Home-Abroad-A-Profile-of-the-Dutch-Diaspora-in-New

Home-Abroad-A-Profile-of-the-Dutch-Diaspora-in-New

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HOME!ABROAD!

A"Profile"of"the"Dutch"Diaspora"in"New"Zealand"

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New"Zealand7Netherlands"Foundation"

Wellington"

2014"

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Table&of&Content&

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11!

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1!

Foreword!

Boudewijn!(Boyd)!Klap,!CNZM,!QSO!

Speech!at!Conference!on!Dutch!Diaspora!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand!!

Arie!van!der!Wiel!

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The!Dutch!in!New!Zealand:!Past,!Present!and!Future!

Professor!Jacques!Poot!

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Second!and!Third!Generation!Dutch!in!New!Zealand:!A!Theoretical!Framework!

Dr!Tanja!SchubertIMcArthur!

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Second!and!Third!Generation!Dutch!in!New!Zealand:!Research!Findings!

Dr!Tanja!SchubertIMcArthur!

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Dutch!Diaspora!and!Citizenship!

Arie!van!der!Wiel!

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Dutch!Societies!in!New!Zealand!

Arie!van!der!Wiel!and!Christine!Hofkens!

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Recent!Migration!to!New!Zealand!from!the!Netherlands!

Paul!Merwood!and!Jelle!Hatenboer!

Clogs!and!Tulips:!A!Qualitative!Research!Study!on!Attitudes!and!Behaviours!!

of!Second!and!Third!Generation!New!Zealanders!of!Dutch!Descent!

Theo!Muller!

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Outcomes!round!table!discussions!at!Conference!on!Dutch!Diaspora!in!Australia!!

and!New!Zealand!

Biographies!of!the!contributors!

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5!

7!

19!

29!

38!

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77!

85!

90!

93!

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1& Foreword&&

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It! is! a! real! privilege! for! me! to! write! the! foreword! to! this! book! which! searches! the! hearts! and!

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minds!of!the!second!and!third!generation!Dutch!in!New!Zealand.!!

As!a!Dutch!migrant!to!New!Zealand!in!the!1950s,!I!have!experienced!at!first!hand!the!values!and!

characteristics! that! the! Dutch! brought! to! their! newly! adopted! homeland:! these! are! a! strong!

independent!spirit,!selfZdiscipline,!inbuilt!creativity!and!hard!work.!While!much!has!been!written!

about!the!lives!of!the!first!generation!Dutch!in!New!Zealand,!far!less!is!known!about!their!offZ

spring,! the! second! and! third! generation.! In! fact,! we! know! so! little! about! them! that! the! term!

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‘Invisible!Dutch’!is!often!used!to!describe!them.!

The!origins!of!this!book!came!from!a!oneZday!Dutch!Diaspora!Conference!in!Melbourne!on!15!

November! 2013.! The! Embassies! of! the! Kingdom! of! the! Netherlands! in! Australia! and! New!

Zealand! had! organised! a! seminar! with! academics! from! Australia,! New! Zealand! and! the!

Netherlands,! as! well! as! representatives! of! Dutch! migrant! organisations! ‘Down! Under’.! They!

considered!the!past,!present!and!future!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!in!both!countries.!In!their!opening!

addresses,! both! Ambassadors! Annemieke! Ruigrok! (Australia)! and! Arie! van! der! Wiel! (New!

Zealand)!expressed!their!wish!to!better!understand!the!opportunities!that!the!next!generation!

has! to! offer! to! strengthen! the! cultural,! political! and! economic! ties! between! the! Netherlands,!

and!Australia!and!New!Zealand.!

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The!main!objective!of!the!initiative!was!to!develop!a!joint!strategy!aimed!at!how!best!to!keep!

the!Dutch!heritage!alive!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand.!This!heritage!is!built!on!a!long!history!

but! also! on! very! strong! people! to! people! linkages! that! immigrants! have! with! their! birth!

countries.!The!conference!was!seen!as!a!start!to!discuss!the!findings!of!two!pilot!studies!carried!

out!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand!among!next!generation!Dutch!migrants,!and!to!look!into!the!

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possibilities!of!a!broader!followZup!in!the!future.!

This!book!brings!together!the!results!of!the!New!Zealand!part!of!the!research!program,!initiated!

by!the!New!ZealandZNetherlands!Foundation.!For!many!years!the!Foundation’s!focus!has!been!

on!a!stronger!engagement!with!the!second!and!third!generation!Dutch!migrants!in!its!activities.!

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The!reasons!for!targeting!the!next!generation!are!evident:!because!of!their!numbers,!they!give!

the!Dutch!diaspora!a!special!position!in!New!Zealand.!Although!there!are!no!official!statistics,!

Dr!Suzan!van!der!Pas!and!Prof!Jacques!Poot!estimate!that!there!are!around!100,000!second!and!

third!generation!Dutch!migrants!in!New!Zealand.!But!who!are!they!and!what!remains!of!their!

‘Dutch!Touch’?!Although!we!have!integrated!very!well,!we!still!keep!to!a!certain!extent!our!own!

identity,!in!particular!when!it!comes!to!frankness.!Or!as!is!sometimes!said:!the!Dutch!are!too!

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honest!to!be!polite;!the!Kiwis!are!too!polite!to!be!honest.!

This! study! will! help! us! get! a! better! understanding! of! the! next! generations! of! Dutch! in! New!

Zealand.! It! also! shows! us! growing! diversity! between! the! second! and! third! generation! Dutch.!

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Instead!of!one!Dutch!Kiwi!identity,!the!research!of!Dr!Tanja!Schubert!found!a!whole!spectrum!of!

identities!that!ranges!from!feeling!‘very!Dutch’!to!‘not!Dutch!at!all’.!!

Although!in!many!ways!the!profile!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!in!New!Zealand!and!Australia!show!

great!similarities,!the!findings!of!this!study!indicate!that!there!are!also!significant!differences!in!

their! Dutch! identity.! The! citizenship! study! by! Ambassador! Arie! van! der! Wiel! revealed! that! in!

New!Zealand!the!majority!(60%)!of!the!first!generation!migrants!kept!their!Dutch!nationality,!

whereas! in! Australia! most! (80%)! changed! citizenship.! It! is! not! entirely! clear! what! caused! this!

distinction,! i.e.! differences! in! economic! opportunities,! assimilation! policies! or! legal! issues.!

Encouraging!is!that!the!number!of!Dutch!passport!holders!is!still!growing!according!to!a!survey!

by!the!embassy,!mainly!due!to!New!Zealand!born!applicants.!The!great!majority!of!them!is!dual!

national.!As!they!graduallly!will!become!the!backbone!of!the!future!linkage!between!between!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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our!two!countries!we!need!to!develop!a!strategy!around!this!target!group:!the!next!generation!

Dutch!dual!citizens!in!New!Zealand.!

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The!study!also!touches!upon!the!recent!migration!to!New!Zealand!from!the!Netherlands!in!the!

chapter! written! by! Paul! Merwood.! Those! who! arrived! since! the! 1990s! have! remained! much!

more!Dutch!than!the!first!wave!of!migrants.!Most!of!them!intend!to!return!home!and!therefore!

keep!in!close!contact!with!their!birth!country.!It!was!fascinating!to!see!that,!whereas!the!results!

from! the! pilots! were! almost! the! same,! the! actions! suggested! from! the! research! were! quite!

different.!In!Australia,!they!want!to!focus!more!on!the!new!generation!migrants,!while!in!New!

Zealand!the!focus!is!primarily!on!the!second!and!third!generation.!

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Finally,!I!would!like!to!briefly!highlight!a!few!recommendations!from!the!working!groups.!In!first!

place! the! issue! of! dual! identity! raised! by! Prof! Lydia! Wevers:! a! large! number! of! Dutch!

descendants!still!have!strong!emotional!ties!to!their!Dutch!identity.!Many!have!lost!that!identity!

officially!when!they!naturalised,!because!of!the!very!restrictive!Dutch!policy!on!dual!nationality.!

The! study! shows! a! growing! interest! among! second! and! third! generation! migrants! to! obtain!

Dutch!citizenship.!Secondly,!there!is!the!lack!of!interest!by!the!Dutch!government!in!supporting!

cultural!organisations!in!emigration!countries.!An!institute!that!facilitates!Dutch!culture!similar!

to! the! British! Council! could! contribute! to! a! stronger! Dutch! identity.! The! establishment! of! an!

Erasmus! centre! in! the! traditional! emigration! countries! should! be! considered! by! the! Dutch!

government.! And! thirdly,! there! needs! to! be! a! more! active! promotion! of! student! exchanges!

focused! particularly! on! the! second! and! third! generation.! Traditionally,! students! from! Down!

Under!go!to!the!UK.!A!more!active!policy!on!working!holiday!schemes!and!internships!in!the!

Netherlands!may!change!this!trend.!And!on!a!more!personal!note,!but!also!supported!by!the!

chapter! on! Dutch! societies,! there! is! a! strong! desire! for! more! cohesion! among! the! Dutch!

organisations! in! New! Zealand.! To! attract! the! interest! of! the! second! and! third! generation! –!

especially!those!with!dual!nationality!–!a!new!institutional!approach!is!needed:!less!focused!on!

the!traditional!clogs!and!tulips!and!more!on!the!modern!and!contemporary!Dutch!culture.!

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Many! people! have! contributed! to! this! book! in! the! form! of! support,! information! sharing! and!

providing!ideas.!!I!would!like!to!mention!here!a!few!people!in!particular.!Prof!Leo!van!Wissen!of!

the!Netherlands!Interdisciplinary!Demographic!Institute!(NIDI).!NIDI!has!become!the!caretaker!

of!this!research!initiative!on!next!generation!Dutch!diaspora!together!with!the!two!Netherlands!

embassies! in! Australia! and! New! Zealand.! ! A! special! word! of! thanks! goes! to! the! Chair! of! the!

conference,!Prof!Loretta!Baldassar!(University!of!Western!Australia)!and!Femke!Withag,!of!the!

Dutch!embassy!in!Canberra.!Femke,!as!coordinator,!became!the!‘mother’!of!the!success!of!this!

Dutch!Diaspora!Conference!in!Melbourne.!!And!last!but!not!least!Thomas!Kleine!Schaars,!who!

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was!immensely!helpful!with!editing!the!final!manuscript.!

I! am! sure! this! book! will! contribute! to! the! debate! about! the! possibilities! and! challenges! for!

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retaining!Dutch!heritage!in!New!Zealand.!

Boudewijn!(Boyd)!Klap,!CNZM,!QSO!

Founder!President!of!the!New!ZealandINetherlands!Foundation!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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2& &Speech& at& Conference& on& Dutch& Diaspora& in& Australia& and&

New&Zealand&–&November&15,&2013&

Arie!van!der!Wiel!

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New!Zealand!Dutch!migrant!history!shows!great!similarities!with!the!Australian!story.!Also!New!

Zealand!saw!a!large!influx!of!Dutch!after!the!Second!World!War!as!around!20,000!settled!here!

between! 1950! and! 1960.! We! estimate! that! the! total! number! of! people! of! Dutch! descent! is!

currently!almost!120,000!–!one!quarter!of!whom!still!have!Dutch!or!dual!nationality.!

With! such! a! large! community! you! would! expect! a! strong! visibility! of! the! Dutch! culture.!

However,!as!a!migrant!community!they!integrated!so!well!that!they!are!often!referred!to!as!the!

invisible!Dutch;!and!many!seem!to!have!lost!their!identity.!We!would!love!to!see!the!community!

become! more! visible.! Obviously! not! to! reverse! the! integration! process! but! to! strengthen! our!

cultural,!economic!and!political!ties.!

Let!me!suggest!some!challenges!and!opportunities!as!food!for!thought!for!the!discussion!today.!

Some!may!be!a!bit!provocative.!!

Why!did!these!Dutch!integrate!so!well?!I!would!like!to!share!with!you!four!possible!explanations.!

Two!are!closely!linked!to!the!Dutch!culture!and!tradition!and!two!related!to!the!host!country’s!

policy!and!environment.!

I! will! start! on! the! Dutch! side.! Has! the! strong! integration! something! to! do! with! the! Dutch!

character!and!psyche?!The!Dutch!are!said!to!be!highly!individualistic.!Going!it!alone!is!held!in!

high!esteem.!Unlike!many!other!ethnic!groups,!the!Dutch!do!not!form!a!closeZknit!community.!

Calvinism!probably!lies!at!the!root!of!this.!Although!true!Calvinism!nowadays!encompasses!less!

than!10%!of!the!population,!its!related!value!lingers!on.!It!is!therefore!sometimes!said!about!the!

Dutch!that!one!third!is!Protestant!type!Calvinist,!one!third!is!Catholic!type!Calvinist,!and!one!

third!has!no!religion!type!Calvinist.!!

The!easy!integration!may!also!be!caused!by!the!fact!that!they!do!not!have!a!high!profile!and!

therefore!a!less!visible!national!identity.!Take,!for!instance,!the!Dutch!kitchen.!Dutch!food!is!not!

very!appealing!to!foreigners.!The!Dutch!are!known!for!mashing!all!their!food.!This!is!why!you!

will! find! hardly! any! Dutch! restaurants! abroad,! yet! many! Asian,! Italian! and! Greek! restaurants.!

But!there!are!plenty!of!Dutch!food!shops!where!you!can!buy!your!ingredients!for!home!cooking.!

Queen!Maxima!(then!still!Princess)!also!referred!to!the!national!identity!crisis!some!years!ago.!It!

caused!a!heated!debate!in!the!Netherlands.!So!the!extent!to!which!we!lack,!or!lost,!our!identity!

is!definitely!not!felt!by!everybody!in!the!same!way.!

On!the!host!side!I!would!like!to!mention!two!other!possible!reasons!for!the!loss!of!visibility.!The!

successful! integration! may! be! to! a! large! extent! the! result! of! New! Zealand’s! and! Australia’s!

assimilation! policy.! For! example,! New! Zealand’s! policy! of! scattering! new! immigrants!

throughout! the! country! –! also! known! as! the! pepper! potting! approach.! This! was! to! avoid!

clustering! of! ethnic! migrant! groups.! From! all! the! different! groups,! the! Dutch! have! spread!

themselves!most!widely!in!New!Zealand.!Furthermore,!the!great!majority!of!the!male!migrants!

married! nonZDutch! women.! The! assimilation! policy! also! led! to! many! Dutch! immigrants! not!

speaking!their!language!at!home,!whereas!many!other!immigrant!groups!continued!speaking!

their!languages!at!home.!

Secondly,!the!successful!integration!may!have!been!helped!by!the!fact!that!going!to!a!country!

with!a!Western!outlook!was!easier!than!settling!in!a!country!with!a!completely!different!culture.!

However,!the!Anglo!culture!that!dominated!Down!Under!was!not!always!friendly!towards!the!

Dutch.! Some! of! the! first! wave! of! Dutch! immigrants! were! criticised! for! working! too! hard! and!

were!told!to!slow!down!in!the!workplace.!!

Most! likely! the! truth! is! a! combination! of! these! factors.! But! it! is! striking! that! the! integration!

process!shows!great!differences,!both!between!the!various!ethnic!groups!and!within!the!Dutch!

community!itself.!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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A!minority!of!Dutch!protested!against!the!assimilation!process!by!starting!clubs!to!speak!Dutch,!

play!Dutch!card!games,!sing!Dutch!folk!songs!and!celebrate!Dutch!national!festivals.!But!less!

than!30%!became!member.!These!days,!club!membership!is!so!low!that!these!institutions!are!

hardly!sustainable.!

In!the!second!part!of!my!presentation!I!would!like!to!focus!on!three!areas!where!we!may!find!

opportunities!to!strengthen!Dutch!identity.!

The! first! is! the! strong! ‘Dutchness’! among! new! migrants.! Today’s! Dutch! migrants! are! highly!

educated,!often!coming!with!their!families!for!a!few!years!of!adventure!in!New!Zealand’s!open!

spaces.! They! often! maintain! close! links! with! the! Netherlands! and! speak! Dutch! at! home.!

Whereas!return!migration!under!the!first!wave!of!migrants!was!low,!around!one!third,!under!the!

new!wave!it!is!significantly!higher,!with!two!thirds!or!more.!That!is!the!reason!the!latter!group!is!

often!referred!to!as!transnational!migrants.!These!new!migrants!could!be!an!interesting!group!

to!assist!in!developing!a!strategy!on!how!to!strengthen!Dutch!identity!Down!Under.!

Secondly,!my!hope!rests!also!a!little!bit!with!the!third!generation!Dutch.!Let!me!explain.!One!

has!to!keep!in!mind!that!assimilation!is!not!a!simple!linear!progression,!but!one!that!moves!back!

and!forth!across!the!generations.!Or!as!a!historian!wrote!about!the!migration!process:!‘what!the!

son! wishes! to! forget! the! grandson! wishes! to! remember’.! And! in! interviews! in! New! Zealand!

during!the!pilot!study,!first!generation!migrants!indicated!that!(surprisingly)!their!grandchildren!

seemed!suddenly!more!interested!in!their!Dutch!roots.!

Finally,! this! shift! by! the! third! generation! and! the! sustaining! of! their! own! identity! by! the! new!

migrants! may! also! be! the! result! of! greater! acceptance! of! multiculturalism! in! New! Zealand!

compared!to!the!strong!focus!on!assimilation!in!the!early!period!of!settlement.!New!Zealand!

has! become! ethnically! much! more! diverse,! particularly! through! the! large! inflow! of! Asians.!

Multiculturalism!has!become!an!important!element!in!New!Zealand’s!nationZbuilding.!I’m!not!

saying!that!this!goes!without!resistance.!In!Europe!we!experience!a!kind!of!reversed!reflection!

of! this! process! and! speak! about! the! failure! of! multiculturalism! with! emphasis! on! a! stronger!

integration!of!migrant!communities.!

Allow!me!to!make!a!final!remark!about!the!term!‘diaspora’!used!in!the!title!for!this!conference.!

The!concept!diaspora,!as!Stephen!Castles!writes!in!his!book!The!Age!of!Migration,!goes!back!to!

ancient!times!and!was!used!for!people!displaced!or!dispersed!by!force.!In!migration!literature!a!

number! of! common! cultural! traits! are! linked! to! the! term! diaspora.! For! example,! collective!

memory! about! the! homeland,! idealisation! of! the! ancestral! home,! development! of! return!

movement,!strong!ethnic!group!consciousness,!troubled!relationship!with!the!host!society!and!

solidarity!with!coZethnic!members!in!other!countries!of!settlement.!!

In!conclusion,!the!key!question!we!raise!at!this!conference!is!to!what!extent!we!can!speak!of!a!

Dutch!diaspora!Down!Under.!In!particular,!what!is!the!meaning!of!Dutch!heritage!for!the!second!

and!third!generation!Dutch!migrants?!Are!they!still!interested!in!Dutch!culture!and!tradition?!

And! finally,! what! initiatives! could! be! undertaken! by! our! two! missions! to! strengthen! Dutch!

identity!in!New!Zealand!and!Australia?!!

May!I!wish!you!all!successful!deliberations.!I!am!sure!this!conference!will!be!of!great!help!on!how!

to!keep!in!touch!with!the!Dutch!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand.

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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3& The&Dutch&in&New&Zealand:&Past,&Present&and&Future&

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Professor!Jacques!Poot!

1& INTRODUCTION&

This!paper!reviews!the!past,!present!and!future!of!the!ways!in!which!the!Netherlands!and!New!

Zealand!are!linked!through!migration.!

I!start!in!section!2!with!a!brief!overview!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!in!the!world.!In!Dutch!history!a!

number!of!emigration!waves!can!be!distinguished.!The!largest!one!took!place!after!the!Second!

World!War!with!the!main!destination!countries!having!a!strong!Anglo!connection!and!Western!

outlook.!!

Next,!the!history!and!trends!of!Dutch!emigration!to!New!Zealand!will!be!discussed!in!section!3.!!

Although!the!Netherlands!has!very!long!historical!ties!with!New!Zealand,!starting!in!1642!with!

Abel!Tasman!and!his!crew!the!first!Westerners!who!sighted!New!Zealand,!it!was!only!after!the!

Second!World!War!that!for!the!first!time!a!large!number!of!Dutch!people!settled!there.!!

In!the!fourth!section!an!attempt!will!be!made!to!assess!the!size!of!the!current!Dutch!migrant!

community! in! New! Zealand.! The! size! can! be! defined! according! to! birthplace,! ancestry,!

ethnicity,! language! or! citizenship.! For! this! conference! with! a! strong! focus! on! the! next!

generation!it!is!important!to!have!detailed!information!about!the!size!of!the!second!and!third!

generation!Dutch!migrants!in!New!Zealand.!The!next!section!describes!how!different!migration!

from! The! Netherlands! to! New! Zealand! is! at! present,! in! terms! of! numbers,! purpose,! intended!

duration!of!stay,!etc.!!

Section! 6! presents! a! number! of! characteristics! of! the! Dutch! diaspora! which! could! be! of!

relevance! for! the! Dutch! heritage! debate:! with! special! attention! for! issues! such! as! age!

composition,!Dutch!language!ability,!socioZeconomic!profile!and!residential!location.!

The!paper!closes!with!some!future!prospects!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!community!in!New!Zealand!

in!general!and!challenges!and!opportunities!of!sustaining!Dutch!identity!in!particular.!

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I!would!like!to!acknowledge:!Suzan!van!der!Pas,!VU!University!Amsterdam;!Paul!Merwood,!New!

Zealand! Ministry! of! Business,! Innovation! and! Employment! (MBIE);! Statistics! New! Zealand;!

Netherlands!Embassies!in!Wellington!and!Canberra;!Ingred!Esveldt!and!Harry!van!Dalen,!DEMOS!

editors,!Netherlands!Interdisciplinary!Demographic!Institute!(NIDI);!and!funding!from!the!2007I

2012!Integration!of!Immigrants!Research!Programme!(FRST!grant!MAUX0605).!

2& DUTCH&DIASPORA&IN&THE&WORLD&

In!this!section!I!will!briefly!review!the!different!emigration!patterns!from!the!Netherlands!in!the!

past!and!to!what!extent!this!has!led!to!a!Dutch!diaspora!worldwide.!Although!the!Dutch!were!

great!sea!farers!and!successful!traders!they!were!not!empire!builders.!Therefore!the!numbers!

that!settled!abroad!in!the!17th!and!18

th

!century!was!relatively!small!even!in!Dutch!colonies!such!

as!the!former!Dutch!East!Indies,!now!Indonesia.!

The!first!real!wave!of!Dutch!emigrants!took!place!between!1820!and!1920.!NIDI!estimates!that!

the! total! number! of! people! that! left! the! Netherlands! over! that! period! was! 273! 000.! This!

emigration!was!mainly!to!the!United!States!of!America!and!smaller!numbers!went!to!Canada!

and!Brazil.!

The! Second! World! War! brought! huge! displacements! of! persons! in! Europe,! including! the!

Netherlands.! Many! people! were! pessimistic! about! future! prospects! at! home,! particularly! as!

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regards!to!employment!opportunities.!The!country!struggled!to!reconstruct!its!ruined!economy!

and!society.!Over!oneZthird!of!the!population!considered!emigration!as!an!option!for!solving!the!

many!problems!they!were!facing!(Hofstede,!1964).!The!Dutch!government!initiated!a!policy!of!

actively!promoting!emigration!as!a!response!to!the!socioZeconomic!problems!at!the!time.!

In!the!1950s!350,000!left!the!Netherlands!with!as!main!destinations!United!States,!South!Africa,!

Canada,! Australia! and! New! Zealand! (van! Dalen! and! Henkens,! 2007).! This! emigration! flow!

included! a! substantial! number! (around! 60,000)! who! were! IndoZEuropean! (mixed! DutchZ

Indonesian)!repatriates!who!had!left!Dutch!East!Indies!after!Indonesia's!independence.!With!the!

economic!boom!of!the!1960s!in!the!Netherlands!gradually!emigration!was!replaced!by!a!large!

influx!of!immigrants,!in!particular!from!Morocco!and!Turkey.!

Since! then,! there! have! been! several! smaller! waves! of! emigration! from! the! Netherlands,! for!

example! peaking! in! the! early! 1980s,! around! 2006! and! recently.! Over! the! past! decade! (2003Z

2012)!the!number!of!emigrants!fluctuated!between!about!100,000!Z!140,000!annually,!peaking!

at!144,000!in!2013!(Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014).!Approximately!half!of!these!emigrants!

consist! of! people! returning! to! their! country! of! birth.! The! other! half! are! Netherlands! born!

emigrants.!

Where!do!these!new!emigrants!go!to?!There!is!a!considerable!migration!by!Dutch!born!people!

towards! neighbouring! countries:! Belgium,! Germany! and! the! United! Kingdom! but! also! to!

France,! Spain! and! other! European! countries.! In! total! over! twoZthird! headed! for! European!

destinations.!Only!10%!went!to!the!traditional!destinations!of!the!1950s!((Statistics!Netherlands!

(CBS),!2014)).!!

Who!are!they!and!why!leaving?!Major!reasons!for!leaving!were!and!still!are:!dissatisfaction!with!

the! Dutch! welfare! state! and! institutions,! such! as! law! and! order! and! social! security,! and! the!

quality!of!public!space:!pollution,!nature,!crowdedness!(Henkens!and!van!Dalen,!2007).!Quite!a!

significant! number! of! these! emigrants! are! pensioners.! Around! ten! percent! of! all! Dutch!

pensioners! live! abroad.! Another! growing! category! of! new! emigrants! are! second! generation!

migrants!returning!to!their!country!of!ancestry.!Descendants!of!Turkish!and!Surinam!migrants!

are! examples! of! this! return! migration! phenomenon.! This! flow! counts! for! around! 10%! of! the!

emigration! wave!of!Dutch!born!emigrants!(Statistics! Netherlands! (CBS),! 2014).! Recent! Dutch!

born!emigrants!are!people!with!an!above!average!level!of!education!and!in!the!higher!brackets!

of! the! income! distribution.! Their! socioZeconomic! profile! differs! strongly! from! the! Dutch!

emigrants!who!left!immediately!after!the!Second!World!War.!

Of!the!Dutch!born!emigrants!

according! to! CBS! data! a!

significant! numbers! return.!

Return! migration! over! the!

past!ten!years!is!almost!60%.!

They!often!consider!their!stay!

abroad! as! an! adventure! to!

see! the! world! or! to! widen!

their! scope! of! experience.!

Their! intentions! are! often! to!

settle!temporarily!in!the!host!

country.! They! keep! for! these!

reasons!usually!close!contacts!

with! their! home! country.! In!

migration! literature! they! are!

also!sometimes!referred!to!as!

transnational!

migrant!

professionals.!

Table!1!

In!table!1!an!overview!is!given!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!worldwide.!Statistics!are!based!on!2000.!

The!table!shows!that!there!were!around!775,000!Netherlands!born!living!abroad!in!2000.!Over!

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40%!stays!in!Europe!and!a!similar!proportion!in!the!so!called!traditional!emigration!countries.!

When!based!on!more!recent!figures!(not!available!for!all!countries)!a!shift!can!be!seen!in!favour!

of!Europe,!probably!around!50%!now.!In!most!former!destinations!the!Dutch!born!population!is!

going!down.!!

It!may!be!concluded!that,!contrary!to!what!is!widely!believed,!emigration!from!the!Netherlands!

before!the!Second!World!War!was!rather!limited.!It!is!true!that!the!Dutch!were!and!are!to!be!

found! all! over! the! world,! but! only! relatively! small! numbers! settled! down! abroad.! The! largest!

Dutch!diaspora!communities!overseas!are!from!the!past!100!years!and!to!be!found!in!Canada,!

Australia,!US!and!New!Zealand.&!

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3& THE&HISTORY&OF&DUTCH&MIGRATION&TO&NEW&ZEALAND&

Only!a!few!Dutch!people!settled!in!New!Zealand!before!the!Second!World!War.!Censuses!in!the!

19th!and!first!half!of!20th!century!indicated!that!the!Dutch!community!counted!only!roughly!

100!people!in!New!Zealand!(Schouten,!1992).!

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

Figure!1!

1901 1911 1916 1921 1936 1945 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2013

Census&Year

!

From!1945!onwards!initially!small!groups!of!immigrants,!both!from!the!Netherlands!and!from!

the!former!Dutch!East!Indies,!arrived!in!New!Zealand.!These!first!groups!of!arrivals!impressed!

employers,!setting!the!scene!for!much!larger!inflows.!

In! the! 1950s! the! New! Zealand! government! approached! the! Netherlands! government! for! the!

recruitment!of!skilled!immigrants.!In!October!of!that!year!a!Migration!Treaty!was!signed.!The!

government! agreed! to! share! the! cost! of! moving! migrants! to! New! Zealand.! The! migrants! in!

return!would!have!to!perform!a!job!assigned!to!them!for!2!years.!New!Zealand!did!set!a!quota!

for!1200!men!and!800!women!aged!between!18!and!35!for!the!first!year.!!

Immigration!rapidly!increased,!even!surpassing!the!quota!and!New!Zealand!tightened!selection!

to! 1000! in! 1953! in! response.! Participation! in! the! Assisted! Migration! Program! as! it! was! called!

diminished,!from!55%!of!immigrants!in!1953!to!11%!in!1958!because!migrants!disliked!the!two!

year! job! assignment! and! because! the! Dutch! government! implemented! a! general! subsidy! for!

emigration!in!1955.!The!New!Zealand!government!took!also!part!in!this!program.!In!1956!90%!

of! the! immigrants! were! subsidized;! the! percentage! would! remain! that! high! for! a! long! time!

(Schouten,!1992;!Priemus,!1997).!

The! peak! years! of! arrival! were! 1951,! 1952! and! 1953! (see! Figure! 1).! During! this! period! an!

aggregate!intake!of!more!than!10,000!settlers!was!recorded.!Between!1951!and!1968!in!total!28!

366! Dutch! born! immigrants! arrived! in! New! Zealand! and! 23,879! settled.! Almost! half! of! all!

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immigrants! from! outside! the! Commonwealth! were! Dutch,! making! them! by! far! the! single!

biggest!group!of!nonZBritish!immigrants!to!New!Zealand!at!that!time.!

The!annual!number!of!immigrants!dropped!sharply!below!the!annual!quota!of!1000!by!1963!and!

even! further! to! around! 400! by! 1968.! Since! then! and! throughout! the! 1970s,! the! flow! of!

immigrants!from!the!Netherlands!did!not!cease!altogether,!but!remained!around!500!per!year.!

An!exception!formed!the!early!1980s!when!the!number!of!immigrants!increased!again!notably!

and!exceeded!1000!for!a!short!period!partly!due!to!a!recession!in!the!Netherlands.!

The! reasons! for! the! end! of! the!

post! war! Dutch! migration! wave!

were! predominantly! economic:!

the! Dutch! economy! was! doing!

well!in!the!1960s.!And!therefore!

the! Dutch! government! stopped!

promoting! emigration! actively.!

In!1992!the!migration!agreement!

between! the! Netherlands! and!

New! Zealand! was! terminated;!

on! the! one! hand! because! for!

many! years! the! quota! had! not!

been! met! but! also! due! to! a!

change! in! New! Zealand's!

immigration! policy.! From! the!

earlyZ1990s!

New!

Zealand!

introduced!

a!

pointZbased!

selection! system! that! was! much!

more! market! oriented! and! less! historically! based! i.e.! giving! preference! to! white! immigrants.!

This! change! had! a! great! impact! both! on! the! ethnic! and! educational! composition! of! the!

immigrants! in! New! Zealand.! It! initiated! in! particular! a! large! influx! of! people! from! Asian!

countries! into! the! country.! Table! 2! shows! clearly! the! growing! diversity! of! the! migrant!

communities!in!New!Zealand.!

!

The! new! immigration! policy! of!

New! Zealand! had! also! strong!

influence! on! Dutch! emigration.!

There! was! a! further! drop! in! the!

numbers,! but! also! a! change! in!

the!socioZeconomic!profile!of!the!

emigrants.! Compared! with! the!

previous! emigration! waves! from!

the!Netherlands,!migrants!in!the!

1990s! and! thereafter! had! much!

higher!

qualifications.!

educational!

With! this! New! Zealand! policy!

change! also! return! migration!

became!

more!

frequent.!

Statistics! (see! figure! 2)! indicate!

that! around! one! third! of! the!

Figure!2!

Dutch! emigrants! over! the! past! 20! years! returned.! ! This! is! more! than! double! the! return! rate!

compared! with! those! that! arrived! in! the! 1950s! and! 1960s.! These! differences! are! the! result! of!

changing!profiles!of!Dutch!migrants!over!the!years!coming!to!New!Zealand.!

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4& IN&SEARCH&OF&THE&DUTCH&DIASPORA&

The!Dutch!community!in!New!Zealand!not!only!refers!to!the!DutchZborn!immigrants!but!also!to!

their!descendants!and!others!who!identify!with!the!Dutch!ethnicity!such!as!spouses!and!children!

of!Dutch!born!immigrants.!In!this!respect!ethnic!identity!refers!to!a!communal!and!individual!

identity!expressed!as!an!idea!of!“our!people,!our!origins”!which!varies!in!the!intensity!with!which!

it!is!felt!and!expressed.!

The! extent! to! which! someone! belongs! to! the! Dutch! community! can! be! defined! according! to!

birthplace,!citizenship,!ancestry,!language!or!ethnicity.!

Using!birthplace!as!measure!for!enumeration!of!the!size!of!the!Dutch!community!one!counts!in!

fact!only!the!first!generation!migrants.!These!numbers!are!every!five!years!gathered!through!

the!population!census!(with!7!years!between!the!2006!and!2013!censuses).!It!tells!us!how!many!

people!born!in!the!Netherlands!are!still!in!New!Zealand.!It!doesn't!give!us!the!total!emigration!

flow.!The!latter!figure!includes!also!people!who!have!reZemigrated!and!have!passed!away.!

We! estimate! that! around! 50,000! Dutch! people! migrated! to! New! Zealand! between! 1947! and!

2013.! This! includes! about! 1500! IndoZDutch! emigrants! (Schouten).! According! to! the! 2013!

population! census! there! were! a! little! less! than! 20,000! first! generation! Dutch! born! migrants!

living!in!New!Zealand!in!March!2013!(see!Figure!1).!Studies!have!indicated!that!overall!around!

one!quarter!of!the!Dutch!born!emigrants!have!reZemigrated!which!is!about!12,500!in!total.!This!

would!mean!that!around!17,500!Dutch!emigrants!have!passed!away!over!the!past!decades.!

Given!the!age!structure!of!the!Netherlands!born!community!we!can!assume!that!the!coming!

years!the!number!of!Dutch!born!emigrants!will!fall!!further,!and!even!more!dramatically!than!

what!happened!over!the!past!years.!In!the!ranking!list!of!countries!of!origin!of!immigrants!in!

New!Zealand,!the!Netherlands!has!dropped!from!the!5th!largest!in!1996!to!number!9th!in!2006!

(see!table!2),!to!!12

th

!in!2013!and!most!likely!to!a!very!modest!position!10Z15!years!from!now.!

However! when! measuring!

the! size! of! the! Dutch!

community! in! terms! of!

ethnicity! or! ancestry! the!

ranking!position!will!remain!

much!

stronger.!

The!

population! census! collects!

information! about! cultural!

identity!or!ethnicity.!Figure!

3! is! showing! both! the!

numbers! of! people! who!

identify! themselves! as!

Dutch! in! New! Zealand! as!

well! as! what! their! place! of!

birth!was.!

Figure! 3! indicates! that!

many!

2nd!

and!

3rd!

Figure!3!

generation! Dutch! migrants!

consider! themselves! still! ‘Dutchies’.! Striking! is! that! the! numbers! with! Dutch! ethnicity! have!

stayed!much!more!stable!and!showed!between!2001!and!2006!even!a!slight!increase.!The!year!

1996!was!an!‘outlier’!when!almost!48,000!identified!themselves!with!the!Dutch!ethnicity.!In!that!

census!the!question!on!ethnicity!included!Dutch!as!a!separate!box!that!could!be!ticked.!Since!

then! the! form! design! has! been! changed! and! Dutch! is! only! mentioned! as! an! example! that!

respondents!can!write!in!a!box!for!other!ethnic!groups.!One!has!to!conclude!therefore!that!the!

ethnicity! data! have! to! be! used! with! a! certain! precaution.! However,! what! is! evident! from! the!

census!data!that!the!share!of!the!second!and!third!generation!identifying!themselves!with!the!

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Dutch! ethnicity! is! still! rising.! Recent! 2013! census! data! show! that! in! March! 2013! 28,503! NZ!

residents!stated!that!they!had!Dutch!ethnicity,!which!is!only!slightly!less!than!in!2006.!

A!third!way!of!measuring!the!Dutch!community!is!through!citizenship.!Unfortunately!the!New!

Zealand!population!census!does!not!ask!a!question!about!a!person’s!nationality.!The!embassy!

estimates!the!number!of!residents!in!New!Zealand!with!Dutch!citizenship!to!be!at!least!20,000.!

This!bottomZline!is!based!on!the!number!of!passports!issued!annually!in!New!Zealand!namely!

around! 4,000.! The! validity! of! a! passport! is! five! years.! However! a! study! by! the! embassy! has!

shown! that! the! number! of! Dutch! citizens! is! much! higher! as! many! elderly! Dutch! don't! extend!

their!passport!anymore!as!they!are!not!able!to!travel.!In!chapter!6!by!Arie!van!der!Wiel,!a!more!

detailed!analyses!of!this!survey!will!be!presented.!

The! next! indicator! is! the!

number!

of!

people!

still!

speaking! the! Dutch! language.!

This! indicator! will! however!

more!extensively!be!dealt!with!

in! the! section! 6! the! socialZ economic!profile!of!the!Dutch!

migrant!community.!The!2013!

Census! has! shown! that! the!

number! of! Dutch! speaking!

people! in! New! Zealand! is!

around! 24,000,! a! decline! with!

more! than! 10%! compared!

with! the! previous! survey.! By!

comparison,! about! 27,000!

New! Zealand! residents! speak!

Afrikaans.!

The!

last!

indicator!

for!

establishing! the! size! of! Dutch!

diaspora! is! by! counting! the!

number!of!Dutch!descent.!The!

first!generation!is!enumerated!

through!

the!

population!

census.! For! the! second!

generation!one!could!use!vital!

statistics! that! include! the!

number! of! registered! births!

with! one! or! two! parents! born!

in! the! Netherlands.! Using! this!

methodology! the! size! of! the!

Dutch! diaspora! in! New!

Zealand! is! estimated! to! be!

almost! 120,000! (van! der! Pas!

and! Poot,! 2011).! With! that!

number! the! Dutch! are! still!

ranked! in! the! topZten! of! the!

largest! ethnic! communities! in!

New!Zealand.!

Figure!4!

We!will!close!this!statistical!overview!of!counting!the!Dutch!by!briefly!analysing!the!inflow!of!

shortZterm!visitor!arrivals!to!New!Zealand!from!the!Netherlands.!They!are!not!falling!under!the!

definition! of! migrants! but! some! subZcategories!definitely!have! a!link!to!the!migration!history!

and! they! could! become! future! migrants! themselves.! The! total! number! of! arrivals! peaked! at!

around!27,000!in!the!year!ending!September!2003!to!21,000!in!the!year!ending!September!2013.!

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Figure!4!shows!the!composition!by!type!of!visitor.!The!drop!may!be!the!result!of!recession!in!the!

Netherlands!following!the!2008!Global!Financial!Crisis!and!also!the!high!value!of!the!NZ!dollar!in!

euro,! which! makes! New! Zealand! an! expensive! country! to! visit.! Business! visits! are! growing,!

however,!and!the!number!of!people!visiting!relatives!remains!quite!stable,!suggesting!that!the!

level! of! contacts! between! migrants! and! their! relatives! overseas! is! even! under! difficult!

circumstances!maintained.!

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5& SHIFTS&IN&THE&MIGRATION&

PATTERN&

A! major! change! in! international!

migration! in! recent! decades! has!

been! the! growing! complexity! in!

migration! patterns! and! the! shift!

from! permanent! settlement! to!

temporary!migration!for!work!or!

study.! Dutch! migration! to! New!

Zealand!is!no!exception.!Table!4!

shows! the! number! of! people! of!

Dutch! nationality! issued! a!

student! permit! and! compares!

that! with! the! number! issued! a!

work! permit! and! those! granted!

permanent! residence.! About!

three! quarters! of! more! of! the!

visas! are! granted! as! temporary!

work! permits.! Figure! 5! shows!

that! particularly! those! granted!

temporary! residence! under! the!

working! holiday! scheme! (WHS)!

has!been!increasing!fast.!

It!is!clear!that!while!the!number!

of! Dutch! coming! to! study! in!

New!Zealand!is!small!(less!than!

200! per! year),! those! issued! a!

work! permit! exceed! those!

granted! permanent! residence!

by! as! much! as! five! times.! The!

decrease! in! people! applying! for!

permanent!

residence!

was!

probably! influenced! by! the!

recent! economic! crisis.! People!

will! be! less! willing! to! search! for!

temporary!employment!in!other!

countries!

when!

there!

is!

considerable!

uncertainty.!

economic!

Box! 1! gives! a! short! summary! of!

the! New! Zealand! Residency!

approvals!to!Dutch!citizens!since!

2001/02.It! is! noted! that! a!

temporary! stay! in! New! Zealand!

Figure!5!

Box!1!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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may! be! the! prelude! to!

permanent!settlement.!

Figure! 6! shows! the! number! of!

Dutch! nationals! who! obtained!

permanent! residency! between!

2001/02! and! 20012/13! and! the!

proportion! of! those! who! had!

been! issued! a! work! permit!

previously.!!

The!figure!shows!that!while!the!

number! of! Dutch! national!

granted! permanent! residency!

has! been! declining! since!

2005/06,! the! proportion! of!

those! who! previously! held! a!

work! visa! shows! an! upward!

trend!and!is!now!around!70%!to!

80%.!

As!noted!above,!the!largest!and!

fastest!growing!temporary!work!

scheme! is! the! Working! Holiday!

Scheme.!In!Box!2!a!summary!is!

given!of!this!scheme.!

In! another! chapter! of! this!

publication! a! more! elaborated!

presentation!

is! given! of!

the! functioning! of! the! Working!

Holiday!Scheme.!

Figure!6!

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Box!2!

6& SOCIAL&S&DEMOGRAPHIC&CHARACTERISTICS&OF&THE&DUTCH&MIGRANT&COMMUNITY&

The! dynamics! of! the! profile! of! the! Dutch! migrant! community! can! best! be! understood! by!

dividing!the!Dutch!migration!movement!into!three!distinctive!cohorts!each!covering!roughly!20!

years:!postZwar!immigrants!i.e.!those!who!arrived!in!the!1950s!and!1960s;!skilled!immigrants,!

i.e.! those! who! arrived! in! the! 1970s! and! 1980s;! and! transnational! professionals! i.e.! those! who!

arrived!in!the!1990s!and!thereafter!!

This!will!be!demonstrated!in!what!follows!by!means!of!a!description!of!the!socialZdemographic!

characteristics! and! outcomes! of! the! three! cohorts,! focusing! on:! age! at! arrival,! number! of!

children,! religion,! education,! income,! occupation,! level! of! urbanisation,! geographical!

distribution!and!language!use.!Much!of!what!is!written!in!this!section!is!sourced!from!the!report!

by!van!der!Pas!and!Poot!(2011).!

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Table! 5! summarises! the! results!

of! a! number! of! socialZ demographic!characteristics!for!

each!of!the!three!cohorts.!

In! terms! of! age! composition!

there! is! a! striking! difference!

between! the! average! arrival!

age! of! Dutch! migrants! in! the!

three! cohorts.! The! first! cohort!

of!

Dutch!

migrants!

was!

predominantly! between! 20Z29!

years! old! when! they! arrived! in!

New! Zealand.! This! is! not!

surprising! considering! that! the!

ordinances! of! the! Assisted!

Passage!

Scheme!

targeted!

assistance! to! single! persons!

who! were! in! this! age! range.!

Dutch!

migrants!

were!

predominantly!single!on!arrival,!

often! marrying! a! Dutch! partner!

soon!after!arrival.!

More! recent! cohorts! of! Dutch!

migrants! are! on! average! older!

on! arrival! and! therefore! more!

likely! to! arrive! as! families! with!

young! children.! In! terms! of!

average! age,! the! difference!

between! the! Dutch! and! other!

main! ethnic! communities! in! the!

three! cohorts! is! not! very!

significant.! What! however! is! a!

growing!concern!that!the!Dutch!

born! migrants! in! New! Zealand!

are! becoming! relatively! much!

older! than! the! population!

generally.!This!problem!is!clearly!

illustrated!in!Box!3!and!Figure!7.!

Most!of!the!Dutch!immigrants!of!

the! 1950s! are! now! in! their!

seventies! and! eighties.! Till! now!

little!attention!has!been!given!by!

policymakers! to! the! ageing! of!

immigrant!groups.!

Only! a! small! percentage! of! the!

first! cohort! of! women,! the! postZ war! immigrants,! have! remained!

childless! (see! table! 5).! For! the!

skilled! immigrants! of! the! 1970s!

and! 1980s! this! percentage! is!

higher! and! for! the! more! recent!

immigrants! six! times! as! high! as!

the!first!cohort.!However!for!this!

Table!5!

Figure!7!

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last!group!we!need!to!take!into!account!that!child!bearing!has!not!yet!been!completed.!PostZ

war!Dutch!immigrant!women!are!clearly!characterized!by!having!had!large!families!with!more!

than!a!third!having!had!four!or!more!children.!

The! fact! that! the! postZwar! Dutch! immigrants! had! larger! families! may! reflect! their! religious!

background.!Almost!40%!of!postZwar!Dutch!immigrants!were!Catholics!who!traditionally!have!

larger!families!at!home.!Most!of!the!postZwar!Dutch!immigrants!were!born!and!brought!up!in!a!!

society!where!everything!was!organised!along!a!number!of!religious!and!political!groups,!the!

soZcalled!‘zuilen’!(pillars).!Migration!to!New!Zealand!was!supported!by!churchZrun!immigration!

organisations.! Interestingly,! among! the! religious! groups! the! percentage! of! Catholics! declined!

across!the!arrival!cohorts!from!38%!to!20%!while!the!Protestant!faith!remained!stable!at!15%.!

The! secularisation! of! Dutch! society! can! also! clearly! be! seen! in! the! sharp! increase! in! the!

proportion!of!people!with!no!religion!across!the!arrival!cohorts.!

Looking! at! the! educational! level! of! the! three! cohorts,! the! 2006! census! data! show! that! each!

successive!arrival!is!much!better!educated!(Table!5).!Moreover,!even!in!the!first!cohort,!about!

oneZthird!had!postZschool!education.!The!percentage!with!a!tertiary!qualification!among!postZ

war! immigrants! was! lower! than! among! other! ethnicities! bit! thus! reversed! for! the! skilled!

immigrant! and! transnational! immigrant! cohorts.! When! comparing! the! educational! level! of!

Dutch!immigrants!in!New!Zealand!and!Australia!in!the!1970s,!Kruiter!(1981)!showed!that,!at!that!

time,! Dutch! immigrants! in! New! Zealand! were,! on! average,! higher! educated! than! Dutch!

immigrants!in!Australia.!

When!we!compare!the!median!income!level!of!those!of!Dutch!ethnicity!and!immigrants!of!other!

ethnicity!in!New!Zealand!it!is!found!that!the!median!income!of!the!retired!postZwar!cohort!of!

immigrants! of! other! ethnicities! is! rather! higher! than! that! of! the! Dutch.! However,! for! those!

under! 65,! the! census! data! show! that! the! employed! Dutch! earn! somewhat! more! than! other!

immigrants.! The! difference! in! income! between! the! Dutch! cohorts! of! skilled! immigrants! and!

transnational! professionals! versus! the! corresponding! other! ethnic! groups! is! primarily! due! to!

that!the!former!being!better!educated!on!average.!

Looking! at! the! occupational! composition! across! the! three! arrival! cohorts,! the! results! show! a!

number!of!interesting!differences!when!comparing!those!of!Netherlands!ethnicity!and!those!of!

other! ethnicity.! Generally,! the! proportion! of! professionals! has! been! increasing! in! successive!

cohorts.! Among! the! Dutch! skilled! immigrants! (1967Z1986)! and! Dutch! transnational!

professionals! (1987Z2006)! arrival! cohorts,! the! percentage! of! Dutch! immigrants! who! work! as!

legislators,!administrators,!managers,!and!professionals!is!greater!than!for!immigrants!of!other!

ethnicities!arriving!at!those!times,!but!this!is!not!the!case!for!the!postZwar!immigrants,!who!are!

more! in! semiZskilled! occupations! rather! than! highZskilled! occupations.! Particularly,! the!

percentage!of!trades!workers!arriving!during!the!1947Z1966!period!is!high!(12%!compared!with!

7.8%! for! other! ethnicities).! Nonetheless,! it! is! clear! that! at! all! times! Dutch! migration! had! a!

smaller!proportion!of!unskilled!immigrants!(plant!and!machine!operators,!labourers!etc.)!than!

other!immigrants.!In!contrast,!the!Dutch!are!much!more!likely!to!be!working!in!agriculture!or!

fisheries.!The!difference!is!particularly!large!for!the!most!recent!arrival!cohort!(1987Z!2006):!13%!

versus! 2.8%.! The! majority! of! these! Dutch! workers! in! the! primary! sector! are! probably! selfZ employed!farmers.!Across!each!arrival!cohort,!the!percentage!of!Dutch!immigrants!working!as!

trades!workers!declines!and!becomes!closer!to!that!of!the!immigrants!of!the!other!ethnicities.!

Generally,! the! older! Dutch! are! highly! urbanised! (see! Figure! 8),! despite! a! relatively! large!

proportion! starting! working! life! on! farms! in! New! Zealand.! Possibly! a! high! degree! of!

urbanisation!for!this!older!generation!of!immigrants!is!important!for!access!to!specialised!health!

and!residential!care.!On!arrival,!many!of!the!first!cohort!of!Dutch!immigrants!were!directed!to!

suitable! employment! in! various! parts! of! the! country! under! a! bonding! scheme! that! required!

them! to! work! for! employers! they! were! assigned! to! for! a! period! of! two! years.! As! a! direct!

consequence!of!this!policy!that!promoted!geographical!dispersal,!the!Dutch!immigrants!were!

spread!throughout!the!country!in!a!pattern!similar!to!the!distribution!of!the!total!population.!

Moreover,! the! residential! stability! of! Dutch! immigrants! was! high.! In! 1964! almost! half! of! the!

Dutch!immigrants!had!not!moved!from!the!place!they!had!settled!on!arrival,!and!the!other!half!

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&

had! lived! in! only! two! or! three!

localities.! As! noted! earlier,! the!

more! recent! cohorts! more! often!

live!in!rural!areas,!coinciding!with!

their! lifeZstyle! motives! for!

leaving!their!country!of!origin.!

Generally,! immigrants! are! more!

spatially! concentrated! than! the!

New! ZealandZborn! population!

because!they!are!more!urbanised!

but!as!noted!above,!in!the!1950s!

Dutch! immigrants! were! spread!

throughout! the! country! in! a!

pattern!

similar!

to!

the!

distribution! of! the! New! Zealand!

population.! Therefore! clearly,!

the! NetherlandsZborn! are! more!

Figure!!8!

integrated! geographically! in! New! Zealand! than! other! immigrants.! The! latter! tend! to! cluster!

more,!with!many!residing!in!the!main!cities!and!in!particular!in!the!Auckland!metropolitan!area.!

This!geographical!dispersion!of!the!Dutch!immigrants!has!contributed!to!their!high!degree!of!

assimilation!(Trlin,!1975).!

The! number! of! people! who! can!

have!a!conversation!in!Dutch!on!

everyday! things! has! been!

declining!(see!Table!6).!Although!

the!majority!of!those!who!could!

speak! Dutch! in! the! 2006! census!

were! NetherlandsZborn! (65%),!

there! was! also! a! reasonable!

proportion! who! were! New!

ZealandZborn!(23%).!!

Table!6!

!

This!suggests!that!there!is!an!intergenerational!transfer!of!the!Dutch!language!to!the!second!

generation.!By!2013,!the!number!of!New!Zealand!residents!who!can!speak!Dutch!has!declined!

to!24,000,!but!it!is!not!known!at!the!time!of!writing!of!this!chapter!how!many!of!these!were!born!

in!New!Zealand.!

!

In! a! study! on! language! maintenance! of! the! three! generations! of! Dutch! immigrants! in! New!

Zealand,!Hulsen,!de!Bot!en!Weltens!(2002)!indicate!that!the!number!of!first!language!contacts!

in!the!social!network!both!in!the!country!of!origin!and!the!host!country!plays!an!important!role!

in!language!maintenance.!On!the!other!hand,!not!all!those!who!were!born!in!the!Netherlands!

maintained! the! ability! to! speak! Dutch! after! migrating! to! New! Zealand.! Data! from! the! 2006!

Census!suggest!that!around!80%!of!New!Zealand!residents!born!in!the!Netherlands!can!speak!

Dutch.!Some!of!the!others!would!have!migrated!as!small!children!who!were!educated!at!home!

and!in!school!in!English,!but!others!may!have!lost!the!ability!to!speak!Dutch!in!their!endeavour!

to!fully!assimilate!in!New!Zealand!society.!

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7& CONCLUSION&

This!chapter!explored!the!dynamics!of!the!Dutch!community!change!in!New!Zealand!during!the!

last!half!century.!

There! has! been! a! slow! decline! in! the! number! of! DutchZborn! residents! in! New! Zealand!

predominantly! due! to! deaths! among! the! postZwar! migrants! and! relatively! little! replacement!

immigration.!However,!given!that!most!of!the!surviving!postZwar!immigrants!have!now!reached!

high!ages,!the!decline!is!likely!to!accelerate!in!the!years!to!come.!Clearly!the!Dutch!community!

is!undergoing!a!pronounced!ageZstructural!transition!and,!with!40%!aged!over!65,!the!Dutch!are!

among! the! most! aged! immigrant! communities! in! New! Zealand.! Until! recently! little! attention!

has!been!given!to!the!ageing!of!the!immigrant!groups.!Moreover,!the!rapid!assimilation!of!the!

Dutch!into!New!Zealand!society!appears!to!have!made!them!invisible!both!in!terms!of!being!

immigrants!and!also!in!terms!of!their!status!as!an!increasingly!ageing!community.!

The! research! by! van! der! Pas! and! Poot! (2011)! showed! that! there! are! different! profiles! of! the!

postZwar! immigrants,! skilled! immigrants! and! professional! transnational! immigrants! with! the!

first!cohort!mostly!younger!on!arrival,!more!religious,!less!educated!and!having!more!children!

than! the! subsequent! cohorts.! The! most! recent! immigrants! are! the! best! qualified,! with! more!

than!half!having!a!postZschool!qualification.!Most!of!them!are!only!temporarily!in!New!Zealand.!

They!maintain!often!strong!links!with!the!Netherlands!both!in!terms!of!contacts,!language!and!

cultural!identity.!

In!box!4!some!future!trends!with!regard!to!the!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!are!given.!

&

Box!4!

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4& &Second&and&Third&Generation&Dutch&Migrants:&A&Theoretical&

Framework&

!

Dr!Tanja!SchubertIMcArthur!

!

!

!

1& INTRODUCTION&

Three!cohorts!of!Dutch!migrants!arrived!in!New!Zealand:!postZwar!migrants!in!the!1950s!and!

1960s!assisted!by!a!labour!scheme!between!the!Netherlands!and!New!Zealand!governments,!

skilled!migrants!in!the!1970s!and!1980s,!and!transnational!professionals!since!the!1990s!(van!der!

Pas! and! Poot! 2011).! Although! the! Dutch! were! “by! far! the! biggest! single! group! of! nonZBritish!

immigrants”! (Yska! 2006:! 123)! in! New! Zealand! in! the! 1960s,! most! became! ‘invisible! migrants’!

and!assimilated!quickly.!However,!what!does!the!literature!say!about!the!identity!formation!of!

!

the! descendants! of! DutchZborn! immigrants,! the! second! and! third! generation! Dutch! in! New!

Zealand?!And!which!theoretical!concepts!might!be!relevant!to!research!the!topic?!

This!chapter!provides!the!theoretical!framework!for!the!research!project!on!second!and!third!

generation!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!(see!chapter!five).!Furthermore!it!includes!a!literature!review!

on!the!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!as!well!as!relevant!migration!studies!and!research!on!second!and!

third! generation! migrants! more! generally.! To! start! with! this! chapter! gives! some! historic!

!

!

background!of!the!Dutch!immigrants!in!New!Zealand.!

!

2& BACKGROUND&

The! connection! between! the! Netherlands! and! New! Zealand! goes! back! to! 1642! when! Abel!

Janszoon!Tasman!was!the!first!European!to!sight!this!land!in!the!South!Pacific!that!he!called!

‘Staten! Landt’.! Later! a! Dutch! cartographer! renamed! it! ‘Nova! Zeelandia’,! after! the! Dutch!

maritime!province,!and!British!explorer!James!Cook!subsequently!anglicised!the!name!to!New!

Zealand.! Tasman! did! not! set! foot! on! land,! but! his! crew! encountered! Maori! resulting! in!

bloodshed,!killing!several!men!on!both!sides.!Although!Tasman!only!stayed!for!a!short!period!

and! surveyed! a! fraction! of! the! New! Zealand’s! coastline,! his! contribution! is! not! to! be!

underestimated,! as! “[i]t! was! Tasman! who! opened! the! way! for! the! European! history! of! New!

Zealand”!(Wilson!2006:!11).!

!

2.1!Before!World!War!II!

New!Zealand’s!immigration!politics!as!well!as!the!economic!situation!in!the!Netherlands!shaped!

Dutch!immigration!to!New!Zealand.!This!pattern!corresponds!with!migration!theory!suggesting!

that!there!are!certain!push!factors,!which!make!the!status!quo!unfavourable!and!pull!factors,!

which!attract!the!migrant!to!a!new!destination!(Lee!1966).!Dutch!immigration!to!New!Zealand!

was!very!limited!in!the!19th!century!with!only!127!Dutch!–!among!them!Catholic!missionaries!–!

living!here!in!1874.!A!1938!report!suggested!to!open!migration!to!other!countries!than!Britain!in!

order!to!counterbalance!the!shortage!of!skilled!labourers,!thus:!“The!Netherlands!came!to!be!

seen!as!an!alternative!source!of!Aryan!Europeans!(Yska!2006:!122)”,!providing!“good!Germanic!

genes! but! without! the! politics”! (Belich! 2001:! 538).! A! trial! of! five! Dutch! carpenters! marked! a!

‘happy! experiment’! and! resulted! in! more! demand! for! this! prototype! migrant! of! “fine! type,! of!

athletic!built!and!well!educated”!(Schouten!1992:!50).!

!

2.2!The!‘first!wave’!between!1951<1954!

Dutch!migration!peaked!in!the!early!1950s!under!the!New!Zealand!Assisted!Passage!Scheme!

that!lured!many!skilled!migrants!out!of!postZwar!Europe!to!New!Zealand.!The!Netherlands!after!

the!war!was!a!place!of!destruction!and!economic!hardship!facing!high!rates!of!unemployment!

and! overpopulation! (Hofstede! 1964).! Furthermore,! the! fall! of! Indonesia! as! a! Dutch! colony! in!

1949!saw!500!colonists!and!exZarmy!soldiers!migrate!to!New!Zealand.!Between!1951!and!1954!

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an!astonishing!total!of!10,583!Dutch!migrants!arrived!in!New!Zealand,!at!a!peak!time!for!Dutch!

emigration! when! 40,000! annually! left! the! Netherlands.! The! motivations! of! those! first! wave!

Dutch! migrants! were! economic,! political! and! sociological! factors! (Thomson! 1970:! 153).!

Although!they!had!to!undergo!a!strict!selection!process,!having!their!fare!paid!and!the!prospect!

!

of!a!prosper!economy!and!work!made!them!come!in!the!thousands.!!

In!the!1960s!“[a]lmost!half!of!all!migrants!from!outside!the!Commonwealth!were!Dutch,!making!

them!by!far!the!biggest!single!group!of!nonZBritish!immigrants!at!that!time”!(Yska!2006:!123).!

The!first!wave!Dutch!migrants!are!sometimes!called!‘the!lost!generation’,!because!they!faced!

hardship! during! the! war,! meaning! their! “youth! was! shattered! by! war”! and! abnormal!

circumstances! overshadowed! “perhaps! the! most! important! and! exposed! years! of! their!

adolescence”! (Thomson! 1970:! 153).! According! to! Thomson! (1970:! 153f)! military! occupation,!

invasion!and!postZwar!recovery!left!them!with!a!negative!imprint!that!“would!have!done!little!to!

create!or!stabilise!a!sense!of!identity!and!for!them!the!major!step!of!emigration!was!relatively!

easy”.!Hofstede!(1964:!28)!underpins!the!great!disappointment!this!young!generation!of!Dutch!

felt,!which!led!to!their!subsequent!emigration!as!their!equilibrium!was!disturbed.!Many!of!those!

Dutch!migrants!were!tradesmen!or!dairy!farmers!coming!from!a!working!class!milieu!(Thomson!

1970:! 163).! The! first! wave! enjoyed! a! support! network! (paid! by! the! Netherlands! government)!

that! included! Dutch! ministers,! priests,! social! workers! and! immigration! officers! which!

disappeared!as!funding!ceased.!

!

2.3!Later!cohorts!

Van! der! Pas! and! Poot! (2011)! suggest! that! subsequent! cohorts! of! Dutch! migrants! to! New!

Zealand!were!quite!different!to!the!‘first!wave’,!in!terms!of!motivations!and!aspirations.!They!

came!as!skilled!migrants!or!transnational!migrants,!mainly!for!ecological!and!lifestyle!reasons!

from! a! prospering! middleZclass.! As! Leek! (1990:! 4)! points! out! the! 1960s! migrants! came! for!

ecological! motives! and! were! ‘better! off’! economically,! wellZeducated! and! with! better! English!

language! command! than! their! countrymen! who! came! in! the! 1950s,! but! perhaps! for! these!

!

reasons!they!were!also!less!motivated!to!“suppress!their!Dutchness”!(Leek!1990:!8).!

2.4!Number!of!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!

It!is!very!difficult!to!determine!the!number!of!people!of!Dutch!descent!living!in!New!Zealand!as!

Dutch!who!have!been!naturalised!are!not!statistically!recorded!and!through!intermarriage!and!

socialisation! ‘New! Zealander’! becomes! the! ethnicity! of! their! offZspring.! In! the! 1996! census!

almost! 48,000! ticked! the! box! ‘Dutch’! for! ethnicity,! whereas! in! the! 2006! census,! when! the!

respondents! had! to! tick! ‘other’! and! fill! in! their! ethnic! affiliations! themselves! only! 29,000!

identified!as!Dutch!(van!der!Pas!and!Poot!2011:!23).!Van!der!Pas!and!Poot!(2011:!22)!estimate!

!

the!total!of!New!Zealand!residents!of!Dutch!ancestry!including!the!second!and!third!generation,!

but!excluding!nonZDutch!spouses,!to!be!116,700.!

&

3& THEORY&

!

According! to! Takezawa! (1995:! 199)! identity! is! formed! by! common! experiences! and! shared!

habits! which! are! maintained! in! the! community! and! passed! on! to! children.! It! is! possible! to!

maintain!multiple!identities!in!different!contexts!and!situations,!thus!unconsciously!maintaining!

Dutchness!through!festivals!or!educating!children.!Nagel!(1996:!11)!suggests!that!immigrants!

reconnect! with! their! identity! at! certain! points! in! the! life! cycle,! for! example! when! they! have!

children! of! their! own! or! when! they! retire.! Although! assimilation! with! the! host! culture! was!

assumed! for! a! long! time,! we! know! now,! that! “individuals! can! choose! to! adapt,! resist! or!

withdraw! from! the! host! society’s! definition”! (Parrillo! 1991:! 7).! Tap! (1997:! 15)! emphasises! the!

“volitional!dimension!of!ethnicity”,!which!gives!individuals!a!choice.!Ethnic!identity!“lies!at!the!

intersection!of!individual!ethnic!selfZdefinition!(who!am!I)!and!the!collective!ethnic!attribution!

(who! they! say! I! am)”! (Nagel! 1996:! 21).! This! results! in! an! ‘ethnic! layering’,! as! Nagel! (1996)!

suggests,!in!which!layers!are!activated!or!deactivated!at!different!times.!Reading!Takezawa’s!

(1995)!book!about!Japanese!Americans,!Tap!(1997)!was!struck!by!the!similarities:!both!showed!

upward!mobility!in!terms!of!social!and!economic!standing!and!seemed!to!assimilate!easily,!yet!

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the! predicted! complete! absorption! did! not! happen,! on! the! contrary,! the! Japanese! Americans!

revived!their!cultural!distinction.!

!

This!interview!quote!(Te!Papa!2000:!53)!emphasises!the!choices!that!migrants!make!regarding!

!

their!identity:!

“We!also!have!kept!some!of!the!Dutch!customs!because!when!you!go!to!a!new!country!

you!can!choose.!You!can!ditch!some!of!the!things!that!you!think!are!not!so!nice!in!this!

country!and!you!keep!some!of!the!good!things!of!your!own!background!and!your!own!

culture.”!

!

According!to!Jaspal!and!Cinnirella!(2012)!the!identity!formation!process!is!motivated!by!external!

factors!(acceptance!by!others)!and!internal!factors!(aim!to!live!a!purposeful!and!satisfied!life).!

‘Migration! network! theory’! and! ‘transnational! migration! theory’! can! be! very! useful! for!

interpreting! research! findings.! Social! network! theory! views! social! relationships! in! terms! of!

nodes! and! ties.! The! network! can! be! used! to! determine! the! social! capital! of! individual! actors!

(Kadushin!2012).!Migration!networks!are!defined!as!interpersonal!ties!that!bind!migrants!and!

nonZmigrants!together!within!a!situation!of!mutual!commitments!that!can!be!drawn!upon!to!

facilitate! entry,! adjustment,! and! employment! at! points! of! destination! (Massey! 1987).! These!

interpersonal!ties!between!migrants!and!nonZmigrants!are!important!in!assessing!and!relating!it!

to! the! Netherlands,! as! it! shows! and! reflects! the! degree! of! assimilation.! Migration! is! also! a!

networkZcreating!process,!which!develops!an!increasing!number!of!contacts!between!places!of!

origin!and!destination!(Spittel!1998).!

!

Transnationalism!is!commonly!defined!“as!the!process!by!which!immigrants!build!social!fields!

that!link!together!their!country!of!origin!and!their!country!of!settlement"!(Glick!Schiller!et!al.!

1992:1).! Transnational! behaviour! is! practised! by! visits! to! the! home! country! and! use! of! ethnic!

media,!which!is!increasing!because!of!globalisation!and!the!internet!(Castles!and!Miller!2009).!

Welz! (1998)! has! written! about! the! difficulty! undertaking! research! when! the! participants! are!

‘moving! targets’! who! live! transnational! lives! and! Marcus! (1995)! proposed! ‘multiZsited!

ethnography’!as!a!tool!to!capture!their!mobility.!Transnationalism!is!commonly!defined!“as!the!

process! by! which! immigrants! build! social! fields! that! link! together! their! country! of! origin! and!

their!country!of!settlement"!(Glick!Schiller!et!al.!1992:1).!Transnational!behaviour!is!practised!by!

visits!to!the!home!country!and!use!of!ethnic!media,!which!is!increasing!because!of!globalisation!

and! the! internet! (Castles! and! Miller! 2009).! Welz! (1998)! has! written! about! the! difficulty!

undertaking!research!when!the!participants!are!‘moving!targets’!who!live!transnational!lives!and!

Marcus!(1995)!proposed!‘multiZsited!ethnography’!as!a!tool!to!capture!their!mobility.!

!

!

4& LITERATURE&REVIEW&

!

The!literature!on!Dutch!migrants!in!New!Zealand!suggests!quick!assimilation!due!to!multiple!

factors,!including!pressure!to!assimilate,!‘pepperZpotting’,!intermarriage!and!sacrificing!Dutch!

language! and! culture! for! the! sake! of! the! children’s! future! in! New! Zealand.! Yska! (2006)!

emphasises!that!Dutch!migrants!tend!to!become!Kiwis!rather!quickly!and!retain!their!language!

and! culture! less! than! other! ethnic! minorities! in! New! Zealand.! According! to! Yska! (2006)! this!

phenomenon! is! due! to! a! number! of! factors,! some! utilised! strategically! by! the! New! Zealand!

government!to!assimilate!migrants!and!some!due!to!the!migrants’!uneasy!relationship!with!the!

Netherlands.! The! pressure! to! ‘discard! their! Dutchness’! followed! the! aim! to! make! the! Dutch!

migrants!into!‘new!Britishers’,!as!senior!immigration!official!Dr!Reuel!Lochore!(1951:!89)!stated.!

This! aim! was! assisted! by! ‘pepperZpotting’,! that! is! scattering! migrants! all! over! the! country! in!

order!to!prevent!ethnic!clusters,!and!promoting!assimilation.!Especially!assisted!migrants!who!

had!to!work!and!live!where!the!government!sent!them!for!the!first!two!years!after!arrival,!found!

themselves!isolated!from!their!countrymen!and!dispersed!throughout!the!country.!Thus,!Dutch!

migrants! were! forced! to! blend! in! to! the! New! Zealand! way! of! life.! Women! often! missed! the!

‘gezelligheid’!and!were!homesick;!while!the!men!made!friends!through!work,!the!women!often!

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stayed!home!and!became!isolated!(personal!communication!Christine!Hofkens,!February!2013;!

see!also!the!film!‘Bride!Flight’!by!Ben!Sombogaart!2008).!!!

&

&

4.1&Intermarriage&

The! New! Zealand! Assisted! Passage! Scheme! subsidised! only! singles! of! a! certain! age! range,!

promoting!young!people!to!immigrate!and!intermarry.!Between!1950!and!1964!a!total!of!6,261!

Dutch!singles!came!under!this!scheme,!many!getting!married!within!their!first!year!after!arrival!

(Thomson!suspects!that!they!came!with!their!fiancées!or!brought!them!over!later).!The!‘bride!

flight’! of! 1953,! when! Dutch! women! engaged! to! Dutch! men! were! flown! in! to! balance! the!

shortage!of!women,!did!not!fulfil!expectations!that!they!all!marry!Dutchmen,!as!many!women!

married!locals!and!became!Kiwis.!

!

Thomson!(1970:!166)!is!certain!that!the!“process!of!rapid!adjustment”!is!mainly!due!to!the!high!

rate! of! intermarriages! with! New! Zealanders:! between! 1954! and! 1967! 60.2! per! cent! of! Dutch!

males!choose!nonZDutch!wives,!80!per!cent!of!whom!were!New!Zealanders.!He!estimates!that!

this! rate! will! go! up! as! the! Dutch! citizens! who! immigrated! as! children! or! were! born! here! get!

married,!saying!that!“it!is!highly!unlikely!that!children!born!in!New!Zealand!of!Dutch!parents,!or!

!

!

of! mixed! marriage! where! one! parent! is! Dutch,! will! seek! partners! of! Dutch! origin”! (Thomson!

1970:!166).!

4.2&Settling&patterns&

Interestingly,!the!Dutch!did!not!settle!in!high!concentrations!in!certain!areas!which!is!“in!sharp!

contrast!to!the!concentrations!shown!by!all!other!immigrant!national!groups!with!the!exception!

of!those!from!the!United!Kingdom”!(Thomson!1970:!157).!Instead,!Dutch!are!distributed!rather!

evenly!over!New!Zealand!resembling!the!distribution!of!New!Zealand’s!total!population.!This!

was! encouraged! by! the! New! Zealand! government! as! part! of! the! assimilation! policy,! as! van!

!

Dongen!(1992:!74)!states:!

“In!practice,!any!desire!by!the!Dutch!to!hold!on!to!their!heritage!or!simply!seek!solace!

in! one! another’s! company! was! stymied! by! the! government’s! settlement! policy.! To!

prevent!them!living!or!working!in!a!‘foreign!cell’!they!were!scattered!the!length!and!

breadth!of!the!land.”!

!

In!addition,!compared!to!New!Zealanders,!the!Dutch!migrants!tended!to!be!rather!stationary!

and! the! majority! still! lives! in! the! first! location! they! lived! at! when! they! arrived.! Groupings! in!

streets!or!residential!areas!are!uncommon!among!the!Dutch,!except!in!Wainuiomata!and!in!the!

vicinity! of! the! Roman! Catholic! churches! served! by! Dutch! priests! in! Christchurch.! Thomson!

(1970:!167)!sees!the!scattered!settling!pattern!of!the!Dutch!as!their!key!to!assimilation!which!is!

in!“direct!contrast!with!the!concentrations!favoured!by!other!immigrant!groups,!concentrations!

which! in! the! eyes! of! the! host! population! may! be! socially! undesirable”.! However,! the! need! to!

carry! a! ‘registration! book’! whenever! they! moved! and! informing! the! officials! about! their!

whereabouts!might!have!prevented!the!Dutch!from!changing!locations,!as!it!was!easier!to!stay!

&

!

put.!

4.3&First&generation:&Similar&European&cultures&and&a&desire&to&assimilate&

By! appearance! Dutch! migrants! blend! in,! but! their! foreign! accents! give! away! their! different!

origin.!The!men!of!the!first!wave!have!been!seen!as!‘sensible!and!hardZworking’!to!the!extent!

that!they!have!been!criticised!for!working!too!hard!and!asked!by!their!fellow!colleagues!to!slow!

down!(Yska!2006:125).!The!‘industrious!Dutchie’!became!a!popular!stereotype,!but!the!Dutch!

became! infamous! for! their! ‘thrift! and! abruptness’! that! was! in! stark! contrast! to! the! Kiwi!

mentality.!Overall,!it!seems!Dutch!are!“most!acceptable!additions”!to!New!Zealand!society.!The!

Dutch!asked!in!1964!about!their!experiences!with!New!Zealanders!(Thomson!1970:165)!mainly!

!

agreed!that!they!are!‘welcoming’!(75!per!cent).!

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An! informant! for! the! exhibition! ‘Nieuw! Zeeland! –! Going! Dutch’! (2000Z2002)! at! Te! Papa!

suggested! that! Dutch! integrated! so! well! into! New! Zealand! society,! because! AngloZSaxon!

culture!is!quite!similar:!“If!it!is!biZculturalism!it!is!not!a!difficult!biZculturalism”!(Te!Papa!2000:!

46),!as!opposed!to!Maori!culture!that!is!quite!‘alien’!to!the!Dutch.!Playing!sports!alongside!New!

!

Zealanders!was!another!contributing!factor!to!successful!integration.!

Boyd! Klap,! founder! of! the! NetherlaNZ! Foundation! who! arrived! in! 1951! was! quoted! in! a!

newspaper!article!(Dom.!Post!14!Feb!2003:!A6),!stating:!“I!am!not!Dutch.!I!still!have!an!accent,!

but!I!feel!a!complete!New!Zealander!–!with!great!pride!in!my!Dutch!heritage”.!On!the!contrary,!

Mr! Conijn,! interviewed! for! Te! Papa’s! ‘Going! Dutch’! exhibition! remarked:! “I! will! always! be! a!

Dutchman.!I!was!born!in!that!country,!I!have!lived!there!for!26!years,!but!I!do!hope!my!children!

will!assimilate!here!and!they!will!say!well!I!am!a!New!Zealander,!that’s!our!aim”!(Te!Papa!2000).!

These! statements! show! that! the! first! generation! Dutch! had! a! great! desire! to! ‘fit! in’! and!

assimilate;!if!they!themselves!did!not!achieve!this!goal!then!they!encouraged!their!children!to!

do!so.!

!

An! interesting! hypothesis! comes! from! a! second! generation! Dutch! who! featured! in! Te! Papa’s!

‘Going!Dutch’!exhibition!(2000:!44)!saying!that!the!quick!assimilation!of!the!Dutch!indicates!a!

!

strong!Dutch!identity!and!a!pragmatic!strategy!rather!than!an!identity!crisis:!

“[…B]ut!it!has!never!been!a!sense!of!being!ashamed!of!your!Dutchness!either.!It!comes!

from!a!position!of!strength,!I!think.!You!know!that!you!are!Dutch.!You!are!proud!of!

your!Dutch!heritage,!but!if!you!want!to!communicate!and!live!effectively!in!a!country!

then!there!are!certain!things!that!you!need!to!do!to!communicate!to!people,!so!you!

play!the!game!or!you!participate…!I!think!it!is!a!tremendously!strong!position!to!be!in.”!

!

Mr! Conijn,! who! came! in! the! 1950s! and! was! interviewed! by! Te! Papa! (2000:! 42)! states! that! he!

feels!estranged!from!Dutch!mentality!today,!saying!he!is!not!so!interested!in!the!Netherlands!

anymore!‘out!of!sight,!out!of!mind’.!The!parents!were!a!strong!link!to!Holland,!but!once!they!

died!he!didn’t!go!back!anymore.!The!first!generation!migrants!realised!that!the!places!of!their!

childhood!memories!often!no!longer!existed!or!they!got!lost!looking!for!them!(Te!Papa!2000:!

50).!When!they!could!not!reZcreate!a!sense!of!belonging!in!Holland,!they!realised!that!they!had!

become!Kiwis.!Thomson!(1970:!163)!gives!clues!why!the!Dutch!have!integrated!so!well!into!New!

!

Zealand!society:!

“Although! initially! suspected,! perhaps,! for! their! diligence! and! less! ready! sense! of!

humour!their!lack!of!concentration!spatially,!economically!and!socially!has!tended!to!

reduce! the! distinctiveness! that! sets! different! ethnic! groups! apart! from! a! host!

population.!A!background!much!more!comparable!to!the!New!Zealand!norm!than!that!

of! either! peasants! from! southern! Europe! or! Polynesia,! intellectuals! from! Berlin! or!

displaced!persons!camps!made!adjusting!much!easier.”!

4.4&Dutch&clubs&and&other&initiatives&

There!have!been!efforts!to!keep!the!Dutch!culture!alive!in!New!Zealand,!such!as!Dutch!clubs,!

Dutch!radio!programmes!and!newspapers,!language!schools!and!Sinterklaas!celebrations,!but!

many! reject! these! efforts! to! create! a! ‘communal! identity’.! Most! Dutch! have! mixed! feelings!

about! the! Dutch! clubs,! finding! them! important! on! the! one! hand,! but! not! participating! often!

(except!for!festivities!or!to!greet!royal!visitors).!The!first!wave!migrants!with!their!experience!of!

war!trauma!and!assimilation!policy!had!little!desire!to!meet,!whereas!the!younger!generation!

who!arrived!recently!have!not!much!in!common!with!the!first!migrants.!According!to!Tap!(1997:!

79)! there! exists! an! ‘us/them! boundary’! within! the! Dutch! community! in! New! Zealand! along!

regional! variations! (Dutch! dialects,! customs),! motivations! for! migration,! age,! attitudes! and!

socioZeconomic!status!not!only!between!cohorts!but!also!between!people!of!the!same!cohorts,!

which!made!it!difficult!for!the!Dutch!to!formally!organise!cultural!initiatives.!Many!did!not!feel!

the!need!to!mix!with!other!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!at!all.!This!was!particularly!the!case!with!the!

first! cohort! who! arrived! in! the! postZwar! years! “with! loose! bonds! and! a! rather! limited! cultural!

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identification!with!their!surroundings”!(Hofstede!1964:!28)!in!the!Netherlands.!The!disinterest!in!

engaging!in!Dutch!culture!can!be!interpreted!according!to!Yska!(2006:!124)!with!the!war!trauma!

and!disruptions!that!the!‘lost!generation’!of!1950s!Dutch!migrants!endured:!“On!reaching!their!

adopted! country,! many! kept! their! heads! down! and! suppressed! their! heritage.! Some! believe!

their! experiences! made! them! assimilate! too! well”.! Being! different! was! stigmatised! in! New!

Zealand! and! the! Dutch! consequently! utilised! strategies! that! are! common! among! all! minority!

cultures,! as! Takezawa! (1995:! 199)! points! out,! suppressing! their! own! culture! and! pursuing! the!

dominant!culture.!However,!it!is!important!to!note!that!not!all!ethnic!minorities!in!New!Zealand!

kept! a! low! profile! and! comparing! the! Dutch! to! the! Polish! community! (Ducat! 1992)! it! is!

astounding!how!much!the!Polish!retained!and!celebrated!their!culture!in!a!strong!club!culture!

(choir,!youth!club,!language!school,!bridge!club,!dances,!club!house!etc.).The!retaining!of!the!

Polish!culture!can!be!understood!in!the!light!that!the!Polish!believed!their!political!exile!in!New!

!

Zealand!was!temporary!and!thus!felt!the!need!to!prepare!themselves!and!their!children!for!their!

return,!whereas!the!Dutch!came!here!to!stay.!

Leek! (1990:! 8f)! makes! an! ‘underdeveloped! herdZinstinct’! and! a! ‘low! ethnic! selfZimage’! of! the!

Dutch!responsible!for!the!phenomenon!of!becoming!‘invisible’.!According!to!WalkerZBirckhead!

(1995:! 63)! the! Dutch! are! good! at! hiding! their! real! personalities! in! order! to! avoid! conflict.!

!

However,!WalkerZBirckhead!(1995:!63)!warns!against!such!‘schizophrenic’!behaviour:!

“However,! such! a! strategy! would! not! be! without! its! own! costs,! including! managing!

the!transition!between!inside!and!outside,!in!particular!maintaining!the!integrity!of!the!

inside,!given!the!overwhelming!pressure!from!outside;!hence,!I!suggest,!the!ongoing!

preoccupation!with!character!and!Dutchness.”!

!

The!national!tolerance!is!seen!as!grounded!in!Calvinism,!which!also!influences!their!work!ethics.!

Grüter!and!Stracke!(1995:!38)!argue!that!Calvinism!has!“brought!an!attitude!to!life!where!every!

conceivable!issue!has!to!be!measured!by!principles!affecting!all,!whether!Catholic,!communist,!

Jew! or! agnostic”.! Religion! is! certainly! a! factor! that! contributed! to! the! ‘invisible! Dutch!

community’!(van!Dongen!1992)!in!New!Zealand!as!well!as!keeping!‘Dutchness’!alive.!Becoming!

‘invisible’!does!not!necessarily!mean!that!the!Dutch!did!not!retain!their!culture,!but!they!did!so!

!

in!the!private!sphere!and!at!different!stages!in!their!lives,!as!Leek!(1990:!10)!states:!

“So,!outside!the!sanctum!of!their!busily!and!fussily!decorated!homes,!the!Dutch!may!

be! great! assimilators;! they! proved! themselves! efficient! in! their! chosen! careers,! they!

are!successful!in!business,!their!children!have!become!better!educated!than!they!were!

themselves;! and! in! their! leisure! time,! they! have! taken! to! outdoor! pursuits! […]! like!

ducks!to!water.!But!in!the!privacy!of!their!home!they!have!remained!various!breeds!of!

Dutch:!Brabanders,!Friesians,!Limburgers,!Groningers!–!and!they!oddly!become!more!

so!again!after!the!children!have!grown!up!and!left!the!nest.”!

!

This!comment!suggests!that!Dutch!migrants!become!more!Dutch!when!getting!older.!I!discuss!

!

this!hypothesis!in!the!next!section.!

!

4.5&Becoming&more&Dutch?&

As!other!ethnic!minorities!became!more!visible,!the!Dutch!also!came!out!of!their!shell!more,!

which! could! be! seen! as! ‘ethnic! mimicry’.! “The! encouragement! of! multiZculturalism! in! schools!

has!seen!many!migrants!questioning!old!precepts!of!assimilation!and!recent!migrants!who!have!

not!been!exposed!to!the!same!pressure!to!abandon!their!culture,!have!injected!new!energy!into!

the!Dutch!community”!(Schouten!1992:!179).!The!multicultural!discourse!then,!is!responsible!for!

“stimulating!ethnic!consciousness”!(Takezawa!1995:!xv).!Interestingly,!nearing!retirementZage!

the!Dutch!migrants!tend!to!reclaim!their!culture!more!actively,!some!make!their!home!at!‘Ons!

Dorp’,! the! Dutch! retirement! village! in! Henderson,! Auckland! while! others! return! to! the!

Netherlands!permanently.!In!her!Master!thesis!Relinde!Tap!(1997)!researched!the!phenomenon!

that!immigrants!of!the!first!wave!revive!their!Dutch!identity!when!they!age,!which!she!sees!as!a!

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&

!

result!of!social!isolation,!a!loss!of!the!command!of!English!and!a!longing!for!Dutch!food.!Van!

Dongen!(1992:!88)!points!out!that!aging!Dutch!turn!back!to!a!nostalgic!past:!

“After! a! life! time! of! hard! work,! many! older! migrants! are! now! turning! back! to! their!

pasts,!reverting!to!their!language!and!yearning!for!the!emotional!aspects!of!a!culture!

they!left!behind.!They!look!back!to!their!years!in!Holland!with!a!delectable!nostalgia,!

and!try!to!balance!what!they!have!gained!with!what!they!have!irretrievable!forfeited.”!

!

!

Perhaps!that!development!can!be!explained!with!Schouten’s!(1992:!170)!model!of!four!stages!of!

immigration:!

“First![Dutch!migrants]!seek!fellow!Dutch!people!already!living!here,!who!can!speak!

their!language!and!give!advice.!Next!they!strive!for!total!independence,!concentrating!

mainly!on!careers.!In!the!third!stage,!typically!at!age!55!after!children!have!left!home,!

they! ask! ‘why! are! we! here.’! Finally! there! is! often! a! reversion! to! the! language! and!

culture!of!their!birth.”!

!

‘Ons!Dorp’,!the!Dutch!retirement!village!was!conceived!in!1977!in!response!to!a!growing!need!

for! health! care! after! government! cuts! and! a! demand! for! socialising! in! their! native! tongue! by!

Dutch!of!the!first!generation.!It!opened!in!1983,!but!can!only!serve!a!small!number!of!people.!

The!demand!of!home!care!was!first!met!with!a!Dutch!social!worker!paid!with!funding!from!the!

Netherlands!for!three!years,!but!when!his!contract!finished,!the!‘Friendly!Support!Network’!in!

Auckland!was!established!in!1986.!This!Dutch!community!group!offers!coffee!mornings,!home!

and!hospital!visits!in!other!locations,!like!Waikato,!Palmerston!North,!Wellington,!Christchurch!

and! Timaru,! reflecting! the! widespread! Dutch! population.! A! homecare! service! is! planned,! but!

had! not! been! set! up! in! 1997,! as! Tap! (1997)! notes.! In! 1992! ‘Holland! House’! in! Auckland! was!

!

bought!in!order!to!provide!a!space!for!the!Dutch!community!to!meet!(Tap!1997).!

Special!occasions,!such!as!the!1992!Tasman!year!celebrations!seem!to!spark!interest!in!Dutch!

culture! among! migrants! and! their! descendants! (Yska! 2006:! 124).! Similarly,! the! Kings!

inauguration! on! 30th! April! 2013! attracted! many! people! with! Dutch! heritage! in! New! Zealand!

who!were!usually!not!associated!with!the!Dutch!community.!

4.6&Language&retention&

Speakers! of! the! Dutch! language! decline,! and! “[s]tudies! have! shown! that! children! of! Dutch!

migrants!retained!less!of!their!parents’!language!than!other!ethnic!minorities”!(Yska!2006:!124).!

However,!speaking!the!Dutch!language!is!“increasingly!seen!as!the!key!to!keeping!the!culture!

alive”!(Yska!2006:!124),!and!consequently!efforts!to!establish!Dutch!language!schools!have!been!

made! since! the! 1990s.! Through! Dutch! broadcasting! on! Christchurch’s! ‘Echo! Radio’! and!

increasingly!satellite!radio!and!tv,!access!to!Dutch!language!programmes!becomes!easier.!There!

seems!to!be!a!myth!that!Dutch!was!not!spoken!in!the!homes!in!New!Zealand,!yet,!in!interviews!

with!Dutch!migrants!(Te!Papa!2000)!many!mentioned!that!Dutch!was!spoken!within!the!home!

environment.!Although!some!parents!were!told!by!teachers!that!they!should!only!speak!English!

to!their!children!in!order!to!not!confuse!them,!the!parents!often!spoke!Dutch!to!them!regardless!

!

(Te!Papa!2000:!53).!Some!Dutch!migrants!have!even!set!up!Dutch!language!schools!in!Auckland,!

Taupo!and!Wellington.!

Researching!the!language!of!three!generations!of!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!Kroef!(1977)!predicted!

that! the! language! fades! from! second! generation! and! third! generation! and! might! disappear!

altogether! because! it! is! not! utilised! enough.! Perhaps! Leek’s! (1996:! 209)! assumption! that! the!

!

regional! dialects! are! unintelligible! might! play! a! role! here:! “The! home! dialects! were! an!

embarrassment! and! obstacle! for! many! provincial! Dutch,! even! –! perhaps! even! especially! –! in!

!

communicating!with!former!compatriots”.!

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4.7&Passport&as&indicator&of&identity&

An! indicator! for! retaining! Dutch! culture! or! assimilating! to! New! Zealand! is! holding! on! to! the!

Dutch!passport!or!being!naturalised,!however,!the!personal!advantages!and!disadvantages!at!a!

given!times!influence!the!decision!as!much!as!the!desire!to!express!one’s!identity.!Thousands!

who! came! in! the! 1950s! gave! up! their! Dutch! citizenship! to! become! naturalised! as! New!

Zealanders.!However,!restrictions!meant!they!often!felt!as!second!class!citizens!and!in!1970!only!

25!per!cent!of!Dutch!migrants!had!New!Zealand!passports,!yet!twoZthirds!had!stayed!in!New!

Zealand!permanently.!!

!

When!New!Zealand!was!truly!Peter!Grandiek’s!home,!he!became!a!New!Zealand!citizen;!he!said!

about!his!rationale!(Te!Papa!2000:50):!

“I!thought!this!is!my!home,!this!is!my!children’s!home!so!I!only!saw!it!as!the!right!thing!

to! do,! that! I! would! become! a! New! Zealand! citizen.! Because! I! owed! nothing! to! my!

Dutch!background,!as!being!a!Dutchman!or!having!Dutch!nationality.!The!important!

link!to!me!was!that!my!children!were!going!to!be!New!Zealanders,!which,!of!course,!

they!are.”!

!

This! suggests! that! genealogy,! rather! than! birth,! determines! identity! formation:! the! parents!

!

!

constitute! a! strong! link! to! the! Netherlands,! but! once! they! die,! the! children! who! are! New!

Zealanders!are!the!strongest!link,!thus!New!Zealand!become!home.!

4.8&Second&and&third&generation&Dutch&in&New&Zealand&

The!literature!on!second!and!third!generation!migrants!in!New!Zealand!is!generally!very!scarce,!

and!the!research!on!Dutch!migrants!is!no!exception!to!this.!Often,!the!descendants!of!DutchZ

born!migrants!are!only!mentioned!in!passing,!lamenting!their!loss!of!the!Dutch!language!and!

lack! of! interest! in! their! Dutch! heritage.! However,! my! personal,! informal! conversations! with!

second!and!third!generation!Dutch!as!well!as!some!essays!written!by!them!(see!Schouten!1999)!

suggest! that! Dutch! was! often! spoken! at! home! (even! though! they! might! not! speak! it!

themselves)!and!they!are!interested!in!their!Dutch!heritage.!This!research!aims!to!close!this!gap!

in!the!literature!and!find!out!how!Dutch!the!second!and!third!generation!migrants!really!are.!!

!

Dutch!descent,!however,!is!no!guarantee!for!Dutch!identity,!as!Schouten!(1992:!257)!states:!

“The! majority! of! migrants’! children! regard! themselves! as! New! Zealanders,! and! apart! from! a!

limited! knowledge! of! the! Dutch! language! and! a! taste! of! Dutch! food,! they! probably! see!

!

themselves!as!Dutch!in!name!only.”!In!contrast,!Tap!(1997:!30)!saw!a!growing!interest!in!Dutch!

culture!among!the!descendants:!!!

“Increasingly! more! and! more! people! of! Dutch! descent,! first! and! second! generation,!

appear!to!want!to!retain!their!Dutch!identity,!their!‘Dutchness’,!and!pass!it!on!to!their!

children!and!grandchildren.!This!is!done!in!many!different!ways,!including!the!Dutch!

language! school,! Holland! House,! Dutch! food! shops,! coffee! mornings,! Dutch! radio!

programmes!and!recently!the!establishment!of!a!Dutch!cafe.”!

!

An! interesting! paper! written! by! Julia! de! Bres! together! with! her! father! Joris! de! Bres! (2008)!

proposes! a! nonZthreatening! network! of! DutchZKiwis! that! embraces! the! second! and! third!

generation! and! makes! them! ‘feel’! Dutch! (2008:! 24).! Julia! de! Bres,! who! is! second! generation!

Dutch!herself,!reflects!her!journey!of!identifying!more!and!more!as!Dutch!as!an!adult,!yet,!being!

reminded! by! New! Zealanders! ‘oh! but! you’re! not! really! Dutch’! and! people! in! the! Netherlands!

!

that!she!does!not!truly!belong!there!either.!!

The! Dutch! display! within! Te! Papa’s! permanent! exhibition! about! migrants! in! New! Zealand!

‘Passports’! exhibition! that! opened! in! 1998! portrays! ‘the! Vlaar! family’! who! arrived! in! 1954!

providing!an!example!of!three!generations!of!Dutch!in!New!Zealand.!It!is!a!story!of!settling!in!

after! initial! struggle! (didn’t! know! how! to! cook! roast! and! thought! parsnip! and! pumpkin! were!

cattle!food),!retaining!their!Dutch!heritage!in!privacy!(other!Dutch!migrants!replaced!their!far!

away!family;!their!house!was!filled!with!mementoes!of!their!lives!in!Holland;!Aad!was!president!

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&

of!a!Dutch!club),!but!also!making!a!contribution!to!New!Zealand!society!(sewing!competitions;!

Boy!Scouts!leader;!canoeing!in!Commonwealth!Games).!They!stated!their!success!as!migrants!

with! their! children! thinking! of! themselves! as! “true! blue! New! Zealanders.! The! grandchildren,!

however,!take!enormous!pride!in!their!Dutch!heritage”!(Te!Papa!1996:!73).!This!suggests!that!

the! second! generation! assimilates! to! a! great! degree,! while! the! third! generation! shows! more!

interest! in! their! Dutch! roots.! This! might! be! encouraged! by! their! parents! respectively,! as! first!

generation!migrants!want!their!children!to!fit!in,!whereas!second!generation!Dutch!want!their!

children!to!have!what!they!missed!out!on!(learning!Dutch!language!and!culture).!

!

Vincent! Heeringa! who! grew! up! as! a! child! of! Dutch! migrants! in! the! 1960s! and! 70s! shares! his!

!

identity!in!an!interview!for!Te!Papa!(2000:!43):!

“I’ve! always! felt! very! strongly! that! I! am! both! [Dutch! and! Kiwi].! I’ve! felt! quite! comfortable!

having!a!foot!in!both!camps.!The!good!thing!about!being!white!and!looking!European!is!that!

you!get!away!with!being!on!the!face!of!it,!just!an!ordinary!New!Zealander,!but!then!there!was!

this!kind!of!surprise!factor!or!this!additional!factor!which!made!me!feel!special!or!unique!and!I!

guess! because! the! Dutch! largely! have! been! successful! in! New! Zealand! and! Holland! [is]! a!

successful! western! country.! I’ve! never! felt! cause! to! feel! embarrassed! or! anxious! about! being!

Dutch.!I’ve!never!been!proud!to!be!Dutch.”!

!

Nevertheless,!he!wants!his!children!to!be!proud!of!their!Dutch!heritage!and!goes!to!some!length!

to!strengthen!their!Dutch!roots:!he!pays!a!teacher!to!teach!them!Dutch!language,!gives!them!

Dutch!treats,!provides!them!with!the!skills!to!‘live!over!there!for!a!while’!or!at!least!instill!in!them!

‘the!sense!of!having!some!roots!back!in!Holland’!(Te!Papa!2000).!

!

He!realised!later!in!life!that!his!upbringing!had!been!quite!Dutch!as!Dutch!was!spoken!at!home!

and!his!English!is!‘peppered!with!Dutch!words’,!most!his!friends!have!a!Dutch!connection,!Saint!

Nicholas! was! the! day! he! received! presents! (5th! Dec)! and! Dutch! foods,! such! as! liquorice,!

speculaas,! sour! herrings,! ‘Zwartwit’! (black! and! white! sherbets)! and! ‘zoethout’! (liquorice! root)!

were!treats!for!him.!But!although!his!parents!belonged!to!the!Reformed!Church!where!90!per!

cent!were!of!Dutch!descent,!they!never!belonged!to!a!Dutch!club!“because!there!was!always!

!

this!underlying!determination!to!try!and!be!New!Zealander”!(Te!Papa!2000:!45).!!

The!importance!of!‘food!from!home’!has!been!demonstrated!by!BönischZBrednich!(2002)!and!

SchubertZMcArthur! (2007)! for! first! generation! German! migrants! in! New! Zealand,! who! often!

strengthen! their! links! to! their! country! of! origin! and! family! by! receiving! ‘food! parcels’.! The!

passing! on! of! ethnic! food! traditions! is! underZresearched,! but! as! the! comment! above! shows,!

!

could! be! a! lead! to! retaining! Dutch! heritage! in! New! Zealand! for! third! and! second! generation!

migrants.!!

It!is!often!assumed!that!the!second!generation!Dutch!lose!interest!in!their!Dutch!heritage!and!

become! Kiwis,! however,! the! literature! suggests! that! there! is! a! growing! interest! among! third!

generation!Dutch!to!explore!their!cultural!heritage.!In!my!own!circle!of!friends!there!are!a!few!

second! generation! Dutch! who! are! searching! for! their! identity! on! a! ‘big! OE’! [overseas!

experience]!to!the!Netherlands!and!often!come!back!‘transformed’!in!their!sense!of!belonging.!

SchubertZMcArthur! (2009)! suggested! that! the! holiday! in! the! country! of! origin! serves! the!

purpose! of! reZevaluating! the! decision! to! migrate! as! well! as! purchasing! goods! that! the!

!

immigrants! miss! in! New! Zealand;! whether! or! not! this! is! also! true! for! second! and! third!

generation!Dutch!has!to!be!tested.!

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&

REFERENCES&

&

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BönischZBrednich,! Brigitte! (2002).! Destination! Neuseeland:! Eine!

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Castles,! S.! &! Miller,! M.J.! (2009).! The! age! of! migration:! international!

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De!Bres,!Joris!and!Julia!(2008).!Keeping!the!Dutch!connection:!Passing!

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Transnationalism:! a! new! analytic! framework! for! understanding!

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Glick! Schiller,! Nina;! Basch,! Linda! and! Blanc! Szanton,! Cristina! (1992)!

Towards! a! transnational! perspective! on! migration:! race,! class,!

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Grüter,! Benoit! and! Jan! Stracke! (eds.)! (1995).! DutchZAustralians! taking!

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Hulsen,! M.,! K.! De! Bot! and! B.! Weltens! (2002)! ‘Between! Two! Worlds:!

social!networks,!language!shift!and!language!processing!in!three!

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Jaspal,! R.! &! Cinnerella,! M.! (2012).! The! construction! of! ethnic! identity:!

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530.!

Jasperse,! J.A.! (ed.)! (2009)! Dutch! Forum! ‘Onze! HoeWie’! Proceedings.!

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Auckland’.!

Kroef,!A.P.M.!(1977)!‘The!Use!of!Language!in!a!three!Generation!Group!

of!Dutch!Immigrants!in!New!Zealand’.!

Lee,!Everett!S.!(1966).!Theory!of!Migration.!Demography!3:47Z57.!

Leek,!Robert!(1996).!The!Dutch!and!their!language!in!New!Zealand.!In:!

Wurm,!Stephen,!Peter!Muhlhausler,!Darrell!Tryon!(eds.):!Atlas!of!

languages!of!intercultural!communication!in!the!Pacific,!Asia,!and!

the!Americas.!Berlin;!New!York!:!Mouton!de!Gruyter.!PP.!207Z212.!

Leek,! Robert! (1990).! The! Dutch! community,! immigrant! minorities! in!

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Auckland.!

Levitt,!P.!&!Jaworsky,!B.N.!(2007).!Transnational!migration!studies:!past!

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Lochore,!R.!A.!(1951).!From!Europe!to!New!Zealand.!Wellington:!A.!H.!

A.!W.!Reed.!

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Anthropology!24.!95Z117.!

Massey,! D.S.! (1987).! Understanding! Mexican! Migration! to! the! United!

States.!American!Journal!of!Sociology,!92(87),!pp.!1372Z403.!

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MM! Research! (2011)! ‘Beyond! Clogs! and! Tulips:! exploring! new!

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Zealand’.!

Nagel,! Joane! (1996).! American! Indian! ethnic! renewal:! Red! Power! and!

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Parrillo,! Vincent! (1991).! Rethinking! today’s! minorities.! New! York:!

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Te! Papa! (12.6.1996).! Passports.! 90%! developed! design.! Part! 1!

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Van! der! Pas,! Suzan! and! Jacques! Poot! (2011).! The! Transformation! of!

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van! Dongen,! Y.! (1992).! The! Invisible! Immigrants.! In! New! Zealand!

Geographic.!15!(July/!September),!66Z92.!

WalkerZBirckhead,! Wendy! (1995).! The! invisible! Dutch! in! Australia:!

Cultural!meanings!of!migration.!In:!Benoit!Gruter!and!Jan!Stracke!

(eds.):! DutchZAustralians! taking! stock:! Proceedings! of! the! first!

national!

DutchZAustralian!

community!

conference!

and!

supplementary!papers.!Melbourne!1993:!59Z68.!Ringwood:!DACA.!

Welz,! Gisela! (1996).! Inszenierungen! kultureller! Vielfalt:! Frankfurt! am!

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WessZde! Velásquez,! Mechthild! (1991).! Wie! bleiben! wir! deutsch?!

Deutsche! Auswanderer! zwischen! Erinnern! und! Vergessen! ihrer!

Herkunftskultur.! In:! BönischZBrednich! et! al.! (ed.)! Erinnern! und!

Vergessen.! Vorträge! des! 27.! Deutschen! Volkskundekongresses!

Göttingen!1989.!Göttingen.!

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Mobilitätsdruck.!In:!Zeitschrift!für!Volkskunde!94,!177Z194.!

Wilson,! John! (2006).! European! discovery! of! New! Zealand.! In:! Settler!

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of!New!Zealand.!Auckland:!David!Batement.!P.!8Z19.!

Yska,! Redmer! (2006).! Dutch.! In:! Settler! and! migrant! peoples! of! New!

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David!Batement.!P.121Z125.!

Yska,! Redmer! (2001).! An! errand! of! mercy:! Captain! Jacob! Eckhoff! and!

the!loss!of!the!Kakanui.!Wellington:!Banshee!

5& Second& and& Third& Generation& Dutch& in& New& Zealand:&

Research&Findings&

!

Dr!Tanja!SchubertIMcArthur!

!

1& INTRODUCTION&

This! paper! was! prepared! for! the! Royal! Netherlands! Embassy! in! Wellington,! New! Zealand! to!

summarise! the! findings! of! a! pilot! study! investigating! the! identity! of! descendants! of! Dutch!

immigrants! to! New! Zealand.! The! research! question! was! to! determine! what! Dutch! ancestry!

means! to! the! second! and! third! generation! of! Dutch! in! New! Zealand.! Often! described! as! the!

‘invisible!Dutch’!(Pegge!2006;!Yska!2006;!Te!Papa!2000)!immigrants!from!the!Netherlands!who!

arrived!in!the!1950s!seemed!to!assimilate!very!well!into!New!Zealand!society,!yet!consequently!

seemed! to! pass! on! their! cultural! heritage! to! a! lesser! degree! than! immigrants! from! other!

countries.! Since! the! 1970s! New! Zealand’s! immigration! policy! has! changed! towards!

multiculturalism,! which! allowed! the! skilled! migrants! of! the! 1970s! and! 80s! as! well! as! the!

transnational! professionals! who! arrived! since! the! 1990s! to! remain! more! Dutch! than! previous!

Dutch!immigrants!(van!der!Pas!and!Poot!2011).!This!study!aimed!to!examine!the!effects!of!this!

radical! assimilation! on! the! descendants! of! Dutch! immigrants! and! whether! the! immigration!

policies!and!frameworks!(assimilation!in!the!1950s!and!multiculturalism!since!the!1970s)!or!other!

factors!have!an!impact!on!their!identities.!

!

Australia! has! a! similar! historical! relationship! with! the! Netherlands! as! New! Zealand.! Daniëlle!

Koop! has! conducted! a! research! project! focusing! on! the! same! questions! in! Australia!

simultaneously.!Both!these!studies!contributed!to!the!Migration!Conference!that!was!held!on!

!

15th! of! November,! 2013! in! Melbourne,! organised! by! the! Royal! Netherlands! Embassies! of!

Canberra!and!Wellington.!

1.1!Sample!

The!study!is!based!on!15!semiZstructured,!faceZtoZface!interviews!with!Dutch!descendants!and!

empirical! research! including! participant! observation! at! events! of! the! Dutch! community!

(inauguration! of! the! Dutch! king,! Dutch! playgroup! for! preZschoolers)! in! New! Zealand.! The!

sample! comprised! of! six! men! and! nine! women! of! whom! six! lived! in! Christchurch,! four! in!

Wellington,! three! in! the! Waikato! (close! to! Hamilton)! and! one! in! Auckland! and! Masterton!

respectively.!Contact!was!established!through!personal!contacts,!social!media!(Facebook)!and!

‘snowZballing’,! avoiding! a! bias! towards! Dutch! descendants! who! are! already! actively! involved!

with!Dutch!clubs.!!

The!interviews!lasted!between!25!and!80!minutes!with!an!average!duration!of!60!minutes!and!

were! either! conducted! at! a! café! (eleven! participants)! or! the! participant’s! house! (four!

participants).! In! two! cases! the! interview! was! conducted! with! two! people! simultaneously,! but!

counted!as!one!interview:!in!Christchurch!I!interviewed!two!sisters!and!in!Masterton!a!married!

couple!who!were!both!descendants!of!Dutch!immigrants.!!

The!participants!represented!the!immigrant!generations!as!follows:!five!second!generation,!five!

2.5!generation!(parent!born!in!the!Netherlands,!but!arrived!in!New!Zealand!before!the!age!of!

six;!one!was!born!in!New!Zealand!and!raised!by!her!Dutch!grandparents),!four!third!generation!

and!one!1.5!generation!(born!in!the!Netherlands,!but!arrived!in!New!Zealand!as!a!two!year!old).!

!

1.2!Uniqueness!of!the!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!

The! Dutch! connection! to! New! Zealand! goes! back! to! Abel! Tasman’s! voyage! in! 1642! making!

Tasman!the!first!European!to!sight!New!Zealand’s!coastline!(Schouten!1992).!Dutch!migrants!

arrived! in! large! numbers! in! New! Zealand! in! the! 1950s! when! the! Netherlands! were! struggling!

economically! postZwar! while! New! Zealand! required! migrants! to! strengthen! the! labour! force!

(Hofstede!1964;!van!der!Pas!and!Poot!2011).!!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

!

The!governments!of!New!Zealand!and!the!Netherlands!signed!an!agreement!that!supported!soZ

called!‘assisted!migration’!to!New!Zealand!as!the!Dutch!were!thought!to!be!particularly!suitable!

migrants!due!to!their!high!work!ethics,!will!to!assimilate!and!a!similar!cultural!background!to!

AngloZSaxons.! As! a! result,! the! Dutch! assimilated! into! New! Zealand! society! quicker! and! more!

easily! than! other! ethnicities.! Their! successful! assimilation! also! suggests! weaker! ties! to! their!

Dutch! heritage! and! less! identification! with! Dutch! culture! in! the! third! and! second! generation!

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than!in!other!ethnic!groups.!The!descendants!of!Dutch!immigrants!are!highlyZeducated!(with!

the!exception!of!two!participants!all!had!university!degrees)!and!integrated.!

2& IDENTITY&OF&DUTCH&DESCENDANTS&IN&NEW&ZEALAND&

“I! am! fluent! in! Dutch.! …! I! consider! myself! Dutch.! I! raise! my! kids! Dutch.”! (Sophia! van! den!

Bogaard,!31!years,!1.5!generation)!

!

“I’m!a!DutchZKiwi,!I!had!a!different!upbringing![to!other!New!Zealanders].”!(Joyce!van!Laar,!30!

years,!second!generation)!

!

!“My!parents!were!really,!really!proud!to!be!Dutch.!And!I!felt!really!at!home!when!I!was!there.!I!

don’t!know,!I!just!feel!Dutch!”!(Frieda!Vlaardingerbroek,!36!years,!2.5!generation)!

!

“I! am! a! New! Zealander.! Dutch! is! one! of! my! ancestries,! but! also! German! and! Ukrainian.”!

!

(Monique!Waayer,!27!years,!third!generation)!

“I’m!a!Kiwi!with!a!Dutch!last!name!and!history.!…!I!don’t!have!much!of!a!connection!to!Dutch!

[things].! …! Dutch! is! a! nice! addZon.”! (Clare! Francis,! nee! van! Bysterveldt,! 30! years,! third!

generation)!

!

Although! this! study! indicates! that! the! connection! among! Dutch! descendants! and! their!

relationship!with!the!Netherlands!is!not!very!strong!in!general,!it!also!showed!that!the!Dutch!did!

not! fully! abandon! their! heritage! and! often! maintained! Dutch! cultural! elements! within! their!

families!and!houses.!While!they!are!not!flagZwaving!patriots,!they!do!express!the!Dutch!part!of!

their!identity!in!many!ways,!such!as!an!affinity!for!Dutch!food!specialities!and!the!Dutch!soccer!

!

team!as!well!as!exhibiting!Dutch!characteristics,!such!as!being!hardZworking,!straightZforward!

and!moneyZconscious.!!

The!descendants!of!Dutch!migrants!were!born!and!raised!in!New!Zealand,!they!look!and!sound!

like! New! Zealanders! and! consequently! describe! themselves! as! ‘Kiwis’,! however,! they! all!

acknowledge!their!Dutch!heritage!to!some!degree.!Unless!they!have!a!Dutch!last!name,!there!is!

no!need!for!them!to!mention!their!Dutch!heritage!in!everyday!encounters,!but!if!asked!about!

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their! ethnicity! or! talking! to! a! person! with! a! Dutch! connection! they! are! happy! to! reveal! their!

Dutch!background.!

3& DIFFERENCES&BETWEEN&GENERATIONS&&

”[For!my!parents!the!Dutch!heritage!is]!less!important!than!for!us.!They!left!Holland.!We!never!

made!that!choice.!They!are!still!Dutch,!compare!everything!with!Holland!and!complain!about!

New!Zealand.!We’re!more!curious.”!(Sophie!van!den!Bogaard,!31!years,!1.5!generation)!

“When!the!first!generation!dies!out,!the!links![to!the!Netherlands]!will!vanish.”!(Leonie!Waayer,!

43!years,!second!generation)!

“[My!mum!would]!certainly!describe!herself!as!a!New!Zealander.!But!for!her,!her!Dutch!heritage!

is! more! important.! She! has! much! closer! family! ties! to! Holland.! She’s! the! one! responsible! for!

keeping! those! ties! going.! She! goes! to! Holland! every! time! she! goes! to! Europe.”! (Sebastian!

Bisley,!34!years,!2.5!generation)!

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In!general!this!study!indicates!that!the!first!generation!is!the!link!back!to!the!Netherlands!and!

the!keeper!of!the!Dutch!language,!traditions!and!culture;!they!have!the!most!personal!contacts!

with!family!members!in!the!Netherlands!and!keep!their!descendants!informed.!Their!degree!of!

connectedness! strongly! influences! subsequent! generations’! links! to! and! interest! in! the!

Netherlands! and! Dutch! culture.! The! Dutch! connection! generally! dilutes! from! generation! to!

generation,!unless!it!is!rekindled!by!visits!to!and!from!the!Netherlands!or!strengthened!by!own!

firstZhand!experiences.!Thus!the!second!generation!generally!identifies!more!with!their!Dutch!

heritage!than!the!third!generation.!When!the!first!generation!passes!away,!this!often!means!the!

link! to! the! Netherlands! is! seriously! weakened.! However,! some! second! and! third! generation!

participants!had!a!strong!desire!to!explore!their!ancestor’s!and!their!own!roots!and!managed!to!

create! new! links,! for! example! by! visiting! places! of! significance! for! their! family! in! the!

Netherlands,!meet!the!extended!family!or!make!new!Dutch!friends.!!

The! distinction! between! second! and! third! generation! as! well! as! the! inZbetween! generations!

were! relevant,! as! the! participant’s! interest! in! their! Dutch! heritage! weakened! the! further!

removed!they!were!from!their!ancestor!who!immigrated!to!New!Zealand.!However,!it!was!by!no!

means!the!only!or!most!important!factor!for!maintaining!Dutch!culture.!The!age!when!a!parent!

or! grandparent! arrived! in! New! Zealand! was! crucial,! because! the! younger! they! were,! the! less!

they! had! been! exposed! to! Dutch! culture! and! the! less! likely! they! were! to! pass! it! on! to! their!

children.! However,! the! participants! whose! parents! came! to! New! Zealand! as! children! and! the!

one!participant!who!arrived!as!a!two!year!old,!stated!that!being!born!in!the!Netherlands!had!an!

important! influence! on! them! feeling! Dutch! and! therefore! not! entitled! to! claim! a! full! New!

Zealand!European!(Pakeha)!identity.!!

The!Dutch!connection!was!weaker!if!only!one!parent!was!Dutch,!and!even!weaker!if!only!one!

grandparent!was!Dutch.!Thus,!intermarriage!can!be!seen!as!an!important!factor!for!assimilating!

to!New!Zealand!society.!However,!two!participants!in!my!sample!had!married!another!Dutch!

descendant! which! made! their! Dutch! connection! stronger.! To! sum! up,! whether! someone! was!

second! or! third! generation! certainly! mattered! for! how! Dutch! they! felt,! but! other! factors! also!

influenced!their!identity,!as!is!outlined!further!in!the!next!section.!!

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4& FACTORS&THAT&DETERMINE&THE&IDENTITY&OF&DUTCHSKIWIS&&

4.1!Upbringing,!exposure!and!generation!

“Mum!taught!me!DutchZbased!cooking,!which!is!using!certain!spices!with!certain!things.!We!had!

olliebollen! at! Christmas! time.! We! opened! our! presents! on! Christmas! Eve,! which! I! think! is! a!

Dutch! tradition.! It’s! hard! to! pinpoint! Dutch! things,! because! it’s! just! my! way! of! life.”! (Frieda!

Vlaardingerbroek,!36!years,!2.5!generation)!

“[Dutch!culture!was!passed!on]!not!as!much!as!I!would!have!liked.!…!Dutch!wasn’t!spoken!at!

home,!only!at!family!gatherings!was!Dutch!spoken.!We!had!evening!meals!at!the!table!and!dad!

would! teach! us! Dutch! words! for! everything! on! the! table”! (Leonie! Waayer,! 46! years,! second!

generation)!

“I!grew!up!in!a!very!staunch!Catholic!community!in!Te!Aroha,!which!is!a!small!town!with!3,000!

population.!But!at!the!Catholic!primary!school!85%!of!the!kids!were!Dutch,!the!Dutch!had!lots!of!

kids.!The!church!was!the!Dutch!club,!like!family,!everyone!was!friends!with!each!other.!It!was!

like!Little!Holland!”!(Christina!Mellar,!43!years,!second!generation)!

In! my! sample! upbringing! and! exposure! to! Dutch! culture! as! a! child! seemed! to! be! the! most!

influential! factors! for! maintaining! links! to! the! Netherlands! and! the! Dutch! culture! as! adults.!

Particularly! participants! who! grew! up! in! rural! areas! (e.g.! the! Wairarapa! and! the! Waikato)!

exhibited!a!stronger!Dutch!identity!than!those!who!grew!up!in!the!city,!which!can!be!explained!

with! both! areas! having! a! large! Dutch! community! through! the! Reformed! and! Catholic! Church!

respectively! that! fostered! relationships! with! other! Dutch! families! and! the! recreation! of! ‘Little!

Holland’!within!New!Zealand.!ChainZmigration!of!family!members!from!the!Netherlands!(e.g.!

siblings!or!parents!migrating!later)!and!having!large!numbers!of!children!(five!siblings!was!no!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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exception!in!my!sample)!contributed!to!large!Dutch!families!who!settled!in!the!same!area!and!

sustained!Dutch!traditions!over!time.!!

Even!today,!some!families!have!big!family!gatherings!at!halls!where!Dutch!food!is!served!and!

the!children!perform!‘items’.!Others,!especially!those!from!mixedZethnic!ancestry!(e.g.!AustrianZ

Dutch!and!GermanZDutch)!stated!that!the!proximity!to!and!the!amount!of!time!spent!with!the!

Dutch!grandparents!or!other!Dutch!relatives!in!New!Zealand!influenced!their!Dutch!connection.!

While!Dutch!culture!was!present!to!some!extent!(Dutch!language!spoken!at!home,!Dutch!food,!

Sinterklaas)!in!most!households!while!growing!up,!most!participants!were!raised!as!Kiwis!and!

consequently!identified!as!‘Kiwi!with!Dutch!heritage’.!!

An!interesting!finding!among!the!farmers!in!the!sample!was!that!they!often!had!farm!workers!

from!the!Netherlands!on!their!farms,!meaning!their!children!were!exposed!to!more,!and!more!

recent!Dutch!culture!growing!up.!

!

4.2!Language!

“I! suppose,! language! isn’t! a! big! importance! for! me! personally,! as! long! as! they! can! make!

themselves!known.”!(Michael!Kloeg,!29!years,!second!generation)!

“I! speak! very! little.! My! Japanese! is! better! than! my! Dutch.”! (Martin! Poot,! 21! years,! second!

generation)!

“Yes,!I!would![like!to!learn!Dutch],!but!I!don’t!think!I!will.!(laughs)!If!you!had!someone!to!speak!

to,!but!Mum!stopped!speaking,!because!she!found!she!didn’t!have!anyone!to!speak!to!either.”!

(Sally!Peel,!23!years,!third!generation)!

Apart!from!three!participants!(one!1.5!and!two!second!generation)!who!claimed!to!be!fluent!in!

Dutch!and!one!2.5!generation!who!lived!in!the!Netherlands!for!an!extended!period!and!picked!

up!the!language,!all!others!had!very!limited!Dutch!language!skills!and!referred!to!a!few!Dutch!

‘family!words’!or!phrases!in!Dutch.!It!seemed!that!while!the!second!generation!reported!Dutch!

being!spoken!at!home!sometimes!(although!they!replied!in!English),!the!third!generation!was!

raised!in!an!exclusively!EnglishZspeaking!environment!and!little!effort!was!made!to!teach!them!

Dutch.!!

In! addition,! some! third! generation! participants! reported! that! their! parents! made! a! deliberate!

decision!not!to!speak!Dutch!to!them,!because!the!parents!themselves!struggled!at!school!with!

their! limited! English,! having! only! learnt! Dutch! at! home.! If! Dutch! is! spoken! around! the! house!

today,! it! is! when! Dutch! relatives! visit,! at! family! gatherings! or! as! a! secret! language! that! the!

young! children! cannot! understand.! Two! participants! (one! second! and! one! third! generation)!

mentioned! that! they! received! Dutch! language! tuition! in! an! afterZschool! programme! or! by! a!

private! teacher,! learning! to! read! and! write! in! Dutch,! but! no! others! reported! such! formal!

teachings!as!for!them!it!was!only!passed!on!orally.!!

Although!many!participants!would!like!to!be!able!to!speak!Dutch,!there!is!little!regret!that!their!

parents!did!not!teach!them,!and!they!are!not!likely!to!learn!Dutch!as!adults!because!they!are!not!

willing!to!invest!the!time!and!effort.!Dutch!songs,!such!as!‘lang!zal!ze!leven’!and!nursery!rhymes!

continue! as! family! traditions! along! with! some! words,! such! as! ‘gezelligheid’,! long! after! the!

dominant!language!has!become!English.!Many!participants!stressed!that!family!reunions!with!

relatives!from!the!Netherlands!who!visited!New!Zealand!were!occasions!for!speaking!or!at!least!

hearing! Dutch,! having! a! positive! influence! on! both! their! language! skills! and! sense! of!

‘Dutchness’.!

!

4.3!Visits!to!the!Netherlands!

“I!love!it!!I!found!the!parts!that!I!miss!here.!It’s!where!I!come!from.!I!better!understand!who!I!

am.”!(Sophia!van!den!Bogaard,!31!years,!1.5!generation)!

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“Visiting!the!Netherlands!enhanced!that![Dutch!identity],!particularly!for!the!kids.!It!gave!me!a!

renewed!sense!of!who!I!am!and!come!from.”!(Christina!Mellar,!43!years,!second!generation)!

“I!always!felt!a!bit!Dutch!and!wanted!to!experience!it.!Here!I!was!the!‘Dutchie’,!there!the!Kiwi.!

I’m!not!as!Dutch!as!I!thought.!I!was!finding!me![my!personality]!by!going!there.”!(Tony!Fransen,!

28!years,!2.5!generation)!

“[Going! to! the! Netherlands! I! experienced]! the! opposite! of! culture! shock:! cultural! affiliation.”!

(Sebastian!Bisley,!34!years,!2.5!generation)!

“I!don’t!want!to!live!there.!I!felt!adrift:!not!really!as!Kiwi,!where!do!I!fit!in?!Ironically,!going!to!

Holland!has!made!me!a!stronger!Kiwi.!I!felt!close!to!Kiwis!there.”!(Miria!Goodwin,!33!years,!third!

generation)!

“I! don’t! feel! Dutch! enough! anymore! to! go! [to! the! Netherlands]!! I’d! feel! like! a! tourist.”! (Clare!

Francis,!30!years,!third!generation)!

A!major!factor!how!connected!to!the!Netherlands!someone!felt,!was!whether!or!not!they!had!

been!there!in!person.!Four!participants!had!not!visited!the!Netherlands!at!all,!whereas!eleven!

participants!had!made!between!one!and!20!trips!and!four!of!those!stayed!longZterm!on!their!

‘big!OE’!(overseas!experience).!Although!stories!told!by!the!family!members!who!were!raised!in!

the!Netherlands!were!important!to!pass!on!a!sense!of!Dutchness,!they!were!easily!trumped!by!

the!descendant’s!own!firstZhand!experience!when!visiting.!!

Trips!to!the!Netherlands!were!not!purely!touristic,!but!utilised!to!discover!the!family!history!by!

visiting!significant!sites!(e.g.!family!farm)!and!family!members.!However,!in!some!families!the!

contact!with!family!members!in!the!Netherlands!had!stopped!or!there!was!no!surviving!kin,!in!

which! case! the! descendants! felt! less! connected! than! the! ones! who! were! able! to! reZestablish!

family!bonds.!A!few!third!generation!Dutch!felt!so!disconnected!from!their!Dutch!heritage,!that!

they!did!not!visit,!at!all!even!though!they!went!to!Europe.!

A!trip!to!the!Netherlands,!however,!is!no!guarantee!to!feel!more!Dutch,!instead!it!marks!a!‘make!

or! break! point’:! descendants! not! feeling! very! Dutch! to! start! with! might! realise! how! many!

commonalities!there!are!between!themselves!and!the!Dutch!people!they!encounter,!whereas!

those! feeling! quite! Dutch! already! realise! how! different! they! are! compared! to! the! Dutch.! The!

identity! crisis! can! become! further! aggravated! if! their! expectations! are! not! met,! when! they!

realise! how! much! the! Netherlands! today! differs! from! the! country! they! remember! from! their!

childhood!or!their!ancestor’s!stories!or!how!oldZfashioned!their!own!Dutch!sounds.!!

This!is!particularly!the!case!for!descendants!of!Dutch!migrants!who!left!the!Netherlands!shortly!

after! the! war! in! the! 1950s.! Many! participants! stressed! that! as! much! as! they! liked! visiting! the!

Netherlands!they!could!not!imagine!living!there!longZterm!and!were!‘glad’!their!ancestors!had!

immigrated!to!New!Zealand.!In!most!cases!the!trip!reassured!their!Kiwi!identity!and!that!New!

Zealand! is! their! home,! while! at! the! same! time! strengthening! their! link! to! the! Netherlands!

through!personal!connections!made.!Often!friendships!with!cousins!or!other!people!of!their!age!

were!formed!and!maintained!via!social!media!(Facebook).!!

4.4!Passports!!

“I!feel!that!it![having!a!Dutch!passport]!solidifies!my!Dutchness”!(Frieda!Vlaardingerbroek,!36!

years,!2.5!generation)!

“[I! would! like! to! have! a! Dutch! passport]! partly! because! I! identify! to! some! extend! with! [the]!

Dutch.!I!like!Holland!…!and!it!would!be!nice!to!feel!that!I!was!part!of!it.!And!partly,!because!it!

would!be!very!convenient!to!have!citizenship!in!a!state!of!Europe.”!(Sebastian!Bisley,!34!years,!

2.5!generation)!

In!my!sample!seven!participants!had!only!a!New!Zealand!passport,!five!had!dual!Dutch!and!New!

Zealand! citizenship,! one! had! only! a! Dutch! passport! and! two! had! a! New! Zealand! as! well! as!

another!European!passport.!The!ones!who!did!not!hold!a!Dutch!passport!voiced!their!regret!that!

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they!were!not!eligible!and!were!able!to!retell!the!law!changes!that!made!them!or!their!ancestors!

decide!for!the!New!Zealand!passport.!!

Participants! who! already! held! a! passport! from! another! European! country! did! not! strive! for! a!

Dutch! passport,! because! they! felt! it! was! needless! for! them.! Everyone! in! my! sample! would!

welcome!to!have!a!Dutch!passport!not!only!for!gaining!access!to!the!European!Union,!but!also!

to!legitimise!their!Dutch!identity.!!

!

4.5!Personality!and!age!

Tanja:!“Do!you!think!your!Dutch!connection!will!get!stronger!in!the!future?”!!

!

!

Sister!1:”!Not!for!me”!(Clare!Francis,!nee!van!Bysterveldt,!30!years,!third!generation)!

!

Sister!2:!“I!would!like!to!visit.!Maybe!when!I!have!kids!I!will!get!closer!to!it.!I!would!hate!them!to!

lose!it”!(Ingrid!Steward,!nee!van!Bysterveldt,!28!years,!third!generation)!

“More,! I’m! the! only! one! who! is! in! the! Dutch! club.! I’m! the! only! girl.! My! brother! lived! in! the!

Netherlands!since!he!was!18!years!old!and!has!a!Dutch!girlfriend,!but!he!is!not!so!interested!in!

the! culture.! I’m! involved! with! the! Dutch! club.”! (Sophie! van! den! Bogaard,! 31! years,! 1.5!

!

generation)!

“As! I’m! getting! older! I’m! more! interested! in! family! history.”! (Miria! Goodwin,! 33! years,! third!

generation)!

!

While! upbringing,! visits! to! the! Netherlands! and! a! Dutch! passport! are! all! factors! that! shape!

someone’s!identity,!individual!personality!should!not!be!overlooked.!Especially!the!interviews!

with!cousins!and!siblings!who!had!a!very!similar!or!almost!identical!upbringing!suggested!that!

their! different! personalities! and! interests! are! responsible! for! the! variation! of! feeling! Dutch.!

When!I!interviewed!two!third!generation!sisters!in!their!twenties,!the!older!one!stated!that!she!

was!not!at!all!interested!in!exploring!her!Dutch!heritage,!whereas!the!younger!sister!was!more!

!

adventurous!and!interested!in!family!history!and!was!keen!to!rediscover!her!roots.!!

The!age!of!the!participants!also!played!an!important!role!in!their!interest!in!discovering!their!

Dutch! heritage.! In! general,! the! participants! reported! that! during! childhood! Dutch! aspects! of!

family!life!were!present,!but!not!recognised!as!such!and!taken!for!granted,!as!teenagers!they!

sometimes!got!mocked!at!school!for!being!different!and!consequently!identified!more!as!Kiwi!

denying! their! Dutch! heritage.! However,! the! older! they! get,! the! more! interested! they! often!

become! in! the! Dutch! parts! of! their! identity! and! some! are! motivated! to! visit! the! Netherlands!

later!in!life.!!

5& REMAINING&DUTCH&AT&HEART:&FONDNESS&FOR&‘DUTCH&THINGS’&

5.1!Food!and!sports!

“We! make! stampot! and! Dutch! traditional! food! from! Holland.! The! kids! love! kroketten.! We’ve!

just!been!to!Wellington,!so!we!stopped!off!at!the!Dutch!shop!(laughs)!and!bought!hagelslag!and!

dropjes.!You!do!identify!with![Dutch!food].!We’ve!got!maggi,!Dutch!soy!sauce,!in!the!cupboard.”!

(Michael!Kloeg,!29!years,!second!generation)!

“I!love!the!food!!Stroopwafel,!black!jellybeans,!dad!keeps!it!around!and!I!go!to!the!Dutch!shop.!

…!I!support!Holland!in!soccer!and!wear!orange.”!(Luke!Wevers,!33!years,!2.5!generation)!

In!their!everyday!lives!today!a!fondness!of!Dutch!foods!prevails:!almost!all!participants!regularly!

buy! and! eat! Dutch! food,! such! as! cheese,! liquorice! and! speculaas,! but! only! a! few! cook! Dutch!

dishes! themselves.! The! other! indication! for! Dutchness! in! everyday! life! is! a! patriotic! pride! of!

Dutch! sporting! achievements.! During! a! world! cup! or! the! Olympics! the! descendants! of! Dutch!

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immigrants! support! the! Dutch! soccer! team! or! iceZskaters! (only! if! the! Netherlands! competed!

against!New!Zealand!were!they!unsure!who!to!cheer!for).!

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5.2!Economic!ties!

“I’m!excited!when!I!see!‘made!in!Holland’!!…!My!dad!worked!for!Philips,!so!I!have!a!bit!of!loyalty.!

Best!value!for!money.!Dutch!brands!stand!for!better!quality.!We!buy!overalls!for!farming!and!

gum! boots! from! Holland.! …! My! parents! buy! cheese! moulds! etc.! from! Holland! and! ship! the!

containers!over.”!(Sophie!van!den!Bogaard,!31!years,!1.5!generation)!

“Shell!is!Dutch,!but!they!don’t!take!my!AA!card![Automobile!Association!discount!card].!I!don’t!

buy! Philips! over! Sunbeam,! I’m! not! that! nostalgic.”! (Christina! Mellar,! 43! years,! second!

generation)!

“I!prefer!Philips!over!Sony,!my!grandparents!instilled!that!in!me.!European!quality!over!cheap!

Japanese.”!(Jonathon!Westphal,!25!years,!2.5!generation)!

The! descendants! of! Dutch! immigrants! in! my! sample! had! very! little! economic! ties! to! the!

Netherlands.! ‘Made! in! Holland’! sometimes! sparked! a! nostalgic! emotion! that! might! lead! to! a!

decision! to! buy! a! certain! product,! but! rational! factors,! such! as! price! and! quality! remained!

dominant.!Dutch!food!products!are!still!very!popular!among!the!descendants!with!some!paying!

regular! visits! to! the! Dutch! shop! and! others! only! occasionally! buying! Dutch! foods! from! the!

supermarket.!!

In!general,!there!was!a!perception!that!Dutch!brands,!such!as!Philips,!stand!for!better!quality!

than! ‘cheap! Japanese’! products.! Interestingly,! three! participants! who! work! in! the! farming! or!

food!industry!(cheeseZmaking,!commercial!baking)!reported!to!import!special!equipment!from!

the!Netherlands,!because!it!was!either!unavailable!in!New!Zealand!or!the!quality!was!perceived!

inferior!to!the!Dutch!product.!!

!

5.3!The!next!generation!

Six!participants!had!children!of!their!own,!but!none!spoke!Dutch!to!their!children.!There!is!still!a!

perception! that! the! children! could! be! disadvantaged! at! school! if! they! spoke! Dutch! at! home.!

Many!have!a!desire!to!pass!on!Dutch!cultural!aspects,!such!as!nursery!rhymes!and!foods!to!their!

children.!However,!especially!the!third!generation!feels!they!know!too!little!Dutch!themselves!

to!teach!their!children.!The!Wellington!Dutch!club!runs!a!fortnightly!playgroup!for!preZschool!

children!to!immerse!them!in!Dutch!language,!song!and!play.!Interestingly,!only!first!generation!

Dutch!with!their!young!children!utilised!it!when!I!visited.!

!

5.4!Dutch!clubs!

“To!be!honest,!I!wouldn’t!go,!I’m!too!busy.!I!don’t!know!how!beneficial!it!would!be.!I’m!single!

with! four! kids! and! three! jobs.! I! did! Dutch! dancing! as! a! teenager! and! found! it! embarrassing.”!

(Christina!Mellar,!43!years,!second!generation)!

“It! depends,! if! it! had! the! right! demographics! and! age! groups! –! like! the! Young! Farmers! [an!

agricultural!club],!they!have!age!sections,!then!yes.!Perhaps!focus!on!a!single!sport,!like!playing!

soccer! together,! or! have! an! A&P! [Agricultural! and! Pastoral]! Dutch! day.”! (Tony! Fransen,! 28!

years,!2.5!generation)!

Only! one! 1.5! generation! woman! was! in! the! committee! of! a! Dutch! club,! all! other! participants!

perceived!that!Dutch!clubs!were!for!first!generation!immigrants!only,!particularly!the!ones!who!

arrived!in!the!1950s,!and!either!felt!excluded!due!to!their!lack!of!Dutch!language!or!not!attracted!

at! all.! There! seems! to! be! a! missZmatch! between! the! offers! of! the! current! Dutch! clubs! (card!

playing,! speaking! Dutch,! recreating! a! Dutch! living! room,! dancing)! and! what! the! descendants!

would!seek!(playing!or!watching!sports!together,!contemporary!music,!no!commitment,!young!

likeZminded! people).! All! participants! would! appreciate! a! newsfeed! about! Dutch! events! and!

updates!from!the!Netherlands,!in!form!of!a!Facebook!page!or!eZnewsletter.!

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&6& CONCLUSIONS&&

Firstly,!the!findings!of!this!study!suggest!that!there!is!an!affinity!to!‘things!Dutch’!among!Dutch!

descendants! that! could! be! utilised! to! strengthen! the! NetherlandsZNew! Zealand! connection,!

however,!the!participants!signalled!that!in!order!for!them!to!get!involved!only!very!little!effort!

should!be!required.!Existing!Dutch!clubs!are!rather!unattractive!to!second!and!third!generation!

Dutch!as!they!are!perceived!as!exclusive!to!the!first!generation!immigrants!who!want!to!speak!

Dutch,!play!cards!and!dance!to!traditional!music.!A!more!modernised,!eventsZbased!approach!

bringing! younger! people! of! Dutch! descent! together! is! recommended,! particularly! involving!

!

watching!the!Dutch!soccer!team!and!eating!Dutch!food.!!

Secondly,! the! vast! majority! of! participants! indicated! an! interest! in! Dutch! events,! but! did! not!

know!where!to!look!for!them.!Thus,!it!is!recommended!to!advertise!and!promote!Dutch!events!

better!and!wider,!for!example!by!creating!a!Facebook!page!or!eZnewsletter!for!Dutch!Kiwis!that!

informs! about! Dutch! events! in! New! Zealand! and! provides! news! from! the! Netherlands.! This!

could!be!a!platform!for!Dutch!Kiwis!to!make!connections!and!meet!virtually!as!well!as!in!real!life.!

!

Perhaps!a!‘win!a!trip!to!Holland’!campaign!could!draw!wide!attention!and!get!people!to!sign!up!

and!spread!the!word!(‘share’).!

Thirdly,! as! visiting! the! Netherlands! plays! such! an! important! role! in! identity! formation! as! this!

study!showed,!scholarships,!financial!and!other!support!could!help!Dutch!Kiwis!to!experience!

the! Netherlands! and! rekindle! their! connection.! Especially! in! the! farming! industry! and! other!

trades!an!exchange!programme!between!the!Netherlands!and!New!Zealand!could!facilitate!the!

culture! and! knowledge! transfer! between! the! two! countries.! Since! so! many! Kiwis! base!

themselves! in! the! UK! for! their! ‘big! OE’! [overseas! experience],! sponsored! trips! to! the!

Netherlands!or!language!tuition!could!be!offered!to!reduce!barriers!for!Dutch!descendants!who!

would! otherwise! not! visit.! Special! student! or! intern! visas! could! be! issued! by! the! Embassy! for!

Dutch!descendants!without!a!Dutch!passport,!to!stimulate!their!visit!and!to!show!the!Embassy’s!

outreach!to!the!Dutch!community.!

!

!

Fourthly,!there!is!a!desire!among!Dutch!descendants!to!correct!popular!stereotypes!about!the!

Netherlands!to!a!wider!New!Zealand!audience,!such!as!clogs,!windmills,!tulips!and!coffee!shops.!

Instead,! they! would! like! to! see! the! Netherlands! being! promoted! as! a! modern! country! with!

innovation,! creativity! and! history! that! is! a! worthwhile! tourist! destination.! An! institute! that!

facilitates! Dutch! culture,! similar! to! the! Goethe! Institut! [an! organisation! promoting! German!

language! and! culture! worldwide],! could! contribute! to! this! by! bringing! over! artists,! musicians,!

DJs! or! filmZmakers! from! the! Netherlands! and! setting! up! an! ‘artistsZin! residence’! programme!

sending!Kiwis!over!there.!!

7& RECOMMENDATIONS&

Based!on!the!research!findings!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand,!the!following!recommendations!

were!drafted!for!discussions!to!reach!Dutch!descendants!and!strengthen!their!NL!ties.!

!

1. Modernise!Dutch!clubs:!perhaps!with!an!eventsZbased!approach,!bringing!younger!people!

of! Dutch! descent! together,! particularly! involving! watching! the! Dutch! soccer! team! and!

eating!Dutch!food.!!

!

2. Offer!Dutch!playgroups!and!language!classes!for!children!to!support!parents!who!are!keen!

to!pass!on!Dutch!language!and!culture!but!are!not!confident!enough!themselves.!

!

3. Advertise! and! promote! Dutch! events! better! and! broader,! for! example! by! creating! a!

Facebook! page! for! 2nd! and! 3rd! generation! Dutch! that! informs! about! Dutch! events! and!

gives!news!updates!from!the!Netherlands.!!

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!

!

4. Establish!exchange!programmes,!scholarships,!financial!and!other!support!helping!Dutch!

Kiwis!to!experience!the!Netherlands,!rekindle!their!connection!and!facilitate!cultural!and!

knowledge! transfer.! Grants! towards! trips! to! the! Netherlands! from! the! UK! or! language!

tuition!could!be!offered!to!reduce!barriers!for!Dutch!descendants!who!would!otherwise!not!

visit!the!Netherlands.!!

!

5. A! special! student! or! intern! visa! could! be! issued! by! the! Embassy! for! Dutch! descendants!

without! a! Dutch! passport,! to! stimulate! their! visit! and! to! demonstrate! the! Embassy’s!

outreach!to!the!Dutch!community.!

!

6. Promote! the! Netherlands! as! a! modern! country! and! tourist! destination.! Correct! popular!

stereotypes!(such!as!clogs,!windmills,!tulips!and!coffee!shops).!!

!

7. An!institute!that!facilitates!Dutch!culture,!similar!to!the!‘Goethe!Institut’,!could!contribute!

to! this! by! bringing! over! artists,! musicians,! DJs! or! filmZmakers! from! the! Netherlands! and!

setting! up! an! ‘artistsZin! residence’! programme! sending! AustraliaZ! or! New! ZealandZbased!

artists!over!there.!

Due!to!the!small!sample!of!this!pilot!study!findings!are!not!representative!and!variations!might!

be!individual!matters!rather!than!universal!trends!among!Dutch!descendants!in!New!Zealand.!It!

is!suggested!to!conduct!a!largerZscale!study!with!a!bigger!and!more!representative!sample!to!

verify!the!conclusions!of!this!study.!For!example,!the!immigration!policy!in!New!Zealand!shifted!

from! assimilation! in! the! 1950s! to! multiculturalism! since! the! 1970s,! but! this! study! did! not! find!

that!the!policy!change!had!a!direct!impact!on!the!degree!of!‘Dutchness’!in!the!participants.!!

!

A! followZup! study! should! look! into! this! issue! further.! Moreover,! the! factors! suggested! in! this!

research! (upbringing,! language,! visits,! passports,! personality! and! age)! should! be! examined! in!

more! detail,! perhaps! focusing! more! on! religion,! and! age! when! visiting! the! Netherlands! and!

differences! between! siblings! and! close! kin! within! the! same! family.! Economic! ties! could! be!

further! tested! using! detailed! surveys! with! ‘scenarios’! in! order! to! find! out! what! influences! the!

participants’!decisionZmaking!process!before!purchasing!a!(Dutch)!product.

Although!this!study!

found!some!interesting!correlation!between!feeling!strongly!Dutch!and!growing!up!in!a!family!

of! farmers! or! bakers,! future! research! is! necessary! to! examine! to! what! degree! class! and!

economic!status!impact!on!identity!formation.!

!

REFERENCES&

Pas,! S.! van! der! and! J.! Poot! (2011)! ‘The!

Transformation!

Kiwis’.!!

of!

Immigrant!

Communities:! the! case! of! the! Dutch!

Pegge,!B.!(2006)!‘The!Invisible!Dutch:!a!pilot!study!

evaluating! Dutch! migrants’! path! to! New!

Zealand!from!1996Z2006’.!

Schouten,! Hank! (1992)! Tasman’s! legacy.!

Wellington:! New! Zealand–Netherlands!

Foundation.!

Te!Papa!(2000)!Going!Dutch.!90%!developed!design.!

Wellington!

Yska,!Redmer!(2006)!Dutch.!In:!Settler!and!migrant!

peoples! of! New! Zealand.! Te! Ara! –! the!

encyclopedia! of! New! Zealand.! Auckland:!

David!Batement.!P.121Z125.!

!

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6& Dutch&Diaspora&and&Citizenship&&

&

!

Arie!van!der!Wiel!

1& INTRODUCTION&

As!discussed!in!the!previous!chapter,!Statistics!New!Zealand!has!two!main!ways!of!categorising!

migrant! communities:! either! through! questions! related! to! ethnicity! (which! refer! to! cultural!

affiliation)! or! through! questions! of! descent! (which! refer! to! where! people! have! come! from,!

where!people!were!born).!However,!there!is!a!third!way!of!identifying!migrant!communities!–!

through! their! nationality! status! (which! refers! to! their! citizenship).! Unfortunately! the! New!

Zealand!Population!Census!does!not!raise!questions!about!nationality!issues.!This!chapter!will!

explore!the!citizenship!status!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!in!New!Zealand.!This!review!will!be!done!for!

both!first!generation!migrants!as!well!as!for!the!second!and!third!generation.!

First! we! will! start! with! a! brief! introduction! of! the! concept! of! citizenship,! followed! by! what!

policies! the! New! Zealand! and! Netherlands! governments! had! for! acquiring! or! holding!

citizenship.!To!what!extent!did!the!New!Zealand!government!encourage!migrants!to!naturalise?!

How!tolerant!was!the!Dutch!government!to!dual!nationality?!

Next!we!will!show!what!the!response!was!from!the!Dutch!migrant!community.!Did!many!take!

up!New!Zealand!citizenship,!or!were!they!eager!to!retain!Dutch!nationality?!How!many!from!the!

second!and!third!generation!migrants!were!able!or!willing!to!arrange!dual!nationality?!

After! that! the! Dutch! migrants’! citizenship! rates! will! be! compared! with! those! of! other! major!

migrant!communities!in!New!Zealand!such!as!the!Chinese,!Indians,!Koreans,!Filipinos!and!South!

Africans.!

Finally!we!will!discuss!the!topic!of!dual!identity:!the!challenge!of!belonging!to!two!worlds.!Some!

have! questioned! what! happens! when! host! governments,! like! New! Zealand,! are! tolerant! with!

multipleZcitizenship,!and!ask!whether!that!will!impede!cultural!assimilation!and!will!slow!down!

the!development!of!national!identity!and!cohesiveness.!Others!argue!that!migrants!who!do!not!

fear! losing! citizenship! of! their! home! country! are! more! likely! to! pursue! naturalisation! in! their!

adopted! countries,! and! subsequently! be! more! likely! to! integrate! than! those! who! retain! longZ term!residency!as!aliens.!!

In!the!conclusion,!the!main!findings!on!the!takeZup!rate!of!citizenship!among!Dutch!and!other!

major!migrant!communities!in!New!Zealand!will!be!summarised!and!some!conclusions!drawn!

on!the!possible!impacts!if!rules!on!citizenship!were!to!be!tightened.!!

!

I! would! like! to! thank! everybody! who! provided! information,! support! and! suggestions.! ! Special!

thanks! goes! to! Han! Nicolaas! (Statistics! Netherlands),! Nick! and! Ros! Lambrechtsen! and! Paul!

Merwood!(Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!&!Employment)!for!their!critical!comments!on!earlier!

drafts.!Finally,!I!would!like!to!acknowledge!Jelle!Hatenboer,!Thomas!Kleine!Schaars!and!Emile!

Hajema!(interns!at!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington)!for!carrying!out!the!passport!survey.!

2& DEFINING&CITIZENSHIP&&

The!term!citizenship!or!nationality!indicates!the!legal!relationship!between!a!person!and!a!state!

(Messina! and! Lahav,! 2006).! Possession! of! citizenship! is! normally! associated! with! the! right! to!

work! and! live! in! a! country.! Citizenship,! however,! is! more! than! just! a! formal! status,! as!

demonstrated!by!the!possession!of!a!passport.!Being!a!citizen!means!having!the!rights!to!vote!

and!to!stand!for!political!office,!enjoying!equality!before!the!law!and!being!entitled!to!various!

services!and!benefits.!It!also!means!having!the!obligation!to!obey!the!laws,!to!pay!taxes!and!to!

defend!your!country.!!

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Laws!on!citizenship!or!nationality!derive!from!two!competing!principles.!The!law!of!the!blood!

(jus!sanguinis)!is!based!on!descent.!That!is,!children!usually!inherit!the!citizenship!of!their!parent!

or!parents!at!birth.!The!law!of!the!soil!(jus!soli)!automatically!confers!citizenship!to!all!persons!

born!within!the!country's!territory.!In!practice,!all!modern!states!have!citizenship!rules!based!on!

a!combination!of!the!above!two!principles,!although!one!or!the!other!may!predominate.!The!

law!of!the!soil!is!applied!most!consistently!in!Australia,!Canada!and!the!US.!The!law!of!the!blood!

is!still!the!dominant!legal!principle!in!a!number!of!European!countries!like!Germany,!Austria!and!

Switzerland! as! well! as! in! Japan.! There! is! also! a! third! path! to! citizenship:! naturalisation.!

Naturalisation! allows! a! nonZnational! to! acquire! citizenship! after! he! or! she! has! met! a! set! of!

conditions!and!tests.!Since!each!country!decides!who!its!citizens!are,!based!solely!on!its!own!

laws,! and! generally! without! regard! for! the! laws! of! other! countries,! it! is! quite! possible! for! an!

individual! to! be! considered! a! citizen! by! two! or! more! countries,! even! if! some! or! all! these!

countries!forbid!dual!or!multiple!citizenship.!!!

Until!half!a!century!ago,!the!common!international!consensus!was!that!dual!citizenship!should!

be! avoided! as! much! as! possible.! This! was! clearly! reflected! both! in! the! citizenship! laws! of!

individual! countries! and! in! bilateral! and! international! conventions! and! agreements.! Leading!

politicians!of!previous!centuries!found!it!intolerable!for!a!man!to!belong!to!two!countries;!and!

saw! it! as! equivalent! to! bigamy.! In! 1930,! the! League! of! Nations! proclaimed! that! every! person!

should!have!a!nationality!and!should!have!one!nationality!only.!A!1963!treaty!in!Europe!required!

countries!to!limit!dual!citizenship,!until!it!lapsed!in!the!late!1990s.!Immigrants!have!commonly!

had!to!renounce!their!old!citizenship!when!taking!a!new!one;!the!countries!that!they!left!have!

often!disowned!emigrants!naturalised!abroad.!

Yet!over!the!last!few!decades!an!astonishing!change!has!taken!place;!an!increasing!number!of!

policymakers!regard!dual!citizenship!not!as!a!problem,!but!rather!as!a!possibility!that!needs!to!

be! negotiated! from! various! standpoints,! ranging! from! simple! pragmatic! tolerance! to! active!

encouragement!(Faist!et!al,!2008).!

One!reason!for!more!liberalisation!is!practicality:!dual!nationality!has!become!harder!to!control.!

Increased! migration! and! rising! numbers! of! crossZborder! marriages! mean! that! ever! more!

children!are!born!to!multinational!families.!Governments!that!take!in!many!immigrants!also!see!

benefits!from!allowing!them!to!keep!their!old!passports.!OECD!research!(2007)!suggests!that!

immigrants! who! do! not! fear! losing! their! existing! nationality! are! more! likely! to! pursue!

naturalisation!in!their!adopted!countries!and!subsequently!more!likely!to!integrate!than!those!

who!maintain!longZterm!residency!as!aliens.!

However,!Maas!(2010)!states!that!opponents!have!questioned!whether!allowing!dual!citizenship!

impedes!cultural!assimilation,!increases!disconnection!from!the!political!process!and!degrades!

national! identity! and! cohesiveness.! The! rise! in! tension! between! mainstream! and! migrant!

communities!is!cited!as!evidence!of!the!need!to!maintain!a!strong!national!identity!and!culture.!

They!assert!that!the!fact!that!a!second!citizenship!can!be!obtained!without!giving!anything!up!

both! trivialises! what! it! means! to! be! a! citizen! and! nullifies! the! consequential! transformational!

and!psychological!change!that!occurs!in!an!individual!when!they!go!through!the!naturalisation!

process.!

These!different!views!over!the!effects!of!dual!citizenship!have!led!Castles!and!Miller!(2009)!to!

distinguish!three!major!models!for!managing!immigration!and!ethnic!diversity.!

First,! the! segregation! model.! This! model! treats! immigrants! as! temporary! guest! workers.! It! is!

highly! restrictive! to! other! forms! of! immigration! and! to! naturalisation! of! immigrants.! China,!

Japan!and!countries!in!the!Middle!East!tend!to!follow!this!approach.!

Second,!the!assimilationist!model.!Under!this!approach,!immigrants!can!obtain!citizenship!on!

the!condition!that!they!give!up!some!or!all!cultural,!linguistic,!or!social!characteristics!that!differ!

from!those!of!the!majority!population.!This!model!was!popular!in!Australia,!Canada!and!New!

Zealand!till!the!1970s.!!!

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Third,! the! multicultural! model.! This! model! grants! immigrants! access! to! citizenship! and! equal!

rights!without!demanding!that!they!give!up!cultural,!linguistic!and/or!intermarriage!restrictions.!

There!is!no!pressure!for!them!to!integrate!or!interZmix!with!the!mainstream!population.!Many!

European!countries!have!historically!taken!this!approach,!but!there!is!growing!criticism!against!

this!model.!

!

In!sum,!a!distinction!can!be!made!between!soZcalled!tolerant!countries!and!restrictive!countries!

acquiring! other! citizenships! without! surrendering! the! original! one.! New! Zealand! falls! in! the!

category!of!tolerant!countries!with!its!citizenship!laws.!It!has!shifted!over!the!past!decades!from!

an!assimilationist!model!to!a!more!multicultural!approach.!The!Netherlands!citizenship!laws!are!

in!general!classified!as!restrictive.!Contrary!to!New!Zealand,!in!the!Netherlands!there!is!a!move!

away!from!the!multicultural!approach!towards!a!more!assimilationist!model.!!

3& NEW&ZEALAND&CITIZENSHIP&POLICIES&

Until! 1949,! New! Zealanders! were! British! subjects! and! New! Zealand! had! the! same! nationality!

legislation! as! the! UK.! New! Zealand! citizenship! was! created! on! 1! January! 1949! (Green,! 2006).!

The!country’s!nationality!law!was!based!on!the!territorial!principle:!that!is,!everybody!born!in!

New!Zealand!is!a!New!Zealand!citizen!by!birth.!In!2005,!the!Citizenship!Act!was!amended!so!

that!any!child!born!after!1!January!2006!is!a!New!Zealand!citizen!by!birth!only!if!at!least!one!of!

the! parents! is! a! New! Zealand! citizen! or! entitled! to! reside! in! the! country! indefinitely.! In! other!

words,!New!Zealand!shifted!its!focus!from!the!law!of!soil!to!the!law!of!blood.!

Under! British! rule! New! Zealand! had! pursued! an! unofficial! white! citizenship! policy! favouring!

protestant!AngloZCeltic!settlers!(Philips,!2006;!Beaglehole,!2006).!The!organised!and!structured!

flow!of!migrants!from!Great!Britain!and!Ireland!started!in!1840!and!reached!its!peak!between!

1870! and! 1885! when! almost! 300,000! flooded! into! the! country.! In! the! search! for! otherZthanZ

British!migrants,!preference!was!shown!for!Scandinavians!and!Germans!in!the!1870s!followed!

later! by! southZeastern! Europeans.! The! most! significant! group! of! nonZEuropeans! recruited! in!

that!period!were!Chinese!who!worked!in!the!Otago!goldfields.!Between!1881!and!the!1920s,!the!

New! Zealand! Parliament! passed! legislation! that! intended! to! limit! Asiatic! migration! to! New!

Zealand! and! prevented! Asians! from! naturalising.! At! the! end! of! the! Second! World! War,! New!

Zealand! was! a! strongly! homogeneous! society!of! predominantly! British! descent.! According! to!

the!1945!Census,!95%!of!New!Zealand’s!population!(1.7!million)!was!of!European!origin!–!a!level!

of! concentration! achieved! nowhere! else! in! the! British! Empire.! The! remaining! 5%! consisted!

primarily!of!Maori.!The!Asian!(mainly!Chinese)!and!Pacific!migrant!population!made!up!around!

0.5%.!!

In!1946,!the!Dominion!Population!Committee!recognized!that!a!carefully!planned!immigration!

policy! was! needed! to! fill! shortages! in! some! secondary! and! tertiary! industries.! Although! they!

reaffirmed!a!preference!for!immigrants!of!British!stock,!they!reluctantly!admitted!that!officials!

should! explore! the! possibilities! of! securing! immigrants! from! certain! northern! European!

countries.! This! approach! was! very! different! to! that! adopted! in! Australia,! where! a! broader!

spectrum! of! European! immigrants! was! accepted,! including! large! numbers! from! southern! and!

Eastern!Europe.!

The! 1960s! saw! some! early! indications! for! relaxation! of! traditional! immigration! policies.! In! his!

survey!of!attitudes!towards!immigrants,!Andrew!Trlin!(1992)!noted!that!the!problem!of!labour!

shortages!led!some!critics!of!government!policy!to!suggest!international!recruitment!of!labour,!

irrespective! of! national! origins.! The! 1960s,! in! particular,! saw! a! strong! increase! (500%)! in! the!

Pacific!Island!population!of!New!Zealand.!However!the!restrictive!“white!New!Zealand!policy”!

remained!in!place!to!a!large!extent!until!the!1974!immigration!policy!review.!!

The!year!1973!became!a!defining!one!for!New!Zealand’s!international!relations!(Scofield,!2011;!

Zodgekan,!2005).!The!country's!affinity!and!status!came!under!pressure,!due!in!part!to!policies!

undertaken! in! Great! Britain.! In! 1973,! Britain! joined! the! European! Economic! Community.! New!

Zealand!lost!its!preferential!treatment,!including!unlimited!rights!for!its!citizens!to!visit!the!UK.!

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!

One!of!the!results!of!this!change!was!a!new!citizenship!act!in!1977.!New!Zealand!passports!no!

longer!contained!the!status!of!British!subject!and!New!Zealand!citizen,!but!instead!only!stated!

New!Zealand!nationality.!!

However,! the! real! break! in! the! immigration! policy! took! place! in! the! midZeighties! (Scofield,!

2011).!These!changes!were!primarily!driven!by!New!Zealand's!economic!reform!programme!and!

reflected!a!marked!departure!away!from!the!informal!solely!BritishZbased!preference!system.!

The!policy!changes!included!linking!immigration!to!the!country's!longZterm!economic!interests.!

This!ended!the!preference!for!migrants!from!Britain,!Europe!or!Northern!America!based!on!their!

race,!and!instead!classified!migrants!on!their!skills,!personal!qualities,!and!potential!contribution!

to! the! New! Zealand! economy! and! society.! Effectively! the! New! Zealand! Immigration! Service!

ranked!the!qualities!sought!in!the!migrants!and!gave!them!priority!ranking!using!a!pointsZbased!

scale.!!

Through!this!liberalisation!of!migration!policies,!barriers!for!entry!have!been!removed!for!a!wide!

range!of!immigrant!groups.!Since!the!1980s!there!has!been!a!steady!numerical!and!proportional!

increase! in! the! overseasZborn! population! in! New! Zealand.! New! Zealand’s! overseasZborn!

population! has! increased! from! 14.4%! in! 1981! to! 19.5%! in! 2001! and! 22.9%! in! 2006.! The! 2013!

Census!showed!that!25.2%!of!New!Zealand's!population!was!born!overseas,!one!of!the!highest!

in!the!world.!!!

The! most! striking! change! in! the! migration! pattern! is! the! influx! of! Asians.! In! 1986,! the! Asian!

community!numbered!just!over!50,000!people.!Ten!years!later!it!was!over!170,000!and!in!2006!

the!numbers!more!than!doubled!again!to!355,000.!The!results!of!the!2013!Census!showed!that!

New!Zealand's!Asian!population!has!further!climbed!to!472,000!people.!Over!this!period!New!

Zealand!saw!a!similarly!strong!economic!shift!towards!Asia.!Whereas!in!the!1960s!80%!of!New!

Zealand’s!trade!was!with!Europe!(in!particular!with!the!UK),!this!has!been!reduced!to!around!

10%!today!and!Asia!has!become!by!far!New!Zealand’s!most!important!trading!partner.!These!

figures! confirm! that! New! Zealand! has! quietly! undergone! a! profound! revolution,! both!

economically! and! demographically.! From! being! one! of! the! world's! most! homogeneous!

societies,!it!has!become!one!of!the!most!diverse.!!!

With! these! changes! in! the! immigration! mix,! did! New! Zealand! put! any! special! emphasis! in! its!

policies! on! the! promotion! of! citizenship?! Unlike! in! the! US! and! more! recently! Australia,! the!

notion! that! citizenship! marks! national! identity! gained! little! traction! in! New! Zealand! (Green,!

2006).!In!1960,!the!New!Zealand!Secretary!for!Internal!Affairs!reaffirmed!this!view:!“there!is!no!

economic! and! little! social! pressure! on! aliens! to! become! New! Zealand! citizens,! nor! does! New!

Zealand! seek! to! influence! or! persuade! aliens! in! this! matter.! It! is! better! that! resident! aliens!

should! themselves! decide! freely! and! at! leisure! whether! or! not! they! wish! to! become! New!

Zealand!citizens.”!And!there!has!been!no!New!Zealand!counterpart!to!Australia's!campaign!in!

the!late!1990s,!notes!Green,!to!encourage!longZterm!residents!to!take!up!Australian!citizenship.!

Since!1955,!the!New!Zealand!government!has!introduced!a!naturalisation!ceremony!to!welcome!

new!citizens!whereby!they!publicly!swear!allegiance!to!the!Queen!and!loyalty!to!New!Zealand!

by! oath! or! confirmation.! This! is! a! rather! lowZkey! affair! that! attracts! little! attention! from! the!

wider!public!writes!Green!(2006).!!

&

Despite! New! Zealand’s! tolerant! policies! towards! immigrants,! the! rapidly! expanding! influx! of!

newcomers! (with! nearly! one! in! four! New! Zealanders! born! overseas)! has! raised! challenges! of!

how! to! maintain! a! socially! inclusive,! harmonious! society! in! the! face! of! increasing! cultural!

diversity.!Some!politicians!have!portrayed!Asian!immigrants!in!particular!as!a!problem!because!

of!their!lack!of!interest!and!familiarity!with!the!New!Zealand!culture.!Research!results!released!

by! the! Asian–New! Zealand! Foundation! (2012)! revealed! that! New! Zealand! citizens! of! Asian!

descent!remain!at!risk!of!being!perceived!as!outsiders.!Therefore!as!in!many!other!countries,!the!

debate!about!citizenship,!national!and!cultural!identity!has!been!for!a!number!of!years!a!very!

controversial!political!topic!in!New!Zealand!(Castles!and!Spoonley,!1997).!

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4& DUTCH&NATIONALITY&LAW&&

We!will!limit!ourselves!in!reviewing!the!Dutch!nationality!law!to!what!it!has!meant!for!Dutch!

emigrants! to! maintain! their! own! nationality! in! combination! with! obtaining! citizenship! of! the!

host! country.! Secondly,! what! the! possibilities! are! for! second! and! third! generation! migrants!

overseas! to! inherit! Dutch! nationality.! This! section! will! concentrate! on! the! principles! of! Dutch!

citizenship,! the! political! debate! about! dual! nationality! and! the! options! and! regulations! for!

obtaining!Dutch!nationality!abroad.!!

Before! discussing! these! nationality! issues,! we! briefly! touch! upon! the! history! of! the! Dutch!

diaspora! (van! Dalen! and! Henkens,! 2008).! Until! 1800,! the! Dutch! had! only! a! modest! share! in!

overseas!emigration!as!a!whole.!The!first!great!emigration!wave!happened!between!1820!and!

1920!when!almost!300,000!left.!Their!main!destination!was!America.!The!2000!Census!in!the!US!

showed!that!4.5!million!American!citizens!are!of!Dutch!descent.!The!second!emigration!wave!

took!place!after!the!Second!World!War.!Over!about!15!years,!400,000!people!moved!away.!They!

went! mainly! to! Canada! (140,000),! Australia! (120,000),! US! (70,000),! South! Africa! (30,000)! and!

New!Zealand!(25,000).!From!the!midZ1960s!till!the!early!1980s!the!Netherlands!changed!from!

an! emigration! to! an! immigration! country.! Because! of! the! economic! recession! in! the! 1980s,!

immigration! slowed! down! and! emigration! picked! up! again.! Recent! figures! (Statistics!

Netherlands!(CBS),!2012)!indicate!that!of!the!142,000!emigrants!in!the!year!2012,!only!one!third!

was! born! in! the! Netherlands.! The! Netherlands! counted! in! the! same! year! an! almost! similar!

number! of! immigrants,! namely! 156,000.! About! two! thirds! of! these! immigrants! came! from!

Europe!and!almost!one!fifth!of!them!were!DutchZborn!return!migrants.!The!Table!below!gives!

an!overview!of!the!more!recent!emigration!by!DutchZborn!citizens.!

&

Table!1:!Destination!of!the!DutchIborn!Emigrants!(2000–2012)!!

1

2

3

"

"

"

Country!of!

Destination

"

Belgium

Germany

U.K.

"

"

"

4

"

United"States

"

5

"

Spain

"

Numbers

"

78,218

"

67,905

"

37,106

"

25,199

"

24,641

"

Share

17%

15%

8%

"

5%

"

5%

"

6

"

France

"

7

"

Australia

"

23,334

"

14,254

"

5%

"

3%

"

8

"

Turkey

"

9,407

"

2%

"

Note:!The!total!number!of!Dutch!emigrants!was!459,225!

Source:!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2013!

"

"

"

Country!of!

Destination

"

9

"

Canada

"

10

"

Switzerland

"

11

"

Sweden

12

"

China

"

13

"

Italy

"

14

15

16

"

"

"

Norway

"

"

New"Zealand

South"Africa

"

"

Numbers

"

9,176

"

8,756

"

6,723

"

5,874

"

5,771

"

5,445

"

5,117

"

4,534

"

Share

"

!

The! CBS! statistics! show! that! international! migration! has! become! more! and! more! a! twoZway!

traffic! phenomenon.! It! is! interesting! to! see! what! consequences! these! changes! have! had! on!

citizenship! regulations.! And! whether! we! can! notice! a! difference! between! what! is! called!

emigrant!dual!citizenship!and!immigrant!dual!citizenship.!In!other!words,!are!we!more!flexible!

towards! our! own! nationals! when! they! migrate! overseas! to! maintain! and! promote! stronger!

cultural! and! economic! connections! with! them! when! they! reside! permanently! in! another!

country?!!!!!!!!!!!

2%

"

2%

"

1%

"

1%

"

1%

"

1%

"

1%

"

1%

"

Dutch!citizenship!is!conferred!primarily!by!birth!to!a!Dutch!parent!irrespective!of!place!of!birth.!

Until!50!years!ago!Dutch!nationality!was!acquired!through!birth!from!a!Dutch!father.!This!was!

not! the! only! gender! discriminatory! provision! in! Dutch! nationality! law.! It! also! provided! for!

automatic!acquisition!of!Dutch!nationality!for!foreign!women!marrying!Dutch!men!and!for!loss!

of! Dutch! nationality! where! a! Dutch! woman! would! marry! a! foreigner.! Both! regulations! were!

abolished! in! 1964.! It! was! not! until! 1985! that! the! Dutch! nationality! regulations! provided! for!

acquisition!of!Dutch!nationality!also!through!Dutch!mothers.!If!Dutch!citizenship!law!and!policy!

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from! its! beginning! (in! 1892)! were! to! be! described! as! restrictive! or! liberal,! an! evolution! from!

restrictive!to!liberal!back!to!restrictive!can!be!noted,!according!to!Van!Oers!et!al!(2013).!

From!1892!to!the!early!1950s,!the!ideal!of!the!nationZstate!had!exercised!a!restrictive!influence!

on!Dutch!citizenship!law!and!policy.!Requirements!for!naturalisation!were!very!strict.!In!1953,!a!

process!of!liberalisation!of!Dutch!citizenship!law!began.!Between!the!1950s!and!midZ1960s,!the!

Netherlands!had!become!a!country!of!emigration.!The!Dutch!government!did!not!concern!itself!

with!developing!a!policy!for!the!influx!of!newcomers.!However,!this!changed!in!the!second!half!

of!the!1960s!when!many!migrants!were!recruited!in!Turkey!and!Morocco!to!meet!the!growing!

demand! of! the! industrial! boom.! As! these! migrants! were! considered! temporary! workers,!

integration!with!preservation!of!cultural!identity!was!the!policy's!motto.!!

At!the!end!of!1970's,!it!became!evident!that!most!immigrants!were!staying!permanently!and!a!

new! policy! was! developed! aimed! at! equal! participation! of! migrant! minorities! in! society.! The!

starting!point!was!the!improvement!of!the!immigrant’s!legal!position!through!the!stimulation!of!

naturalisation.! In! the! early! 1990s! it! was! acknowledged! that! allowing! dual! citizenship! would!

serve! the! realisation! of! the! government's! drive! for! integration! and! participation! in! society.! It!

culminated!in!the!complete!toleration!of!dual!nationality!between!1992!and!1997.!!

In!the!late!1990s!the!integration!of!immigrants!became!a!subject!of!public!debate.!The!idea!had!

emerged!that!immigrants!had!been!treated!too!liberally,!that!they!had!been!pampered!without!

imposing! obligations.! This! development! was! triggered! by! the! publication! in! 2000! of! a! very!

influential!article!'The!Multicultural!Tragedy'!(Scheffer,!2000).!!

This!led!to!a!policy!shift!–!the!opposite!of!the!multicultural!policy!of!the!1980s!–!in!which!the!

idea! prevailed! that! a! strong! legal! position! would! contribute! to! immigrants'! integration.!

Naturalisation! was! no! longer! seen! as! an! instrument! for! integration.! Under! the! new! policy,!

naturalisation!was!seen!as!the!crown!on!the!completed!integration!process.!Dutch!integration!

policies!have!shifted!from!a!multicultural!to!a!more!assimilationist!approach.!With!this!change,!

naturalisation!became!more!difficult!and!dual!nationality!more!restricted!again.!!

The!introduction!of!a!naturalisation!test!and!later!an!integration!exam!has!resulted!in!a!sharp!

decrease!in!the!number!of!naturalisations.!Falling!from!an!average!of!about!65,000!acquisitions!

of!Dutch!nationality!in!the!second!half!of!the!1990s!(with!a!peak!of!80,000!in!1996)!to!around!

25,000!on!average!between!2007!and!2011!(IND,!2012).!

As!the!principle!of!symmetry!is!used!on!policies!concerning!naturalisation!and!dual!citizenship!

for! immigrants! in! the! Netherlands! and! Dutch! emigrants! living! abroad,! the! impact! of! these!

reforms!should!be!similar!on!both!sides.!But!there!is!always!a!tendency!and!political!pressure!to!

make!exceptions!for!one’s!own!emigrants,!according!to!van!Oers!et!al!(2013).!Whereas!in!the!

late!1990s!it!was!made!harder!for!first!generation!immigrants!to!acquire!Dutch!citizenship,!the!

possibilities!for!Dutch!emigrants!to!retain!their!citizenship!were!enlarged.!Dutch!citizens!who!

were!going!to!apply!for!the!citizenship!of!their!partner!were!allowed!to!keep!their!citizenship.!

Furthermore,! Dutch! citizenship! was! no! longer! lost! automatically! after! spending! 10! years!

abroad,!provided!that!a!passport!or!proof!of!Dutch!citizenship!was!applied!for!each!of!the!10!

years.!Those!who!had!lost!Dutch!citizenship!in!this!way!were!given!the!opportunity!to!reZacquire!

it!under!easier!conditions.!The!regulation!with!this!option!came!into!force!in!April!2003.!In!2010,!

another! regulation! was! introduced! for! the! soZcalled! latent! Dutch.! These! were! children! born!

before!1985!to!a!Dutch!mother!and!a!nonZDutch!father.!The!option!procedures!are!a!simpler!and!

quicker!way!of!acquiring!Dutch!citizenship!compared!to!naturalisation.!The!number!of!options!

approved!from!2007!to!2011!was,!on!average,!6,000!annually!(IND,!2012).!!

In!2012,!a!centreZright!government!coalition!proposed!a!bill!to!further!strengthen!the!conditions!

for! acquiring! Dutch! nationality! through! naturalisation.! The! amendment! sought! to! block! dual!

nationality! to! Dutch! citizens! and! to! individuals! who! wish! to! become! Dutch! to! 'purify'! Dutch!

nationality.! This! revision! not! only! targeted! immigrants! in! the! Netherlands,! but! also! Dutch!

nationals! abroad! who! opt! for! dual! nationality.! Dutch! expats! and! immigrants! alike! generally!

prefer!to!keep!their!original!nationality!and!so!seek!dual!citizenship.!The!proposed!restriction!of!

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dual! citizenship! drew! a! lot! of! media! attention.! The! Dutch! emigrants! living! abroad! started! a!

petition! campaign.! The! campaign! received! a! lot! of! sympathy! and! has! contributed! to! the!

withdrawal!of!the!bill.!!But!a!large!proportion!of!the!Dutch!population!(60%!according!to!a!poll!

in!May!2011)!finds!dual!citizenship!undesirable.!!

Finally,!Dutch!nationals!also!have!citizenship!of!the!European!Union.!This!European!citizenship!

does! not! replace! Dutch! nationality,! but! is! in! addition! to! national! citizenship.! European!

citizenship!is!still!limited!in!scope.!It!includes!the!right!to!move!freely!within!the!territory!of!the!

member! states,! and! to! settle! there.! The! soZcalled! Schengen! territory! comprises! 28! countries!

including!two!nonZEU!members,!Switzerland!and!Norway.!The!only!countries!from!the!EU!that!

are! not! party! to! the! Schengen! agreement! are! the! UK! and! Ireland.! For! those! New! Zealanders!

who!can!get!dual!nationality!this!is!an!interesting!option!as!it!provides!easier!access!in!the!future!

to!European!member!states!to!stay,!to!work!and!to!study.!

It!may!be!concluded!that!the!Dutch!nationality!law!has!developed!in!a!more!restrictive!direction.!

By! seeking! to! toughen! its! nationality! laws,! the! Netherlands! is! turning! away! from! what! is!

generally!seen!as!a!global!trend!to!become!more!flexible!in!allowing!dual!nationality.!!

!

5& RENOUNCING&DUTCH&CITIZENSHIP&

The! Dutch! are! widely! praised! in! New! Zealand! as! role! models! for! integration! into! the! local!

society.!Given!their!strong!assimilation!one!would!expect!that!many!had!given!up!their!Dutch!

citizenship.! Many! immigrants,! writes! van! Dongen! (1992),! naturalised! as! a! matter! of! course!

feeling!it!their!duty!since!they!had!chosen!to!live!in!New!Zealand.!Besides,!she!states,!remaining!

Dutch!was!frownedZupon!and!actively!discouraged!in!these!days.!In!practice!any!desire!by!the!

Dutch!to!hold!on!to!their!heritage!was!stymied!by!the!government's!settlement!policy.!But!how!

true! is! this! supposition?! Is! the! naturalisation! rate! for! the! Dutch! migrants! in! New! Zealand!

reflecting!their!strong!assimilation?!

Nationality!rates!are!defined!as!the!ratio!between!the!yearly!number!of!naturalisations!and!the!

number! of! foreignZborn! residents! in! the! country.! When! comparing! rates! of! naturalisation!

between! different! countries,! some! caution! is! required! as! people! who! are! not! eligible! for!

citizenship! may! be! included! in! a! country's! resident! population.! For! example,! longZterm!

temporary!residents!such!as!international!students!as!well!as!permanent!residents!who!have!not!

lived! long! enough! to! qualify! for! citizenship! are! all! included! in! this! category! in! the! census.!

Therefore!standardised!or!revised!citizenship!rates!are!also!often!presented.!!

The! introduction! mentioned! that! New! Zealand's! censuses! do! not! include! questions! about!

nationality.!An!attempt!therefore!will!be!made!here!to!estimate!the!naturalisation!rate!among!

Dutch!migrants!in!New!Zealand.!A!number!of!different!data!sources!are!used!to!measure!the!

naturalisation!rate.!The!three!different!sources!used!here!were:!national!censuses,!population!

registers!and!surveys.!!

Measuring!the!rate!of!those!changing!their!Dutch!nationality!for!a!Kiwi!citizenship!is!based!on!

the! following! two! sources:! the! annual! naturalisation! statistics! of! the! host! country! and! the!

emigration!and!return!statistics!of!the!supplying!country.!As!the!information!for!standardising!

the!rates!such!as!arrival!date!and!residential!status!(to!exclude!those!not!being!long!enough!in!

the!country!to!naturalise)!were!not!available!to!us!we!will!only!be!able!to!give!unrevised!rates.!

In! the! next! two! sections! (holding! and! comparing! citizenship! rates)! two! other! measures! are!

applied!to!compute!the!rate!of!Dutch!migrants.!Instead!of!annual!immigration!statistics!we!have!

also! used! stock! measurements! of! the! total! DutchZborn! migrant! community! by! different!

population! censuses.! These! results! are! presented! in! table! 6! where! we! compare! the!

naturalisation!rates!of!the!Dutch!with!those!of!other!major!migrant!groups.!In!the!next!section,!

holding!citizenship,!a!third!method!is!introduced!to!determine!the!citizenship!rates!based!on!a!

survey!of!passports!issued!by!the!embassy.!These!different!methods!also!can!be!used!to!test!the!

reliability!of!the!scores.!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

!

Figure! 1! shows! both! the! number! of! Dutch! emigrants! that! have! settled! in! New! Zealand! since!

1948!(approximately!60,000)!and!the!number!of!people!that!returned,!almost!30,000!(see!Annex!

1! for! more! details).! The! return! rate! was! relatively! low! (30%)! in! the! first! two! decades! but!

increased!over!the!years!to!around!65%!in!the!1970s!and!1980s!and!over!the!last!20!years!rose!to!

over! 70%.! Given! the! long! history! of! the! Dutch! migration! to! New! Zealand! and! with! the! peak!

taking!place!many!years!ago,!it!can!be!assumed!that!the!difference!between!the!unrevised!rate!

and!the!standardised!rate!of!citizenship!will!be!small.!

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Figure!1:!Emigration!and!Return!Flow!of!Dutch!Citizens!to!and!from!New!Zealand!(1948I2012)!

NL"to"NZ" NZ"to"NL"

5000"

4000"

3000"

2000"

1000"

0"

1948" 1956" 1964" 1972" 1980" 1988" 1996" 2004" 2012"

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!

Source:!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014!

Naturalisation!statistics!in!New!Zealand!are!provided!by!the!Department!of!Internal!Affairs.!But!

first,! a! brief! summary! of! the! basic! requirements! to! be! met! before! a! person! can! apply! for!

citizenship!of!New!Zealand!will!be!given.!The!main!criteria!are!that!you!must!already!have!the!

status!of!permanent!resident!and!have!lived!in!New!Zealand!and!kept!your!residence!status!for!

a! minimum! of! 5! years! before! your! application! for! citizenship.! You! must! possess! a! basic!

knowledge!of!English.!There!are!additional!regulations!for!those!aged!below!16!years.!

In!the!early!years!the!application!procedure!was!far!from!easy.!Department!files!of!the!1950s,!

writes!Schouten!(1992),!containing!as!many!as!40!pages!or!more,!show!how!much!paperwork!

was!involved!in!each!case.!This!bureaucratic!process,!Schouten!concludes,!was!likely!to!have!put!

people!off!in!the!beginning.!This!procedure!has!later!been!considerably!streamlined.!

Apart!from!the!length!of!the!procedure,!application!requirements!nowadays!can!be!considered!

modest! to! minimal! and! will! certainly! not! be! considered! a! great! obstacle! in! the!naturalisation!

process.! In! general,! New! Zealand! is! one! of! only! a! small! group! of! countries! with! very! tolerant!

citizenship! laws! and! has! permitted! dual! or! multipleZcitizenship! since! the! creation! of! New!

Zealand!nationality!law!in!1949.!Permanent!residents!have!the!same!rights!or!entitlements!as!

New!Zealand!citizens.!!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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There! are! a! number! of! advantages! in! having! New! Zealand! citizenship.! Only! citizens! of! New!

Zealand!are!able!to!stand!for!public!office.!To!get!a!permanent!job!in!the!New!Zealand!public!

service!you!had!to!naturalise.!In!addition!there!are!some!public!sector!jobs!that!are!not!open!to!

citizens!of!other!countries.!But!overall!the!benefits!are!marginal!compared!with!the!situation!of!

permanent!migrants.!

The!table!below!gives!a!historical!overview!of!the!numbers!of!Dutch!emigrants!naturalising!in!

New! Zealand! (see! Annex! 2).! For! calculating! the! naturalisation! rate! we! have! to! compare! the!

number! naturalised! with! the! total! stock! of! Dutch! emigrants.! The! stock! of! Dutch! emigrants! is!

here!based!on!arrival!and!return!statistics!of!CBS.!This!is!a!proximate!of!the!actual!stock.!We!

have! to! realise! that! immigration! statistics! show! slight! biases! with! the! factual! situation.!

Moreover!we!have!to!remember!that!it!takes!at!least!5!years!to!obtain!citizenship.!Prospective!

citizens! had! to! be! legally! in! the! country! for! that! period! of! time.! This! explains! why! only! 10%!

gained!their!citizenship!during!the!first!decade,!1950Z1959.!In!the!period!1960–1969!the!rate!had!

gone!up!to!around!one!third.!!At!the!end!of!the!1970s!the!takeZup!rate!had!further!increased!to!

just!over!40%.!

!

!

Table!2:!Naturalisation!and!stock!of!Dutch!Immigrants,!1949!I!2012!!

Period Numbers!naturalisation

Immigrants

1949"7"1959" 2,068

Arrivals

19,790

1960"7"1969

1970"7"1979

1980"7"1989

4,568

3,027

1,734

9,970

7,690

9,949

1990"7"1999"

2000"7"2009"

2010"7"2012"

984

1,168

489

4,889

5,372

1,330

Return

2,215

6,200

6,267

5,216

3,219

4,041

1,005

Total" 14,038 58,990 28,163

!

Note:!Dutch!nationals!arriving!from!other!places,!notably!Indonesia!are!not!included!in!the!totals.!Schouten!reports!that!the!

number!born!in!Indonesia!is!1,380!according!to!the!1966!census.!!

Source:!Department!of!Internal!Affairs,!Citizenship!Statistics!New!Zealand,!2013;!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014!

Similar! observations! of! the! level! of! naturalisation! were! made! by! Thompson! (1970),! Schouten!

(1992)! and! Yska! (2006).! By! 1970! about! a! quarter! of! the! DutchZborn! migrant! population! had!

transferred!their!allegiance!to!their!adopted!country.!Whereas!Yska!saw!this!as!disappointingly!

low,!Thompson!considered!this!rate!a!positive!sign!for!the!process!of!integration.!Around!the!

late! 1970s! there! was! a! strongly! integrated! Dutch! migrant! community! of! which,! according! to!

Schouten,! 70%! still! had! Dutch! citizenship:! “in! 1977,! the! last! year! for! which! these! figures! are!

available,! there! were! 13,600! Dutch! people! on! the! register! of! aliens.! According! to! the! census!

figures! of! that! time! about! 20,000! had! been! in! the! country! long! enough! to! qualify! for!

citizenship”.!

After!1970,!the!rate!has!remained!roughly!the!same.!For!the!entire!period!the!rate!is!just!over!

45%!(14,038)!versus!a!total!population!of!Dutch!migrants!that!settled!permanently!of!30,827.!!

What!were!the!main!reasons!for!the!Dutch!migrants!to!abandon!their!citizenship?!!

Surveys! on! the! public! awareness! of! New! Zealand! citizenship! (2009)! showed! that! the! most!

frequently! mentioned! meanings! for! obtaining! New! Zealand! citizenship! were! among! the!

foreignZborn! respondents:! proud! of! New! Zealand/to! be! a! New! Zealander! and! a! sense! of!

belonging.!!!

In!the!article!the!'Industrious!Dutchie:!recording!the!experiences!of!first!generation!immigrants!

to!New!Zealand!in!the!1950s',!Donaghey!and!Papoutsaki!(2008)!quoted!two!important!reasons!

for!naturalisation!by!Dutch!respondents!which!are!worthwhile!referring!to!here.!The!first!quote!

shows!great!similarity!with!the!main!motives!given!in!the!awareness!survey.!“We're!Kiwis.!My!

father!was!very!insistent!on!that,!he!said!this!country!is!good!to!us!and!we're!going!to!be!good!

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to!it!and!we're!going!to!be!Kiwis.”!The!second!quote!refers!more!to!practical/economic!reasons!

for!obtaining!New!Zealand!citizenship.!“Once!you!started!getting!into!business!you!had!to!be!a!

New!Zealander!and!it!was!seen!as!better!to!be!a!New!Zealand!citizen!to!get!on!in!that!company.!

So!we!got!our!citizenship.”!!

In!the!early!days!of!migration!to!get!a!permanent!job!in!the!New!Zealand!public!service!you!had!

to!naturalise.!Many!better!educated!Dutch!migrants!got!jobs!and!careers!there.!For!the!great!

majority!however!that!was!of!less!relevance!as!they!found!employment!in!the!private!sector.!

The!absence!of!economic!advantages!as!a!reason!for!applying!for!citizenship!in!the!awareness!

survey! however! is! striking.! Given! the! small! advantages! citizenship! offers,! and! there! are!

definitely! exceptions! as! mentioned! for! the! public! sector,! it! may! well! be! that! the! reason! for!

taking!up!New!Zealand!citizenship!was!primarily!a!social!one!and!not!so!much!associated!with!

financial!benefits.!!

Family! issues! will! definitely! have! played! a! key! role.! Like! Peter! Grandiek! said! as! rationale! for!

applying!for!Kiwi!citizenship!at!the!Te!Papa!Exhibition!(2000):!"I!thought!this!is!my!home,!this!is!

my!children's!home!so!I!only!saw!it!as!the!right!thing!to!do....The!important!link!to!me!was!that!

my!children!were!going!to!be!New!Zealander".!In!general!you!could!say!that!family!obligations!

and!responsibilities!feature!as!strong!enduring!factors!in!determining!or!conditioning!migrant’s!

decisions!not!only!on!staying!or!returning!but!also!on!integration!and!identity!formation.!

A!number!may!have!also!renounced!their!citizenship!out!of!bitterness!and!disappointment!with!

the!way!the!Netherlands!had!treated!them.!Some!felt!that!the!Dutch!government!was!glad!to!

have!got!rid!of!them,!with!an!“out!of!sight,!out!of!mind"!attitude;!and!a!"no!longer!burden!on!the!

Dutch!taxpayer"!attitude.!This!was!officially!stated!in!some!Dutch!government!publications!and!

statements.! That! feeling! of! desertion! was! deeply! hurtful! and! could! have! been! an! important!

reason!for!naturalising.!Why!should!they!pay!homage!to!a!country!that!apparently!had!no!place!

for!them!anymore?!

It! may! be! concluded! that! over! the! entire! period! of! 65Zyear! emigration! to! New! Zealand! the!

number!of!Dutch!migrants!that!took!up!New!Zealand!nationality!was!around!one!quarter!and!

that! for! those! who! have! settled! permanently! the! rate! was! less! than! half.! Whereas! the! great!

majority! of! Dutch! migrants! is! well! integrated! and! consider! themselves! Kiwis,! the! data! above!

shows! that! their! level! of! naturalisation! is! probably! one! of! the! lowest! among! the! migrant!

communities!in!New!Zealand.!!

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6& RETAINING&DUTCH&CITIZENSHIP&&

How!many!people!in!New!Zealand!have!kept!their!Dutch!citizenship!and!what!do!we!know!of!

their!socioZdemographic!profile?!

In!addition!to!the!data!sources!used!for!calculating!the!naturalisation!rates!(Population!Census,!

immigration! and! naturalisation! statistics)! a! survey! among! Dutch! passport! holders! has! been!

carried!out!by!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington.!

The!total!number!of!Dutch!passport!holders!is!estimated!at!least!20,000!at!the!end!of!2013.!This!

total!is!based!on!the!fact!that!the!Embassy!now!issues!almost!4,000!passports!per!year,!with!a!

validity!of!5!years.!The!issuing!of!passports!has!seen!a!steady

!

rise!over!the!past!10!years!from!

3,000!to!4,000!now.!!

When! analysing! these! data,! caution! is! needed! as! passport! statistics! may! create! some! bias! in!

measuring! the! number! of! Dutch! nationals.! First,! not! everybody! who! has! Dutch! nationality!

carries!a!passport.!Some!are!satisfied!with!only!a!certificate!of!Dutch!citizenship!because!of!the!

extra! costs! of! a! passport.! This! is! the! case! with! a! growing! number! of! dual! nationals.! Second,!

many!of!the!older!generation!do!not!extend!their!passport!when!it!expires!as!they!are!no!longer!

able!to!travel.!One!quarter!of!all!the!requests!for!renewal!of!passports!concerned!expired!travel!

documents.! Third,! passports! can! be! obtained! from! other! sources! than! the! Embassy,! outside!

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New!Zealand.!And!finally,!passports!can!be!issued!by!the!Embassy!to!people!who!are!not!in!the!

category! of! Dutch! emigrants! but! are,! for! example,! visitors.! Given! these! possible! biases,! we!

assume!that!the!numbers!of!Dutch!nationals!is!significantly!larger!than!the!number!of!passport!

holders.!!

The!passport!survey!confirmed!the!earlier!findings!that!around!55–60%!of!the!Dutch!immigrants!

kept!their!citizenship.!The!study!showed!that!of!the!20,000!passport!holders!12,000!were!issued!

to!DutchZborn!applicants.!According!to!the!Population!Census!of!2013,!New!Zealand!counted!in!

that! year! almost! 20,000! DutchZborn! migrants.! This! implies! a! Dutch! citizenship! rate! of! 60%!

among!the!DutchZborn!in!New!Zealand.!

These! statistics! seem! to! indicate! clearly! that! there! is! still! a! very! strong! sentiment! towards!

maintaining!Dutch!citizenship.!To!get!a!little!bit!beneath!the!abstractions!of!the!statistics!and!to!

understand! the! reasoning! from! the! insider's! perspective! we! will! quote! here! the! views! of! a!

number!of!first!generation!Dutch!emigrants!over!their!experiences!on!maintaining!their!Dutch!

citizenship!from!the!report!of!Donaghey!and!Papoutsaki!(2008):!“I!still!have!a!Dutch!passport!

and!I!wouldn't!change!it!for!all!the!tea!in!China”.!Some,!they!note,!despite!the!sense!of!pride!in!

achievements! and! contributions,! do! not! feel! fully! integrated,! accepted! or! appreciated! by! the!

Kiwis:!“I!admire!people!who!have!totally!settled!but!I’ve!never!that!feeling”.!Another!stressed!

the!potency!of!her!Dutchness:!“the!Dutch!nationality!still!is!foremost.!I'm!happy!to!live!here!and!

I!think!my!children!are!very!grateful!that!I!emigrated!from!the!Netherlands!but!personally!I!still!

feel!very!Dutch”.!These!days!you!see!among!the!older!Dutch!migrants!some!regret!for!having!

lost!their!Dutch!nationality.!It!is!a!common!trend!among!first!generation!migrants!that!when!

they!grow!older!that!their!ethnic!identity!begins!to!reassert!itself.!

The! passport! study! also! found! that! 40%! of! the! applicants! were! dual! KiwiZDutch! citizens.! In!

overall!numbers!that!means!around!8,000!people!have!KiwiZDutch!nationality!in!New!Zealand.!

Dual!nationals!are!almost!exclusively!second!and!third!generation!Dutch,!as!the!study!revealed.!

Only!people!born!in!New!Zealand!from!a!marriage!where!at!least!one!of!the!parents!is!a!Dutch!

citizen! have! access! to! KiwiZDutch! dual! nationality.! The! second! and! third! generation! Dutch!

migrants!automatically!received!New!Zealand!citizenship!till!2006!because!of!the!law!of!soil!(jus!

soli).!Since!2006,!this!law!has!been!changed!into!the!law!of!blood!(jus!sanguinis)!implying!that!at!

least!one!parent!has!to!be!a!New!Zealand!citizen.!Implying!people!born!from!a!marriage!where!

the! parents! have! mixed! citizenship! can! apply! for! both! nationalities.! Between! 2004! and! 2013!

there! was! an! increase! of! about! 25%! of! KiwiZDutch! dual! nationals.! So! there! seems! to! be! a!

growing!interest!among!the!second!and!third!generation!in!obtaining!Dutch!nationality.!!

However,!despite!this!significant!rise,!we!have!to!realise!that!only!a!small!fraction!of!the!second!

and! third! generation! of! Dutch! descent! has! dual! citizenship.! Van! der! Pas! and! Poot! (2011)!

estimate!the!number!of!second!and!third!generation!Dutch!to!be!100,000.!The!passport!survey!

indicated!that!the!number!of!second!and!third!generation!dual!nationals!is!approximately!8,000.!

This! means! that! less! than! 10%! was! able! to! arrange! dual! nationality.! The! reasons! for! this!

relatively! low! percentage! can! be! manifold.! It! can! be! because! parents! had! lost! their! Dutch!

citizenship! (about! 40%,! as! the! above! data! indicated),! or! because! of! lack! of! interest.! But! the!

passport!study!showed!that!there!is!a!clear!growing!interest!in!dual!citizenship.!

!

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Figure!2:!Type!of!Citizenship!among!Dutch!Nationals,!2004!and!2012!

"""""""""""""""""""""""2004"

"

"""""""""""""""""""""""""2012"

!

!

!

!

!

!

Source:!Embassy!of!the!Kingdom!of!the!Netherlands,!passport!survey,!2013!I!2014!

!

The!survey!revealed!moreover!that!the!age!distribution!of!Dutch!passport!holders!was!close!to!

the!New!Zealand!national!age!profile!(see!the!table!below).!Only!for!the!first!two!age!cohorts!it!

showed!a!reversed!pattern.!That!is,!the!youngest!age!group!was!somewhat!underrepresented!

and!the!next!age!cohort!overrepresented.!The!reason!could!be!that!very!young!people!did!not!

require!an!own!passport!but!applied!for!it!as!soon!they!became!adults.!The!age!distribution!of!

passport!holders!differed!significantly!with!the!DutchZborn!community!of!which!half!is!60!years!

or!older.!Their!underrepresentation!confirms!that!many!of!the!elderly!in!the!Dutch!community!

do!not!renew!their!passports!anymore.!!

!

Table!3:!Age!distribution!of!Dutch!immigrant!community!in!New!Zealand,!2013!

Age!group

Dutch!Citizens

Dutch!born

Dutch!

ethnicity

""0"–"19

20"–"39

19%

32%

5%

12%

23%

19%

NZ!population

27%

25%

40"–"59

60+

27%

22%

29%

54%

27%

31%

28%

20%

!

Note:!Dutch!Born;!Dutch!Ethnicity!and!New!Zealand!Population!is!based!on!the!2013!Population!Census.!Age!distribution!of!

Dutch!citizens!is!based!on!passport!survey.!!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!2013,!Population!Census!2013!

Furthermore!the!average!age!of!Dutch!single!nationals!differs!significantly!from!dual!nationals.!

The!average!age!of!dual!nationals!is!23!whereas!that!of!the!single!nationals!is!52!–!more!than!

twice!as!high.!TwoZthirds!of!the!dual!nationals!were!first!applicants.!

Another!good!illustration!of!the!strong!sentiments!to!keep!or!to!get!back!Dutch!nationality!in!

New!Zealand!was!revealed!through!the!option!regulation!introduced!in!2003!where!those!who!

had!lost!their!citizenship!were!given!the!opportunity!to!reZacquire!it.!In!1985,!it!was!decided!that!

Dutch! citizenship! was! lost! automatically! after! 10! years! of! residence! abroad! if! the! person!

concerned! also! possessed! the! citizenship! of! that! country.! The! period! to! reZobtain! Dutch!

nationality! through! this! procedure! was! closed! last! year,! 2013.! Former! Dutch! citizens! in! New!

Zealand!were!the!fifth!highest!users!of!this!option!procedure!worldwide.!A!total!of!2,147!people!

reZacquired! their! Dutch! nationality.! Morocco,! Turkey,! Surinam! and! Germany! had! bigger!

numbers.!But!New!Zealand!was!far!ahead!of!the!other!traditional!emigration!destinations!such!

as!Australia,!Canada!and!the!US.!

Why!did!so!many!of!the!first!generation!Dutch!show!such!a!willingness!to!maintain!or!even!reZ

acquire!their!citizenship!despite!their!strong!integration?!!

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Although! we! are! not! able! to! give! an! exhaustive! explanation! and! more! research! is!

recommended,!it!is!believed!that!part!of!the!understanding!of!the!low!citizenship!rate!has!to!be!

sought!in!the!history!of!the!migration!process;!in!the!legal!implications!of!the!citizenship!laws!

from!both!the!home!as!well!as!the!host!country!of!the!migrant;!and!finally!in!the!risk!assessment!

by! the! migrant! of! the! socioZeconomic! opportunities! and! challenges! to! succeed! in! their! new!

country.!!

The!resistance!to!exchange!Dutch!citizenship!for!New!Zealand!nationality!may!have!its!origin!in!

the!early!years!of!Dutch!settlement.!In!the!midZ1950s!the!rumour!was!spread!that!naturalised!

citizens!were!permanently!relegated!to!the!status!of!secondZclass!New!Zealanders!who!could!be!

rendered!stateless!at!the!stroke!of!a!pen!(Schouten,!1992).!Well!known!became!the!campaigns!

by!the!Dutch!migrant!Hanny!van!Roekel!in!the!1950s!against!New!Zealand’s!naturalisation!laws.!

Van!Roekel!argued!that!if!people!were!treated!like!secondZclass!citizens!they!would!retain!their!

own!nationality!and!New!Zealand!would!become!an!“island!of!aliens”.!This!law!was!changed!in!

1960,!however!with!little!effect!on!the!rate!of!naturalisation,!as!the!statistics!show.!!

In!addition!when!the!major!wave!of!migration!took!place!from!the!Netherlands,!New!Zealand!

had!adopted!a!policy!of!incorporating!migrants!into!society!through!a!moreZorZless!oneZsided!

process!of!assimilation.!On!arrival,!all!new!migrants!faced!pressure!to!discard!their!Dutchness.!

In!the!early!1950s!the!New!Zealand!government!wanted!settlers!to!blend!socially!and!culturally!

into! the! British! dominated! society.! The! attitude! was! summed! up! by! the! Senior! Immigration!

Official!Dr!Reuel!Lochore:!“we!must!make!new!Britishers:!by!procreation,!and!by!assimilation;!

by! making! suitable! aliens! into! vectors! of! the! British! way! of! life”! (Schouten,! 1992).! However!

recruitment! of! the! Dutch! was! only! second! choice! because! of! absence! of! sufficient! British!

migrants.! So! being! seen! as! second! class! citizens! together! with! a! strong! xenophobia! against!

everything!that!was!not!British!may!have!led!to!a!certain!hesitation!to!give!up!Dutch!citizenship.!

A! second! explanatory! factor! was! the! lack! of! pressure! on! migrants! to! take! up! New! Zealand!

citizenship.! New! Zealand’s! citizenship! policy! is! considered! as! very! flexible! towards! its!

immigrants!–!immigrants!have!almost!the!same!privileges!as!their!own!population.!!Assimilating!

and! integrating! without! a! New! Zealand! passport! was! not! a! problem.! But! although! the! New!

Zealand!citizenship!laws!were!liberal!the!Dutch!laws!were!restrictive.!Many!Dutch!had!to!face!

the! dilemma! that! if! they! took! up! New! Zealand! citizenship! they! would! lose! their! Dutch!

nationality.! The! tolerant! New! Zealand! policy! has! meant! that! the! choice! to! become! a! New!

Zealand!citizen!is!largely!that!of!the!immigrant!and!not!the!government!of!the!host!country.!

The!restrictive!citizenship!laws!of!the!Netherlands!therefore!play!a!decisive!role!by!the!migrant’s!

selection.!Even!from!a!socialZcultural!point!of!view,!the!need!for!naturalising!diminished!as!the!

pressure! on! assimilation! significantly! relaxed.! From! the! midZ1970s! New! Zealand’s! migration!

policy! started! shifting! away! from! the! assimilationist! approach! towards! tolerating! greater!

cultural!diversity!and!allowing!newcomers!to!keep!their!social!values!and!traditions.!This!implies!

that!migrants!not!only!kept!their!passports!but!were!also!able!to!preserve!their!cultural!identity,!

as! we! see! with! the! new! arrivals! from! the! Netherlands.! They! show! a! much! stronger! cultural!

connectedness!to!their!home!country.!!

Thirdly,! holding! on! to! their! Dutch! passport! was! not! only! important! for! social! reasons! but!

probably!also!for!strong!economic!reasons.!It!provided!migrants!with!the!opportunity!to!return!

if!their!settlement!was!not!successful.!The!first!wave!was!not!a!crossZsection!of!Dutch!society.!

They!were!mostly!working!and!lower!middle!class!people!and!had!a!well!below!average!level!of!

education;!few!had!attended!secondary!schools,!particularly!among!the!women!(Leek,!1999).!

Most!hardly!spoke!a!word!of!English!on!arrival.!And!for!the!great!majority!it!was!the!first!time!

they!went!abroad!and!travelled!so!far!from!home!to!"the!end!of!the!earth".!They!must!have!felt!

pretty! insecure! about! what! was! going! to! happen.! Many! migrants! found! life! harsh! in! the!

beginning.! This! dilemma! is! best! captured! by! the! title! of! the! book! Cruel! Paradise! by! Speersta!

(2005)!about!the!life!stories!of!Dutch!emigrants.!Although!their!intention!was!to!stay,!almost!

one!third!of!the!first!wave!of!Dutch!migrants!went!back!before!the!end!of!the!1960s.!In!their!

study! Blauw! and! Elich! (1983)! found! that! most! of! the! return! migration! occurred! two! to! three!

years!after!the!initial!emigration.!Little!is!known!about!their!motives!to!return,!but!for!a!number!

it! was! probably! economic! and! social! factors! and! having! failed! to! adjust! to! their! new!

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environment.!Especially!women,!as!a!number!of!studies!have!shown,!missed!their!families!and!

their!support!(Jansen,!1990;!Doornbos,!2005).!Since!the!early!1990s!the!migration!flow!is!quite!

different! and! exists! primarily! of! people! who! arrive! with! the! intention! to! stay! temporarily! and!

then! return! back! home.! During! their! stay! abroad! they! maintain! close! ties! with! home! and! for!

these!reasons!the!great!majority!keeps!their!citizenship.!!!

To!conclude!there!are!three!factors!that!played!a!key!role!in!the!reluctance!of!the!Dutch!to!give!

up!their!nationality.!First,!many!of!the!Dutch!may!have!initially!kept!their!passport!as!a!form!of!

protest! against! the! assimilation! policy.! Second,! there! was! little! need! to! have! a! New! Zealand!

citizenship! to! integrate! successfully! for! an! immigrant.! Third,! because! of! the! economic!

uncertainty! in! their! new! environment! they! preferred! to! maintain! the! security! of! return.! They!

witnessed! sufficient! cases! of! failure.! New! Zealand! is,! because! of! its! economic! limitations,! as!

much! a! country! of! emigration! as! immigration.! Not! only! is! one! quarter! of! New! Zealand's!

population! born! abroad,! but! an! estimated! one! million! Kiwis! live! and! work! overseas.! So! New!

Zealand!is!shaped!by!a!culture!of!migration!where!one!has!to!keep!as!many!options!as!possible!

open!for!moving!to!greener!pastures.!A!foreign!passport!can!be!of!great!value!in!that!strategy.!!

!

7& COMPARING&CITIZENSHIP&RATES!

How! does! the! naturalisation! rate! of! the! Dutch! migrants! compare! with! that! of! other! major!

migrant!minority!groups!in!New!Zealand?!And!secondly!how!do!these!Dutch!naturalisation!rates!

compare!with!the!Australian!situation!for!the!Dutch!community!there?!The!Table!below!shows!

the! 10! countries! having! the! largest! number! of! people! naturalised! since! 1949.! In! total! around!

675,000!foreigners!were!granted!New!Zealand!citizenship!over!the!past!65!years.!

!

Table!4:!Number!of!people!naturalised!in!New!Zealand!by!country!of!birth!(1949!–!2013)

!

Country Numbers Country Numbers

1

United"Kingdom"

(1)

2

China"

(2)

3

Samoa"

(3)

193,869

69,261

62,841

6

Fiji

7

Philippines

8

Korea"

(4)

36,719

20,800

19,261

4

India

5

South"Africa

45,105

42,247

9

10

Taiwan

Netherlands

19,135

14,152

!

Note:!(1)!UK!includes!England,!Northern!Ireland,!Scotland!and!Wales;!(2)!China!includes!Hong!Kong,!Tibet,!Inner!Mongolia,!

Macau!en!Macao;!(3!)Samoa!includes!Samoa!and!Western!Samoa;!(4)!Korea!includes!Korea!and!South!Korea.!!

Source:!Department!of!Internal!Affairs,!Citizenship!Statistics!New!Zealand!

Five!major!source!countries!of!immigrants!to!New!Zealand!are!selected!for!comparison:!China,!

India,!South!Africa,!Korea!and!the!Philippines.!Excluded!are!the!British!and!Samoans!because!of!

their! colonial! historical! links! and! the! special! consular! relations! these! countries! had! with! New!

Zealand!in!the!past.!!

First!the!policies!of!citizenship!of!these!countries!in!particular!on!the!issue!of!dual!nationality!are!

briefly! summarised.! Secondly,! we! look! at! what! extent! these! countries! have! developed! a!

diaspora! policy! for! their! communities! abroad.! Both! are! factors! that! may! have! influenced! the!

migrants’!decision!making.!

Factors! that! contribute! to! a! state’s! recognition! of! dual! citizenship! are:! the! state! demand! for!

financial! capital! (remittances);! the! state! demand! for! human! capital! (brain! drain);! and! regime!

type!(more!dictatorial!regimes!are!less!likely!to!grant!dual!citizenship!to!its!people!abroad).!In!

general!Africa!and!Asia,!according!to!Faist!et!al!(2008),!seem!to!lag!behind!in!recognising!dual!

citizenship.! But! also! some! rich! democracies! like! Germany,! Switzerland! and! The! Netherlands!

have!very!restrictive!policies.!!!!

Based!on!the!rating!of!country!laws!on!citizenship!(Blatter!et!al,!2009),!for!our!selection!in!Table!

4!South!Africa!and!the!Philippines!are!considered!the!most!tolerant.!South!African!and!Filipino!

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!

citizens!are!legally!allowed!to!hold!dual!nationality.!The!other!three!countries!have!restrictive!

laws.! That! implies! that! in! principle! their! nationals! lose! their! citizenship! by! naturalisation! in! a!

foreign! country.! There! are! however! differences! in! restrictiveness! between! these! countries.!

China! and! Korea! are! the! most! restrictive! whereas! India! has! introduced! a! kind! of! ‘light!

citizenship’!for!their!nationals.!For!example,!overseas!citizens!of!India!will!enjoy!all!rights!and!

privileges!available!to!nonZresident!Indians.!!

The!other!important!factor!is!the!level!to!which!the!home!country!of!the!migrant!has!developed!

a!diaspora!policy!for!their!communities!abroad.!For!many!years!India!and!the!Philippines!have!

understood! the! strategic! importance! of! the! diaspora! in! economic! and! political! affairs! and!

therefore!include!them!in!their!foreign!policy!planning.!Recently!China!is!more!actively!pursuing!

policies!to!connect!culturally!and!politically!with!its!diaspora!communities!overseas.!With!these!

policies! they! support! the! ethnic! identity! of! their! former! nationals,! and! through! that! the!

interconnectivity! with! their! homeland.! The! Netherlands! lacks! such! a! diaspora! policy! and!

strategy!almost!completely.!!!

!

Table!5:!Number!of!overseasIborn!by!country!of!origin!in!New!Zealand

!

Country

China

India

South"Africa

Korea

Philippines

1976

4,372

6,305

3,840

147

234

1986

4,944

6,570

2,685

390

1,263

1996

31,278

12,807

11,334

12,183

7,005

2006

85,800

43,341

41,676

28,806

15,282

2013

89,121

67,176

54,279

26,601

37,299

Netherlands 21,700 24,486 23,430 22,101 19,815

!

!

Note:!China!figures!on!2006!and!2013!include!Hong!Kong!etc.!!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!Population!Censuses!

Importantly,! as! the! above! table! shows,! the! five! selected! countries! have! a! much! more! recent!

migration!history!with!New!Zealand!than!the!Dutch.!Whereas!the!Dutch!major!emigration!wave!

took! place! in! the! 1950s! and! first! half! of! the! 1960s,! for! the! other! communities,! the! peak! of!

emigration!to!New!Zealand!happened!in!the!1990s!and!thereafter.!EightyZnine!percent!of!the!

naturalised!Chinese!received!their!citizenship!in!the!1990s!or!later,!for!India!this!figure!is!88%,!

for! South! Africa! 90%,! for! the! Philippines! 93%! and! for! Korea! 99%.! In! comparison,! 80%! of! the!

naturalised!Dutch!got!their!citizenship!before!1990s.!

!

In!the!table!below!a!summary!is!given!of!the!citizenship!rates!for!different!ethnic!migrant!groups!

(see!Annex!2).!For!comparison!we!have!tried!to!select!periods!with!similar!conditions!regarding!

the! minimum! time! period! needed! for! the! naturalisation! process.! Whereas! for! the! Dutch! the!

early!period!of!migration!(i.e.!1949–1979)!is!chosen,!for!the!other!communities!the!more!recent!

period! (i.e.! 1980–2010)! is! used.! Given! that! one! has! to! live! in! New! Zealand! for! at! least! 5!

consecutive!years!to!meet!citizenship!residence!requirements,!the!census!figure!of!2006!is!used!

as!the!indicator!for!the!size!of!the!population!of!the!migrant!community!and!2010!as!indicator!

for! the! number! of! people! of! that! community! that! naturalised.! For! the! Dutch! the! number! of!

DutchZborn!from!the!1976!Population!Census!was!taken.!Because!of!increasing!death!rates!later!

statistics! became! less! reliable.! The! overall! naturalisation! rate! for! these! five! major! migrant!

communities!is!75%!–!compared!to!45%!for!the!Dutch.!When!comparing!over!the!same!period!

the! Dutch! rates! with! three! other! European! migrant! communities! in! New! Zealand! Germans,!

Swiss!and!Polish!the!rates!are!respectively!30%,!56%!and!85!%.!!

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!

Table!6:!Naturalisation!rates!by!country!of!birth

Country

Overseas!born!

(1)

Naturalisation

1949!O!1979 1980!–!2010

Rates!

(2)

China

India

85,800

43,341

4,162

3,344

61,252

35,627

71%

82%

South"Africa

Korea

Philippines

Netherlands

41,676

28,806

15,282

21,700

2,190

25

96

9,663

31,900

17,580

15,038

4,012

77%

61%

98%

45%

Note:!(1)!Overseas!born!for!The!Netherlands!is!based!on!the!Census!of!1976;!for!the!others!the!reference!census!is!2006.!(2)!

Naturalisation!rates!for!The!Netherlands!are!based!on!the!period!1949!I!1979;!for!the!others!the!period!1980!I!2010.!China!

includes!China!and!Hong!Kong.!!

Source:! Statistics! New! Zealand,! Population! Census! 1976! and! 2006;! Department! of! Internal! affairs,! Citizenship! Statistics!

New!Zealand,!2013!

!

The!Longitudinal!Immigration!Survey:!New!Zealand!(LisNZ,!2010)!confirms!these!findings.!The!

LisNZ! is! a! survey! of! immigrants! developed! by! the! Department! of! Labour! in! partnership! with!

Statistics! New! Zealand.! The! LisNZ! involves! interviews! with! the! same! group! of! migrants! at! 6!

months! (wave! 1),! 18! months! (wave! 2)! and! 36! months! (wave! 3)! after! taking! up! permanent!

residence.!At!wave!3,!migrants!were!asked!whether!they!had!gained!New!Zealand!citizenship!or!

whether!they!intended!to!apply!for!citizenship.!!

At! wave! 3,! most! migrants! (90.4%)! intended! to! stay! in! New! Zealand! for! 3! years! or! more! and!

78.4%! had! gained! or! intended! to! apply! for! New! Zealand! citizenship.! The! survey! showed! that!

migrants!from!South!Africa!(93.3%),!the!Pacific!(93.0%)!and!South!Asia!(86.5%)!were!more!likely!

to!have!gained,!or!want!to!apply!for,!New!Zealand!citizenship!than!migrants!from!other!regions.!

Migrants!from!the!rest!of!Europe!(excluding!UK!and!Ireland)!scored!lowest!with!62.9%.!!

According! to! LisNZ,! a! range! of! factors! have! influenced! migrants'! intentions! to! apply! for!

citizenship.!First,!policies!of!the!home!country!that!restricts!their!nationals’!ability!to!hold!dual!

citizenship.! TakeZup! of! citizenship! may! be! discouraged! by! such! laws,! which! strip! citizenship!

from!those!who!adopt!another!nationality.!Age!also!influences!migrants’!plans!for!the!future.!Of!

those!in!the!youngest!age!group!(16–24!years),!87.4%!had!gained!or!wanted!to!apply!for!New!

Zealand!citizenship,!compared!with!64.2%!of!those!aged!65!years!or!older.!Probably!the!most!

important! factor! is! the! intention! of! the! migrant:! whether! to! stay! or! return! back! later! to! their!

home!country.!The!LisNZ!study!clearly!indicates!that!migrants!from!Asia!and!South!Africa!arrive!

with!the!intention!to!stay!and!therefore!want!to!become!New!Zealand!citizens.!!

!

New! Zealand! Immigration! Statistics! show! indeed! that! the! countries! with! the! highest! level! of!

return!migration!have!also!the!lowest!level!of!naturalisation!(see!table!7!and!Annex!4).!Reasons!

for!return!vary!from!macroZscale!economic!or!political!events!to!individual!migrant!perspectives.!

Economic! stimuli! may! involve! pull! factors! from! the! area! of! origin! like! the! strong! economic!

recovery!in!the!Netherlands!since!the!midZ1960s,!as!well!as!push!factors!such!as!an!economic!

downturn!in!the!country!to!which!migrants!have!emigrated.!The!crisis!that!hit!New!Zealand!in!

the! early! 1970s,! when! the! UK,! its! largest! export! market,! joined! the! European! Economic!

Community! led! to! an! exodus! of! people! from! New! Zealand.! In! reality,! the! causes! of! return!

migration! are! many! and! varied,! and! somebody! may! decide! to! return! home! for! a! variety! of!

reasons!rather!than!just!one.!The!statistical!basis!for!studying!return!migration!is!still!weak!–!a!

situation!which!can!be!seen!as!both!cause!and!a!consequence!of!the!fact!that!return!migration!

has! been! a! neglected! aspect! in! population! studies! (Gosh,! 2000).! For! example,! different!

countries!have!different!criteria!defining!a!returning!migrant.!Many!countries!even!fail!to!record!

return!migration.!

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&

Table!7:!Return!migration!rates!by!country!of!residence!(1990!I!2013)!

Country

China"""""""""""""

Arrivals!!!!!!!!!!!!! Departures!!!!!!!!

162,855""""""""""""""""

Return!Rate!!!

44,841"""""""""""""""" 28%""""""""""""""""""

India"""""""""""""""

South"Africa"""""

83,113"""""""""""""""""

44,207""""""""""""""""""

13,133""""""""""""""""

6,983"""""""""""""""""

16%""""""""""""""""""

16%"

Korea

Philippines"""""""

46,682

32,200"""""""""""""""""

Netherlands""""" 12,834"""""""""""""""""

Note:!See!annex!4!for!more!details!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!International!Travel!and!Migration!

30,499

4,648""""""""""""""""""

8,351""""""""""""""""""

65%

14%""""""""""""

65%""""""""""""""""""

!

Above!data!seem!to!support!the!assumption!that!persons!from!countries!with!lower!economic!

opportunities!are!more!likely!to!stay!and!take!up!New!Zealand!citizenship.!Many!migrants!came!

to!New!Zealand!to!escape!difficult!political!situations!or!ethnic!conflicts!in!their!home!countries!

and!therefore!seek!the!additional!security!of!New!Zealand!citizenship.!Whereas!the!more!recent!

Dutch! transnational! migrants! follow! this! pattern! of! high! return! and! low! naturalisation,! the!

Dutch!migrants!from!the!1950s!and!1960s!seem!not!to!fit!into!this!theoretical!framework.!

Finally!we!will!compare!the!citizenship!rates!among!the!Dutch!in!Australia!and!in!New!Zealand.!

The!situation!in!Australia!under!almost!similar!legal!conditions!shows!surprisingly!a!completely!

different!picture!with!New!Zealand.!According!to!the!study!of!Smith!et!al!(2010),!like!in!New!

Zealand! also! Australian! citizenship! has! little! practical! effect! on! the! everyday! situation! of! the!

foreign!permanent!resident.!Smith!et!al!estimated!the!Dutch!citizenship!rate!in!Australia!at!75%!

(adjusted! even! up! to! 80%).! This! rate! corresponds! closely! with! the! number! of! DutchZborn!

passport! holders! in! Australia! versus! the! size! of! the! DutchZborn! population.! In! Australia! the!

Dutch! embassy! issues! annually! about! 6,500! passports! on! a! DutchZborn! population! of! around!

80,000! (2006! Population! Census).! In! New! Zealand! this! ratio! is! 4000! travel! documents! on! a!

DutchZborn! population! of! almost! 20,000! (2013! Population! Census).! Meaning! that! on! a!

population!size!four!times!as!large!only!one!and!a!half!times!more!passports!are!issued.!

What! is! different! between! New! Zealand! and! Australia! is! the! length! of! the! naturalisation!

procedure!being!5!years!for!New!Zealand!versus!2!years!for!Australia.!The!minimal!application!

requirements! in! Australia! may! have! contributed! to! some! extent! to! these! higher! rates! of!

naturalisation.!

But!what!may!be!a!more!important!contrast!is!the!greater!diversity!of!the!migrant!community!in!

Australia! in! the! 1950s! till! the! 1980s.! The! majority! of! the! migrants! to! New! Zealand! were! of!

AngloZSaxon!origin!till!the!late!1980s.!Only!more!recently!do!we!see!an!increasing!diversity!of!

migrants! in! New! Zealand.! Immigration! and! multiculturalism! became! much! earlier! important!

elements! in! Australia's! approach! to! nationZbuilding.! Hereby! citizenship! was! seen! as! the!

cornerstone! of! national! identity! according! to! the! Joint! Standing! Committee! on! Migration.!

Citizenship!as!stated!in!the!foreword!of!that!report!represents!an!individual's!commitment!to!

Australia.!

Another!factor!that!could!have!had!an!impact!on!the!difference!in!naturalisation!rates!was!the!

greater! economic! opportunities! Australia! offers! to! Dutch! migrants! in! comparison! with! New!

Zealand.!This!is!also!reflected!in!the!levels!of!return!migration!by!the!Dutch!between!the!two!

countries.! For! New! Zealand! the! return! rate! is! almost! 50%! over! the! past! six! decades.! For!

Australia!the!return!rate!is!40%!for!this!same!period!(Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!see!Annex!4!

for!statistics!about!Australia).!

&

Further! research! will! be! needed! to! explain! these! differences! in! the! naturalisation! rates! of! the!

Dutch!migrant!communities!in!New!Zealand!and!Australia.!

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8& DUAL&IDENTITY&

Donaghey! and! Papoutsaki! (2008)! identified! in! their! study! frequently! ambivalent! feelings!

regarding!the!extent!to!which!Dutch!migrants!retained!their!Dutchness!or!embraced!being!Kiwi,!

suggesting! an! enduring! ambivalence! towards! identity! and! nationhood.! Or! as! one! of! the!

respondents!said:!“there!are!lots!of!things!where!I!feel!I’m!more!a!New!Zealander!and!then!on!

the!other!hand!there’s!still!a!lot!of!Dutch!in!me”.!The!Dutch!look!AngloZKiwi,!and!tend!to!be!

monolingual! in! one! generation,! yet! deep! down! still! feel! Dutch! the! respondents! of! the! study!

were!trying!to!say.!!

It! is! possible! to! maintain! multiple! identities! in! different! contexts! and! situations.! And! these!

identities! moreover! may! change! both! through! internal! as! well! as! external! factors.! Ethnic!

intermarriage,!increasing!cultural!globalisation!and!diversification!of!society!are!central!to!this.!

Among!people!born!elsewhere,!length!of!residence!and!age!at!immigration!can!mean!former!

ethnic!affiliations!may!change!to!reflect!current!selfZidentified!ethnic!belonging.!Beyond!these!

social!processes,!the!political!climate!sways!public!opinion!on!ethnic!identity.!And!immigrants!

reconnect! with! their! identity! at! certain! points! in! their! life! cycle,! for! example! when! they! have!

children!or!when!they!retire.!So!people!may!change!the!way!they!identify!themselves!over!time!

and!in!different!situations.!

A!way!to!measure!dual!identity!among!the!Dutch!is!through!analysing!the!selfZidentified!ethnic!

group!question!of!the!Population!Census.!Before!discussing!the!results!on!ethnic!affiliation!for!

the!Dutch!of!the!2013!Population!Census!we!first!will!briefly!!give!some!background!information!

about!the!methodology!and!conceptual!and!classification!issues!of!ethnicity.!

The!New!Zealand!Population!Census!has!been!collecting!ethnicity!information!for!most!of!its!

history.! Ethnicity! has! been! asked! in! each! census! since! 1976.! The! definition! used! by! Statistics!

New! Zealand! to! measure! ethnicity! is:! “ethnicity! is! the! ethnic! group! or! groups! that! people!

identify!with!or!feel!they!belong!to.!Ethnicity!is!a!measure!of!cultural!affiliation,!as!opposed!to!

race,! ancestry,! nationality! or! citizenship.! Ethnicity! is! selfZperceived! and! people! can! belong! to!

more!than!one!ethnic!group”.!An!ethnic!group!is!further!defined!as!a!group!made!up!of!people!

who! have! some! or! all! of! the! following! characteristics:! a! common! proper! name;! one! or! more!

elements! of! common! culture;! unique! community! of! interests,! feelings! and! actions,! a! shared!

sense!of!common!origins!or!ancestry,!and!a!common!geographic!origin!(Statistics!New!Zealand,!

2007).!!

Worldwide!New!Zealand!is!one!of!a!small!number!of!countries!that!explicitly!allows!individuals!

to! affiliate! with! more! than! one! ethnic! or! racial! group! in! the! national! census! (Kukutai! and!

Thompson,!2007).!People!can!tick!as!many!ethnic!groups!as!they!like.!Among!researchers!and!

analysts!of!ethnic!data,!there!is!a!broad!consensus!that!allowing!people!to!choose!more!than!

one!group!is!desirable!to!best!reflect!the!nation's!ethnic!milieu!(Didham,!2005).!!

Statistical!measurement!of!ethnicity!has!a!subjective!basis.!Consequently,!there!is!volatility!in!

the!nature!of!the!responses!which!poses!problems!for!consistent!statistical!classification.!Any!

ethnicity!classification!revision!or!question!change!in!the!future!is!likely!to!affect!the!way!people!

respond!to!the!ethnicity!question.!This!will!mean!the!information!on!ethnicity!will!also!change.!

As!happened!with!the!Dutch!ethnic!classification!in!1996!(Pas!and!Poot,!2011).!In!that!census!

the! question! on! ethnicity! included! Dutch! as! a! separate! box! that! could! be! ticked.! That! year!

48,000! identified! themselves! with! the! Dutch! ethnic! group.! Almost! twice! as! much! as! in! 1991,!

recording! 24,732! Dutch.! Since! 1996! the! form! design! has! been! changed! and! Dutch! is! only!

mentioned!as!an!example.!

According! to! the! 2013! census! there! were! 28,500! people! in! New! Zealand! who! identified!

themselves!with!the!Dutch!ethnicity.!The!size!of!the!ethnically!Dutch!remained!relatively!stable!

over!the!past!decade.!The!censuses!of!2001!(27,507),!2006!(28,641)!and!2013!(28,503)!showed!

figures!almost!similar.!

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!55!!

A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

!

For!understanding! people’s!identification!with!Dutch!culture!and!descent!and!continuation!of!

interest! in! Dutch! heritage! two! factors! are! of! great! importance:! place! of! birth! and! age.! In! the!

Table!below!the!Dutch!ethnicity!data!is!presented!by!country!of!birth!and!age!category.!!!

!

Table!8:!Distribution!Dutch!Ethnicity!by!Country!of!Birth!and!by!Age!Category,!2013!

age$

Dutch!born!

NZ!and!elsewhere!born!

1 0"–"19

20"–"39

40"–"59

"

60+

"

"

"

" No"DE"

6%"

10%"

23%"

61%"

Single"DE"

4%"

13%"

31%"

52%"

Multi"DE" Total"DE" Single"DE"

10%"

16%"

26%"

48%"

5%"

13%"

30%"

52%"

15%"

19%"

37%"

29%"

Multi"DE"

50%"

29%"

20%"

1%"

Total"DE"

44%"

27%"

22%"

7%"

Total" 100%"

Total"N" 4,341"

100%"

13,896"

100%" 100%"

1,578" 15,474"

100%"

2,262"

100%"

10,767"

100%"

13,024"

!

!

Abbrev.:!

No!DE!

Single!DE!

ticked!no!Dutch!ethnicity!

ticked!only!Dutch!ethnicity!

!

Multi!DE!

ticked!Dutch!and!other!ethnicity/Iies!

Note:!New!Zealand!born!includes!also!those!born!outside!the!Netherlands!and!New!Zealand.!These!numbers!are!very!small;!

in!the!order!of!5%!of!the!total.!For!a!comparison!with!2006!data,!see!annex!6.!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!Population!Census,!2013!

About!55%!of!those!who!identified!themselves!as!Dutch!were!born!in!the!Netherlands!and!the!

remaining!45%!was!born!almost!exclusively!in!New!Zealand.!Compared!with!the!2006!data!we!

can!see!that!there!is!a!gradual!shift!from!DutchZborn!to!New!Zealand!born!in!the!ethnicity!data!

over!the!years.!

Of!the!DutchZborn!about!20%!did!not!identify!themselves!any!longer!as!Dutch.!This!is!probably!

to!a!large!extent!the!group!of!migrants!who!for!reasons!of!disappointment!with!the!way!they!

were!treated!by!their!own!government!in!the!past!changed!their!Dutch!citizenship!for!the!New!

Zealand! nationality.! The! remaining! 80%! of! the! NetherlandsZborn! classified! themselves! as!

Dutch.! Of! this! group! only! a! very! small! proportion! ticked! more! than! one! ethnic! category,! i.e.!

considered! themselves! KiwiZDutch.! So! the! conclusion! could! be! that! the! great! majority! see!

themselves!still!primarily!as!Dutch.!More!than!half!of!them!is!over!60!years!of!age!and!80%!over!

40!years.!!!

More!research!is!needed!to!find!out!whether!these!findings!support!the!somewhat!controversial!

conclusions!of!a!case!study!conducted!by!Noor!(1968).!She!argued!that!the!Dutch!immigrant!is!

fundamentally! not! happy,! and! has! maintained! their! Dutchness,! contrary! to! the! wide! shared!

opinion!that!the!Dutch!have!been!successfully!assimilated!into!New!Zealand.!According!to!her!

the!Dutch!immigrants!had!settled!into!New!Zealand!economic!life!very!successfully!but!at!the!

same!time!in!a!great!many!cases!still!retained!elements!of!their!own!cultural!heritage.!In!other!

words! do! these! ethnicity! statistics! support! Noor's! study! of! a! high! level! of! integration! and!

acculturation!rather!than!assimilation!of!the!Dutch!in!New!Zealand?!!

Besides!DutchZborn!the!Census!showed!that!there!is!a!growing!number!of!New!ZealandZborn!

who! identified! themselves! with! the! Dutch! ethnicity.! The! in! New! Zealand! born! have! two!

characteristics!in!common!in!which!they!differ!strongly!from!the!DutchZborn!group.!They!are!

substantially!younger!in!age!and!secondly!they!tick!in!the!questionnaire!to!a!very!large!extent!

more!than!one!ethnicity.!Indicating!that!they!belong!to!more!than!one!ethnic!group.!Whereby!

most!likely!the!Kiwi!identity!is!dominant!over!the!Dutch!identity.!

They!are!most!probably,!giving!their!age,!second!and!third!generation!Dutch!and!dual!passport!

holders.! The! total! numbers! correspond! strongly! with! the! results! of! the! earlier! mentioned!

passport!survey!carried!out!by!the!Embassy.!In!sum!it!is!evident!from!the!Census!statistics!that!

the!size!of!the!Dutch!ethnic!community!has!remained!very!stable!despite!the!ageing!of!the!first!

generation!migrants,!but!that!the!composition!is!gradually!changing:!by!more!younger!and!New!

ZealandZborn! who! identify! themselves! as! Dutch.! In! addition,! their! cultural! identity! is! shifting!

from!a!more!single!Dutch!ethnic!identity!towards!a!more!multi!or!dual!identity.!!!!!!

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

!

&

9& CONCLUSION&

It! is! a! common! saying! in! New! Zealand! that! the! Dutch! migrants! are! invisible! because! they!

integrated! so! well! and! had! given! up! their! Dutchness.! Many! migration! studies! over! the! Dutch!

settlers!in!New!Zealand!have!confirmed!this!image.!This!study!showed!that!despite!their!strong!

integration!the!majority!kept!their!Dutch!citizenship.!The!reasons!why!one!chooses!to!take!up!

local!citizenship!or!not!are!many,!as!this!study!has!shown.!

First,!the!research!data!has!clearly!indicated!that!easing!the!retention!of!original!citizenship!by!

the! migrant's! home! country! will! lead! to! increased! naturalisation! rates.! The! restrictive! Dutch!

laws!on!dual!nationality!have!certainly!played!an!important!role!in!the!low!rate!of!New!Zealand!

citizenship! among! the! Dutch.! But! the! high! rate! of! citizenship! intake! by! the! Chinese! migrant!

community!shows!that!the!correlation!is!more!complex.!Like!the!Dutch,!the!Chinese!also!have!

very! restrictive! citizenship! laws! yet! it! seems! that! this! had! no! impact! on! their! level! of!

naturalisation.!!

Second,!liberal!policies!to!residence!requirements!as!in!New!Zealand!will!reduce!the!need!for!

obtaining! citizenship! status.! Generally! citizenship! was! regarded! as! nothing! more! than! a! civil!

document!in!New!Zealand!that!legitimizes!the!individual's!presence!in!the!society.!So!there!was!

little!pressure!to!takeZup!citizenship.!But!in!recent!times!the!increasing!diversity!has!questioned!

the!past!policy!on!citizenship.!This!is!probably!also!the!reason!why!the!naturalisation!rate!of!the!

Dutch!in!Australia!is!twice!as!high!as!in!New!Zealand.!Australia!had!from!the!start!a!much!more!

diverse! migrant! community.! Citizenship! policies! became! therefore! an! important! element! in!

Australia's!approach!to!nationZbuilding.!

Third,!the!pressure!by!the!host!country!to!assimilate!and!to!drop!its!cultural!identity!may!have!

slowed!down!the!naturalisation!process.!The!study!indicated!an!enduring!dilemma!of!identity!

and!nationhood!–!ambivalent!feelings!regarding!the!extent!to!which!Dutch!migrants!retained!

their!citizenship!and!at!the!same!time!embraced!being!a!Kiwi.!The!more!recent!migrants!arrived!

in!a!time!where!New!Zealand!has!shifted!towards!a!more!multicultural!approach.!That!may!have!

made!it!easier!for!them!to!naturalise!as!their!national!identity!and!cultural!connectedness!was!

not!threatened.!But!the!study!also!revealed!that!becoming!a!citizen!of!a!country!is!not!a!reliable!

indicator!for!adopting!the!local!identity.!

Finally!the!intention!to!settle!permanently!or!temporarily!is!another!key!factor!in!the!decisionZ

making!process!to!apply!for!citizenship.!Most!recent!Dutch!migrants!to!New!Zealand!keep!their!

nationality!because!their!plans!are!to!return!or!move!on,!not!to!stay.!They!migrate!not!primarily!

out!of!economic!need!but!for!socioZcultural!reasons.!This!study!has!shown!that!there!is!a!strong!

correlation! between! the! economic! development! level! of! the! home! country! and! the! level! of!

return! migration.! The! poorer! the! home! country! the! more! likely! that! people! want! to! settle!

permanently!and!take!up!citizenship!of!the!host!country.!The!migration!pattern!of!Asia!to!New!

Zealand!seems!to!support!this!nexus.!

What!do!these!findings!mean!for!Dutch!citizenship!developments!in!New!Zealand!in!the!long!

run?! As! the! first! generation! gradually! passes! away,! is! Dutch! citizenship! interest! sufficiently!

rooted! in! the! next! generation?! Statistics! seem! to! confirm! a! growing,! although! still! limited,!

demand.!This!interest!is!based!on!a!combination!of!cultural!heritage!and!economic!factors.!Of!

key! importance! for! future! Dutch! citizenship! demands! in! New! Zealand! will! be! the! debate! on!

citizenship!laws!in!the!Netherlands.!Recent!discussions!in!the!Netherlands!seem!to!point!to!a!

more!restricted!attitude!towards!dual!nationality,!as!opposed!to!a!rising!trend!in!dual!citizenship!

that! can! be! witnessed! worldwide.! A! more! restrictive! policy! of! Dutch! citizenship! laws! will! in!

particular! weaken! the! future! ties! with! the! second! and! third! generation! of! Dutch! descendants!

overseas.!

&

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A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

!

&

!!

REFERENCES&

Beaglehole,! A.! (2006).! Immigration! Regulation.! In:!

Settler!and!migrant!peoples!of!New!Zealand.!Te!

Ara! –! The! Encyclopedia! of! New! Zealand.!

Auckland:!David!Bateman.!

Blater,! J.K.,! S.! Erdmann! and! K.! Schwanke! (2009).!

Acceptance! of! Dual! Citizenship:! empirical! ! data!

and! political! contexts.! Lucerne:! Institute! of!

Political!Science.!

Blauw,!P.W.!and!J.H.!Elich!(1983).!To!Emigrate...And!Still!

to! Return:! Dutchmen's! emigration! and! return!

migration.!International!Migration!21,!no3.!

Castles,! S.! and! P.! Spoonley! (1997).! Migration! and!

Citizenship.! AsiaZPacific! Migration! Research!

Network.!Auckland:!Massey!University.!

Castles,!S.!and!M.J.!Miller!(2009).!The!Age!of!Migration:!

international! population! movements! in! the!

modern!world.!London:!Palgrave!Macmillan.!

Didham,! R.! (2005).! Understanding! and! Working! with!

Ethnicity! Data:! a! technical! paper.! Wellington:!

Statistics!New!Zealand.!

Donaghey,!S.!and!E.!Papoutsaki!(2008).!The!Industrious!

Dutchie:! recording! the! experiences! of! first!

generation!Dutch!immigrants!to!New!Zealand!in!

the!1950s.!Oral!History!in!New!Zealand.!

Dongen,! Y.! van! (1992).! The! Invisible! Immigrants.! New!

Zealand!Geographic,!no!15.!

Doornbos,!J.!(ed)!(2005).!Swapping!Country!and!Culture!

in!the!1950s:!Dutch!born!women!look!back.!

Faist,!T.!and!J.!Gerdes!(2008).!Dual!Citizenship!in!an!Age!

of! Mobility.! Washington:! Migration! Policy!

Institute.!!

Gosh,! B.! (2000).! Return! Migration:! journey! of! hope! or!

despair! .! Geneva:! International! Organisation! of!

Migration.!!!

Green,! D.! (2006).! Citizenship.! In:! Settler! and! migrant!

peoples! of! New! Zealand.! Te! Ara! –! The!

Encyclopedia! of! New! Zealand.! Auckland:! David!

Bateman.!

Hofstede,! B.P.! (1964).! Thwarted! Exodus:! PostZwar!

overseas! migration! from! The! Netherlands.! The!

Hague:!Nijhoff.!!

Jansen,! A.! (1990).! I! Have! in! my! Arms! Both! Ways:! life!

stories! of! ten! immigrant! women.! Wellington:!

Allen!and!Unwin.!

Kukutai! T.! and! V.! Thompson! (2007).! Doind! Diversity!

Down!Under:!New!Zealand's!ethnic!enumeration!

practices! in! global! perspective.! Wellington:! Te!

Papa!Museum.!

&

Leek,! R.! (1999).! The! Dutch! in! Aotearoa.! ! In! North! and!

South!:!Proceedings!from!the!First!New!ZealandZ

Scandinavian! Conference! on! Ethnicity! and!

Migration.! Edited! by! I.! Holmqvist.! Vasteras:!

Malardalen!University.!

Maas,!W.!(2010).!Citizenship!and!Immigrant!Integration!

in!the!Netherlands.!In:!A.!Luedtke!(ed)!!Migrants!

and!Minorities:!the!European!response.!

Messina,!A.!and!G.!Lahav!(2006).!The!Migration!Reader:!

exploring! politics! and! policies.! Boulder:! Lynne!

Rienner.!

Noor,! J.J.! (1968).! A! Case! Study! in! Assimilation! and!

Integration!of!the!Dutch!Immigrant.!Wellington:!

Department!of!Geography,!Victoria!University.!

Oers,! R.! van,! B.! de! Hart! and! K.! Groenendijk! (2013).!!

Country! Report:! The! Netherlands.! EUDO!

Citizenship! Observatory.! European! University!

Institute,!Italy.!!

Pas,!S.!van!der!and!J.!Poot!(2011).!The!Transformation!of!

Immigrant! Communities:! the! case! of! Dutch!

Kiwis.!Research!report:!University!of!Waikato.!

Phlilips,!J.!(2006).!History!of!Immigration.!In:!Settler!and!

Migrant! Peoples! of! New! Zealand.! Te! Ara! Z! The!

Encyclopedia! of! New! Zealand.! Auckland:! Davis!

Bateman.!

Scheffer,! P.! (2000).! The! Multicutral! Tragedy.!

Amsterdam:!NRC!Handelsblad!29!January.!!!

Schouten,!H.!(1992).!Tasman's!Legacy.!Wellington:!New!

ZealandZNetherlands!Foundation.!

Scofield,! J.M.! (2011).! The! Promotion! of! Place:!

immigration! policies,! citizenship! and! economic!

reform! in! New! Zealand.! Dunedin:! University! of!

Otago.!

Smith,!D.,!J.!Wykes,!S.Jayarajah!and!T.!Fabijanic!(2010).!

Citizenship! in! Australia.! Department! of!

Immigration!

and!

Citizenship.!

Australian!

Government.!

Speerstra,! H.! (2005).! Cruel! Paradise:! Life! stories! of!

Dutch!emigrants.!Cambridge:!Eerdmans.!!

Thompson,! K.! (1970).! The! Dutch.! In:! K.! Thompson! and!

A.! Trlin! (eds)! Immigrants! in! New! Zealand.!

Palmerston!North!Massey!University.!

Trlin,! A.! (1992),! Change! an! Continuity:! New! Zealand"s!

immigration!policy!in!the!late!1980s.!In:!A.!Trlin!

and! P.Spoonley! (eds)! New! Zealand! and!

International! Migration.! Palmerston! North:!

Massey!University.!!

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!

!

Annex&1&

Dutch&statistics&of&emigration&and&immigration&of&Dutch&nationals&to&and&from&New&

Zealand,&1948S2012&

" m"

NL!to!NZ!

f" total" m"

NZ!to!NL!

f" total"

!

NL!to!NZ!

NZ!to!NL!

m" f" total" m" f" total"

1981"

775" 713" 1,488" 196" 201" 397"

1948"

1949"

1951"

1953"

1955"

61"

73"

2,033"

37"

45"

807"

1,470" 1,120"

520"

98"

118"

1950"

506" 172" 678"

2,840"

1952"

3,480" 1,577" 5,057"

2,590"

3"

5"

7"

14"

48"

66"

1954"

531" 451" 982" 108"

695" 1,215" 201"

4"

3"

1"

5"

18"

31"

52"

93"

7"

8"

8"

19"

66"

97"

160"

294"

1982"

802" 817" 1,619" 241" 213" 454"

1983"

588" 537" 1,125" 250" 226" 476"

1984"

401" 371" 772" 247" 236" 483"

1985"

336" 286" 622" 267" 247" 514"

1986"

386" 353" 739" 351" 315" 666"

1987"

386" 341" 727" 260" 220" 480"

1988"

493" 365" 858" 275" 238" 513"

1956"

807" 675" 1,482" 229" 122" 351"

1989"

404" 349" 753" 351" 340" 691"

1957"

677" 593" 1,270" 263" 139" 402"

1990"

366" 304" 670" 301" 246" 547"

1958"

1,086" 876" 1,962" 202" 128" 330"

1991"

302" 248" 550" 328" 260" 588"

1959"

860" 736" 1,596" 270" 210" 480"

1992"

288" 265" 553" 350" 289" 639"

1960"

703" 631" 1,334" 258" 217" 475"

1993"

303" 247" 550" 263" 228" 491"

1961"

861" 760" 1,621" 319" 255" 574"

1994"

244" 218" 462" 176" 163" 339"

1962"

670" 617" 1,287" 337" 300" 637"

1995"

235" 214" 449" 147" 145" 292"

1963"

428" 422" 850" 390" 351" 741"

1996"

265" 227" 492" 183" 140" 323"

1964"

524" 477" 1,001" 372" 372" 744"

1997"

239" 195" 434" 191" 158" 349"

1965"

458" 451" 909" 368" 332" 700"

1998"

183" 181" 364" 211" 157" 368"

1966"

455" 389" 844" 347" 305" 652"

1999"

178" 187" 365" 187" 146" 333"

1967"

533" 447" 980" 285" 244" 529"

2000"

197" 179" 376" 174" 170" 344"

1968"

312" 256" 568" 320" 258" 578"

2001"

229" 204" 433" 178" 152" 330"

1969"

295" 281" 576" 283" 287" 570"

2002"

224" 208" 432" 139" 120" 259"

1970"

312" 266" 578" 337" 332" 669"

2003"

259" 244" 503" 111" 101" 212"

1971"

311" 298" 609" 302" 330" 632"

2004"

237" 238" 475" 95"

1972"

446" 368" 814" 271" 277" 548"

2005"

329" 332" 661" 105"

99"

98"

194"

203"

1973"

361" 335" 696" 287" 309" 596"

2006"

453" 440" 893" 154" 158" 312"

1974"

539" 463" 1,002" 267" 239" 506"

2007"

304" 327" 631" 188" 199" 387"

1975"

382" 339" 721" 253" 235" 488"

2008"

259" 252" 511" 194" 188" 382"

1976"

356" 351" 707" 292" 273" 565"

2009"

231" 226" 457" 189" 179" 368"

1977"

421" 379" 800" 357" 372" 729"

2010"

216" 190" 406" 187" 173" 360"

1978"

458" 414" 872" 428" 388" 816"

2011"

237" 270" 507" 164" 155" 319"

1979"

460" 431" 891" 361" 357" 718"

2012"

213" 204" 417" 158" 168" 326"

1980"

648" 598" 1,246" 284" 258" 542"

Note:!Tabulated!by!Statistics!Netherlands!on!request!of!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington.!

Source:!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014!

!

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!

!

Annex&2&

Dutch&statistics&of&emigration&and&immigration&of&Dutch&nationals&to&and&from&Australia,&&&&

1948S2012&

" m"

NL!to!AUS!

f" total" m"

AUS!to!NL!

f" total"

!

m"

NL!to!AUS!

f" total" m"

AUS!to!NL!

f" total"

1948"

650" 452" 1,102"

59" 70" 129"

1981"

1,488" 1,394" 2,882" 380" 373" 753"

1949"

1,145" 449" 1,594"

62" 39" 101"

1982"

1,616" 1,545" 3,161" 385" 378" 763"

1950"

5,470" 4,100" 9,570"

131" 48" 179"

1983"

662" 668" 1,330" 513" 487" 1,000"

1951"

6,479" 4,536" 11,015"

151" 79" 230"

1984"

475" 464" 939" 441" 401" 842"

1952"

9,145" 7,055" 16,200"

319" 196" 515"

1985"

480" 500" 980" 382" 358" 740"

1953"

4,477" 3,957" 8,434"

487" 343" 830"

1986"

546" 536" 1,082" 381" 373" 754"

1954"

5,860" 4,805" 10,665"

661" 411" 1,072"

1987"

494" 453" 947" 370" 371" 741"

1955"

7,589" 6,208" 13,797"

808" 547" 1,355"

1988"

513" 463" 976" 346" 324" 670"

1956"

6,143" 5,364" 11,507"

1,138" 875" 2,013"

1989"

458" 469" 927" 464" 448" 912"

1957"

3,807" 3,475" 7,282"

1,118" 917" 2,035"

1990"

429" 370" 799" 448" 406" 854"

1958"

4,126" 3,620" 7,746"

1,005" 921" 1,926"

1991"

357" 334" 691" 492" 404" 896"

1959"

4,775" 3,968" 8,743"

1,011" 930" 1,941"

1992"

386" 301" 687" 447" 407" 854"

1960"

4,580" 3,871" 8,451"

1,093" 1,110" 2,203"

1993"

377" 334" 711" 341" 285" 626"

1961"

2,577" 2,326" 4,903"

1,751" 1,641" 3,392"

1994"

491" 385" 876" 305" 235" 540"

1962"

1,359" 1,349" 2,708"

1,788" 1,523" 3,311"

1995"

650" 527" 1,177" 279" 220" 499"

1963"

1,302" 1,178" 2,480"

1,780" 1,665" 3,445"

1996"

534" 485" 1,019" 457" 300" 757"

1964"

1,718" 1,558" 3,276"

1,295" 1,263" 2,558"

1997"

502" 470" 972" 345" 301" 646"

1965"

1,651" 1,304" 2,955"

1,244" 1,190" 2,434"

1998"

510" 438" 948" 403" 347" 750"

1966"

1,465" 1,335" 2,800"

1,269" 1,154" 2,423"

1999"

556" 564" 1,120" 346" 307" 653"

1967"

1,337" 1,156" 2,493"

1,025" 935" 1,960"

2000"

551" 508" 1,059" 351" 341" 692"

1968"

1,796" 1,528" 3,324"

1,118" 1,012" 2,130"

2001"

559" 501" 1,060" 378" 361" 739"

1969"

1,924" 1,525" 3,449"

985" 903" 1,888"

2002"

488" 424" 912" 388" 336" 724"

1970"

1,547" 1,293" 2,840"

1,375" 1,343" 2,718"

2003"

515" 551" 1,066" 285" 264" 549"

1971"

1,377" 1,291" 2,668"

1,496" 1,374" 2,870"

2004"

571" 514" 1,085" 262" 271" 533"

1972"

968" 935" 1,903"

1,540" 1,347" 2,887"

2005"

840" 804" 1,644" 270" 223" 493"

1973"

885" 841" 1,726"

1,229" 1,061" 2,290"

2006"

1,047" 1,037" 2,084" 449" 419" 868"

1974"

983" 871" 1,854"

960" 979" 1,939"

2007"

998" 873" 1,871" 566" 515" 1,081"

1975"

572" 548" 1,120"

819" 804" 1,623"

2008"

921" 879" 1,800" 585" 534" 1,119"

1976"

723" 726" 1,449"

756" 719" 1,475"

2009"

643" 669" 1,312" 541" 502" 1,043"

1977"

883" 918" 1,801"

611" 636" 1,247"

2010"

680" 638" 1,318" 422" 482" 904"

1978"

731" 763" 1,494"

611" 618" 1,229"

2011"

758" 775" 1,533" 407" 460" 867"

1979"

795" 734" 1,529"

538" 546" 1,084"

2012"

753" 798" 1,551"

1980"

1,184" 1,130" 2,314"

448" 384" 832"

Note:!Tabulated!by!Statistics!Netherlands!on!request!of!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington.!

Source:!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014!

386" 380" 766"

!

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!

Annex&3&

Naturalisations&of&major&migrant&communities&in&New&Zealand&(1949S2013)&

Born:!

Netherlands!

1972"

1973"

1974"

1975"

1976"

1977"

1978"

1979"

1980"

1965"

1966"

1967"

1968"

1969"

1970"

1971"

1981"

1982"

1983"

1984"

1958"

1959"

1960"

1961"

1962"

1963"

1964"

1949"

1950"

1951"

1952"

1953"

1954"

1955"

1956"

1957"

403"

276"

237"

270"

303"

345"

408"

212"

187"

402"

339"

372"

506"

499"

273"

300"

194"

191"

102"

167"

546"

745"

731"

472"

441"

534"

272"

21"

29"

75"

178"

440"

5"

2"

13"

14"

China!

170"

152"

87"

73"

65"

117"

180"

148"

111"

205"

117"

170"

107"

146"

81"

81"

105"

195"

222"

226"

144"

165"

257"

124"

195"

269"

160"

10"

12"

22"

30"

67"

51"

1"

3"

4"

"

"

"

"

Hong!Kong!

22"

1"

107"

113"

104"

88"

61"

81"

64"

70"

44"

29"

36"

38"

37"

22"

12"

23"

28"

7"

10"

25"

22"

27"

18"

8"

3"

6"

1"

1"

4"

1"

India!

151"

152"

124"

132"

133"

171"

309"

226"

239"

115"

77"

123"

132"

149"

107"

91"

189"

208"

178"

162"

63"

57"

92"

83"

80"

105"

63"

320"

21"

28"

17"

25"

50"

24"

79"

45"

"

"

SOAfrica!

140"

172"

341"

190"

196"

65"

91"

69"

56"

75"

137"

27"

30"

38"

30"

48"

36"

160"

186"

108"

133"

12"

5"

20"

129"

69"

133"

243"

5"

11"

8"

6"

3"

1"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Philippines!

3"

39"

71"

56"

81"

9"

31"

23"

38"

6"

6"

7"

1"

3"

3"

3"

1"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

SOKorea!

2"

2"

2"

1"

1"

8"

5"

2"

12"

1"

6"

10"

2"

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!

&

Born:

!

Netherlands!

2007"

2008"

2009"

2010"

2011"

2012"

2013"

1998"

1999"

2000"

2001"

2002"

2003"

2004"

2005"

2006"

1985"

1986"

1987"

1988"

1989"

1990"

1991"

1992"

1993"

1994"

1995"

1996"

1997"

146"

143"

135"

126"

143"

220"

114"

126"

111"

123"

96"

74"

88"

116"

105"

142"

103"

63"

80"

91"

71"

109"

78"

151"

172"

164"

203"

203"

152"

total!

China!

2,231"

4,693"

3,762"

2,585"

1,902"

2,050"

2,859"

3,339"

3,925"

3,087"

1,919"

1,132"

676"

846"

1,160"

1,178"

359"

589"

1,850"

2,159"

1,533"

1,310"

1,346"

191"

239"

275"

207"

379"

380"

Hong!Kong!

1,418"

1,602"

1,273"

745"

546"

256"

261"

223"

166"

173"

133"

86"

65"

78"

70"

80"

282"

581"

1,249"

1,379"

1,395"

1,118"

1,253"

95"

101"

134"

169"

178"

171"

14,152!

52,433!

16,393!

45,105!

42,247!

Source:!Department!of!Internal!Affairs,!Citizenship!Statistics!New!Zealand!2014!

India!

897"

1,784"

1,854"

1,380"

1,358"

1,262"

2,138"

2,931"

4,362"

5,218"

3,431"

2,246"

1,570"

1,649"

2,274"

2,211"

221"

376"

533"

638"

470"

497"

520"

103"

109"

177"

155"

195"

226"

SOAfrica!

1,182"

1,652"

2,011"

2,040"

1,977"

1,997"

2,411"

2,446"

2,812"

3,124"

2,413"

1,808"

1,339"

2,105"

2,784"

3,268"

293"

234"

280"

334"

203"

363"

938"

120"

166"

198"

200"

225"

351"

Philippines!

404"

1,007"

952"

841"

658"

557"

706"

846"

1,139"

1,171"

718"

697"

848"

663"

2,218"

2,785"

304"

327"

681"

635"

319"

409"

327"

108"

132"

152"

217"

291"

307"

20,800!

SOKorea!

1,079"

2,211"

1,958"

1,046"

679"

598"

1,085"

1,531"

1,648"

1,456"

887"

585"

457"

444"

518"

357"

11"

20"

44"

97"

190"

665"

1,239"

5"

11"

21"

6"

8"

14"

18,924!

&

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!

Annex&4&

Arrivals&and&departures&of&major&migrant&communities&by&country&of&citizenship&(1990S2013)!

!!!

!

!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!International!Travel!and!Migration!

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!

Annex&5&

Distribution&Dutch&Ethnicity&by&Country&of&Birth&and&by&Age&Category,&2006&and&2013!

2006$

age"

1 0"–"19

20"–"39

40"–"59

60+

"

Total"

Total"N"

"

"

"

Dutch!born!

No"DE"

4%"

10%"

30%"

56%"

100%"

5,127"

NZ!and!elsewhere!born!

Single"DE" Multi"DE" Total"DE" Single"

DE"

5%"

17%"

33%"

45%"

100%"

14,985"

8%"

15%"

26%"

51%"

100%"

5%"

17%"

32%"

46%"

100%"

1,989" 16,974"

21%"

23%"

32%"

24%"

100%"

2,565"

Multi"DE"

56%"

25%"

17%"

2%"

100%"

9,105"

Total"DE"

48%"

25%"

20%"

7%"

100%"

11,670"

2013$

age"

1 0"–"19

"

20"–"39

"

40"–"59

"

60+

"

Dutch!born!

No"DE"

NZ!and!elsewhere!born!

Single"DE" Multi"DE" Total"DE" Single" Multi"DE" Total"DE"

DE"

6%"

10%"

23%"

61%"

4%"

13%"

31%"

52%"

10%"

16%"

26%"

48%"

5%"

13%"

30%"

52%"

Total"

Total"N"

100%"

4,341"

100%"

13,896"

100%" 100%"

1,578" 15,474"

!

!

Abbrev.:!

No!DE!

ticked!no!Dutch!ethnicity!

Single!DE!

ticked!only!Dutch!ethnicity!

!

Multi!DE!

ticked!Dutch!and!other!ethnicity/Iies!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand,!Population!Census!2006!and!2013&

15%"

19%"

37%"

29%"

100%"

2,262"

50%"

29%"

20%"

1%"

100%"

10,767"

&

44%"

27%"

22%"

7%"

100%"

13,024"

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!

&

&

7& Dutch&societies&in&New&Zealand&

!

!

Arie!van!der!Wiel!and!Christine!Hofkens!

1 INTRODUCTION&

The! most! visible! effort! made! within! the! Dutch! migrant! community! to! keep! cultural! heritage!

alive!was!the!formation!of!Dutch!clubs!in!New!Zealand.!In!this!chapter!we!will!focus!on!their!

history! and! development.! Studies! on! immigration! associations! have! highlighted! the! fact! that!

!

their!roles!are!not!static,!but!change!during!the!various!migration!and!integration!phases!and!

have!a!different!meaning!for!the!first!versus!the!second!and!third!generation!migrants.!!!

Besides! a! brief! theoretical! review! about! different! patterns! of! collective! organisations! among!

diaspora! or! migrant! communities,! the! central! questions! to! be! tackled! here! include:! what!

!

motivated!Dutch!immigrants! to! organise!themselves!in!clubs!or!associations?!What!functions!

did! these! clubs! serve! at! the! various! phases! of! the! migration! process?! What! did! these!

associations!mean!to!the!people!they!represent!and!what!identity!options!did!these!institutions!

offer?!

We!are!very!grateful!for!the!assistance!received!from!the!Federation!of!New!Zealand!Netherlands!

Societies!providing!statistics!and!information!on!the!Dutch!clubs!in!New!Zealand.!In!particular,!

our!thanks!goes!to!Kees!Dorresteijn!(President!of!the!NZINL!Society!Wellington),!Tini!de!Winter!

(Christchurch),! Marina! Wylaarts,! (President! of! the! Netherlands! Society! Christchurch),! Jos!

Jongenelen!(Chairman!of!the!Friendly!Support!Network!Trust)!and!New!Zealand!Statistics.!

!

!

2 THE&PHENOMENON&OF&DIASPORA&ASSOCIATIONS&&

We!will!start!first!with!a!brief!definition!of!the!term!diaspora.!The!term!was!used!for!the!Dutch!

migrant! community! Down! Under! at! the! Conference! in! Melbourne.! The! concept! has! enjoyed!

remarkable!popularity!over!the!past!two!decades,!but!also!can!easily!lead!to!misunderstanding.!

In!the!past!the!term!was!often!associated!with!oppression!and!forced!displacement.!!

!

In! the! modern! migration! literature,! the! term! diaspora! refers! to! migrant! communities! leaving!

their!homeland!and!spreading!around!the!globe!who!share!a!number!of!common!cultural!traits.!

The! following! common! characteristics! of! a! diaspora! movement! are! usually! thereby!

distinguished:! collective! memory! about! the! homeland;! idealisation! of! the! ancestral! home;!

strong!ethnic!group!consciousness;!and!solidarity!with!coZethnic!members!in!other!countries.!!

!

A!central!issue!in!the!diaspora!concept!is!the!way!they!have!organised!themselves!in!the!host!

country! to! be! able! to! sustain! their! common! heritage.! Migration! research! about! the! role! of!

voluntary!organisations!within!the!diaspora!communities!has!grown!over!the!past!decades.!The!

literature!on!immigrant!organisations!is!becoming!quite!vast.!See!for!example!Moya!(2005)!and!

Sardinha!(2009).!!

These!studies!have!demonstrated!that!diaspora!voluntary!organisations!are!not!only!important!

for! the! immigrant! themselves,! but! also! for! the! study! of! their! participation,! integration! and!

identity!formation!in!the!host!country.!Studying!these!organisations!enables!us!to!make!better!

sense! of! the! complex! and! dynamic! developments! that! take! place! within! immigrant!

!

communities.!

In!characterising!diaspora!associations,!one!can!describe!the!opposing!goals!and!strategies!they!

perform.!On!the!one!hand!the!associations!have!inwardZlooking!functions!by!providing!a!kind!of!

safe!haven!for!their!members.!Emphasis!thereby!is!on!the!role!immigrant!organisations!play!in!

ethnic! identity! issues.! On! the! other! hand,! their! more! outward! looking! functions! concentrate!

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&

!

their!attention!on!economic!integration!and!on!strengthening!the!participation!opportunities!of!

migrants!in!the!host!country.!

!

We!can!also!make!a!distinction!about!the!scope!of!activities!these!organisations!are!involved!in.!

An!immigrant!association!may!exist!for!a!wide!variety!of!reasons:!social,!recreational,!cultural,!

religious,!political,!business,!service,!citizenship!or!a!combination!of!some!or!all!of!these.!!

!

Diaspora!associations!are!not!only!multidimensional,!but!also!prone!to!chance!in!character!over!

time.!As!studies!on!the!formation!of!these!organisations!have!revealed,!in!the!initial!migration!

stage,! associations! function! to! lessen! the! impacts! of! social! upheaval! caused! by! migration.! As!

the!migrant!settlement!proceeds,!and!as!increased!contact!with!the!host!society!starts!to!take!

place,! immigrant! associations! then! begin! concentrating! their! attention! also! on! community!

integration.! In! other! words,! while! it! is! common! for! immigrant! associations! to! be! founded! to!

preserve!the!identity!and!culture!of!their!members,!inevitably!these!associations!also!could!end!

up!playing!a!major!role!in!the!socioZeconomic!settlement!process!of!their!members.!!

!

A! factor! that! can! play! an! important! role! by! the! formation! of! diaspora! organisations! is! the!

receiving! country's! political! and! ideology! toward! immigration.! Thereby! it! is! possible! that!

cohesiveness! within! the! migrant! community! is! much! stronger! in! situations! where! there! is! a!

troubled! relationship! between! the! diaspora! and! the! host! societies.! On! the! other! hand! an!

immigration! policy! by! the! host! country! promoting! assimilation! may! also! weaken! the!

development! of! networkZbased! ethnic! societies.! In! contrast! policies! by! the! recipient!

government! emphasising! pluralism! or! multiculturalism! may! stimulate! the! start! of! voluntary!

associations!and!local!clubs.!

!

Finally,!another!important!dimension!of!diaspora!associations!to!take!into!consideration!for!our!

discussion! is! to! what! extent! governments! of! the! diaspora's! home! countries! have! developed!

outreach!policies!to!link!up!with!and!promote!contact!and!dialogue!with!migrant!organisations.!

Some!countries!like!India,!for!example,!have!for!many!years!developed!a!clear!diaspora!foreign!

policy!strategy!to!strengthen!the!relations!with!their!communities!abroad.!!

!!!

!

3 THE&DUTCH&SETTLEMENT&PROCESS&

This! somewhat! simplified! settlement! pattern! and! dual! role! (identity! preservation! and!

integration)! performed! by! diaspora! associations! is! not! always! that! straightforward,! as! not! all!

migration! movements! follow! the! same! process.! We! can! distinguish! a! number! of! factors! that!

affect! the! immigrant! group! settlement,! such! as! the! socioZeconomic! background! of! the!

migrants,!the!characteristics!of!the!migration!flow!and!the!policies!of!the!recipient!countries!on!

integration!of!immigrants.!!

!

The! Dutch! migration! to! New! Zealand! in! the! 1950s! took! place! after! a! five! year! war! and! in! a!

period! when! the! country! was! struggling! to! reconstruct! its! ruined! economy! and! society.! High!

unemployment,!housing!shortages!and!a!baby!boom!increased!these!pressures.!Dutch!men!and!

!

women!who!left!were!referred!to!as!a!lost!generation,!stigmatized!by!the!disruption!and!trauma!

of!war,!seeking!a!new!life!in!a!new!environment.!!

They!were!usually!young.!As!the!table!1!below!shows,!60%!was!in!their!twenties.!Almost!20!%!

were!children!joining!their!parents.!Sometimes!in!the!migration!literature!also!referred!to!as!one!

and! half! migrants! to! differentiate! them! from! those! called! first! generation! migrants.! The! age!

when!somebody!arrives!is!an!important!factor!for!maintaining!its!culture,!because!the!younger!

they!are!the!less!they!have!been!exposed!to!the!culture!at!home!and!the!less!likely!they!are!to!

pass!it!on!to!their!children.!!

!

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!

!

Table!1:!Age!Distribution!of!Dutch!Emigrants!to!New!Zealand,!1950I1959!

Arrival!

0!O!14!

15!O!19!

20!O!29!

30!O!49!

50!O!64!

65+!

Total!

1950"

1951"

1952"

1953"

1954"

1955"

1956"

1957"

124"

444"

576"

199"

84"

153"

200"

248"

21"

98"

253"

85"

47"

71"

100"

82"

371"

1,655"

3,335"

1,827"

671"

743"

769"

581"

160"

605"

854"

453"

158"

223"

290"

289"

2"

36"

36"

24"

21"

22"

113"

59"

0"

2"

3"

2"

1"

3"

10"

11"

678"

2,840"

5,057"

2,590"

982"

1,215"

1,482"

1,270"

1958" 447" 94" 850" 479" 74" 18" 1,962"

1959" 385" 80" 679" 407" 37" 8" 1,596"

&

Note:!Tabulated!by!Statistics!Netherlands!on!request!of!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington.!

Source:!Statistics!Netherlands!(CBS),!2014!

!

The!great!majority!of!the!first!wave!of!migrants!belonged!to!the!lower!middle!class!with!limited!

levels!of!education!(Leek,!1999).!Very!few!of!them!had!attended!secondary!schools,!particularly!

among!the!women.!The!best!most!of!the!men!could!show!writes!Leek!was!a!certificate!of!the!

elementary! technical! institute! (‘ambachtschool’! these! days! called! in! the! Netherlands).! The!

majority! came! in! the! Netherlands! from! heavily! overpopulated! and! economically! depressed!

areas.! For! many! of! them! therefore! the! Netherlands! had! few! opportunities! to! offer.! So! the!

option! for! returning! to! the! Netherlands! looked! hardly! realistic! to! them.! They! worked! like!

Trojans,!concludes!Leek,!to!make!from!this!journey!a!success.!!

!

Another! factor! that! may! have! played! an! important! role! in! maintaining! Dutch! identity! abroad!

has!to!do!with!the!Dutch!character!and!psyche.!The!Dutch!are!highly!individualistic.!They!do!not!

form! a! closeZknit! social! network! like! the! Asian,! Greek! and! Italian! migrant! communities.!

Furthermore! the! Dutch! have! a! low! ethnic! selfZimage.! It! is! often! said! that! they! have! little!

nationalist! pride! except! on! the! soccer! field.! The! Dutch! have! never! had! the! feeling! that! their!

culture!was!worth!exporting!said!Prof!Albeda,!former!Minister!of!Social!Affairs!and!a!prominent!

speaker!on!migration.!Take!for!example!the!Dutch!cuisine.!One!sees!very!few!Dutch!restaurants!

abroad.!It!may!be!argued!therefore!that!the!easy!integration!may!have!also!been!caused!by!a!

!

less!visible!national!identity.!

The! nature! of! the! migration! movement! also! had! an! impact! on! the! integration! process.! The!

majority!of!these!early!Dutch!migrants!received!financial!assistance!from!both!the!Dutch!and!

the! New! Zealand! governments.! This! strongly! contributed! to! the! feeling! that! this! was! not! a!

temporary! movement.! Dutch! emigrants! came! to! New! Zealand! with! the! idea! to! settle! here!

permanently!and!to!become!Kiwi!–!not!to!stay!Dutch.!They!were!therefore!generally!keen!to!

integrate!into!their!new!country.!However!one!third!of!the!original!group!has!returned!to!the!

Netherlands!making!this!one!of!the!highest!return!rates!among!New!Zealand!foreign!settlers.!

!

Failing!to!assimilate!was!probably!the!main!reason!for!return.!!

From!the!New!Zealand!side,!the!immigration!policy!was!strongly!focused!on!assimilation.!On!

arrival,! all! new! migrants! faced! pressure! to! discard! their! Dutchness.! The! New! Zealand!

government's!policy!to!achieve!this!was!to!ensure!migrants!were!spread!out!over!the!country!to!

avoid! large! concentrations! of! people! with! the! same! ethnic! background! in! one! place.! Studies!

have!shown!that!of!all!different!groups!in!New!Zealand,!the!Dutch!have!spread!themselves!most!

widely!over!the!country.!The!Dutch!in!New!Zealand!live!as!dispersed!throughout!the!country!as!

the! AngloZSaxon! Kiwis,! with! very! few! concentrations.! Even! within! an! area! with! a! high!

concentration!of!Dutch!not!many!Dutch!know!one!another.!In!addition,!many!parents!were!told!

not! to! speak! Dutch! at! home! as! that! would! be! bad! for! the! children’s! education.! Some! even!

stopped! speaking! their! native! tongue! completely.! As! a! result,! children! of! Dutch! migrants!

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!

retained!less!of!their!parents’!language!than!any!other!ethnic!group.!This!is!unique!in!the!world,!

but!not!unique!to!Dutch!migrants;!the!same!happened!in!Australia,!Canada!and!the!US.!

!

So! on! reaching! their! new! home! country,! many! kept! their! heads! down! and! suppressed! their!

heritage.! Industrious,! thorough! and! enthusiastic! they! were! determined! to! be! the! perfect!

migrants,! writes! Schouten! (1992),! merging! into! the! local! community! and! becoming!

indistinguishable.!The!tough!conditions!and!the!need!to!adapt!forced!them!to!put!their!origins!

and! heritage! aside.! It! will! not! be! surprising! that! under! these! circumstances! there! were! no!

!

significant!incentives!to!form!Dutch!migrant!associations.!!

!!

4& EARLY&HISTORY&OF&DUTCH&CLUBS&&&&&

&

Despite! the! strong! drive! to! integrate,! some! in! the! community! protested! against! this! loss! of!

identity!and!started!Dutch!clubs!in!different!parts!of!the!country!to!keep!cultural!roots!alive.!The!

first!Dutch!clubs!in!New!Zealand!were!founded!in!1948!in!Auckland!and!Wellington,!followed!

soon!after!by!Christchurch!and!Invercargill!on!the!South!Island.!At!the!end!of!the!1950s!there!

were! 13! clubs! throughout! the! country,! in:! Wellington,! Auckland,! Christchurch,! Invercargill,!

Otago/Dunedin,! Palmerston! North,! Taranaki,! Rotorua,! Waikato,! Wairarapa,! Wanganui,!

Whangarei,!and!Balclutha.!

!

Unfortunately,!little!written!information!about!the!initial!period!of!the!Dutch!clubs!is!left.!Most!

of! the! statistics! are! therefore! based! on! interviews! with! members! and! some! jubilee! editions,!

indicating!that!in!the!late!1960s!to!early!1970s!Auckland!had!1,300!and!Wellington!550!affiliated!

!

members.!

According!to!these!sources!it!is!estimated!that!Dutch!clubs!counted!in!total!approximately!3,500!

soZcalled!affiliated!family!members!around!the!beginning!of!the!1970s.!This!number!is!not!equal!

to!individual!membership.!With!family!membership!club!affiliation!could!be!boosted!to!almost!

the!double.!The!total!number!of!Dutch!migrants!that!stayed!in!New!Zealand!in!the!late!1960s!

was!approximately!20,000.!This!suggests!that!30%!of!Dutch!migrants!were!members!and!also!

indicates! that! the! overwhelming! majority,! 70%,! were! not! members.! The! membership! rate!

among!the!Dutch!migrant!community!was!probably!much!lower!than!with!clubs!serving!other!

ethnic! groups! such! as! the! Italians,! Greeks,! Poles! and! Pacific! Islands! communities,! notes!

Schouten!(1992).!

!

One! of! the! reasons! for! the! low! participation! rates! as! stated! above! was! the! assimilation!

programme.! Staying! Dutch! was! actively! discouraged! in! those! days! by! the! New! Zealand!

government.! But! also! the! factional! differences! in! the! clubs,! either! of! class,! region! or! religion,!

were! for! many! a! reason! not! to! join.! During! the! time! the! first! wave! of! migrants! arrived,! the!

Netherlands! was! still! strongly! characterized! by! ‘verzuiling’! (pillarisation),! a! kind! of! social! and!

cultural!segmentation!of!society.!Most!of!the!migrants!were!born!and!brought!up!in!a!strongly!

sectarian! society.! Churches! (in! particular! Roman! Catholic,! Dutch! reformed! and! Calvinist!

organisations)!played!an!important!part!in!the!recruitment!of!migrants.!For!New!Zealand!the!

division!was!roughly!as!follows!for!the!first!10!years:!45%!had!a!Catholic!background,!25%!were!

Dutch!Reformed,!10%!Calvinist!and!15%!had!no!denomination!(Hofstede,!1964).!Many!migrants!

felt! that! the! clubs! reflected! that! same! divided! society! from! which! they! came.! The! extensive!

!

‘verzuiling’!in!the!Dutch!community!did!cause!internal!divisions.!

Another!factor!for!the!relatively!low!interest!in!club!membership!may!have!been!the!high!rate!of!

chain!migration!among!the!Dutch!to!New!Zealand.!Thompson!(1970)!writes!that!almost!40%!of!

the!Dutch!migrants!had!close!relatives!in!New!Zealand!before!migration.!This!makes!settling!in!

easier!and!the!need!for!support!by!a!Dutch!local!organisation!less!urgent.!

!

On!the!other!hand,!it!should!also!be!realised!that!the!early!settlement!days!were!tough.!Few!

Dutch!emigrants!were!really!aware!of!the!psychological!and!physical!complexities!an!emigration!

undertaking!would!engender.!Almost!none!of!them!had!any!overseas!experience.!The!majority!

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&

hardly!spoke!English.!Moreover!not!many!felt!that!the!expectations!promised!by!the!receiving!

organisation! were! delivered! at! least! in! the! initial! years! following! arrival.! Many! therefore!

struggled!to!settle!in.!On!arrival!it!was!made!clear!to!immigrants!that!they!were!aliens!and!many!

felt!that!they!were!treated!as!secondZclass!citizens.!Some!bridged!this!cultural!divide!by!keeping!

!

their!Dutchness!through!joining!the!Dutch!clubs!and!becoming!Kiwis!with!the!New!Zealanders.!!!!

The! prime! function! of! the! Dutch! clubs! according! to! Tini! de! Winter! was! bringing! the! Dutch!

culture!to!the!community.!She!said!clubs!also!became!a!haven!of!friendship!and!companionship!

for! the! early! migrants! (Schouten,! 1992).! ! Somewhere! they! could! share! their! experiences! and!

give!each!other!support.!

!

Many! of! the! clubs! started! around! fundraising! activities! related! to! a! Dutch! event! (Schouten,!

1992).!The!club!in!Invercargill,!as!in!other!centres,!became!actively!involved!in!response!to!the!

news!of!a!disastrous!flood!in!‘Old’!Zeeland!in!1953.!In!Dunedin!the!fundraising!campaign!by!the!

Dutch!community!to!support!the!Assumptionist!priests!sent!out!to!serve!the!migrants!became!

the! catalyst! for! the! establishment! of! the! Dutch! club! there.! In! Wellington,! Christchurch! and!

Auckland,! the! celebrations! of! Queen's! Day! and! ‘Sinterklaas’! (St! Nicholas)! became! the! driving!

forces!behind!the!foundation!of!the!clubs.!

!

Not!all!the!clubs!managed!to!get!their!own!premises.!Invercargill!was!one!of!the!first!to!succeed.!

Club! premises! there! were! bought! in! the! midZ1950s! after! a! successful! fundraising! event.!

Christchurch!got!its!society's!home,!Everglades!a!privately!owned!golf!course,!through!issuing!

debentures.! Others! who! were! able! to! later! buy! their! own! clubhouse! included! Auckland! and!

Wellington.!

!

People!gathered!in!the!weekends!in!these!clubs.!The!clubs!facilitated!contact!between!Dutch!

immigrants! living! in! New! Zealand! and! offered! the! opportunity! to! speak! Dutch.! They! also!

engaged!in!a!range!of!Dutch!activities.!The!most!popular!events!were!the!Dutch!National!Day!

celebrations! including! Orange! Balls,! Carnival! festivities! and! the! St! Nicholas! parties! for! the!

children.!Tulip!Festivals!were!annual!highlights.!For!many!societies!‘Klaverjassen’,!a!Dutch!card!

game,!became!the!backbone!of!club!activities.!

!

Most!of!the!Dutch!clubs!later!became!branches!of!the!Federation!of!New!Zealand–Netherlands!

Societies.!The!Federation!functioned!as!a!kind!of!umbrella!organisation!for!the!Dutch!clubs.!In!

addition!it!was!responsible!for!the!Holland!Festival/Het!Festijn!(including!Dutch!Choirs,!Dutch!

Folk! Dances! and! the! Dutch! Drama! Groups)! organised! every! 3! years! by! one! of! the! larger!

Netherlands!Societies!in!New!Zealand.!

!

The! majority! of! the! societies! also! produced! their! own! magazines.! These! club! magazines!

together!with,!for!example,!the!Windmill!Post,!the!Orange!Wimpel!(Orange!Banner),!and!local!

Dutch! radio! programmes! became! important! links! towards! the! Dutch! community,! providing!

them! with! news! from! the! Netherlands! and! of! Dutch! activities! in! New! Zealand.! The! Windmill!

!

Post!had!a!circulation!of!almost!5,000!before!it!stopped!in!the!early!1990s.!!

Finally,!Dutch!clubs!played!an!important!role!in!negotiating!with!airlines!to!get!cheaper!fares!

back!to!the!Netherlands!for!their!members.!Fares!back!home!were!at!least!a!third!cheaper!than!

normal! economy! class! travel.! Some! may! have! joined! the! clubs! just! to! take! advantage! of!

!

discounted!airfares.!!

In! sum,! Dutch! clubs! in! New! Zealand! in! the! early! migration! period! can! best! be! classified! as!

associations!strongly!focused!on!issues!related!to!their!home!country.!These!clubs!were!hardly!

!

involved!in!matters!dealing!with!the!integration!of!the!Dutch!community!in!New!Zealand.!!

!!

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&

5& THE&DECLINE&OF&THE&DUTCH&CLUBS&

From!the!1980s!onwards!clubs!were!facing!a!decline!in!membership,!particularly!because!of!lack!

of!interest!by!second!generation!Dutch!descendants.!The!overwhelming!majority!of!the!second!

generation!regard!themselves!as!Kiwis.!Apart!from!a!limited!knowledge!of!the!Dutch!language!

and!a!bit!of!a!taste!for!typical!Dutch!food,!they!probably!see!themselves!as!Dutch!in!name!only.!!

!

What! also! contributed! to! the! assimilation! process! was! the! fact! that! among! the! second!

generation,! marriages! between! partners! both! of! Dutch! descent! had! become! unusual.! Some!

25%!of!the!first!wave!(1950–1955)!of!Dutch!migrant!males!and!fewer!than!10%!of!the!women!

married!outside!the!clan.!For!those!who!came!in!the!second!half!of!the!1950s!till!the!end!of!the!

1960s!the!rate!of!intermarriage!increased!to!60%!and!for!those!born!in!New!Zealand!to!80%.!At!

the!end!of!the!1960s!the!rate!of!intermarriage!for!Dutch!males!had!risen!to!85%!(Thompson,!

1970).!This!unusual!high!rate!of!intermarriage!has!been!one!of!the!major!factors!in!the!degree!to!

which!the!Dutch,!unlike!other!immigrant!minorities,!have!blended!into!New!Zealand!society.!!

!

!

!

Table!2:!Affiliated!Members!Of!The!Federation!Of!New!Zealand!Netherlands!Societies,!1997I2014!

"

2014" 2013" 2012" 2011" 2010" 2009" 2008" 2007" 2006" 2005" 2004" 2003" 2002" 2001" 2000" 1999" 1998" 1997"

Christchurch""""

238" 236" 302" 269" 293" 305" 301" 292" 291" 245" 260" 256" 272" 295" 308" 315" 307" 331"

Auckland"

Wellington"

Waikato"

Rotorua"

Manawatu"

Taranaki"

190" 216" 252" 254" 265" 288" 293" 310" 272" 285" 285" 307" 334" 360" 355" 361" 405" 450"

156" 154" 157" 159" 164" 173" 180" 189" 190" 208" 213" 208" 215" 230" 230" 250" 240" 250"

116" 105" 129" 165" 165" 175" 178" 174" 165" 160" 147" 150" 175" 190" 210" 189" 220" 255"

67" 74" 82" 100" 82" 82" 90" 84" 90" 93" 79" 93" 95" 109" 138" 135" 132" 140"

62" 56" 55" 56" 55" 68" 73" 78" 80" 78" 83" 77" 91" 80" 90" 103" 90" 89"

29" 34" 32" 36" 36" 44" 45" 47" 47" 40" 45" 45" 45" 44" 49" 46" 45" 50"

Whangarei"

Wairarapa"

Wanganui"

Invercargill"

Otago"

Balclutha"

22" 29" 34" 34" 37" 36" 41" 43" 39" 42" 28" 52" 53" 52" 35" 33" 34" 44"

11" 11" 16" 16" 22" 23" 22" 21" 21" 22" 20" 18" 22" 22" 26" 26" 25" 26"

16" 16" 15" 19" 20" 23" 20" 18" 24" 24" 22" 20" 20" 23" 24" 29" 23" 29"

0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 75" 75" 87" 77" 80"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 56" 61" 58" 59" 62" 67" 67" 69"

0" 20" 24" 21" 27" 28" 34" 34" 34" 36" 36" 37" 35" 36" 40"

Total!

907!

931! 1,074! 1,108! 1,159! 1,241! 1,264! 1,283! 1,247! 1,231! 1,272! 1,321! 1,416! 1,575! 1,639! 1,676! 1,701! 1,853!

!

!

Note:!annual!member!data!is!based!on!financial!years!

Source:!Federation!of!New!Zealand!Netherlands!Societies!Inc,!2014!

Studies! in! the! 1980s! confirmed! the! lack! or! declining! interest! among! the! Dutch! community! in!

their!communal!identity!and!national!character.!A!study!undertaken!by!two!Dutch!sociologists,!

Hoogeveen!and!Ettema!(1984),!in!Christchurch,!found!that!more!than!half!of!their!respondents!

rarely!or!never!attended!Dutch!club!functions,!nor!listened!to!Dutch!radio!broadcasts;!and!four!

out!of!five!never!read!Dutch!newspapers.!

!

In! the! late! 1980s! and! during! the! 1990s! we! could! witness,! writes! Schouten! (1992),! a! renewed!

interest!among!the!older!settlers!as!they!reached!retirement!age.!A!kind!of!nostalgia!is!feeding!

this!revival.!Those!who!didn't!want!to!be!seen!related!to!these!clubs!in!the!past!suddenly!were!

quite!happy!to!get!together!with!people!they!have!a!lot!in!common!with.!The!reactivation!of!the!

clubs! came! with! a! realisation! that! it! could! take! a! completely! different! role:! providing! regular!

companionship!and!interest!for!the!growing!number!of!elderly!Dutch.!!!

!

It!will!therefore!not!be!surprising!that!all!the!other!efforts!by!the!Dutch!clubs!and!the!Federation!

to! try! to! involve! the! next! generation! and! encourage! them! to! become! members,! such! as! the!

Tulip!Queen!Contests!and!Abel!Tasman!Awards,!moreZorZless!failed.!While!they!were!big!events!

and! received! a! lot! of! publicity! few,! if! any,! of! the! participants! became! members! of! the! Dutch!

societies.!!

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As!the!above!table!shows,!the!numbers!have!gone!down!substantially!over!the!past!years.!The!

total! is! now! below! 1,000! and! only! a! handful! of! clubs! are! still! viable.! With! the! overwhelming!

majority!of!the!members!of!Dutch!societies!over!80!years!of!age,!there!is!a!clear!shift!in!both!

their!interest!and!their!potential.!!

!

Since! the! late! eighties! two! changes! in! the! migration! landscape! of! New! Zealand! could! have!

stopped! this! decline! of! Dutch! migrant! networks.! In! the! first! place! there! is! a! shift! away! from!

assimilation! to! a! more! multicultural! approach! in! New! Zealand's! immigration! policy,! and!

secondly,! there! is! a! growing! interest! in! a! new! wave! of! more! transnational! migrants! from! the!

Netherlands!settling!in!New!Zealand.!

!

In! the! 1990s,! a! multitude! of! newcomers,! mainly! from! Asia,! arrived! in! New! Zealand.! In! New!

Zealand!from!the!midZeighties!onwards!the!emphasis!in!the!migration!policy!has!been!put!upon!

multiculturalism.!This!means!that!all!immigrant!groups!have!the!right!to!retain!their!language!

and!their!culture!Z!their!ethnic!distinctiveness.!In!fact!they!are!encouraged!to!do!so.!Integration!

not!assimilation!is!the!preferred!concept.!Whereas!the!Dutch!culture!was!suppressed!in!the!time!

the!first!Dutch!emigrants!arrived,!these!days!cultural!traditions!and!heritage!by!new!migrants!

are!very!much!welcomed!including!the!establishment!of!clubs!and!voluntary!associations.!!

!

The!new!generation!migrants!who!arrived!since!the!1990s!could!have!been!a!potential!source!of!

revival!and!change!in!the!Dutch!clubs.!These!soZcalled!transnational!migrants!maintain!strong!

ties!with!their!countries!of!origin.!They!came!with!the!idea!to!stay!only!temporarily!and!go!back!

after!a!number!of!years.!Return!migration!for!this!group!of!Dutch!immigrants!is!according!to!

CBS! figures! around! 70%.! They! often! maintain,! build! and! reinforce! multiple! linkages! with! the!

Netherlands.!They!speak!Dutch!within!the!family!and!stay!in!close!contact!and!pay!regular!visits!

to! home.! However! they! are! less! traditional! in! their! culture! and! more! international! in! their!

outlook.!So!for!them!joining!a!Dutch!club!in!New!Zealand!is!like!stepping!into!Dutch!history!of!

fifty!years!ago.!This!is!probably!the!main!reason!that!till!now!very!few!new!generation!migrants!

have!become!member!of!Dutch!Clubs!in!New!Zealand.!Some!years!ago!the!Wellington!Society!

managed! to! attract! a! group! of! new! generation! migrants! to! the! club.! The! question! is! to! what!

extent!they!will!stay!open!for!changes!in!their!club!to!accommodate!these!newcomers?!

!

!

6& AGEING&ISSUES&&

&&

Migrants,!writes!Schouten!(1992),!go!through!four!stages.!First!they!seek!fellow!Dutch!people!

already! living! here,! who! can! speak! their! language! and! give! advice.! Next! they! strive! for! total!

independence,! concentrating! mainly! on! careers.! In! the! third! stage,! typically! at! age! 55! after!

children! have! left! home,! they! ask! why! we! are! here.! Finally! there! is! often! a! reversion! to! the!

language!and!culture!of!their!birth.!

!

What!indeed!has!been!noticed!among!the!first!wave!of!Dutch!migrants!was!that!their!affiliation!

to! their! roots! became! stronger! as! they! became! older.! Advancing! age! seems! to! bring! an!

increased! need! to! be! with! people! who! share! the! same! background! and! upbringing,! and! who!

!

have! the! same! sense! of! humour,! mother! tongue! and! value! system.! As! they! get! older,! they!

revert!more!and!more!to!the!Dutch!ways!or!come!to!terms!with!who!they!are.!!

It! was! out! of! this! backZtoZtheZfuture! shift! in! perspective! that! Ons! Dorp! in! Henderson! was!

created!in!1984.!It!became!the!first!ethnic!retirement!village!in!New!Zealand.!The!concept!was!

also!born!out!of!concern!about!the!elderly!Dutch!emigrants.!Other!villages!were!later!built!in!

Morrinsville!and!Hamilton.!Ons!Dorp!looks!like!a!piece!of!Holland!in!New!Zealand!–!the!streets!

are! cobbled! and! the! roofs! are! like! those! of! a! Dutch! farmhouse! (van! Dongen,! 1992).! These!

retirement! villages! responded! to! the! growing! need! of! the! elderly! Dutch! and! played! an!

!

important!role!in!establishing!a!center!of!Dutch!identity.!!

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!

The!Dutch!people!who!came!to!New!Zealand!in!the!1950s!and!1960s!are!now!in!their!70s!and!

80s.!Around!one!third!of!the!Dutch!born!in!New!Zealand!is!over!70!years!of!age!and!around!one!

!

tenth!is!over!80!(see!table!3).!

&

Table!3:!Age!Distribution!of!Dutch!Born!Migrants!in!New!Zealand,!2006!and!2013!

Age!

Numbers"

2006!

%" Numbers"

2013!

%"

10"–"19"

20"–"39"

1,098"

3,381"

5"

15"

963"

2,430"

6"

12"

40"–"59"

60"–"69"

70"–"79"

80+"

7,011"

3,336"

5,559"

1,716"

32"

15"

25"

8"

5,682"

3,675"

3,243"

3,822"

Total" 22,101" 100"

Source:!New!Zealand!Statistics,!Population!Census!2006!and!2013

!!

19,815" 100"

!

!

Care!for!the!elderly!Dutch!has!been!a!major!issue!and!concern!for!a!number!of!years.!A!growing!

problem!among!the!Dutch!elderly!is!language!loss.!Studies!have!shown!that!if!you!are!bilingual!

and!you!develop!dementia!you!will!lose!your!most!recent!language!first.!You!are!left!with!only!

your! native! language! at! a! time! of! critical! need.! This! occurs! in! an! environment! where! hardly!

anybody!speaks!Dutch,!including!most!of!your!own!relatives.!Language!loss!implied!that!they!

!

became!suddenly!very!isolated.!!

Elderly!care!started!in!the!midZ1980s!with!establishment!of!a!voluntary!organisation!to!support!

the! ageing! people! in! the! Dutch! community,! the! soZcalled! Friendly! Support! Network! (FSN)!

(Jaspers,!2009).!The!FSN!provides!support!to!the!Dutch!elderly!in!the!form!of!visits!and!in!many!

other! ways! such! as! transport,! practical! help! and! coffee! mornings.! The! FSN! works! closely!

together!with!the!Dutch!Societies!and!Clubs!and!receives!financial!support!from!the!Federation!

of!NZ!NL!Societies.!

!

More!and!more!the!focus!of!Dutch!Societies!is!on!support!and!care!for!its!ageing!members.!The!

!

original! aim! of! Dutch! Societies! to! promote! Dutch! culture! and! heritage! to! the! wider! New!

Zealand!community!has!become!of!less!relevance!to!them.!!!

&

&

7& NEXT&GENERATION&

The!firstZgenerations’!children!and!grandchildren!are!often!referred!to!as!the!next!generation!

migrants.! The! next! generation! comprises! not! only! the! second! and! third! generation! but! also!

includes! the! soZcalled! one! and! half! (1.5)! generation! (those! born! in! the! Netherlands,! but! who!

emigrated! with! their! parents! at! an! early! age).! The! next! generation! has! remained! relatively!

invisible! in! participating! and! identifying! themselves! with! Dutch! heritage! activities! in! New!

Zealand.!According!to!Schouten!(1992)!Dutch!descent!is!no!guarantee!for!Dutch!identity.!In!his!

book!Tasman’s!Legacy!he!states!“the!majority!of!migrants’!children!regard!themselves!as!New!

Zealanders,! and! apart! from! a! limited! knowledge! of! the! Dutch! language! and! a! taste! of! Dutch!

!

food,!they!probably!see!themselves!as!Dutch!in!name!only”.!!

!

Thorough! research! about! second! and! third! generation! migrants! is! still! very! scarce.! Most!

generalisation!and!assumptions!are!based!on!relatively!small!case!studies.!!!

!

The!most!widely!stated!assumption!about!the!next!generation!and!identity!is!that!it!dilutes!over!

time! and! when! generations! pass! on.! In! other! words! the! second! generation! has! a! stronger!

connection!with!its!roots!than!the!third.!The!interest!in!the!Dutch!heritage!declines!the!further!

removed!they!are!from!their!ancestors!who!migrated!from!the!Netherlands.!

29"

18"

16"

19"

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Some!researchers!like!Kappert!(1988)!reported!that!the!second!generation!hailing!from!the!late!

1960s! and! early! 1970s! were! different,! and! showed! again! a! greater! interest! in! their! cultural!

heritage!compared!with!children!of!Dutch!migrants!from!the!1950s!who!preferred!to!lose!their!

distinctiveness!as!much!as!possible.!Similar!remarks!are!made!by!Yska!(2006),!Tap!(1997)!and!

Slot!(1992).!Slot!observes!in!the!early!1990s!a!trend!among!young!people!to!return!for!some!

time!to!the!Netherlands.!Clearly!they!feel!a!need!to!rediscover!their!roots,!he!writes.!!

!

Others!like!van!Dongen!(1992)!argue!that!the!third!generation!may!even!be!more!interested!in!

their! grandparents’! origins! than! their! parents! were.! The! further! you! are! from! the! migration!

movement! itself! the! more! interested! you! are! in! its! history.! Or! as! a! historian! wrote! about! the!

!

migration!process:!“what!the!son!wishes!to!forget!the!grandson!wishes!to!remember”.!!

But!what!most!studies!seem!to!agree!about!is!the!language!loss!over!the!generations!within!the!

Dutch! migrant! community.! Kroef's! (1977)! study! in! the! 1970s! already! indicated! that! language!

maintenance! among! the! Dutch! has! been! poor! and! language! shift! faster! and! more! nearly!

complete!than!among!other!ethnic!groups.!She!noted!a!sharp!decline!of!language!maintenance!

from!the!first!to!the!second!generation!and!an!all!but!total!loss,!even!of!passive!competence,!

amongst! the! third.! ! Numerous! other! studies! (Hulsen,! 2000;! Crezee,! 2009)! have! shown! that!

!

Dutch!migrants!are!some!of!the!quickest!language!shifters.!!

Many!respondents!in!the!study!of!Crezee!(2009)!reported!to!regret!having!shifted!from!the!use!

of!Dutch!at!home.!An!overwhelming!majority!also!said!to!her!that!their!adult!children!are!now!

criticising! them! for! not! having! maintained! their! language! with! them.! There! appears! to! be! a!

resurgence! of! pride! in! their! identity! among! second! Z! and! third! generation! Dutch! and! this! is!

apparent!from!the!real!level!of!interest!in!the!Dutch!classes!which!were!offered!at!the!university!

of!Auckland!for!a!while!she!concludes.!!

!

Census!statistics!of!2006!seem!to!confirm!the!fact!that!there!is!still!a!small!minority!among!the!

New! Zealand! born! that! identify! themselves! with! the! Dutch! ethnic! group! who! do! speak! the!

Dutch! language.! Around! one! quarter! of! the! 27,000! who! indicated! to! speak! Dutch! in! New!

Zealand! are! local! born! and! therefore! most! likely! second! and! third! generation! Dutch!

!

descendants.!

What!became!clear!from!the!pilot!study!carried!out!by!Tanja!Schubert!was!that!the!strength!of!

the!Dutch!connection!is!not!only!dependent!on!the!degree!of!kinship,!i.e.!being!second!or!third!

generation,! but! is! as! much! determined! by! factors! as! for! example! age! when! parents! and!

grandparents! emigrated! (how! exposed! were! they! to! the! Dutch! culture! when! they! left),! the!

immigration! policies! at! the! time! of! arrival,! the! opportunities! to! continue! speaking! their! own!

language!at!home,!the!level!of!intermarriage!i.e.!whether!one!or!both!parents!were!Dutch!and!

the! possibilities! of! retaining! dual! citizenship.! More! research! on! a! sufficiently! large! scale! is!

&

&

needed!to!be!able!to!draw!more!general!conclusions!on!the!relationship!between!the!degree!of!

Dutchness!and!kinship!dimension.&

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8& NEW&PLATFORMS&

Today!diversity!has!become!a!fundamental!feature!of!New!Zealand!society.!New!Zealand!is!one!

of!the!most!diverse!societies!in!the!OECD!with!over!200!ethnicities!recorded!in!the!2006!census.!

According!to!2013!census,!25%!of!the!people!in!New!Zealand!were!born!elsewhere.!

!

The!old!notion!of!assimilation!as!experienced!by!the!first!Dutch!migrants!is!no!longer!seen!as!

the! desirable! outcome! of! immigration.! New! Zealand! society! and! government! now! sees! a!

positive!value!in!diversity!and!the!retention!by!ethnic!minorities!of!their!cultural!heritage.!Active!

!

celebrations!of!the!many!different!ethnic!heritages!which!contribute!to!modern!New!Zealand!

are!now!a!noticeable!and!welcome!feature.!

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The! preservation! and! promotion! of! Dutch! heritage! is! gradually! taken! over! by! others.! Two!

organisations!are!worthwhile!mentioning!here:!the!New!Zealand!Netherlands!Foundation!and!

!

the!Dutch!Connection!Museum!Trust.!

In!1990,!the!New!Zealand!Netherlands!Foundation!was!established:!to!enhance!and!implement!

cultural! and! educational! exchanges! between! New! Zealand! and! the! Netherlands;! to! recognize!

and!acknowledge!the!contribution!Dutch!settlers!have!made!to!New!Zealand,!and!promote!a!

wider! understanding! of! this;! and! to! facilitate! and! commission! research! into! the! contribution,!

both! past! and! present,! that! Dutch! New! Zealanders! have! made.! Over! the! past! 22! years! the!

Foundation! has! organised! a! large! number! of! projects! including! the! Publication! of! the! Book!

Tasman's!Legacy;!Dutch!Exhibition!in!Te!Papa;!the!travelling!exhibition!of!Anne!Frank's!History;!

the! World! Press! Photo;! the! Dutch! Touch;! and! the! Mana! Maori! Exhibition! and! Waka! Maori!

!

project!in!the!National!Museum!of!Ethnology!in!Leiden.!!!

The!Dutch!Connection!is!an!organisation!that!aims!to!establish!a!museum!and!cultural!center!

where!the!history,!culture!and!artefacts!of!the!Dutch!migrants!could!be!saved!and!displayed.!

The! Dutch! Connection! has! been! developing! its! museum! project! since! 2005.! The! Dutch!

Connection! plans! to! build! this! museum! in! Foxton.! In! 2010,! it! partnered! officially! with! several!

local!organisations!into!‘Te!Awahou!–!Nieuwe!Stroom’!to!realise!its!objectives.!The!main!aim!of!

the!Dutch!Connection!is!to!preserve!the!Dutch!legacy!in!New!Zealand.!As!the!Dutch!integrated!

so!well,!and!therefore!often!are!referred!to!as!the!Invisible!Migrants,!most!New!Zealanders!don't!

know!much!about!the!stories!of!the!Dutch!and!their!contribution!to!the!country’s!development.!

However!it!is!also!envisaged!that!the!museum!will!become!a!focal!point,!a!centre!of!learning!

about! the! modern! Netherlands! and! promote! more! socioZeconomic! and! peopleZtoZpeople!

!

exchange!between!the!two!countries.!!

As! both! organisations! have! no! members! they! are! very! much! dependent! on! donations! from!

sponsors.! The! Foundation! had! a! range! of! sponsors! for! their! different! projects! both! from! the!

private! sector! as! well! as! from! the! government,! including! the! Dutch! Embassy! over! the! past!

decades.! They! also! generated! income! through! sponsoring! initiatives! promoting! Netherlands!

New!Zealand!cooperation.!The!Dutch!Connection!is!primarily!focused!on!a!single!project!–!the!

establishment!of!a!Museum!and!Cultural!Centre.!One!of!their!main!sponsors!is!the!Federation!of!

NZ!NL!Societies.!The!Dutch!clubs!who!may!disestablish!themselves!in!the!near!future!because!

of!falling!memberships!have!to!make!up!their!minds!about!their!assets.!An!option!could!be!to!

invest!these!funds!in!a!project!promoting!their!Dutch!Legacy!in!New!Zealand.!!!!!!!!

!

It!seems!clear!that!the!future,!if!any,!of!the!Dutch!clubs!will!not!rest!with!the!second!or!third!

generation.!Some,!like!the!Wellington!Club,!have!vested!their!hopes!in!the!new!migrants.!The!

more!recent!Dutch!migrants!are!very!different!from!those!who!emigrated!in!the!1950s.!They!are!

less!traditional!in!their!culture,!and!more!international!in!their!outlook.!In!addition!they!are!not!

permanent!settlers!and!may!return!back!home!after!a!number!of!years.!That!is!why!they!like!to!

keep!in!touch!with!the!Dutch!and!with!home.!It!is!still!too!early!to!say!that!this!combination!has!

a!future.!

The! Foundation! has! for! a! number! of! years! started! to! explore! the! level! of! interest! in! Dutch!

heritage!amongst!the!second!and!third!generation!descendants.!This!is!by!far!the!largest!group!

within! the! Dutch! migrant! community! with! approximately! 100,000! people.! As! the! second! and!

third! generation! grew! up! and! established! their! families,! the! connection! with! their! Dutch!

heritage!became!more!tenuous.!Focusing!on!the!next!generation!is!the!approach!with!the!most!

challenges,!but!also!the!most!opportunities!when!successful.!!

!

In! the! past,! a! number! of! attempts! have! been! undertaken! to! see! whether! more! cooperation!

between! the! different! platforms! was! possible.! In! 2008! the! Dutch! Forum! ‘Onze! HoeWie’! was!

organised.!One!of!the!objectives!was!to!establish!a!Dutch!Council!that!could!speak!on!behalf!of!

all!Dutch!in!New!Zealand.!This!conference!showed!that!the!various!Dutch!groups!have!strongly!

diverse!interests,!but!as!somebody!concluded!at!this!meeting:!united!we!stand;!divided!we!fall.!

!

Unfortunately!until!now,!no!agreement!has!been!reached.!!

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&

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9& CONCLUSION&

&

Five! general! conclusions! emerge! from! this! study! about! the! way! the! migrant! community! has!

!

organised!itself!in!New!Zealand!to!be!able!to!sustain!their!common!heritage.!

First,! the! history! of! the! organisation! of! Dutch! migrant! communities! in! New! Zealand! showed!

great!reluctance!towards!participation!in!local!Dutch!institutions.!At!its!height,!only!about!30%!

were! members! of! Dutch! societies! or! clubs.! The! existing! organisations! were! strongly! inward!

looking! and! primarily! interested! in! keeping! a! certain! kind! of! traditional! Dutch! identity! alive.!

Dutch!associations!played!no!significant!role!in!the!integration!process!of!the!Dutch!diaspora!in!

New! Zealand.! The! integration! process! of! the! majority! of! Dutch! migrants! was! successful!

!

primarily!as!a!result!of!a!personal!drive!and!not!because!of!group!pressure.!The!Dutch!prefer!to!

deal!with!problems!privately.!!

Second,!the!Dutch!clubs!have!failed!to!attract!the!interest!of!the!second!and!third!generation!to!

join!them.!Pilot!studies!have!shown!that!most!of!the!Dutch!descendants!identify!themselves!as!

Kiwis!with!a!pride!for!the!Dutch!ancestry.!Their!main!interest!is!to!learn!more!about!their!roots;!

however!more!about!the!Netherlands!than!about!the!Dutch!community!in!New!Zealand.!This!

goes! beyond! the! traditional! clogs! and! tulips! the! clubs! are! associated! with.! More! research! is!

needed!to!find!out!what!the!meaning!of!a!Dutch!identity!is!for!the!second!and!third!generation!

Dutch!in!New!Zealand.!!

!

Third,! with! the! ageing! of! the! Dutch! first! generation! migrants! the! clubs’! relevance! further!

declined.!It!has!now!reached!such!a!low!level!that!the!future!of!the!Federation!and!its!affiliated!

societies! is! at! risk.! With! these! institutions! gradually! fading! away,! their! role! of! caretaker! for!

promoting!and!maintaining!the!Dutch!identity!in!New!Zealand!disappears.!Some!believe!that!an!

important! revival! can! be! brought! about! by! the! new! generation! migrants! who! can! inject! new!

energy!in!the!Dutch!clubs.!The!new!Dutch!migrants!are!more!interested!in!keeping!their!Dutch!

identity! than! the! second! and! third! generation.! For! example,! most! of! them! speak! Dutch! at!

home.!They!seem!to!have!more!in!common!with!the!first!generation!migrants,!especially!now!

!

their!affiliation!to!their!original!roots!has!become!stronger!as!they!become!older.!

Fourth,! there! is! a! strong! desire! for! more! cohesion! among! the! Dutch! organisations! in! New!

Zealand.! Two! organisations,! the! Dutch! Connection! and! the! Netherlands! New! Zealand!

Foundation,! try! to! claim! the! Federations! heritage.! These! two! organisations! both! focus! on!

keeping!the!Dutch!legacy!alive!as!well!as!strengthening!the!socioZcultural!ties!between!our!two!

countries.!Their!success!on!the!one!hand!will!to!a!large!extent!depend!on!the!way!they!will!be!

able!to!include!the!second,!third!and!new!generation!in!their!initiatives,!while!on!the!other!hand!

being!better!able!to!coordinate!their!efforts!and!initiatives.!

!

Finally,! what! opens! opportunities! is! the! change! of! New! Zealand’s! migration! policy.! Since! the!

1980s! the! country! has! moved! away! from! a! sort! of! monocultural! domination.! Diversity! has!

become!the!new!national!identity.!If!this!multicultural!diversity!is!to!be!fostered!and!encouraged!

then! it! is! essential! for! the! New! Zealand! government! to! provide! the! necessary! resources! and!

develop! a! set! of! policies! for! culturally! based! needs;! a! policy! that! is! probably! most! successful!

when! carried! out! together! with! the! governments! of! countries! having! large! diaspora!

communities!in!New!Zealand.!The!Netherlands!has!never!actively!pursued!policies!to!connect!

culturally! and! politically! with! its! diaspora! overseas.! However,! more! and! more! countries! these!

days!recognize!the!strategic!importance!of!the!diaspora.!

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REFERENCES&

Crezee,!I,!(2009).!Promoting!the!Dutch!Language!

in!New!Zealand.!In:!Dutch!Forum!"Onze!

HoeWie".!Wellington:!South!Pacific!

Publishing!Consultancy.!

Dongen,!Y.!van!(1992).!The!Invisible!Immigrants.!

New!Zealand!Geographic,!no!15!.!

Hofstede,!B.P.!(1964).!Thwarted!Exodus:!PostZ

war!overseas!migration!from!the!

Netherlands.!The!Hague:!Nijhoff.!!

Hoogeveen,!M.M.!and!M.R.!Ettema!(1984).!Stuur!

eens!een!Ansicht.!UtrechtZAmsterdam:!

Rijksuniversiteit!van!Utrecht!en!

Gemeentelijke!Universiteit!van!

Amsterdam.!

Hulsen,!M.!(2000).!Language!Loss!and!Language!

Processing:!three!generations!of!Dutch!

migrants!in!New!Zealand.!Nijmegen:!

University!of!Nijmegen.!!

Jaspers,!J.A.!(2009).!Dutch!Forum!"Onze!

HoeWie".!Wellington:!South!Pacific!

Publishing!Consultancy.!!

Kappert,!F.!(1988).!Verre!bekenden?!Nijmegen:!

Universiteit!van!Nijmegen.!

Kroef,!A.P.M.!(1977).!The!use!of!Language!in!a!

three!Generation!Group!of!Dutch!

Immigrants!in!New!Zealand.!Auckland:!

Auckland!University.!

Leek,!R!(1999).!The!Dutch!in!Aotearoa.!In:!North!

and!South!Proceedings!from!the!First!

&

New!ZealandZScandinavian!Conference!

on!Ethnicity!and!Migration.!Edited!by!I.!

Holmqvist.!Vasteras:!Malardalen!

University.!

Moya,!J.C.!(2005).!Immigrants!and!Associations:!

a!global!and!historic!perspective.!Journal!

of!Ethnic!and!Migration!Studies.!

Sardinha,!J.!(2009).!Immigrant!Associations,!

Integration!and!Identity.!Amsterdam:!

Amsterdam!University!Press!

Schouten,!H.!(1992).!Tasman's!legacy:!the!New!

Zealand!Dutch!connection.!wellington:!

New!Zealand!Netherlands!Foundation.!

Slot,!B.J.!(1992).!Abel!Tasman!and!the!Discovery!

of!New!Zealand.!Amsterdam:!Otto!

Cramwinckel.!

Tap,!R.!(1997).!Een!Mengelmoes:!identity!and!age!

in!a!Dutch!community!in!Auckland.!

Auckland:!University!of!Auckland.!

Thompson,!K.W.!(1970).!The!Dutch.!In:!K.W.!

Thompson!and!A.D.!Trlin:!Immigrants!in!

New!Zealand.!Palmerston!North:!

Massey!University.!

Yska,!R.!(2006).!Dutch.!In:!Settler!and!Migrant!

Peoples!of!New!Zealand.!Te!Ara!Z!

Encyclopedia!of!New!Zealand.!Auckland:!

David!Bateman.!

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8& Recent&Migration&to&New&Zealand&from&the&Netherlands&

!

!

Paul!Merwood!and!Jelle!Hatenboer!

1 INTRODUCTION&

&

New! Zealand! has! long! been! a! destination! of! Dutch! migrants.! Yet! the! migrants! of! today,! and!

their! migration! experiences,! are! vastly! different! to! the! early! waves! of! Dutch! migrants! of! the!

twentieth! century.! Globally! people! are! more! mobile,! demand! for! talent! has! broadened! the!

horizon!of!the!young!and!qualified,!and!modern!immigration!policy!settings!have!changed!the!

nature!of!migration!and!helped!shape!the!demography!of!countries!to!which!!people!migrate!.!

These!global!changes!are!reflected!in!the!characteristics!of!today’s!migrants.!In!New!Zealand,!as!

with!many!OECD!countries,!there!has!been!a!fundamental!shift!towards!temporary!migration!as!

the!dominant!form!of!entry,!with!the!number!of!visitors,!international!students!and!temporary!

!

workers!making!up!the!majority!of!new!migrants!to!New!Zealand.!

Migration!to!New!Zealand!from!the!Netherlands!is!now!much!lower!than!is!has!been!at!other!

periods! in! the! twentieth! century.! Nevertheless,! the! arrival! of! Dutch! migrants! has! remained! a!

small!but!stable!component!of!New!Zealand’s!migration!landscape.!Since!the!midZ1980s,!when!

the! number! of! permanent! migrants! from! the! Netherlands! began! to! ebb,! New! Zealand! has!

received! an! average! of! 430! Dutch! migrants! each! year! who! intend! to! stay! long! term! in! New!

Zealand!(Figure!1).!Statistics!New!Zealand!data!on!the!permanent!and!long!term!arrivals!and!

departures!from!New!Zealand!show!that!nearly!half!of!these!migrants!return!to!the!Netherlands!

over! time,! resulting! in! an! average! net! migration! gain! to! New! Zealand! of! 221! people! annually!

between!1985!and!2012.!!!!!

!

!

Figure!1:!Permanent!and!long!term!migration!to!and!from!the!Netherlands:!years!to!December!

i t i s t a t

S

2

: c e r u

S o

16002

14002

12002

10002

2

N

c s

e w!

8002

6002

4002

2002

02

19792 19872

Net2Migra:on2

19952

Arrivals2

Note:!Includes!movement!of!nonINZ!citizens!to!and!from!the!Netherlands!

Source:!Statistics!New!Zealand!

20032

Departures2

20112

&

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&

2 COMPONENTS&OF&RECENT&MIGRATION&FLOWS&FROM&THE&NETHERLANDS&

An!analysis!of!Immigration!New!Zealand!administrative!data!on!visa!approvals!shows!that!the!

majority!of!new!migrants!from!the!Netherlands!enter!New!Zealand!on!a!temporary!visa.!Some!

of! these! temporary! migrants! remain! in! New! Zealand! and! gain! permanent! residence.! This!

pattern!of!migration,!characterised!as!‘twoZstep’!migration,!has!been!evolving!in!New!Zealand!

(and!elsewhere)!for!well!over!a!decade!and!is!now!a!wellZestablished!trend.!Visa!approval!data!

on! Dutch! migrants! for! the! 16! years! between! 1997/98! and! 2012/13! shows! people! granted!

!

!

permanent! residence! comprise! only! 20! per! cent! of! visas! granted! –! the! majority! enter! New!

Zealand!as!temporary!work!visa!holders!(Table!1).!

!

Table!1:!Number!of!visas!issued!by!category:!1997/98I2012/13!

Financial!Year!

Student!

Work!

Resident!

Total!

1997/98!

1998/99!

1999/00!

2000/01!

2001/02!

2002/03!

2003/04!

2004/05!

2005/06!

2006/07!

2007/08!

2008/09!

2009/10!

2010/11!

2011/12!

2012/13!

138"

161"

153"

182"

156"

169"

159"

43"

51"

49"

106"

95"

130"

169"

182"

146"

1,280"

1,336"

1,432"

1,491"

1,373"

1,371"

1,357"

348"

741"

630"

708"

969"

1,115"

1,443"

1,409"

1,483"

335"

440"

641"

454"

327"

331"

305"

237"

244"

246"

334"

317"

311"

242"

212"

198"

Total!

2,089!

18,486!

5,174!

25,749!

!

Note:!This!is!a!count!of!individuals!approved!a!visa!per!year!rather!than!the!number!of!applications.!!If!a!person!was!issued!a!

visa!of!the!same!type!in!one!year!they!are!counted!once!only.!Otherwise!is!a!person!is!counted!for!each!visa!type!they!held!in!

each!year.!

Source:!Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment.!!

&

!

!

3& COMPONENTS&OF&PERMANENT&MIGRATION&

Permanent!migration!from!the!Netherlands!in!the!first!decade!of!this!century!is!characterised!

by!young,!highly!skilled!people,!many!of!whom!work!in!professional!or!managerial!occupations.!

Since! 2001/02,! when! New! Zealand! adopted! a! streamed! approach! within! its! residence!

programme,!4,113!Dutch!migrants!have!been!granted!residence.!This!is!equivalent!to!0.75!per!

cent! of! the! total! number! of! people! granted! residence! over! the! period.! ! Most! Dutch! migrants!

were! approved! through! the! Skilled/Business! stream! (74! per! cent)! with! the! remainder! (26! per!

cent)! being! sponsored! relatives! of! New! Zealand! citizens! or! residents.! The! average! age! of!

permanent! migrants! over! the! period! was! 37! years! for! principal! applicants! and! 22! years! for!

secondary! applicants! (including! partners! and! children! of! the! principal! applicant).! The! average!

family!size!was!1.9!people,!and!most!were!not!‘new’!to!New!Zealand,!having!already!spent!time!

in!the!country!on!a!temporary!visa.!In!the!last!five!years,!nearly!80!per!cent!of!those!approved!as!

principal! applicants! through! the! Skilled! Migrant! Category! were! working! in! professional! or!

managerial!occupations!in!New!Zealand.!

1,753"

1,937"

2,226"

2,127"

1,856"

1,871"

1,821"

628"

1,036"

925"

1,148"

1,381"

1,556"

1,854"

1,803"

1,827"

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!

!

Table!2:!Number!of!people!approved!residence!by!stream:!2001/02I2012/13!

New!Zealand!Residence!Programme!Stream!

Number!of!people!

Proportion!(%)!

Business!/!Skilled!Stream!

Skilled"Migrant"

Business/Entrepreneur"policies"

Uncapped!Family!Sponsored!Stream!

Partnership"

Dependent"Child"

Parent!Sibling!Adult!Child!Stream!

Adult"Child/Sibling"

Parent"

Humanitarian"

International!/!Humanitarian!Stream!

3,039!

2,801"

238"

829!

799"

30"

221!

54"

159"

8"

24!

Total!

4,113!

100.0%!

&

!

Source:!Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment!

&

4& COMPONENTS&OF&TEMPORARY&MIGRATION&

!

Temporary! migration! has! become! the! main! entry! point! to! New! Zealand! for! Dutch! migrants.!

While!New!Zealand!is!a!study!destination!for!a!small!number!of!Dutch!international!students!

each! year,! the! majority! of! new! Dutch! migrants! come! to! New! Zealand! as! temporary! workers.!

Temporary!workers!currently!outnumber!permanent!migrants!by!seven!to!one,!making!up!over!

!

80!per!cent!of!all!visas!granted!to!Dutch!nationals!in!2012/13.!

There! a! strong! link! between! temporary! and! permanent! migration! in! New! Zealand.! Many!

migrants! first! enter! as! temporary! workers! and! those! with! the! skills,! qualifications! and! work!

experience!required!to!meet!the!selection!criteria!of!the!Skilled!Migrant!Category!can!become!

permanent! migrants.! On! average,! around! twenty! per! cent! of! Dutch! temporary! workers! enter!

New! Zealand! through! the! main! temporary! labour! migration! Essential! Skills! Policy.! These!

temporary!workers!have!a!job!offer!in!New!Zealand!and!can!be!granted!a!visa!of!up!to!five!years!

duration.!Dutch!migrants!who!enter!through!Essential!Skills!Policy!are!highly!skilled!–!nearly!60!

per! cent! have! occupations! classified! at! skill! level! 1! and! typically! work! in! professional! and!

managerial! occupations.! Around! 13! per! cent! of! Dutch! Essential! Skills! workers! (since! 2007/08)!

entered! as! trades! workers! at! skill! level! 3.! ! ! ! Over! oneZthird! of! Dutch! Essential! Skills! workers!

transitions!to!permanent!residence!over!time.!

!

Figure!2!shows!that!the!number!of!Dutch!migrants!entering!New!Zealand!through!the!Essential!

Skills!Policy!has!slowed!over!the!last!decade,!a!fall!exacerbated!by!the!global!financial!crisis.!This!

!

fall! mirrors! the! decrease! in! temporary! migrant! labour! during! and! immediately! following! the!

2008/09!recession!in!New!Zealand.!

!

73.9%!

68.1%"

5.8%"

20.2%!

19.4%"

0.7%"

5.4%!

1.3%"

3.9%"

0.2%"

0.6%!

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Figure!2:!Temporary!work!visas!issued!by!category:!1997/98I2012/13!

12002

10002

8002

6002

4002

2002

02

Essen:al2skills2 Family2 WHS2 All2others2

!

!

Source:!Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment!

By! far! the! largest! component! of! Dutch! migration! to! New! Zealand! is! through! the! Working!

Holiday!Scheme!between!New!Zealand!and!the!Netherlands.!Currently,!working!holidaymakers!

represent!64!per!cent!of!Dutch!temporary!workers!and!just!over!half!(52!per!cent)!of!the!total!

number!of!Dutch!migrants!granted!a!visa!each!year.!Figure!2!shows!the!steady!increase!in!the!

number!of!Dutch!working!holidaymakers!coming!to!New!Zealand!each!year.!

!

!!

5& WORKING&HOLIDAYMAKERS&

!

Working!Holiday!Schemes!allow!young!people!from!a!select!number!of!countries!whose!primary!

intention! is! to! holiday! in! New! Zealand,! to! work! and! study! during! their! stay.! New! Zealand’s!

working!holiday!schemes!are!generally!reciprocal!and!allow!young!people!aged!18Z30!to!live!up!

to!12!months!in!New!Zealand.!

!

New!Zealand!established!its!first!working!holiday!scheme!with!Japan!in!1985.!The!programme!

grew!in!the!1990s!and!particularly!in!the!2000s!with!both!an!increase!in!the!number!of!countries!

participating! and! the! number! of! places! offered! (to! both! new! and! existing! schemes).! The!

working! holiday! programme! has! evolved! as! a! tool! to! promote! foreign! policy,! trade! and!

economic,!and!tourism!interests.!Research!has!shown!working!holidaymakers!to!have!positive!

impacts! on! the! domestic! economy! –! they! spend! more! money! than! they! earn! and! therefore!

create!more!jobs!than!they!take.!!Working!holidaymakers!are!also!considered!to!benefit!New!

Zealand!through!export!education!and!the!tourism!industry!in!particular!and!also!as!potential!

!

source!of!skilled!migrants!to!New!Zealand.!

Working! holiday! schemes! were! initially! with! mainly! highZincome! OECD! countries,! but! the!

programme! has! expanded! to! include! countries! in! Asia! and! South! America! such! as! Argentina,!

Chile,! Brazil,! and! Uruguay.! The! most! recent! schemes,! however,! are! relatively! smallZscale!

compared! to! the! highZincome! OECD! countries.! New! Zealand! currently! has! working! holiday!

schemes!with!40!countries!with!an!annual!cap!of!52,000!places!in!the!total!programme.!While!

New!Zealand!has!a!smaller!programme!than!Australia!and!Canada!with!respect!to!the!number!

of!places!available!in!the!programme,!New!Zealand!has!working!holiday!schemes!with!a!greater!

number!of!countries!(Canada!has!schemes!with!30!countries,!Australia!has!28).!

!!!

Working!holidaymakers!represent!the!second!largest!category!of!temporary!workers!within!the!

OECD!–!some!413,000!in!2011,!or!21!per!cent!of!temporary!workers.!!!Working!holidaymakers!

are!the!largest!category!of!temporary!workers!in!New!Zealand,!currently!representing!around!

one!third!of!all!temporary!workers!approved.!

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!

Figure!1:!Number!of!working!holidaymakers!approved!by!scheme:!2012/13!

Duizenden2

122

102

42

22

02

82

62

&

Source:!Immigration!New!Zealand!Statistics!

In! 2012/13,! 48,639! working! holidaymakers! were! approved! New! Zealand! visas.! The! number! of!

working!holidaymakers!coming!to!New!Zealand!more!than!trebled!in!the!decade!from!2002/03.!

Those! from! the! United!Kingdom,! Germany,! and! France! contributed! half! of! all! working!

holidaymakers!in!2012/13,!and!the!European!countries!combined!(including!the!UK)!comprised!

seventy!per!cent!of!the!programme!(figure!3).!The!remaining!30!per!cent!were!from!the!Asian!

countries!in!the!programme!(15!per!cent),!Canada!and! the!USA!(9!per!cent),!and!Mexico!and!

South!America!(6!per!cent).!Dutch!working!holidaymakers!comprised!two!per!cent!of!the!total!

programme!in!2012/13!ranking!7

th

!largest!of!the!European!countries!and!15

th!

largest!overall.!

!

The!New!Zealand–Netherlands!Working!Holiday!Scheme!came!into!effect!in!1998,!around!the!

same! time! as! New! Zealand’s! agreements! with! France! (1999),! Germany! (2000)! and! Sweden!

(2001).!The!Netherlands!scheme!is!uncapped,!as!is!the!case!for!many!of!the!other!highZincome!

OECD!countries!in!the!programme.!Dutch!working!holidaymakers!can!stay!in!New!Zealand!for!

up!to!12!months,!can!study!for!up!to!3!months!on!a!

working!holiday!visa,!and!there!is!no!restriction!on!

“There$ were$ several$ reasons$ that$

the! time! spent! working! for! a! single! employer.!!

There! are! no! requirements! for! Dutch! working!

holidaymakers! to! have! a! minimum! level! of!

qualification!or!English,!as!is!the!case!with!some!of!

came$ together$ and$ made$ me$ decide$ to$go$to$New$Zealand.$After$I$finished$ my$degree$it$was$difficult$to$find$a$job$

the! more! recent! schemes! with! nonZEnglish!

speaking! countries! such! as! China,! Peru,! Thailand,!

in$ the$ Netherlands.$ I$ had$ a$ few$ administrative$ positions$ but$ couldn’t$

!

and!Turkey.!!

The! number! of! Dutch! working! holidaymakers! has!

grown!steadily!since!the!scheme’s!inception!in!1998!

find$a$job$that$really$suited$me.$I$then$ traveled$ to$ Asia$ for$ two$ months$ and$ started$ to$ like$ the$ idea$ of$ moving$ abroad.$ I$ heard$ finding$ a$ job$ was$

and! currently! attracts! over! 900! people! annually!

(Figure!4).!

easier$ in$ New$ Zealand$ and$ starting$ looking$ into$ moving$ there,$ the$

!

Working$Holiday$Visa$came$up$as$the$ best$ option$ overall.”$ (Dutch$ working$ holidaymaker,$female,$aged$27).

$

!

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!

!

Table!1:!Comparisons!between!Dutch!working!holidaymakers!and!those!from!all!other!schemes!

Characteristics!

Median"age"in"2012/13"

Proportion"female"in""2012/13"

Average"annual"growth"(decade"to"2012/13)"

Average"length"of"time"spent"in"New"Zealand"

working!holidaymakers!

Dutch$$ all$

22"years"

41.1%"

24"years"

49.7%"

6.1%"

6.6"months"

51.3%"

9.5%"

8.1"months"

67.6%"

Proportion"who"work"in"New"Zealand"

Average"number"of"months"spent"working"

Average"proportion"of"time"spent"working"

2.4"months"

36.3%"

4.1"months"

50.5%"

Mean"gross"monthly"earnings"in"New"Zealand"

NZ$1,800" NZ$1,850"

Average"number"of"jobs"held"in"New"Zealand"

1.7" 2.4"

!

Notes:!Dollar!values!CPI!adjusted!to!March!2010!dollars.!!

Source:!Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment.!Figures!on!employment!and!length!of!stay!have!been!extracted!

from!the!Integrated!Data!Infrastructure!(IDI)!prototype!managed!by!Statistics!New!Zealand!and!relate!to!working!

holidaymakers!arriving!in!New!Zealand!in!2009.!!

Figure!2:!Number!of!Dutch!working!holidaymakers!approved!by!financial!year:!1997/98I2012/13!

10002

8002

6002

4002

2002

02

&

There! is! a! relatively! strong! correlation! between!

income! levels! in! the! country! of! origin! and! the!

proportion! of! working! holidaymakers! who! work!

during! their! time! in! New! Zealand.! On! average,!

working!holidaymakers!from!countries!with!a!lower!

gross!national!income!per!capita!than!New!Zealand!

spend! longer! on! the! working! holiday! scheme! and!

spend!a!greater!share!of!their!time!working.!Figure!5!

shows! Dutch! working! holidaymakers! follow! this!

trend!and!spend!a!similar!amount!of!time!working!as!

other! highZincome! OECD! countries! such! as!

Germany,!Finland,!Sweden!and!Denmark.!

“I$really$like$living$in$New$Zealand,$ not$ necessarily$ for$ its$ nature$ but$ more$for$its$city$life.$I$would$love$to$ stay$ here$ but$ that$ really$ depends$ on$whether$or$not$I$can$find$a$good$ job.$I$would$need$an$employer$that$ will$ support$ me$ through$ the$ process$ of$ applying$ for$ a$ working$ visa.”$ (Dutch$ working$ holidaymaker,$female,$aged$27)

$$

!

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!

Figure! 3:! Relationship! between! gross! national! income! per! capita! and! time! spent! working! in! New!

Zealand,!by!working!holiday!scheme!–!2009!arrival!cohort!

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

Argentina

Brazil

Latvia

Chile

Malaysia

Mexico

Czech Rep.

Estonia

Thailand

Taiwan

Hong Kong

UK

Ireland

Italy

Canada

Belgium

France

Germany

Japan

Netherlands

Denmark

China

Korea

20

10

Norway

0

$0 $10

!

!

Source:!World!Bank!(2013)!Data!

$20 $30 $40 $50 $60 $70 $80

Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (US$000s )

$90 $100

!

Many! working! holidaymakers! find! jobs! in! the!

agriculture,!accommodation!and!food!services,!and!

administration! and! support! industries.! Analysis! of!

working! holiday! makers! arriving! in! 2009! showed!

these! three! industries! accounted! for! over! threeZ quarters! of! all! jobs! held.! Australian! research!

similarly! indicated! that! the! occupations! in! which!

working! holidaymakers! work! are! typically! in! the!

lowZskilled!end!of!the!spectrum.!However,!working!

holidaymakers! are! not! necessarily! lowZskilled! as!

!

many!may!have!qualifications!and!worked!in!skilled!

jobs!in!their!home!country.!

“My$ girlfriend$ travelled$ to$ New$

Zealand$ a$ few$ years$ ago$ for$ her$ studies$ and$ really$ enjoyed$ it.$ When$ we$ both$ had$ finished$ our$ veterinary$ medicine$ degrees$ in$ the$ Netherlands$ we$wanted$to$live$abroad$for$a$while.$

Jobs$ in$ our$ profession$ are$ hard$ to$ find$ in$ the$ Netherlands$ so$ it$ was$ an$ added$ benefit$ that$ veterinarians$ are$ on$the$skills$shortlist$in$New$Zealand.$

Working! holidaymakers! find! jobs! throughout! New!

Zealand!although!there!are!some!areas!that!attract!

significant!numbers.!These!include!Auckland!(much!

more! so! than! the! other! main! centres)! and!

provincial! areas! where! work! opportunities! in!

agriculture! and! tourism! exist! such! as! the! Bay! of!

Plenty,! Hawke’s! Bay,! Nelson/Marlborough,! and!

That$ allowed$ my$ girlfriend$ to$ apply$ to$ a$ working$ residence$ visa$ and$ I$ applied$for$a$Working$Holiday$Visa.”$

(Dutch$Working$holidaymaker,$male,$ aged$26).$

!

!

Otago!(Queenstown).!

!

&

6& WORKING&HOLIDAYMAKERS&AND&PERMANENT&MIGRATION&

Working! holidaymakers! can! make! a! positive! contribution! to! New! Zealand’s! economy! by!

transitioning!to!other!work!visas!and!gaining!residence.!!Over!time!as!many!as!10!per!cent!of!

working! holidaymakers! gain! permanent! residence! in! New! Zealand! with! a! high! proportion! (58!

!

per!cent)!of!these!migrants!transitioning!as!skilled!or!business!migrants.!

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&

!

!

For! Dutch! working! holidaymakers! the! transition! rate! to! permanent! residence! is! around! 9! per!

cent.!This!is!higher!than!some!of!the!other!highZincome!OECD!countries!such!as!Denmark!(4!per!

cent),!Finland!(6!per!cent),!France!(8!per!cent),!Germany!(6!per!cent)!and!Sweden!(6!per!cent).!

Like!other!working!holidaymakers!who!gain!residence,!the!Dutch!are!most!likely!to!transition!

through!the!Skilled/Business!stream!(56!per!cent).!The!remainder!are!sponsored!for!residence!

by!a!New!Zealand!resident!or!citizen!or!partner.!

&

7& CONCLUSION&

Consistent! with! global! trends,! a! large! share! of! today’s! migrants! enters! New! Zealand! on! a!

temporary! visa.! Eighty! percent! of! new! migrants! from! the! Netherlands! arrive! as! temporary!

migrants,!predominantly!work!visa!holders,!and!around!half!of!the!total!entrants!each!year!are!

young!people!participating!in!the!New!ZealandZNetherlands!working!holiday!scheme!that!has!

been! in! place! since! 1998.! The! working! holiday! scheme! offers! young! Dutch! migrants! the!

!

opportunity! to! live,! work,! and! study! in! New! Zealand.! The! working! holiday! visa! has! low! entry!

costs!and!offers!a!great!deal!of!flexibility!when!combining!work!and!travel.!

Like! working! holidaymakers! from! other! highZincome! OECD! countries,! those! from! the!

Netherlands!divide!their!time!in!New!Zealand!between!work!and!travel!and!spend!on!average!7!

months! on! the! working! holiday! visa.! The! working! holiday! scheme! plays! a! vital! role! in! Dutch!

migration!–!around!one!in!four!Dutch!migrants!approved!through!the!Skilled!Migrant!Category!

for! permanent! residence! were! former! working! holidaymakers.! While! the! working! holiday!

scheme! is! not! a! significant! source! of! permanent! migrants,! the! majority! of! those! who! do!

transition! to! residence! are! skilled! and! are! likely! to! make! a! positive! contribution! to! New!

Zealand’s!economy.!!

!

Dutch!migration!to!New!Zealand!is!lower!now!than!it!has!been!at!various!times!over!the!second!

half! of! the! 20th! century.! In! addition! to! the! positive! contribution! made! by! working!

holidaymakers! and! temporary! labour! migrants,! Dutch! migration! and! the! Dutch! community!

remain!an!integral!part!of!New!Zealand’s!cultural!landscape.!

!

!

!

!

REFERENCES&

Merwood,!P.!&!McLeod,!K.!2012.!Examining!

aspects!of!new!migrants’!employment!outcomes!in!

New!Zealand!using!the!IDI!prototype.!Paper!

presented!at!the!‘Pathways!to!Metropolis!in!the!

21st!Century’!Conference,!October!2012.!

Auckland:!Massey!University.!

OECD.!2013.!International!Migration!Outlook:!2013!

edition.!Paris:!Organisation!for!Economic!CoZoperation!

and!Development.!

Te! Ara:! The! Encyclopedia! of! New! Zealand.!

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/dutch.!

&

&

Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment.!

[Forthcoming].!Migration!Trends!and!Outlook!–!

2012/13.!Wellington:!Ministry!of!Business,!

Innovation!and!Employment.!

&

&

&

DISCLAIMER&

Access! to! the! data! used! in! this! study! was! provided! by! Statistics! NZ! in! accordance! with! security! and! confidentiality!

provisions! of! the! Statistics! Act! 1975! and! the! Tax! Administration! Act! 1994.! The! results! in! this! paper! have! been!

confidentialised!to!protect!individual!businesses!from!identification.!!

See! http://newsettlers.massey.ac.nz/publications_pdfs/Paul%20Merwood%20&%20Keith%20McLeod.pdf! ! for! the! full!

disclaimer.!

&

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!84!!

A!Profile!of!the!Dutch!Diaspora!in!New!Zealand

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9& &Clogs&and&Tulips:&A&Qualitative&Research&Study&on&Attitudes& and& Behaviours& of& Second& and& Third& Generation& New&

Zealanders&of&Dutch&Descent&

!

Theo!Muller!

!

!

1& INTRODUCTION&

This!report!presents!a!summary!of!findings!from!three!focus!group!discussions!with!second!and!

third!generation!New!Zealanders!of!Dutch!descent.!The!aim!was!to!explore!ideas!for!promoting!

&

the!continuity!of!Dutch!heritage!in!New!Zealand.!The!report!presents!the!voices!of!the!focus!

group!participants!illustrated!by!their!verbatim!comments!in!italics.!

However,! before! presenting! these! results! I! will! first! briefly! introduce! the! New! Zealand!

Netherlands! Foundation,! which! organised! several! focus! group! discussions! for! the! research!

study.!

!

!

2& THE&NEW&ZEALANDSNETHERLANDS&FOUNDATION&

&

The! New! ZealandZNetherlands! Foundation! was! set! up! in! 1990! to! foster! and! promote! the!

!

benefits!of!the!link!between!our!two!countries.!!

Some!of!the!specific!objectives!include:!

!

To! recognise! and! acknowledge! the! contribution! Dutch! settlers! have! made! to! New!

Zealand,!and!promote!a!wider!understanding!of!this.!

!

To! develop! cultural! and! educational! exchanges! between! the! Netherlands! and! New!

Zealand.!!

!

To! facilitate! and! commission! research! into! the! contribution,! both! past! and! present,!

that!Dutch!New!Zealanders!have!made.!

!

To!financially!support!worthwhile!efforts!in!pursuit!of!the!above!objectives.!

!

These! objectives! have! been! refined! over! the! years! and! now! focus! mainly! on! developing! and!

maintaining!links!between!our!two!countries!by!building!and!maintaining!relationships!with!the!

young!people!of!New!Zealand!and!the!Netherlands.!In!support!of!this!objective,!the!Foundation!

has! embarked! on! an! ambitious! internship! initiative! and! exchange! programme,! which! is! still!

under!development.!

!

The! almost! complete! assimilation! of! the! Dutch! immigrant! into! New! Zealand! society! has!

conferred! the! somewhat! dubious! reputation! of! the! invisible! migrant.! ! Dutch! immigration! is!

characterised!by!assimilation!and!the!experiences!in!Australia!!and!Canada!are!no!different.!In!

Canada,! reference! is! made! to! silent! ethnicity! where! Dutch! beliefs! and! values! may! not! be!

!

apparent!to!outsider!groups!or!the!host!society.!!

Over!time!and!across!generations,!assimilation!may!manifest!itself!culturally!particularly!when!

the! mother! tongue! ceases! to! be! spoken.! ! Structural! assimilation! is! evident! when! migrants!

discontinue! associating! within! their! ethnic! group.! ! Marital! assimilation! occurs! when! migrants!

marry! exogenously.! ! For! the! Dutch! immigrant! community,! the! process! of! assimilation! was! a!

relatively!instant!process!of!acculturation!started!by!the!first!generation!immigrants.!!Second!

and!third!generations!were!already!assimilated!by!birth,!so!to!speak,!often!with!the!loss!of!the!

Dutch! language! as! a! result.! ! As! the! second! generation! grew! up! and! established! their! own!

!

families,!the!connection!with!the!Dutch!heritage!became!more!tenuous.!

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!

Delving!into!the!Dutch!disposition!and!temperament,!there!is!the!assertion!that!the!Dutch!are!a!

very!independent!people.!They!look!after!their!own!affairs!(“doppen!hun!eigen!boontjes”)!and!

don’t!like!to!be!told!what!to!do.!The!Dutch!living!in!New!Zealand!are!no!different.!Unlike!other!

immigrant! populations! such! as! the! Greek,! Italians,! people! from! the! subZIndian! continent! and!

immigrants!from!Eastern!Europe,!the!Dutch!have!an!individualistic!streak!and!have!always!had!a!

strong!desire!to!assimilate!and!integrate!into!New!Zealand!society.!To!some!extent,!this!has!led!

to!a!(partial)!loss!of!identification!with!the!Dutch!heritage,!particularly!where!second!and!third!

generation! Dutch! New! Zealanders! are! concerned.! Appealing! to! their! Dutch! heritage! and!

overcoming!a!degree!of!inertia!will!be!a!challenge!to!the!Foundation!in!achieving!its!goals!and!

objectives.! Another! challenge! would! be! to! move! beyond! the! obligatory! stereotypes! of!

windmills,!clogs!and!tulips,!and!to!provide!a!contemporary!vision!of!what!it!means!to!be!a!New!

Zealander!of!Dutch!descent.!

&

&

3& IDENTITY&

&

One! challenge! is! the! identification! of! those! with! Dutch! heritage! in! New! Zealand.! Common!

identifiers!of!Dutch!descent!were!discussed;!these!included!many!iconic!features!such!as:!

!

Dutch!names,!a!source!of!pride,!or!occasionally!derision!

!

Looking!Dutch!

!

Traditions,!like!clogs!in!the!house!

!

Aspects! of! personality,! such! as! confidence,! tenacity,! stubbornness,! but! also! a!

homeliness!and!respect!for!family!

!

Having!a!Dutch!passport!

!

However,! many! descendants! are! less! visibly! Dutch,! especially! those! without! a! “Dutch”! name!

and! those! whose! family! may! have! reached! New! Zealand! via! Indonesia.! Many! of! the! first!

generation!focused!on!successful!assimilation!rather!than!retaining!their!heritage.!The!aspects!

!

of!Dutch!life!that!have!tended!to!be!passed!on!focused!around!food!and!family.!!

Few!of!the!second!and!third!generation!spoken!to!were!fluent!in!the!Dutch!language.!This!loss!

of!language!raises!a!barrier!to!full!participation!in!Dutch!culture.!However,!many!of!the!younger!

generation! are! confident! in! the! English! abilities! of! the! Dutch! and! see! language! as! less! of! a!

!

problem.!

One! question! raised! is! Z! do! descendants! want! to! be! recognised! as! Dutch! New! Zealanders?!

Although!some!do,!there!is!perhaps!more!interest!in!the!concept!of!a!European!New!Zealander!

!

–!with!access!to!Europe.!!

!

So! what! it! means! to! me! having! Dutch! heritage! is! I’ve! got! a! European! passport.!!!

(Wellington!male!3G)!

!

&

!

Those!with!this!view!may!be!less!interested!in!learning!the!Dutch!language,!which!is!viewed!as!

having!limited!use.!

&

4& STRENGTHS&

Amongst! the! Dutch! descendants! spoken! to,! their! Dutch! connection! can! be! a! source! of! pride.!

This!includes:!

• A!sense!of!being!special,!different!

• Appreciating!food!and!family!

• Pride!in!Dutch!history!

• Recognition!of!Dutch!businesses!

!

• A!fondness!for!traditional!celebrations!

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!

The!extent!to!which!Dutch!descendants!participate!in!various!aspects!of!Dutch!culture!varies.!!

For!some!the!language!is!integral,!and!they!find!their!lack!of!skill!in!Dutch!is!a!barrier.!There!was!

a! real! sense! of! pride! in! the! growth! of! Dutch! language! schools! amongst! those! whose! families!

participate.!However,!for!others!knowing!Dutch!is!less!of!a!priority!especially!when!English!is!so!

widely!used.!

Once!descendants!have!their!own!children!there!appears!to!be!more!of!a!focus!on!continuing!

!

Dutch!traditional!celebrations,!and!sharing!them!as!a!family.!

The! strongest! aspect! of! Dutch! heritage! maintained! is! an! appreciation! of! Dutch! food,! and/or!

Indonesian!dishes.!This!can!be!associated!with!happy!memories!and!as!a!shared!activity!is!seen!

!

as!encompassing!all!ages!and!continuing!family!traditions.!!

!

Food!triggers!a!memory!and!you!know!whether!it’s!a!memory!of!an!occasion!or!a!parent!or!

grandparent,!but!food!brings!people!together.!!(Wellington!female!2G)!

!

!

Although!many!Dutch!descendants!expressed!an!interest!in!their!Dutch!heritage,!the!strength!

!

of! their! feeling! was! mixed.! Interest! definitely! appears! to! be! strengthened! by! visits! to! the!

Netherlands.!

!

Feeling! that! you! became! a! whole! person! in! the! sense! that!–! I! remember! in! my! mid! 20s!

going,!or!a!bit!later,!thinking,!“God,!I!actually!belong!here”.!I!mean!I’m!very!happy!to!live!

on! the! other! side! of! the! world,! but! it! was! almost! as! if! I! became! a! whole! person.! It! was!

actually!quite!an!unusual!thing,!you!sort!of!felt!you!belonged!–!really!belonged.!!(Auckland!

male!2G)!

!

!

5& BARRIERS&

&

For! some! Dutch! descendants! there! is! a! real! feeling! of! “coming! home”! when! visiting! the!

Netherlands,! but! for! others! there! is! a! realisation! that! the! Dutch! traditions! preserved! in! New!

Zealand! can! be! rather! oldZfashioned! (including! the! language! taught! here).! There! is! a! natural!

hurdle!that!the!Dutch!appear!to!be!more!independent!and!better!integrated!than!some!other!

immigrant! groups.! Other! barriers! include! competition! for! time,! and! the! need! to! create! a!

network!of!Dutch!community!contacts.!

!

For!many!descendants!the!Dutch!connection!has!become!diluted!over!time!through!assimilation!

into!New!Zealand!society!and!interZmarriage!with!people!of!different!cultural!backgrounds.!Also!

those! whose! family! came! from! Indonesia! feel! further! removed! from! their! Dutch! heritage.!

However,! there! does! appear! to! exist! a! certain! nostalgia! associated! with! happy! childhood!

!

memories!of!Dutch!activities.!

!

6& WHAT&ARE&DESCENDANTS&INTERESTED&IN?&

!

&

There!appeared!to!be!most!interest!in:!

!

Better!publicity!about!existing!Dutch!organisations,!businesses!and!events!–!perhaps!in!

the!form!of!a!directory!

!

An!informal!community!of!Dutch!descendants!with!communication!via!the!Internet!–!

perhaps!via!Facebook,!LinkedIn!or!a!website!

!

Social!food!and!drink!events!–!upZmarket,!well!promoted,!but!low!commitment!events!

!

Travel! to! the! Netherlands! –! exploring! the! potential! for! assistance! with! “overseas!

experiences”! (OE’s),! student! and! cultural! exchanges,! also! with! general! travel! and!

“passport”!advice!

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There! is! interest! in! fostering! a! sense! of! community;! however! the! potential! pool! of! people! is!

fragmented! by! age,! interest! and! commitment.! An! attempt! has! been! made! to! summarise! the!

!

relationship!between!commitment!and!interest!levels!below.!!

The! matrix! attempts! to! highlight! the! tensions! between! commitment! and! interest.! Although!

some! descendants! are! very! interested! in! their! Dutch! heritage! they! have! a! low! level! of!

commitment!to!actually!putting!their!time!and!energy!into!community!events.!In!part!there!is!a!

lack!of!confidence!and!knowledge!amongst!the!younger!generations!who!are!further!removed!

from!the!Netherlands.!To!get!them!involved!would!require!some!mentoring!and!guidance.!They!

would!need!to!be!convinced!that!community!involvement!would!benefit!them!and!their!family!

!

and!that!it!would!be!fun.!

!

!

Although!the!younger!generation!has!a!lot!of!respect!for!their!elders,!they!appeared!to!have!no!

interest!in!participating!in!the!existing!Dutch!clubs!that!are!viewed!as!old!fashioned,!and!may!

feel! uncomfortable! for! those! who! are! not! fluent! in! Dutch.! The! younger! generations! (whose!

families!may!have!come!to!New!Zealand!more!for!“lifestyle”!than!economic!reasons)!would!be!

!

more!interested!in!“modern”!upZmarket!(English!language)!activities.!!

!

Well!I!think!that!if!the!second!or!third!generation!Dutchies!were!to!get!together,!we’d!all!

need!to!come!together!to!do!something!we!enjoy!in!common,!which!would!be!eating!and!

drinking.![Laughs]!There!could!be!a!new!movement!I!without!the!word!‘clog’!I!that!focuses!

on!not!the!things!that!they!knew!back!then!but!the!traditions!that!they!brought!to!New!

Zealand.!!(Christchurch!2G!female)!

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&

&

7& OPPORTUNITIES&TO&STRENGTHEN&A&SENSE&OF&COMMUNITY&

Participants!stressed!that!“Dutch”!events!are!happening!but!there!need!to!be!improvements!in!

the! publicising! of! events! to! potential! attendees.! Given! that! many! participants! expressed! a!

fondness! for! existing! DutchZrun! businesses! in! New! Zealand! (e.g.,! cafes,! language! schools)! it!

makes!sense!to!focus!on!strengthening!these!as!potential!“hubs”!for!the!community.!However,!

!

many!saw!the!existing!groups!as!fragmented!and!expressed!a!desire!to!link!them!somehow.!

There!was!strong!interest!in!the!production!of!a!Directory!of!DutchZrelated!businesses,!events,!

!

and!things!of!interest.!This!increased!publicity!would!assist!in!developing!a!sense!of!community,!

in!bringing!likeZminded!people!together.!

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!

Many!of!the!young!Dutch!New!Zealanders!see!the!benefits!of!connecting!through!Facebook!–!

it’s! modern,! and! free.! However,! others! would! be! more! interested! in! an! informative! website!

offering!advice!and!information!on:!

!

Travel!to!Holland!–!including!cultural!exchanges!

!

General!information!

!

Current!events!

Perhaps!there!is!greatest!interest!in!a!food!and!drinks!festival.!But!the!question!is!who!would!

organise! that?! There! appear! to! be! only! a! few! volunteers! from! the! younger! generation! who!

would!be!willing!to!step!up,!but!often!their!available!time!is!sparse.!If!the!Foundation!feels!an!

!

event!is!a!priority,!they!may!need!to!appoint!a!committed!organiser.!

&

!

8& WHERE&TO&NEXT?&

Overall!there!appears!to!be!a!tremendous!amount!of!pride!in!their!Dutch!heritage!amongst!the!

second!and!third!generation!Dutch!descendants.!Often!that!pride!is!focused!on!their!personal!

forbears!as!well!as!broader!aspects!of!Dutch!cultural!achievement.!Perhaps!a!way!of!promoting!

Dutch!heritage!in!New!Zealand!would!be!to!focus!on!some!individuals!and!to!tell!their!stories!

more!widely.!Facilitating!visits!to!the!Netherlands!for!second!and!third!generation!Dutch!New!

Zealanders!would!probably!be!a!valuable!strategy!to!strengthen!ties!between!the!two!countries.!

Because! of! the! low! levels! of! commitment! expressed! any! attempts! to! promote! the! Dutch!

connection! would! be! most! successful! in! terms! of! community! participation! if! they! were! made!

very!easy!for!participants!to!have!a!casual!involvement.!One!important!theme!emerging!from!

this! research! is! the! need! to! create! connections! between! Dutch! descendants! and! to! better!

publicise!events!to!the!broader!Dutch!community.!Overall,!in!terms!of!the!objectives!of!the!New!

ZealandZNetherlands!Foundation:!

!

To! recognise! and! acknowledge! the! contribution! Dutch! settlers! have! made! to! New!

Zealand,!and!promote!a!wider!understanding!of!this.!

!

The!younger!generations!are!definitely!proud!of!the!contributions!their!forbears!have!made!in!

!

their!new!land.!However,!most!appeared!to!focus!on!their!personal!family!history!rather!than!

the! contributions! other! families! and! individuals! have! made.! There! is! potential! to! explore! this!

further!and!to!better!publicise!existing!resources.!

!

To! develop! cultural! and! educational! exchanges! between! the! Netherlands! and! New!

Zealand.!!

There!is!definite!interest!in!cultural!and!educational!exchanges.!This!is!also!seen!as!having!many!

benefits,!including:!deepening!understanding!of!Dutch!culture,!strengthening!familial!ties!and!

developing!business!opportunities.!

!

To!facilitate!and!commission!research!into!the!contribution,!both!past!and!present,!that!

Dutch!New!Zealanders!have!made.!!

!

This!could!assist!with!the!production!of!publications!to!tell!stories!of!Dutch!New!Zealanders!to!a!

!

wider!audience.!

!

To!financially!support!worthwhile!efforts!in!pursuit!of!the!above!objectives.!

Areas!where!financial!support!could!prove!beneficial!include:!

!

Assistance!with!the!organisation!of!an!onZline!network!

!

Organisation!of!upZmarket!food!events!in!the!main!centres!

!

Assistance!with!cultural!and!student!exchanges!

!

Although!the!task!of!the!Foundation!appears!difficult!in!the!face!of!people’s!busy!fragmented!

lives,!there!is!definitely!interest!amongst!young!Dutch!New!Zealanders!in!exploring!their!Dutch!

heritage.! They! appear! to! need! a! firm! nudge! to! have! the! confidence! to! get! involved.! As! one!

participant!suggested,!the!Foundation!needs!to!put!on!a!really!successful!enjoyable!event!and!

to!publicise!it!extremely!well!(using!social!media)!and!then!word!will!spread.!

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&

10& Outcomes& round& table& discussions& at& Conference& on& Dutch&

Diaspora&in&Australia&and&New&Zealand&

!

1& ROUNDTABLE&DISCUSSION&A:&&

PRIVATE&AND&PROFESSIONAL/BUSINESS&TIES&WITH&THE&HOMELAND&

Chaired! by:! Sander! van! Amelsvoort! (Economics! &! Industry! Policy! Department! VECCI,! VIC! &!

Netherlands!Chamber!of!Commerce!Australia!(NCCA),!VIC)!

!

Australia/New! Zealand! and! the! Netherlands! share! a! long! and! rich! history.! This! productive!

relationship! is! reflected! in! the! strong! trade! links! between! the! countries.! Figures! for! Australia!

show! that! the! Netherlands! is! Australia’s! second! largest! export! destination! in! the! EU.! Dutch!

foreign!direct!investment!(FDI)!has!been!growing!at!a!healthy!rate!of!6%!per!annum!since!2006.!

In!2011,!the!Netherlands!was!the!fourth!largest!source!of!FDI!in!Australia.!These!figures!show!

!

that!the!groundwork!has!been!laid.!

Group! A! recognized! three! perspectives! to! look! at! the! subject:! companies,! people! and!

!

government.!Due!to!time!constraints,!the!group!decided!to!focus!on!the!people’s!perspective.!

Key!points!and!recommendations:!

I.&Trade&missions&

The!group!recognized!the!value!of!trade!missions!between!the!countries.!Australian!and!New!

Zealand! businesses! appreciate! faceZtoZface! contact! and,! in! combination! with! the! solid!

reputation!of!the!Dutch!in!Australia!and!New!Zealand,!it!would!create!significant!possibilities!for!

!

Dutch!business!looking!to!break!into!or!expand!in!both!countries!markets.!!

II.&Knowledge/expertise&exchange&

There! is! significant! value! to! Australian! and! New! Zealand! businesses! in! the! knowZhow! and!

expertise!that!companies!in!the!Netherlands!have!developed.!The!key!to!success!in!this!area!is!

to! successfully! communicate! and! promote! these! areas! of! expertise.! Part! of! a! promotion!

!

strategy!could!include!the!trade!missions.!

III.&Different&generations,&different&value&add&

One!discussion!point!in!the!group!was!the!recognition!of!different!generational!groups!in!the!

Dutch! communities! in! Australia! and! New! Zealand.! The! second! and! third! generation! Dutch!

migrants! have! amassed! considerable! experience! and! networks! in! the! Australian! and! New!

Zealand! (business)! communities.! This! is! of! enormous! value! when! attempting! to! increase!

professional/business!ties!between!the!countries.!The!first!generation!(expats)!were!perceived!

by! the! group! to! be! less! bound! to! Australia! and! New! Zealand.! This! can! be! turned! into! an!

advantage!when!properly!recognized.!When!these!people!return!home,!they!will!largely!have!

favourable!impressions!of!Australia!and!New!Zealand!and!can!become!powerful!ambassadors!

for!increased!trade!ties!between!the!countries!in!question.!A!concerted!effort!should!be!made!to!

see! if! we! can! define! these! groups,! how! can! we! target! them,! and! how! can! we! create! mutual!

benefit?!

!

IV.&Return&visits&

In! line! with! action! point! two,! when! Australians/New! Zealanders,! or! Dutch! people! living! in!

Australia/New!Zealand,!go!to!the!Netherlands!for!a!period!and!gain!knowZhow/skills!that!are!of!

!

value! when! returning,! this! needs! to! be! recognized! and! capitalised! by! communicating! and!

promoting! this.! It! will! enhance! the! reputation! of! Dutch! skills/knowZhow/expertise! which! will!

facilitate!increased!business!ties!between!the!countries.!

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V.&What&next?&

The! most! important! action! point! is! to! ensure! followZup! on! this! preliminary! roundtable!

!

!

discussion.! There! are! a! lot! of! potential! and! new! and! emerging! technologies! which! provide! a!

great!platform!to!leverage!these!initial!thoughts.!!

2& ROUNDTABLE&DISCUSSION&B:&&

CITIZENSHIP,&CULTURE,&MEDIA,&LANGUAGE&AND&IDENTITY&

Chaired!by:!Professor!Lydia!Wevers!(Victoria!University!of!Wellington,!NZ)!

!

Migration!is!a!history!of!emotions.!This!is!a!very!important!consideration.!Even!second!and!third!

generation! Dutch! migrants! can! have! a! very! emotional! response! to! their! family’s! migration.!

These!emotions,!which!can!be!grief,!pain,!a!feeling!you!have!made!the!right!but!difficult!choice,!

uncertainty!about!where!your!home!really!is,!a!feeling!of!always!being!between!cultures,!have!

to! be! acknowledged.! The! influx! of! people! wanting! citizenship! is! one! of! these!

!

acknowledgements.!

Key!points!and!recommendations:!

I.&Citizenship&policy&

Group!B!recommended!that!the!citizenship!policy!be!reviewed,!particularly!in!the!case!of!older!

first!generation!Dutch!migrants!who!cannot!hold!two!passports.!Consideration!should!be!given!

to!aligning!‘official’!identity!with!emotional!identity.!Migrants!feel!they!belong!to!two!countries.!

!

II.&Culture&institute&&&pilot&study&

Establish! the! equivalent! of! the! Goethe! Institut,! Alliance! Française! and! the! British! Council,! to!

promote! Dutch! culture! and! conduct! twoZway! initiatives! such! as! writer! exchanges.! Group! B!

recommended!a!pilot!study!be!set!up!to!conduct!exchanges!in!2016,!the!year!commemorating!

what! one! historian! describes! as! the! ‘Tasman! World’,! began.! There! is,! for! example,! no!

!

consciousness! of! Dutch! literature! in! New! Zealand! or! Australia.! Do! the! Dutch! care! about! the!

connection!of!their!literature!to!the!world?!

III.&Professionalising&

There!should!be!a!more!professionalised!approach!to!facilitate!associations,!activities,!language!

learning! and! cultural! activity! to! enhance! “Dutchness”.! The! group! suggested! getting! the! most!

successful! organisations! together,! such! as! Erasmus! Mundus! in! Indonesia,! and! taking! advice!

from!them.!

!

IV.&Involve&the&youth&

There!should!be!a!particular!focus!on!youth!in!relation!to!cultural!exchange!and!activities.!Make!

!

it!cool!to!be!Dutch.!

V.&Funding&

All!these!initiatives!will!require!funding.!Does!the!Dutch!Government!have!the!political!will!and!

the! economic! means! to! provide! funding?! The! benefits! for! both! the! Dutch! migrants! and! the!

Dutch!in!the!Netherlands!will!be!very!great,!in!the!sense!of!strengthening!connections,!building!

networks!and!opening!opportunities.!The!Dutch!diaspora!should!be!regarded!as!a!resource!and!

!

!

not!a!burden.!Who!knows!what!might!unfold!from!it?!

3& ROUNDTABLE&DISCUSSION&C:&&&

EXCHANGE&OF&KNOWLEDGE&THROUGH&RELOCATION/STUDY&EXCHANGE/WORKING&

HOLIDAYS&

Chaired!by:!Professor!Leo!van!Wissen!(NIDI,!NL)!

!

Student! exchange! programs! may! work,! but! there! are! always! costs! and! benefits! to! these!

activities.!Key!is!to!see!who!pays!the!costs!and!who!gets!the!benefits.!These!are!not!always!the!

same!parties.!!

!

Key!points!and!recommendations!about!student!exchange!programs:!!

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I.&Broader&focus&

Not! only! student! exchange! is! an! issue,! also! other! groups! in! the! educational! sector! may! be!

!

targeted,!such!as:!academic!staff,!but!also!high!school!pupils.!

II.&Dual&citizenship&

Students! with! a! dual! citizenship! have! many! advantages! of! engaging! in! a! student! exchange!

!

programme! (e.g.! lower! fees,! employment! possibilities! during! or! after! study).! This! could! be!

advertised!more!broadly.!!

III.&Up&to&date&inventory&

There! are! numerous! exchange! programs! in! place! already.! An! up! to! date! inventory! should! be!

!

made!for!both!countries!and!made!available!to!potential!candidates.!!

IV.&Involve&private&sector&

Very! important! is! to! have! the! private! sector! involved.! For! this! to! happen! something! visible!

should!be!produced,!such!as!a!publication!and/or!a!website.!!

!

V.&Funding&

Australia!is!a!priority!country!within!the!cultural!heritage!program!of!the!Dutch!Government,!

New!Zealand!not.!Is!it!possible!to!change!this!status!and!receive!funding!for!specific!activities!

!

out!of!this!program?!!

VI.&Exchange&to&the&Netherlands&

Exchange!means!that!there!are!also!students!from!Australia!and!New!Zealand!moving!to!the!

Netherlands.!We!do!not!know!much!about!these!persons.!Who!are!they?!Why!do!they!come?!

What!is!their!ancestry?!Do!they!return?!Etc.!This!type!of!information!is!relevant!to!understand!

how! the! linkages! between! the! countries! may! be! strengthened! and! what! the! role! of! Dutch!

!

ancestry!in!this!may!be.!The!embassies!of!Australia!and!New!Zealand!in!the!Netherlands!should!

be!involved!in!researching!this!issue.!!!!!

VII.&Networks&

Many!contacts!between!universities!are!informal,!e.g.!through!personal!networks!of!academic!

staff.!It!is!important!to!set!up!a!flexible!institutional!framework!that!facilitates!these!informal!

arrangements.!!

!

!

Key!points!and!recommendations!about!working!holidays:!!

I.&Proof&op&participation&

Exchange! through! the! working! holiday! program! is! increasingly! popular.! In! order! to! tie! the!

participants! permanently! to! the! host! country! something! should! be! given! to! them,! such! as! a!

!

certificate,!or!a!status,!e.g.!as!a!youth!ambassador.!!

Key!points!and!recommendations!in!general:!

!

I.&Media&

More!use!could!and!should!be!made!of!the!new!media:!websites,!Facebook,!LinkedIn,!etc.!It!can!

be!used!to!inform!potential!candidates!about!the!possible!programs.!Group!C!recommended!a!

!

permanent!website!which!can!serve!multiple!purposes,!for!example:!!

!

Giving!information!about!existing!exchanges!and!similar!programs;!

!

Networking;!

!

Creating! an! institutional! network! that! is! visible! to! the! private! sector! to! generate!

funding;!

!

Giving!access!to!individual!migration!records!so!people!can!trace!the!migration!history!

of!their!family,!privacy!laws!and!regulations!however!might!not!allow!this.!

&

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11& Biographies&of&the&contributors&

!

Arie&van&der&Wiel,&Ambassador&of&the&Kingdom&of&the&Netherlands&

Since!September!2010!Arie!van!der!Wiel!is!the!Netherlands!Ambassador!to!New!Zealand.!From!

profession!an!anthropologist!with!a!strong!focus!on!the!Pacific!during!his!study.!Before!joining!

the!Ministry!of!Foreign!Affairs,!he!worked!for!the!Food!and!Agricultural!Organisation!(FAO)!and!

was! lecturer! at! the! Anthropological! and! Sociological! Centre! of! the! University! of! Amsterdam.!

Over!the!past!thirty!five!years!he!was!employed!in!different!policy!functions!by!the!Ministry!of!

Foreign! Affairs! both! at! headquarters! and! abroad.! Since! 1998! he! served! as! ambassador! to!

Mozambique! 1998! Z! 2002,! Ghana! 2002! Z! 2006,! Nigeria! 2006! Z! 2010! and! currently! in! New!

&

Zealand.!

&

Professor&Jacques&Poot&

Jacques! Poot! was! born! in! The! Netherlands.! He! obtained! his! PhD! in! economics! at! Victoria!

University! of! Wellington! in! New! Zealand! in! 1984.! He! has! held! academic! positions! in! New!

Zealand,! Australia,! Japan! and! The! Netherlands.! He! is! currently! Professor! of! Population!

Economics! in! the! National! Institute! of! Demographic! and! Economic! Analysis! (NIDEA)! in! New!

Zealand,!but!also!adjunct!professor!at!VU!University!in!Amsterdam,!Affiliate!of!Motu!Economic!

and! Public! Policy! Research! in! Wellington,! Research! Fellow! at! the! Centre! for! Research! and!

Analysis!of!Migration!(CReAM)!at!University!College!London,!Research!Fellow!at!IZA!–!Institute!

for!the!Study!of!Labour!in!Bonn,!Honorary!Fellow!of!the!Royal!Netherlands!Academy!of!Arts!

and! Sciences! and! elected! Member! of! Academia! Europaea.! Professor! Poot’s! teaching! and!

research! interests! include! all! aspects! of! the! economics! of! population,! but! particularly:!

international!and!internal!migration,!local!labour!and!housing!markets,!regional!development,!

forecasting!and!metaZanalysis.!He!currently!coZleads!several!collaborative!research!projects!on:!

&

the! economic! integration! of! immigrants! in! New! Zealand;! population! ageing! and! regional!

development;!as!well!as!migrant!diversity!and!regional!disparity!in!Europe.!

&

Dr&Tanja&SchubertSMcArthur&

Tanja!SchubertZMcArthur!studied!anthropology!in!Tübingen,!Germany!and!recently!completed!

her! PhD! at! Victoria! University! of! Wellington,! New! Zealand.! Her! master's! thesis! focused! on!

German!immigrants!to!New!Zealand,!preparing!her!well!for!a!research!project!on!second!and!

!

third!generation!Dutch!that!she!carried!out!for!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington.!

!

Paul&Merwood&

Paul! Merwood! is! a! Principal! Analyst,! Migration! Research,! Evaluation! and! Analysis,! within! the!

Ministry!of!Business,!Innovation!and!Employment.!!Paul!is!a!member!of!the!OECD!Expert!Group!

on! Migration! and! has! been! involved! in! migration! research! since! 2003.! He! has! a! range! of!

&

&

experience! leading! and! working! on! migration! research! projects! that! contribute! to! a! robust!

evidence!base!on!migrant!outcomes!in!New!Zealand.!

Theo&Muller&

Theo!Muller!was!born!and!educated!in!the!Netherlands.!He!obtained!a!law!degree!from!the!Law!

School! of! Tilburg! University! in! the! early! 70’s! and! emigrated! to! New! Zealand! with! his! wife,!

Wieke,!to!New!Zealand!in!1974,!where!he!embarked!on!a!career!in!marketing.!He!was!Brand!

Manager!for!Unilever!and!Marketing!Manager!for!the!New!Zealand!Dairy!Board,!now!Fonterra!

before! starting! out! on! his! own.! Theo! founded! MMResearch,! a! market! research! company! in!

Wellington,! in! the! midZnineties.! In! 2010! Theo! was! asked! to! join! the! Board! of! Trustees! of! the!

New! ZealandZNetherlands! Foundation! and! in! 2012! became! its! Chairman.! Theo! was! also!

instrumental! in! reZestablishing! the! Stichting! Nederland! NieuwZZeeland,! based! in! the!

Netherlands,!and!sits!on!its!Board!of!Directors.!

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The!main!objective!of!the!Foundation!and!the!Stichting!is!to!develop!relationships!between!the!

young! people! of! our! two! countries! and! the! principal! mechanism! chosen! for! realising! this!

!

!

objective!is!to!facilitate!internships!for!these!people!and!allow!them!to!experience!life!in!all!its!

facets!at!opposite!ends!of!the!globe.!

Christine&Hofkens!

Christine!Hofkens!belongs!to!the!‘new!migrants’!group,!migrating!to!New!Zealand!in!1991.!She!

joined! the! Embassy! of! the! Netherlands! in! Wellington! in! 1994.! Her! studies! of! the! Dutch!

language,!education,!management!and!hospitality!were!useful!for!the!variety!of!tasks!within!the!

embassy.! ! Currently,! her! work! consists! of! economic! and! cultural! affairs.! Her! contact! with! the!

Dutch!community!in!New!Zealand!and!the!inspiration!of!Ambassador!Arie!van!der!Wiel!made!

&

her!into!an!enthusiastic!researcher!of!Dutch!migrants!in!New!Zealand!and!the!position!of!Abel!

Tasman!in!both!countries.!

&

Jelle&Hatenboer&

Jelle!Hatenboer!was!an!intern!at!the!Netherlands!Embassy!in!Wellington!from!midZAugust!to!

midZDecember! 2013! as! a! part! of! his! study.! When! in! Wellington,! he! was! studying! Business!

Administration!under!the!Honours!Program!at!the!Rijksuniversiteit!Groningen.!His!interests!lie!

in!economic!issues!and!society,!which!he!researched!in!Taiwan.!In!New!Zealand!he!concentrated!

on! a! research! project! on! Dutch! migrants,! which! he! executed! with! Paul! Merwood! from! the!

migration!research!department!of!MBIE!New!Zealand.!

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