Using the PNA for Banded Millimeter-Wave Measurements (5989

Using the PNA for Banded Millimeter-Wave Measurements (5989
Keysight Technologies
PNA Microwave Network Analyzers
Application Note
Banded
Millimeter-Wave
Measurements
with the PNA
02 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................. 3
System Configuration................................................................................................... 4
System Operation........................................................................................................ 8
–– Configuring millimeter-wave modules.............................................................. 9
–– Configuring external synthesizers.................................................................. 11
–– Operational notes............................................................................................ 13
–– Power control............................................................................................. 13
–– Power leveling............................................................................................ 14
–– Expected output power............................................................................. 14
–– IF BW selection.......................................................................................... 14
–– Resolution of frequency source................................................................ 14
–– Multiple channels....................................................................................... 14
System Calibration..................................................................................................... 15
–– Choosing the right calibration technique....................................................... 15
–– Loading and checking calibration definition file............................................ 16
–– Configuration #1: Two T/R modules................................................................ 19
–– Configuration #2: One T/R & one T modules ................................................. 20
Application Examples................................................................................................. 22
–– E xample #1: Antenna measurements............................................................. 22
–– E xample #2: Pulsed measurements............................................................... 23
–– E xample #3: Materials measurements........................................................... 25
Appendix A: Creating Your Own Waveguide Calibration Kit Definition........................... 26
Appendix B: Performing Calibrations........................................................................... 31
–– SmartCal, 2-port............................................................................................. 31
–– SmartCal, 1-port............................................................................................. 34
–– Unguided Calibration, Thru Response............................................................ 36
Appendix C: Caring for Waveguide Interfaces.............................................................. 38
Appendix D: Supplemental Data.................................................................................. 38
03 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Introduction
Millimeter-wave is becoming more common as measurement needs are pushed beyond
110 GHz, to 220 GHz, 325 GHz, and even 1 THz! Applications include on-wafer device
characterizations as well as various types of materials measurements.
The Keysight Technologies, Inc. PNA series network analyzers can be configured for
wide dynamic range reflection and transmission measurements of components at
millimeter-wave frequencies. Two types of millimeter-wave solutions are available from
Keysight Technologies:
1. One solution is the N5250C network analyzer. With 1.0mm coaxial test port
connectors, this solution provides single, continuous measurement sweeps from
10 MHz to 110 GHz.
2. The other solution is based on banded millimeter-wave test head modules with
waveguide (WG) interfaces. System configuration differs depending on frequency
range of interest.
The objective of this application note is to provide detailed information on the banded
millimeter-wave solutions. This includes system configurations, system operation,
system calibration, and some typical measurement examples. This note applies to the
following product numbers within the PNA and PNA-X series: E8362B, E8363B, E8364B,
E8361A, N5242A, N5244A and N5245A.
04 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Banded Millimeter Wave System Configuration
To configure a banded millimeter wave measurement system, three basic components
are required:
1. A performance network analyzer
2. Millimeter wave test set controller
3. A waveguide module based on application need and frequency band
4. An optional calibration kit in waveguide unless on-wafer or other media is being used
Performance network analyzer
Product model
E8362C
E8363C
E8364C
E8361C
N5242/44/45A Opt. 2xx
N5242/44/45A Opt. 4xx
Description
20 GHz 2-port performance network analyzer
40 GHz 2-port performance network analyzer
50 GHz 2-port performance network analyzer
67 GHz 2-port performance network analyzer
2-port PNA-X network analyzer
4-port PNA-X network analyzer
Minimum required options
H11, 080, 081, 014 and UNL
H11, 080, 081, 014 and UNL
H11, 080, 081, 014 and UNL
H11, 080, 081, 014 and UNL
Option 020
Option 020
Note: When configuring the N5242/44/45A (Option 200 and 224 required) with a N5262A
4-port millimeter wave test set controller, also include Option 551 for 4-port calibration
capability.
Optionally for rear panel connection of the RF source to the N5261A/N5262A test set
controller include the switch combiner options to the N5242/44/45A selected above. For
N5242/44/45A with Option 2xx, add Option 224 and for the N5242/44/45A with Option
4xx, add Option 423.
For E836x based systems used with modules above 200 GHz, these systems require a
pair of external synthesizers (one for RF and the other for LO) to increase the dynamic
range, see Figure 9 for improvement. Recommended synthesizers are E8257D with
Options 520 and UNX.
Millimeter wave test set controllers
Product number Description
N5260A
2-port test
controller for PNA
based solution
N5261A
2-port test set
controller for
PNA-X based
configuration
N5262A
4-port test set
controller for
PNA-X based
configuration
Options
Includes all cables for connection to PNA as well as two sets
of 48 inch RF, LO, DC and IF cables for connection to a pair of
T/R millimeter modules.
Option 102 – A set of cables for connection to a 2-port PNA-X
Option 104 – A set of cables for connection to a 4-port PNA-X
Option 50x – A single set of RF, LO, DC and IF cables for
connection to a single T/R millimeter module (see Option
Descriptions for details).
Option 102 – A set of cables for connection to a 2-port PNA-X
Option 104 – A set of cables for connection to a 4-port PNA-X
Option 50x – A single set of RF, LO, DC and IF cables for
connection to a single T/R millimeter module (see Option
Descriptions for details).
When configuring the PNA-X with a N5260A millimeter wave test set controller, please
include a 10 dB 3.5 mm pad for connection to the LO and a set of four BNC to SMA adapters.
Millimeter wave modules
Several modules are available and other special options may be configured on request.
Select the appropriate quantity of modules required for the measurement set up. To
request a specially configured test module contact your local Keysight sales engineer.
The single and dual channel receiver modules are used for antenna applications or for
1-port single path S-parameter measurements.
05 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Transmission reflection modules
Waveguide
flange
Transmission/
Standard
Frequency
reflection Modules
transmission/
GHz
with 25 dB
reflection modules
mechanical attenuator
Transmission/
reflection Modules
with 15 dB LO and
RF amplifier1
WR22
WR15
WR12
WR10
WR08
WR06
WR05
WR03
WR02.2
Extended WR12
33 - 50
50 - 75
60 - 90
75 - 110
90 - 140
110 - 170
140 - 220
220 - 325
325 - 500
56 - 94
N5256AW22 - 002
N5256AW15 - 002
N5256AW12 - 002
N5256AW10 - 002
N5256AW08 - 002
N5256AW06 - 002
N5256AW05 - 002
N5256AW03 - 002
N5256AW02 - 0022
Available on request
N5256AW22 - STD
N5256AW15 - STD
N5256AW12 - STD
N5256AW10 - STD
N5256AW08 - STD
N5256AW06 - STD
N5256AW05 - STD
N5256AW03 - STD
N5256AW02 - STD
N5256AX12 - STD
N5256AW22 - 001
N5256AW15 - 001
N5256AW12 - 001
N5256AW10 - 001
N5256AW08 - 001
N5256AW06 - 001
N5256AW05 - 001
N5256AW03 - 001
Not available
N5256AX12 - 001
1. Note the modules with the RF/LO amplifiers are for antenna applications that include a cable loss of
15 dBm to the module from the port of the Test set being used. Do not connect these directly to the
test set controller port with the standard 48 inch cable, use a 15 dB pad if needed.
2. These modules require an external DC power supply (e.g. E3615A) when using them with the N5260A.
3. For transmission reflection modules with both the 25 dB mechanical attenuator and the 15 dB LO and RF
amplifier order N5256AWxx-003. Not available for N5256AW02
Single channel receive modules
Waveguide flange
Frequency
GHz
Standard single channel
receive modules
Single channel receive modules
with 15 dB LO amplifier
WR22
WR15
WR12
WR10
WR08
WR06
WR05
WR03
WR02.2
33 - 50
50 - 75
60 - 90
75 - 110
90 - 140
110 - 170
140 - 220
220 - 325
325 - 500
N5257AR22 - STD
N5257AR15 - STD
N5257AR12 - STD
N5257AR10 - STD
N5257AR08 - STD
N5257AR06 - STD
N5257AR05 - STD
N5257AR03 - STD
N5257AR02 - STD
N5257AR22 - 001
N5257AR15 - 001
N5257AR12 - 001
N5257AR10 - 001
N5257AR08 - 001
N5257AR06 - 001
N5257AR05 - 001
N5257AR03 - 001
Available on request
Dual channel receive modules
Waveguide flange
Frequency
GHz
Standard dual channel
receive module
Dual channel receive module
with 15 dB LO amplifier
WR15
WR12
WR10
WR08
WR06
WR05
WR03
50 - 75
60 - 90
75 - 110
90 - 140
110 - 170
140 - 220
220 - 325
N5258AD15 - STD
N5258AD12 - STD
N5258AD10 - STD
N5258AD08 - STD
N5258AD06 - STD
N5258AD05 - STD
N5258AD03 - STD
N5258AD15 - 001
N5258AD12 - 001
N5258AD10 - 001
N5258AD08 - 001
N5258AD06 - 001
N5258AD05 - 001
N5258AD03 - 001
Millimeter wave calibration kits
Waveguide flange
Frequency GHz
Calibration kit
WR22
WR15
WR12
WR10
WR08
WR06
WR05
WR03
WR02.2
Extended WR12
33 - 50
50 - 75
60 - 90
75 - 110
90 - 140
110 - 170
140 - 220
220 - 325
325 - 500
56 - 94
Q11644A
V11644A
N5260AC12
W11644A
N5260AC08
N5260AC06
N5260AC05
N5260AC03
N5260AC02
N5260AC12
06 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
OML VNA2 waveguide test head modules are available in transmission/reflection (T/R)
and transmission (T) configurations. Each Keysight part number, N5260AWxx, includes
a pair of T/R test head modules and the respective WG calibration kit. Figures 2 and 3
show the simplified block diagrams of an OML VNA2 T/R test head module and a
T test head module, respectively. Other combinations of test head modules may be
available from Keysight Technologies; as an example, one T/R and one T modules.
Please contact your local Keysight Technologies representative for more detail.
WG
test
port
Doubler/amplifier
To N5260A millimeter head controller
LO input
Reference
channel
Reference
IF output
Test
channel
IF amplifier and/or LPF <300 MHz
Test IF
output
IF amplifier and/or LPF < 300 MHz
LO input
RF input and LO input:
WR-22 thru WR-10, +5 dBm min.
WR-08 thru WR-03, +7 dBm min.
To N5260A millimeter head controller
Figure 2. Simplified block diagram of an OML T/R test head module.
Precision attenuator:
WR-10, WR-12, WR-15 & WR-22, 20 dB
WR-05, WR-06 & WR-08, 10 dB
WR-03, WR-04, TBD
Test IF
output
IF amplifier and/or LPF <300 MHz
Select at test
LO input
LO input:
WR-22 thru WR-10, +5 dBm min.
WR-08 thru WR-03, +7 dBm min.
Figure 3. Simplified block diagram of an OML T test head module.
WG
test
port
07 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Different combination of test head modules covering the same frequency range can be
used together, but will result in different available parameters. Table 3 shows details of
the possible combinations. A full “S-parameter” test set requires two T/R modules. One
T/R module and one T module will result in a “T/R” test set where only one transmission
measurement and one reflection measurement are possible.
Table 3. Combination of test head modules and available measurements.
Port 1
Port 2
Available Parameters
Comments
Combination #1
(Figure 4a)
T/R module
T/R module
S11, S21, S12, S22
Both ports 1 and 2 can
supply stimulus to DUT
Combination #2
(Figure 4b)
T/R module
T module
S11, S21
Only port 1 can supply
stimulus to DUT
If S12 and S22 are needed for combination #2, two approaches are possible:
1. Reverse the DUT to measure the reverse parameters.
2. Reconfigure the test head modules by placing the T/R module on port 2
and the T module on port 1. This approach requires a calibration before
measurements can be made.
(a)
(b)
Figure 4. Two combinations of test head modules: (a) Two T/R modules, and (b) one T/R module (left) and one T module.
08 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
System Operation
This section describes how to operate the banded millimeter-wave system. System
operation includes creating a configuration for each set of millimeter-wave modules,
calibrating the system, and taking measurements.
Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the front and rear panel connections of the system. Rear panel
connections are slightly different if external synthesizers are used (Figure 6b). For details
on system installation, please refer to the N5250A Network Analyzer Systems Installation
Guide, part number N5250-90001.
E8361A Network Analyzer 45 MHz to 67 GHz
CP LR
AR M
Port 1
SOURCE
OUT
RCV R
A IN
Port 1
RCV R
A IN
Port 2
CP LR
THRU
CP LR
THRU
RCV R
R1 IN
RCV R
R1 IN
CP LR
AR M
SOURCE
OUT
Reference 1
Reference 1
SOURCE
OUT
Port 1
N5260A
Millimeter Head Controller
Port 1
RF OUT
2 AMP FUSE
Po rt 1
2 AMP FUSE
AIF
SOURCE
OUT
Port 2
RF OUT
rt 2
B IF
R1 IF
LINE
LO OUT
BIAS
LO IN
Test IF
Ref IF
LO IN
Test IF
RF IN
BIAS
R2 IF
RF IN
BIAS
OML test head
BIAS
LO OUT
1
Ref IF
0
OML test head
Figure 5. Front panel connections of the N5260A millimeter-wave controller to the waveguide test head modules.
10 MHz Ref IN
A IF
*
A IF
R1 IF
Test Set I/O
RF
B R2 R1 A
RF
RF LO
R1 IF
USB
Test Set I/O
RF LO
B R2 R1 A
R1 A
B R2
LO
B R2 R1 A
Test Set Interconnect
Test
Set Interface
LO
LO
R2 IF
B IF
Test Set Interconnect
Test Set Interface
GPIB
R2 IF
B IF
(a)
RF
Trig IN
Trig OUT
10 MHz OUT
10 MHz IN
E8257D PSG
w/Opt.520 & UNR
(“RF”, GPIB #19)
RF
Trig IN
Trig OUT
GPIB
E8257D PSG
w/Opt.520 & UNR
(“LO”, GPIB #18)
10 MHz OUT
(b)
Trig IN
LO
Trig OUT
* USB/GPIB Interface (Agilent 82357A)
Figure 6. Rear panel connections: (a) without external synthesizers, and (b) with two PSGs as external synthesizers. Connection between the PNA and a PSG must be done via USB/GPIB Interface (Keysight 82357A), and
PNA Trig OUT must go to Trig IN of RF synthesizer.
09 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
System setup procedure has been greatly simplified due to extensive enhancements
made to the PNA firmware. The following steps show how to create a configuration for
each set of millimeter-wave modules. For multiple frequency bands, one configuration is
needed for each band.
Configuring millimeter-wave modules:
Before proceeding to the front panel of the PNA, please make sure the rear panel
connection of the system is completed as illustrated in Figure 6a, and the N5260A
millimeter-wave controller has been turned on.
1. System > Configure > Millimeter Module Config…, this brings up display (a) as
shown in Figure 7.
2. Click on Module Config, this brings up display (b).
3. Click on New, this brings up display (c), and enter the name of configuration. I
t is best for the name to be descriptive and representative of the frequency band.
(The example shows “60 to 90 GHz”.)
4.Click OK. This brings up display (d). Enter values of the frequency range and the values
of the multipliers, both RF and LO. Multiplier values can be obtained either from the
labels on the test head modules, or from Table 4 below. Click Save when done.
Table 4. RF and LO harmonic multipliers of each frequency range.
Band
Frequency range
of operation (GHz)
RF frequency
range (GHz)
RF harmonic
multiplier
LO frequency
range ± IF
offset (GHz)
LO harmonic
multiplier
WR-15
50 – 75
12.5 to 18.8
N=4
10.0 to 15.0
M=5
WR-12
60 – 90
10.0 to 15.0
N=6
12.0 to 18.0
M=5
WR-10
75 – 110
12.5 to 18.4
N=6
9.3 to 13.8
M=8
WR-08
90 – 140
7.5 to 11.7
N = 12
11.2 to 17.5
M=8
WR-06
110 – 170
9.1 to 14.2
N = 12
11.0 to 17.0
M = 10
WR-05
140 – 220
11.6 to 18.4
N = 12
14.7 to 18.1
M = 12
WR-04
170 – 260
8.5 to 13.0
N = 20
12.1 to 18.6
M = 14
WR-03
220 – 325
12.2 to 18.1
N = 18
12.2 to 18.1
M = 18
5. To apply a configuration, highlight the configuration, and then click on Activate
Selected Config. This brings up display (e), click OK and the PNA will exit and restart
with the new configuration, as shown in Figure 8. This step may take a minute.
10 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Step One:
Select System Configure Millimeter Wave configuration
to initiate setup.
Step Two: Provide a Name for the Configuration
Step Three:
Test Set Configuration
–– Select Test Set Controller being used.
–– Uncheck RF ALC only if you need to make Pulse measurements.
–– Check “Use Full Bandwidth” only for mixer measurements.
–– Leave all other settings to default.
Step Four:
Frequency Settings
–– Set the RF multiplier factor for the frequency extenders.
–– Set the LO multiplier factor for the frequency extenders.
–– Set the Start and Stop Frequency for the frequency extender.
–– Select PNA RF or PNA LO source if external sources are
being used.
Figure 7. Steps necessary to create a millimeter-wave module configuration. The example shows a frequency
band of 67 to 110 GHz.
11 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Figure 8. PNA operating in newly created millimeter-wave band configuration.
Configuring external synthesizers:
External synthesizers can be added to any banded millimeter-wave configuration at
anytime. Before proceeding to the PNA front panel,
–– Make sure the rear panel connection of the system is completed as illustrated in Figure 6b
–– Turn on the N5260A millimeter-wave controller
–– Turn on both external synthesizers and set the GPIB address of each unit via its
front panel as illustrated in Figure 9b:
–– Utility > GPIB/RS-232 LAN > GPIB address
Enter 19 (for the RF unit) and 18 (for the LO unit)
Press softkey Enter
Proceed to the PNA front panel to configure the external synthesizers.
12 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
1. System > Configure > External Source Config…, this brings up
display (a) as shown in Figure 9.
2. Click on Add, this brings up display (b). Enter “Source Name”
and then use the drop-down menu to select the “Source Type”
of “AGPSG” (only Keysight PSG Series are supported, please see
Operational Notes for details). Click OK. (The example shows the
“Source Name” as “PSG RF 19” to indicate that the synthesizer to
be used is the PSG series, the unit is intended for the RF signal,
and the GPIB address is 19.)
(a)
(b)
Enter the name of the
first external synthesizer
(c)
3. This brings up display (c). With the source name “PSG RF 19”
highlighted, click on Hardware List (BNC) and then update the
“GPIB Address” to make sure it is in agreement with the setup
(the address is 19).
4. Click on Add (this time to add the LO source). This brings up
display (d). Enter “Source Name” and then use the drop-down
menu to select the “Source Type” of “AGPSG.” Click OK. (The
example shows the “Source Name” as “PSG LO 18” to indicate
that the synthesizer to be used is the PSG series, the unit is
intended for the LO signal, and the GPIB address is 18.)
(d)
Enter the name of the
second external synthesizer
(e)
5. This brings up display (e). With the source name “PSG LO 18”
highlighted. Click on Hardware List (BNC) and then update the
“GPIB Address” to make sure it is in agreement with the setup
(this time, the address is 18). Click OK. You have now completed
configuring the external synthesizers.
Now apply the external synthesizers to the
active configuration:
(f)
Figure 9. Steps necessary to configure and apply external synthesizers.
6. System > Configure > Millimeter Module
Config…, this brings up display (f) of Figure 9.
(This example shows the “Selected Module”
as “220 to 325 GHz.”)
7. Click on Use External Sources, and then use
the drop-down menu to select the “RF” and
“LO” under “External Source Select.” Click
OK when done. (As you can see, all sources
you have configured will appear under each
drop-down menu. This is why it is important
to make the “Source Name” descriptive.
Otherwise, it maybe difficult to figure out
each one.)
13 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Operational Notes
Power control
Power control is not available when operating at banded millimeter-wave frequencies.
Although one appears to be able to vary power under Channel > Power… > Test Port
Power, in reality, it makes no difference at the waveguide interface because (1) the
amplifiers inside the test head modules are designed to operate at saturation (see Figure
2), therefore, increasing the RF Test Port Power in the PNA results in no change at the
waveguide interface; (2) the RF and LO outputs from the rear panel of the PNA are coupled
off before the splitter or any control mechanism, thus, providing no control for power.
Without external synthesizers, the RF and LO signals are provided by the PNA’s rear panel
(Option H11). These values vary over a wide range; the typical values are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Typical values of the RF and LO outputs from the rear panel of the PNA.
Rear Panel LO power (typical)
1.7 GHz to 20 GHz
–16 to –7 dBm
Rear panel RF power for E8362B (typical)
–16 to –5 dBm (at –5 dBm test port power1)
1.7 GHz to 20 GHz
Rear panel RF power for E8363B/E8364B (typical)
1.7 GHz to 10 GHz
–12 to –2 dBm (at –5 dBm test port power1)
10 GHz to 16 GHz
–8 to 0 dBm (at –5 dBm test port power1)
16 GHz to 20 GHz
–1 to +5 dBm (at –5 dBm test port power1)
With external synthesizers, the PSG sources are remotely controlled by the PNA. The
PNA downloads the frequency list to each PSG (E8257D with Option 520) and the output
is set to 0 dBm for each frequency point.
How do we know if the heads are driven with sufficient power?
The ALC loops inside the N5260A millimeter-wave controller are in place to guarantee
sufficient RF power is available at the test heads to drive them (see Figure 10).
5087-7238
RF In
0955-1595
0955-0243
RF Section
ALC
+15
LO Section
87304C
0955-1595
Port 1 RF Out
Tested to
provide
sufficient
drive for
test head
modules
Port 1 LO Out
A IF
R1 IF
+12V
0955-0243
ALC
+15
Port 2 LO Out
B IF
R2 IF
+12V
33330-80021
0955-0148
LO In
Frequency is
8.333 MHz
and goes
into 2 nd
conversion
stage of PNA
Port 2 RF Out
0955-0246
33330-80021
B IF
R2 IF
R1 IF
A IF
Z5623-63271
Test Set Interface
Controller
Test Set Interface
+12V +5V -12V
Power Supply
-15V +15V
Power Supply
AC LINE IN
Figure 10. Simplified block diagram of N5260A millimeter-wave controller.
1. Test port power has to be at a high
enough level such that the “Drop Cal”
does not occur. If Drop Cal occurs,
then the power out of the rear panel RF
connector will drop by about 15 dB.
14 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Power leveling
Power leveling is not available when operating at banded millimeter-wave frequencies.
(Please see Power control in this document for more information.)
Expected output power
For each test head module shipped, OML ships along a plot of its output power vs.
frequency at the waveguide interface. These values vary depending on the frequency
band of interest.
IF BW selection
For optimal performance at millimeter-wave frequencies, it is recommended that the
IF BW be no wider than 1 kHz, preferably 10 Hz. Otherwise, traces can be noisy.
Resolution of frequency source
Only Keysight PSG sources are supported. Because frequency up-conversions done in
the test heads require high harmonic multipliers (higher multipliers for higher frequency
bands, see Table 4 for details), it is necessary for external synthesizers to have precision
to sub-Hz resolution level. If 1-Hz resolution sources are used, errors can propagate
resulting in sizable frequency errors.
Frequency resolution of the PSG Series (CW) is 0.001 Hz.
PNA 1st IF = 8.333333… MHz
IF = N*rf +/- M*LO
Example:
RF = 110 GHz (measurement frequency of WR-10)
N = 6 (from Table 4)
rf = RF / N = 110 GHz / 6
rf = 18.333333333... GHz (frequency of external RF source)
M*LO = IF + N*rf
M*LO = 8.333333… MHz + 110 GHz = 110008333333.333… Hz
M = 8 (from Table 4)
LO = 110008333333 Hz / 8
LO = 13751041666.625 Hz (frequency of external LO source)
As you can see, due to the unique value of the PNA 1st IF, the values needed for the
external RF and LO synthesizers are most likely never to be whole numbers. Therefore,
it is necessary for external synthesizers to have sub-Hz resolution in order to yield an
accurate PNA 1st IF.
Multiple channels
Using multiple channels is not supported when operating in external synthesizer
configuration. This is primarily because when switching from one channel to the next, the
PNA has to download all the necessary information to the PSGs before starting a sweep.
Timing differences between channel switching (within the PNA) and signals within the
trigger chain (outside the PNA) could result in erroneous data collection for the trace
being swept.
15 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
System Calibration (error-correction)
Choosing the right calibration technique
Applicable calibration techniques depend on the system (hardware) configuration. Table 6
shows the available calibration techniques for two possible system configurations: one
with two T/R modules, and the second with one T/R module and one T module. Depending
on the technique chosen, the calibration interface on the PNA may be different.
Table 6. Combination of test head modules and applicable calibration techniques.
System configurations
Configuration #1
Configuration #2
1
OPEN Response
Two T/R modules
(S-parameter test set)
√
S11 or S22
SHORT Response
THRU Response
1-Port Reflection
Full SOLT 2-Port
Full TRL 2-Port
√
√
√
√
√
Calibration interface
2
One T/R module and one T module
(transmission/reflection (T/R) test set)
√
S11
S11 or S22
S21 or S12
S11 or S22
S11, S21, S12, S22
S11, S21, S12, S22
√
√
√
SmartCal
(guided calibration)
S11
S21
S11
√
√
√
Unguided
calibration
√
√
√
√
√
√
1. 1. See Figure 4a.
2. 2. See Figure 4b.
Each N5260AWxx includes a pair of T/R test head modules (configuration #1) and the
respective WG calibration kit. With this, the setup would allow for measurements of S11,
S21, S12 and S22. Plus, full 2-port calibration is possible with SOLT, and TRL.
With configuration #2, although the setup only allows for measurements of S11 and S21,
the user can perform either 1-port calibration for S11, or thru response calibration
(normalization) for S21, or append the latter calibration to the previous thus creating one
calset for both traces within one measurement channel1. Here are the steps to append
two calibrations:
–– With trace S11 active, perform 1-port calibration using SmartCal, then click Save As User CalSet to finish
–– With trace S21 active (in the same channel), while the 1-port calibration is selected, perform response calibration (or normalization) using Unguided Cal, then click Save
As User CalSet to finish – but make sure the selected calset is the same one as the
currently active 1-port cal – click Save to complete
–– As the final step, the Calibration Wizard will then ask if appending this calibration to
the existing one is desired, as shown in Figure 11, simply click OK to confirm. Once
finished, the same calset will cover both calibrations, 1-port for S11 and thru response
for S21. This way, when you click on S11, the status bar (located on the bottom of the
display) shows C 1-Port, and when you click on S21, it shows C Response.
Note
Setting System Z 0 to 1-Ω:
When performing Unguided calibration
with waveguide interface, the user must
manually set the System Z 0 to 1-Ω to
match the waveguide kit. This is because
Unguided calibration uses System Z 0
during calibration computation. Whereas,
SmartCal uses the Z 0 defined by the
connector definition and is applied
automatically during calibration.
System > Configure > System Z0
Enter a value of 1 for waveguide, then
click OK.
Figure 11. Appending a calibration
to an existing CalSet.
Each WG calibration kit from OML comes with the following standards and a floppy disk
loaded with the calibration definition file formatted for the PNA:
–– Precision Terminations, Fixed
Loads, qty 2
–– Precision (flush) Shorts, qty 2
–– Precision Insert A (line1), Null Shim
–– Precision Insert B (line2),
¼ Offset Shim
–– Adjustable Load
–– Precision Section
1. Enhanced-response calibration is
currently not available.
16 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Loading and checking calibration definition file
Each PNA is shipped with calibration definition files from Keysight calibration kits. For
non-Keysight calibration kits such as the WG calibration kits from OML, the user must
first load the file and then check to make sure all the items are in order. (The user can
also choose to create his own WG cal kit file if desired. Refer to Appendix A for details.)
Calibration > Advanced Modify Cal Kit … > Import Kit …
Use dropdown menu to select “3½ Floppy (A:)”
Highlight the file to be imported, and click Open
Once the file is loaded, it will appear on the list of Installed Kits as shown in Figure 12.
Highlight the file of interest, (The example shows V05_OML.) and click Edit Kit … in order
to view the kit definition. On this page, you can see all the standards (and combinations)
as defined for this particular WG calibration kit.
Figure 12. Loading the calibration definition file and checking on the connector definition.
17 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
The examples in Figure 14 show the standards and class assignments for both TRL and
SOLT. These are defined as shown in Table 7. Figure 15 shows examples of the details of
each standard definition.
Table 7. Standards and class assignments of TRL and SOLT calibrations.
TRL
SOLT
Class Assignments
TRL THRU
TRL REFLECT
TRL LINE/MATCH
S11A, S22A
S11B, S22B
S11C, S22C
FWD TRANS
Class Label
THRU
REFLECT
LINE
OPENS
SHORTS
LOADS
THRU
Selected Standards
Thru + Null Shim
Flush Short
Thru + ¼ Offset Shim
Short + Null Shim
Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Flush Fixed Load
Thru
Thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibration:
Setting test port reference plane
Two selections are available for setting the test port reference plane; Thru Standard or
Reflect Standard (see Figure 13). If a flush short is used for the reflect standard, then
select the “Reflect Standard” for the “Test port Reference Plane.” A flush short provides
a much more accurate phase reference than a thru standard.
Short-open-load-thru (SOLT) calibration:
Adjustable load
Although an adjustable load is shipped in each WG calibration kit from OML, this
standard is not ideal for millimeter-wave frequencies because mechanical tolerances
make obtaining repeatable results difficult. Plus, adjustable loads are best if step sizes
can be varied from large to small as one tries to trace out circles on a smith chart. Given
the frequency ranges of these calibration kits, it would be very challenging to produce
repeatable results. Therefore, fixed loads are used for the load standards for SOLT.
Offset load
Offset load is available in the PNA with firmware 6.0. Using offset load can result in a more
accurate calibration than with broadband load, but it does require extra connections. A
typical offset load requires two known offsets along with a load element. As such, one
connection is made using the first offset with the load, and the other one is made using
the second offset with the load. Figure 13 shows a definition of an offset load.
Figure 13. Example of an offset load definition.
18 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Figure 14. Examples of TRL and SOLT class assignments.
Figure 15. Examples of standards definitions. Key parameters to check included Min and Max of Frequency Range,
as well as Delay and Z0.
19 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Configuration #1: Two T/R Modules (S-parameter test set)
With a full 2-port calibration, this configuration allows one to measure all four
S-parameters (S11, S21, S12, S22). Full 2-port calibrations are available in either TRL or
SOLT. These calibrations are available under SmartCal (guided) or Unguided calibrations
on the PNA under Calibration Wizard.
Example #1: WR-12, 60 to 90 GHz
Equipment:
Setup:
Calibration:
Note
TRL calibration
TRL only requires four steps. It requires
one reflect standard for each test port,
one thru and one line (a section with a
defined length).
–– The reference must be established by
the SHORT (reflect) standard.
–– The impedance selected must be
LINE Z0.
E8364B with Options 014, UNL, 080, 081, H11
N5260A test set controller
WR-12 (60 to 90 GHz) T/R test heads modules
IF BW: 100 Hz
Number of Points: 201
Channel 1: SmartCal, 2-port, Flush Thru, TRL
For 2-port calibrations in waveguide, SmartCal defaults to TRL with Flush Thru.
Figure 16 shows that the system dynamic range is better than 90 dB and trace noise
is better than ± 0.10 dB.
These are the default settings when
using SmartCal. When using Unguided
calibration, the user must check to confirm
these settings, as well as setting system Z0
to 1-Ω (System > Configure > System Z0).
SOLT calibration
Trace noise
Figure 16. WR-12, 60 to 90 GHz, Flush Thru TRL calibration results.
Dynamic range
SOLT requires seven steps, three
more steps than TRL! It requires three
standards for each test port, and
one thru.
Unknown Thru is available, but only with
SOLT. Since SOLT takes more steps and
is less accurate than TRL, the only time
you should consider performing SOLT
calibration is to benefit from an Unknown
Thru. One such situation may be where the
test heads are restricted from movement
(such as bolted down to avoid cable
movements); in such a case, an Unknown
Thru would be very useful as it would
eliminate the need to move them. Another
example is when the test port cables are at
90 degrees, preventing a straight thru from
being connected. When SOLT is needed,
using offset load (instead of fixed load)
will result in a more accurate calibration.
This may require you to modify a cal kit
definition as well as performing more
connections during the actual calibration.
20 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Configuration #2: One T/R module and one T module (T/R test set)
This configuration allows you to measure only two S-parameters (S11 and S21). For
simultaneous corrected measurements of both parameters, one can perform a 1-port
calibration for trace S11 and then append the thru response calibration (or normalization)
performed for trace S21; thus, resulting in one calset for both traces.
1-port calibrations are available under SmartCal (guided) or unguided calibrations,
while Thru Response calibrations (or normalization) are only available under unguided
calibrations (see Table 6).
Example #2: WR-05, 140 to 220 GHz
Equipment:
Setup:
E8364B with Options 014, UNL, 080, 081, H11
N5260A test set controller
WR-05 (140 to 220 GHz) T/R and T test head modules
E8257D with Options 520 and UNR (Qty of 2)
IF BW: 10 Hz
Number of Points: 201
For the frequency range of 140 to 220 GHz, Figure 17 compares dynamic range and
Figure 18 compares trace noise (for S21). In both cases, using Keysight PSG Series as
external synthesizers to improve performance. For dynamic range, the improvement was
up to 10 dB on average; for trace noise, it went from less than 0.05 dB around 220 GHz
to practically non-existence!
0.00
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
–20.00
dB
–40.00
–60.00
–80.00
–100.00
–120.00
Frequency (GHz)
PSG, 10 Hz, Normalized
No PSG, 10 Hz, THRU Response Cal
Figure 17. WR-05, 140 to 220 GHz, T/R and T modules. Dynamic range comparison between measurements made with external synthesizers and without.
Figure 18. WR-05, 140 to 220 GHz, trace noise comparison between measurements made with external
synthesizers (right) and without (left). Both plots have the same scale, 0.10 dB per division.
21 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Example #3: WR-03, 220 to 325 GHz
Equipment:
Setup:
E8364B with Options 014, UNL, 080, 081, H11
N5260A test set controller
WR-03 (220 to 325 GHz) T/R and T test head modules
E8257D with Options 520 and UNR (Qty of 2)
IF BW: 10 Hz
Number of Points: 201
For the frequency range of 220 to 325 GHz, Figure 19 compares dynamic range and
Figure 20 compares trace noise (for S21). Similar to the previous example (WR-05), using
Keysight PSG Series as external synthesizers do improve performance in both cases.
However, the improvement for this higher frequency range is much more significant.
For dynamic range, the improvement was up to 20 dB on average; for trace noise, it went
from less than 0.20 dB around 300 GHz to less than 0.02 dB – that’s an improvement of
at least ten times!
220
0.00
230.5
241
251.5
262
272.5
283
293.5
304
314.5
325
–20.00
dB
–40.00
–60.00
–80.00
–100.00
–120.00
Frequency (GHz)
PSG, 10 Hz, Normalized
No PSG, 10 Hz, THRU Response Cal
Figure 19. WR-03, 220 to 325 GHz, T/R and T modules. Dynamic range comparison between
measurements made with external synthesizers and without.
Figure 20. WR-03, 220 to 325 GHz, trace noise comparison between measurements made with external
synthesizers (right) and without (left). Both plots have the same scale, 0.20 dB per division.
22 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Application Examples
Example #1: Antenna measurements
Below are two examples of antenna configurations. For more details, please refer to the
Keysight Antenna Test – Selection Guide, literature number 5968-6759E or visit our web
site at www.keysight.com/find/antenna.
V
Receiver AUT
H
OML Dual rear head
OML
Wave guide head
N5260A KD1
V = B R1
H = R2 R1
S11 = A.R1
W
av OM
eg L
uid
e
E836X O14, UNL,
081, D16, H11
Port 1
Port 2
he
Transmit feed
OML TR head
ad
2 meter max
Reflector
IF1
LO
IF2
RF
IF3
3 meter max
IF4
R1
A
R2
B
LO
LO
RF
RF
N5260A Test set controller
Figure 21. PNA banded millimeter-wave solution applied to indoor antenna measurements. The transmit side (left)
uses an OML T/R module, and the receive side (right) uses the OML Dual T module. Dual T modules are
ideal for measuring both vertical and horizontal polarities of the antenna.
V
OML
Wave guide head
Receive AUT
H
N5260A KD1
Transmit feed
OML TR head
2 meter max
OML
Wave guide head
OML Dual rear head
3 meter max
V = B R1
H = R2 R1
S11 = A.R1
E836XX H11 PNA
Port 1
IF1
LO
IF2
Port 2
RF
IF3
IF4
R1
A
R2
B
LO
LO
RF
RF
N5260A Test set controller
Figure 22. PNA banded millimeter-wave solution applied to outdoor antenna measurements. The transmit side (left)
uses an OML T/R module, and the receive side (right) uses the OML Dual T module. Dual T modules are
ideal for measuring both vertical and horizontal polarities of the antenna.
23 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Example #2: Pulsed measurements
In a banded millimeter-wave configuration, the pulse modulator can be applied to the
RF signal coming from either the front of the N5260A millimeter-wave controller or the
rear of the PNA. In either case, a dual output pulse generator (Keysight 81110A) will
be needed to provide a pulse drive to the modulator as well as the B gate of the PNA.
Measurements of point-in-pulse and pulse profiling have been performed for V-band
(50 to 75 GHz) and W-band (75 to 110 GHz).
Figure 23 shows the pulse modulator (Keysight Z5623AH81) being placed between
the front of the N5260A millimeter-wave controller and the test head module. Since
this pulse modulator is unidirectional, this is connected to the port 1 path only. In this
configuration, the modulator takes the CW signal coming out of the front of the N5260A
and provides a pulsed-RF signal going into the test head module of port 1 and it will in
turn deliver a pulsed-RF stimulus to the device-under-test (DUT).
CLK in
GPIB
10 MHz Out
E8361A Network Analyzer 45 MHz to 67 GHz
81110A
B Gate
Port 1
CPLR
ARM
Pulse in
SOURCE
OUT
Port 1
RCVR
A IN
Port 2
RCVR
B IN
CPLR
THRU
CPLR
THRU
CPLR
ARM
SOURCE
OUT
Reference 2
Reference 1
SOURCE
OUT
Port 2
RCVR
R1 IN
RCVR
R2 IN
N5260A
Millimeter Head Controller
Port 1
2 AMP
Fuse
Port 1
RF OUT
R1
2 AMP
Fuse
A IF
Port 2
Port 2
SOURCE
OUT
RF OUT
B IF
IF
LO OUT
Bias
LO IN
Test IF
Ref IF
Figure 23. Pulsed the RF signal coming from the front of the N5260A millimeter-wave controller.
RF IN
R2 IF
BIAS
Bias
OML Test Head
LO IN
Test IF
Z5623A H81
BIAS
RF IN
X
Ref IF
1
LO OUT
LINE
0
OML Test Head
24 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Figure 24 shows the pulse modulator being placed between the PNA and the N5260A
millimeter-wave controller. In this configuration, the modulator takes the CW signal coming
out of the rear panel of the PNA and provides a pulsed-RF signal going into the N5260A
millimeter-wave controller. Although the pulse modulator is unidirectional, this configuration
will provide a pulsed-RF signal to both ports 1 and 2 because any input into the millimeterwave controller will be delivered to both ports 1 and 2 due to the presence of the switch
inside the controller. Figure 25 compares measurement results of pulse profiling at 100 GHz,
and there is no difference whether the signal is pulsed in the front or the rear.
R2 R1 A
X
RF
81110A
R1 IF
GPIB
B
CLK in
A IF
10MHz
out
Test Set I/O
RF
LO
B
RF LO
R2
R1 A
LO
Pulse
in
Test Set Interconnect
Test Set Interface
R2 IF
B IF
Figure 24. Pulsed the RF signal coming from the rear of the PNA.
Pulsed RF from FRONT
PRF: 250 kHz
PRI: 4 msec
IF BW: 145 Hz
Source: PW, 2 msec (50%)
Source: delay, 500 nsec
B: PW, 20 nsec (0.5%)
B: delay, 1 msec
Pulsed RF from REAR
Figure 25. Results of pulse profiling measurements at 100 GHz by pulsing the RF signal from the front of the N5260A as
well as from the rear of the PNA.
Z5623A H81
25 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Example #3: Materials measurements
Figure 26 shows one example configuration of materials measurement in W-band,
75 to 110 GHz. This application requires two W-band waveguide horns and alignment
of the test heads in order to transmit and receive test signals. In addition, using the
measurement software shown requires two T/R test heads (an S-parameter setup).
For more details, please visit our web site at www.keysight.com/find/materials.
Figure 26. Using materials measurement software and Free Space Calibration technique to perform materials
measurements in millimeter-wave. Insert shows measurement software interface.
26 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Appendix A:
Creating Your Own Waveguide (WG) Calibration Kit Definition
1. Calibration > Advanced Modify Cal Kit > Insert New
2. Enter “Kit Name” and “Kit Description” and then click on “Add or Edit” to enter
connector information (Figure 27)
Enter “Kit Name” and “Kit
Description.” (“Kit Name”
will appear on the list of
“installed kits” next time
you click on “Advanced
Modify Cal Kit”.)
Click on “Add or Edit”
to enter connector
information
Figure 27. Enter calibration kit name.
3. Enter “Connector Family,” “Frequency Range” (Min. frequency = Cutoff frequency), 1 for
“Z0;” select “No Gender,” and “WAVEGUIDE” (Figure 28)
Enter “Connector Family”. This
description will appear under
“Connector Description” when
you return to the “Edit Kit” page
“Min Frequency Range” is
the same as the “Cutoff
Frequency”
Select “No Gender” for
waveguide medium
Default is “50”, enter “1”
for waveguide medium
Default is “COAX”, use
dropdown menu to select
“WAVEGUIDE”
Figure 28. Enter connector (WG) description.
27 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
4. Click OK. This returns to the “Edit Kit” page (name of the page is shown on
the upper-left corner of the dialog box). Click “Add” to start adding standards
(Figure 29).
Clicking OK (on the “Add
or Edit Connector” page)
returns to the “Edit Kit”
page and the connector
information appears.
Click “Add” to start
adding standards
Figure 29. Completed connector description, and start adding standards.
5.For waveguide, the best calibration technique may be thru-reflect-line (TRL). There is almost no reason to use SOLT since TRL is more accurate and SOLT requires more steps. Thus, for TRL or its variation such as line-reflect-line (LRL), you may want to add the following standards:
TRL
THRUThru (0 delay)
REFLECTFlush Short (0 delay)
LINEThru with offset (a known delay)
LRL
LINE 1Thru with offset 1 (a known delay)
REFLECTFlush Short (0 delay)
LINE 2Thru with offset 2 (a different known delay)
However, if SOLT is needed, offset load can be used in place of fixed load. Using offset load will result in a more accurate calibration than with broadband load, and below are the standards needed:
SOLT Short
Open
Offset Load
Thru
Flush Short
Flush Short and Offset
Load with Offset 1 (a known delay)
Load with Offset 2 (a different known delay)
Thru (0 delay)
28 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Select a standard by clicking on it, the example shows SHORT (Figure 30, left). This
brings up the “Shorts” page. The key parameters to note are the frequency range, the
delay value if applicable, and the value of Z0 (Figure 30, right). Click OK when done,
and this returns to the “Add Standard” page. Repeat this step until all standards have
been added. Figure 31 shows adding a THRU standard.
Figure 30. Add a SHORT standard.
Figure 31. Adding a THRU standard.
29 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Once you have added at least one fixed load and two offsets of different length, you
can then define an offset load. Figure 32 shows the “Loads” page, and the default of
this page is “Fixed Load.” When “Offset Load” is selected, the “Offset Load Definition”
area becomes active and you must use the dropdown menu to select each standard
element. The “Delay Characteristics” area then becomes inactive because this is
applicable for “Fixed Load.”
Figure 32. Adding an Offset Load standard.
6.
After all standards have been added, click OK on the “Add Standard” page to return
to the “Edit Kit” page. All the standards that have been added should appear in the
table (Figure 33, left). Now, under “Class Assignments”, use the drop down menu to
select “TRL” (or “SOLT”) and then click on Edit. This brings up the “Class Assignments”
page, Figure 33 (right) shows “Class Assignments” for TRL. For each “Class” selected,
highlight the standard on the left, and then click on the “>>” button in the middle, to
move the standard to the right under “Selected Standards.”
Use the dropdown menu
to select “TRL” and then
click on “Edit” to start
assigning standards to
each class.
All the standards that
have been added will
appear on this list.
Figure 33. Assigning standards to class TRL.
30 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Figure 34. Assigning standards to class SOLT (with Offset Load).
7.Click OK when done to return to the “Edit Kit” page, and then click OK again to return
to the “Edit PNA Cal Kits” page. At this point, you should be able to see the kit that you just created under the list of “Installed Kits” (Figure 35).
Figure 35. Calibration kit file created, done!
8. Congratulations! You are now ready to calibrate in waveguide.
31 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Appendix B:
Performing Calibrations
I. SmartCal, 2-port calibration
1. Calibration > Calibration Wizard …
2.Select SmartCal (GUIDED Calibration), then click Next> (Figure 36, top)
3.Select Cal Type, click Next> (Figure 36, middle)
4. Use dropdown menu and then the scroll bar to select the DUT connectors
(Figure 36, bottom). Also, use dropdown menu to select the available calibration kit
based on the selected DUT connectors. Notice, the default Cal Method is 2-Port,
Defined Thru, TRL. Plus, if “Modify Cal” is not selected, then steps shown in
Figure 37 will be skipped. Click Next>
Use dropdown menu to
select DUT connectors.
Selecting “Modify Cal” will
show steps in Figure 36.
Figure 36. Select SmartCal and DUT connectors.
32 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
5.Having selected “Modify Cal” allows you to change the Cal Type. Figure 37 (top) shows
Cal Type: TRL, you can click Mod Stds, and then use the dropdown menu on the right
to select a different cal type. Figure 37 (middle) shows the selection of SOLT. Clicking
OK returns you to the previous screen, and this time it shows the Cal Type: SOLT
(Figure 37, bottom).
Figure 37. Changing Cal Type.
6. The calibration has now begun. As shown on the upper-left corner of each screenshot (Figure 38), the 2-port, Flush Thru, TRL calibration includes four steps. The example shown here is based on using an OML cal kit.
Step 1 of 4: Port 1, Short
Step 2 of 4: Port 2, Short
Step 3 of 4: Port 1, THRU + NULL Shim, Port 2
Step 4 of 4: Port 1, THRU + ¼ Offset Shim, Port 2
33 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Figure 38. Steps of the 2-port, Flush Thru, TRL calibration (using an OML cal kit).
7. Congratulations! You have just completed a 2-port, Flush Thru, TRL calibration.
Alternatives:
Using an OML calibration kit, performing an SOLT calibration with Offset Load would require 9 steps:
Step 1 of 9: Port 1, Short + NULL Shim
Step 2 of 9: Port 1, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 3 of 9: Port 1, THRU + NULL Shim, Load
Step 4 of 9: Port 1, THRU + ¼ Offset Shim, Load
Step 5 of 9: Port 2, Short + NULL Shim
Step 6 of 9: Port 2, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 7 of 9: Port 2, THRU + NULL Shim, Load
Step 8 of 9: Port 2, THRU + ¼ Offset Shim, Load
Step 9 of 9: Port 1, Port 2
Using an OML calibration kit, performing an SOLT calibration with fixed Load would require 7 steps:
Step 1 of 7: Port 1, Short + NULL Shim
Step 2 of 7: Port 1, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 3 of 7: Port 1, Load
Step 4 of 7: Port 2, Short + NULL Shim
Step 5 of 7: Port 2, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 6 of 7: Port 2, Load
Step 7 of 7: Port 1, Port 2
34 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
II. SmartCal, 1-port calibration
1. Calibration > Calibration Wizard …
2.Select SmartCal (GUIDED Calibration), then click Next> (Figure 39, top)
3.Select Cal Type. Notice on the right that you can choose either Port 1 or Port 2 as the test port for the 1-port calibration. Then, click Next> (Figure 39, middle)
4. Use dropdown menu and then the scroll bar to select the DUT connectors (Figure 39, bottom). Also, use dropdown menu to select the available calibration kit based on the selected DUT connectors. Notice, the Cal Method here is simply 1-Port. Plus, if “Modify Cal” is not selected, then steps shown in Figure 40 will be skipped. Click Next>
Use dropdown menu to
select DUT connectors.
Selecting “Modify Cal" will
show steps in Figure 39.”
Figure 39. Select SmartCal and DUT connectors.
5. Having selected “Modify Cal” allows you to look at the screens shown in Figure 40. However, in the case of 1-port calibrations, you are limited to SOL calibration only. Thus, clicking on “Modify Cal” does not offer you additional selection. Your Cal Type remains as One Port.
Figure 40. Viewing Modify Cal displays.
35 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
6. The calibration has now begun. As shown on the upper-left corner of each screenshot
(Figure 41), the 1-port calibration includes three steps. The example shown here is
based on using a OML cal kit.
Step 1 of 3: Port 1, Short + Null Shim
Step 2 of 3: Port 1, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 3 of 3: Port 1, Load
Figure 41. Steps of the 1-port calibration.
7. Congratulations! You have just completed a 1-port calibration.
Alternative:
Using an OML calibration kit to perform a 1-port SOL calibration with Offset Load would
require 4 steps:
Step 1 of 4: Port 1, Short + NULL Shim
Step 2 of 4: Port 1, Short + ¼ Offset Shim
Step 3 of 4: Port 1, THRU + NULL Shim, Load
Step 4 of 4: Port 1, THRU + ¼ Offset Shim, Load
36 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
III. Unguided Calibration, Thru Response
1. Calibration > Calibration Wizard …
2. Select UNGUIDED Calibration, then click Next> (Figure 42, top)
3. For Unguided calibration, the user must select the calibration kit because the default (or the kit last used) is often not what you want. Click on View/Select Cal Kit (Figure 42, middle) and then use the scroll bar to select the calibration kit of choice (Figure 42, bottom). Click OK.
Figure 42. Select Unguided calibration, and calibration kit of choice.
37 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
4. This returns to the previous page, and the Cal Kit information has been updated
(Figure 43, top). Make sure Response is highlighted on the left. (If not, click on it once.)
Click Next> to start the Response calibration.
Your Response calibration selection will be different depending on your active trace. If
the active trace is S11, then you will see the standard selection for Reflection Response,
as those shown in Figure 43 middle. If the active trace is S21, then the standard
selection are those for Transmission Response, as those shown in Figure 43 bottom.
Figure 43. Response calibration and associated standard selection for Reflection Response and Transmission Response.
5. Congratulations! You have just completed a Response calibration.
38 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Appendix C:
Caring For Waveguide (WG) Interfaces
A clean surface at millimeter-wave is much more important than at lower frequencies because
any debris on its surface can potentially be added to the measurement distorting the
measurement results.
Caring for WG interfaces is not difficult. Dirt and dust can be removed using the following items:
–– Isopropyl Alcohol 99.5%
–– Lint-free cloth
–– Pressurized air for dust removal
To remove dirt on the surface, simply put a few drops of the Isopropyl Alcohol on the Lint-free
cloth and then gently wipe the surface.
To remove dust, simply spray the pressurized air on the surface.
Appendix D:
Supplemental Data
As can be seen in Figures 17 through 20, using external synthesizers for higher frequency
ranges, such as 140 to 220 GHz (WR-05) and 220 to 325 GHz (WR-03), can improve
dynamic range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, as well as improving trace noise. Below,
figures 44 through 46 show that the PSG series used as external synthesizers do not make
any difference with or without Option UNX, ultra-low (close-in) phase noise. We chose to
focus our comparison in the frequency range of 220 to 325 GHz only because if there is any
noticeable difference, it would easily appear at this frequency range than at a lower one. In
the comparison, either both PSG units have Option UNX, or they both do not.
In the case of trace noise, both transmission (S21) and reflection (S11) have remained
very low regardless of Option UNX. They are less than ±0.0300 dB in the worst case;
above 290 GHz in the case of S21, and above 305 GHz in the case of S11.
Based on these measurement results, we are no longer including Option UNX on the PSG
configurations when used as external synthesizers.
S21, Trace noise
0.060000
Trace noise (dB)
0.040000
0.020000
0.000000
-0.020000
-0.040000
-0.060000
220
241
262
283
304
325
Frequency (GHz)
Standard PSG
PSG with Option UNX
Figure 44. S21 trace noise comparison between measurements made with external synthesizers
with and without Option UNX, ultra-low (close-in) phase noise.
39 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers - Application Note
S21, Dynamic range
0.00
Dynamic range (dB)
-20.00
-40.00
-60.00
-80.00
-100.00
-120.00
220
241
262
283
304
325
Frequency (GHz)
Standard PSG
PSG with Option UNX
Figure 45. S21 dynamic range comparison between measurements made with external synthesizers
with and without Option UNX, ultra-low (close-in) phase noise.
S11, Trace noise
0.060000
0.040000
Trace noise (dB)
0.020000
0.000000
-0.020000
-0.040000
-0.060000
220
241
262
283
304
325
Frequency (GHz)
Standard PSG
PSG with Option UNX
Figure 46. S11 trace noise comparison between measurements made with external synthesizers
with and without Option UNX, ultra-low (close-in) phase noise.
40 | Keysight | PNA Microwave Network Analyzers – Application Note
Web Resources
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© Keysight Technologies, 2009, 2014
Published in USA, August 16, 2014
5989-4098EN
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