Digidim 505 Technical information

Digidim 505 Technical information
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492
466–467
456–459
480
481–482
460–461
468–478
479
Louvres and reflectors
p. 498
Quantities, units etc.
p. 510
p. 454–482
Hazardous substances
p. 504–505
Luminance classification
p. 521
Symbols
HF-ballast
p. 485–487
Mains cables
Troubleshooting p. 501
Energy directive
2002/91/EC p. 506–509
Index
p. 522–537
Planning and Calculations
p. 515–517
VBE- and AQ-index
p. 519
EN 12464-1 p. 511–514
LED
p. 483–484
Properties of materials
p. 494–497
Wieland
e-Sense
Light and Health
p. 518
recessed
p. 502
p. 503
p. 499
spotlights
downlights
EC directive
industrial
system
Dimming
p. 468–478
Product safety
p. 500
architectural
515–517
518
510
520
519
498
521
499
494–497
493
502
500
Fuse protection
p. 488–489
emergency
504–505
503
506–509
488–489
485–487
522–539
490–491
501
483–484
511–514
p. 492
Cold spaces
p. 493
light sources
454–455
462–465
technical info
Cold spaces
Dimming – 1–10 V
Dimming – DALI
Dimming – DALI RGB LED Control
Dimming – DMX Control
Dimming – DSI
Dimming – e-Sense
Dimming – Microwave sensor
Dimming – Possibilities and comparison
of control methods
Dimming – switchDIM, Touch DIM
Directives concerning environmentally
hazardous substances
EC directive
Energy directive 2002/91/EC
Fuse protection
HF-ballast
Index
Information about circuit load
Installation and troubleshooting
LED – Technique
Light planning – EN 12464-1
Light planning – Instructions for
planning and calculations
Light planning – Light and health
Light planning – Quantities, units etc.
Light planning – Technical information
Light planning – VBE- and AQ-index
Louvres and reflectors
Luminance classification
Mains cables
Properties of materials
Product safety
Symbols
Wieland
pendant/surface
Technical information
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Dimming
Possibilities
Modern lighting control systems can improve the quality of the lighting. Using dimmable luminaires means the lighting is targeted in the
right place, at the right time and at the right intensity. In combination with light sensors daylight can be utilised which saves energy. In
many buildings the lighting requirement changes several times during
the course of a day. The application of light control is therefore an
important factor in areas such as, conference rooms and restaurants.
An installation with pre-programmed lighting levels, lighting scenes,
together with a remote control allows the lighting systems in these
types of premises to be utilised to the full.
Remote control gives freedom
The right lighting scene or light level can be easily set using a remote
Constant light level – e-Sense
control. Even individual control of channels is possible. Naturally all
Many of Fagerhult’s luminaire models can be fitted with a light sen-
lighting can be switched on and off with the remote control. Remote
sor. Using the sensor, the level of artificial light is adjusted according
controls usually function via infrared light. There are also systems
to the daylight. An increase in daylight turns down the artificial light-
available on the market that only switch the lighting on and off.
ing, which saves energy. This means the illuminance on the wor­king
The DALI-system can be programmed with a remote control but for
surface can be maintained at a constant level irrespec­tive of the time
larger systems programming from a PC with appropriate software is
of day. Sensor operation varies a little between different manufac-
preferable.
turers. More advanced sensors also offer more functionality such as
Technical limitations
occupancy detection and IR-receiver.
Some systems for lighting control require a separate central or master
Occupancy detection – e-Sense
units. However in the DALI-system the logic is distributed amongst
Occupancy detectors register, using thermal radiation from individu-
components in the system, thus a separate central control unit is
als, movement within the supervised area. The supervised area is
not required. Luminaires require a special control circuit, a two way
only lit when occupied. Greater sensitivity is needed on an occupancy
control conductor, which may require older lighting systems to be
detector for indoor lighting than for corresponding outdoor lighting
supplemented. Older light control systems can usually be upgraded
as the detector must also detect small movements from an inactive
with new luminaires by using an interface that converts, for example,
person. Sensors for occupancy detection are also available combined
analogue signals to digital.
with other functions such as light level control and IR-receiver.
Glossary
Dividing into channels
Today’s modern light control systems permit several luminaire groups
or channels to be controlled centrally from one or more places. Using
a traditional control unit, such as a dimmer integrated in a pattress
box, all luminaires connected to the same channel are regulated. This
is known as 1-channel control. With more advanced systems different
channels can be embraced and controlled individually or together.
Lighting scenes
Light control systems also offer the possibility to save pre-selected
lighting scenes. These scenes can either be divided up on a channel
level or in combination with a master system that controls all the
channels in the system. The required lighting scenes are selected via
wall panels or remote controls, and the system automatically sets the
pre-selected lighting level for each lighting group.
Control via computer
Digital control gear can be controlled via an interface from a computer via a software programme which provides the opportunity to
control lighting systems in the same way as using wall panels. The
DALI-system needs to be programmed and larger systems are ideally
programmed using a computer. The leading manufacturers have
developed software, which can be downloaded free of charge from
their websites on the Internet.
454
Dimming
Variable regulation of the luminous intensity.
Light control
System that controls individual luminaire groups and/or complete systems.
HF-ballast for dimming
Control gear that via a separate control circuit allows dimming.
Digital light control
Control signals between the units are transferred in the form of digital commands.
Commands in digital form are less sensitive to disturbances than analogue systems.
Analogue control
Analogue systems are usually based on 1–10 V DC between the controller and luminaire. The system either regulates the voltage or resistance in the control circuit.
The length of the control conductor can affect the control result.
Phase control (impulse)
A system based on control of the lighting level via 240 V (for example, with the help
of a momentary wall switch or with an integrated pull cord switch in the luminaire).
Known best as switchDIM. The system requires 4 conductors to the luminaire if a wall
switch is used.
Addressed control
The units in the system can be individually addressed enabling them to be controlled
independently of each other. The digital DALI protocol is addressable.
Multi-channel control
An installation can be divided into different groups, channels, which can be controlled
independent of each other or together.
Lighting scenes
A pre-selected lighting effect/arrangement that can be easily recalled if necessary.
Constant light level
The system attempts to maintain the luminous intensity within the required area (for
example, under the luminaire) at a constant level. The level of the artificial lighting is
affected by the incident daylight. Used to save energy.
Occupancy detector
A detector that senses an individual’s thermal radiation. A movement within the detector’s supervised area switches on the luminaire. An integrated timer switches off the
luminaire if no movement is detected within the sensor’s supervised area.
IR-receiver
Receives the remote control’s signals and transfers these to the system. Usually integrated in a wall panel or multisensor.
Multisensor
Sensor that usually includes the functions constant light level, occupancy detector and
IR-receiver.
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Dimming
Control method refers to the type of signal transfer used between
The simplest way to dim an incandescent lamp is to use a thyristor,
the control unit/controller and the electronic control gear in the
or phase control. The thyristor clips off the leading edge of the sin
luminaire. A number of the most common control methods are
wave. Control of low voltage light sources, such as halogen, requires
highlighted in the table below.
a controller that is compatible with the transformer being used.
The selected method also effects, apart from the components
Transformers with iron cores, conventional transformers, are regu-
included in the system, how low the lighting can be regulated, how
lated using a thyristor while electronic transformers generally de-
the installation is performed and the cost of the system. Digital
mand a transistor controller. These controllers clip, unlike thyristors,
systems are generally more expensive than analogue, but they offer
the trailing edge of the sin wave. There are also electronic transform-
technical and functionality advantages that truly substantiate the
ers on the market that can operate both types of controllers.
extra cost.
In some applications it may be beneficial to combine digital
Fluorescent lamps
systems with basic analogue systems. Read more about this on the
Control of fluorescent lamps requires the light source to be operating
DALI page.
recessed
Incandescent and low voltage light sources
pendant/surface
Comparison of control methods
on control gear adapted and intended for dimming. It is not possible
to dim a light source that is operating on conventional control gear.
system
In general there are four different control methods for fluorescent
industrial
lamps – highlighted below.
DALI
DSI
• Each unit in the system is adressable.
• Polarity free control conductor reduces the risk of wrong connections.
(Digital Adressable Lighting Interface)
Advantages:
• Components from several different
manufacturers can be included in
the same system.
• Easy to modify and expand.
• Only one pair of control conductors
even in multi-channel systems give
lower installation costs.
• Polarity free control conductor reduces the risk of wrong connections.
• Can be controlled via an interface by
a computer.
• Can be connected to a BMS-system
(LonWorks, EIB) via a gateway.
1–10 V
No
No
No
Yes
No
5
300 m
Yes
downlights
Phase control (impulse)
No
No
Yes
Yes
4
Unlimited
Single channel
spotlights
DSI
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
5
250 m
Yes
Phase control
1–10 V
• Standard momentary switches can
be used.
• Control units available from most
manufacturers.
• Can be controlled via a computer.
• Only one extra phase conductor is
required in the control circuit.
Note:
• Components in the system are not
addressable.
Note:
• Wall switches must not be fitted
with an indicator.
• Multi-channel systems require each
channel to have a separate control
conductor.
• Max 25 HF-ballasts/system recommended.
Note:
• Some analogue 0–10 V control
systems on the market are not appropriate for the control of control
gear for 1–10 V DC as set out in
EN 60929.
(Non-addressable digital control)
Advantages:
• All luminaires are controlled in the
same way thanks to digital data
transfer.
• Only one manufacturer of the
system.
(Impulse – For example, switchDIM)
Advantages:
• The system does not need an advanced control unit.
• Avoid mixing different brands in the
system.
• The length of the control conductor
can affect the control result.
• 1–10 V systems can only be controlled from one location (one control
unit).
light sources
Note:
• The system must be programmed
before commissioning.
(Analog)
Advantages:
• Known system that is easy to
understand.
architectural
DALI
64
16
Yes
No
Yes
5
300 m
No
emergency
Characteristics
Addressable luminaire control
Group addresses
Logaritmic control
Control circuit polarity dependant
Switched off via the control circuit
Number of conductors to the luminaire
Control circuit in same cable, max length
Multi-channel systems require an external central unit
• Programming is performed in different ways for products from different
manufacturers.
technical info
• Max 64 addresses/system (Note that
the interface for programming via a
computer requires an address).
• Large systems can be built up via
software/servers/gateways. This
type of system usually utilises
existing data networks (TCP/IP). An
example of this type of system is
[email protected] from Tridonic.
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Dimming
DALI
DALI (Digital Addressable Light-
As standard, Fagerhult have chosen to supply all luminaires
ing Interface) is a standardised
with Helvar’s DALI-ballasts with an integral power supply. This is to
digital protocol for dimming.
enable a system with a central DALI power supply to incorporate
DALI is supported by the major
luminaires with different brands of DALI-ballasts.
manufacturers of HF-ballasts in
However, luminaires without an integral power supply are avail-
Europe (Helvar, Osram, Philips
able on request.
and Tridonic). Other companies
within the lighting industry
have also joined the group of
DALI-manufacturers.
DALI uses a single multi-core cable through which a duplex digital
signal is transferred between all units in the system. Connected
HF-ballasts, control panels, sensors and the programming units
communicate with each other. The “intelligence” is distributed,
(read stored) in the system’s different component parts. This creates
greater safety and reliability as the system is not dependent on any
central unit.
The DALI-system is also very flexible and future-proof as any
change to the design of the premises or usage, results only in the
need to reprogram the settings. Generally the cabling does not need
to be changed.
In the DALI-system information is transferred between components via an addressed digital signal. As the signal is digital all
included luminaires are controlled in exactly the same way, irrespective of the distance between the control unit and luminaire. The
HF-ballasts used in DALI are adapted to the sensitivity of the eye for
light level adjustments, a.k.a. logarithmic compensation.
Apart from the phase, neutral and earth conductors, two other
wires for the digital signal are connected to the luminaire. These
cables are polarity free which simplifies installation.
The digital control signal is also insensitive to external disturbances. The lighting is switched on and off by means of a digital
command via the DALI-conductors. It is therefore beneficial to connect the mains voltage directly from the fuse panel to the luminaire.
Advantages of the DALI-technology
• Addressability. Possibility to individually control different luminaires/HF-ballasts in
the same system. Max 64 addresses/system.
• Light scenes and groupings. Possible to pre-program different light scenes. Up to
16 groups of luminaires and 16 different light scenes can be created in each system.
Combining DALI with other control systems
DALI can easily be combined with other control systems such as
analogue 1–10 V. When there is no need to control or monitor an
individual luminaire, or when existing rows of luminaires are to be
incorporated into the new control system, it may be possible to use,
for example, a DALI to 1–10 V interface (converter). The existing
luminaires, equipped with HF-ballasts for analogue 1–10 V dimming, are connected to a DALI to 1–10 V interface. Using this solu-
• Ignition and extinguishing of luminaires takes place via digital commands.
• Control conductors for the digital signals have no polarity (positive/negative), which
reduces the risk of incorrect connection.
• The digital control signal is not sensitive to disturbances transferred from other
conductors. The control conductor can be routed together with the main voltage
conductors without the risk of disturbances (note however that the control conductors should also be of a heavy current type).
• Duplex communications via the control conductors is possible. Status and any error
indications from components in the system can be gathered by any connected
software.
tion the luminaires can be controlled centrally via DALI-panels for
• The control signal is transferred in the same way to all luminaires independent of
the control conductors’ length.
example. The solution is more economical and it also significantly
• Digital technology also allows the system to be controlled via computers.
increases the number of luminaires that can be controlled in a
DALI-installation. This is because a single DALI address now controls
several luminaires. The same solution can be used with luminaires
equipped with HF-ballasts for DSI dimming, with the help of a DALI
to DSI interface.
Helvar have chosen a solution where, via the HF-ballast, you have
the possibility to supply power to the DALI-system. The use of this
function however, requires the total current in the control cables
to be calculated, with regard to all the components included in the
system.
456
• DALI can also be integrated with a BMS system (for example, LonWorks).
• Multiple DALI systems can be controlled over routers connected to an Ethernet
network.
Note
• Programming is carried out using wall panels, remote control units or with the
help of computers and software. The use of software is recommended for all large
installations.
• DALI requires the control circuit to be fed with a current. This current may be
max 250 mA, which is obtained by means of an external DALI power source. A
high current in the circuit results in a communications breakdown or damaged
components. Consequently, it is important that a DALI-system is planned and
dimensioned correctly.
• Maximum cable length for the control circuit is 300 m.
• The characteristics of the units from different manufacturers deviate slightly.
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Dimming
Installation example Classroom with DALI-dimming
Installation of light control in a classroom
A classroom is a workplace for both teachers and pupils. Good lighting is essential for the varying work. Through advances in lighting
pendant/surface
technology a combination of preferable light levels and energy
efficiency can be offered through controls. The right distribution
at the right level of light contributes towards a better learning
environment.
Advantages:
recessed
• Automatic switching on/off or only switching off.
• Individual control and adjustment of the ceiling and smart board
lighting.
• Daylight control.
• Control by door and AV panels.
• Lighting scenes.
• PC programming.
Proposal for the installation of control in classrooms
Programmable control in a classroom allows exact control operations to be produced which directly correspond with the user
Product
Combiform Class 2x35 W with DALI-ballast
Multisensor 312
Input units for control
20316-368
86122
86148
requirements. Maximum and minimum levels can be changed and
the luminaires can be programmed individually. Switching func-
industrial
system
• Control integrated in standard pushbuttons.
tions can be changed and adapted to the function of the room.
downlights
Programming requires the temporary connection of a computer
with a Windows-based PC program. The possibility exists to transfer
program functions from one classroom to the next, which means
all functions are the same and the time for programming is reduced
significantly. Other advantages can be achieved by connecting the
DALI
Luminaires
by the corridor
Luminaires
by the windows
Input unit
by the
door
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballast
DALI
Pulse switch
Input unit
by the
AV panel
architectural
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Installation in a classroom with DALI
DIGIDIM. Programming via a PCprogram. Power supply can be used
from Helvar’s EL-si DALI HF-ballast. The
different control functions have been
connected in parallel to the DALI control
cables. All luminaires are controlled in
common via a daylight sensor, except
the whiteboard lighting. Lighting is
switched on manually. All lighting is
switched off together. The size of the
classroom determines whether one
multisensor is sufficient for occupancy
detection, or whether the installation
needs to be supplemented with additional units. The ceiling and whiteboard
lighting can be controlled individually
by the input units connected to the impulse switch by the door and AV panel.
emergency
Classroom installation with DALI DIGIDIM (power supply from HF ballasts)
light sources
diagram below.
spotlights
heating and ventilation to the occupancy control. See the wiring
Multisensor 312
D1
D2
technical info
Whiteboard
lighting
Pulse switch
HF-ballast
DALI
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Dimming
DALI – components
Components from Helvar
Components from Fagerhult
Control panels
Designation
DALI Touch panel
Control panels 200-series (white thermoplastic)
Designation
Function
DIGIDIM 126200
Control panel with 8 controls
DIGIDIM 125200
Control panel with 7 controls
DIGIDIM 100200
Control panel with rotary controls
DIGIDIM 111200
Control panel with 2 sliders
86143
86137
86144
86145
Phase regulators
DIGIDIM 452
Leading and trailing edge control, max 1000 W
86146
For constant light, with occupancy detection and
IR-receiver. Recessed mounting, cut out Ø 55 mm
86122
Power supply
DIGIDIM 402
Supplies max 250 mA to the control circuit
86123
Power supply
DALI PS1
Remote control
DIGIDIM 303
IR-remote control
86121
DALI sequence module
DALI SQM
For automatic sequence control of DALI units, e.g. LEDs
with RGB colours.
Multisensor
DIGIDIM 312
Relay & input unit
DIGIDIM 494
DIGIDIM 444
Gateways
DIGIDIM 472
DIGIDIM 410
DIGIDIM 430
For max 10 A resistive load or 6 A inductive load
Input unit for optional switches or other control
Converts DALI to 1–10 V DC, DIN rail mounting
For connecting a DALI-system to 1–10 V DC
For connecting a DALI-system to LonWorks
86136
86120
86149
Control panels
Designation
DALI GC
Interface
DALI SCI
DALI USB
Function
Two channel control module. For use with standard momentary heavy current switches from various suppliers.
Installed in the same box as the push-button.
86125
Control module for four scenes. For use with standard
momentary heavy current switches from various suppliers. Installed in the same box as the push-button.
86126
Supplies 200 mA to the control circuit
86127
86214
Serial interface for PCs. Used together with the Tridonic
winDIM software.
86129
Interface for Tridonic software WinDIM and ConfigTool.
Connects to the PC’s USB port. Replaces the previous
DALI SCI except when using the Light Over Time function.
86182
Note: It is not possible to mix control components from different manufacturers
in the same DALI-system.
Interface
DIGIDIM 505
18595
Components from Tridonic
DALI SC
86147
86148
Function
Programmable DALI panel with pushbuttons.
Serial interface for PCs. Used together with the Helvar
Toolbox software
86124
Components from Osram
Rotary potentiometer
Designation
Function
DALI MCU rotary
Rotary potentiometer with integrated power supply for
potentiometer
25 DALI units.
86212
Note: It is not possible to mix control components from different manufacturers
in the same DALI-system.
DIGIDIM 444 – input unit
DALI Touch panel
DIGIDIM 200-series control panels
DALI Touch panel
Fagerhult has designed and developed a
pushbutton panel offering unique functions and options. Originally the panel
was developed to meet the requirements
of a hospital environment where the label
on each individual pushbutton needs to
be easy to read.
Pushbuttons for lighting control can be
designed for a variety of environments
and needs. Being able to see the various
functions and which was most recently
activated always comes down to two
fundamental requirements.
A pushbutton panel that has a number
of buttons must have diodes to show the
selected function, as well as clear, legible
text indicating the function of each
button. This panel also has membrane
pushbuttons, which are easy to clean. To
identify each function simply print out
the required text using a labelling device
such as DYMO or Brother, 8 mm text
width. The text strip should be applied
from the reverse side of the panel before
fitting. NB! do not remove the cover strip
on the tape side!
458
DIGIDIM 312 multi-sensor
DIGIDIM 200-series panels
Control panels for assembly in standard
pattress boxes. Face of white thermoplastic. The pushbuttons’ or controls’ functions can be programmed to control an
individual luminaire, a luminaire group, a
complete DALI-system or recall a pre-set
lighting scene.
DIGIDIM 452
Digital single channel phase regulator for
incandescent and halogen lamps. Leading
and trailing edge control can be selected
using a switch. Lacks a power source for
DALI. For 230–240 V/50–60 Hz.
DIGIDIM 312 multi-sensor
Multi-sensor with the functions (selectable) constant light, occupancy detection
and receiver for remote control (IR). The
unit is recess mounted. Hole diameter
55 mm. Sensing range 50–5000 lx, 100
or 40 degrees detection and elliptical
sensing area.
DIGIDIM 444 input unit
The input unit allows the connection of
optional switches or other external connections to a DALI system.
DALI MCU rotary potentiometer DALI SC – scene module
DIGIDIM 402 power supply
Power source for DALI. For DIN rail mounting. 220–240 VAC, 50–60 Hz.
DIGIDIM 303 IR-transmitter
For scene selection and/or channel control. Can also be used as a programming
unit on installations with luminaires
equipped with a Helvar DIGIDIM system.
Requires the system to be equipped with
Helvar’s wall panel or multisensor with
IR-receiver.
DALI SQM sequence module
For automatic sequence control of DALI
units, e.g. LEDs with RGB colours. The
unit alternates light scenes which must
be pre-programmed using the DALI DIGIDIM Toolbox or WinDIM software. The
sequence can be started/stopped by an
external function such as a time switch.
DALI SC
Four scene control module for pushbutton mounted in pattress box. Installed
in the pattress box behind the switch.
Suitable push-buttons are standard
momentary heavy current switches from
various suppliers.
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DALI GC
Two channel control module for pushbutton mounted in a pattress box.
Installed in the pattress box behind the
switch. Suitable push-buttons are standard momentary heavy current switches
from various suppliers. Capable of igniting, extinguishing, dimming, addressing
and grouping the DALI system.
DALI PS1
Compact and enclosed power source
for DALI that can be fitted, for example,
in a suspended ceiling. 120–240 V AC,
50–60 Hz.
Rotary potentiometer DALI MCU
Rotary potentiometer with built-in power
supply to 25 DALI devices. Connected
to 230 V and DALI. Two MCU can be
connected to power to a maximum of 50
DALI devices. Four potentiometers can
be connected in parallel for control from
multiple locations. Potentiometers MCU
should not be combined with other DALI
controllers.
Subject to alteration. For further specifications see www.helvar.com and
www.tridonicatco.com.
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Dimming
uses Ethernet communication as
The router is the central unit in the system providing a smooth con-
a smooth way of connecting DALI
nection between a large number of DALI and DIGIDIM products. DI-
networks together. The modules
GIDIM systems are programmed using Helvar’s Designer software,
provide a complete system from
which can be used on a local or remote-controlled Windows-based
single office rooms to large office
PC. Once programming is complete, the PC can be disconnected as
buildings. The basic functions
it is not required for normal daily system usage. The PC can also be
are available and ready to start without any programming. For
used to monitor and report on the status of the system. All data are
advanced functions, the Windows-based software Designer is used.
stored in flash memory in the DIGIDIM routers, which avoids the
Each individual router can handle two DALI circuits, each with a
need for cumbersome databases and allows the system to be saved
maximum of 64 control units and load interfaces. The system can
to a PC as back-up.
be programmed for energy-saving functions such as occupancy
detection and constant lighting. Further automatic functions are
Network of several routers
possible with planned events. The OPC server software activates
A large number of routers can be interconnected in a network
interfaces with the processing system in the building.
of standard Ethernet connections. This means it can be used for
programming and monitoring. The extent of the system is defined
Superb reliability
as a work group. A work group is a collection of routers joined via an
All data is stored in the system itself, the need for PC control in daily
Ethernet connection.
recessed
System fundamentals
system
DALI Router 910
The new router system for DALI
pendant/surface
DALI Router – Flexible control for the major installation
single product can cause a breakdown of the system. If necessary, a
PC can be connected to the system for diagnostic purposes.
DALI Router 910
Designation
DALI Router 910
Function
Ethernet router for DALI
86195
Advantages
industrial
usage. Eliminating the central control arrangement ensures that no
• No PC required for daily usage.
downlights
• Complete flexibility.
• Standard protocol.
Ethernet Switch
920 Router
TCP/IP
LED
DALI1
DMX (IN / OUT)
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
Up to 64 DALI units/ subnet
DALI2
Up to 64 DALI units/ subnet
DALI2
architectural
910 Router
spotlights
• Simple system layout.
DALI1
Internet
Software
(OPC link)
Functions
• Manual control (always the option of
adjusting the light in person).
• Timer functions (automatic on/off or
change of functions depending on
time).
• Each DALI network can have 64 DALI
units connected, with a maximum
length of 300 metres.
• Daylight control (adjustment according
to incident daylight. Both open loop and
closed loop).
• Calendar functions (events may occur
on specific days of the week).
• Integrated 250 mA DALI power supply
for each DALI network.
• Occupancy detection (in multi-sensor or
external units).
• 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connection
with Internet protocol (TCP/IP).
• Lamp status (each DALI unit can provide
information).
• 16,000 groups in Designer software.
• Log for life span of light sources (consumption by individual light sources can
be logged in a journal).
• A maximum of 64 PCs running Helvar’s
Designer software may be connected at
the same time.
• Automatic updating when an HF-ballast
is changed (information for the removed
ballast is updated in the new one).
• Multiple offset controls (constant light
adjustment provides higher level of
lighting away from windows).
• Automatic sequence control (e.g. daylight simulation).
• Blocking function for corridor lighting
(always corridor lighting when office is
occupied).
technical info
• DALI units work together in groups.
• OPC functions (control between property systems and servers).
• Logic functions (AND & NAND-like
functions).
• Automatic control of emergency lighting
units (meets the DALI standard for the
control of emergency lighting units).
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
light sources
Key figures
• A DIGIDIM router can handle 128 DALI
units.
• Each router can use 256 groups.
emergency
Designer
BMS / OPC
459
For more information go to www.barbourproductsearch.info
Dimming
Non-addressable digital control DSI
HF-ballasts for DSI-control are
DSI control gear
only manufactured by Tri-
Tridonic manufactures two ranges of dimmable control gear, Excel
donic. Control information in
and Eco. In addition to all the features available on the Eco model
the DSI system is transferred
the Excel unit also has the capability to interpret DALI commands,
to the HF-ballast via a non-
the possibility to program parameters and the ability to transmit
addressable digital signal. One
error messages.
benefit of digital control is that
Note
it is independent of the control
circuit’s length and resistance.
All luminaires connected to the system are controlled in the same
way irrespective of the distance between the control unit and the
luminaire. Digital control also allows more flexible control of the
light sources. As a result, the HF-ballast is regulated according to
DSI control is non-addressable.
The luminaire/group can also be computer controlled using the
winDIM-software. This requires the computer to be connected to
the luminaires bus-system via a winDIM cable. The winDIM software is available via the Internet www.tridonicatco.com.
the eyes sensitivity.
Apart from the phase, neutral and earth conductors, two other
wires for the control circuit are connected to the luminaire. The
control bus is polarity free, which facilitates installation. The control
and mains voltages to the control unit can be routed in the same
conduit or cable sheath over a length of up to 250 m, as the digital
signal is fairly insensitive to disturbances.
The lighting is switched on and off by means of a digital control
command, permitting the mains voltage to be connected directly
from the fuse panel to the luminaire. There is a constant supply
to the luminaires, even when switched off. The minimum level is
dependent on the type of light source 1 %, 3 % or 10 %.
DSI: smartDIM SM and Sensor II with Shutter switch and HF ballast PCA ECO
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Tridonic
smartDIM SM-lp
(86130)
D1
D2
Sensor II (86142)
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
Tridonic
PCA ECO
Shutter switch
(several can be connected
in parallel)
D1
D2
460
Tridonic
PCA ECO
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
A larger system can be created for daylight control with manual control and
occupancy detection by using Tridonic
smartDIM SM. Manual control with
retractable switches or shutter switches.
Different functions for occupancy and
automatic switching on can be selected
by means of DIP-switches on the control
unit. Several sensors can be connected
in parallel, but only one should be connected for daylight control. Maximum
25 HF-ballasts can be connected to one
control. Different phases can be used to
the luminaires.
For more information go to www.barbourproductsearch.info
Dimming
Dimensions
90x71x59 mm
190x30x28 mm
190x30x21 mm
190x30x28 mm
Ø 60 mm, h 47 mm
For DIN rail
86131
86109
86130
86134
86133
86135
Dimmable transformers
Component
Output
TE-DC
300 VA
Sec.voltage
11.9 V
Dimensions
254x147x59 mm
86156
Phase regulators
Component
PHD
PD-TD
PAD-TD
Output VA
30–300
30–1000
30–1000
Load
Magnetic
Magnetic
Electronic
Dimensions
220x40x31 mm
140x90x59 mm
140x90x59 mm
86157
86138
86139
Constant light control
Component
Smart-LS II
modularDIM DM
Daylight Sensor
Connection
PCA-Eco/Excel
modularDIM Basic
modularDIM DM
Dimensions
Ø 18 mm, h 16.1 mm
17x90x58 mm
Ø 52 mm
86158
86140
86163
Lighting scenes
Component
modularDIM SC
Connection
modularDIM Basic
Multisensor-sensor
Component
Connection
smartDIM sensor 1 smartDIM SM
smartDIM sensor 2 smartDIM SM
Dimensions
71x90x59 mm
86141
Dimensions
30x30x25,2 mm
Ø 60 mm, h 23.2 mm
86159
86142
recessed
Luminaires
3x100 pcs.
50 pcs.
25 pcs.
50 pcs.
4 pcs.
100 pcs.
modularDIM
3-channel control unit for DIN rail
mounting. Common or individual control
of all channels with pushbuttons or occupancy detectors. Can be expanded with
control of 4 lighting scenes (modularDIM
SC) or constant light control (modularDIM DM and Daylight Sensor).
emergency
DSI-AD
smartDIM sensor 2
SMART LS II
smartDIM SM
Single channel control unit, which can
be mounted in a suspended ceiling or
luminaire. Controlled with a pushbutton in combination with an occupancy
and daylight sensor, where Sensor 1 is
intended for mounting in the luminaire
and Sensor 2 in the ceiling area.
DSI-AD
Single channel control unit, that can
be mounted in a suspended ceiling or
luminaire. Enclosed connections with
strain relief. Potentiometer control with
EN 60929 compliant 1–10 V potentiometer controller, such as Helvar TK4 or Ensto
Busch-Jaeger 2112.
DSI-AD/S
As DSI-AD but designed for DIN rail
mounting. With bracket for DIN rails.
DSI-Smart
Independent multisensor for control of a
maximum of four luminaires. Includes an
occupancy detector, daylight sensor and
receiver for an infrared remote control.
SMART LS II
Daylight sensor that can be connected
directly to PCA-Eco and PCA-Excel ballasts, these are fitted on the luminaire or
directly to the fluorescent lamp using a
clip. Controls one HF-ballast.
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
Modules for BMS communication
DSI-EIBS
Single channel gateway for EIB to DSI
communication.
DSI-LON/S
3 channel gateway for LonWorks to DSI
communication.
More information is available at
www.ljuskontroll.com
light sources
Daylight Sensor
smartDIM SM-lp
technical info
modularDIM Basic
architectural
spotlights
downlights
industrial
Channels
3
1
1
1
1
1
system
Control unit
Component
modularDIM Basic
DSI-V/T
smartDIM SM-lp
DSI-AD
DSI-Smart multi-sensor
DSI-ADS
pendant/surface
Non-addressable digital control DSI – components
461
For more information go to www.barbourproductsearch.info
Dimming
Phase control (impulse) – switchDIM, Touch DIM
Phase control (impulse) is a
Applies to Tridonic SwithDIM:
simplified and economic version
• Unlimited number of parallel connected pushbuttons for on/off/
of light control, using controllable HF-ballasts designed for
this function. Normally, these
ballasts can also be controlled
via a bus system such as DSI,
dimming can be installed.
• A maximum of 25 PCA HF-ballasts are recommended in a switchDIM installation.
• Connection of the pushbutton phase and neutral to the HF-ballast
is polarity free.
DALI or 1–10 V DC depending
on the brand and type. However,
the functions cannot be combined as this can result in considerable
damage.
Note
• Control switches must not be equipped with indicator lamps, as
the leakage current from these cause malfunctions.
Phase control (impulse) does not require a regulator or other controller, the signal to the HF-ballast is obtained directly from a simple
momentary switch. Other additional modules are not required. In
• The maximum length for the control cable is normally unlimited
as the signal is a 230/240 V signal impulse.
• The same phase should be used for control as well as the power
effect, the regulator is integrated in the HF-ballast.
supply to the luminaire. This produces an unpolarised connection,
Only a four core cable to the luminaire is needed: Direct (un-
which means that the luminaire can also be equipped with a plug.
switched) mains voltage, neutral and protective earth as well as
A 3-phase connection is also possible, but this requires a special
the mains voltage (impulse) via the momentary switch. Control of
a luminaire mounted on a traditional connection box and requires
polarised connection.
• Simultaneous use of phase control (impulse) and another control
little change to the cabling.
method such as DALI or DSI will cause irreparable damage to the
Phase control (impulse) is also an ideal system when you want to
digital control equipment.
control a lighting system from several places in the room. Reliability
• Avoid mixing different brands in the system.
lies in its simplicity and the lack of intermediate units means instal-
If a PCA HF-ballast with switchDIM is not synchronised with other
lation is easy and inexpensive.
The control method can, depending on the brand, be combined
with other components such as daylight sensors. The Tridonic brand,
for example, offers interaction between phase control (impulse) and
the sensor SMART LS II. The pre-set lighting level is set using the momentary switch, to the required value. The sensor will then attempt
to keep the level constant around the new level. The lamp output
returns to the pre-set value once the luminaire has been switched
off and then on again.
Control switches can comprise of 250 V switches with normally
open contacts and impulse springs, or switches with a return
spring. When using such a switch, the luminaire is turned on and
off by quickly pressing and releasing the switch, while adjustment
of the illumination level, alternating up and down, is performed by
pressing and holding down the switch.
installed PCA HF-ballasts (ballasts on same circuit at different
phases on the upward/downward dimming cycle) the installation
can be synchronised by depressing the pushbutton for > 10 seconds. All PCA HF-ballasts will then be synchronised at the 50 % level
whereupon the installation can be used again as usual. Synchronisation can be carried out at any time during normal operation.
Absence dampening – new function
The new HF-ballasts from Tridonic PCA ECO and Excel can also be
used for dimming between a high level (occupancy) and low level
(absenteeism) via occupancy detectors. A perfect function for stairwells, corridors and culverts. Large amounts of energy can be saved
in this way, without extinguishing the light completely.
See the installation example on page 464.
Alternatively a momentary switch can be used, where one button
regulates the luminous intensity up and the other down. The lighting can be switched on and off with either button.
462
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Dimming
A retractable switch without indicator
lamp must be used. Maximum 25
HF-ballasts can be connected to one
control. The same phase must be used
for control and feeding the HF-ballast.
If several HF-ballasts or more advanced
control is required, please contact your
Fagerhult representative.
Tridonic
PCA ECO
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Tridonic
PCA EXCEL one4all
DA/D1 orPCA ECO
DA/D2
Pulse switch
switchDIM control with on/off function over occupancy detector
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
Occupancy detector
The occupancy detector switches off
the light after the last occupancy and
a time delay. The light is switched on
at the last level, which can be off if the
light was switched off manually. A retractable switch without indicator lamp
must be used. Maximum 25 HF-ballasts
can be connected to one control. The
same phase must be used for control
and feeding the HF-ballast. If several
HF-ballasts or more advanced control is
required, please contact your Fagerhult
representative.
Time setting
lux level
Tridonic
PCA ECO
technical info
D1
D2
Pulse switch
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
industrial
A retractable switch without indicator
lamp must be used. On/off and dimming via the switch takes over control
from the Smart LS II sensor. Smart LS
II can only be connected to a Tridonic
HF-ballast. Default setting of the
required daylight value adjusted on
the sensor. The value can be changed
via the switch. The same phase must
be used for control and feeding the
HF-ballast. Neutral to the terminal block
DA/D1 can be looped internally in the
luminaire. If several HF-ballasts or more
advanced control is required, please
contact your Fagerhult representative.
downlights
switchDIM control and Smart LS II light sensors. HF-ballast PCA EXCEL One4all or PCA ECO.
system
Tridonic
PCA ECO
D1
D2
spotlights
D1
D2
architectural
Pulse switch
recessed
Tridonic
PCA ECO
D1
D2
emergency
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
light sources
switchDIM control with retractable switch HF-ballast PCA ECO
pendant/surface
Phase control (impulse) – switchDIM, Touch DIM
463
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Dimming
Installation example switchDIM Corridor with absence dampening
Premises without natural daylight usually need the lighting to be
switched on continuously. However, in some cases some of the
luminaires can be switched off when no one is in the room. Light
control is ideal for corridors where the sufficient basic light can be
quickly increased during occupancy. Energy savings can be up to 80 %.
Advantages:
• Luminaires with Tridonic PCA ECO or Excel one4all.
• E-Sense luminaire with smartSwitch sensors can be used.
• HF ballasts learn the automatic function the first time it is used.
• External standard occupancy sensors can be combined in the
system.
Proposal for the installation of control in the corridor
Lighting is usually continuously lit in corridors where people normally move around. Examples are hospital culverts and corridors in
Light control in stairwells, corridors. The combination of smartSwitch sensors in the
luminaires and external occupancy detectors means that detection will be complete.
large building complexes. Many installations have been made more
energy efficient by detecting occupancy and the movements of indi-
Absence dampening time delays can be as short as one minute to
viduals and with that switching on the lighting when necessary. The
regulate back to a low level.
negative effect of this type of control is when you approach a dark-
The advantage of this type of control is that a central control unit
ened room the reaction time of the sensor is then decisive for how
is not necessary. Occupancy detectors are connected directly to the
quickly the lighting is switched on. The combination of poor detec-
control input on the HF-ballast. After an on-pulse (occupancy) of
tion with the slow starting of the fluorescent lamp creates a scenario
5 minutes the HF-ballast has changed function to adjust between
where the user enters the corridor before the lighting is switched on.
100 % with occupancy (230 V on the control input), and 10 % light
Creating a feeling of displeasure and uncertainty. This can also have
with absenteeism. If you know that the room/corridor will not be
a negative effect on the life of the fluorescent lamp. Short ignition
used during certain parts of the day, for example in schools, you can
times result in lamp end blackening and a reduced life span.
switch off the lighting completely with the help of central control.
If you know the lighting should always be on you can ensure that
See the wiring diagram below.
the lighting is on at a high level with occupancy and then reduced
to a low energy-saving level awaiting the next detection. By regulating between high and low levels the cathodes are not consumed
and the life span of the fluorescent lamp is not negatively affected.
Product
Indigo Clivus with Tridonic PCA ECO-lp HF-ballast
Indigo Clivus with Tridonic e-Sense smartSwitch
External occupancy detector (see opposite page)
Absence dimming with Occupancy detectors and HF-ballast PCA ECO-lp
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
Occupancy detector
time setting
lux level
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
Occupancy detector
time setting
lux level
464
D1
D2
Tridonic
PCA ECO
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
24484-300
24484-309
Connection for automatic control
between 100 % (occupancy) and 10 %
(absenteeism). The HF ballast PCA
ECO-lp recognises that these properties
are required and adjusts the standard
switchDIM function automatically.
The time can then be shortened on the
occupancy detectors to give maximum
functionality. Luminaires equipped with
e-Sense smartSwitch can be used in
combination with external occupancy
detectors.
If luminaires with compact fluorescent lamps are used, the luminaires
should be equipped with PCA EXCEL
One4all HF-ballasts. The same phase
to luminaires and sensors. A large
number of luminaires can be controlled
simultaneously as there is no output
via the relay function. Switching can be
controlled centrally, for example via a
time switch.
For more information go to www.barbourproductsearch.info
Dimming
86225
86226
86227
Sensor Steinel
Component
Sensor PIR IS3180
Protective guard
86235
86227
Sensor CP Electronic
Component
Sensor MWS-1/C
Sensor for ceiling mounting, detection 10x10 m.
86230
Sensor MWS-1
Sensor for corridors, wall mounting, detection 30x4 m 86231
Mounting frame
86232
industrial
system
Novum Compact Passage
recessed
Sensor Novum
Component
Sensor Compact Passage
Flush wall box
Protective guard (not used in combination with flush wall box)
pendant/surface
Sensors for absence dimming
spotlights
downlights
Steinel PIR IS3180
• Lux threshold setting: 2–2000 lx.
• Off delay: 5 sec.–15 min.
Encapsulation class: IP 54.
CP Electronic
MWS-1 Sensor for corridors
Microwave sensor for external mounting
on walls, especially for corridors. The
sensitivity provides good detection of
up to 30x4 m with the sensor placed
at a height of 2.5 m. No dead fields are
formed. The unit is most easily fitted
to a square frame, order no. 86232. No
components are visible, which lends a
discreet appearance to the unit.
The sensitivity and time can be adjusted
variably under the cover.
The sensitivity and time can be adjusted
variably under the cover.
emergency
CP Electronic
MWS-1/C Sensor
Microwave sensor for external mounting
on walls, especially for corridors. The
sensitivity provides good detection of
up to 30x4 m with the sensor placed
at a height of 2.5 m. No dead fields are
formed. The unit is most easily fitted
to a square frame, order no. 86232. No
components are visible, which lends a
discreet appearance to the unit.
light sources
Steinel PIR IS3180
The IS3180 is a PIR occupancy detector
for wall mounting and detects moving
people with a range of up to 20 metres in
all directions. Surveillance angle 180° and
can be used both indoors and outdoors,
e.g. in garages, passageways, stairwells,
sports halls and changing rooms.
• Detection range: Horizontal 180°, vertical 90°, 8–20 m max.
technical info
Novum Compact Passage
PIR occupancy detector for lighting control. Designed for ceiling mounting, recessed in a pattress or surface mounted
in a flush wall box. The detection range
of this sensor makes it particularly suitable for corridors, though it can also be
used in other environments. A separate
input allows the lighting connector to
be controlled manually via a pushbutton or switch. The occupancy detector is
equipped with a 10–1500 lx light relay,
while the output is designed to suit
HF-ballasts, with current limitation to
prevent high start-up currents. The Off
delay can be set from 10 seconds to 20
minutes and also features a self-teaching
function.
• Occupancy detection
• Long, narrow detection area
• On and Off delay
• Light sensor 10–1500 lx
• Pushbutton input
architectural
CP Electronic
MWS-1/C
MWS-1 for corridors
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
465
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Dimming
Analogue 1–10 V direct voltage control (EN 60929)
The majority of dimmable
In addition to the control wires, the phase conductor should also
HF-ballasts are designed in
be connected via the control unit or combined potentiometer/
accordance with the standard
mains switch, as the luminaires can only be switched on and off via
EN 60929 including the control
the mains voltage. It is important to remember this when planning
of HF-ballasts with 1–10 V direct
the cabling, as changes to the installation may be difficult at a later
voltage. The HF-ballast creates
stage.
the requisite control current
The breaking capacity of the potentiometer’s switch should be
itself and in the simplest form
taken into consideration during installation. Even if the potentiom-
a potentiometer (usually linear,
eter is capable of regulating up to 50 HF-ballasts, the capacity of the
about 47 k) is enough for control. Most manufacturers’ potentiom-
switch is usually 5–10 luminaires depending on their load. Contac-
eter controls also include electronics.
tors are needed for greater loads.
The HF-ballast senses the voltage in the control circuit. The
lower the voltage, the lower the lighting level. If the control circuit
Note
is left open, the luminaire lights at full strength in the same way
• When selecting the control system you should take the system’s
as an non-controlled luminaire operates. If the circuit is closed the
and luminaire’s compatibility into consideration. Luminaires
lighting level drops to the minimum value. The minimum level of
designed according to the standard EN 60929 feed the control
luminous flux varies depending on the manufacturer, type and
circuits themselves, which not all analogue control units permit.
light source. Normal minimum levels for linear fluorescent lamps
are 1–5 %, and 3–10 % for compact fluorescent lamps. Check which
levels apply for the luminaire you are interested in.
• There are special demands for running control cables in enclosures
together with other high current cables.
• The polarity of the control circuit must be maintained throughout.
Apart from the phase, neutral and protective conductors, two
Regulation does not work correctly if the polarity is crossed on any
other control circuit wires are connected to the luminaire. The con-
of the luminaires in a group.
trol wires can be placed in the same conduit as the mains voltage
cable feeding the luminaire. Even if the control voltage is a maximum of 10 V the insulation on the control wires must conform to
the demands for a heavy current installation. You must ensure the
polarity is correct when connecting the control circuit as incorrect
connection can mean the installation drops to its minimum state.
Control units
Component
Ensto Busch-Jaeger 2112 recessed
Ensto Busch-Jaeger 2112 surface mounted
Ensto Busch-Jaeger 2112
Rotary potentiometer for recessed installation. Suitable for
light control of a 1–10 V system. Integrated switch with
breaking capacity 4 A (cosf > 0.9). Avoid igniting/extinguishing more than 4 luminaires. Additional contactors
are needed when greater loads are ignited/extinguished. A
maximum of 50 HF-ballasts can be controlled.
466
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
Luminaire
50
50
Breaking capacity
4 A
86080
4 A
86081
Ensto Busch-Jaeger 2112
As to the left, but with surface mounted installation box.
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Dimming
Do not mix HF-ballasts from different
manufacturers or outputs. The control
potentiometers can usually regulate
100 mA (approx. 50 HF-ballasts), yet
have different breaking capacity on the
switch function. Always check the data
from the supplier.
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
L
N
+
-
Rotary potentiometer
for 1–10 V
L
N
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
Do not mix HF-ballasts from different
manufacturers or outputs. The control
potentiometer and control unit can
usually adjust 100 mA (approx. 50 HFballasts) The same control signal can be
connected to HF-ballasts independent
of the feed phase with common switching over the contactor.
Analogue control for 3-phase installations with contactor
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
downlights
+
-
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
Contactor
+
-
+-
Rotary potentiometer
for 1–10 V
L
N
+
-
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
Analogue control for 1-phase installations with on/off function over occupancy detector
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
L
N
+
-
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
Occupancy detector
time setting
lux level
L
N
+
-
spotlights
L
N
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
Occupancy detectors switch the
lighting on and off depending on the
occupancy. The potentiometer’s switch
function does not need to be used, if it
is bypassed the light is always switched
on to the set level with occupancy.
Occupancy detectors from different
manufacturers can be used. Always
ensure that the sensitivity is good and
that the relay function is dimensioned
for the connected load. Setting of a lux
level threshold can be used in premises
with a great deal of daylight. The
function prevents the lighting from
being switched on when there is a lot
of daylight.
architectural
L
N
emergency
+
-
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
light sources
+-
recessed
+
-
HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
system
L
N
industrial
Analogue control for 1-phase installations
pendant/surface
Installation example 1–10 V system
Rotary potentiometer
for 1–10 V
L
N
+
-
technical info
+HF-ballasts Philips,
Osram, Helvar etc.
for analogue control
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Dimming
Fagerhult e-Sense – ActiLume and smartSwitch – Control systems simplified
At Fagerhult we consider economy in lighting control to be the sum
of all parts. Our e-Sense solution is easy to use and install, offering quality in both light treatment and ongoing energy efficiency.
Fagerhults e-Sense luminaires are equipped with integrated light
control; an attractive, easy installation without the need of add-on
or external sensors.
No connections – no problems. Fagerhult e-Sense is the easiest,
quickest way to install light control, insert the plug and the system
is running. The luminaires have a newly developed multi-sensor
that detects movement in the room, measures the incidental light
and adapts the output accordingly.
Our aim has been to eliminate all the hidden costs of installation,
operation and maintenance. To avoid switches and complicated settings. Install a luminaire and get a complete control system.
Control the light yourself, with the help of a pull switch. Refurnish
the office, the luminaire is a separate functioning unit. Timely and
costly reprogramming is no longer necessary.
e-Sense ActiLume
ActiLume is a control system from Philips
seconds (the fluorescent lamps
based on the DALI protocol. The system
flash once). After 30 seconds
consists of a detector and a controller. The
the adjustment is complete (the
sensor has three different parts: a detector
fluorescent lamp flashes again).
for presence, a sensor for daylight control
The delay of 30 seconds is to
and an IR receiver should you want to use a remote control.
permit the removal of objects,
e-Sense ActiLume offers maximum comfort and energy savings
such a step ladders, which may
up to 75 %. The immense potential for energy savings offers the op-
interfere with the sensor recog-
portunity to make a rapid payback on the investment costs
nising the work surface.
ActiLume adjusts the light
The system also offers the user the chance to adjust the light to
a personal level with the help of a retractable switch, pull switch or
level automatically to approximately 80 % of the new light value.
remote­control.
This corresponds to about 600 lx (500 lx + 0.8 maintenance factor)
ActiLume consists of a small, compact sensor unit and a control-
on the work surface in an office with the normal placement of the
ler designed for assembly in the luminaire. ActiLume is a simple
luminaire. Adjustment to 80 % is as the new, maintained, light level
system produced for “plug and
is usually higher than the normal value. You already make savings
play” lighting solutions in office
with this setting.
milieus. The combination oc-
You can easily choose one of two standard functions by press-
cupancy detector – light sensor
ing the sensor unit’s service button (press for less than 3 seconds).
– dimmable HF-ballasts gives a
When the button is released, the fluorescent lamps indicate by
vast range of choices. With the
flashing once or twice:
experience of knowing which
• One flash = “Mode 1” Office room (light switched off approx.
combinations are used the
most, you can easily attain the
e-Sense ActiLume installed in the body
of Ten° Line Lamell.
15 minutes after the last occupancy detection).
• Two flashes = “Mode 2” Open-plan office (light control adjusts
perfect solution for light control
down to a low level after the last occupancy and is switched off
in an office.
completely after 2 hours).
Start of ActiLume installation
Manual control
To start an ActiLume installation is easy – insert the plug! ActiLume
A non-locking switch can be connected to the manual light control,
has a factory setting that automatically sets the lighting level,
quickly pressing for On/Off. Pressing and holding provides a dimmer
however, it should be adapted to reflect the lighting requirements
function.
for the room in which its installed. NOTE! Avoid the influence of
daylight when doing this! Press the service button for more than 3
468
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Dimming
e-Sense
e-Sense smartSwitch
smartSwitch is an on/off-sensor that controls the
connected luminaire via the mains voltage. There
pendant/surface
is also a model with pull dim for individual setting
of the lighting level available. smartSwitch gives
automatic ignition/extinguishing controlled by
presence and the ambient light. The presence detection can be set
with a delay of between 1 to 30 minutes.
When the amount of ambient light (daylight) is sufficient the
recessed
lighting is switched off, the lighting level that activates switching off
can be set between 50–2000 lx. This function can be omitted.
e-Sense smartSwitch absence dampening
A control function adapted to a room in an
system
office which is used sparingly, for example,
a copying room, stockroom, corridors or a
cloakroom. The lighting level is set at a constant low level to counteract the impression of a darkened room. Any presence is detected and
the lighting is adjusted to 100 %. The time delay to return to the low
industrial
level (10 %) can be short unlike control with a switch off function
where you need to avoid unnecessary starting of the fluorescent
lamp. If you wish to switch off the luminaire completely, this can
be done centrally once working hours are over. In addition, with
the setting for lux on/off you can prevent control if there is already
downlights
sufficient light in the room. Adjustment of the time and lux level are
made on the rear of the sensor.
smartSwitch consists of a small sensor unit and the combined relay/
power supply. The capacity of the relay is 200 VA, which means you
can connect one or two HF-ballasts for ignition/extinguishing.
spotlights
The sensor is a PIR-unit
with a detection range of approx. 4x3 metres in a pendant
luminaire. Within this area the
architectural
sensor detects IR radiation from
the body which is communicated to the relay, resulting in the
luminaire switching on. The sensor unit has a lux level setting,
a threshold value that prevents
the sensor from reacting to
emergency
e-Sense smartSwitch placed in the
louvre on a Closs Beta.
occupancy if there is sufficient
light in the room. This setting has been removed in luminaires with
Dragdim, so that you can always manually switch on and switch off
in a light room.
light sources
smartSwitch has been developed for various applications including cellular and open plan offices, entrances, corridors and small
technical info
meeting rooms.
Fagerhults Loop Light luminaire can be retro-fitted with an end-cap
inclusive of a smartSwitch sensor in an existing HF-std Loop Light;
offering the ability to make savings via smartSwitch On/Off in a
pre-installed system.
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Dimming
e-Sense ActiLume
ActiLume offers maximal comfort and automatic energy saving.
ActiLume adapts the level of light to the surrounding environment
and when the room is not in use the light is switched off.
ActiLume offers maximum comfort and automatic energy saving.
ActiLume adapts the level of light to the surrounding environment
and when the room is not in use the light is switched off. When the
sensor detects presence, the system automatically switches the
light on. If there is sufficient daylight in a room the level is automatically dampened. The light is switched off when the room has been
empty for some time. As light is only on when needed, the system
can give the energy savings up to 75 %.
The images below demonstrate the
different scenarios which occur during a
working day, while the graph highlights
the changes in energy consumption
within this period.
Occupancy detector
Presence control switches
the lighting on and off
automatically. After the last
presence detection the lighting is switched off with a 15
minutes delay.
Manual control (touch)
Full manual control via pull
dim in the luminaire or retractive switch on the wall.
Daylight control
A sensor adapts the lighting
output to the amount of
incidental light (natural light).
If there is no daylight,
this function regulates the
light output to maintain the
required illumination level.
Channel B 30 % offset
Channel B has a 30 % offset,
which means that channel B
starts to be regulated when
channel A drops to 70 %.
When channel A is regulated
to 10 %, channel B is then set
to 40 %.
IR-receiver
To control and programme
using the remote control if
required. The remote control
is an accessory.
Energy
100 %
Night: The office is in darkness.
Incidental daylight reduces the luminaire light accordingly, also known as
daylight control.
07:45 am: The luminaire is switched on
with presence as the daylight does not
satisfy the lighting requirements.
Adjustment is performed slowly and
constantly according to a set value. Uplight is set +30 % above the downlight.
Pendant 2-lamp luminaire
Choices for occupancy detector:
• Automatic ON Automatic OFF (delay
15 minutes).
Pendant 3-lamp luminaire
Choices for occupancy detector:
• Automatic ON Automatic OFF (delay
15 minutes).
• Manual ON (with a light level over 600
lx) Automatic OFF (delay 15 minutes).
(Always adjusts to low level before
OFF).
• Manual ON (with a light level over 600
lx) Automatic OFF (delay 15 minutes).
(Always adjusts to low level before
OFF).
Choices for daylight sensor:
• Automatic setting to 600 lx.
Choices for daylight sensor:
• Automatic setting to 600 lx.
• Manual setting adjustment.
• Manual setting adjustment.
Choices for manual control:
• Dragdim or retractable switch on/off
and control.
Choices for manual control:
• Dragdim or retractable switch on/off
and common control of downlight/
uplight.
• IR-transmitter on/off and control
(accessory).
Lunch: After the last presence is detected, the light is reduced and switched
off after 15 minutes.
The luminaire is not ignited by presence
as sufficient light is provided by incidental daylight.
Manual or automatic control to satisfy
the lighting requirement.
After the last presence, the light is reduced and switched off after 15 minutes.
470
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• IR-transmitter on/off and control
(accessory).
Special functions:
• 30 % Offset, uplight adjusted to 30 %
above the downlight with dampening.
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Dimming
Night: The office is in darkness.
Occupancy detector
Presence control switches
the lighting on and off. After
the last presence detection
the light is automatically switched off. The time
between detection and
switching off is adjustable,
1–30 minutes.
Lux level setting
Setting the threshold value
prevents the occupancy
detector reacting when
daylight is sufficient.
07:56 am: Automatic ignition.
Manual control
Manual control is only
available in smartSwitch
Dragdim luminaires.
Manual control of uplight and downlight.
The light is switched off according to the
time set on the sensor, approximately
15 minutes.
Energy
100 %
smartSwitch with absence dampening
Absence dampening
The occupancy detector
adjusts to a high light level
on detection and returns
to a low level after a short
period of time. No switch
off function.
The delay after the last occupancy is short,
1–30 minutes.
After the set time, the light is adjusted
down to the basic level.
downlights
The light switches to a higher level when
presence is detected.
Energy
e-Sense smartSwitch On/Off
e-Sense smartSwitch
e-Sense smartSwitch absence dampening
Choices for occupancy detector:
• Automatic ON/OFF (set time 1–30 minutes).
Choices for occupancy detector:
• Automatic absence dampening 100–10 %
(adjustable time 1–30 min).
–pendant 2 and 3-lamp luminaire with dimmable
HF-ballast
– luminaire with dimmable HF-ballast
• Not ON (when the lux level is above the set value)
Automatic OFF.
Choices for the Lux sensor:
• Not ON with high lux level.
• Manual modification of the lux level threshold
(50–2000 lx).
Note:
• The luminaire does not have a dimmable HF-ballast,
the function is only ON/OFF.
Fagerhults Loop Light luminaire can be retro-fitted with
an end-cap inclusive of a smartSwitch sensor in an existing HF-std Loop Light; offering the ability to make savings via smartSwitch On/Off in a pre-installed system.
Choices for manual control 2-lamp luminaire:
• Pull cord ON/OFF and common control of the
Downlight/Uplight.
Choices for manual control 3-lamp luminaire:
• Pull cord ON/OFF and control of the Downlight.
Choices for the Lux sensor:
• Not ON with high lux level.
• Manual modification of the lux level threshold
(50–2000 lx).
• Pull cord ON/OFF and control of the Uplight.
Special functions:
• The luminaire is equipped with an ECO-lp HF-ballast
with memory function when switched off.
technical info
Choices for occupancy detector:
• Automatic ON/OFF (set time 1–30 minutes).
light sources
emergency
– luminaires without dimmable HF-ballasts
100 %
architectural
spotlights
The light is set to a low basic level.
industrial
The images to the left demonstrates
the different lighting scenarios which
occur during a working day. The graph
highlights how the energy use drops
significantly when Absence dampening is used. Depending on the type
of premises, it may be appropriate to
switch off the lighting completely during the night using a time controller.
recessed
The images to the left show a combination of manual control and occupancy
detection. The graph demonstrates how
the energy consumption varies throughout the course of the day.
system
Combination manual/smartSwitch
pendant/surface
e-Sense smartSwitch
Note:
• Do not use the lux level setting. If the room is light and
the sensor does not ignite, the cord will not work.
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Dimming
Installation example large office with e-Sense ActiLume
The investment in enhancing the lighting an office is a fraction of
the costs of the actual personnel. Using lighting control you can create a visual stimulating working environment- while off-setting the
costs with energy savings.
e-Sense luminaires are equipped with their own sensor helping
to save installation time on-site.
Advantages:
• Plug connection.
• Automatic switching on.
• Adjustment to a low level (20 %) after 15 minutes.
• Control with pull cord, no need for switches.
• Individual adjustment and on/off.
• Daylight control.
• Occupancy detector.
Zora luminaires with integrated control for individual light above workplaces.
• Central switching after working hours.
• Easy programming with IR-transmitter.
Proposal for the installation of control in
correct setting on ActiLume you get a constant basic light of 20 %
an office
on all luminaires at unoccupied workplaces.
The personal demands for light are as
Even luminaires that have been manually switched off drop down
varied as the number of individuals at
to 20 % light after 15 minutes, which creates a good light that saves
a workplace. With employees regularly
energy and light sources.
leaving the office at different times light adjustments are require-
Programming is easy using IR-transmitter IRT 86155. Central
ment.
switching means that no energy is consumed in the form of
Using the effective e-Sense solution ActiLume in the luminaires,
standby power. Individual control with a pull switch means the cost
you get quick and easy installation and programming. Earlier at-
of installing switches in modular walls is eliminated.
tempts with individual occupancy detection created problems with
extremely dark areas in the office after some personnel had left for
the day, creating an uneasy feeling for those remaining. With the
IRT 8010
Product
Zora Beta 2x35 W with integrated e-Sense ActiLume
IRT 8099
Accessories e-Sense ActiLume
Designation
Function
IRT 8010
Remote control with 2 buttons
IRT 8050
Wall mounted remote control with 2 buttons
IRT 8099
Remote control for programming
LRM 8118
External occupancy detector
IRT 8050
IRT 8010 and IRT 8050
The units have only two buttons, one
to switch on/increase the light level
and one to switch off/reduce the light
level. To adjust the light levels aim the
transmitter towards the ActiLume sensor
in the luminaire. The same control functions are offered by the transmitter IRT
8050 for fixed wall installation.
472
28700-308
LRM 8118
IRT 8099
Should you require a modified function,
several modes can be programmed
with the help of the remote control
IRT 8099. The system comes with nine
pre-programmed modes for e.g. schools,
corridors, etc.
LRM 8118
If you wish to detect presence over a
greater area, one or more detectors type
LRM 8118 can be connected to one of
the DALI terminals in the luminaire.
No programming or commissioning is
necessary. LRM 8118 is ideally placed in
the ceiling, and has a detection area of
approximately 7x7 metres. LRM 8118 is
only an occupancy detector.
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86153
86151
86155
86152
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Dimming
Installation example two-person office with e-Sense ActiLume
Recessed luminaires in are often selected in buildings with low
ceiling heights or where there is a desire for an unbroken ceiling
aesthetic. e-Sense ActiLume is a practical alternative to a switch by
pendant/surface
the door. Setting the daylight function and the occupancy detector
is easy and can always be adjusted. Luminaires placed away from
windows are controlled with a 30 % offset.
Advantages:
• Automatic switching on.
recessed
• Automatic switching off after 15 minutes.
• Offset 30 % for luminaires placed away from windows.
• Manual control if necessary.
• Daylight control.
• Easy programming with IR-transmitter.
The combination sensors in the luminaire and external occupancy detectors ensures
complete coverage in a large room.
• Connection using Wieland connectors as an option.
system
• Occupancy detectors linked for a larger area.
Proposal for the installation of control in a large office
impossible to achieve without an advanced bus system. Today it
while additionally benefiting from energy savings.
is pre-set with a master sensor placed in a luminaire. If the need
Daylight control coordinates all the recessed luminaires, so that
arises, occupancy detection within the room can be expanded using
those positioned further in the room have an offset, that is 30 %
extra sensors. Functions over and above the standard options can
higher than those closer to the windows and working area. With
be programmed with IR-transmitter 86155.
e-Sense ActiLume, luminaires by the window are assigned to channel 1 (window row) with further rows within the area assigned to
channel 2 (inner placement in the room) ensuring that the depreciation of daylight in the room is compensated for.
Product
MultiFive Basic Beta 3x14 W Master with integrated e-Sense ActiLume
MultiFive Basic Beta 3x14 W DALI (max 10 connected to Master)
External occupancy detector
25483-308
25483-368
86152
industrial
This function has previously been sought, but was practical
by an optimum level of light for working conditions is produced
downlights
An effective lighting solution in large office can be achieved where-
This produces an adjustable, but even light over the entire room.
For instance, when the window row is adjusted to 40 %, the inner
Luminaires by
the windows
DALI 1
Pulse switch
by the door
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
Master luminaire
D1
D2
Luminaires by
the corridor
D1
D2
External
occupancy detector
(86152)
HF-ballasts
DALI
D1
D2
CONTROL UNIT
HF-ballasts
DALI
HF-ballasts
DALI
SENSOR UNIT
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
473
emergency
DALI 2
light sources
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Installation in a two-person office with
e-Sense ActiLume. The different control
functions are connected to the master
luminaire, which is placed in the row by
the windows. Automatic switching on
with occupancy. After the last detection
the lighting is adjusted down to 20 %.
After two hours the lighting is switched
off completely. This setting can be easily
changed to only a 15 minute delay
by pressing the service button on the
ActiLume sensor once.
Luminaires in the row by the corridor,
furthest from the incidental daylight,
are controlled via the DALI 2 lines, which
has an offset of 30 % from DALI 1. This
means that the luminaries furthest in
the room give more light in the dimmed
state. The size of the office room usually
demands occupancy detection to be supplemented with en extra sensor which
is placed centrally in the ceiling (86152).
The lighting can be adjusted manually
with a pulse switch by the door.
technical info
Two-person office with e-Sense ActiLume
architectural
spotlights
rows will be at 70 %, i.e. a 30 % offset.
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Dimming
Installation example Open-plan office with e-Sense ActiLume
General lighting in the open-plan office can be made more effective
if the installation is planned in advance and adapted to the daily
activities, reacting to both occupancy and the level of incidental
light in the space. Luminaires placed away from the windows are
controlled with a 30 % offset. Low light level with absenteeism, but
not switched off. This is effective control in an open-plan office.
Advantages:
• Automatic switching on.
• Automatic adjustment to 20 % after 15 minutes.
• Offset 30 % for luminaires placed further in the room.
• Manual control if necessary.
• Daylight control.
• Occupancy detectors linked for a larger area.
• Easy programming with IR-transmitter.
Indigo Combo Beta luminaires. The combination of ActiLume sensors in master luminaires and external occupancy detectors means that detection will be complete.
Proposal for the installation of control in a large office
General lighting for the open-plan office can easily be made more
sought, but was practical impossible to achieve without an advanced
effective. Grouping the luminaires into zones based on location and
bus system. Today it is pre-set with a master sensor placed in a
window position, ensures you can get the right amount of light
luminaire.
when working, and at the same time a solution that is in harmony
The lighting zone can cover about 8 workplaces (depending on the
with today’s approach to energy. Daylight control becomes more ef-
furnishing) and 11 luminaires. Occupancy detection within the zone
fective and easier to manage if the detection and adjustment areas
is expanded by extra occupancy detectors connected to the same
are not too different in size. Using an e-Sense ActiLume master lumi-
control signal as the luminaires. Functions over and above the stand-
naire placed in the window row and connected luminaires assigned
ard options can be programmed with IR-transmitter 86155.
to channel 1 (window row) and channel 2 (inner placement in the
room) the depreciation of daylight in the room is compensated by a
30 % offset for the inner luminaires.
This gives an adjustable, but even light over the entire area. For
Product
Indigo Combo Beta 2x24 W Master with integrated e-Sense ActiLume
Indigo Combo Beta 2x24 W DALI (max 10 connected to master)
External occupancy detector
24894-308
28894-368
86152
example, if the window row is adjusted to 40 %, the inner rows are
dimmed to 70 %, i.e. a 30 % offset. This function has previously been
Large office with e-Sense ActiLume
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
DALI 2
Luminaires by
the corridor
Luminaires by
the windows
DALI 1
D1
D2
D1
D2
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
HF-ballasts
DALI
External occupancy
detector 86152
HF-ballasts
DALI
Master luminaire
D1
D2
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
D1
D2
D1
D2
External occupancy
detector 86152
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
HF-ballasts
DALI
HF-ballasts
DALI
HF-ballasts
DALI
CONTROL UNIT
SENSOR UNIT
474
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Installation in an open-plan office with
e-Sense ActiLume. The zone that one
ActiLume system controls covers max.
11 luminaires, in this example eight
luminaires. If the office is larger, parallel
systems are installed that are adjusted
individually. The different control functions are connected to the master
luminaire, which is placed in the row by
the window. Automatic switching on
with occupancy. After the last detection
the lighting is adjusted down to 20 %.
After two hours the lighting is switched
off completely. This setting can easily be
changed with an IR-transmitter (86155)
for programming.
Luminaires in the row by the corridor,
furthest from the incidental daylight,
are controlled via the DALI 2 line, which
has an offset of 30 % from DALI 1. This
means that the luminaries furthest in
the room give more light in the dimmed
state. The size of the office room usually
demands occupancy detection to be
supplemented with one or more extra
sensors, which are placed centrally in
the ceiling (86152).
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Dimming
Installation example Classroom with e-Sense ActiLume
Within a classroom environment e-Sense ActiLume offers many
advantages. The lighting control is adapted to the size of the room,
automatically incorporating the luminaires which are positioned
pendant/surface
away from the window. Installation costs are kept to a minimum
thanks to the ease of installation and commissioning.
Advantages:
• Automatic switching on/off or only switching off.
• Daylight control.
recessed
• Offset control of luminaires by the corridor.
• Control by door and AV panels.
• Control integrated in standard pushbuttons.
• Quick programming using IR-transmitters.
Dimming gives the right light during lessons and saves energy.
system
The sensor is pre-fitted in one of the luminaires in the row by the
windows; acting as a master luminaire. The sensor offers occupancy
detection and daylight control, which can be easily accessed via a
IR-receiver and a service button. Other luminaires are connected to
the master luminaire on two different DALI connections. The luminaires away from the windows are adjusted with an offset of 30 %
Product
Master luminaire Ten° Line Beta 2x35 W with ActiLume sensor
Luminaire Ten° Line Beta 2x35 W DALI
Luminaire Lento 2x1x35 W DALI
External occupancy detector
26243-308
26243-368
19861-368
86152
compared to those located by the windows. The inclusion of offset
control creates a balanced illumination over the whole area, which
industrial
Proposal for the installation of control in classrooms
previously was only possible using an advanced bus system. After
downlights
installation, a maintained illumination level of approximately
500 lx can be achieved by pressing the service button on the sensor
and activating daylight control. The desired light level and other
functions can be easily changed with an IR-transmitter 86155.
Depending on the design of an older installation, energy con-
Luminaires by
the corridor
Luminaires by
the window
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
D1
D2
Master luminaire
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
D1
D2
CONTROL UNIT
DALI 2
SENSOR UNIT
External occupancy
detector 86152
D1
D2
DALI 1
HF-ballasts
DALI
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
Switches
HF-ballasts
DALI
technical info
Switches
HF-ballasts
DALI
Whiteboard lighting
D1
D2
HF-ballasts
DALI
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
emergency
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Installation in a classroom with
e-Sense ActiLume. The different control
functions are connected to the master
luminaire, which is placed in the middle
of the row by the windows. Luminaires
in the row by the corridor, furthest from
the incidental daylight, are controlled
via the DALI 2 line, which has an offset
of 30 % from DALI 1. Resulting in the
luminaries furthest in the room providing more light in the dimmed state. The
size of the classroom usually demands
occupancy detection to be supplemented with en extra sensor which is placed
centrally in the ceiling.
Ceiling lighting is controlled using
the pulse switch by the door. The whiteboard lighting can also be switched off
separately.
light sources
Classroom with e-Sense ActiLume
architectural
spotlights
sumption can be reduced by up to 80 %.
475
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e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
Quick connection system for controlling using e-Sense ActiLume
The e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box was designed particularly
for use in lecture rooms, but equally lends itself to an office environment or rooms where the installation can be hidden above a
suspended ceiling.
The installation and ongoing use of lighting solutions with control
systems can often a complicated process. At an early stage a good
understanding of the features of the control system is vital to avoid
planning mistakes. Time can be needlessly wasted changing the
installation, or simply starting again from the beginning.
As a control system, the e-Sense ActiLume is already prepared
for simple deployment. Minimal effort is required to implement
an installation on site, and changes can easily be made using an IR
transmitter, or simply via a tip of a pen.
To aid the installation turning into a more modern, flexible and
quick solution, there is a choice of luminaires ready for connection to a specially made connection box. With virtually everything
already connected. Connect the power to the box and all luminaires
can then be connected one at a time without needing to disconnect the power. This reduces the risk of mixing up the connections,
e-Sense ActiLume Connection box
ActiLume Connection Box (complete)
Wieland T-connector
Wieland Connector cable, L= 3.0 m
ActiLume 86152 External sensor
IR transmitter for programming (IRT8099)
88220
91026
88222
86152
86155
facilitating a quick, safe installation. All functions can be connected
or disconnected without risk.
For maintenance work, the power does not need to be disconnected. The luminaire can simply be disconnected from the box or
splice connection. During maintenance work, the other luminaires
in the room will remain lit to facilitate work. A luminaire can also be
removed and maintenance work carried out elsewhere.
We have chosen the Wieland GST connection system as standard
for this solution.
e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
Connection box prepared for connection
of master and slave luminaires, etc.
Connectors included for:
• Feed 230 V (black).
• Pulse switch (brown).
• Switch (brown).
• External occupancy detector (grey).
• Connection of board illumination
(5-pole, blue).
Example of Master luminaire for connection to e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
DTI 28924-321
DTI Type 2 Beta 2x35 W, with e-Sense
ActiLume sensor and complete cable
rack, screened and halogen-free.
Example of Slave luminaire for connection to e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
DTI 28924-325
DTI Type 2 Beta 2x35 W, with complete
cable rack, screened and halogen free.
The advantages of the e-Sense ActiLume
Connection Box
• Luminaires complete with all cable
racks – no knowledge required for connecting the parts.
Control functions
• Occupancy detection with a choice of
automatic or manual switch on.
• Quick connection in connection box –
each function clearly marked.
• Manual control via a momentary
pushbutton for On/Off and adjustment.
• All connectors for external functions
included with delivery – no knowledge
required for ordering component parts.
• Comprehensive installation instructions
included in the pack.
• The control system works immediately
following power-up.
• Easy programming, either directly on
the master luminaire or using the IR
transmitter.
476
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• Adjustment for daylight according to
pre-set level. Can easily be changed.
• Switches off after 15 minutes or
changes to a lower light level depending on the choice of “mode”.
• Offset function. Luminaires at greater
distances from windows can be connected to a DALI 2 for 30 % offset. This
means the light is regulated with an
offset of 30 % from the setting on the
master luminaire.
The system is supplied in factory setting
modes 1 and 2. Program using IR transmitter 86155 for a choice of 7 additional
“modes”.
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e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
Complete solution for lecture-rooms with suspended ceilings
Nowadays the need lighting layouts and controls in a lecture-room
Lecture-room 1 Lecture-room 2
6
9
Connection box incl. all connectors that
are necessary
1
1
luminaires including luminaires above the whiteboard.
Master luminaire DTI Type 2 Beta 2x35 W 28924-321,
1
complete with mains cables, L=3.0 m¹⁾ and connectors,
including fluorescent lamps and wire suspension.
1
A complete solution, with e-Sense ActiLume as the control system,
Slave luminaire DTI Type 2 Beta 2x35 W 28924-325,
complete with mains cables, L=3.0 m¹⁾ and 5 way
connectors, including fluorescent lamps and wire
suspension
5
8
Whiteboard Lento 1x35 W 19843-368, white,
complete with dimmable HF-ballast (mains
cable not included)
Cables for connections between luminaires, L=3 m
Connectors (T-connector)
External occupancy detector
¹⁾ All cables are screened and halogen free.
1
1
3
3
1
6
6
1
combines quick installation with unbeatable characteristics and
advantages in regards to both use and maintenance. Control with
occupancy, incidental daylight and manual control optimise energy
savings, at the same time as providing an excellent lighting solution.
The system can save up to 60–70 % energy compared with an older
installation.
The e-Sense ActiLume Connection box is a quick, efficient and
recessed
solution for a standard lecture room comprising six or nine ceiling
pendant/surface
Complete lecture-room delivery
Lecture-room, number of ceiling luminaires
is well-defined and fully tested. Fagerhult has developed a standard
complete method to install a light controlled solution. Standard
installation cable is only needed for the cable lengths that cannot be
system
determined in advance: cables to the whiteboard lighting (5-core),
pushbuttons by the door and by the whiteboard lighting (2-core),
and for external occupancy detectors (2-core).
industrial
Advantages of the complete solution for lecture-rooms
• An order comprises a complete lighting solution with control for
one lecture-room, with pendant luminaires and whiteboard lighting.
• Two different solutions are offered, one with six luminaires DTI
for lecture-rooms 8x6 m, one with nine luminaires DTI for lecture
downlights
rooms 9x7.5 m.
• Whiteboard lighting complete with DALI HF-ballast, Lento 1x35 W.
• Easy programming, either directly on the master luminaire or using the IR transmitter.
Master luminaire
Slave luminaire External occupancy detector 86152
Slave luminaire Slave luminaire Slave luminaire 230 V
Whiteboard luminaire e-Sense
ActiLume
Connection
Box
Impulse switch
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emergency
Switch
light sources
Slave luminaire Example of an installation in a
lecture-room with 6 ceiling luminaires.
Connection box placed in the vicinity
of the master luminaire. The remaining
luminaires are connected on the two
outputs: DALI 1 for dimming in line with
the master luminaire, DALI 2 for dimming with 30 % offset.
The cables (5) marked in black are
standard wiring cables where the length
cannot be defined in advance and are
not included in the delivery. Connectors
to the box are included.
technical info
Classroom installation with e-Sense ActiLume Connection Box
architectural
spotlights
For more information please contact our customer services.
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Dimming
Installation example Absence dampening stores with e-Sense smartSwitch
Lighting can be made more efficient with energy savings in many
areas within office environments. The light in stores, filing rooms
and stationery rooms is nearly always switched on continuously
irrespective of whether there is someone in the room or not. Now
you can easily install effective light control with large potential for
savings.
Advantages:
• Plug connection.
• Automatic switching on.
• Adjustment to a low level (10 %) after a chosen time, adjustable
1–30 minutes.
• Occupancy detectors integrated in the luminaire.
• Centralised switching after hours optimises savings.
Proposals for the installation of controls in stores
smartSwitch absence dampening results in significant energy savings in rooms that
are seldom used or used only briefly.
Lighting in offices represents 30–40 % of the energy consumption. This comprises not only of the
lighting load, but mainly the additional load required to counteract
Product
Ten° Line Lamell with integrated e-Sense smartSwitch absence dampening 26128-218
the additional heat produced. The cooling requirement is great for
approximately nine months of the year. If you can avoid using the
installed supplementary cooling you will save a great deal of energy.
With a new approach you can make virtually all premises energy
efficient. The effective use of lighting in office ancillary areas can be
as low as 5 %. The lighting is usually left on constantly out of habit
rather than necessity.
Using a luminaire with e-Sense smartSwitch for absence dampening can offer energy savings of up to 80 %. No external sensors or
switches are required. The luminaire ignites quickly to 100 % with
occupancy and adjusts down to 10 % after the set time. The time
delay after occupancy can be as short as 1 minute, which optimises savings. As the light is not switched off completely, it can be
switched on as much as you like without affecting the fluorescent
lamp’s cathodes and with that its life.
478
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Dimming
Luminaires with hidden microwave sensor
without affecting its design or insulation class. Fagerhult offers a
selection of luminaires with this technology to suit various areas of
application and needs.
The table shows how the properties of a microwave sensor differ
from those of a normal PIR (Passive Infra-Red) sensor. A microwave
sensor can detect movement on the other side of a thin wall, such
as one made of plaster. This function is particularly beneficial in
areas such as WC’s, whereby the light be switched on prior to the
door being opened. The sensitivity (or the detection range), however, can be reduced to avoid erroneous detection.
A microwave sensor should not be placed close to ventilation
Function/property
Hidden in luminaire
Detects infra-red heat in motion
Detects objects in motion
Can be placed in a suspended luminaire
Detects through walls/glass
Adjustable detection range
Relay output
Adjustable Off time
Adjustable lux threshold
On/Off function
Absence dimming function
Slave connection
Microwave sensor
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes ²⁾
Yes
Yes
Yes
PIR sensor
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No ¹⁾
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
pendant/surface
based on microwave technology can be hidden in the luminaire
Comparison between sensors
recessed
Fagerhult offers luminaires with some unique functions. A sensor
¹⁾ The detection range of a PIR sensor can be reduced by partially covering the lens
with tape, for example.
²⁾ Lux threshold can be used when the light of the luminaire is not directly reflected into
the photocell. This happens in luminaries with an opal diffuser, so the use of a lux threshold is not recommended with microwave sensors placed in luminaires.
outlets or large metal surfaces as this may cause the sensor to
system
detect movement constantly. The settings for sensitivity, time after
last movement and lux threshold are adjusted in fixed steps on the
sensor module. The relay output can be loaded differently, depen-
Luminaire with sensor
Max. 4 m
Luminaire with sensor
ding on whether you are switching on/off one or more luminaires,
or using the relay to adjust the lighting between various levels,
industrial
360°
referred to as absence dimming or corridor function.
How does a microwave sensor work?
Ø<8m
Like a radar, the sensor sends out a signal with a power rating of less
reflected signal changes, the sensor detects a movement. The power
of a sensor is around a hundredth of that emitted by a mobile phone.
Ceiling mounting with max. sensitivity.
Sensitivity can be adjusted in fixed steps
of 20, 30, 50, 75 and 100 %.
NOTE! A microwave sensor can detect
movement on the other side of a thin
wall.
spotlights
Connection ON/OFF – master luminaire and maximum two slave luminaire
L1
N
PE
Master luminaire
E
N
L
HF-ballast
Slave luminaire
The luminaires are equipped with standard HF-ballasts for
On/Off. The master and slave luminaires switch off after the
last movement and once the delay has expired.
Due to the properties of the sensor’s relay, only two lumi-
E
N
L
HF-ballast
architectural
Sensor
L
N
E
Slave luminaire
naires (two HF-ballasts) can be connected as slaves. It makes
no difference if a number of sensor luminaires are connected
in parallel in the same function. The master luminaire is connected with 4-core and the slave luminaires with 3-core.
The Discovery with microwave sensor.
emergency
HF-ballast
Connections CORRIDOR FUNCTION– master luminaire and two slave luminaire
L1
N
PE
Master luminaire
E
N
L
HF-ballast
Slave luminaire
Along with the Tridonics HF-ballast, the relay in the microwave
sensor can be used for a corridor function. Instead of disconnecting the power to the HF-ballast, a control cable is connected
to the relay output of the sensor, thus regulating the light. The
relay is closed by someone’s presence and provides full lighting
immediately. After the last detected presence and the expiry of
the delay, the light is slowly adjusted down to 10 %.
As the relay is not loaded with any power, a larger number
of luminaires can be connected to the same control. Additional master luminaires can be added to the installation. The
E
N
L
HF-ballast
light sources
Sensor
L
N
E
Slave luminaire
installation can only be done as a 1-phase installation. Certain
luminaires with sensors and connections for corridor function
can only be used at 75 % sensitivity due to interference between
the frequency of the fluorescent lamps and the sensor. The
master luminaire and slave luminaires are connected with
4-core. The HF-ballast is the Tridonic Excel One4all or the ECO-lp
T5 (for compact fluorescent lamps, only the One4all is suitable).
In special cases, the One4all ballast can also be programmed for
other functions.
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technical info
HF-ballast
downlights
than 10 mW, which is then reflected back. When the time of the
479
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Dimming
LED DALI Control
Luminaires with automatic or programmable
control
LEDs are available as light sources in various colours. The first, and
most usual, colour of an LED is red. It is normally combined with
%
green and blue, and in special cases also yellow (to create a warmer,
white light). The term RGB control is normally used for LEDs in the
colours red, green and blue. By mixing and combining the three
colours in various strengths, it is possible to create around 65,000
different colours. To create your own colours, some form of control
Time
unit or interface is required to a piece of software that communicates via DALI or DMX512.
A luminaire such as Pozzo with RGB control and a DALI interface
Example of automatic RGB sequence.
is also supplied with automatic sequence control. When the power
is connected to the luminaire’s LED module, the sequence starts
immediately. Pozzo has separate connections for fluorescent lamps
and LEDs. Using two switches, this allows you to choose between
normal fluorescent lighting or RGB control. If the fluorescent lamp
is switched on, the different light intensity means the RGB control
is barely noticeable. If a number of luminaires with automatic sequence control are located in the same room, after a while you will
notice a difference between the various sequences as the colours
will be out of step when changing.
Programmable RGB control
If the interface module in the Pozzo is connected to a DALI system
DALI
with an external power supply and software, the automatic sequence control will cease. The three channels for red, green and blue
Pozzo
will then function as standard DALI loads.
DALI
PSU
DALI
interface
DALI
Panel
DALI
SQM
DALI
Router
Each colour will become a DALI address, so 10 RGB controls will
acquire 30 DALI addresses. Control can be handled in different ways.
Pozzo
A DALI SQM can control all units if you wish to continue with automatic sequence control.
For manual control in fixed scenes after programming, a pushbutton panel can be used, for example a DALI Touch panel with 4
scenes and Off function. For advanced control, a DALI router can be
Pozzo
A PC, with the required software, is used for programming.
used to control all imaginable functions.
When an RGB luminaire is powered up, the colour changes of the sequence control
start automatically. If a particular colour is required, the luminaire or luminaires in a
480
room can be programmed to show the desired colour or all change simultaneously.
It is also possible to create various light scenes selected using a panel.
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Dimming
DMX control
DMX512 is a standard protocol developed for controlling lighting
and dimmers from a lighting board in theatre environments. As it
has a high transmission speed, it places certain demands on installation and the choice of cables and connectors.
DMX is also available in a recently updated
dressed using DMX cable and software. This
requires the loads and the software to be
correctly selected. The most common method
of DMX addressing uses DIP switches on each device.
pendant/surface
version, RDM, that enables loads to be ad-
Installations
DMX is highly suitable for use in fixed
installations using standard network cables
normally used for computers. DMX cables
recessed
DMX control has now found applications in other environments
due to developments in light sources and requirements for coloured
lighting in outdoor applications etc. DMX, RGB and LED are often
considered equivalent. Put simply, DMX uses a control unit to control all the loads.
DMX is under development
and connectors used to be made for theatre
applications, with far too many variations
Luminaire
Luminaire
Luminaire
Control unit
and an unnecessarily robust design. Fagerhult prefers to use Cat-5
DMX is a centralised control system.
system
connectors and we recommend cables of the same standard.
Basic rules for installation
When installing it is important to follow the recommendations for a
industrial
reliable system.
• Use Cat-5 or better network cables.
• Always connect cables from device to device.
• Never create branches or closed loops.
• Never finish with an unused cable loop.
• Loads greater than 20 in number need to be distributed using a
downlights
DMX compared with DALI
Comparing DMX with DALI reveals more differences than similarities. The development of DALI focused on energy-efficient fluorescent tube lighting in public environments where people stay and
work. The impact of DALI has been enormous despite this limitation,
but its simplicity was the decisive factor. Multiple control units can
control all or parts of the loads.
multiplexer (distribution device).
Control unit
Daisy chain
The technical expression ‘daisy chain’ describes a method of connecting devices in series (although in fact all devices are connected
in parallel). This applies in particular to DMX. To simplify installation,
and make it easier to connect further devices, Fagerhult use two
connectors in some luminaires, such as the Pleiad LED wallwasher.
Control unit
spotlights
Luminaire Luminaire
Large installations also require the loop to be balanced using an
If in doubt, contact Fagerhult for information on how to proceed
with a system.
Control protocols
Speed
Number of addresses
Multiple devices with the same address
Automatic addressing
Centralised control
Decentralised control
Cable length
Cable requirement
End-of-line resistor
DALI
Slow
64
No 1)
Yes
No
Yes
300 m
No
No
DMX
Fast
512
Yes
No 2)
Yes
No
300 m
Yes, Cat-5
Yes
Converters for 1-10 V are common.
2)
RDM luminaires can be addressed using software.
1)
emergency
DALI/DMX comparison
DMX-components
Control panels
Philips Colour Chaser Touch
Philips ToBeTouched RGB
Philips ToBeTouched White
Control panel incl. PSU
RGB control panel
Colour-temperature-change control panel
86240
86241
86242
Power supply for ToBeTouched panels.
1 per panel
86243
3m
10 m
91080
91081
Power supply unit
PSU
Colour Chaser Touch.
ToBeTouched RGB.
ToBeTouched White.
Cat-5 network cable
Network cable
Network cable
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
481
light sources
DALI is a decentralised control system.
architectural
end-of-line resistor in the luminaire furthest from the control unit.
technical info
Control unit
Luminaire Luminaire
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DMX control
Lexel colour control
DMX (RDM) installation using Philips Colour Chaser Touch
91080 network cable Cat5 3 m
91081 network cable Cat5 10 m
end-of-line
resistor
(if applicable)
86240
Philips
Colour
Chaser
Touch
PSU for panel
and DMX
(included
in Philips
Colour Chaser)
Luminaire 1
Luminaire 2
Luminaire 3
Luminaire 32
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel drives can be programmed to different addresses using the panel software.
DMX-installation using Philips ToBeTouched
91081 network cable Cat5 10 m
91080 network cable Cat5 3 m
end-of-line
resistor
(if applicable)
86241
Philips
ToBeTouched
(RGB)
86242
Philips
ToBeTouched
(colour
temperature)
86243
Power Supply
Unit for
panel and
DMX
Luminaire 11
Luminaire 12
Luminaire 13
Luminaire 132
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
DMX control using the Philips Colour Chaser Touch provides many possibilities for personalised programming of
light functions.
The panel can be mounted over a standard pattress or
directly onto a wall. Power supply units could be placed
e.g. above a suspended ceiling.
Installation is simple. Use ordinary network cables
between the control panel and the loads. Connect each
light source or drive unit to a 230 V power supply. Luminaires using DIP-switch addressing can be combined
with luminaires using RDM addressing (via software).
Colour Chaser Touch 86240:
• Touch button for TO/FROM.
• Four saveable presets/light scenes.
• Manual adjustment of colour (C), intensity (I) and
saturation (S).
• Software for advanced lighting setup – RDM addressing of light sources
- Simple composition of light sequences using large
number of preset colour themes.
- Colour setup can be sampled from images.
- The Colour Chaser Touch panel can be
connected to a computer via USB.
Philips ToBeTouched is an easy-to-use panel for setting
light and colour. The panel’s intuitive design makes the
functions simple to understand, enabling the desired
light and colour settings to be made.
The panel can be mounted over a standard pattress or
directly onto a wall. Power supply units could be placed
e.g. above a suspended ceiling.
Installation is simple. Use ordinary network cables
between the control panel and the loads. Connect
each light source or drive unit to a 230 V power supply.
Luminaires using DIP-switch addressing can be combined
with luminaires using RDM addressing. All devices will be
adjusted at the same time.
ToBeTouched 86241 (for full colour control):
• Touch button for TO/FROM.
• Two saveable presets.
• Manual adjustment of colour (C), intensity (I) and
saturation (S).
All luminaires are controlled together.
ToBeTouched 86242 (for colour-temperature control):
• Touch button for TO/FROM.
• Two saveable presets.
• Manual adjustment of colour temperature between
2500 and 6500 K.
DMX installation using DALI Router 920
DALI Router 920
91081 network cable Cat5 10 m
91080 network cable Cat5 3 m
end-of-line
resistor (if
applicable)
DALI touch-button panels
DALI sensors
Luminaire 1
Luminaire 2
Luminaire 3
Luminaire 32
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
Lexel
Pleiad LED
Wallwasher
All Lexel luminaires need to be pre-programmed using, for example,
Philips Colour Chaser software for separate addressing.
Set the address for ordinary DMX luminaires using DIP switches.
Connect DALI devices to the router for e.g. touch-button control.
Luminaires with DALI HF ballasts
482
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Control using the Helvar 920 Router. This device has
a connection for DMX control of loads, which can be
combined with DALI control. This enables advanced
RGB control using DMX to be integrated with ordinary
fluorescent tube loads and control functions. DMX
control is normally limited to a single control unit, but
this solution enables all the lighting to be controlled in a
more energy-efficient and user-friendly manner.
• Manual adjustment using touch buttons.
• Sensors for on/off etc.
• Full calendar control. The light can be programmed
in detail according to almanac forecasts and event
calendars.
• Flexible solution for light sources.
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LED
Technique
LED is an abbreviation of Light Emitting Diode. LED is a semi-conductor which when electrically stimulated emits light (also called
electroluminescence). The light colour emitted is dependent on
pendant/surface
the materials used during manufacture. The basic colours manufactured are red, orange, green and blue. White light is produced
by mixing the three different colours: red, green and blue (RGB) or,
which is more common, a blue LED equipped with a luminescent
material that converts the emission to yellow light. The sum total is
White LEDs are available in warm, neutral white as well as cold
temperatures and luminous flux. The variations are so great that it
colour temperatures (2700–8000 K). Colour reproduction (Ra) can
is absolutely essential to select a limited assortment. This method
vary, depending on the choice of LEDs, from 70 to approximately 90.
of selection is called binning. Manufacturers divide up the LEDs
An LED with a low colour temperature, i.e. a warm light colour, has a
after production into different groups depending on performance.
higher Ra value compared with an LED with a high colour tempera-
The narrower the selection process, i.e. only accepting LEDs from
ture. The luminous efficacy from LEDs is constantly being improved
a single bin, results in a higher product quality. Disadvantages are
and rapid development is being made.
that the price can increase while availability decreases. Consequent-
The luminous efficacy from white LEDs will soon reach 100 lm/W
ly, attempts are made to choose LEDs from a number of neighbour-
i.e. a luminous efficacy corresponding to standard fluorescent
ing bins.
lamps. LEDs with a high colour temperature, i.e. cold light colour,
offer greater efficiency than equivalent LEDs with a low colour
temperature. The reason for this is white diodes are basically a blue
downlights
White LEDs
An outcome of LED production is a large variation of both colour
spotlights
Binning
industrial
system
recessed
white light.
The light distribution from an LED can be controlled/managed via
the use of reflectors, lenses or some form of diffusing material. Lenses
are usually directly linked to each manufacturer and the type of LED.
Life and durability
architectural
diode with a very high colour temperature.
instead the aluminous flux depreciates until it completely disappears. On LED data sheets the life span is stated for when there is
70 % of the luminous flux remaining (L70). This life span is approx.
emergency
An LED when used correctly has a long life. An LED very rarely fails;
35,000–50,000 hours for operations within the limit values given by
nous efficacy is that an LED is run at a reasonable temperature.
LEDs neither emit ultraviolet (UV) nor infra-red (IR) radiation. This
makes the light source ideal for use in environments where UV or
irradiation is undesirable, for example, in museums or where food is
light sources
the manufacturer. A decisive parameter for both life span and lumi-
up of moving or fragile parts. Manufactured correctly, LED solutions are robust and are resistant to vibration and other mechanical stresses. LEDs do not contain any environmentally hazardous
substances, which simplifies recycling.
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
483
technical info
being handled. Another advantage of LEDs is that they are not made
Example of different bins, in this case from Philips Lumileds.
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LED
Technique
Heat development
Cable routing
In spite of an LED being physi-
It is important that the polarity is followed. Incorrectly connected
cally very small, great demands
LEDs can be destroyed or damaged. Usually a maximum cable
are made on correct cooling,
length is stated for PWM units. Longer cables can create problems
either through the use of heat-
with control or generate EMC issues and downtime. The voltage
sinks or through other smart
drop must be taken into consideration in constant voltage circuits.
design solutions. We apply the
same high temperature margin
demands during the development of LED products as for
The picture has been taken using a heat
camera and illustrates thermal development from an LED assembly.
other products containing electronics in one form or another.
Ballasts
LEDs require specially designed ballasts, usually known as drivers,
that convert 230 V mains voltage to appropriate parameters to run
the LED. One type of LED operation is known as constant current,
where the LED is powered with a constant current, usually 350 or
700 mA, but there are LEDs that can be run on higher currents. The
The LED is connected in parallel to the driver in constant voltage operation.
voltage must be kept lower than 48 V DC. This type of operation permits LEDs to be connected in series, however, the total output per
circuit must be adapted to the size and specification of the driver.
Systems consisting of strips, or self-adhesive tapes, accommodating a large number of LEDs are usually powered by a constant voltage of 8, 10, 12 or 24 V. Several strips can be connected in parallel to
a common driver. It is important to rememberthat the voltage drop
in cables is calculated in the same way as for traditional extra-low
voltage lighting installations.
Irrespective of the type of operation it is important that the
driver is matched correctly to the type of LED. The polarity is also
important as it is direct voltage (DC) that powers the LED. Incorrect
driver selection will damage or destroy the connected LED. A driver
also needs to ensure electrical separation/isolation from the mains
voltage, LED modules without protective isolation can therefore be
Constant current operation is chosen when the LED is connected in series to the
driver.
touched without risk of electric shock.
Dimming
LED dimming is carried out through the use of drivers with pulse
width modulation (usually abbreviated PWM). The LED is then
powered using a technique consisting of square waves with varying frequency. The connected LED is switched on and off at a high
frequency, which reduces the light level. Ballasts with PWM are
available with different types of control interface including DALI,
DSI, DMX512 and switchDIM.
484
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HF-ballast
Operation
When discharging starts and the fluorescent lamp ignites, the HF-
more, the HF-ballast monitors the function of the light source and
switches it off if defects occur. There are HF-ballasts on the market
that can indicate, via the light source, that a mains voltage fault has
occurred, for example, over voltage.
Cable routing
A great deal of thought must be given to cable routing when designing luminaires for HF-ballasts.
recessed
flux independent of fluctuations in the supply voltage. Further-
pendant/surface
ballast regulates all unnecessary parameters for an even luminous
Internal wiring to the fluorescent lamp must be routed in a way
fluorescent lamp luminaires equipped with ordinary ballasts, however the brain still registers the flashing.
As the HF-ballast utilises energy more efficiently, i.e. the installed
luminaire output and performance losses are lower, there is also
less heat. Thanks to this, cooling and air conditioning equipment
can be dimensioned with a reduced output, giving both purchasing
and operation cost savings.
Maintenance and service costs are lower due to the increased life
of the light sources. When re-lamping you no longer need to change
the starter, as the ignition function is integrated in the HF-ballast.
Furthermore, the incoming mains cable must be taken into
consideration. The mains cable, due to EMC requirements, must not
be routed together with internal wiring. For this reason luminaires
usually feature a separate channel or row of clips to correctly route
these cables.
Master–slave
Master-slave solutions, where two interconnected luminaires are
fed by a single HF-ballast placed in one of the units, can only be
recommended for HF-standard and where internal wiring can be
kept shorter than 1 m. Master-slave solutions for HF-dimming are
not recommended due to the very high risk of defective functionality (different light levels from the luminaires).
HF-ballasts are the environmental choice
HF-ballasts are environmentally friendly. The HF-ballast makes the
greatest contribution towards the environment through energy savings. Another important environmental factor is that the life span of
the fluorescent lamp increases on average by 15 %, which reduces
system
tired and achieve more. Not everyone is aware of the flicker from
fluorescent lamp can also cause interference issues (EMC).
industrial
luminaires equipped with HF-ballasts are used feel better, are less
that does not impair functionality. Too long internal wiring to the
downlights
Research studies have indicated that people in workplaces where
In the master-slave solutions for Dimming, only the control signal
from the HF-ballast of the master luminaire should be considered;
this then controls the HF-ballast in the slave luminaire, which is not
the same procedure as the one described above.
the mercury load on the surroundings.
architectural
Function
spotlights
Why HF-ballasts?
An HF-ballast increases the fluorescent lamp’s working frequency to
approximately 40 kHz, and in doing so lights the fluorescent lamp
completely evenly without flashing. At the same time efficiency is
improved by approximately 10 %.
emergency
Ignition
An HF-ballast ignites fluorescent lamps in a controlled manner. The
warm start means that uneven emissions from the cathodes are
a warm start HF ballast, the cathodes are preheated before the
fluorescent lamp receives its ignition pulse. In addition, modern
high quality HF-ballasts have a function that significantly reduces or
completely cuts this preheating current once the fluorescent lamp
has ignited. An important function when taking energy savings
into consideration, but also it means the T5 light source is powered
under optimal temperature conditions.
Advantages of HF-ballasts:
• Quick, flicker free ignition.
• Flicker free lighting.
• Very small magnetic field.
• The light source works under optimal conditions and gives the correct luminous flux
independent of fluctuations in the supply voltage.
light sources
where the switching on and off rate is deemed as normal. Using
• Extends the life span of the light source.
• Low harmonics (THD).
• Switches off defective fluorescent lamps (no disturbing flashing).
• Save 20 % energy on average. A 60 % saving is possible through dimming, constant
light control and/or with occupancy detection.
• Dimming of fluorescent lamps is only possible with HF-ballasts.
• Low thermal loss.
• No stroboscopic effect.
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485
technical info
avoided, which is considered to extend the life span by up to 50 %
For more information go to www.barbourproductsearch.info
HF-ballast
HF-ballasts for demanding environments, HF Industry
Light output
HF Industry is a ballast designed for use in rugged and demanding
100%
environments. Examples are industrial environments where:
90%
• mains voltage transients are a problem
80%
• the atmosphere is dustier than normal
70%
• the atmosphere is slightly more humid than normal
60%
• heavy vibrations occur
50%
40%
The HF-ballasts are designed for a life span of 100,000 hours (10 %
30%
depreciation) under the condition that the temperature is kept
20%
10%
below specific levels (according to the spec. for the HF-ballast).
10 000
30 000
50 000
70 000
90 000
Time
The life span spread of an HF-ballast. After 50,000 hours, at least 90 % of all HFballasts work if the temperature of the control gear’s tc-point (reference point) does
not exceed the manufacturer’s defined value for that life span.
They are also designed with IVG (Intelligent Voltage Guard) which
both warns and protects against overvoltage and undervoltage. The
HF-ballasts are also designed to withstand mains voltage transients
up to 4 kV. The more robust HF-ballast offers longer maintenance
intervals, which reduces maintenance costs to a minimum.
Ballasts are not available in HF-dim or in slimline designs, which
Life span HF-ballasts
The life span of the HF-ballast is, like other electronic equipment,
limited. It is determined by, among others, component selection,
mains fluctuations, ignition rate and first and foremost the ambient
temperature inside the luminaire. The electronic components’ fault
frequency causes failures on a few HF-ballast during the first hours
of operation. HF-ballast faults then occur evenly over a period of
time, like fluorescent lamps.
that are usually equipped with high lamp outputs and where there
is physical space for the HF-ballasts. The use of these HF-ballasts in
other types of luminaires, for example office luminaires, does not
normally give any advantages compared to using HF-std.
For product ranges, please refer to the industrial luminaires chapter.
The life span and function can be jeopardised by incorrect handling
during installation. The HF-ballast can be destroyed by:
• Incorrect measuring of the insulation resistance.
• Current peaks caused by machinery at the workplace.
• Over temperature, if the luminaire is used in a space with increased temperature (normal temp. > 25 °C). The luminaires’ ta
(max permitted ambient temperature) is in most cases 25 °C, but
luminaires with heightened ta are available.
The life span of the HF-ballast, as previously described, is dependent
in part on the ambient temperature. Normally there is a temperature control point (tc-point) on the HF-ballast, which should be
checked when the ballast is positioned in the product in question.
The tc-max varies between manufacturer and type and defines the
highest permitted temperature to prevent damage to the ballast.
HF-ballasts with a high tc-max are not necessarily better than
models with a low tc-max. The HF-ballast manufacturer may have
chosen to place the reference point at a cool or warm position on
the HF-ballast.
The life span of an HF-ballast is stated at a specific temperature
on the tc-point. Sometimes this corresponds with tc-max, but it
can also be stated at a lower temperature. Manufacturers usually
state 50,000 hours as the life span with a maximum depreciation of
0.2 %/1000 hours, which corresponds to a 10 % dropout.
The cooler the tc-temperature, the longer the life span. A rule of
thumb is that a 10° reduction in temperature on the tc-point doubles the life span while a 10° increase in temperature halves this.
486
means they cannot be used in all luminaires. The ballasts are primarily intended for products in industrial environments, products
Terminology
Warm start
Correctly optimised ignition of fluorescent lamps, where the cathodes at the ends of
the lamp are preheated to the right temperature, allowing controlled discharging to
take place. This creates the best conditions for maximising the fluorescent lamps life
span.
Cold start
Igniting fluorescent lamps without preheating the cathodes, causes the cathodes’
emissions-material to be consumed quicker. The advantage this offers is smaller and
less expensive electronic control gear. These are suited only for industrial premises, and
places, where fluorescent lamps are not switched on and off more than once or twice
a day.
Nominal voltage
The operating voltage is stated on the luminaire label. Normally, HF-ballasts work
without problems within ±10 % fluctuation of the nominal voltage. Check the voltage
is correct. Too high or too low can damage the electronics. Most HF-ballasts also work
with direct voltage. Please contact us for this type of operation.
Harmonics
Harmonics are distortions of the mains voltage’s waveform caused by non-linear loads
on the mains. Harmonics give rise to distorted currents, high magnetic fields and interference to sensitive electronic apparatus. Computers, frequency converters, standard
compensated luminaires are large harmonic producers. The guideline value for computers is approximately 80 % THD, standard luminaires approximately  20 % THD and
HF-ballasts about 10 %. Low quality HF-ballasts can be large producers of harmonics.
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion.
Operating frequency
is the discharge current’s frequency in the fluorescent lamp. In luminaires with magnetic ballasts this equals the mains frequency 50 Hz. HF-ballasts convert the mains
frequency to approximately 25–50 kHz. The luminaire’s efficiency is also improved by
approximate 10 % in this case. As the operating frequency also modulates light, this
can cause problems with infrared detectors used in alarm systems and lighting control.
The problem can however be avoided through the right choice of HF-ballast.
Cathode
Also called electrode. The cathodes at each end of the fluorescent lamp are made of
tungsten filaments, coated with beryllium oxide. When heated, electrons are released
which maintain the lamp’s discharging current. Incorrect temperature on the cathodes
shortens the lamp’s life span. This occurs primarily with dimming when the fluorescent
lamp output drops, which can seriously shorten the lamp’s life span. This is avoided by
using high quality HF-ballasts.
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HF-ballast
When designing luminaires we make sure that the temperature of
Temperature example
the HF ballast does not become too high, as this can shorten the life
Examples of temperature margins for a number of typical lumi­
span. When a luminaire is installed and used correctly the life span
naires are presented below. The stated margins concern luminaires
for the HF-ballast is at least 50,000 hours with a maximum 10 %
with standard HF. The margin relates to the maximum tc-tem-
fault frequency. This applies at an ambient temperature of 25 °C (ta)
perature stated by the manufacturer to give a life span of at least
unless otherwise stated for the product.
50,000 hours with a maximum failure rate of 10 %. Please contact
our customer service department if you require data for other
products.
requirements, over and above the tc-temperatures stated by the HF-
manufacturers.
The choice of the right HF-ballasts for respective products is also
important. Unfortunately at the present time there is no HF-ballast
on the market which, in all technical respects, is best. Some ballasts
have better EMC-properties than others, some are cooler and some
have lower leakage current. There is also a great deal of difference
in size between different HF ballasts. We consider these parameters
and then select the ballast that is best suited to the luminaire in
question.
> 20 °C
> 25 °C
> 15 °C
> 15 °C
> 5 °C
Recessed fluorescent lamp luminaires
MultiFive
Indigo Clivus
Indigo Combo
Pozzo
2x49 W
2x54 W
2x28 W
1x60 W
> 10 °C
> 5 °C
> 20 °C
> 15 °C
Industry luminaires
Inducon (ta35)
Densus
Scatola
AllFive
2x49 W
2x49 W
2x54 W
2x35 W
> 15 °C
> 5 °C
> 15 °C
> 15 °C
Downlights
Pleiad Comfort G2
Pleiad Compact surface
Pleiad Compact G2
1x32 W
1x26 W
2x26 W
> 10 °C
> 20 °C
> 15 °C
Decorative luminaires
Discovery
Discovery Space
1x26 W
2x18 W
> 10 °C
> 15 °C
emergency
light sources
technical info
facturers in its luminaires.
3x35 W
2x54 W
3x28 W
2x35 W
4x54 W
architectural
Fagerhult only uses high quality HF-ballasts from leading manu-
Temperature margin
system
for our products compared with using the data provided by the HF
Output
industrial
small, however, it results in an expected longer theoretical life span
Product
Luminaires for fluorescent lamps
Loop Light
Zora
Ten° Line
Closs
Excis
downlights
safety margin of 5° during testing. This margin may be seen to be
spotlights
ballast manufacturers. We have voluntarily chosen to add a general
recessed
We also employ our own policy where we set more stringent
pendant/surface
Fagerhults policy
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487
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Fuse protection of HF-ballasts
Miniature Circuit Breakers
Miniature circuit breakers for groups of luminaires equipped with
an HF-ballast should be sized not only according to the rated current
but primarily with regard to the inrush current. The initial inrush current that occurs when the luminaires are switched on can cause the
miniature circuit breaker to trip if this is sized incorrectly.
The inrush current is caused by the capacitors in the HF-ballast’s
mains filter. The size of the inrush current is not dependent on the
output of the HF-ballast’s but its design. The inrush current varies
from one HF-ballast manufacturer to another. Due to the characteristics of the inrush current we recommended that miniature circuit
breakers with tripping characteristic C are used.
If there is a need to connect more HF-ballasts than that stated in
column 1 please contact our customer service for exact data.
As manufacturers continuously develop their products the data
on this page is not binding. For the latest data, please check with the
manufacturers of individual HF-ballast.
We reserve the right to make alterations and make reservations
for possible printer’s errors.
The number of HF-ballasts that can be connected to a circuit, protected with a 16 A miniature circuit breaker of type C, is shown in
the table below. We list two different values:
Column 1 – the value indicates the maximum number of HF-ballasts
that, independent of brand and type (Osram, Philips, Tridonic, Helvar)
which we use, can be connected to the miniature circuit breaker.
Column 2 – the value indicates the maximum number of HF-ballasts
that can be fuse protected for certain brands.
The value should be seen as an indication of what is possible.
Most brands and types of HF-ballast lie between the values stated in
column 1 and in column 2.
T5
Output
1x14
2x14
3x14
4x14
1x21
2x21
1x24
2x24
1x28
2x28
1x35
2x35
1x39
2x39
1x49
2x49
1x54
2x54
1x80
2x80
488
HF-std
T5 Eco
Output
HF-dim
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
47
28
44
42
47
28
44
20
47
28
47
28
44
20
44
20
38
20
20
16
122
47
47
47
86
47
103
53
86
47
86
47
61
32
56
26
47
26
30
20
47
20
38
26
47
20
47
38
26
20
38
18
47
20
38
18
25
20
20
15
150
78
38
42
120
60
150
52
83
48
76
33
76
31
48
26
76
30
38
20
1x13
2x13
3x13
4x13
1x20
2x20
1x25
2x25
1x32
2x32
1x45
2x45
1x50
2x50
1x73
2x73
HF-std
HF-dim
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
47
28
44
42
44
20
47
28
47
28
44
20
38
20
20
16
122
47
47
47
103
53
86
47
86
47
56
26
47
26
30
20
47
20
38
26
47
38
26
20
38
18
38
18
25
20
20
15
150
78
38
42
150
52
83
48
76
33
48
26
76
30
38
20
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74
56
74
50
47
24
24
20
20
54
54
34
20
HF-std
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
48
48
20
20
47
37
47
20
34
18
122
75
80
56
82
56
60
26
47
20
47
20
24
20
47
20
40
20
-
86
70
56
38
70
56
56
30
-
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
48
38
47
20
47
44
47
20
26
18
30
16
74
56
103
56
56
56
74
38
50
20
30
16
40
16
27
12
47
20
47
20
40
18
20
15
56
38
86
52
70
34
70
30
56
26
48
18
FSD
Output
1x18
2x18
1x24
2x24
1x36
2x36
1x40
2x40
1x55
2x55
1x80
2x80
HF-dim
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
HF-std
HF-dim
Additional comments
• With fuse protection of luminaires, consideration should also be taken of the inrush
current as well as the combined rated current for the groups’ luminaires, the cable’s
cross-section and the average length of the group’s cabling.
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
40
60
38
26
38
20
HF-std
Column 1
Column 2
All
Some
HF-ballasts
HF-ballasts
1x13
34
118
2x13
34
116
1x14
47
94
2x14
47
94
1x17
47
94
2x17
47
94
1x18
35
152
2x18
35
128
1x26
33
144
2x26
20
102
1x32
33
124
2x32
20
82
1x42
33
124
2x42
20
82
1x57
36
94
2x57
17
17
- = no current data available
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
40
60
47
47
47
47
38
26
38
20
38
20
38
12
22
-
1x13
2x13
1x18
2x18
1x26
2x26
FSM
Output
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
40
60
70
47
70
46
HF-dim
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
40
60
47
47
47
47
70
48
70
46
50
26
50
26
38
-
• The values in the tables apply for 1-pole miniature circuit breakers. When using multipole miniature circuit breakers the number of luminaires should be reduced by 20 %.
• When using 16 A miniature circuit breakers with B characteristics the size of the
groups should be reduced by half. For 10 A miniature circuit breakers with C characteristic the size of the group should be reduced by approximately 40 %. For exact sizing
please contact our customer service team.
technical info
light sources
emergency
• The figures listed in the above tables assume a simultaneous ignition (same switch) at
the mains voltage peak value.
HF-dim
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
82
56
82
80
74
56
pendant/surface
33
22
33
47
47
HF-std
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
34
34
35
35
33
20
recessed
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
system
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
industrial
Column 2
Some
HF-ballasts
downlights
Column 1
All
HF-ballasts
T8
Output
1x18
2x18
3x18
4x18
1x36
2x36
1x58
2x58
1x70
2x70
FSQ
Output
HF-dim
spotlights
1x22
1x22+1x40
1x40
1x55
1x60
HF-std
architectural
T5C
Output
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Information about circuit load
The system circuit load is the sum of the light source’s power consumption and losses in the associated control gear. An installation
must be designed to take into account the starting current as well
as the total power consumption. Normally it is the starting current,
and not the system output, that dictates how many HF-ballasts
can be connected to a miniature circuit-breaker (MCB). Information regarding the maximum number of HF-ballasts per miniature
circuit-breaker can be found on Fuse Protection page within the
technical section.
The system and lamp wattages for a number of different
HF-ballasts are presented below. As standard Fagerhult’s luminaires
are equipped with warm start HF-ballasts, where pre-heating of
the cathode is either reduced or ceases completely when the light
source is ignited. This function saves energy.
Note: Figures may vary for other HF-ballasts. The stated values are
examples and are rounded to the closest integer. Development of
HF-ballasts is ongoing and defined values may be subject to change.
The power factor, cosfi, lies between 0.95 and 0.99 for luminaires
equipped with HF-ballasts.
• SW = System W
• - = at present there is no control gear or data available
T5 Eco
HF-standard
Light source
13
25
32
20
45
50
73
1x
SW
17
29
36
24
51
55
81
2x
SW
31
55
70
48
100
108
158
3x
SW
44
68
-
4x
SW
58
89
-
Applies to
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
HF-dim
Light source
13
25
32
20
45
50
73
1x
SW
17
30
37
24
51
56
80
2x
SW
32
57
71
48
96
109
159
3x
SW
47
71
-
4x
SW
62
96
-
Applies to
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
T8
HF-standard
Light source
18
36
58
1x
SW
19
37
56
2x
SW
37
70
107
3x
SW
54
-
4x
SW
70
-
Applies to
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
HF-dim
Light source
18
36
58
1x
SW
21
38
56
2x
SW
39
74
113
3x
SW
65
-
4x
SW
79
-
490
Applies to
Philips HF-R
Philips HF-R
Philips HF-R
T5
HF-standard
Light source
14
21
28
35
24
39
49
54
80
1x
SW
18
25
32
39
28
44
55
60
88
2x
SW
33
47
61
76
56
86
108
118
172
3x
SW
47
80
-
4x
SW
62
105
-
Applies to
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
HF-dim
Light source
14
21
28
35
24
39
49
54
80
1x
SW
18
25
33
40
28
43
55
61
87
2x
SW
34
48
63
77
56
84
106
119
173
3x
SW
50
83
-
4x
SW
66
112
-
Applies to
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
T5C
HF-standard
Light source
22
40
22+40
55
60
1x
SW
25
43
66
60
65
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Applies to
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
HF-dim
Light source
14
17
18
26
32
42
57
1x
SW
17
20
21
28
36
47
66
2x
SW
33
39
40
55
71
91
-
Applies to
Philips HF-P EII
Philips HF-P EII
Tridonic PC-PRO
Tridonic PC-PRO
Tridonic PC-PRO
Tridonic PC-PRO
PC-PRO/Ph. HF-P PL-T
Applies to
Philips HF-R EII
Philips HF-R EII
Tridonic PCA Excel
Tridonic PCA Excel
Tridonic PCA Excel
Tridonic PCA Excel
Tridonic PCA Excel
1x
SW
14
20
28
2x
SW
28
39
54
Applies to
Philips HF-PL-T/C
Philips HF-PL-T/C
Philips HF-PL-T/C
HF-dim
Light source
13
18
26
1x
SW
16
21
28
2x
SW
31
40
58
Applies to
Tridonic PCA ECO
Tridonic PCA ECO
Tridonic PCA ECO
1x
SW
20
26
38
44
61
86
2x
SW
40
50
75
90
116
176
Applies to
Osram QT
Osram QT
Osram QT
Osram QT
Osram QT
Osram QTP, QT-FQ
HF-dim
Light source
18
24
36
40
55
80
1x
SW
18
26
36
42
59
88
2x
SW
37
50
70
82
115
165
Applies to
Osram QTi DIM
Osram QTi DIM
Osram QTi DIM
Osram QTi DIM
Osram QTi DIM
Osram QTi DIM
MTm/MT/MD/MR
Electronic ballast
Light source
20 (MTm)
35
70
150
1x
SW
25
45
80
160
Applies to
Philips HID-PV m
Tridonic PCI
Tridonic PCI
Tridonic PCI
technical info
light sources
emergency
architectural
spotlights
downlights
FSQ-E
HF-standard
Light source
13
18
26
FSD-H
HF-standard
Light source
18
24
36
40
55
80
recessed
2x
SW
32
38
40
56
71
94
121
system
1x
SW
16
19
21
29
35
46
64
industrial
FSM-E
HF-standard
Light source
14
17
18
26
32
42
57
pendant/surface
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Cold spaces
Most luminaires are designed to give the best performance at
normal room temperature. In a cold area, for example, certain store
spaces or freezer rooms, the ambient environment for the luminaire
is very different. Many industrial luminaires are suitable for use in
this situation, but there are a number of parameters to bear in mind
in order to choose the right luminaires.
in all outputs. Please refer to the light sources chapter for more
information.
 
Placement
Luminaires should not, if possible, be placed too close to chilled
beams or air conditioning units. The cold air currents can have a very
negative effect on the luminous flux. This also applies to enclosed
The selection of the luminaire and its placement in the room are
governed by:
luminaires or when using thermo-lamps.
 
Actual luminous flux
• What is the room temperature?
The graphs below show how the luminous flux is affected by ambi-
• What IP-class is required?
• Where are the chilled beams or conditioning units placed? Is the
luminaire exposed to air currents?
• Is there a risk of the luminaire being subjected to mechanical
effects?
• Should the luminaires be on continuously or are they switched on/
off at specific intervals/days?
ent temperature for a number of typical industrial luminaires. The
red curve indicates the luminous flux with no air movement and
the blue indicates the flux with an air flow of 0.5 m/s. As a reference
value the luminous flux at +25 °C with no air movement is used.
Text and order numbers in italics denote the light source.
The stated values are intended as a guide only and not an absolute
value. Please factor in a good margin when designing.
 
General
Open reflector luminaires are designed so that the maximum luminous flux is obtained at a normal room temperature of 25 °C. When
this kind of luminaire is placed in a cold space the luminous flux
and the ignition ability are affected. The lower luminous flux must
be taken into consideration during light planning.
On the other hand, luminaires with a degree of protection equal
to IP 44 and upwards can operate, from a luminous flux standpoint,
φ%
34209 Densus 2x35 W – 81508 T5 Thermo
140
120
0,5 m/s
100
0 m/s
80
60
40
20
better when placed in a colder environment as the light source’s
-20 -15 -10
-5
0
5
10 15
20
25 °C
ambient temperature is usually a little too high when the luminaire
is at normal room temperature. In this situation, the luminous flux
φ%
increases, up to a certain point, as the ambient temperature drops.
140
 
120
35183 Scatola Medium 2x28 W – 81507 T5 Thermo
0,5 m/s
100
Ballasts
It is important to use the right ballast to ensure the luminaire also
ignites at low temperatures. The temperature specifications vary for
different manufacturers and ballast.
 
0 m/s
80
60
40
20
-20 -15 -10
-5
0
5
10 15
20
25 °C
Light sources
The T5 light source emits its maximum luminous flux at an ambient
φ%
temperature (around the lamp) of 35 °C. The temperature around
140
the light source is controlled by the design of the luminaire. For
luminaires with a degree of protection equal to IP 44 and upwards
the light source can heat the space around itself even when the ambient temperature around the actual luminaire is low. This is why T5
luminaires can work very well even in cold surroundings.
The T8 light source is slightly different compared to the T5. It has
32858 Inducon Medium 2x35 W – 81508 T5 Thermo
120
0,5 m/s
100
0 m/s
80
60
40
20
-20 -15 -10
-5
0
5
10 15
20
25 °C
its maximum luminous flux at a lower temperature, 25 °C. Consequently, the T8 light source emits a higher luminous flux than T5 at
certain, lower, ambient temperatures.
32713 Induline Narrow 2x54 W – 81374 T5
φ%
 
140
Thermo-lamps
120
In some locations the use of thermo-lamps maybe required.
Thermo-lamps have an extra outer glass that insulates (thermal
principle). The disadvantage of these lamps is that they have a
larger diameter, which can cause problems in some luminaires.
Thermo-lamps are available in both T5 and T8 designs, though not
492
0 m/s
0,5 m/s
32733 Induline Wide 2x54 W – 81374 T5
0 m/s
0,5 m/s
100
80
60
40
20
-20 -15 -10
-5
0
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5
10 15
20
25 °C
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CE-marking
approved our test equipment and quality system as well as the
In order for a luminaire to be marketed in the EU/
expertise of our personnel. In addition to annual audits, Intertek ETL
EES region it must be equipped with a CE-mark.
Semko also has the right to visit our laboratory at any time or call in
The CE-marking, which is compulsory, means
products for comparison tests.
that the manufacturer certifies to the authorities
The Technical Centre is also very well equipped with in­struments
that the product conforms to relevant safety requirements within
to perform other tests on luminaires. Instruments of the highest
the EU. Impartial testing for most products is not required.
quality and accuracy are in place to inspect the product’s EMC-properties (in accordance with EN 55015), to verify lighting performance
pendant/surface
Product safety
fication no longer being required, to continue
Standardisation
with this procedure for its basic range. This is to
We also participate in standardisation work within the field of lu-
ensure that the customer receives products that
minaires via our membership of the Swedish Electrical Commission
team TK34 and TK89. At the international level we are represented
in the team WG1 LUMEX within the IEC (International Electrotech-
Variants of the basic range, for example, products with HF-dim
nical Commission). This team discusses proposals for amendments
or with emergency light functionality, are not usually certified by a
to testing standards. Consequently, we have the possibility to
third party. However, the safety levels on these designs are just as
influence new standards as well as keeping ourselves well informed
high as for other products.
about future amendments. Being aware of forthcoming require-
We collaborate with Intertek ETL Semko for third party certifica-
ments and seeing trends within standards are very important in the
tion. This is a company that has vast experience within testing as
product development process.
industrial
conform to all current safety requirements with
the added reassurance of being inspected by an independent body.
with a good reputation across Europe.
The collaboration means our products can be given an S- or ENEC-
Read more about Semko and third party certification at
mark. S- or ENEC-marking indicates objective testing and inspection
www.intertek-etlsemko.com.
system
Fagerhult has chosen, despite third party certi-
recessed
and other quality tests.
Third party certification – for your safety
downlights
of the electrical component´s safety for:
• Fire
• Electric shock
• Mechanical damage
• Radiation and burn injuries
• Environment impact with respect to:
spotlights
• Intended or expected usage
• Intended or expected usage period
• Expected fault conditions
• Expected, reasonable incorrect use
architectural
ENEC-marking
The S-mark has been well known for many years.
In recent times it has also been possible to ENECmark luminaires. ENEC stands for European
The ENEC system currently encompasses some
Our laboratory, Technical Centre, has had an SMTA-agreement with Intertek ETL
Semko since 1993.
emergency
Norms Electrical Certification.
21 different countries. The ENEC mark has the same value as each
member country’s own approval symbol. A separate agreement with
the supervising national body is required in order to ENEC-mark
luminaires, in our case Intertek ETL Semko, and to certify that the
light sources
quality system in production corresponds to the requirements set
out in ISO 9002.
SMTA-agreement – laboratory accreditation
Intertek ETL Semko since 1993. An SMTA-agreement, Supervised
Manufacturers Testing Authorisation, means that we have permis-
A product’s EMC-properties (according to EN 55015), lighting performance and other
quality properties are tested at the Technical Centre.
sion to carry out all requisite testing for S- as well as ENEC-marking.
The results from these tests form the basis for certification. The
agreement means that Intertek ETL Semko has inspected and
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493
technical info
Our laboratory, Technical Centre, has had an SMTA-agreement with
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Properties of materials
Die casting
Extrusion
Die casting of metal is a method
Extrusion is a process that can
of production that produces
be done with both aluminium
strong parts, a high quality fin-
and plastic. The method is
ish and a lot of integrated func-
cost-effective and provides op-
tionality. With zinc the parts are
tions for integrating functions
ready for use immediately after
and fine detail. It is possible to
leaving the moulding room. For
combine extruded plastic and
aluminium the remains from
aluminium parts.
the stub will, generally, need
to be shaped. The parts are
normally rolled to remove burrs and soften the edges.
Extrusion of aluminium
Die casting of aluminium
The material, which at the start is called bloom, is heated and
Aluminium is moulded at high pressure, which requires the tooling
moulded at great force through a profile tool. Depending on the size
to have exact tolerances and good sealing surfaces to contain the
of the profile and capacity of the machine, it may be necessary or
material being moulded which has a consistency like water. There
desirable to manufacture several profiles at the same time. However
are advantages to die cast aluminium parts, such as a high strength
a single profile is more usual.
to weight ratio. The most common aluminium alloy used by Fager-
Following moulding the profile is stretched, causing it to straight-
hult is AlSi8Cu3.
en. The material is then tempered in a furnace; in this state, the
Another advantage of aluminium is that it can be readily recycled.
profiles are normally a good 6 metres in length. Cross-cutting, shap-
Recycling uses a fraction of the energy required to manufacture
ing and anodising are additional processes that can be performed if
virgin material.
required.
Die cast aluminium is used in parts such as outer and inner caps,
Anodising involves adding a protective oxide layer to the surface
continuous couplers and various types of bracket.
using an electrolytic process that provides a hard, sealed surface.
Natural anodising is most common and various different colours
Die casting of zinc
can be introduced.
Zinc is a corrosion-resistant material with good mechanical
properties. The main difference between zinc and aluminium is
the weight: zinc is 2.5 times heavier, but has inferior heat resist-
Extrusion of plastic
ant properties and a lower creep strength. The advantages of zinc
The materials PC and PMMA are the most frequently used plastics
are that it is easier to mould, melts at a lower temperate and is
in the lighting industry and are mainly used in a transparent form
therefore gentler on the tool. A properly made zinc tool can handle
for shades and covers. The process allows the cost-effective produc-
close to 1 million cycles with good quality results and high repeti-
tion of parts in long designs and with a high degree of precision.
tion precision.
It is also possible to combine materials to produce clear and opal
With zinc it possible to produce thin products with a high finish
surfaces, or to combine the strength of polycarbonate with the good
on the surfaces, important for the treatment of visible surfaces
UV resistance of acrylic.
such as chrome or nickel-plating. The parts are usually ready for use
The parts expand as they become warmer, so this must be taken
immediately following die casting with no further shaping required
into consideration when developing new products. Cross-cutting
except, occasionally, for rolling.
tolerances on shades should allow for tolerances of other parts they
The areas of application are the same as for aluminium, but zinc
is better suited for applications which require a significantly higher
are to be used with. This, as standard, can result in gaps being visible at the ends of luminaires.
measurement tolerance or finer requirements for the surfaces.
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Properties of materials
Sheet metal
Stainless steel
used in light fittings. The material provides a good balance
between function and cost.
Sheet metal has the advantage
that it can be formed quickly in
constant production, allowing
the final product to be completed at a later stage, facilitating flexible production. From the raw
material (sheet metal), it is possible to run through the processes of
punching, bending, welding and painting to final fitting instantly,
with the only restrictions being the capacity of the manufacturer.
Certain parts may require the use of so-called deep drawing quality (soft sheet) metal, i.e. sheet metal stretched so intensely that
rust. This, however, is a fact that requires qualifying, as stainless steel can rust even though its resistance to corrosion is good.
Perhaps, instead, it should be called rust-resistant steel. In order to
retain the rust protection of steel, acid must be allowed to come
into contact with the surface. This makes it important to keep the
surface of the sheet properly cleaned.
pendant/surface
surface treatments, is widely
Stainless (rustless) steel is, as the name suggests, steel that cannot
The steel gains its properties through various alloys, including
chrome, nickel and molybdenum. Depending on its composition, it
is possible to have magnetic steel that can be hardened or nonmagnetic steel that cannot be hardened. Its non-rusting qualities
recessed
ties, hardness’s, thickness’s and
are very well suited for use in springs and Fagerhult also makes
casings and brackets in stainless steel where suitable.
Acid-proof stainless steel
Acid-proof stainless steel has even greater resistance to corrosion
ordinary sheet metal qualities would break.
than stainless steel. The steel gains its properties through various
Black sheet
molybdenum.
system
Sheet metal, in various quali-
usually using an epoxy-polyester mixture. The coating process is
free of aromatic solvents and heavy metals.
This quality is most frequently used for light fittings designed for
ments, such as industrial activities which handle acids, salts and
other corrosive substances. An installation that is close to the coast
can also put a strain on normal lighting fittings. Acid-proof stainless
steel can still corrode if the surface becomes coated in dirt and acid
is not able to penetrate down to the surface of the material.
use in a dry environment such as offices, corridors, classrooms, etc.
Usually, acid-proof stainless steel is combined with other equally
Aluminium-zinc coated sheet metal
best possible encapsulation.
Coating sheet metal with aluminium-zinc is a very effective way
of preventing corrosion. Aluzink® coated sheets are made in the
same way as hot-dip galvanised sheet metal, but use a mixture of
approximately 55 % aluminium and 43 % zinc, rather than just zinc,
to coat the surface. Parts made of Aluzink® are immediately ready
for use following shaping, welding and bending. It is therefore costeffective as, in some cases, the need for lacquering can be avoided.
When welding and cutting, the cut surfaces self-seal to restore rust
protection.
The moiré effect of Aluzink® gives it an aesthetically pleasing effect. The sheet is normally used in industrial luminaires as a casing
or end piece. Other applications include brackets and other sheet
metal parts that are not normally visible but which require protection against rust.
White rust can occur in some humid or otherwise extreme envi-
downlights
sion, the sheet plate is surface treated (powder coated, for example),
normally associated with luminaires designed for external environ-
hardy materials such as glass rather than plastic so as to ensure the
Aluminium with good light-reflecting properties
For good light-reflecting properties, it is important to use extremely
spotlights
ing on the composition of the external environment. To avoid corro-
clean materials. Allowing the degree of cleanliness to fall by a tenth
of a per cent can cause a significant loss in efficiency. There are
compositions of sheet metal (platings) where the base material is
“impure” and is covered with a layer of pure aluminium. The surface
is then chemically anodised to make it resistant to oxidation by
contact with acid or other substances. Plated materials offer one
architectural
metal that is extremely prone to rusting, at different rates depend-
This is the highest level of protection offered by Fagerhult and is
solution for combining good performance with low cost.
Other ways of producing effective reflective sheet surfaces (factor > 92 %) are to use a layer of oxide and to vacuum metallise the
surface. See the section on louvres and reflectors.
Various impressions can be made in the sheet surface to provide a
emergency
Black sheet, also referred to as iron plate, is an untreated sheet
industrial
alloys, including chrome, nickel, manganese, titanium, niobium and
structure that disperses or collects the light in a deliberate way.
technical info
light sources
ronments. Aluzink® is a registered trademark of SSAB.
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Properties of materials
Plastic
Plastic is a modern material that
is being constantly developed
offering a range of benefits. The
scope for designing with this
material is improving, several functions can be used for
integration and the designs can
also be made lighter compared
with metal designs. Production
efficiency is good, since plastic
parts rarely require additional shaping. Right from the start, the
part has the correct surface structure and colour without the needing to be cleaned or trimmed.
From an environmental stance, plastic uses significantly less
energy in the production of plastic parts compared to metal parts.
The total amount of oil used in the manufacture of plastic parts is
significantly smaller, too. Additionally plastic can be reused, either
recycled as new products or used for energy.
A number of Fagerhult’s markets place particular fire classification requirements on products inclusive of plastic. This may require
the use of flame-retardant plastics in our parts to reduce the risk of
fire starting or spreading via our luminaires. Fagerhult abides by the
RoHS Directive, which prohibits the use of mercury, cadmium, lead,
hexavalent chrome and the flame-retarding agents PBB and PBDE.
A good choice of materials and good design solutions can avoid the
need for flame-retardant agents (including the less harmful ones).
As stated above, there are many advantages to using plastic, but
at the same time it places great demands on design and choice of
materials. Depending on the area of application for the product
and other specifications, tests and simulations must be constantly
carried out during the development phase to ensure that all requirements are met without jeopardising safety and quality.
There is a whole host of different plastics available on the market.
Each has been produced to meet the demands made of the prod-
The softeners are constantly given off and can migrate to and attack
other plastic materials. They are also considered to be damaging
to the environment and injurious to health and they can adversely
affect reproduction.
Fagerhult products are connected internally using PVC-free wires
and the mains cable can also be supplied to special order in a PVCfree design. Otherwise, PVC is not a material that is found in our
products.
PC (polycarbonate)
Polycarbonate is both a transparent and a coloured thermoplastic with very high strength, including at low temperatures. It is
often used in applications that require resistance to knocks, blows
and kicks, including visors, machinery protection, CDs and other
products that need to be durable and/or transparent. The material
is self-extinguishing. When designing, it must be ensured that the
material is not exposed to continuous tension as this will ultimately
lead to cracks forming.
Polycarbonate can be cold bended (roughly like sheet metal),
extruded lengthways or injection moulded. In lighting, it is used to
insulate lamp holders and bodies as well as for shades, reflectors
and dust protection. PC is often the material of choice for plastic
luminaires sold as vandal proof.
Polycarbonate is sensitive to rippling and has limited resistance to
UV light, which turns the material yellow. For this reason, where applicable UV stabilisers are added, or the surface is coated with a UV
block (for example, the glass for car headlights). It is also sensitive to
chemical attack, especially by bases, oxidising acids, methanol, aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons and ammonium. A mild soap solution should be used for the maintenance/cleaning of shades, plastic
end pieces and dust protectors. PC is also suitable for metallising.
PBT (polybutylene terephthalate)
PBT is a rigid material with good durability and chemical resistance.
ucts. A selection of plastics is given below.
It also has good electrical properties, making PBT suitable for use as
PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
and fibreglass reinforced PBT provides even better heat resistance.
a lamp holder or body, etc. It can be used at higher temperatures,
PVC is a polymer that consists of several vinyl chloride molecules
bonded together. It is a thermoplastic produced by adding chlorine
to ethylene and is often used in the construction industry, for pipes,
plastic mats and insulation of cables/wires, for example. A material consisting solely of polyvinyl chloride is quite stiff, and for this
PBT has good UV and weather resistance and also good sliding properties, which means it is often found in cars. The material is suitable
for metallising. The above properties mean that PBT is suitable for
products such as downlights, where high temperatures occur and
there is a need for metallised reflective surfaces.
reason softeners (phthalates) are generally added to make it easier
to handle and more durable. The material has good chemical and
weather resistance properties.
When PVC burns, hydrochloric acid and chlorinated hydrocarbons
are formed because of the plastic’s chlorine content. The smoke produced when burning is aggressive, attacking metals and electronic
equipment in the building. The associated cleanup cost following
such a fire causes many customers to prefer other alternatives
instead.
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PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate)
PC/ABS
PMMA, also known under the trade name Plexiglas®, is acrylic
Sometimes, it is necessary to mix different plastics in order to
plastic. It offers a very high light transmission and is, therefore, ideal
obtain the properties required for the parts of the product. PC/ABS
for optical uses. It has a high degree of sheen on the surface and
is one such combination of materials; it is rigid and has high tensile
rigidity. PMMA is easy to shape, strong and offers limitless opportu-
and bending strength and at the same time is impact resistant. The
nities for colouring. PMMA is UV stable and has very good weather
material is also dimensionally stable, with good weather resistance.
resistance, making it suitable for outdoor use. The electrical proper-
It is customary to use PC/ABS where high demands are made for
ties are also good. The material is not affected by alkaline solutions,
fittings, and at higher temperatures. The material is often used in
diluted acids or oils, but is attacked by strong acids, acetone and
electronics boxes, end pieces, instrument panels, etc.
recessed
Rubber
is possible to make PMMA more impact-resistant, but this is at the
Rubber parts are most com-
expense of its good optical properties. In the field of lighting, PMMA
monly found as packing mate-
is normally used for shades and cover plates, as well as for outdoor
rial of various types. Normally,
signs, windows, contact lenses, etc.
this is for sealing edges along
PMMA is brittle, and where microscopic notches are present it can
the periphery of the luminaire
easily break. Just like PC, it is also sensitive to being under tension,
against a glass disc, for instance.
which can lead to cracks forming over time.
It is also found in insert seals
Plexiglas® is a trademark of Röhm.
for cables. More recently, plastic
qualities (elastomers) which
PS (Polystyrene)
are reminiscent of rubber have
Polystyrene has a high degree of stiffness and hardness. It has
taken over a number of these applications. They are cheaper to
excellent optical properties and good dimensional tolerance. Other
produce and can be made with greater precision. They also provide a
good properties are its high surface shine, low water absorption
more aesthetically pleasing surface than rubber.
system
used in situations where the temperature does not exceed 55 °C. It
industrial
alcohols. PMMA has relatively low heat resistance and should be
pendant/surface
Properties of materials
note poor impact resistance and low chemical resistance, especially
EPDM rubber
to solvents. Polystyrene does not tolerate strong acids and dissolves
Ozone and weather resistant. Good cold resistance. A certain resist-
in aromatic solvents. It also has low resistance to UV and turns
ance to oxidising acids and chemicals, animal and vegetable oils.
rapidly yellow (3–6 months) when used in lighting products or out-
Not resistant to mineral oils. Temperature range -40 °C to +100 °C.
downlights
and excellent electrical properties. Among its disadvantages we can
approx. 70 °C. The material is not authorised for lighting fittings for
Chloroprene rubber Neoprene (CR)
professional use, especially high powered ones or those with long
This material doesn’t deteriorate over time with very good weather
burning times. The material is often chosen for domestic applica-
resistance. Good strength against oils, it expands in mineral oils but
tions due to its low material costs.
is not destroyed and offers very good mechanical properties. Found
spotlights
doors. The highest temperature at which it can be used is limited to
architectural
only in black mixtures. It crystallises at cold temperatures. TemperaPP (Polypropene)
ture range -20 °C to +100 °C.
Polypropene, also called Polypropylene, is one of the most common
thermoplastics. The advantages of PP are its low density and high
strength. Above all, PP has great fatigue strength, which makes it
very suitable for hinge designs. The material can tolerate relatively
emergency
high temperatures without losing its properties. Conversely, it copes
less well at low temperatures, which means that in cold winter
weather it is prone to becoming brittle and breaking. Another drawback of PP is that it is broken down by UV radiation unless stabilised
with the help of additives. PP is used, among other places, in the
technical info
light sources
end caps of luminaires.
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Louvres and reflectors
Reflector and louvre material
Beta
The reflectors and active louvres in the Fagerhult range are designed
for maximum efficiency and controlled light distribution. This
makes it possible to plan lighting for energy efficient solutions.
A significant factor in obtaining efficient luminaires is the choice
Double parabolic reflector louvre with
side and cross-blades of satin matt
metallised aluminium with excellent
reflection characteristics (> 92 %),
integrated into a single unit. The louvre
remains attached when lowered.
Earthed.
of reflector and louvre material. Fagerhult carefully selects the best
material available on the market.
The louvres and reflectors fitted in Fagerhults T5 luminaires are
constructed from the most effective aluminium available. Many
products for T8 fluorescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps
come equipped with reflectors and louvres featuring highly reflective material. All done with improved energy efficiency and a lower
environmental impact in mind.
Gamma
Double parabolic reflector louvre with
side and cross-blades of specular, metallised aluminium with excellent reflection characteristics (> 92 %), integrated
into a single unit. The louvre remains
attached when lowered. Earthed.
Thin cross blades give
larger light openings and
increase efficiency.
Terazza
No reflections from
the top of the cross
blades are visible in
the side reflectors.
The r5 louvre effectively
guides out the light even
from the back of the
fluorescent lamp.
Sealed top
eliminates
light loss.
Satin matt, metallised aluminium
reflectors with excellent reflection
characteristics (> 92 %) and aluminium
enamelled cross-blades integrated
into a single unit. The louvre remains
attached when lowered. Earthed.
r5-louvres
Fagerhult’s double parabolic r5-louvre has been developed for the
T5-fluorescent lamp and gives the best effectiveness with regard to
light distribution and efficiency. High efficiency is directly linked to
energy efficiency.
The r5-louvre consists of a double parabolic louvre and a top
Texpo
Satin matt, metallised aluminium
reflectors with excellent reflection
characteristics (> 92 %) and white
enamelled cross-blades integrated
into a single unit. The louvre remains
attached when lowered. Earthed.
reflector, which maximises the optical efficiency and controls the
luminance in all directions around the luminaire.
The r5-louvre has the following advantages:
• The reduction in the thickness of the cross-blades means that the
light opening’s area has been enlarged by approximately 4 %.
Expo DP
Double parabolic reflector louvre with
white enamelled side and cross-blades.
Earthed.
• Sealing the top of the cross-blades minimises light losses.
• The curved tops of the cross-blades eliminate unwanted reflections on the side reflector and gives good mechanical cut off in all
directions.
• Metallised aluminium.
• Fixed top reflector of specular metallised aluminium.
Lamell
Lamell louvre of sheet steel.
The r5-louvre is available as r5, r5 mini and r5 micro.
Reflector technology
Reflection enhancing oxide covering
99.99 % pure aluminium
Adhesive layer
Delta
Microprismatic acrylic louvre.
Aluminium of commercial standard
Advantages:
• Reflection factor up to 95 %.
• Reflection factor 10 % better than anodised aluminium.
• Better controlled beam path.
• Total lack of colour shifting on surfaces.
• Reduction in unwanted diffused beam path.
• The manufacturing process impacts less on the environment than anodising.
498
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Mains cables
Many of our luminaires come with mains cables of varying designs
fitted as standard. The design depends on the luminaire and its
integrated functions, ranging from 3-core cables with plugs to
pendant/surface
open-ended 5-core cables with some form of snap-in connector,
such as the Wieland.
For luminaires supplied without mains cables, we can offer a
wide range of different mains cables, from simple 3-core cable racks
with earthed plugs to various fixed connections. Our range includes
cables in various lengths and designs, suitable for varying aesthetic
recessed
or functional requirements. Fagerhult products are connected internally using PVC-free wire and the mains cable can also be supplied
to order in a PVC-free design.
We can also supply transparent 3-core and 5-core mains cables.
These are more often than not chosen for aesthetic reasons. In order
Wire suspension with single wire, mains cable 5x1.0 mm² and ceiling cup for use
together with luminaires having some form of external dimmer function.
to pass approval, products with a transparent mains cable must be
system
Transparent mains cables
supplied fully connected by us because of the weak colour marking.
This means we supply the luminaire with the mains cable connectindustrial
ed both in the luminaire and the terminal block of the ceiling cup.
The ceiling cup can be supplied in grey or white. The length of the
mains cable should be specified when ordering. We have chosen to
offer two lengths as standard, 400 and 1000 mm. In both cases, the
length is ± 50 mm, depending on the location of the luminaire and
Read more about the properties of PVC on page 496.
architectural
For luminaires with a transparent mains cable, the connections in the luminaire
and the terminal block of the ceiling cup are completed at the factory. Available as
3-core and 5-core with ceiling cup.
spotlights
downlights
terminal block. Note that transparent cables contain PVC.
technical info
light sources
emergency
400 ± 50 mm
1000 ± 50 mm
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Quick connection system
Different makes and models of quick connectors can be used to
simplify the installation of luminaires. The main benefit of quick
connection systems is the reduction in installation times for large or
continuous lighting systems. These systems allow a certain degree
of flexibility, as it might be easier to move already-connected products without affecting the fixed installation.
In order to avoid incorrect connection that could, in a worst-case
scenario, result in connected products becoming damaged or even
dangerous, it is important for the quick connection systems available on the market to be used correctly, i.e. in the manner intended
and designed for by the manufacturer. For example, a 5-way connector system intended for 3-phase installation must not be used
instead for 1-phase + control cable for dimming. Other connector
types must be used for such systems to prevent incorrect connection due to mistakes.
Fagerhult offers a range of products with integrated quick connectors. These connectors can either be chassis-mounted or the
luminaire can be supplied with the cable and quick connector readyfitted. All connectors are fitted with locking devices. For products
with quick connectors, refer to the relevant product page.
­ Parts of our range can be supplied with Linect connectors, Linect
is a new open standard that with use of interface connectors can be
Luminaire equipped with chassis connector and T-connector. Power and connection
cables can be fastened after installation using plastic clips. A tool (e.g. screwdriver) is
required to loosen the connectors.
connected to different makes of quick connector systems.
Power cables
Wieland
1-phase system, 3-way connector.
Length 2 m, female
Length 2 m, female + earthed plug
1-phase system + 5-way light-adjustment connector, blue
Length 2 m, female
91789
91790
91022
Connection cables, quick connection system
1-phase system, 3-way connector, white cable with white connectors,
female + male, cable cross section 3×1.5 mm²
Length 1 m
Length 3 m
91791
91793
1-phase system + light adjustment (1–10 V, SwitchDim/DSI, DALI),
5-way connectors, black cable with blue connectors, female + male,
cable cross section 5×1.5 mm²
Length 1 m
Length 3 m
91030
91031
T-connector for branching directly to the chassis connector on the luminaire
1-phase system, 3-way, white
91025
1-phase system + light adjustment (1–10 V, SwitchDim/DSI, DALI),
5-way, blue
91026
500
Connection cable.
T-connector.
Connection cable.
H-connector.
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Installation, troubleshooting and maintenance
Luminaire’s installation
Familiarise yourself with the supplied installation instructions and
follow them during installation.
pendant/surface
When testing the insulation of an installation, luminaires
equipped with HF-ballasts should have the phase and neutral conductors interconnected. Measurement may only be made between
the interconnected phase neutral conductors and the protective
earth with maximum 500 V direct voltage. Once measuring is complete do not forget to disconnect the phase and neutral conductors
5. Replace a fluorescent lamp that does not ignite with a new lamp that is known to
work (even a new fluorescent lamp can be defective) and switch on the voltage. In
2-lamp luminaires both fluorescent lamps should be replaced using fluorescent lamps
known to work.
6. If the fluorescent lamp does not ignite, switch off and check the cables for loose
connections. Make sure there is no insulating layer between the connections’ contact
surfaces. Loose connections are usually evident through blackening or soot.
7. Disconnect the supply voltage to the control gear for about 20 seconds and switch it
on again. The HF-ballast is generally designed to disconnect when it senses a defective
fluorescent lamp or a break in the fluorescent lamp circuit (point 5). The situation is
the same for the HF-ballast, if the fluorescent lamp has not been turned in the lamp
holder, to the right position (point 4) or if there is a bad contact in the fluorescent lamp
circuit (points 4 and 6). No HF-ballasts from any manufacturer can sense that a fluorescent lamp has been replaced with a new one without the voltage being disconnected
and reinstated.
industrial
2. The fluorescent lamp flashes, does not ignite or goes out haphazardly
• There is a fluorescent lamp in the luminaire with the wrong output or wrong
HF-ballast.
• Continuous over voltage. Measure the luminaire’s mains voltage.
• A conductor is disconnected or is loose. Check the connections.
• In cold surroundings both the HF-ballast’s and the fluorescent lamp’s properties
change, to the point where the fluorescent lamp cannot continue to burn.
• Internal wiring between HF-ballasts and lamp holder too long.
3. The fluorescent lamp’s cathode glows, but the lamp doesn’t ignite
• Mains voltage too low. Measure the voltage on the luminaire.
• The starter in a luminaire with a conventional ballast could be defective.
• There is a fluorescent lamp in the luminaire with the wrong output/type or wrong
HF-ballast.
4. The fluorescent lamp’s ends darken or the cathodes flash
• Check that the fluorescent lamp is intact as set out in point 1.
• A conductor is disconnected or is loose. Check the connections as set out in point 1.
• It is recommended for some HF-ballasts intended for dimming, that the fluorescent
lamp is burnt in for 100 hours before dimming is allowed.
• Note that it is perfectly normal for a fluorescent lamp’s ends to darken after a long
period of use, when it approaches the end of its normal service life.
5. There is a reduced fluorescent lamp life
• Is the luminaire switched on regularly during the day? A fluorescent lamp’s nominal
life span is based on a three hours burning interval (eight ignitions per day). If, with a
conventional ballast you have significantly more ignitions, the fluorescent lamp’s life
span is shortened appreciably.
Cleaning luminaires
Luminaires should normally be cleaned in conjunction with re-lamping. Reflective
surfaces ought to be cleaned when dust and other grime is discovered.
Electrical components or cabling must not be exposed to cleaning agent or water. It
is important to always disconnect the voltage before cleaning the luminaire body.
We stock appropriate cleaning kits. These can be used on all materials, both for
normal and heavy contamination.
A cleaning kit (Cat. no 94759) includes:
• 1 litre of concentrated general purpose cleaning agent (sufficient for about 200 litres
of mixed solution).
• There is a fluorescent lamp in the luminaire with the wrong output/type or wrong
HF-ballast.
• A bad contact in the power circuit can shorten the life span of the fluorescent lamp.
6. The luminaire gives less light than normal
• The mains voltage is too low. Measure the voltage on the luminaire.
• When used in the cold the fluorescent lamps luminous efficacy decreases greatly, at
the same time, the HF-ballast’s properties change.
7. The earth-fault breaker or fuse trips when the lighting is igniting
• There could be an earth fault or short circuit in the luminaire group.
• 6 general cleaning cloths for wet cleaning.
• Too many luminaires in the same circuit.
• 1 cleaning leather for wiping off.
• A measurement instrument connected incorrectly to the power circuit can trip an
earth-fault breaker.
• Cleaning instructions (can also be ordered separately from us).
system
• Component properties can change drastically in the cold, to a point where the HFballast no longer functions reliably. The fluorescent lamp doesn't ignite safely, or the
HF-ballast immediately enters standby mode. Check the luminaire functions at room
temperature.
downlights
4. Check that the fluorescent lamp is fitted correctly in the lamp holders (that the
fluorescent lamp has been turned and fully inserted in the right position). Check the
lamp holders at the same time, making sure that the fluorescent lamp makes good
contact (the holders should be well secured to the luminaire). If necessary remove dust,
dirt, grease, etc.
• If the mains voltage is too low the fluorescent lamp will not ignite. Do not continuously under run a luminaire, as this can damage the HF-ballast.
spotlights
3. Check that the fluorescent lamps wattage and type correspond with that on the
luminaire label. Check that the HF-ballast type corresponds with the type stated on the
luminaire label.
• Check that all the luminaire’s fluorescent lamps are working.
architectural
2. Always disconnect the voltage for safety reasons when making the following checks.
On a luminaire with a dimmable HF-ballast even the control circuits should be disconnected.
1. The fluorescent lamp does not ignite or the luminaire stays in standby mode?
• First check that there is a voltage supply to the luminaire and that there are no short
circuits.
8. There is a problem with the dimming system
• Always check before connecting that the luminaires are intended for the control unit
used.
• Connections for 1–10 V control circuits are marked (+) and (-). Check the polarity.
technical info
• If the number of luminaires is large or the control circuit is long, a signal amplifier
in the control circuit may be necessary. Control circuits for digitally controlled HFballasts have a maximum length of 250 m.
emergency
1. Check that there is a voltage supply to the luminaire. Measure the supply voltage to
confirm it is at the correct level. On a luminaire with a dimmable HF-ballast, also check
the control voltage level, if applicable (analogue 1–10 V DC). Disconnect the control
circuit and check whether the lamp ignites (100 %).
What should be done if…
light sources
Checklist of actions when the fluorescent lamp does not ignite or
work correctly in luminaires with HF-ballasts:
recessed
before reconnecting these correctly to the terminal blocks.
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Symbols
This symbol denotes the luminaire’s light distribution,
Indicates the luminaire may be installed against materi-
direct, direct/indirect, asymmetrical, round beam, etc.
als that are normally combustible .
Several symbols next to the same luminaire indicate that
the luminaire is available in different designs.
Indicates that the surface temperature of the luminaire
is limited in accordance with the demands set out in
Denotes which light source/light sources that can be
EN 60598-2-24 (max. 90 °C on the luminaire’s upward
supplied with the luminaire. Several symbols next to the
turned surfaces under normal operation).
same luminaire indicate that the luminaire is available in
different designs.
ta
Denotes that the luminaire is designed for the T5-light
States the maximum normal ambient temperature for
the luminaire. Unless otherwise stated, 25 °C applies.
Labels on luminaires intended for temperatures
source’s unique characteristics. The small diameter of
exceeding 25 °C carry a separate ta-marking stating the
the fluorescent lamp has created new conditions for light
maximum temperature. The same applies to products
control.
only intended for outdoor use. Outdoor products can,
for example, be marked ta15 and therefore must not be
Denotes the luminaire’s IP classification. If several figures
installed in normal indoor environments.
are stated, the luminaire can also have a classification
between these figures, or can be adapted to the higher
T-, D- and higher ta-markings can be found in the
classification. See also the table at the bottom of the page.
Fagerhult range, primarily only on products designed for
environments with higher temperatures, for example,
Class I
industrial luminaires.
Appliances with functioning insulation. Equipped with an
It is in such areas that elevated ta-marking may be
earth termination.
required.
Class II
Note that a luminaire with a higher ta-marking installed
Appliance with double insulation. Complete insulation of
in a normal indoor environment cannot be considered to
all parts without earth termination. The appliance should
have a longer life compared to a luminaire intended for
be marked with the symbol.
25 °C. It is the design of the luminaire and the selection of
the HF-ballast that affect its expected life span.
Class III
Consequently, ta-marking has nothing to do with the
For connection to low voltage via a separate transformer. The
expected life span of the ballast.
appliance should be marked with the symbol.
When Fagerhult develops products for elevated ta-markSignifies that the luminaire can be obtained in designs
ing we apply the same temperature requirements as for
with emLED.
products designed for normal room temperatures.
For more information about how Fagerhult works with
Signifies that the luminaire is available in designs for con-
assuring a good life span for ballasts please refer to the
ventional emergency lighting operation.
separate page.
Degree of protection (IP-classes)
Luminaires are given an IP-classification. The IP-classification
describes respective IP-classifications. The IP-class is stated in plain
consists of a two digit code that describes the degree of protection
text on the luminaire’s label. Symbols as set out below can also be
against solid objects as well as moisture and water. Standard lumi-
used in combination with the text. Note that IP 20 luminaires do not
naires will have an IP classification of IP 20 or higher. The table below
need to be marked. IP is an abbreviation of Ingress Protection.
Design according to first
number
Design according to the second number
Unprotected
Drip proof
Unprotected
IP 00
IP 01
Protected
IP 10
IP 11
IP 13
Protected
IP 20
IP 21
IP 23
Protected
IP 40
IP 41
IP 43
Dust-proof
Dust-proof
502
Rain proof
Splash proof
Jet proof
IP 44
IP 45
IP 54
IP 55
IP 65
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Water-tight
Submersible
IP 67
IP 68
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EC directive
General information about EC directives
EC directive
An EC directive is binding for each member state it is directed to,
but the member state may decide itself the form and procedure for
pendant/surface
implementation.
According to the EC treaty, directives can be adopted by the
Europe­an Parliament and the Council, solely by the Council or by
the Commission. Within the civil collaboration it is more common
to use an ordinance than a directive. When an EC directive has been
adopted it is to be implemented by each of the member states, that
recessed
is to say, transformed into national legislation.
EU, laws and regulations
EU is sometimes illustrated as a building consisting of three
columns. The columns make up the EU’s different areas of coopera-
European Union
1st column
(supranational)
ec
European
Community
2nd column
(international)
3rd column
(international)
cfsp
judicial
Common Foreign
& Security
Policy
emu
epc
European Monetary System
European
Political
Cooperation
ec-law
and police
cooperation
schengen
removal of the
internal borders
within EU
community of
law with uniform
legislation
Council of ministers
EU-structure
Common standards
The first column, European
Work to produce common European standards that specify the new
community or the commu-
method-directive’s demands on health, safety and the environment
nity column, embraces the
is carried out by the European standardisation bodies CEN, Cenelec
larger part of cooperation
and ETSI.
within the EU. The laws
CEN stands for Comité Européen de Normalisation, i.e. the Euro-
and regulations that the
pean standardisation committee. CEN manages virtually all sectors
member states adopt in this
within the industry. CEN, with its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium,
column are known as EC law
has 27 member countries and six associated countries. Representa-
and have their judicial basis in the EC treaty. It is primarily within EC
tives from the European commission and Efta also participate in the
law that the EC court may expound and judge.
work to draw up standards.
According to the EC court, EC law shall apply before national law.
This means that a national law that contravenes EC law shall not be
European standards:
applied. Included in EC law are:
EN 1837
Safety on machinery – Integral lighting of machines.
1. The EC treaty and Euratom treaty in their applicable tenors.
EN 1838
Emergency lighting.
2. Legal acts adopted by the EU institutions, for example, ordinances
EN 12193
Sports Lighting.
EN 12665
Basic terms and criteria for specifying lighting
and directives.
3. Agreements between the EU and countries outside of the EU.
4. EC court’s legal practice. The EC court determines in its judgements how EC law is to be expounded.
requirements.
EN 12464-1
Lighting of work places – Part 1: Indoor work places.
EN 13861
Safety of machinery – Guidance for application of
downlights
EU
spotlights
which areas the regulations have their basis.
architectural
regulations adopted by the EU work in different ways depending on
industrial
system
tion and one of the reasons for the distinction is that the laws and
column, which includes the EU’s cooperation concerning foreign
of lamps and luminaires – Part 1: Measurement and
and security policies, and the third column, which contains police
and criminal cooperation.
Measurement and presentation of photometric data
file format.
EN 13032-2
Measurement and presentation of photometric data
Exactly as in the first column, some legal acts within these pillars
of lamps and luminaires – Part 2: Presentation of
can be legally binding for the member states. The member states
data for indoor and outdoor work places.
are then obliged to follow and apply the legal acts. Other legal acts
EN 13201-2
are solely politically binding and the member states are expected to
EN 13201-3
Road Lighting – Part 3: Calculation of performance.
observe them.
EN 13201-4
Road Lighting – Part 4: Methods of measuring lighting.
EN 15193
Energy performance of Buildings – Energy require-
Road Lighting – Part 2: Performance requirements.
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technical info
ments for lighting.
light sources
EN 13032-1
emergency
ergonomics standards in design of machinery.
The EU can also adopt different types of legal acts within the second
503
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Directives concerning environmentally hazardous substances
The WEEE directive, the RoHS directive and the EuP directive
Environment and luminaires
For many years Fagerhult has taken the lead in technical development. As early as the end of the Eighties we developed lighting
systems for HF-operation. In the middle of the Nineties we took the
next step with the development of luminaires for the T5 fluorescent
lamp. The T5 venture also presented the opportunity to develop
more efficient reflectors and louvres.
Through advancements in component part technologies and our
understanding of how to maximise them we can distribute light
more efficiently. Through our work and our innovations we can
contribute towards reduced energy consumption. 90 per cent of a
lighting installation's environmental impact occurs during operation
through the energy it consumes. Our contribution to tomorrow's environment is to develop more efficient luminaires. As market leader
we take our responsibility seriously.
Despite our focus on energy, as a producer we still face demands
about environment aspects concerning lighting products and component parts .
WEEE directive
RoHS directive
The directive 2002/96/EC concerns WEEE (Waste Electrical and
Directive 2002/95/EC is also known as the RoHS directive (Restric-
Electronic Equipment). The aim is for electrical and electronic prod-
tion of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and
ucts to be designed and manufactured in a manner so that waste is
electronic equipment). This directive prohibits the use of mercury,
prevented and reuse and recycling are increased.
cadmium, lead, hexavalent chromium and flame retardants PBB and
Manufacturers and importers shall pay for the recycling of the
PBDE in electrical and electronic products released on the market
products and ensure that collection and environmentally correct
from July 1, 2006. The products embraced by this directive are cat-
recycling is carried out.
egory 1 to 7 and 10 in the aforementioned WEEE directive
These acts are the first that seriously focus on the electronic in-
The WEEE directive comprises the following product categories:
dustry's products. Of those substances banned by RoHS it is prima-
1. Large household appliances.
rily lead that has required changes as this is found in most soldered
2. Small household appliances.
joints, but also in many products.
3. IT and telecom equipment.
4. Domestic equipment.
Exemption
5. Lighting equipment.
Exemption has been granted, for example, for mercury in fluores-
6. Electrical and electronic tools.
cent lamps and lead in optic glass. Batteries are embraced by a
7. Toys and leisure and sports equipment.
specific directive. Furthermore, spare parts intended for the repair of
8. Medical products.
electrical and electronic products that have been released on to the
9. Supervision and control instruments.
market before July 1, 2006 are not included. Products that are a part
10.Vending machines.
of a product not embraced by the WEEE directive are not included in
the demands of the RoHS directive.
What is included in Product category 5 – Lighting equipment:
Goods or equipment manufactured to normally be used:
How does Fagerhult conform to the requirements in RoHS?
• as a light source,
Our purchasers have asked our suppliers and received written as-
• to distribute or control lighting, or
surances from them. We have also scrapped old outgoing models of
• as a tool to distribute or control lighting.
HF-ballasts.
The product category does not include luminaires manufactured
for use in the home and incandescent lamps.
Fagerhult are a member of the Electrolink WEEE compliance
scheme in the UK.
504
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Directives concerning environmentally hazardous substances
• All clear incandescent bulbs > 60 lm (≈ 7 W) are to be phased out
and replaced by Energy Class B bulbs.
Stage 3 – taken eight years after implementation (2017).
• As far as light sources are concerned, the majority of metal halogen
light sources are to be phased out (≥ 405 W with sockets E27, E40 and
PGZ12). 2-pin compact fluorescent lamps are also being phased out.
• Ballasts – class B1, B2 and A3 ballasts for fluorescent lamps are being
phased out. In addition, there are requirements for the efficiency of
the ballast, depending on the power of the light source.
• Luminaires with ballasts must meet the third stage requirements for
ballasts.
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505
recessed
system
industrial
downlights
spotlights
Stage 2 – three years after implementation (2012).
• Light sources – T10 and T12 halophosphate fluorescent lamps are
to be phased out. Other light sources to be phased out are the least
efficient high pressure sodium and metal halogen light sources
(with E27, E40 and PGZ12 sockets). Five years after this comes into
force (2015), mercury light sources will also be phased out.
• Introduction of minimum ballast efficiency requirements for ballasts for high pressure discharge lamps. In addition, mandatory
EEI (Energy Efficiency Index) labelling is being introduced on all
ballasts. The standby power of fluorescent lamp ballasts must be
less than 0.5 W.
• Luminaires – the requirement is that luminaires with integrated
ballasts must be compatible with the third stage requirements
for ballasts, except in luminaires with an encapsulation class of at
least IP 4X. The mandatory information for all luminaires must be
available online and in the product documentation. In addition,
the same standby limits apply to luminaires as to ballasts.
architectural
Once the proposals have been voted through on the Regulatory
Committee, the proposal is forwarded to the EU parliament (Council
of Ministers), who may approve or reject the proposal. It is expected
that this will happen before the end of February 2009.
For domestic lighting (EuP – regulation on domestic lighting products) the following was voted through on the Regulatory Committee
on 8 December 2008:
Stage 1 – 1 September 2009
• All clear incandescent bulbs > 950 lm (≈ 80 W) and all non-clear
incandescent bulbs are to be phased out. Clear bulbs are to be
replaced by Energy Class C bulbs. Frosted bulbs are to be replaced
by Energy Class A bulbs.
Stage 2 – 1 September 2010
• All clear incandescent bulbs > 725 lm (≈ 65 W) are to be phased
out and replaced by Energy Class C bulbs.
Stage 3 – 1 September 2011
• All clear incandescent bulbs > 450 lm (≈ 45 W) are to be phased
out and replaced by Energy Class C bulbs.
Stage 4 – 1 September 2012
• All clear incandescent bulbs > 60 lm (≈ 7 W) are to be phased out
and replaced by Energy Class C bulbs.
Stage 5 – 1 September 2013
• Increased quality requirements.
Review
• It is expected that there will be a review of the requirements in 2014.
Stage 6 – 1 September 2016.
emergency
In Sweden, the Eco-Design Act came into force on 1 May 2008. The
Act means that manufacturers must take energy use and other environmental factors into consideration when designing and producing the product. Products that do not meet the requirements will
not qualify for the CE label and cannot be marketed within the EU.
Until now, product requirements have been voted through in the
Regulatory Committee (representatives from the affected authorities in the various EU countries) regarding the following:
• Standby power.
• Street and office lighting.
• Simple digital boxes.
• External mains power units.
• Domestic lighting.
Stage 1 – one year after implementation (2010)
• For light sources, T8 halophosphate fluorescent lamps and fluorescent lamps (T8 and T5) with a colour rendering index < Ra 80 will
be phased out. In addition, the manufacturer must supply product
information about high pressure discharge lamps and fluorescent
lamps online and in the technical documentation.
• Ballasts – a mandatory EEI (Energy Efficiency Index) label must be
placed on all fluorescent lamp ballasts. Ballasts included in table
16 must comply with at least EEI class B2. Those not included in
table 16 must comply with EEI class A3. The standby power of
fluorescent lamp ballasts must be less than 1 W.
• Luminaires – 18 months after stage 1 comes into force (the second
half of 2010), the mandatory information regarding the contents
of luminaires for fluorescent lamps and high pressure discharge
light sources (> 2000 lumen) must be available online and in
the product documentation. The information must also include
maintenance instructions and directions for the removal of scrap
products for recycling. In addition, the same standby limits apply
to luminaires as to ballasts.
light sources
Directive 2005/32/EC, the EuP (Energy Using Products) directive,
was adopted on the 6th July 2005 and constitutes the framework
for drawing up the requirement specifications within Ecodesign for
energy using products.
This directive applies, among other things, to electrical and electronic products and will be implemented in the previous directives,
WEEE and RoHS. The directive covers all products that require energy
for their function with the exception of means of transport for
people and goods.
The intention of the EuP directive is to force industry to design the
products of tomorrow to consume less energy, both during manufacture and their life cycle.
At the start of 2009 a proposal had been voted through in the
Regulatory Committee for products within the professional lighting
industry – street and office lighting. This (EuP – regulation on tertiary sector lighting products) was taken up by the EU parliament and
is based on three steps. The proposal relates to ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps without an integrated ballast, high
pressure discharge lamps and drive units and luminaires for these
light sources.
technical info
EuP directive
pendant/surface
The WEEE directive, the RoHS directive and the EuP directive
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Energy directive 2002/91/EC
On January 4, 2006 a new EU directive – Energy Performance of
Buildings, 2002/91/EC (EC stands for European Communities) came
into force. The directive means buildings must be declared with
regard to the total energy consumption. The building's energy consumption must be calculated and declared in advance and applies to
all energy consumption – lighting, heating, cooling, ventilation, etc.
The aim is to promote an improvement in the energy performance
in buildings within the EU and in doing so reduce the discharge of
climate-influencing gases, exactly as stated in the Kyoto agreement.
At the same time a reduction in the use of energy is also sought.
The directive has been drawn up to promote improvements
related to energy performance at the same time as local conditions
are taken into consideration. Southern Europe does not face the
is expected on account of the need to train inspectors. The directive
same conditions as the Northern Europe.
stipulates that affected buildings will be classified and considera-
The directive has the aim to improve the efficiency of energy
tion must be taken of all types of energy, daylight, ventilation etc.
usage in Europe as a part of the EU’s measures to satisfy the Kyoto
The directive necessitates that consideration must be paid to how
Agreement concerning the reduction of greenhouse gases.
the installed output is used over time with the value to be declared
In England and Wales the implementation of the directive started
in kWh/m² per year. The factors to be included in the calculation are
in April 2006 with the amendment to Part L of the building regula-
stated in the directive's annex, while section 1(e) as follows: “Inbuilt
tions. Further amendments are set to come into force in October
lighting installations (primarily the sector that is not intended for
2010.
residential purposes)”. When planning a lighting scheme efficient
The EC directive means that “all” properties are to be declared with
energy usage over time and the use of controls must be considered
regard to energy consumption. An implementation time up to 2009
in addition to the visual performance of the lighting.
Energy Usage Declaration
The EC directive stipulates what is to be done. A declaration of
ple in the instance of lighting the addition of natural light. When
energy usage must be made for buildings within the EU.
calculating energy usage, consideration should also be paid to
the outdoor climate, local conditions, the demands on the indoor
Demands are established in the directive concerning:
climate (e.g. EN 12464-1) and cost efficiency.
• The general framework for a calculation methodology for the
buildings’ integrated energy performance.
Exemption
• Implementation of minimum requirements for the energy performance of new buildings.
The member states may decide themselves to exempt buildings with
official protection as a part of a selected environment. They can also
• The implementation of minimum requirements for the energy
performance in existing large buildings that undergo major reno-
be exempted on account of their special architectural or historical
value if the demands result in unacceptable changes to their distinc-
vation.
tive features or appearance.
• Energy declaration (certification) of buildings.
Exemptions can also be given
• Regular control of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings
to churches or other buildings
and an evaluation of heating installations if the boilers in it are
used for spiritual and religious
older than 15 years.
activities.
Other buildings not included
The energy declaration is only a part of what the directive decrees,
are temporary buildings (in-
yet it is the part that has the greatest effect on the property owners.
tended to be used for two years
The law states that all owners of buildings are obliged to draw
or less), industries, workshops
up an energy declaration when a building is built, sold, rented or
and agricultural buildings with
transferred. A declaration is valid for ten years and must be drawn
a low energy requirement that are not intended as dwellings and
up by accredited energy experts appointed by the building owner.
which are used within a sector not encompassed by a national sector
This includes data about energy consumption, reference values and
agreement concerning energy performance.
recommendations about how the building's energy usage can be
Single family houses (weekend cottages or residential properties)
made more efficient.
intended for use less than four months per year or freestanding
In the annex to the Directive it cites the importance of applying
buildings with an over­­­all usable floor area of less than 50 m2 are
positive factors, which should be used where possible, for exam-
also exempt.
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Energy Directive 2002/91/EC
The standard EN 15193
Common standards are created to produce common calculation
The indicator for the energy efficiency of the
lighting
methodology. Different standards are drawn up to calculate the dif-
The energy consumption for lighting must be declared via the an
ferent energy consumers in the building.
Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI) and is expressed in
Naturally lighting is included as an important part of the energy
kWh/m2, year.
usage in a building. Standard EN 15193, Energy performance of
LENI is calculated on the lighting for the entire building. At the
nised method of calculating energy usage for interior lighting. The
same time the lighting shall conform to current standards
lighting's energy efficiency in the building must be evaluated with
and recommendations for indoor lighting (EN 12464-1).
an index; Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI) and is expressed
Wtotal is the total annual energy usage for lighting.
in kWh/m² per year.
A recessed
Buildings – Energy requirements for lighting, describes a harmo-
pendant/surface
The LENI number, the rating index for lighting’s specific annual energy usage
is the building’s total interior area (m2).
The LENI-number must be shown for the entire building and can
The area is calculated inside the external walls excluding
be used to compare the energy expended on lighting. The compari-
non-used cellar areas and unlit rooms.
son can be made between different buildings with the same function but of a different size and design.
The calculation of the LENI number for the building is performed using
The standard will provide example values of the LENI number for
the formula:
(kWh/m², year)
system
LENI calculated=W total / A a number of common building types, thus shifting the focus from
The quick method
The comprehensive method
This method is used to give an estimate of the building’s annual
This method permits an exact determination of the energy used
energy usage, applicable for just a number of common building
as the method is based on actual values for each room. Unlike
types. The standard includes tables where the annual standard data
the quick method, the comprehensive method can be used for all
for different types of buildings can be read to aid calculation via
types of buildings, even at different geographical positions. As the
the quick method. These are offices, buildings for tuition, hospitals,
comprehensive method is based on actual values it gives a lower
hotel, restaurants, sports centres, department stores and retail shops
LENI number than a calculation with the quick method. Calcula-
and manufacturing industries.
tions provided by Fagerhult, and those via DIALux, are based on the
The quick method also includes a standard value for the parasitic
comprehensive method.
energy (Wparasitic) which is stated as 6 kWh/m2 a year and which
Using the comprehensive method you can calculate for a selected
period (not only the whole year) under the condition that you can
get an estimation of the presence and availability of daylight. In the
energy for the ballast.
examples on the coming pages we have used the comprehensive
architectural
should be used when applicable. It is distributed over 1 kWh/m
year for charging emergency lighting and 5 kWh/m2 year for standby
2
method.
LENI=Wlight + Wparasitic/A (kWh/m², time*)
light sources
emergency
* Using the comprehensive method you can calculate on an annual, monthly or time basis.
technical info
LENI=Wlight + Wparasitic/A (kWh/m², year)
spotlights
The LENI number can be calculated in two different ways, a quick and a comprehensive
downlights
industrial
the installed output to how the energy in used over time.
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Energy Directive 2002/91/EC
The LENI number, the rating index for lighting’s specific annual energy usage
Availability of daylight
Daylight must be included within the calculations to give a correct
value. The availability of daylight divides the room into different
zones. The different zones describe a specific daylight interval,
divided by a daylight factor: Strong, Medium, Weak or None.
Luminaires located in the stronger zone can utilise a larger devaluation of the utilisation, which reduces the total power consumption.
The daylight factor is obtained by making a light measurement of
indoor illuminance and expressing the measurement result as a
relation to the outdoor illuminance at the same time.
Strong
Medium
D ≥ 3%
3%>D≥2%
Weak
None
The formula becomes D(%) = Eindoors x 100 / Eoutdoors
The room contains zones with different daylight
intervals. The availability of daylight is dependent on
the room's glazed area and window placement. In this
room there are potential savings of over 60 % with the
use of daylight and absence control.
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2%>D≥1%
1%>D
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Energy directive 2002/91/EC
To calculate energy usage for lighting (Wtotal) according to EN 15193
The total energy consumed for lighting is
calculated according to the formula and is stated
kWh/year:
Wlight
pendant/surface
W total=W light + W parasitic
is the estimated energy consumption used to power the
lighting in the building during a given period. All light
sources and ballasts included.
Wparasitic is the estimated energy used when the lighting is extinstandby mode or for charging emergency luminaires.
Which factors affect the lighting’s output in operation, Wlight?
Which factors affect the lighting’s output when
it is extinguished, Wparasitic?
Pn
is the total installed lighting output within a room or zone, measured in watts
(Pn=∑Pi).
FC is a correction factor for constant illuminance in a room or a zone.
FC is affected by:
• Maintenance factor (β).
Pem charging power for emergency • Maintenance plan.
When constant light control is used:
FC=(1+maintenance factor)/2, otherwise the standard value 0.9 is used.
FD Control system
Emergency lighting system
lightingwithin the building.
tem is the charging time for emergency
lighting (standard value for tem is 8760 h/year).
is a correction factor for daylight. FD relates use of the total lighting output to the availability of daylight in the building.
Plight-off
parasitic “standby” power for control equipment when the lighting is in the “off position”.
tlight-off when the lighting is in the “off position” [tY – (tD + tN)] (standard value for tY is
8760 h/year).
downlights
industrial
W parasitic is affected by the following factors
W light is affected by the following factors
system
recessed
guished. That is to say, the energy used by the ballast in
FD is affected by:
• The daylight factor (amount of daylight).
The formula to calculate the parasitic energy:
Wparasitic=[∑Ppc, Light-off x tLight-off + (Pem x tem)] / 1000 (kWh/year)
• Illuminance.
• Type of control.
is a correction factor depending on presence. FO relates use of the total lighting output to the presence time in the building.
architectural
FO spotlights
.
FO is affected by:
• Presence/absence.
• The type of control.
• Total utilisation time (t tot) day+night (tN+tD).
The formula to calculate the energy consumption:
technical info
light sources
emergency
Wlight= [∑(PnxFC) x [(tD x FD x FO) + (tN x FO)]] / 1000 (kWh/year)
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Light planning
Quantities, units and their significance
Quantity/Concept
Symbol
Unit
Formula
Luminous intensity
Ι
candela
(cd)
I=Φ/ω
E
(lx)
Lux
(lm/m²)
Luminance
(luminous intensity)
L
(cd/m²)
L=I/A
(L=I/Acosα)
Luminous flux
Φ
lumen
(lm)
Φ=I/ω
Design lumen
ΦB
lumen
Light Output Ratio
(LOR)
ηA
Ratio between the total flux from the luminaire, measured under specified practical conditions with
its own light sources and equipment, and the total individual luminous flux from the same light
sources operating outside the luminaire using the same equipment, under specified conditions
Design efficiency
ηB
The design efficiency of the luminaire is used in lighting calculations together with the design lumen for the light source. The design efficiency includes the correction for BLF when measuring the
luminaire and light source in an ambient temperature of 25 °C. ηB = ηmeasured x BLF.
Ballast Lumen Factor
BLF
–
Colour temperature
–
kelvin (K)
CIE 17.4
The colour temperature is defined using absolute temperature. (0 K = -273.15 °C or 0 °C = +273.15 K)
Colour reproduction index
Ra
Ra-index
CIE 17.4
Is the measurement of a light source’s ability to reproduce colour compared to a reference light
source at a predetermined colour temperature. An Ra index is used for graduation, which according
to CIE, can be at the most 100 and shall for lighting workplaces be a minimum of 80.
Luminous efficacy – light
source
H
(lm/W)
η=Φ/P
The luminous efficacy from a light source can be defined as the relationship between the luminous
flux emitted by a light source and the electrical output it consumes. Luminous efficacy can also be
described as a measurement of light source efficiency.
Luminous efficacy – system
(light source + ballast)
H
(lm/W)
η=Φ/P
The system luminous efficacy from a light source can be defined as the relationship between the luminous flux emitted by a light source and the electrical output it consumes including ballast losses.
Illuminance
Glare
Luminous intensity is the intensity in a determined direction. Definition: Luminous flux per solid
angle (ω). Definition: Luminous flux per solid angel (ω)
Illuminance refers to the luminous flux that hits a specific surface.
Definition: Luminous flux per unit area (m²).
This is defined as the luminous intensity in a specific direction from a surface of a
light source, luminaire or lit surface, divided by the projected area.
Luminous flux refers to the total amount of light emitted from a light source. It is defined as the
amount of light emitted when the light source’s radiant luminous flux, is evaluated against the eye’s
sensitivity in daylight (Vλ-curve according to CIE).
Refers to the light source’s luminous flux that is emitted at an ambient temperature of 25 °C. The
quoted luminous flux may differ from the light source’s maximum luminous flux. (For example
T5-fluorescent lamp).
–
CIE- 31,
112, 117
Uniformity
– illuminance
– luminance
Explanation
Emin/Eave
Lmin/Lave
Defines the luminous flux from a light source. It is measured with either a commercial ballast or a
reference ballast, at an ambient temperature of 25 °C.
Is a visual impairment caused by the extreme contrast or inappropriate distribution of luminance
levels. Glare is normally subdivided into: -discomfort glare UGR/NB – disability glare TI/GR.
Ratio between the lowest value and the average value of brightness on a specific surface unless
otherwise stated.
Luminaire luminance
–
–
The average luminance of a luminaire’s luminous parts measured and/or calculated in the C-plane
at 15° intervals starting at 0°, and elevation angles (γ) of 65°, 75° and 85°.
Shielding angle for luminaire’s light source
–
–
The angle between the horizontal plane and the first line of sight at which any part of the luminaires light source becomes directly visible.
Cut-off angle for luminaires
–
–
Angle, measured upwards from nadir, between the vertical axis and the first line of vision at which
the light sources and surfaces with high luminance are not visible.
Solid angle
ω
steradian
(sr)
ω=A/r²
The relationship between the cut out area A on a sphere caused by a beam of light on its surface
and the square of the spheres radius r.
Mean mortality rate
– for light sources
–
hour (h)
–
Mean mortality rate is the average life span of a light source and is defined as the time after which
50 % of a large number of controlled light sources have failed (Incandescent lamps, halogen lamps
and fluorescent lamps).
Service mortality rate
– for light sources
–
hour (h)
–
The service mortality rate is defined as the point at which 80 % of the lighting installation’s original
luminous flux remains. The depreciation in luminous flux depends on the reduced luminous flux
and spent light sources.
Economic mortality rate
– for light sources
–
hour (h)
–
The economic mortality rate is defined as the point at which 70 % of the lighting installation’s
original luminous flux remains. The depreciation in luminous flux depends on the reduced luminous
flux and spent light sources.
For standardised definitions and further clarification of magnitudes, units and concepts, see EN 12 665 – Basic terms and criteria for specifying lighting requirements. (EN 12 665 – Basic
terms and criteria for specifying lighting requirements).
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Light planning
European Lighting Standard EN 12464-1
Planning the lighting of indoor workplaces
From May 2003 companies in European CEN-countries, have a mutual standard for the planning of lighting of indoor workplaces.
pendant/surface
The standard EN 12464-1:2002 – Lighting of work places – Part 1,
has been developed by the technical committee CEN/TC 169 “Light
and Lighting”.
EN 12464-1 applies to the following countries : Belgium, Bulgaria,
Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,
Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Nether-
recessed
lands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland,
Spain, United Kingdom, Sweden, The Czech Republic, Germany and
system
Austria.
Lighting of indoor workplaces
The standard does not cover all aspects of planning a lighting
installation, and reference should also be made to the SLL code for
lighting.
Lighting the visual object
The main principle is that the light falls in such a manner that the
greatest possible contrast is placed on the visual object, which may
have a horizontal, vertical or sloping position. It can also consist of
varied structures or have different combinations of surface characteristics, matt, bright etc,resulting in varied reflective characteristics.
Workplace lighting
The European standard EN 12464-1 highlights the minimum illuminance requirements of an actual working area rather than the
entire room. The guidelines recommend that the lighting outside
the working area should be adapted to the conditions that apply
industrial
European standard for the lighting of indoor workplaces EN 12464-1.
A basic prerequisite for good visual comfort in the workplace, is
that the work object’s position and shape, in relation to the direction
of light, does not cause any form of unpleasant glare or glare that
impairs the vision e.g. dazzling luminaires or disturbing reflections.
downlights
The following text is an interpretation of the main guidelines in the
inside the working area. The values stated in the collection of tables,
refer to the lowest illuminances in the workspace of a visual object,
spotlights
that can be either horizontal, vertical or placed at an angle. The
illuminances documented consider the lowest average values for
working under normal conditions. However, the illuminances can
be adjusted by the increments set out below if the visual conditions
architectural
deviate from the normal conditions.
20–30–50–75–150–200–300–500–750–1000–1500–2000–3000–5000 lx
The demands on illuminances used in the workplace, should be
regularly reviewed to overcome the following situations; difficult
working conditions, activities that demand great accuracy or high
productivity, impairment of visual efficiency, viewing objects with
emergency
fine detail or in low contrasts of light or the use of DSE terminals for
long periods of time.
In practice, the specified illumination can be reduced under the
following conditions; when visual objects have an abnormally large
size and high contrast or when visual work is in progress for short
light sources
periods.
In workplaces with continuous occupancy the illuminance must
not drop below 200 lx. Continuous occupancy refers to work that is
performed for more than two hours.
The recommended values assume that the employees have
technical info
normal sight. If a greater number of people have some form of sight
impairment, this should be taken into consideration when designing
a lighting installation.
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Light planning
EN 12464-1
Principles for establishing the working area and
surrounding calculation surfaces
Example of the workspace for a typical workplace.
Lighting of the working area
wo=width
The working area is defined, according to EN 12464-1, as the area of
the workplace where tasks are performed. For areas where the size
lo=length
the tasks may be performed is to be considered as the working area
The working area is usually made up of the entire workplace/
workstation. For example, in an office workplace, the working area
la=length
wa=width
and/or placement of the working area is unknown, the area where
is made up of a small surface where paper work is carried out. Work
with a monitor and keyboard usually demands a lower illuminance
than when paper work is performed. The illuminance level needs to
be adjustable for work with monitors and to help achieve a suitable
balance with the surrounding area. Adjust relative to the surrounding areas illuminance.
In an office where paper work is carried out the workspace can be
made up of an entire work table. In industry, the size of the working area can be harder to define e.g. workplaces for work involving
microelectronics or a production line for assembling cars.
1
2
3
0.5 m
1. Working area (la x wa)
– size and position are established by the lightplanner.
2. Immediate Surrounding area (lo x wo)
– The size to be established by the light planner. (la+2 x ≥ 0.5 m) x (Wa+2 x ≥ 0.5 m).
3.Outer surrounding area
– 0.5 metres from the room’s walls.
When the exact size of the working area is unknown, it is normally taken as 0.6 mx0.6 m for an office workplace. In this case
Lighting of the peripheral surroundings
the working area is thought to be located directly in front of the
There are no defined demands on the illuminance within the pe-
person’s normal position and at the front edge of the desk. The vari-
ripheral surrounding areas in the EN 12464-1, i.e. the area outside
ation of the illuminance, i.e. the ratio between the lowest illumi-
of the immediate surrounding area. This area is defined as the
nance in relation to the average illuminance on the working area,
area outside the surrounding areas, to a distance of 0.5 m from the
should be as small as possible and not fall below 0.7.
room’s walls.
However, within a workroom the relation between the illu-
Lighting of the immediate surroundings
The lighting of the immediate surrounding area should relate to the
lighting level within the working area and in addition create the conditions for a well-balanced luminance distribution within the normal
field of vision. Extensive changes to the lighting level around the working area can cause visual stress and discomfort.
The immediate surrounding area is defined as an area around the
working area with a width of at least 0.5 m. The size of the immediate surroundings should be determined by the planner and may
need to be increased to a width greater than 0.5 m, for specific types
of workplaces.
minance on the working area and the lowest illuminance in the
workroom in the zones where there are no workplaces, should not
exceed 5:1. For example, circulation areas.
If, for example, demands on the illuminance within the working area are 500 lx on the workplace, the lowest illuminance in the
premises should not fall below 100 lx. The lowest illuminance is
calculated within a zone outside of the immediate surroundings, to
half a metre (0.5) from the room’s walls.
Uniformity within the peripheral surroundings should not fall
below 0.5. The lighting around the working area should contribute
towards good visual adaptation, as recommended in the luminance
The size of the immediate surroundings can be increased:
• When the size of the working area is small.
• If the illuminance within the working area is high.
• With active work.
distribution and luminance limitations section of the report.
As a rule in work areas with bright walls, the relation between the
illuminance within the working area and the average illuminance
on the rooms walls should not exceed 3:1.
The illuminance in the immediate surrounding area can be lower
than within the working area, but should not fall below the values
stated in the table to the right.
The variation of the illuminance, i.e. the ratio between the lowest
illuminance in relation to the average illuminance in the immediate
surroundings, should be as small as possible and not fall below 0.5.
Relations between different illuminances and uniformity demands
Illuminance within
the working area
Illuminance within the immediate
surroundings
≥ 750
500
300
≥ 200
Emin/Eave ≥ 0.7
500
300
200
Euniformity
Emin/Eave ≥ 0.5
Table of uniformity demands and the relation between illuminances within the immediate surroundings of the working area.
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Light planning
EN 12464-1
Glare
Glare occurs when part of an interior space is significantly brighter
than the room’s luminosity. In these instances the eyes are exposed
pendant/surface
to a more intense light than they are normally adapted to. The most
common cause of glare occurs when the luminaire and window can
be seen directly or via reflections, within the normal field of vision.
Elderly people are usually more irritated by glare than young people.
This is mainly due to the increased clouding of the eyes lens experi-
recessed
enced with age as well as a reduction in the ability to adapt.
Glare can be divided into two different types; disability glare and
discomfort glare.
Sight impairment glare and discomfort glare can occur simulta-
The degree of discomfort glare for indoor installations can be esti-
normal line of sight, has a significantly higher luminosity or lumi-
mated by calculating the glare index according to the UGR method.
nance than that which usually occurs in the field of vision. If an eye
The method will, through the introduction of the new standard
is exposed to a continuous intense light, the eye’s adaptation can be
EN 12464-1, replace the previous European calculation method
affected negatively and cause deterioration in visibility, or what is
(NB-method). The demands on the glare index documented in
known as contrast reduction.
EN 12464-1 refer to the highest average value for the lighting. The
This contrast reduction can be sufficient to make words and
UGR-method (Unified Glare Rating) is described in CIE’s publication
images barely visible and in doing so make it difficult to carry out
no 117-1995.
the visual task. Alternatively, if the light source causing the glare is
The UGR glare index for discomfort glare is ranked on a scale,
directly in the line of sight this can cause noticeable after-images.
which in practice runs from 13 to 28 where the higher the glare
The most common source of sight impairment glare internally, is
index the higher the level of glare. The smallest change in the glare
the sun and sky viewed from a window or a badly shielded light
index denoting a significant difference is 3.
source observed directly or via reflection.
The glare number should be calculated according to the ‘table
Disability glare should therefore be prevented through using
method’ to check whether the recommended glare index in the
luminaires that effectively shield the light source (see table).
standard’s tables is met by a specific lighting installation. (The
method is described in CIE’s publication no 117-1995). However, this
Light source’s luminance [kcd/m²]
20 to < 50
50 to < 500
≥ 500
Minimum shielding angle
15°
20°
30°
The values in the table do not include indirect luminaires or luminaires that are
installed below normal eye level.
method assumes that the luminaires in the room are positioned
symmetrically and feature symmetrical light distribution across and
along the luminaire.
Luminaire manufacturers provide information/table data as a
part of the luminaire’s photometric data to calculate the lighting
technical info
light sources
emergency
installation’s glare index.
architectural
Lowest shielding angle for the light source’s luminance
downlights
Calculation of the glare index
Disability glare usually occurs when an object in the vicinity of the
spotlights
Disability glare
industrial
system
neously or separately.
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Light planning
EN 12464-1
Discomfort glare from electric light
Discomfort glare from windows
Discomfort glare is an immediate occurrence and arises from light
An awkward and unpleasant glare arises when a person looks out
sources or luminaires whose luminance is greater than the eye can
of a window in the direction of the sun, or when direct sunlight falls
adapt to, but can also become noticeable after a period of time.
against surfaces within the normal field of vision. In these situa-
The degree of discomfort glare, depends on several factors; the
tions even discomfort in the form of increased heat radiation can
luminance and the size of the glare source, the position of the glare
also occur. Thus sun screening in some form is necessary in most
source in relation to the line of sight and the background luminance
buildings.
against which the glare source is viewed.
Screening can be achieved through the design of the building,
Consequently, when light planning the luminaire’s luminance
external sun screens, low transmitting glass (sun glass windows) or
should always be considered in relation to the background lumi-
through Venetian blinds or curtains. Glare can also occur from a dif-
nance. The closer the dazzling surface is to the eye, the greater the
fuse sky viewed through a window. This form of glare can usually be
risk of discomfort glare. In open luminaires, especially those for
reduced by choosing lighter colours for the walls near the window
compact and other intense light sources with high luminous flux, it
or by increasing the luminosity of the walls with separate lighting.
is generally the light source itself or a mirror image in the specular
reflector that causes the glare effect. One way to reduce discomfort
Examples of discomfort glare from a window:
glare is to use satin matt reflectors and luminaires with a larger
• Reflective glare.
surface area.
• Reflections on visual objects or their surroundings can completely
Discomfort glare can also be reduced by increasing the luminos-
impair sight.
ity on walls and ceiling of a room. This can be achieved in different
ways:
Even if glare does not occur from a luminaire or other highly
• Using luminaires with an uplight component.
reflective surfaces, it can occur in the form of reflection. Polished
• Positioning the luminaire closer to the walls in the room.
and reflective materials should not be placed in areas where glare
• The walls can be lit separately or the luminosity increased by
can arise, especially in work areas. If polished surfaces cannot be
choosing higher reflection factors on the wall surfaces.
avoided lighter surfaces are more preferable than darker surfaces.
An example is a computer monitor screen surface where reflections
Walls that appear brighter in relation to the visual object can create
are usually perceived as more disturbing on monitors with dark
adaptation problems. The luminosity of the room surfaces should
backgrounds and light text, than on monitors with light back-
therefore be adapted to the visual conditions and be limited as
grounds and dark text.
described in the Luminance distribution and luminance limitations
chapter.
Reflections from reflective materials or reflective glare can usually
be prevented with the following actions:
• Suitable luminaire positioning.
• Selecting luminaires with low luminous intensity and effective
screening.
• Selecting matt materials for reflective surfaces.
• Selecting luminaires with a larger surface area.
• Select light colours for ceilings and walls.
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Light planning
Instructions for planning and calculations
Recommended luminance conditions between the working area and the room’s surfaces
With indirect lighting the average luminance on the ceiling should not exceed 500 cd/m².
The luminance from the room’s surfaces must be relative to the lu-
Luminance conditions with indirect lighting
minance from the working plane, in order to conform to EN 12464-1
With indirect lighting the average luminance on the ceiling
demands. For example, when using low luminance luminaires and
should not exceed 500 cd/m², with a maximum acceptable
downlights, there is a risk that the tops of the walls and the ceiling,
luminance of 1500 cd/m². The luminance transition should vary
may be too dark.
gradually across the surface being lit to avoid the lighting from be-
The difference in luminance can be calculated or measured as a
ing distracting and uneven. The luminance balance (Lmin/Lave) should
relation between different surface luminances. The following lumi-
not exceed 1:10.
nance conditions are recommended for the workplace:
For the background lighting on the walls the maximum lumi-
• The working area (inner field of vision) – immediate surroundings
nance should be limited to 1000 cd/m².
(the near field) 3:1.
walls within the field of vision) 5:1.
• The working area (inner field of vision) – periphery wall surfaces
(background) 10:1.
Later studies, however, show that the luminance relationship be-
Luminance limitation for luminaires that can be reflected in the
monitor
Limitations of luminaire luminance at
workplaces with monitors classified in accordance within ISO 9241-7
Negative monitor
polarity
(dark background)
tween the working area and the ambient area (wall surface) should
be 2:1 with an illumination level in the working area of 500 lx. This
approach pays consideration to the visual, emotional and biological
effects or artificial light and requires that the vertical illumination in
work premises should exceed 250 lx.
In order to achieve good visual comfort within an area the average luminance on the room’s walls, as a general rule, should not
Luminaire’s maximum average luminance cd/m² (applies to luminaires that
can be reflected on the monitor)
Monitor class I and II – direct lighting
≤ 1000 cd/m²
Good, average or normal reflection treatment
Positive monitor
polarity
(light background)
≤ 1500 cd/m²
Monitor class III – direct lighting
Inferior screen quality without reflection
treatment
≤ 200 cd/m²
≤ 500 cd/m²
Monitor class III – dir./indir. (≥10 % uplight)
Inferior screen quality without reflection
treatment
≤ 500 cd/m²
–
spotlights
• The working area (inner field of vision) – surroundings (adjacent
system
The luminance ratio between the working area and the wall should not be less than 5:1.
industrial
Lmax < 1000 cd/m²
downlights
Lmax < 1500 cd/m²
recessed
pendant/surface
Lave < 500 cd/m²
architectural
fall below 30 cd/m². It is normal practice to translate luminance
conditions to relative illuminance, as illuminances are used as guide
values in light planning. Nevertheless, in this context it should be
pointed out that today’s computerised calculation programs allow
the calculation and documentation of different luminances for
room surfaces. The table below provides information about recomemergency
mended relative illuminances between the workspace and room
Room surface
Recommended
reflectance
Relative
illuminance
Ceiling
Walls
Window wall
Workspaces
Floor
0.6–0.9
0.3–0.8
> 0.6
0.2–0.6
0.1–0.5
0.2–0.9
0.2–0.6
0.3–0.6¹⁾
1.0–
light sources
surfaces for a typical area.
technical info
¹⁾ The values apply in daylight – without daylight the relative illuminance should not
exceed 0.2 provided that the glazed surfaces do not have bright curtains.
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Light planning
Instructions for planning and calculations
Flow chart for light planning
Interpretation of the calculation result
1. Analysis of the planning objective
1. Scrutinise carefully
• Define the activities and different visual work that may be per-
• To prevent glare – check the luminance conditions in the room.
formed in the premises at different times of the day.
• Define the lighting demands with regard to safety, visual needs
and the visual experience.
2. Maintenance factor
• Has the maintenance factor been adapted to a maintenance plan
for the lighting installation?
• Examine the need for emergency lighting. Define the aims for en-
NOTE! The maintenance factor affects the lighting system’s energy
ergy consumption, environment and maintenance of the lighting
consumption.
installation.
3. Calculation conditions
2. Analysis of planning conditions
• Have the conditions for the lighting calculations been checked?
• Define applicable provisions, standards, recommendations as well
• Has the size of the working area and immediate surroundings
as special demands from the client and users.
been established?
• Define the conditions for lighting the room, the type of workplace
and its working area, etc.
• Has the calculation area for the peripheral area been defined?
• Have the room surfaces’ reflectance values been checked?
• Investigate the conditions for the premises’ design, furnishings,
type of monitors, flexibility, daylight and the character of the
premises.
• Has the luminaire’s average luminance been checked in rooms
used for monitor work?
4. Uniformity demands
• Establish the economic prerequisites for the installation and the
maintenance conditions for the lighting installation.
• When calculating the illuminance uniformity i.e. the ratio between
the minimum value and the average value in the working area
3. Overall planning
and the immediate surroundings, it is important that the distance
• Investigate the conditions for interaction between electric light
between the calculation points is documented. For normal work-
and natural daylight. Check the possibility of daylight screening.
• Investigate which light sources, luminaires and lighting systems
best satisfy the demands aims and conditions.
• Investigate the possibilities for lighting control to increase comfort
and improve energy usage.
ing areas a maximum spacing of 0.25 metres between calculation
points applies.
5. Graduation implication
• Use the scales for illuminances and luminances stated in the
standard EN 12464-1.
• Investigate the overall co-ordination with other installations,
colour setting and furnishings.
6. UGR-glare index
• Check, where appropriate, that the system’s average glare index
4. Detailed planning
conforms to the value stated in the standard.
• Evaluate the different lighting systems; technically, visually and
economically.
Checking the lighting installation
• Establish the lighting system’s optimal maintenance factors taking
the maintenance conditions into consideration.
• Make a financial evaluation by calculating the life cycle costs
based on the investment, operation and maintenance.
• Compare the selected lighting systems with regard to other installations, colour setting, furnishings and the chosen equipment.
5. Documentation
1. Scope
• What should be evaluated? Electric lighting, emergency lighting,
daylight conditions, functionality and control, maintenance plan,
electrical efficiency, etc.
• 2. Conditions
• Regarding the control of new systems, which conditions applied
when planning?
• Should be prepared as shown to the right with supplements according to the client’s wishes.
• Evaluation of existing systems?
• Evaluation with or without daylight?
• Include Installation drawings, control and assembly instructions as
well as associated lists of light sources and luminaires.
• Lighting calculations and visualisations that verify under which
conditions the system operates to the specified demands.
• Present calculation prerequisites and the lighting system’s maintenance plan (see instructions in the Lighting template).
• Are the measured values new values or maintained values?
3. Implementation/checks with light measurement
• Illuminances – mean value/uniformity for the working area,
immediate surroundings and the lowest illuminance within
peripheral areas.
• Luminaires’ mean luminances.
• Calculate where appropriate the UGR-glare index.
• Luminance conditions in the premises.
• Luminaire’s cut-off angle.
• Light sources’ colour reproduction and colour temperature.
• Perform visual evaluation and interview personnel.
• Perform a functional check.
• Check the calibration, burn-in time and prevailing operating conditions before light measurement.
516
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Planning and calculation tips
Energy efficiency in lighting installations
In addition to a low installed output, energy usage should be lim-
A lighting installation needs to confirm to the various requirements
ited in an installation with the help of different control systems.
is paid towards the selection of the appropriate lighting system,
equipment, control systems and the use of daylight. A measurement of efficiency in a lighting installation is the installed output, in
W/m², that is required to meet defined demands.
Example of installed lighting outputs
Corridors
Corridors
General public areas
Workplaces
Workplaces
Workplaces
Installed lighting
output
Required illuminance
while operational (lx)
5–10 W/m²
10 W/m²
10–12 W/m²
10–12 W/m²
10–15 W/m²
15–30 W/m²
Notes.
100 lx
200 lx
300 lx
300 lx
500 lx
1000 lx
is described in the EN 15193 standard, which is linked to the Energy
Directive, see pages 511–514.
The maintenance factor affects energy
consumption
The new standards give light planners greater responsibility for the
system, as the installation’s maintenance factor has a direct effect
on the energy consumption. To select a high maintenance factor a
great deal of care must be exercised when choosing light sources,
*)
*)
*)
*) Required illuminance within the working zone according to EN 12464-1. The lower
value normally presupposes a localised lighting system adapted to the working area in the
workplace.
luminaires and the lighting system. The choice of T5 luminaires
gives the best conditions for achieving a high maintenance factor.
For further information on calculating the maintenance factor,
refer to the SLL Code for Lighting.
system
Installation type
system is to evaluate the annual energy consumption. This method
pendant/surface
ficiency or visual comfort. This necessitates that care consideration
A better method of assessing the energy efficiency of a lighting
recessed
stipulated for its specific area, without compromising on energy ef-
General advice
120
• Selection of light sources with optimal luminous efficacy for the
100
required colour reproduction.
80
43%
60
• Energy efficient lighting system with installed lighting output suit-
40
18%
20
able for the required task.
• Efficient luminaires with the correct light distribution and good
cut-off properties.
industrial
Increase in relative power output(%)
energy usage in a lighting installation:
0
1,00
0,90
0,80
0,70
0,60
downlights
The following points should be considered in order to create low
0,50
Maintenance factor
• Efficient utilisation of daylight.
• Efficient utilisation of artificial and natural light through the selection of a light interior colour scheme.
spotlights
• Control of lighting through presence detection.
• Possibility of localised control by the individual.
• High frequency operation with dimming.
• Well planned maintenance of the lighting installation to obtain a
architectural
high maintenance factor.
Evaluation of a lighting system
Visual ergonomic aspects of the workplace’s design are important for a stimulating working environment. There is an excellent
method called “visual evaluation” available to review and assess a
emergency
room with an installed lighting system, which is simply based on
describing what you see in the room.
Evaluate the room visually through its lighting system, colours
and design. These factors affect each other and are difficult to
assess individually. The room colours should not be distorted, and
reflections.
The room’s visual quality governs, to a large extent, your health
and your performance capacity. It is therefore important that you
do not completely rely on computer calculated results. Try to make a
visual evaluation of your own workplace using the adjacent table.
Rank the opposite pairs on a scale of 1–5.
Concept
Light level
Light distribution
Description
– is it dark or light in the room?
Light colour
– is the light colour experienced as
warm or cold?
warm – cold
Colour
– how are the colours and objects
viewed?
distorted – natural
Glare
Shadows
Reflections
– does unpleasant glare occur?
troublesome – not noticeable
– whether they are hard or soft?
hard – soft
– whether they are intense or diffuse? intense – diffuse
– how is the light distributed in the
room?
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Evaluation
dark – light
varied – equally
517
technical info
light sources
visual work should be possible without the discomfort of glare or
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Light planning
Light and health
Light, or light radiation, not only affects our visual cortex but
offices, which is usually three to four times lower (20–30 cd/m²).
also the whole of our alertness, wellbeing and performance. Our
The study also showed that ambient light influences the stress
circadian rhythm and seasonal variation are genetically fixed, but
hormones in the body and alertness in a relatively short time. It is
they are regulated to a certain extent by our surroundings, above all
therefore possible, by using algorithmic lighting controls, to change
by light. Nerve pathways from the eye's retina signal to cells in the
our biological clock over time. For example, in the morning during
brain to stop secreting the hormone melatonin, which is believed to
the dark months of the year, increase activity with more ambient
control our circadian rhythm. Interruptions to the circadian rhythm,
light.
due to a lack of daylight during the winter months, is considered to
be the primary cause of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
How is lighting planning affected?
The discovery that certain elements of light radiation also affect our
The effect of light on humans
wellbeing will influence the future design and evaluation of lighting
New research has shown that light also affects a new third receptor
in our rooms.
as well as both the rods and cones. A discovery which has been iden-
This may lead to a greater focus on the lighting of our surround-
tified as the missing link between how our health and wellbeing are
ings but also on varying light and its colour over time. This will be
connected to light.
especially important in rooms that do not have a supply of natural
This receptor affects different hormones in the brain such as the
daylight. Within healthcare, light has long been used for the medi-
secretion of the sleep hormone melatonin, which is produced at
cal treatment of skin conditions and in order to reduce the effects
lower light levels or in the dark. Conversely, at higher light levels, the
of SAD (seasonal affective disorder). In the future, lighting planning
stress hormone cortisol is produced. For 150 years, we have focused
will be more focused on visual, biological and emotional aspects.
on the visual effects of light, but with the discovery of the new receptors we must also in future take into account the biological and
emotional effects of light on man.
Increased demands on lighting planning
Visual
In order to gain a greater understanding of how light in our sur-
Biological
roundings effects our wellbeing Fagerhult’s Lighting Technology
Manager Tommy Govén, in conjunction with Professor Thorbjörn
Laike from the Department of Architecture and Built Environment
at Lund University, have conducted an application study on the
subject.
The study shows that the body is influenced to a great extent by
normal ambient light at ± 30˚ in the horizontal line of vision. The
most positive effects with regards to human alertness, wellbeing
and performance are observed at approx. 100 cd/m² on walls with a
Emotional
Perceived values
In the future, lighting planning will be more focused on visual, biological and
emotional aspects.
horizontal illuminance of 500 lx.
100 cd/m² seems to be an optimal level for vertical ambient light
Methodology of the test
– something which poses questions about current lighting levels in
Lav 1 = 20 cd/m²
Lav 2 = 100 cd/m²
Lav 3 = 350 cd/m²
Eh = 500 lx
constant value
The study clearly shows that the body is influenced to a great extent by normal
ambient light at ± 30˚ in the horizontal line of vision. The most positive effects with
regards to human alertness, wellbeing and performance are observed at approx. 100
cd/m² on walls with a horizontal illuminance of 500 lx.
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VBE- and AQ-index
Human index for the room's lighting experience and the lighting's total quality index
Total lighting experience
Visual
VBE index
AQ index
Through research we now know that light affects us not just visu-
There are ever increasing demands on the reduction of energy con-
ally, but also non-visually. Traditionally lighting quality was only de-
sumption, for both economic and environmental reasons. The need
scribed visually within a space by stating the illuminance within the
to be able to value the overall light quality in a room, both with
working area and its immediate surroundings. However, research
respect to the lighting experience and the operating cost, was the
has shown that ambient lighting, the lighting of walls and the ceil-
inspiration behind the AQ index.
ing, has a significant effect on us both biologically and emotionally
The AQ index (Application Quality Index) is a model that describes
(non-visually). The level of ambient light is important for our alert-
a way to interpret the lighting experience together with parameters
ness and therefore our ability to perform over time.
which show energy consumption and operating costs for a specific
The VBE index is a model that describes a way to interpret the
room.
lighting experience within a room visually, biologically and emotion-
The lighting solution's quality index is based on five different
ally. The aim of the VBE index is to describe the subjective lighting
parameters with the aim of showing the total quality of a light-
experience – where all parameters have significance and can be
ing installation for a specific room. The operating cost parameter
weighted differently depending on the type of room and the activ-
takes the energy consumption, product efficiency, illumination and
ity. The model aims to be a support and communication tool in the
the recommended maintenance of the lighting within a room into
dialogue between the buyer and the lighting planner and can be
consideration.
used for different types of environment, e.g. work, restaurant and
The value of all the parameters is based on the different crite-
care environments. The template can also be used as a basis for
ria, which are shown in the form of a table. The final presentation
evaluating the existing facility.
which appears in the pentagon should be seen as a value of system
The model for the evaluation of the quality of the lighting solu-
solutions within the room – the room's lighting experience together
tion, with man in the centre, is based on a subjective evaluation
with the energy consumption and operating cost of the lighting.
of the visual, biological and emotional aspects where the overall
The evaluation is normally made by a lighting planner at the design
perception of a lighting solution is taken into consideration. The dif-
stage, but can also be carried out by an inspector on an existing
ferent parts are individually evaluated and the sum gives a total VBE
installation.
index through the use of certain assumed parameters and the value
system
The criteria for the AQ index is shown in a pentagon. Each criterion is valued according to a scale of 1–5. The higher the total index, or the filling of the pentagon, the
better the system solution's index for the room. The Lighting Concept Tool shows
how the AQ index changes when wall lighting and lighting control is added.
industrial
The parameters for the VBE index are presented in a triangle. Each parameter is
valued on a scale of 1–5, where 3 corresponds to the normal value. The total VBE
index can therefore be a maximum of 15. The higher the total index, or the filling of
the triangle, the better the total lighting experience. As an example for workplaces –
work surfaces – the visual aspects have the greatest significance.
recessed
Recommended
maintenance
downlights
Light control
spotlights
Emotional
Product
efficiency
architectural
Energy
consumption
pendant/surface
Biological
of these. The better the correspondence with the input parameters,
Parameters for evaluation of the total AQ index
The visual aspects
include the more traditional fundamental values such as the visibility of an object,
visual comfort, contrast, glare etc. over time.
Lighting experience
is based on the total VBE index, i.e. a subjective evaluation of the visual, biological and
emotional parameters within the room.
The biological aspects
are primarily due to our biological clock – the body's endocrinal hormone secretion and
its influence on our alertness, wellbeing and performance both during the day and for
the different seasons. Research shows that the body is mainly affected by the level of
ambient light and its spectral composition.
Energy consumption
describes the energy consumption and is valued according to the room's calculated
LENI figure in accordance with EN 15193. The calculated LENI index describes the
room's energy consumption expressed in kWh/m² per year.
The emotional aspects
are the most subjective – how we generally perceive the light in a room, the colour of
surroundings and the light's colour, dynamic and comfort over time.
Product efficiency
for luminaires including light sources – stated as an LLE index for all luminaires in the
room. The calculated LLE value is expressed in lm/W.
Lighting control
describes which type of control system is used in the room.
Recommended maintenance
is the interval for maintenance of the lighting in the room, with regards to cleaning,
servicing and changing light sources, recommended by the lighting planner.
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technical info
Aspects of the VBE index
light sources
emergency
the higher the overall points for VBE.
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Light planning
Technical information
Light measurement
The luminaire’s light distribution is measured on several C-planes
Light measurement
around the luminaire, at intervals of at least 15°. First measurement plane (C=0°) is across the lamps’ longitudinal axis. γ-angles –
several angles are measured, at least every 5 degrees (see figure).
Light distribution curve
The light distribution curve drawn in a polar diagram denotes the
luminaire’s luminous intensity in different directions as a function
of viewing angle in one or more planes. It is usually represented by
an unbroken line that indicates the light distribution perpendicular
to the light source’s longitudinal axis and with a dashed line that
indicates the light distribution in direction of the longitudinal axis.
The values of the light distribution curves are scaled to correspond
to 1000 lm from the light source (cd/1000 lm, cd/ klm). This is why
it is often possible to show luminaires with different outputs on a
common polar diagram.
1. C-plane angles: 0° ≤ CX< 360°
2. γ -angles: 0° ≤ γ < 180°
Isolux diagram
The diagram shows, using curves (or scales) a predefined area, inside which the horizontal illuminance exceeds the curve’s lux value.
The position of the luminaire is usually indicated on the diagram.
Alternatively, the isolux diagram can be represented by a 3D dia-
Light distribution curve
gram, which is best suited for showing the uniformity of the lighting installation. The calculation points’ illuminance values can be
introduced onto the premises’ layout drawing and the results given
in table form. The results are available in all the above mentioned
forms in DIALux.
Symmetrical light distribution
A 28 W fluorescent lamp (2600 lm)
gives, directly beneath it, approximately 375 cd/klm.
Asymmetrical light distribution
At a maximum luminous intensity
angle of 25° a 28 W fluorescent lamp
gives approximately 580 cd/klm.
Isolux diagram
12 m
10 m
≥ 700 lx
650–700 lx
600–650 lx
550–600 lx
500–550 lx
≤ 500 lx
wall zone
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Luminance classification
Luminance classification of decorative
luminaires with opal surfaces
In order to facilitate the selection of luminaires with luminous opal
pendant/surface
surfaces, Fagerhult has developed a classification system that documents the average luminance for this type of luminaire.
The affected luminaire types are pendant, ceiling and wall as well
as any other luminaire with opal luminous surfaces. Luminance
classification should be used as a reference to assess the desired
luminaire in relation to the luminance of the surroundings and how
recessed
they are experienced.
The luminance values documented in the tables have been measured square to the luminaire and make up an average value for the
luminaire’s luminous surfaces. A luminaire range can be classified
in several luminance classes depending on the output of the light
system
source that the luminaire is fitted with.
A
< 1000 cd/m²
The luminaire has a low average luminance and
can be used in rooms with high anti-glare requirements e.g. offices with ordinary monitor work.
B
1000–3500 cd/m²
The luminaire has relatively low average
luminance and can generally be used in most
situations. Against a light background the risk of
glare is small.
C
3500–5000 cd/m²
The luminaire has a relatively high average luminance and should therefore be used in bright
surroundings to avoid glare.
D
> 5000 cd/m²
The luminaire has a high average luminance. The
risk of glare can be large even if the luminaire is
used in very light surroundings. The luminaire
should therefore be avoided in rooms within the
normal field of vision.
Key to the table
¹⁾ If the luminaire’s luminance balance exceeds 4:1 this is denoted with the additional
designation* – example B*. The luminance balance is defined here as Lmax / Laverage.
The surroundings can be regarded here as light if the average value of the background
luminance exceeds 20 cd/m² within a normal field of vision of ±20 degrees from a horizontal visual plane.
In order for the background luminance to exceed 20 cd/m² , the average vertical illuminance should exceed approx. 75 lx against a light wall. Investigations show that
the relationship between the luminaire’s average luminance and background luminance
should not exceed 40:1.
Light measurement and calculation of documented table values
downlights
Considerations:
Luminaire’s average luminance (cd/m²) – calculated from the luminaire’s technical data.
spotlights
Average
luminance
Lave=
I
Ap
architectural
Luminance
class 1)
industrial
Luminance classes for luminaires with opal surfaces
Polar diagram cd/1000 lm
I = the luminaire’s luminous intensity square to the luminaire’s luminous surface (cd).
emergency
Ap = luminaire’s projected luminous surface (m²).
Laverage = luminaire’s average luminous intensity (cd/m²).
The luminaire’s maximum surface luminous intensity (cd/m²) –
Luminance uniformity=Lmax / Laverage
Ap= With a measurement angle of 1° the projected surface equates to a diameter of 26 mm
(500 mm²) at a distance of 1.5 m.
Globia luminaire. See the product page for luminance classification information.
www.fagerhult.com • www.fagerhult.co.uk
521
technical info
Luminance meter
light sources
measured using a luminance meter with a measurement angle of 1°.
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