of diabetes
 After seizure
 Unexplained reason
Uncontrolled Bleeding (pg. 24)
Head Injury with (pg. 49)



Severe headache
Vomiting
Change in Behavior

Call 911 Immediately

Verify address

Answer Questions

Follow Instructions

Do Not Hang Up

Stay Calm

Provide First Aid
until ambulance
arrives
Possible Poisoning (pg. 59)
IF IN DOUBT - CALL 9-1-1
These guidelines are not intended to limit good judgment in emergency situations!
9-1-1 brings medical professionals to the scene of the emergency.
Delays in accessing the 9-1-1 system can cause harm to the injured. Consult your
local policies on the management of health emergencies.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
9
WHEN TO CALL EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
(9-1-1)
Call EMS if:

















The person is not breathing.
The person is having difficulty breathing, shortness of breath or is choking.
The person has no pulse.
The person is unconscious, semi-conscious or unusually confused.
The person has bleeding that won’t stop.
The person is coughing up or vomiting blood.
The person has chest pain or pressure persisting more than 3-5 minutes, or has
chest pain that goes away and comes back.
The person has been poisoned or taken an overdose.
The person has a seizure for the first time, a seizure that lasts more than
5 minutes, multiple seizures, or has a seizure and is pregnant or diabetic.
The person has received anti-seizure medication as allowed under the provisions
of Education Code Section 49414.7.
The person has injuries to the head, neck or back.
The person has sudden, severe pain anywhere in the body.
The person has an open wound over a suspected fracture or where bone or
muscle is exposed.
The person’s condition is limb-threatening or other injuries that may leave the
person permanently disabled unless he/she receives immediate care; for example:
lack of feeling or normal color on injured limb (arm or leg); amputation; severe eye
injury or chemical exposure to the eye.
Moving the person could cause further injury.
The person needs the skills or equipment of paramedics or emergency medical
technicians.
Distance or traffic conditions would cause a delay in getting the person to the
hospital.
If any of the above conditions exist, or if you are not sure, it is best to call
EMS (9-1-1).
Sources: American Red Cross & American College of Emergency Physicians
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
10
DEVELOPING AN EMERGENCY PLAN
A school-wide emergency plan should be developed in cooperation with school health staff, school
administrators, local EMS, local hospital, local health department and parent/guardian organizations.
All employees should be trained on the emergency plan and a written copy should be available at all
times. The plan should be reviewed and updated annually, and should consider the following:

Staff roles are clearly defined in writing. For example, staff responsibility for rendering care,
accessing EMS, notifying responsible school administrator and parents, and supervising
uninjured children are outlined and practiced. A responsible administrator for emergency
situations has been designated within each school. In-service training is provided to maintain
knowledge and skills for employees designated to respond to emergencies.

At least one individual, other than the nurse, is trained in CPR and first aid in each school.
Teachers and employees working in high-risk areas or activities (e.g., labs, gyms, shops, P.E.,
etc.) are trained in CPR, use of AED, and first aid.

With appropriate staff training, these First Aid Guidelines could be utilized by staff for immediate
care of students. The Guidelines are to be distributed or available to appropriate employees.

Files are in order for each student and are kept in a central location. The files should contain
current emergency contact and authorization information, immunization and medical records,
phone number of student’s doctor, medication administration forms and emergency care plans
for students with special needs.

First aid kits are stocked with up-to-date supplies and are available in central locations, high-risk
areas, and for extracurricular activities. See “Recommended First Aid Supplies” (pg. 74)

All employees have rapid access to emergency numbers. Emergency numbers are available and
posted by phones. See “Emergency Phone Numbers” (pg. 75)

School personnel have communicated with local EMS regarding the emergency plan, services
available, persons with special needs and other pertinent information about the school.

A written policy describes procedures for accessing EMS without delay from all locations (e.g.,
playgrounds, athletic fields, fieldtrips, extracurricular activities, etc.).

A written policy that provides instructions for transportation of an injured or ill student.

Considerations and procedures for a person with special needs. See “Planning for Persons with
Special Needs” (pg. 12)

A doctor or school nurse and a dentist are designated to act as consultants to the school for
health and safety related questions. (Education Code 44871-44878)

All injuries are documented in a standard format and maintained in an organized manner. Injury
reports are reviewed on a regular basis to revise the emergency plan and remedy hazards.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
11
PLANNING FOR PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Some persons in your school may have special emergency care needs due to their
medical conditions or functional needs.
Medical Conditions:
Some persons may have special or chronic conditions that put them at risk for serious or lifethreatening emergencies. For example, persons who have:




Seizures
Life-threatening or severe allergic reactions
Diabetes
Technology-dependent or medically fragile conditions
Your school nurse or other duly qualified supervisor of health, along with the person’s parent or
legal guardian and personal physician, should develop individual emergency care plans for
these persons when they are enrolled. These emergency care plans should be made available
to appropriate staff at all times. In the event of an emergency situation, refer to the person’s
emergency care plan. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) have created an Emergency Information Form for
Children with Special Needs. It can be downloaded from www.aap.org or www.acep.org.
Physical Abilities:
Other persons in your school may have special emergency needs due to physical disabilities.
For example, persons who are:





Deaf
Blind
In wheel chairs or using other assistive devices
Unable or have difficulty walking up or down stairs
Temporarily on crutches
These persons will need special arrangements in the event of a school-wide emergency (e.g.,
fire, tornado, earthquake, building collapse, evacuation, etc.).
A plan should be developed and a responsible person should be designated to
assist these persons and staff to safety. All appropriate staff should be aware of
this plan.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
12
MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
in SCHOOL SETTINGS
A significant and growing number of school children have health problems that require the
administration of medication during the school day. There are several reasons why students
might require medications in schools, including: (1) chronic conditions requiring medication in
order to benefit from classroom instruction; (2) acute, but temporary, medical needs that require
medicine during the school day, such as an antibiotic for an infection; or (3) conditions that might
require emergency medication, such as an Epinephrine (Epi-pen)® for a bee sting or food
allergy.
Children who require medications in order to fully benefit from public education are protected by
federal and state disability laws. It has become a complex issue due to a variety of factors, such
as federal and state disability law, new pharmaceutical and medical technologies, evolving
mental and medical health practices, fewer full-time school nurses, and increasing numbers of
children with complex as well as simple health needs in schools.
The National Association of School Nurses states that the school nurse has the educational
background, knowledge, and licensure that provide the unique qualifications to direct the
administration of medications in the school setting. The position statement recommends that
“school districts develop policies and procedures to address medication administration in
accordance with federal and state laws and guidelines.”1 If a child needs specified medication
during the course of the school day to attend school and benefit from the educational program; it
is in the school's interest to make this accommodation.2
California law states3, with a few clearly specified legal exceptions, that only a licensed nurse or
physician may administer medication. In the school setting, these exceptions are situations
where: (1) The student self-administers the medication; (2) parent or parent designee, such as a
relative or close friend, administers the medication4; or (3) there is a public disaster or epidemic.5
The Legislature has enacted four statutes that authorize unlicensed school personnel to be
trained and supervised in order to administer four specific medications in medical emergencies:
1. Under the supervision of a school nurse or physician designee, an unlicensed school
employee may administer epinephrine via auto-injector;6
2. Under the supervision of a school nurse, physician, registered nurse, or public health
nurse, an unlicensed school employee may administer glucagon;7
3. Under the supervision of a school nurse, physician, registered nurse, or public health
nurse, an unlicensed school employee may administer Diastat, and8
4. Under the supervision of a school nurse, physician, registered nurse, or public health
nurse, an unlicensed school employee may administer insulin.9
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
13
MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
in SCHOOL SETTINGS (CONT.)
In accordance with Education Code (EC) sections 49414, 49414.5 an unlicensed school
employee could "administer" epinephrine via auto-injector directly into a student suffering
anaphylaxis, glucagon via needle and syringe directly into a student suffering from severe
hypoglycemia, insulin, via needle and syringe directly into a student suffering from severe
hyperglycemia or Diastat, a medication that is administered rectally to a student with epilepsy
suffering from seizures. No other California statute allows an unlicensed school employee to
administer any other medication in California public schools, even if the unlicensed school
employee is trained and supervised by a school nurse or other similarly licensed nurse.
EC Section 49423 permits the school nurse or other designated school personnel to "assist"
students who must "take" medication during the school day that has been prescribed for that
student by his or her physician. The terms “assist” and “administer” are not synonymous. An
example of an unlicensed school employee “assisting” a student pursuant to EC Section 49423
would be when the school employee removes the cap from the medication bottle, pours out the
prescribed dose into a cup or a spoon, and hands the cup or spoon to the student, who then
"takes" or self-administers the required medication. With the above-stated statutory exceptions,
there is no clear statutory authority in California permitting that same unlicensed school
employee to "administer” any other medication.
PROGRAM ADVISORY ON MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION10
CCR Title 5 601-611: California Department of Education “Program Advisory on Medication
Administration” (2005, reviewed 2012).
A school may administer medication to a child only if a parent or guardian has specifically
requested such action and there is a reason to administer the medication when the child is at
school. A written order from an individual who is licensed to prescribe medications must be on
file in order to administer medications. Medication may be administered at school by the school
nurse, other duly qualified supervisors of health,11 site administrator or designee as allowed by
law. Neither the school nurse nor her designee is permitted to administer medication unless:
1. The medication is in the original properly labeled container. If it is a prescription medicine,
the student’s name, name of the drug, dosage, time for administering, and name of health
care provider and current date is printed on the container.
2. Written orders from the student's health care provider are on file in the school stating:
 Student’s name
 Date of Birth
 Name of medication
 Dosage (EC Section 49423)
 Purpose of the medication
 Method of administration (EC Section 49423)
 Time of day medication is to be given (EC Section 49423)
 Anticipated number of days it needs to be given in school and possible side effects
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
14
MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
in SCHOOL SETTINGS (CONT.)
3. Name, address, telephone number, and signature of the California authorized health care
provider.
4. The parent/guardian provides written permission to the school to administer a prescription
or over-the-counter medication.
5. School personnel keep an individual record of any medications administered by school
personnel.
6. Medication is stored in a clean, locked cabinet or container.
7. Written statements authorizing medications to be administered at school be renewed
yearly or whenever changes in medication or authorized health care provider occur.
8. Changes in medication authorization that generate a new written statement include the
following circumstances:
a. Changes in medication dose, time, and method of administration
b. Change in medication
c. Change in California authorized health care provider
d. Discontinuance of medication administration
Additionally, school districts may want to consider requiring parents to sign a release from
responsibility pertaining to side effects or other medical consequences that may be related to the
medication(s).
1
National Association of School Nurses. (2003). Position statement: Medication administration in the school setting.
http://www.nasn.org/positions/medication.htmv.
2
Schwab, N.C. and Gelfman, M.H.B., (2001). Legal Issues in School Health, Sun River Press, North Branch, MN: Sunrise River Press, 205.
3
California Business and Professions Code (Nursing Practice Act (NPA)) Sections 2725 and 2727 and the California Education Code.
4
NPA Section 2727(a) states that parents and other relatives or close friends may administer medication, which is defined as “gratuitous
nursing.”
5
NPA Section 2727(d) states that a district not having a school nurse does not qualify as a “public disaster.”
6
EC Section 49414
7
EC Section 49414.5
8
EC Section 49414.7 is an optional law that was signed by Governor Brown October 7, 2011 and went into effect January 1, 2012 –SB 61 (Huff).
9
EC Section 49423 provides that unlicensed school personnel may assist with medication administration; BPC 2725(b)(2) and the CCR, Title 5,
section 604 authorize specified persons to administer insulin in California’s public schools pursuant to a Section 504 Plan or an IEP.
10
California Code of Regulations Title V, Article 4.1: Administering Medication to Students or Otherwise Assisting Students in the Administration
of Medication During the Regular School Day. http:// www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/hn/documents/medadvisory.pdf
11
Medication may be administered at school by the school nurse, other duly qualified supervisors of health, site administrator or designee as
allowed by law, the parent or guardian or their designee as allowed by law or LEA policy, a contracted licensed health care professional whose
licensure permits administration of the medication, or by the student under specified conditions. Unlicensed school personnel designated by the
site administrator administer medication if: a. The unlicensed staff member is willing to perform medication administration; b. The unlicensed
staff member is trained and determined to be capable and competent to be able to safely and accurately administer the medication by a licensed
health care professional, who is legally authorized to provide such training and determine competence; c. The unlicensed staff member
performing medication administration is supervised by the licensed health care professional who provided the training, and the supervision,
review, and monitoring of the medication administration is documented.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
15
INFECTION CONTROL
To reduce the spread of infectious diseases (diseases that can be spread from one
person to another), it is important to follow Universal Precautions when providing care to
any ill or injured student, whether or not the person is known to be infectious. Universal
precautions are a set of guidelines that assume that all blood and certain other body
fluids are potentially infectious. The following list describes universal precautions:






Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. When
hands are visibly dirty or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids (be sure to
scrub between fingers, under fingernails, and around the tops and palms of
hands). If hands are not visibly soiled you may use an alcohol-based hand rub.
Wash hands:
1. Before and after physical contact with any person
(even if gloves have been worn).
2. Before and after eating or handling food
3. After contact with a cleaning agent
4. After using the restroom
5. After providing any first-aid
Wear disposable gloves when in contact with blood and other body fluids.
Wear protective eyewear when body fluids may come in contact with eyes
(e.g., squirting blood).
Wipe-up any blood or body fluid spills as soon as possible (wear
disposable gloves). Double-bag the trash in plastic bags, or place in a
Ziploc bag and dispose immediately. Clean the area with an approved
disinfectant or a bleach solution (one part liquid bleach to 10 parts water).
Send all soiled clothing (i.e., clothing with blood, feces or vomit) home with the
person in a double-bagged plastic bag.
Do not eat, touch your mouth, or touch your eyes while giving any first aid.
Guidelines:

Remind students to wash hands thoroughly after coming in contact with any blood or
body fluids.

Remind students to avoid contact with another person’s blood or body fluid.
.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
16
ALLERGIC REACTION
Persons with a history of
.life-threatening allergies
.
should be known to
appropriate school staff.
An emergency care plan is
needed upon enrollment.
Staff in a position to
administer approved
medications should
receive instruction.
A person may experience a delayed allergic
reaction up to 2 hours following food or medication
ingestion, bites, bee sting or exposure to
chemicals, plants, etc.



Ask if person is having difficulty breathing or swallowing
Ask person if they have a history of allergic reaction
Check for a medical bracelet or medallion
 NO






YES
Brush off dry substances (wear gloves)
Flush contact area or substance from
skin and eyes with water
Notify adult supervising person of
exposure (bee sting or ingestion) and
possibility of delayed allergic reaction
Observe mild reactions
Review person’s emergency plan
Return to class



YES
Is person so uncomfortable that he is
unable to participate in school
activities?
NO
Does the person have a history or current
symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to
the recent exposure? (see below)
Refer to Emergency Action/Care Plan, if
available
Administer Epinephrine (EpiPen) as per
school protocol
Administer other doctor and
parent/guardian-approved medication as
prescribed - CALL EMS 9-1-1


Keep quiet & in position of comfort
Be prepared to use “CPR”
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent
or legal guardian.
Symptoms of a Severe Allergic Reaction after Exposure
Difficulty breathing, wheezing
Difficulty swallowing, drooling
Continuous coughing or sneezing
Tightening of throat or chest
Swelling of face, neck or tongue
Confusion or loss of consciousness
Pale, gray, blue or flushed skin/lips
Poor circulation (See “Seriously Ill/Shock”)
Nausea and/or vomiting
Weakness, dizziness
Seizures
Suddenly appears seriously sick
Generalized rash or hives
Symptoms Of A Mild Allergic Reaction
Red, watery eyes
Itchy, sneezing, runny nose
Rash or hives in local area or widely scattered Localized swelling, redness
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
17
ASTHMA/WHEEZING/DIFFICULTY BREATHING
Asthma/wheezing attacks may be triggered by many
substances/activities. Hypersensitive airways
become smaller, causing wheeze, cough, and
difficulty breathing. Attacks may be mild, moderate
or severe. Refer to emergency care plan.



Sit person upright in position of comfort
STAY CALM. Be reassuring
Ask if person has allergies or medication




Did breathing difficulty develop rapidly?
Is the student having difficulty speaking due
to shortness of breath?
Are lips, tongue or nail beds turning blue?
Change in level of consciousness-confusion?
Persons with a history of breathing
difficulties, including asthma or
wheezing, should be known to
appropriate school staff. Develop a
school asthma action plan during
enrollment. Keep asthma inhaler and
spacer available. Student may carry
their own medication. Staff authorized
to administer medications should
receive instruction.
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
NO




If available, check school asthma action plan
If person has doctor and parent/guardian approved inhaler
medication, assist or administer medication as directed
Observe for 4-5 min and repeat as directed, if not improved
Encourage person to sit quietly, breathe slowly and deeply
in through the nose and out through the mouth
NO






Are symptoms not improving or getting worse?
Having difficulty speaking in full sentences?
Loud wheeze or persistent cough?
Decreased level of consciousness?
May give room
temperature water to drink
Person may return to
class when recovered
 Rapid/Shallow breathing
 Not able to speak in full sentences
 Wheezing (high pitched sound)
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Signs of Breathing Difficulty
 Tightness in chest
 Widening of nostrils
 Increased use of stomach
and chest muscles
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
 Excessive coughing
 Appears very anxious
18
BEHAVIORAL EMERGENCIES
Refer to your school's policy for addressing behavioral
emergencies. Behavioral or psychological emergencies
may take many forms (e.g., depression, anxiety/panic,
phobias, destructive or assaultive behavior, etc.).
Intervene only if the situation is safe for you.
Call for assistance
Are there visible injuries? Signs of
poisoning or patient has admitted to
taking medications or drugs.
YES
Persons with a history of
behavioral problems,
emotional problems or
other special needs should
be known to appropriate
staff. An emergency care
plan should be developed
at time of enrollment.
See appropriate guideline to
provide first aid, if any injury
requires immediate care.
NO

Does person's behavior present an
immediate risk of physical harm to
self, other persons or property?
Is person armed with a weapon?
,

CALL EMS 9-1-1
YES
CALL POLICE 9-1-1
Ask for a police response.
NO
Communications should be non-threatening. Acknowledge that the person is upset,
offer to help, make eye contact, and avoid physical contact. Stay out of reach, and
ensure an accessible escape route. DO NOT challenge or argue. Attempt to involve
people who the person trusts, and talk about what is wrong. If available, have another
adult stand nearby, in a nonthreatening manner, in case student’s behavior escalates.
Check Emergency Action/Care Plan for more information.
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator and
parent or legal
guardian.
If needed:
Suicide Hotline
(1-800-273-8255)
www.suicideprevention
lifeline.org
The cause of unusual behavior may be psychological/emotional or physical (e.g., fever,
diabetic emergency, poisoning/overdose, alcohol/drug abuse, head injury, etc.).
The person should be seen by a health care provider to determine the cause.
Suicidal and violent behavior should be taken seriously. If the person has threatened to
harm himself/herself or others, contact the responsible school authority immediately.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
19
BITES (HUMAN & ANIMAL)
Wear disposable gloves
when exposed to blood
or other body fluids.

Is the person bleeding?
Press firmly with a clean
dressing/cloth on bleeding site,
see “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
YES
NO
NO



Hold bite area under running
water for 2-3 minutes
Wash with soap and water
If wound bled, apply clean
bandage
YES
Maintain direct pressure
Is bleeding
uncontrolled?
YES
If bite is from a snake, scorpion or other
reptile, hold the bitten area still and
below the level of the heart.
Call POISON CONTROL CENTER
NO
CALL 9-1-1
See “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
NO
Is bite from a human?
1-800-222-1222
YES
See “Snake Bite”, if appropriate (pg. 23)
If bite is from an animal:
 Don’t try to catch or touch
the animal
 Get description and
location of animal
 Report to Animal Control
or proper authority,
usually the local Health
Department, so that
animal can be caught &
watched for rabies
Is bite large or gaping?
Is blood spurting?
Check immunization record for
DT, DPT, Tdap, or DTaP
(tetanus). See “Tetanus” (pg. 68)
for more information.
Contact responsible school nurse
or administrator and parents/legal
guardian. If a human bite, inform
both the person bitten and the
person biting that they may have
been exposed to blood from
another person. If skin is broken
seek medical care.
ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE
File Incident Report
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
20
BITES & STINGS (INSECT)
Also see
Bites & Stings for:
Human (pg. 20)
Marine (pg. 22) &
Allergic Reaction (pg. 17)
Did a scorpion sting person?
Get description of insect or spider.
Does person have symptoms of:
 Difficulty breathing?
 Swelling of face, tongue or neck?
 Coughing or wheezing that does not stop?
 History of severe allergic reactions?
YES





Follow directions
YES
Move to a safer area to avoid more stings
Remove stinger as quickly as possible by scraping
with edge of fingernail or credit card
Remove any tight fitting jewelry from affected area
Wash area with soap and water
Apply ice or cold pack wrapped in cloth/towel for
10-15 minutes
Observe for at least 20 minutes or
Call EMS 9-1-1 if person’s symptoms worsen



Any signs of allergic reaction?
Is bite thought to be poisonous?
If an old bite, is it reddened, weeping,
ulcerated or sore?
If known history of anaphylaxis to insect
bite or envenomation and symptoms
are present, even if mild, administer
doctor and parent/guardian approved
medication.
Use EpiPen if prescribed.
CALL 9-1-1




Keep person quiet
See “Allergic Reaction” (pg. 17)
Position of Comfort
Be prepared to perform “CPR”
YES
NO
Return to class, ensure adult supervisor aware
of bite and possible delayed allergic reaction.


Call POISON
CONTROL
CENTER
1-800-222-1222
NO


Known history of allergic
reactions should be
recorded at school and
made available to all
school staff. An
emergency care plan is
needed.
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal
guardian.
Allergic reactions may be delayed up to two (2) hours
See “Allergic Reaction” for sign and symptoms (pg. 17)
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
21
BITES & STINGS (MARINE)
Known history of
allergic reactions
should be recorded at
school and available
to all school staff. An
emergency care plan
is needed.
Marine envenomation from bite, spine or
contact can cause anaphylaxis.
See “Allergic Reaction (pg. 17)
Marine field trips should carry first aid
kits with specific items for marine stings.
When unsure of marine animal or plant
contacted, obtain description and
Call POISON CONTROL CENTER
Jellyfish
May cause severe
pain and shock
depending on
species
Coral
1-800-222-1222
Follow directions
Sponge:
May leave tiny
spicules in skin
Spine Puncture: .
Stingray, Stonefish,
Sea Urchin or Star
fish - Causes
severe intense pain
 Rinse with sea
water or vinegar
to detoxify
 Remove
spicules with
tape, rubber
cement or facial
mask




Immerse hand
or foot in hot
(not scalding)
water for 30-90
minutes to
relieve pain
Rinse with sea
water (not fresh)
Apply vinegar,
rubbing alcohol,
baking soda, if
available
Remove
adherent
nematocysts by
applying shave
cream, baking
soda or talc and
scrape with razor
or sharp edge
Fish bite
There will be pain
at the site; possible
breathing
difficulties
 Use hot fluid
 Treat as wound
See “Wounds
(Puncture)” (pg.
72)
 Apply pressure if
bleeding, clean
wound, apply
clean dry
dressing
Adult supervising person should be aware of sting and should
observe for allergic reaction.
Does person have:
 Difficulty breathing? Hoarseness or difficulty swallowing?
 Swelling of the face, throat or mouth?
 A history of allergy to marine stings?
YES
NO
Injury from a marine spine
requires evaluation for potential
foreign body and pain control
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
CALL EMS 9-1-1
See “Allergic
Reactions” (pg. 17)
22
BITES & STINGS (SNAKE)
ALL SNAKE BITES
Treat all snakebites as poisonous unless
snake is positively identified as harmless.
 DO NOT cut wound
 DO NOT apply tourniquet
 DO NOT apply ice




Need medical evaluation.
Do not try to capture or kill snake.
Take picture, if possible, of snake.
If snake is dead send with victim
to hospital.
 Immobilize the bitten extremity at or below the level of the heart
 If at school, make person sit or lie down, keep at complete rest, avoid activity
(walking)
 Keep victim warm and calm
 Remove any restrictive clothing, rings, and watches
 Is snake known as poisonous?
 Is person not breathing? See “CPR (pg. 29)
YES
NO or UNKNOWN
CALL EMS 9-1-1



Wash with soap and water
Cover with clean compress
Monitor pulse, color and respirations; prepare to perform
CPR if needed
If greater than 30 minutes from emergency department:
 Apply a tight bandage around the entire extremity where
the bite occurred. Do not cut off blood flow
 Parents may transport for medical evaluation if condition
is not life threatening
 If capable and off-road, walk slowly to road or trailhead
and then take to emergency department







Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Signs & Symptoms of Poisonous Bite:
Severe:
Fang marks or mark
 Swelling of tongue or throat
Swelling, discoloration or pain at site
 Rapid swelling and numbness
Rapid pulse, weakness, sweating, fever
 Severe pain
Shortness of breath
 Shock
Burning, numbness or tingling sensation
 Pinpoint pupils
Blurred vision, dizziness, fainting
 Twitching, seizures
Nausea & vomiting
 Paralysis and unconsciousness
 Loss of muscle coordination
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
23
BLEEDING
Wear disposable gloves when exposed to blood or other
body fluids. Do not remove impaled object.
YES
 Is injured part amputated (severed)?
 Is blood bright red or spurting?
 Is muscle, fat or bone showing?
NO











CALL EMS 9-1-1
Press firmly with a clean gloved hand, cloth or dressing for several minutes to
stop bleeding
Object in wound, see “Wound-Puncture” (pg. 72)
Elevate bleeding extremity. If fracture is suspected, see “Fractures…” (pg. 47)
If amputated part, place part in sealed plastic bag and place bag in ice
water
DO NOT PUT AMPUTATED PART DIRECTLY ON ICE
Send part in bag to the hospital with person
Bandage wound firmly, but not tight enough to compromise circulation
Check skin circulation frequently by checking for warmth, pinkness, and good sensation
If bandage is saturated with blood, Do Not remove it
Reinforce with another dressing over existing dressing/bandage, and
Hold firm pressure for 10 minutes
Is there continued uncontrollable
bleeding?
YES
NO



Wash surrounding area with soap
and water
Rinse, pat dry, and apply bandage
If deep or gaping, wounds may
need stitches –
RECOMMEND MEDICAL CARE
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Maintain Direct Pressure on wound.




Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Have person lie down
Elevate feet 8-10 inches, unless this
causes pain/discomfort, OR a
neck/back/hip injury is suspected
Keep person warm but not hot
Reinforce existing dressing and apply
pressure to wound as needed
24
BLISTERS (FROM FRICTION)
Wear disposable gloves when exposed to blood and other body
fluids.






Wash area with soap and water
DO NOT BREAK BLISTER
If ruptured blister, clean and cover with “2nd skin bandage,”
plain athletic tape, or “mole skin” type bandage
If intact blister, apply dressing and avoid further friction
(different shoes, if possible)
If red, sensitive but no blisters, apply tape directly over area
Apply bandage, tape or dressing to prevent further rubbing
If infection is
suspected,
contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Blisters heal best when kept clean and dry with
avoidance of further friction at blister site.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
25
BRUISES
A bruise is bleeding under the skin. Bleeding is usually
self-limited by pressure of surrounding tissues. Initially
red, later turning dark colors like purple. An old bruise
later may turn yellow then green.
Painful, large bruises or marked swelling areas may
indicate more severe damage of muscle, bone, or
internal tissues that need medical care.
Is there rapid swelling?
Is person in great pain?
If a child comes to school
with unexplained,
unusual or frequent
bruising, consider the
possibility of child abuse.
See
"Child Abuse" (pg. 35)
YES
Consider other potential injuries
and see appropriate guide.
Contact responsible school
authority & parent or legal
guardian.
NO
If skin is broken:
Treat as a cut.
See "Wounds" (pg. 71)
If fracture suspected,
See “Fractures…” (pg. 47)
ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE OR
CALL EMS 9-1-1


Rest injured part
Apply cold compress or ice bag
covered with a cloth or towel, to
injured part (not more than 20 min)
If it is too
uncomfortable to
return to normal
activities, contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
26
BURNS
Always make sure that the situation is safe
for you before helping the person.
Burns may be associated with other injuries,
see appropriate topic.


Remove from source of burn
Maintain airway and breathing, see “CPR” if needed (pg. 32)
Are any of these findings present:
 Confused or unconsciousness?
 Difficulty breathing?
 Soot around mouth or nose?
 Burn on face or eye?
 Burn is deep or includes a large area, or multiple
parts of the body?
 Burned skin is white, brown, black or charred?
 Burn is from an explosion?
 Are there other injuries?
YES
NO
CALL EMS 9-1-1
ELECTRICAL






What type of burn is it?
Turn off electrical power
Check for breathing and other injuries
Cover with a dry, preferably sterile, clean dressing
Maintain normal body temperature
Electric shock that leaves a visible burn
requires medical attention
See “Electric Shock”
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
CHEMICAL OR HEAT
(THERMAL)
See “Burns
Thermal and
Chemical”
(pg. 28)
27
BURNS (CONT.)
If person comes to
school with patterned
burns (e.g., iron or
cigarette shape) or glovelike burns, consider the
possibility of abuse.
See "Child Abuse” (pg.
35)
What type of burn is it?
Heat (Thermal)




Flush all burns with cool
running water
Cover large burns with a
clean dry cloth
Cover smaller burns loosely
with a clean, cool, damp
cloth to cool the burn and
relieve pain
Keep victim warm
DO NOT BREAK BLISTERS






Chemical







CALL POISON
CONTROL CENTER
Cover with dry dressing
For burns on multiple parts
of body cover with dry clean
sheet. Keep air off burn
DO NOT USE ointment on
burns unless directed by a
physician
Keep wound/burn clean
Treat other injuries
Persons with small and
superficial burns (e.g.,
sunburn without blisters)
may return to class unless
so uncomfortable they are
unable to participate
Wear gloves and, if possible, goggles
Avoid chemical contact
Brush off dry chemicals from skin
Remove all clothing and jewelry possibly
exposed to chemical
Rinse chemicals off skin, eyes and away
from body IMMEDIATELY with large
amounts of water. Rinse for 10 minutes.
If eyes are involved, see “Eyes” (pg. 42)
Try to identify substance
1-800-222-1222
while flushing burn & ask for
instructions.
Follow directions received.
Check person's immunization record for DT, DPT
(tetanus). See "Tetanus" for more information.
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent
or legal guardian, if
more than a small
superficial burn.
ENCOURAGE
URGENT MEDICAL
CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
28
CPR
NOTES ON PERFORMING CPR
The American Red Cross (ARC) guidelines follow the American Heart
Association’s (AHA) new CPR guidelines for laypersons, “Guidelines 2010 for
Emergency Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.”
BARRIER DEVICES
Barrier devices, to prevent the spread of infections from one person to another,
can be used when performing rescue breathing. Several different types exist (e.g.,
face shields, pocket masks). It is important to practice using these devices in the
presence of a trained CPR instructor before attempting to use them in an
emergency situation.
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATORS (AEDs)
AEDs are devices that help to restore a normal heart rhythm when the heart is
not beating properly. It does this by delivering an electric shock to the heart.
A physician’s prescription is required to purchase an AED. A physician is also
required to provide medical direction to the school or school district that acquires
an AED. If your school has an AED, obtain training in its use, and training in CPR,
before an emergency occurs. The majority of AED use in the schools will be on
adults at the facility, since the medical conditions likely to require use of an AED
on a child are extremely rare.
AED training is offered through the American Heart Association, the American Red
Cross, the American Health and Safety Institute, the National Safety Council and
other CPR and AED training programs. AED manufacturers also offer training.
The AED regulations are available at the EMS Authority’s website
http://www.emsa.ca.gov. See CA Code of Regulations, Title 22, Division 9,
Chapter 1.8, Training Standards and Utilization for Use of the Automated External
Defibrillator by Non-Licensed and Certified Personnel for further information.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
29
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATORS (AED)
CHECK WHICH APPLIES:

NO AED AVAILABLE AT
THIS SCHOOL.

My School’s AED is
located at:
Persons must be trained to use an AED. After receiving training on
how to use the AED, remember to:
 Check for unresponsiveness
 Call 9-1-1 and retrieve the AED
 Check for unresponsiveness or gasping breathing
 If unresponsive or breathing only gasping begin chest
compressions
 Turn on AED and follow directions
 Attach AED electrode pads, analyze rhythm
 When the AED recommends the patient needs to be shocked,
make sure no one is touching the person and press the “Shock”
button
 Follow instructions from AED unit
 If instructed to do so by AED, resume CPR for 2 minutes and follow
instructions from AED device
 If no signs of circulation, resume CPR
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
30
LAY PERSON CPR
CHECK FOR
UNRESPONSIVENESS
(Call out, rub arms/chest).
If responsive, no CPR needed.
Additional written
directions and
pictures on next
page (pg. 32).
Infant CPR
If unresponsive, call 9-1-1.
If anyone else available, have them call
for help and an AED.
Child CPR




BEGIN CHEST COMPRESSIONS AT A RATE OF
100/MIN; deliver 30 compressions
Infants: use 2 fingers in middle of breast bone and
compress ½” -1” inch
Small children: use heel of hand, compress 1½”-2”
Adults: use both hands – one on top of other in
middle of breast bone and compress at least 2” –
allow for full recoil of chest
Adult CPR
If
Breathing
Place on left side
and protect airway
If NOT
Breathing or only
Gasping
If trained - Give 2 rescue breaths
 Tilt head back and open jaw
 Cover mouth with your mouth
 Give breaths until chest rises
 Continue with 30 compressions and 2
breaths
CALL 9-1-1
See “Loss of
Consciousness”
and provide first aid
as needed (pg. 53).
Head Tilt
If untrained – continue “Hands only”
 Continue breathing and chest compressions
as needed
 REASSESS EVERY 2 MINUTES for
responsiveness; if unresponsive, continue
CPR
 If patient starts breathing, place on left side
and protect airway
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
31
LAY PERSON CPR (CON’T)
FOR CHILDREN ONE YEAR OLD TO ADULT
CPR is to be used when a child or adult is unresponsive or when breathing or heart beat stops.
1.
Tap or gently shake the shoulder. Shout “Are you OK?” If that person is unresponsive,
shout for help and send someone to call EMS 9-1-1.
2.
Turn the person onto his/her back as a unit by supporting the head and neck. If head
or neck injury is suspected, DO NOT BEND OR TURN NECK.
3.
Lift chin up and out with one hand while pushing down on the forehead with the other
to open the AIRWAY. If head or neck injury suspected, hold head still and move jaw
forward to open airway.
4.
Check for normal breathing by observation of chest, if there is no breathing or the patient is making gasping
breaths then begin chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute. Compress 30 times before beginning
rescue breaths.
5.
If child is not breathing, seal your lips tightly around his/her mouth; pinch nose shut.
While keeping the airway open, give 2 slow breaths (1 to 1½ seconds per breath) until chest rises.
IF AIR GOES IN:
IF AIR WON’T GO IN:
(Chest rises with rescue breath)
(Chest does NOT rise with rescue breath)
6.
Place heel of one hand on the lower half of
breastbone. Do NOT place your hand over the
very bottom of the breastbone.
7.
Compress chest 30 times with heel of one hand
(at least 2 inches). Lift fingers to avoid pressure
on ribs.
8.
9.
6.
Re-tilt head back (Steps 3-5). Try to give 2 breaths
again.
IF AIR GOES IN, FOLLOW LEFT COLUMN.
IF AIR STILL WON’T GO IN:
7.
Find hand position near center of
breastbone. Do NOT place your hand
over the very bottom of the breastbone.
8.
Compress chest 30 times with the heel of 1 hand (at
least 2 inches). Lift fingers to avoid pressure on ribs.
9.
Lift jaw and tongue and look in mouth. If foreign
object is seen, sweep it out with finger. If object is not
seen, Do Not Sweep With Finger Blindly.
Give 2 slow breaths until chest rises.
REPEAT CYCLES OF 30 COMPRESSIONS TO 2
BREATHS AT A RATE OF 100 COMPRESSIONS
PER MINUTE UNTIL PERSON SHOWS SIGNS
OF BREATHING EFFECTIVELY ON OWN,
SHOWS OTHER SIGNS OF CIRCULATION, OR
HELP ARRIVES.
10. REPEAT STEPS 6-9 UNTIL BREATHS GO IN,
CHILD STARTS TO BREATH EFFECTIVELY ON
OWN, SHOWS OTHER SIGNS OF CIRCULATION
OR HELP ARRIVES.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
1.
2.
3.
Reproduced with permission, Pediatric Basic Life Support ©
1997, Copyright American Heart Association
Text based on Community First Aid & Safety, 2002 American
Red Cross
2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for CPR
32
CHOKING
FOR CONSCIOUS VICTIMS
Call 9-1-1 or activate EMS after starting rescue efforts.
INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR OF AGE
CHILDREN OVER ONE YEAR OF AGE & ADULTS
Begin the following if the infant is choking and is unable to
breathe. However, if the infant is coughing or crying, DO
NOT do any of the following, but call EMS 9-1-1, try to
calm the child and watch for worsening of symptoms. If
cough becomes ineffective (loss of sound), begin step 1
below.
Begin the following if the child/adult is choking and is
unable to breathe. However, if the child/adult is coughing
or crying, DO NOT do any of the following, but call EMS 91-1, try to calm the child/adult and watch for worsening of
symptoms. If cough becomes ineffective (loss of sound),
begin step 1.
1.
1. Stand or kneel behind person and place your arms
under the armpits to encircle the chest.
Position the infant, with head
slightly lower than chest, face
down on your arm and support the
head (support jaw; do NOT
compress throat).
2.
Give up to 5 back blows with the
heel of the hand between infant’s shoulder blades.
3.
If object is not coughed up,
position infant face up on your
forearm with head slightly lower
than rest of body.
4.
5.
With 2 or 3 fingers, give up to 5
chest thrusts near center of breastbone, about one
finger width below the nipple
line.
Open mouth and look. If foreign
object is seen sweep it out with
finger.
6.
Tilt head back and lift chin up
and out to open the airway. Try
to give 2 breaths.
7.
Repeat steps 1-6 until object is coughed up, infant
starts to breathe or infant becomes unconscious.
2. Place thumb side of fist against
middle of abdomen just above
the navel. DO NOT place your
hand over the very bottom of
the breastbone. Grasp fist
with other hand. Press with
quick backward and upward
thrusts.
3. Give up to 5 quick inward and upward thrusts.
4. Repeat steps 1-2 until object is coughed up, or person
starts to breathe or becomes unconscious.
IF PERSON BECOMES UNCONSCIOUS, LAY ON
BACK AND GO TO PAGE 32, RIGHT COLUMN,
STEP 6 OF CPR INSTRUCTIONS.
FOR OBESE OR PREGNANT PERSON
Stand behind person and place your arms under the
armpits to encircle the chest. Place thumb side of fist
against lower half of breastbone and thrust backwards.
IF INFANT BECOMES UNCONSCIOUS, LAY ON
BACK AND GO TO PAGE 32, RIGHT COLUMN,
STEP 6 OF CPR INSTRUCTIONS USING 2
FINGERS IN MIDDLE OF BREAST BONE FOR
COMPRESSIONS.
1. Reproduced with permission, Pediatric Basic Life Support,
© 1997, Copyright American Heart Association
2. Text based on Community First Aid & Safety, 2002 ,
American Red Cross
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
33
CHEST PAIN (POSSIBLE HEART ATTACK)
Chest pain can be caused by:
 Injury
 Esophageal spasm
 Lung inflammation
 Pneumonia
 Gastric disturbance
 Anxiety/Stress
 Heart conditions




Cardiovascular disease and heart
attacks are rare among children
under 18 years of age. However,
some children have a history of heart
problems. Check emergency
medical information.
The risk of heart attack increases
steadily over 40 years of age.
Any loss of consciousness or confusion?
Does person look seriously ill?
Has heart attack symptom(s)? (see below)
Has significant chest pain stopped and returned?
NO



Ask person if this has
occurred before and
what made it better
Place in position of
comfort, usually
reclining, and keep quiet
Loosen tight clothing
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Even if person objects.
Do not transport by private car.
 If unconscious, see “Loss of
Consciousness” (pg. 53)
 If breathing stops; see “CPR” (pg. 32)
 Place in position of comfort
 Keep calm, don’t panic, reassure person
 DO NOT GIVE MEDICATIONS UNLESS
AUTHORIZED
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal
guardian.

Signs & Symptoms Of A Heart Attack
Chest pain described as constant heavy pressure, vise like, or pain in the middle or upper
chest. The discomfort may travel across the chest to arm, neck or jaw and also include:
o Left arm/shoulder pain
o Jaw/neck pain
o Sudden unexplained weakness or dizziness with or without nausea
o Sweaty, clammy, pale, ashen or bluish skin
o Shortness of breath or breathing is abnormal
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 34
CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT
If child has visible injuries,
refer to the appropriate
guideline to provide first aid.
Call EMS 9-1-1 if any injuries
require immediate medical
care.
Child abuse is a
complicated issue with
many potential signs.
Anyone in a position to
care for children should
be trained in recognition
of child abuse/neglect.
Mandated reporters
should receive required
annual training.
Teachers and other professional school staff are
required to report suspected abuse and neglect to the
Child Protective Services Agency. Refer to your own
school's policy for additional guidance on reporting.
Child Protective Services # _____________
Abuse may be physical, sexual or emotional in
nature. This is NOT a complete list:








Depression, hostility, low self-esteem, poor self-image
Evidence of repeated injuries or unusual injuries
Lack of explanation or unlikely explanation for an injury
Pattern bruises or marks (e.g., burns in the shape of a
cigarette or iron, bruises or welts in the shape of a hand)
"Glove-like" or "sock-like" burns on hands or feet
Unusual knowledge of sex, inappropriate touching or
engaging in sexual play with other children
Poor hygiene, underfed appearance
Severe injury or illness without medical care
If a child reveals abuse to you:
 Stay calm
 Take the child seriously
 Tell the child that he/she did the right thing by telling you
 Do not make promises that you cannot keep
 Respect the sensitive nature of the child's situation. Remember each case
is individual and use your best judgment to act in the best interest of the child
 Follow appropriate reporting procedures
 See Department of Social Services, Publication 132 “The California Child
Abuse & Neglect Reporting Law - Issues and Answers for Mandated
Reporters,” at http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/pdf/PUB132.pdf
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 35
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
For more information on protecting yourself from upper
respiratory infections listed under the "Emergency
Procedures" tab, see "Infection Control" (pg. 16).
A communicable disease
is a disease that can be
spread from one person
to another. Germs cause
communicable diseases
(bacteria, virus, fungus,
parasites).
Does the person have
SIGNS OF LIFE-THREATENING ILLNESS:



Difficulty breathing or swallowing, rapid breathing?
Severe coughing, noisy breathing?
Fever over 100.0 degrees F in combination with lethargy,
extreme sleepiness, abnormal behavior
YES
NO
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Does the person have?
SIGNS OF PROBABLE ILLNESS or INFECTION:
 Redness, swelling, drainage of eye?
 Unusual spots/rash with fever or itching?
 Crusty, bright yellow, swollen, tender, red or open
draining skin sores?
 Diarrhea (more than two loose stools a day)?
 Vomiting?
 Yellow skin or yellow "white of eye"?
 Fever greater than 100.0 degrees F?
 Extreme tiredness or lethargy?
 Unusual behavior?
Additional signs & symptoms:
Fussiness
Runny nose
Headache
Itchy scalp
Sore throat
Ear ache
Mild cough
Stomach ache
YES
Remove student
from the
classroom, contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator and
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Monitor child for
worsening of
symptoms and
contact parent/legal
guardian.
In general, there will be little that you can do for a person in school who has an infection; however, limit
the exposure and spread of disease to others by encouraging student(s) to cover mouth and nose when
coughing or sneezing; use a tissue and encourage hand washing or use of alcohol based hand gel.
Refer to your school's exclusion policy for illness.
Common diseases include: Chicken pox, head lice, pink eye, strep throat and
influenza (flu).
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 36
DIABETES
A person having a diabetic reaction could have the
following signs & symptoms:







Irritability and upset
Sweating and feeling “shaky”
Change in behavior
Unconsciousness
Rapid, deep breathing
Seizure
Fruity or sweet breath
NO






A person with
diabetes should be
known to appropriate
school staff.
A history should be
obtained and an
emergency care plan
should be developed at
time of enrollment.
Rapid pulse
Cramping
Dizziness
Listlessness
Pallor
Confusion
Is the person:
 Unconscious?
 Confused or acting unusual?
 Having a seizure?
 Unable to speak?
 Having rapid, deep breathing?
Does person have an
emergency action/care plan?
YES
Give the person any one of the
following:
 Fruit juice or soda pop (not diet) 68 ounces
 Sugar (2 packets or 2 teaspoons)
dissolved in water or juice
 Cake decorating gel (1/2 tube) or
icing
 Instant glucose gel
NO
YES
Does he/she have a blood
sugar monitor available?
NO
Continue to watch the person in a
quiet place
YES


Allow person to check blood
sugar*
Follow Emergency Action/Care
Plan
Is person improving?
YES
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
NO
CALL EMS 9-1-1
If unconscious, see “Loss of
Consciousness” (pg. 53)
Page 37
DIARRHEA
Wear disposable gloves when
exposed to blood or other body
fluids. A person may come to the
office because of repeated
diarrhea, or after an “accident” in
the bathroom.




Check temperature
Allow the person to rest if experiencing any stomach pain
Give the person small amounts of fluid (water, sport drink,
etc.) to drink to prevent dehydration; avoid sodas
Juice or sports drink mixed 50/50 with water
Contact responsible school nurse or administrator & parent or legal
guardian and urge medical care if:
 Has three or more episodes of diarrhea
 The person has a fever, over 100.0 degrees F, see “Fever” (pg. 45)
 Blood is present in the stool
 The person is dizzy and pale
 The person has severe stomach pain
If the person’s clothing is soiled:
 Maintain privacy, offer change of clothing or
a blanket to wrap up in
 Wear disposable gloves
 Double-bag the clothing to be sent home
Wash hands
thoroughly
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 38
DROWNING/NEAR DROWNING









CPR trained staff should send someone for help.
Get person out of the water.
Place on back with head and neck straight.
Open and maintain AIRWAY (if head or neck injury
suspected or unknown, assume injury and lift jaw
without moving head).
Assess breathing.
Clear airway of vomit/objects if needed.
Support head & neck and turn body and head as
one (logroll) to the left side.
Minimize head & neck movement.
Support head, keep airway open
Drowning can occur
in 2 inches of liquid.
Immediate medical
care is needed.
Give rescue breaths, if not
breathing, see “CPR”
(pg. 32)
Is victim:
 Not breathing?
 Unconscious, confused, lethargic?
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
DO NOT MOVE VICTIM
NO


Support head & neck & turn body & head
as one (logroll) to the left side
Minimize head & neck movement
Is patient regurgitating water?
?
NO


Monitor breathing, level
of consciousness and
circulation
If changes occur, see
appropriate guideline
NO
Was victim injured?
If victim recovers with initial
rescue efforts, complications
may still occur after near
drowning.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Contact responsible school
authority and parent/legal
guardian.
YES
YES
See appropriate
guidelines
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE
IMMEDIATE MEDICAL
CARE
Page 39
EARS
DRAINAGE FROM EAR or EARACHE
DO NOT:
 Try to clean out ear
 Plug ear canal
 Stop flow of drainage
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Take & record
temperature
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL
CARE
OBJECT IN EAR CANAL
Ask person if he/she
knows what is in the ear
Is there a live insect
in the ear?
YES
NO or NOT SURE
NO
Gently tilt head.
Put drop of oil in
ear. Did object
come out?
DO NOT ATTEMPT
TO REMOVE INSECT
OR OBJECT
Do Not use a light to
attract an insect out, it
may excite the insect.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Page 40
ELECTRICAL INJURY





Injury from any electric source other than
household, Call 9-1-1
If exposed power source, TURN OFF POWER
SOURCE, if possible
DO NOT TOUCH PERSON UNTIL POWER
SOURCE IS SHUT OFF
Once power is off and situation is safe, approach
the person and ask, “Are you okay?”
Any electrical shock with injury needs medical
evaluation
NO
Did person lose
consciousness or become
unresponsive?
If a person has signs of an electrical
burn, it may be subtle:
 Check for other injuries
 Apply clean, dry dressing
 DO NOT use ointments
 Protect from hot and cold
 All electrical burns need medical
attention. Electrical current can
travel through the underlying
tissues and cause unseen injury
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian, if injured.
If patient is
unresponsive and
no one else is
available to call
EMS, call EMS
yourself then
begin CPR.
YES
If unresponsive or has
only gasping breathing,
begin CPR;
see “CPR” (pg. 32)
Send someone to
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
URGENT
MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 41
EYES (INJURY)
Keep person
comfortable with head
and chest in sitting
position or elevated and
quiet.
With any eye problem, ask if
the person wears contact
lenses. Have person
remove contacts before
giving any first-aid to eye.
 Is injury severe?
 Is there a change in vision?
 Has object penetrated eye or eye socket?
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
NO
YES
ENCOURAGE
IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE
.
If an object has penetrated the eye
or eye socket,
DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT.
A large object should be
supported with dressings to
minimize movement.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Keep person from rubbing eye, or moving object.
DO NOT TOUCH THE EYE
OR
PUT ANY PRESSURE ON THE EYE OR THE OBJECT
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
EYES CONTINUED ON
NEXT PAGE (pg. 43)
Page 42
EYES (CONT.)
PARTICLE IN EYE:


Keep person from
rubbing eye.

Ask what is in eye?
Have person blink repeatedly to flush out particle
If necessary, lay person down, & tip head toward
affected side
Gently pour cool tap water over open eye to
flush out particle
If particle does not flush
out of eye, or if eye pain
continues, contact
responsible school nurse
or administrator and
parent or legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL
CARE
CHEMICALS IN EYE
Close Eyelid & Cover
Wear gloves and if
possible, goggles.
Ask what is in eye?



Immediately flush eye with large amounts of tepid or cool, clean water
Tip the head so that the affected eye is below the unaffected eye
washing the eye from nose to side of face for 5-10 minutes
While flushing eye try to determine substance that entered eye and
Call POISON CONTROL CENTER
1-800-222-1222
Follow Instructions
Follow Instructions.
If eye has been injured by a chemical
or continued pain or visual change
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 43
FAINTING
If you observe, or the person complains of any of
the following signs or symptoms of fainting, have
the person lie down to prevent injury from falling:
 Extreme weakness or fatigue
 Dizziness or light-headedness
 Extreme sleepiness
 Pale, sweaty skin
 Nausea
Is fainting due to a forceful injury?
Fainting may have many causes
including: injuries, blood loss,
poisoning, severe allergy, diabetic
reaction, heat exhaustion,
hypoglycemia, illness, fatigue,
stress, not eating, standing still for
too long, etc.
Most persons who faint will recover
quickly when lying down. If person
does not regain consciousness within
1 minute, see “Loss of Consciousness”
(pg. 53) and CALL 9-1-1.
YES
NO
Did person injure self when he/she
fainted/fell?
YES or NOT SURE
See “Loss of
Consciousness” (pg. 53).
NO
 Keep person in flat position lying on back
 Elevate feet above level of heart
 Loosen clothing around neck and waist





CALL EMS 9-1-1
Keep airway clear and monitor breathing
Keep person warm, but not hot
Control bleeding if needed , see “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
Give nothing to eat or drink
Check for a medical alert tag or bracelet
See appropriate guideline.
If head or neck injury
suspected. Treat as
possible neck injury.
See “Neck & Back Pain”
(pg. 56).
DO NOT MOVE PERSON
YES
NO
If person feels
better, and there
is no danger of
neck injury,
he/she may be
moved to a
quiet, private
area.
YES
Are symptoms (dizziness,
light-headedness, weakness,
fatigue, etc.) still present?
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Keep person lying down.
Contact responsible school
nurse or administrator &
parent or legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE URGENT
MEDICAL CARE
Page 44
FEVER & NOT FEELING WELL
Take person’s temperature, if possible.
Note temperature over 100.0 degrees F as
fever.


NO
Have the person lie down in a room that affords privacy.
Give no medications unless previously authorized; such
as acetaminophen or ibuprofen
Is Temp over
100.0 degrees F?
YES
NO
Does child have fever and
 Is unresponsive?
 Is limp, weak, listless or not moving?
 Rash with purple spots?
 Limited movement of neck (stiff)?
 First time seizure? See “Seizures” (pg.62)
 Severe headache?
 Abdominal pain?
 Difficulty breathing?
YES


If alert, give fluids (i.e., juices, water,
soup or gelatin) as tolerated
Avoid overheating with excessive
clothing/blankets
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact
responsible
school nurse
or
administrator
& parent or
legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 45
FINGERNAIL/TOENAIL INJURY
Assess history of injury and examine injury.
A crush injury to fingertip may result in fracture or
bleeding under intact fingernail, creating pressure
that may be very painful.




NO
Wear gloves if bleeding
Use gentle direct pressure until bleeding stops.
Wash with soap and water, apply Band-Aid or tape
overlay to protect nail bed
Apply ICE PACK for 10-20 minutes for pain and
prevent swelling
After 20 minutes of ICE, has pain subsided?
Can student grasp or pinch without significant
pain?
If you suspect a
fracture, see
“Fractures…” (pg. 47).
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
Return to class
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal
guardian.
Page 46
FRACTURES, DISLOCATIONS, SPRAINS OR STRAINS
Treat all injured parts as if they
Could be fractured (See Signs &
Symptoms at bottom of page)
YES










Is bone or joint deformed or bent in an unusual
way?
Is skin broken over possible fracture?
Is bone sticking through skin?
Is skin of the injured extremity pale/cool when
compared with opposite extremity?
Is there loss of feeling or movement?
NO
Avoid movement of injured part
Do not allow person to put weight on it or use it
Splint with towel, cardboard, or sling
Gently support and elevate injured part and adjacent
joint, with pillow or folded towel, if possible
Apply ice/cold (no more than 20 min/hr.), covered with
cloth or paper towel
If bleeding, wear gloves and apply
direct pressure to bleeding site.
 Control Bleeding, see “Bleeding”
(pg. 24)
 Leave in position of comfort
 Cover broken skin with clean
bandage
 Do NOT move or attempt to
straighten injured part
 Splint
 Give nothing to eat or drink
 See “Seriously Ill/Shock” if needed
(pg. 63)
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
After a period of rest, recheck the injury.
 Is the pain gone?
 Can person move or put weight on injured part without
discomfort?
 Is numbness/tingling gone?
 Has normal sensation returned to injured area?
 Is coloration, circulation normal?
YES
NO
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent
or legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL
CARE
CALL EMS 9-1-1
If discomfort
is gone,
allow person
to return to
class.
Signs & Symptoms of Fracture, Dislocation, Sprains or Strains




Pain and/or swelling in one area
Large bruise/discoloration
Sounds/feels like bones moving
rubbing
Bent or deformed
bone/extremity
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools



Cold and numb
Loss of sensation or movement
Disfigurement at joint
Page 47
FROSTBITE
Exposure to cold even for short periods of time
may cause “Hypothermia” (a low temperature) in
children, see “Hypothermia” (pg. 52). The nose,
ears, chin, cheeks, fingers and toes are parts most
often affected by frostbite.


Frostbitten skin may:
Look discolored, grayish-yellow, pale, or
white)
Feel cold to touch
Feel numb to the person


Deeply frostbitten skin may:
Look white or waxy
Feel firm-hard (frozen)






Frostbite can result
in the same type of
tissue damage as a
burn. It is a serious
condition and
requires medical
attention.
Take to warm place and remove cold or wet clothing and replace with warm, dry
clothes
Protect cold part from further injury (may not have any sensation)
Do NOT rub or massage the cold part OR apply heat such as a water bottle or hot
running water
Put affected body part in bath temperature water to warm & potentially thaw
Cover part loosely with nonstick, clean dressing or dry blanket
NO
Does extremity or body part:
 Look discolored – grayish, white or waxy?
 Feel firm hard (frozen)?
 Have a loss of sensation?
YES
Keep person and part warm
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
CALL 9-1-1
Keep person and affected
area warm
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 48
HEAD INJURIES
. that happen
Many head injuries
at school are minor. Head
wounds may bleed easily and
form large bumps. Bumps to the
head may not be serious. Head
injuries from falls, sports, &
violence may be serious. If head
is bleeding,
see “Bleeding” (pg. 24).
If person only bumped head and
does not have any other
complaints or symptoms,
See “Bruises” (pg. 26).
Ask questions about how injury
occurred.
With a head injury (other than minor head
bump), always suspect neck injury as well.
Do NOT move or twist the spine or neck,
see “Neck & Back Pain” (pg. 56).
NO
 Have person rest, lying flat
 Keep person quiet & warm
YES
Is person vomiting?
Watch person closely.
DO NOT LEAVE PERSON ALONE
Are any of the following present:
 Unconsciousness, seizure or neck pain?
 Blood is flowing freely from the head wound, see
“Bleeding” (pg. 24)?
o Maintain firm, direct pressure
 Inability to respond to simple commands?
 Blood or watery fluid from ears or nose?
 Inability to move or feel arms or legs?
 Person is sleepy, confused or asks repetitive
questions?
YES
 Taking blood thinners (e.g., Coumadin)
Turn the head and body together to the
left side, keeping the head and neck in a
straight line with the trunk.
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Look, listen & feel for
breathing. If person stops
breathing,
see “CPR” (pg. 32)
GIVE NOTHING TO EAT
OR DRINK
NO
If person was briefly confused and
seems fully recovered contact responsible
school nurse or administrator & parent or legal
guardian.
WATCH FOR DELAYED SYMPTOMS &
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL CARE.
Send home instructions for observing delayed
symptoms.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Page 49
HEADACHE
Have person lie down for a
short time in a room that
affords privacy. Headache
can be due to the lack of
adequate food or water.
Ask person when and what
they ate last.
NO
YES
Has a head injury occurred?
NO
Is temperature over
100.0 degrees F?
Give medication only if
previously authorized.
YES
See
“Head Injuries”
(pg. 49)
See “Fever”
(pg. 45)
 Apply cold cloth or compress to head
 Offer food or juice if person hasn’t eaten adequately
 Allow to rest in quiet, low light room


NO


If headache
persists, contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Is headache severe?
Are other signs or symptoms present?
(nausea, vomiting, fever, vision disturbance or
dizziness)
History of chronic headache, stiff neck, or
sensitivity to light (light hurts eyes)?
Is patient not alert or not thinking clearly
YES
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
If not alert & in abnormal
mental state call 9-1-1.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Page 50
HEAT EXHAUSTION/HEAT STROKE
Heat exhaustion is common and is due to lack of body
fluids. Heat Stroke is life-threatening and occurs when
the body is overwhelmed by heat and cannot regulate
body temperature. Strenuous activity in the heat may
cause heat-related illness. See signs & symptoms of
heat emergencies below.
Spending too much time
in the heat, especially with
exertion, may cause heat
emergencies.
Heat emergencies can be
life-threatening situations.
Is person unconscious or altered mental status?
NO





YES

Move person to a cooler place
Have person lie down
Elevate feet
Loosen or remove outer clothing
Spray with water and fan person
Are any of the following happening:
 Hot, dry, red skin?
 Altered mental status?
 Vomiting? Fever?
 Confusion, dizziness?
 Rapid shallow breathing?


YES
NO



Give clear fluids frequently (water, sport
drink, etc.), in small amounts, if fully
awake and alert
If condition improves, may return to
class. NO P.E./Sports
If no improvement, child NEEDS
IMMEDIATE MEDICAL CARE
Signs & Symptoms of Heat Related Injury






Heat Exhaustion
Cool, moist, pale skin
Weakness & fatigue
Sweating, headache
Vomiting, nausea
Confusion, dizziness
Muscle cramping






Quickly remove person from heat to
a cooler place
Put on side to protect airway
Look, listen and feel for breathing. If
not breathing, see “CPR” (pg. 32)
Heat Stroke
Hot skin (usually dry)
High temperature
Rapid, weak pulse
Rapid, shallow breathing
Seizure
Loss of consciousness
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Remove outer clothing, as
appropriate. Cool rapidly by
completely wetting
clothing/skin with room
temperature water.
DO NOT USE ICE WATER.
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Page 51
HYPOTHERMIA (EXPOSURE TO COLD)
Hypothermia can happen from
exposure to cold, wet, & windy
conditions [does not require freezing
temperatures] when the body is no
longer capable of warming itself.
Young children are particularly
susceptible to hypothermia. It can be a
life-threatening condition if left
untreated for too long.




Continue to warm with blankets
Provide a warm environment
If fully awake and alert, offer
warm (NOT HOT) fluids
If frostbite, do not rub, see
“Frostbite” (pg. 48) and do
not break blisters.
Hypothermia can occur after
being outside in the cold or
in cold water.
.


Take person to a warm place
Remove cold or wet clothing and
wrap in a warm, dry blanket
Does person have:
 Decreasing consciousness?
 Slowed breathing?
 Confused or slurred speech?
 White, grayish or blue skin?
 No feeling in part of body?
NO
YES
Contact
responsible
school nurse
or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL
CARE
CALL EMS 9-1-1




Give nothing to eat or drink
Continue to warm with blankets
If sleepy or losing consciousness, place on left
side and protect airway, see “Loss of
Consciousness” (pg. 53)
Look, listen and feel for breathing. If
breathing stops, see “CPR” (pg. 32)
Signs & Symptoms of Hypothermia (COLD)
 Confusion
 Shivering
 Clumsy
 Lethargic
 Blurry vision
 Abnormal behavior
 Slurred speech
 Impaired judgment
 Uncoordinated
 Slow, irregular pulse
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 52
LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Loss of consciousness may have many causes
including: injuries, blood loss, poisoning, severe allergic
reaction, diabetic reaction, heat exhaustion, illness,
fatigue, stress, not eating, etc. If you know the cause
of the unconsciousness, see the appropriate guideline.
If victim stops
breathing, or has
gasping respirations
begin “CPR”.
Is unconsciousness due to injury?
YES or NOT SURE
Did person regain consciousness?
NO
YES
 Position person on their back
 Loosen clothing around neck and
waist
 Elevate feet and keep warm
 Control bleeding if present
 Give nothing by mouth
 Keep person lying down 10-15
minutes
Is person
breathing?
YES
NO
Treat as having possible neck
injury. See “Neck & Back Pain”
DO NOT MOVE person,
unless a threat exists.
 Immobilize neck
 Open AIRWAY using jaw
thrust maneuver
 If vomiting, turn to left side
and support head in neutral
position with a towel roll
See
“Fainting”
(pg. 44) or
“Seizures”
(pg. 62


If not breathing or gasping for
breath
Begin “CPR”
CALL EMS 9-1-1

.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 53
MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS
Menstrual problems may present
with:
 Abdominal pain, cramping
 Abnormal menses
 Abnormal bleeding
Provide for
privacy
Is it possible the person is pregnant?
[Note: negative history is not reliable]
See
“Pregnancy”
(pg. 59)
NO


YES or
NOT SURE
Mild or severe symptoms/cramping
Abnormal bleeding
For mild cramps
recommend
walking or regular
activities.
MILD
SEVERE


Give no medications unless previously
authorized by parent/legal guardian
If bleeding, offer a feminine pad
These may provide relief:
 Short period of quiet rest
 Warm (not hot) heating pad over lower abdomen
(if allowed by the school district)
Does person have continuing severe abdominal pain?
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
NO


Encourage medical care if disabling cramps
occur
ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE MEDICAL CARE,
if heavy vaginal bleeding occurs (greater than
5 pads/tampons per day or continued bleeding
for 7 or more days)
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Page 54
MOUTH & JAW INJURIES
See “Head Injuries” (pg.
49) or “Neck Injury…”
(pg. 56) if you suspect
an injury other than
mouth or jaw.
Wear disposable gloves
when exposed to blood or
other body fluids. Use direct
pressure to control bleeding.
Does person have:
 Difficulty breathing?
 Choking sensation?
 Loss of consciousness?
 Persistent bleeding?
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
NO
If tongue, lips, or cheek are
bleeding, apply direct pressure
with sterile gauze or clean cloth
 Look for difficulty breathing
Has jaw been injured?
Is cut large, deep?
YES
NO
YES
Have teeth been injured?
NO
If unconscious:
 Protect neck by keeping straight
 Protect airway by log rolling on to left
side to allow drainage of blood
 Gently support jaw with hand
 See “Teeth & Gums” (pg. 68) for any
tooth injury
 Control bleeding with direct pressure
See
“Teeth &
Gums”
(pg. 66)
 Place cold compress over the
area to minimize swelling
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator and parent or
legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE
IMMEDIATE MEDICAL
CARE
Signs of jaw fracture include:




Marked tenderness from outer edge of jaw
Teeth do not fit together normally
Cannot open jaw widely
Painful to clench teeth
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 55
NECK & BACK PAIN
Suspect a neck/back injury if pain results from:
 Falls over 8 feet or falling on head
 Being thrown from a moving vehicle
 Sports
 Violence
 Being struck by a car or other fast moving object
A stiff or sore neck from
sleeping in a “funny” position
is different than neck pain
from a sudden injury. Noninjured stiff necks may be
uncomfortable, but they are
usually not emergencies.
Symptoms of Nerve Injury
(see below) need medical
evaluation, even if they
resolve.
Has an injury occurred?
NO
YES
WALK-IN
Did person walk-in or was
person found lying down?
Allow person to assume position of
comfort.
 Keep head straight
ADVISE PERSON NOT TO MOVE
HEAD OR NECK.



LYING DOWN
DO NOT MOVE PERSON unless there is
IMMEDIATE DANGER of further physical
harm.
If person MUST be moved, support head and
neck – keep head, neck and back from
bending.
.
Keep person quiet and warm
Hold head still until EMS takes over care by gently
placing a hand on each side of head, OR
Place rolled up towels/clothing on both sides of
head so it will not move
If person is so uncomfortable
that he/she is unable to
participate in normal
activities contact responsible
school nurse or administrator
& parent or legal guardian.
May need medical
evaluation.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Symptoms of Possible Spinal Nerve Injury
 Loss of sensation
 Numbness or
 Loss of movement
tingling of arms
 Electric shock-like pains
or legs
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 56
NOSE
OBJECT in NOSE
Can you see an object in
nose or did person put
something in their nose?
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REMOVE
OBJECT.
Is object:
 Large?
 Puncturing nose?
 Deeply imbedded?
 Brisk nose bleed?
YES or NOT SURE
See “ Wounds-Puncture” (pg. 72) if
object has punctured the nose.
NO
Have person hold the clear
nostril closed while gently
blowing nose.
Did object come out on its own?
YES
NO
If object cannot be
removed easily,
DO NOT ATTEMPT
TO REMOVE.
If there is no pain,
person may return
to normal activity.
Notify parent or
legal guardian.
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
BROKEN NOSE (swollen and/or deformed with nose bleed)
Care as in “Nosebleed” on next page. Contact responsible
school authority and parent/legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
NOSE CONTINUED
ON NEXT PAGE
(pg. 58)
Page 57
NOSE (CONT.)
NOSEBLEED
Nosebleed may be caused by
injury, allergy, blowing or
picking nose, or dryness.
Wear disposable gloves when
exposed to blood or other body
fluids
DO NOT TILT HEAD BACK
If head is tilted back, person
may spit up blood from throat.
Encourage mouth breathing and discourage
nose blowing, repeated wiping or rubbing.



Lean head forward while sitting; if need
to lie down, lie down on side.
Pinch nostrils together just below nasal
bones, maintaining constant pressure
for 10-15 minutes.
If continued bleeding after pressure or if
injury to nose, apply cold pack to nose
for 10-15 minutes and continue to pinch
for bleeding
NO
Has bleeding stopped?
Contact
responsible school
nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
Person may return to
normal activity. Avoid
strenuous activity for
the day to prevent
recurrence of bleeding.
Notify parent or legal
guardian.
Page 58
POISONING & OVERDOSE
.
Ask person if they ingested
any medications or
other substances. Possible warning signs of
poisoning include:
 Pills, berries or unknown substance in mouth
 Burns around mouth or on skin
 Strange odor on breath
 Sweating, chest or abdominal pain
 Upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea
 Dizziness or fainting
 Seizure or convulsions
Remove source of poisoning or get person away
from toxic fumes.
Poisons can be swallowed, inhaled,
absorbed through the skin, eyes or
mucosa, or injected.
When you suspect poisoning:
CALL EMS 9-1-1 & Poison Control
Center: 1-800-222-1222
Continue to monitor
 Airway
 Breathing
 Signs of circulation (pulse, skin
color, capillary refill)
 Level of consciousness
 Speech, orientation
Is person unconscious?
Is person having difficulty breathing? See “Loss
of Consciousness” (pg. 53)
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Wear gloves and remove any remaining substance in mouth.
If possible, find out:
 Age and weight of person
 What was swallowed or what type of “poison” it was
 How much & when was it taken
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING or
give anything UNLESS Poison
Control instructs you to. With some
poisons, vomiting can cause greater
damage.
CALL POISON CONTROL CENTER
& follow instructions.
Phone # 1-800-222-1222
DO NOT follow the antidote label on
the container; it may be incorrect.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Send sample of
vomited material,
or ingested
material with its
container (if
available), to the
hospital with the
person.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools


If person has any changes in level of
consciousness, place on his/her side and
look, listen and feel for breathing. If
breathing stops, see “CPR” (pg. 32)
Contact responsible school nurse or
administrator & parent or legal guardian
Page 59
PREGNANCY
For morning sickness,
see “Vomiting” (pg. 69).
Pregnancy may be
complicated by any of
the following:
Appropriate school staff should be
made aware of any pregnant
students. Ask if person might be
pregnant and when her last
menstrual period (LMP) occurred.
Keep in mind that any student who is
old enough to be pregnant might be
pregnant. NOTE: History may not
be reliable.
Vaginal Bleeding, if severe
CALL EMS 9-1-1


Severe Stomach Pain or Cramps
Person may be in labor or having a
miscarriage if cramps are strong and
repeat or “water has broken”
If labor suspected or if severe abdominal
pain persists
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE
IMMEDIATE MEDICAL
CARE
Short, mild cramps in a
near term person may be
normal. Contact responsible
school nurse or administrator
& parent or legal guardian.
Seizure
This may be a serious complication of late
pregnancy, see “Seizure” (pg. 62).
ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.
Amniotic Fluid Leakage
This is NOT normal and may indicate the beginning of
labor or may lead to infection. Contact responsible
school nurse or administrator, and parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE
Page 60
RASHES


Some rashes may be contagious by direct contact
or respiratory droplets
Wear disposable gloves to protect self when in
contact with any rash.
Rashes may have
many causes,
including heat,
infection, illness,
allergic reactions,
insect bites, dry skin
or skin irritations.
Rashes may look like:
 Hives
 Red spots (large or small, flat or raised)
 Purple spots
 Blisters
Other symptoms may indicate that the person
needs medical care. Does the person have:
 Abnormal behavior?
 Difficulty breathing or swallowing?
 Purple spots with fever?
 Light-headedness, extreme weakness?
NO
If any of the following symptoms are found
in association with a rash, contact
responsible school nurse or administrator
& parent or legal guardian and
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL CARE








Fever (See “Fever”) (pg. 45)
Headache
Diarrhea
Sore throat
Vomiting
Rash is bright red and sore to touch.
Rash (hives) is all over body
If person is so uncomfortable (e.g.,
itchy, sore, feels ill) that he/she is not
able to participate in school activities
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.
See “Allergic Reaction”
(pg. 17) and
“Communicable Diseases”
(pg. 36) for more
information.
Page 61
SEIZURES
A person with a history of seizures
should be known to appropriate
staff.
An emergency care plan should be
developed containing a description of
the onset, type, duration and after
effects of that person’s seizures. If
there is a history of diabetes, check
blood sugar, see “Diabetes” (pg. 37).
Refer to person’s Emergency Action/Care
Plan, if available, follow
instructions from person’s guardian or
physician.







During or immediately after a seizure,
place on the floor (preferably a mat) for
observation and safety
DO NOT RESTRAIN MOVEMENTS
Move surrounding objects to avoid injury
Protect head and neck using a jacket or
padding like a folded towel/cloth
DO NOT PLACE ANYTHING
BETWEEN THE TEETH or give
anything by mouth
After seizure, keep airway clear by
placing person on his/her left side
and support the head in a neutral
position with a towel roll
Seizures are often followed by
sleepiness and confusion. This may
last from 15 minutes to an hour or
more
Note:
Observe details of the seizure for parent or legal
guardian, emergency personnel, or physician.
 Duration, movement of eyes, mouth, arms &
legs
 Loss of urine/bowel control
 Loss of consciousness or change in behavior


NO

Is seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes?
Is person having multiple seizures following
one another at short intervals?
Is person having any breathing difficulties
after the seizure?
YES
After the sleeping period, the
person should return to normal
and be encouraged to
participate in all normal class
activities.





Contact
responsible
school nurse
or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Signs & Symptoms of Seizure
Episodes of staring and nonresponsive
Staring with twitching of the arm and/or leg muscles
Generalized jerking movement of arms and/or legs with unconsciousness
Sudden unusual behavior for that person (e.g., strange sounds, belligerence, running)
If trained personnel and medication available, administer Diastat.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 62
SERIOUSLY ILL/SHOCK
Any serious injury or illness may lead to shock which is
a lack of blood and oxygen getting to tissue.
 STAY CALM and get medical assistance
 Shock is a life-threatening condition
 Check for medical bracelet or medallion
For Injury
Do Not move
person until extent
of injury is known,
unless
endangered.
Is person:
 Unconscious? See “Loss of Consciousness” (pg. 53)
 Not breathing? See “CPR” (pg. 29)
 Look seriously sick? (see signs & symptoms listed
below)
 Bleeding profusely? See “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
NO



Lie person down – keep body flat
Control Bleeding: apply direct pressure and see “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
If person vomits, roll on to left side keeping back & neck straight if injury suspected


Minimize pain by position of comfort
Elevate feet 8-10 inches, unless this causes pain/discomfort, OR a neck/back/hip injury
is suspected
Keep body normal temperature, if cold provide blankets. Avoid chilling
NOTHING to EAT OR DRINK
Stay with person and reassure until help arrives. Monitor breathing



Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator & parent or
legal guardian.




Pale, cool, moist skin
Mottled, ashen, blue skin
Altered consciousness
Nausea, dizziness, thirsty



Signs of SHOCK
Unresponsive
Abnormal behavior
Restlessness/irritability
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools


Generalized weakness
Rapid or difficulty breathing
Page 63
SPLINTERS or IMBEDDED PENCIL LEAD
Wear disposable
gloves when
exposed to blood or
other body fluids.
NO


Gently wash
area with clean
water and soap.
Reassure victim
pencil “lead” is
actually graphite
and does not
cause lead
poisoning.
.
Is splinter or pencil lead:
 Protruding above the surface of skin?
 Small and shallow?
Leave in place
DO NOT PROBE UNDER SKIN
Contact
responsible
school authority
& parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
NO
YES
 Remove with tweezers unless this
causes pain
 DO NOT PROBE UNDER SKIN
Were you successful in removing
the entire splinter/pencil lead?
YES
 Wash the area again
 Apply clean dressing
Check immunization record for DT, DPT (tetanus).
See “Tetanus Immunization” (pg. 68).
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 64
STOMACH ACHES/PAIN
Stomach aches may have many causes including:





Illness
Hunger
Overeating
Diarrhea
Food poisoning






Menstrual difficulties
Psychological issues
Constipation
Gas pain
Pregnancy
Trauma
Have person lie down in a room that affords privacy.
Ask female when last menstrual period was? Is she pregnant? If yes, see “Pregnancy” (pg.59)
 If vaginal bleeding, see “Menstrual Problems” (pg. 54)
YES
Has an injury occurred?
NO
 Take temperature
 Note temperature over 100.0 degrees F as
fever, see “Fever” (pg. 45)
Does person have:
 Fever?
 Severe stomach pains?
 Vomiting?
YES
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
NO
Allow person to rest for 20-30 minutes.
NO
Is person better?
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent/legal guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
YES
Allow person
to return to
class/work
Page 65
TEETH & GUMS
BLEEDING GUMS
Generally, related to
chronic infection.
Presents limited threat
to general health.
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
No first aid
measure in the
school will be of
any significant
value.
ENCOURAGE
DENTAL CARE
TOOTHACHE OR GUM ABCESS
These conditions can
affect a person’s general
health, not just local tooth
problems.
No first aid
measure in the
school will be of
any significant
value.
For tongue, cheek,
lip, jaw or other
mouth injury not
involving the teeth,
refer to “Mouth &
Jaw” (pg. 55).
Relief of pain in the school often postpones dental
care. Administer pain reliever, ibuprofen or
acetaminophen as school protocol allows.
DO NOT place pain relievers (e.g., Aspirin, Tylenol)
on the gum tissue of the aching tooth since they can
cause burns to the tissue!
A few comfort measures:
 If cavities present, a warm saltwater rinse may remove food
NOTE:
A loose temporary tooth may ache
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
ENCOURAGE
DENTAL
CARE
TEETH CONTINUED ON
NEXT PAGE (pg. 67)
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 66
TEETH (CONT.)
KNOCKED-OUT TOOTH or Broken Permanent Tooth
 Have student bite on folded gauze
to stop bleeding
 Place tooth in container or
envelope to take home
 Return to normal activities
For primary (temporary) teeth:
 Find Tooth
 Do not handle root of tooth
 Use Disposable Gloves
If a permanent tooth is knocked-out (within 15-20 minutes):
 Apply cold compress to face to minimize swelling
 If tooth is dirty, hold tooth by crown rinse with water
 DO NOT scrub, rub or scrape to remove dirt from tooth
 Place in HBSS (Save-A-Tooth Kit) if available, OR
 If student is old enough, gently insert and hold the tooth in
its socket, if not possible, place in glass of milk, OR
 Have person spit in cup and place tooth in it
 Remember to take the tooth with you
TOOTH MUST NOT DRY OUT
DISPLACED TOOTH (Still in Socket)
DO NOT try to move
tooth into correct
position.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Contact responsible school
nurse or administrator & parent
or legal guardian.
OBTAIN EMERGENCY DENTAL
CARE. A DENTIST SHOULD SEE
THE PERSON WITHIN
60 MINUTES.
Page 67
TETANUS IMMUNIZATION
Protection against tetanus should be considered with
any wound, even a minor one. After any wound, check
the person’s immunization status for tetanus (DTaP,
Tdap, DPT, DT Td) and notify parent or legal guardian.
Note: Tetanus toxoid is nearly always combined with
diphtheria and pertussis (DPT or TdaP).
A wound would need a tetanus booster if it has been at
least 5 - 10 years since the last tetanus shot or if the
person is 5 years old or younger.
Other wounds, such as those contaminated by dirt,
feces, saliva or other body fluids; puncture wounds;
amputations; and wounds resulting from crushing,
burns, and frostbite need a tetanus booster if it has
been more than 5 years since the last tetanus shot.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 68
TICKS
Refer to your school’s policy
regarding the removal of ticks.
Proceed if not in conflict with policy.
Wear disposable gloves when
exposed to blood and other body
fluids.
Inspect for ticks after
time in woods or brush.
Ticks may carry
serious infections and
must be completely
removed.
DO NOT handle ticks
with bare hands.

Using tweezers grasp the tick as close to the skin surface as possible
and pull upward with steady, even pressure
DO NOT twist or jerk the tick as this may cause the mouthparts to
break off. It is important to remove the ENTIRE tick
Take care not to squeeze, crush, or puncture the body of the tick as
its fluids may carry infection
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BURN A TICK OFF OR PRICK IT WITH A
PIN






After removal, wash the tick area thoroughly with soap and water
Wash your hands
Apply a Band-Aid type dressing. If permitted by school policy, use an
antiseptic or antibiotic ointment
Placing ticks in a container of alcohol or flushing
them down the toilet will safely dispose of them.
If any head or mouth parts remain in skin,
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL CARE.
Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 69
VOMITING
If a number of adults and/or
children become ill with the same
symptoms, suspect food
poisoning.
CALL POISON CONTROL
CENTER
Vomiting may have many causes including:





Illness or Injury
Pregnancy
Overexertion
Toxic Exposure or Ingestion
Intestinal Illness




Food Poisoning
Heat Exhaustion
Drugs or Alcohol
Near Fainting
1-800-222-1222
If you know the cause of the vomiting see the appropriate
guideline.
Wear disposable gloves when exposed to blood and
other body fluids.
Is person vomiting clots or more than flecks or
streaks of blood? Does person have decreased
level of consciousness?
Follow instructions.
(See “Poisoning”)
Notify public health (usually
the local County Health
Department).
Phone #_________________
YES
NO
 Have a bucket available
 Apply a cool, damp cloth to face or forehead
 Have person recline or lie down in a position of
comfort in a room that affords privacy


Give no food or medications
Offer ice chips or small sips of clear fluids (e.g.,
water, diluted 7-up, diluted Gatorade) and assess
ability to tolerate fluids
Does patient have altered level of
consciousness, pain, and associated fever,
diarrhea, dizziness or lethargy?
See appropriate guidelines.
CALL EMS 9-1-1
Contact responsible
school nurse or administrator & parent
or legal guardian.
ENCOURAGE MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 70
WOUNDS
(CUTS, SCRATCHES & SCRAPES
INCLUDING ROPE & FLOOR BURNS)
Wear disposable gloves when exposed to
blood or other body fluids.
Use direct pressure on the wound to
control bleeding.
NO
Is the Wound:
 Large?
 Deep?
 Bleeding freely?
Use wet gauze or
towel to wash the
wound gently with
clean water and
soap in order to
remove dirt.



Rinse under running water
Pat dry with clean gauze or
paper towel
Apply clean gauze dressing
(non-adhering/non-sticking
type) and bandage
Some Signs of Internal Bleeding
Include persistent abdominal pain, rapid-weak
pulse, cool-moist skin, paleness, confusion or
fainting, weakness, vomiting or blood in sputum.
Internal bleeding needs emergency medical
attention.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Refer to primary
care provider as
needed to update
immunizations
against tetanus.
YES
Apply direct
pressure on
bleeding site
and see
“Bleeding”
(pg. 24).
Notify parent if
wound is deep,
dirty, gaping or
has embedded
material. Contact
responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Page 71
WOUNDS (PUNCTURE)
Wear disposable
gloves when
exposed to blood or
other body fluids.
Apply direct pressure
to control bleeding.




Has the eye
been injured?
DO NOT
TOUCH EYE
See
“Eye Injury”
(pg. 42).
YES
NO
Is object large?
Is wound deep?
Is wound bleeding freely or squirting blood?
Is air escaping from wound in the chest?
YES
CALL EMS 9-1-1
See “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
NO
NO
Is object still visible in
wound?
DO NOT TRY TO PROBE
OR SQUEEZE
YES
DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT
 Try to calm person
If wound is deep or bleeding
freely, treat as bleeding,
see “Bleeding” (pg. 24).


Wash the wound gently with
soap and water
Cover with a clean bandage
Check person’s immunization record
for DT, DPT (tetanus).
See “Tetanus” (pg. 68) for more
information.
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian. If more
than a superficial
wound
ENCOURAGE
MEDICAL CARE
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 72
WOUNDS
(STABS & GUNSHOT)
CALL the police via 9-1-1



Refer to your
school’s policy
for handling
violent
incidents.
Tell dispatcher if Emergency Medical
Services are also needed
Intervene only if the situation is safe for
you to approach
Get someone to assist you
Wear disposable gloves when exposed to
blood or other body fluids.
Is the person:
 Pale, sweaty skin?
 Losing consciousness?
 Having difficulty breathing?
 Bleeding uncontrollably?
YES
Open the airway and
look, listen and feel for
breathing, see “CPR”
(pg. 32).
NO






If impaled object, do not remove
Press firmly with a clean bandage to stop
bleeding, see “Bleeding” (pg. 24)
Have person lie down
Elevate feet 8-10 inches
Elevate injured part gently, if possible
Cover with a blanket or sheet
Contact responsible
school nurse or
administrator &
parent or legal
guardian.
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 73
RECOMMENDED FIRST AID EQUIPMENT AND
SUPPLIES FOR SCHOOLS
1. Current National American Red Cross First Aid Manual or equivalent.
2. American Academy of Pediatrics First Aid Chart.
3. Portable stretcher
4. Cot: mattress with waterproof cover
5. 10 Triage Tags
6. Blankets, sheets/pillows/pillow cases (disposable covers are suitable)
7. Wash cloths, hand towels, small portable basin
8. Covered waste receptacle with disposable liners
9. Manual resuscitation bag (Ambu bag) [optional]
10. Bandage scissors, tweezers
11. Disposable thermometer or electronic thermometer with disposable covers
12. Sink with running water
13. Expendable supplies (refer to http://www.redcross.org/disaster/masters/supply.html for
recommended inventory):
 Pocket mask/face shield for CPR
 Disposable gloves (including latex free gloves for persons with a latex allergy)
 Soap (plain)
 Cotton tipped applicators, individually packaged
 Assorted Band-Aids (1”x3”)
 Gauze squares (2”x2”’; 4”x4”), individually packaged
 Adhesive tape (1” width)
 Gauze bandage (2” and 4” widths) rolls
 Ace bandage (2” and 4” widths)
 Splints (long and short)
 Cold packs
 Triangular bandages for sling & Safety pins
 Tongue blades
 Disposable facial tissues
 Paper towels
 Sanitary napkins
 One flashlight with spare bulb and batteries
 Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) – Available in the Save-A-Tooth emergency
tooth preserving system or 1/3 cup of powdered milk for dental first-aid (for mixing
with water to make a liquid solution)
 Bleach for cleaning contaminated surface
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 74
EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS
Complete this page as soon as possible, review annually and update as needed. Copy
and post near all phones.
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES (EMS) INFORMATION
EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBER 9-1-1
Location(s) of Automated External Defibrillator(s) (AED)
Location of First Aid Supplies
BE PREPARED TO GIVE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION &
DO NOT HANG UP BEFORE THE OTHER PERSON HANGS UP!







Address
Exact location of injured person (e.g., parking lot C, big oak tree)
Provide easy directions to make it easier to find you
School Telephone Number:
o Cell phone number, if applicable
Your name
School name
Nature of Emergency
Other Important Phone Numbers
School Nurse
Responsible School Administrator
Poison Control Center (National)
1-800-222-1222
Suicide Hotline
1-800-273-8255
Fire Department
9-1-1
Police
9-1-1
Hospital or Nearest Emergency Facility
Child Protective Services
Rape Crisis Center
Local Health Department
Other Medical Services Information
(i.e., physicians, urgent care centers, dentists, etc.)
Emergency First Aid Guidelines for California Schools
Page 75
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