English - SEBU9063
SEBU9063
September 2014
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1204F-E44TA and 1204F-E44TTA
Industrial Engines
MT (Engine)
MU (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU9063
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Maintenance Section
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 74
Safety Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 89
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 92
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 8
Warranty Section
Burn Prevention....................... ....................... 12
Warranty Information .................. .................. 130
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... .. 13
Reference Information Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 15
Reference Materials .................. ................... 131
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 15
Index Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................ ............... 15
Index............................... .............................. 134
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 17
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 17
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 18
Electrical System ...................... ...................... 18
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 19
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 20
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 30
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 33
Features and Controls .................. .................. 39
Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 57
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 63
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 66
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 68
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 72
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SEBU9063
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU9063
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i05670468
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located in two
positions. The warning labels are located on the rear
right side of the valve mechanism cover and located
on the crankcase breather body.
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SEBU9063
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 2
g03404355
(1) Universal Warning
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Illustration 3
Typical example
g02382677
SEBU9063
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Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 4
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (2) is
a wrap around label that is installed on the highpressure fuel line.
Ether Warning
An ether warning label will be installed on the air
cleaner or close to the air cleaner. The location will
depend on the application.
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
g03404354
8
SEBU9063
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage
could result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Illustration 5
g01154809
i05670550
General Hazard Information
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
Illustration 6
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
SEBU9063
9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Filler caps
• Grease fittings
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
• Pressure taps
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Breathers
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Drain plugs
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks. If
equipped, allow the diesel exhaust fluid to be
purged before disconnecting the battery.
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two bolts
or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the cover
plate or the device. Before removing the last two bolts
or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to relieve any
spring pressure or other pressure.
• If equipped, disconnect the connectors for the unit
injectors that are located on the valve cover base.
This action will help prevent personal injury from
the high voltage to the unit injectors. Do not come
in contact with the unit injector terminals while the
engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. The
stopping of the engine may be accomplished by
shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to
the engine. Ensure that only the fuel supply line is
shut off. Ensure that the fuel return line is open.
• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This action could bypass the engine
neutral start system and/or the electrical system
could be damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
Illustration 7
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
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SEBU9063
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
Pressurized Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This action could result in
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 8
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Static Electricity Hazard when
Fueling with Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel
Fuel
The removal of sulfur and other compounds in ultralow sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) decreases the
conductivity of ULSD and increases the ability of
ULSD to store static charge. Refineries may have
treated the fuel with a static dissipating additive.
Many factors can reduce the effectiveness of the
additive over time. Static charges can build up in
ULSD fuel while the fuel is flowing through fuel
delivery systems. Static electricity discharge when
combustible vapors are present could result in a fire
or explosion. Ensure that the entire system used to
refuel your machine (fuel supply tank, transfer pump,
transfer hose, nozzle, and others) is properly
grounded and bonded. Consult with your fuel or fuel
system supplier to ensure that the delivery system
complies with fueling standards for proper grounding
and bonding.
SEBU9063
11
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low
sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater static ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations
with a higher sulfur contents. Avoid death or serious injury from fire or explosion. Consult with
your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure the delivery system is in compliance with fueling standards for proper grounding and bonding practices.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
Inhalation
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Illustration 9
g00702022
Dispose of Waste Properly
Exhaust
Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to
health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed
area, adequate ventilation is necessary.
Asbestos Information
Perkins equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Perkins engine company limited are
asbestos free. Perkins recommends the use of only
genuine Perkins replacement parts. Use the following
guidelines when you handle any replacement parts
that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos
debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are
several guidelines that should be followed:
Illustration 10
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
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SEBU9063
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
i05774809
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine system.
The engine, the exhaust, and the engine
aftertreatment system can reach temperatures as
high as 650° C (1202° F) under normal operating
conditions.
Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure in the
air system, hydraulic system, lubrication system, fuel
system, and the cooling system before the related
items are disconnected.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, wait for 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair is
performed on the engine fuel lines. The 10 minute
wait will also allow static charge to dissipate from the
low-pressure fuel system.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or related
items are disconnected.
Induction System
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters,
aftertreatment system or to the engine contain hot
coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Skin may be irritated following repeated or prolonged
exposure to mineral and synthetic base oils. Refer to
your suppliers Material Safety Data Sheets for
detailed information. Hot oil and lubricating
components can cause personal injury. Do not allow
hot oil to contact the skin. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used.
Diesel Fuel
Diesel may be irritating to the eyes, respiratory
system, and skin. Prolonged exposure to diesel may
cause various skin conditions. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used. Refer to
supplier Material safety Data sheets for detailed
information.
Batteries
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious personal injury or death.
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur
levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin and
clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate
personal protective equipment (PPE) that is noted
on a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric
acid. Always follow the directions for first aid that
are noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid.
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
Aftertreatment System
Allow the aftertreatment to cool down before any
maintenance or repair is performed.
SEBU9063
13
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
i05670934
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all
electrical wires are correctly installed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Illustration 11
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a
tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
The 10 minute wait will also allow static charge to
dissipate from the low-pressure fuel system.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Ensure that
the hoses are correctly routed. The lines and hoses
must have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
14
SEBU9063
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Illustration 12
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low
Sulfur Diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater static
ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a
higher sulfur content. Avoid death or serious injury
from fire or explosion. Consult your fuel or fuel system
supplier to ensure that the delivery system is in
compliance with fueling standards for proper
grounding and bonding practices.
Illustration 13
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. A frozen battery may
cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous.
Do not smoke while you are replacing an ether
cylinder or while you are using an ether spray.
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders in
direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49° C
(120° F). Keep ether cylinders away from open
flames or sparks.
SEBU9063
15
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
i05768982
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Mounting and Dismounting
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment system. The engine and aftertreatment
system have not been designed with mounting or
dismounting locations.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
i05774823
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation,
correct installation will help to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
16
SEBU9063
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Illustration 14
(1) High-pressure line
(2) High-pressure line
(3) High-pressure line
g03404398
(4) High-pressure line
(5) High-pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(6) High-pressure line
The high-pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high-pressure fuel pump and the highpressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
(7) Fuel transfer line that is high pressure
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
The different is because of the following items:
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• The high-pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• Inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
• The internal pressures of the high-pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak, do not tighten the connection in order to
stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel injection lines Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install”.
• The high-pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high-pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high-pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped, you must wait for 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair is
performed on the engine fuel lines. The 10 minute
wait will also allow static charge to dissipate from the
low-pressure fuel system.
Do not loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system. This procedure is not
required.
• If the high-pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
and the high-pressure fuel lines are leaking, the
high-pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing, or loose.
• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure
fuel lines.
• Loosened high-pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high-pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
assembly manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
SEBU9063
17
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
i03560601
Before Starting Engine
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
i03996487
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch,
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls if
there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to
the controls.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
to prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge. Also,
check the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent
the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
in order to improve starting. Some Perkins engines
may have a cold starting system that is controlled by
the ECM that allows a controlled flow of ether into the
engine. The ECM will disconnect the glow plugs
before the ether is introduced. This system would be
installed at the factory.
18
SEBU9063
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
i02234873
Grounding Practices
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i05380506
Electrical System
Illustration 15
g03404407
Typical example
(1) Ground to the battery
(2) Primary position for grounding
(3) Ground to starting motor and starting motor to engine block
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Illustration 16
g03404412
Typical example
(4) Ground to the battery
(5) Ground to the cylinder block
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
SEBU9063
19
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
The following monitored engine operating conditions
and components have the ability to limit engine speed
and/or the engine power:
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
• Engine Coolant Temperature
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
• Engine Speed
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a
wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
• Wastegate Regulator
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
• NOxReduction System
i05673409
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) will monitor the engine operating
conditions. If any of the engine parameters extend
outside an allowable range, the ECM will initiate an
immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Derate
• Shutdown
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• Engine Intake Throttle Valve Fault
• Supply Voltage to Sensors
• Fuel Pressure in Manifold (Rail)
• Engine Aftertreatment System
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting for
more information on the Engine Monitoring System.
20
SEBU9063
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i05673429
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine and the aftertreatment system. Due to
individual applications, your engine, and your
aftertreatment may appear different from the
illustrations.
1204F-E44 TA Single Turbocharged Engine
Illustration 17
Typical example
g03404421
SEBU9063
21
General Information
Model View Illustrations
1204F-E44TTA Series Turbocharged Engine
Illustration 18
g03404422
Typical example
(1) Front lifting eye
(2) Crankcase breather
(3) Secondary fuel filter
(4) Primary fuel filter
(5) Electronic Control Module
(6) Priming/tranfer fuel pump
(7) In line fuel filter
(8) Oil level gauge (dipstick)
(9) Oil drain plug
(10) Oil filter
(11) Oil sampling valve
(12) High-pressure fuel pump
(13) Oil filler
22
SEBU9063
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 19
g03404423
Typical example
(14) Air intake
(15) Coolant outlet
(16) Water pump
(17) Coolant intake
(18) Tensioner
(19) Belt
SEBU9063
23
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 20
g03404515
Typical example
(20) Back pressure valve
(21) High-pressure turbocharger
(22) Low-pressure turbocharger
(23) Alternator
(24) Refrigerant compressor
(25) Starter solenoid
(26) Starting motor
(27) Starter relay
(28) Oil drain tap
(29) Flywheel
Aftertreatment Systems
Two different types of aftertreatment are available,
the aftertreatment must be matched to the engine
power.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
For a general description of the aftertreatment refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Product
Description” for more information.
(30) Flywheel housing
(31) NOx reduction cooler
(32) Rear lifting eye
24
SEBU9063
General Information
Model View Illustrations
DOC and SCR
Illustration 21
g03416433
Typical example
(1) SCR
(2) Identification module
(3) Outlet for Exhaust gas
(4) Mixer
The identification module will be installed on all
aftertreatment systems.
(5) DOC
(6) Inlet for Exhaust gas
SEBU9063
25
General Information
Model View Illustrations
DOC DPF and SCR
Illustration 22
g03713347
Typical example
(1) Intake for exhaust gas
(2) DPF
(3) Mixer
(4) SCR
(5) Outlet for exhaust gas
26
SEBU9063
General Information
Product Description
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) System
Illustration 23
g03700576
Typical example
(1) DEF tank and header unit
(2) DEF filler cap
(3) Pump electronic unit
(4) DEF filter
(5) NOx sensors and controls
(6) Coolant control valve
The ammonia sensor and control will only be installed
on the DOC and SCR system.
(7) Ammonia sensor
(8) Control for ammonia sensor
(9) DEF heated line
• In-line 4 cylinder
• 4 stroke cycle
i05673490
Product Description
• Four valves per cylinder
• Single turbocharger engine
• Series turbochargers engine
There are two variants of the Perkins industrial
engine, the 1204F-E44TA a single turbocharged
engine. This engine model is MT. The 1204F-E44TTA
is a series turbocharged engine and the model for this
engine is MU. Two variants of aftertreatment are also
available, the aftertreatment is matched to the power
of the engine.
Both aftertreatment system require Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) in order to operate correctly.
The Perkins 1204F-E44TA and the 1204F-E44TTA
industrial engines have the following characteristics.
• Aftertreatment system
Engines that have series turbochargers are equipped
with a low-pressure turbocharger and a high-pressure
turbocharger.
Engine Specifications
The front end of the engine is opposite the flywheel
end of the engine. The left and the right sides of the
engine are determined from the flywheel end. The
number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
SEBU9063
27
General Information
Product Description
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to the
demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• Engine monitoring
• Engine speed governing
• Control of the injection pressure
• Cold start strategy
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
• Torque rise shaping
• Injection timing control
Illustration 24
g01187485
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
• Low temperature regeneration
Table 1
1204F-E44TA and 1204F-E44TTA Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
4 In-Line
105 mm (4.13 inch)
Stroke
127 mm (4.99 inch)
Power
Single turbocharger charge
cooled
66 to 110 kW
(88.506 to 147.51 hp)
Series turbochargers charge
cooled
105 to 129.5 kW
(140.80 to 173.65 hp)
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
(1)
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
800 to 2200 (1)
Bore
Aspiration
• System diagnostics
Single Turbocharged charge
cooled
Series turbochargers charge
cooled
16.5:1
4.4 L (268.504 cubic inch)
1-3-4-2
Counterclockwise
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Engine Diagnostics
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display the
diagnostic codes.
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in
the ECM. For additional information, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system and lubrication system consists
of the following components:
28
SEBU9063
General Information
Product Description
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
• Oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor type
oil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
engine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valve can
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
Aftertreatment System
The aftertreatment system is approved for use by
Perkins . In order to be emission-compliant only the
approved Perkins aftertreatment system or
approved components must be used on a Perkins
engine.
Clean Emission Module (CEM)
The function of the CEM is to ensure that the engine
exhaust meets the required emissions regulation for
the country of operation.
There are two configurations of the CEM.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
For the DOC and SCR aftertreatment configurations
the CEM is comprised of three main components:
The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), the mixer and
the Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst (SCR).
The engine is connected by a flexible pipe to the
CEM. The exhaust gases pass through the DOC and
then the mixer where the gases are mixed with the
injected urea. The mixture then enters the SCR
catalyst. Here the NOx in the exhaust reacts with the
ammonia from the injected urea to split the gases into
nitrogen and oxygen constituents. The SCR catalyst
includes an ammonia oxidation section (AMOX) to
clean up any remaining ammonia before the gases
exit the system.
For the DOC, DPF and SCR aftertreatment
configurations the CEM has four main components
again: DOC and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) in the
first unit, the mixer, and the SCR.
In this instance the only differences to the operation
described above is that the particulate matter soot
and ash are trapped by the DPF. A passive
regeneration process is used to ensure that normal
operation of the engine removes the soot. The ash
remains in the DPF and must be removed at an
engine overhaul.
Cooling and Purging of the DEF Lines
After key-off, the DEF pump will circulate the DEF
fluid for a given time, in order to cool the DEF injector.
Also, the DEF pump will purge the DEF system of
fluid to protect the system from freeze of the DEF fluid
in cold conditions.
With the DOC and SCR aftertreatment system the
cooling and purging will take a minimum of 3 minutes
and a maximum of 10 minutes. The time taken will
depend on the temperature with the aftertreatment
system.
When the DOC, DPFand SCR system is operating
with exhaust gas temperatures below 425° C
(797° F) before key-off, the cooling and purging will
also take 6 minutes When the DOC, DPF, and SCR
aftertreatment system operates at temperatures
above 425° C (797° F), and key-off occurs the
cooling and purging will take a maximum of 15
minutes.
For example, the maximum cool-down and purge
time is only likely to be encountered in a certain
combination. Full-load rated speed operation and the
DPF in a regeneration mode occurring
simultaneously, immediately before key-off.
Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the
engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the useful life of the engine
(emissions durability period), as defined by
regulation, subject to prescribed maintenance
requirements being followed.
SEBU9063
29
General Information
Product Description
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts, ) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
30
SEBU9063
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
i05673551
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 26
g01094203
Aftertreatment Systems
Two different aftertreatment systems are available.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
DOC and SCR Serial Plate
Illustration 25
g03404834
Location of serial number plate
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is
MT*****U000001W.
• MT
• *****
Type of engine
The list number of the engine
• U
built in the united kingdom
• W
Year of manufacture
Engine Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block to the rear of the front
engine mounting.
Perkins distributors need all the information on the
serial plate in order to determine the components that
were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
Illustration 27
The plate (1) is installed after the DOC.
g03417144
SEBU9063
31
Product Identification Information
Emissions Certification Film
DOC, DPF, and SCR Serial Plate
i05673571
Emissions Certification Film
The label for the emission is installed on the front
gear cover.
Note: A second emission label will be supplied with
the engine. If necessary, the second emission label
will be installed on the application by the original
equipment manufacturer.
Illustration 28
g03713367
Typical example
The plate (1) is installed after the DPF.
Record all the information on the serial plate for your
aftertreatment system. The information will be
required by your Perkins distributors.
Pump Electronic Unit
Illustration 30
g03598056
i05768984
Reference Information
Illustration 29
g03700583
The serial plate (1) for the pump electronic unit is
installed beside the diesel exhaust fluid filter.
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
32
Product Identification Information
Reference Information
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial number
Engine Low Idle rpm
Engine Full Load rpm
In Line Fuel Filter
Primary Fuel Filter
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Air Cleaner Element
Drive Belt
Aftertreatment Systems
Clean Emission Module Part Number
Clean Emission Module Serial Number
Dosing Control Unit Part Number
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Filter Part Number
(DEF) Tank Part Number
Manifold Group DEF (DEF Tank Header Unit) Part
Number
DEF Tank Filter Part Number
SEBU9063
SEBU9063
33
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
Engine and Aftertreatment Lifting
Eyes
Lifting and Storage
i05673614
Product Lifting
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific
engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided.
Lifting eyes are designed to lift the engine only or
designed to lift the engine with the aftertreatment.
Consult your Perkins distributor for information
regarding fixtures for proper engine lifting.
Illustration 31
g03674678
Typical example
The front lifting eye for engine and aftertreatment is
installed by three bolts. The design of the lifting eyes
will allow access in order to lift the aftertreatment and
engine.
34
SEBU9063
Lifting and Storage
Product Lifting
Engine Only Lifting Eyes
Ensure that the correct clothing is worn, refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “General
Hazard Information”.
There are two different types of Clean Emission
Module (CEM) available.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
Illustration 32
g03674859
Typical example
Refer to illustration 32 for the location of the engine
only lifting eyes.
Illustration 33
g03674679
The front lifting eye (3) for the engine only is installed
by two bolts. The rear lifting eye of engine only can be
identified by the design.
i05857080
Product Lifting
(Aftertreatment Systems)
SEBU9063
35
Lifting and Storage
Product Lifting
DOC and SCR
Illustration 34
Typical example
There are two sizes of CEM that can be installed. A
high powered CEM and a low powered CEM. The
approximate weight of the high powered CEM is
47 kg (104 lb), the approximate weight of the low
powered CEM is 42 kg (93 lb).
Two suitable double looped slings are required in
order to lift the CEM. Also, a suitable hoist will be
required in order to remove and install the assembly.
The slings must be attached to the CEM as shown in
illustration 34 .
Ensure that the slings only contact the body of the
CEM. A test lift may be required in order to achieve
the correct balance of the assembly.
Some applications may require a frame or jig in order
to lift the CEM. A frame or jig must only be connected
to the cradle of the CEM. Refer to the Original
equipment manufacture for more information.
g03417158
36
SEBU9063
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
DOC, DPF, and SCR
Illustration 35
g03713453
Typical example
The approximate weight of the CEM is 77 kg (170 lb).
Two suitable double looped slings are required in
order to lift the CEM. Also, a suitable hoist will be
required in order to remove and install the assembly.
The slings must be attached to the CEM as shown in
illustration 35 .
Some applications may require a frame or jig in order
to lift the CEM. A frame or jig must only be connected
to the cradle of the CEM. Refer to the original
equipment manufacture for more information.
i05673732
Before disconnecting the battery disconnect switch,
purging of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) system
must take place. Disconnecting the battery power too
soon may prevent purging of the DEF fluid system.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Battery Disconnect Switch” for more information.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Product Storage
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
Storage Period
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Storage Procedure
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
SEBU9063
37
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.
For more information on acceptable fuels refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine and
aftertreatment.
Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are
covered completely before storage. Log the
procedure in the record for the engine.
Aftertreatment
The engine must be allowed to perform a Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF) purge before the battery
disconnect switch is turned off. Disconnecting the
battery power too soon may prevent purging of the
DEF fluid system. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Battery Disconnect Switch” for
more information.
The exhaust outlet of the aftertreatment must be
capped. In order to prevent damage to the exhaust
outlet connection during storage, the weight of the
CEM must not act on the exhaust outlet.
DEF in Tank Storage
• DEF should be drained and replenished if the
application is left idle for 2 months or longer at
40° C (104° F).
• DEF should be drained and replenished if the
application is left idle for 4 months or more at 25° C
(77° F)
1. Ensure normal engine shutdown, allow the DEF to
be purged. Disconnecting the battery power too
soon may prevent purging of the DEF fluid system.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Battery Disconnect Switch” for more information.
2. Fill the tank with DEF that meet all the requirement
defined in ISO 22241-1.
3. Ensure that all DEF lines and electrical connection
are connected prior to prevent crystal from
forming.
4. Ensure that the DEF filler cap is correctly installed.
Removal from Storage
DEF has a limited life, refer to table 2 for the time and
temperature range. DEF that is outside this range
MUST be replaced.
On removal from storage the DEF quality in the tank
must be tested with a refractometer. The DEF in the
tank must meet the requirements defined in ISO
22241-1 and comply with table 2 .
1. If necessary, drain the tank and fill with DEF that
meet ISO 22241-1.
2. Replace the DEF filter, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid FilterClean/Replace”.
38
SEBU9063
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
3. Ensure that the drive belt is correctly installed.
Ensure that all engine coolant and engine oil has
the correct specification and grade. Ensure that the
coolant and the engine oil are at the correct level.
Start the engine.
4. If a fault becomes active turn off the engine. If the
application as a battery disconnect lamp installed,
the DEF system will be purged after the battery
disconnect lamp is extinguished. If no battery
disconnect lamp is installed, allow 10 minutes or
15 minutes if the system has a DPF for the DEF
system to purge. Then restart the engine.
5. If the fault continues to stay active, refer to
Troubleshooting for more information.
DEF Storage
Table 2
Temperature
Duration
10° C (50° F)
36 months
25° C (77° F)
18 months
30° C (86° F)
12 months
35° C (95° F)(1)
6 months
(1)
At 35° C, significant degradation can occur. Check every batch
before use.
SEBU9063
39
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs
Features and Controls
Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensor
measures the high pressure or low pressure in the
fuel rail. The ECM will Check the pressure.
i05768989
Alarms and Shutoffs
Shutoffs
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
• Operating temperature
• Operating pressure
• Operating level
• Operating rpm
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the
engine will start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
The alarms are electrically operated. The operations
of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal is
sent to the ECM. An event code is created by the
ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Intake manifold air temperature – The intake
manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake
air temperature.
Intake manifold pressure – The intake manifold
pressure sensor checks the rated pressure in the
engine manifold.
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure, at a set engine speed.
Engine overspeed – If, the engine rpm exceeds the
overspeed setting the alarm will be activated.
Air filter restriction – The switch checks the air filter
when the engine is operating.
User-defined switch – This switch can shut down
the engine remotely.
Water in fuel switch – This switch checks for water
in the primary fuel filter when the engine is operating.
Fuel temperature – The fuel temperature sensor
monitors the pressurized fuel in the high-pressure fuel
pump.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature sensor must be submerged in coolant in
order to operate.
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order to
alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures
must be taken before the situation becomes an emergency in order to avoid possible engine damage.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
Note: If installed, the coolant level switch and the oil
level switch are indicators. Both switches should only
be operated when the application is on level ground
and the engine RPM is zero.
Clean Emission Module (CEM)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
(DOC)
• Selective Catalyst Reduction
(SCR)
• Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF)
40
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Selective Catalytic Reduction Warning System
DOC and SCR System
• Temperature Sensor before DOC
• NOx Sensor
• SCR Temperature Sensor
• Ammonia Sensor
Temperature Sensor before DOC – This sensor
monitors the gas temperature that is entering the
DOC
NOx Sensor – Two NOx sensors monitor the NOx
concentration within the exhaust gas before and after
the SCR module.
SCR Temperature Sensor – The sensor monitors
the gas temperature entering the SCR.
Ammonia Sensor – The sensor monitors the
concentration of ammonia within the exhaust system
after the CEM.
The temperature sensor before DOC, NOx sensor,
SCR temperature sensor, and ammonia sensor all
connect with the engine ECM. If the signal from these
sensors is out of the set range, the ECM will trigger
an alarm for the operator.
DOC, SCR, and DPF System
Temperature Sensor before DOC – This sensor
monitors the gas temperature as the gas enters the
DOC
DPF Temperature Sensor – The temperature sensor
monitors the temperature within the DPF.
Soot Sensor Control – The soot sensor control unit
monitors the amount of soot within the DPF.
NOx Sensor – Two NOx sensors monitor the NOx
concentration within the exhaust gas before and after
the SCR module.
SCR Temperature Sensor – The sensor monitors
the gas temperature entering the SCR.
The temperature sensor before DOC, DPF
temperature sensor, soot sensor, NOx sensor, SCR
temperature sensor, and ammonia sensor all
connected to the ECM. If the signal from these
sensors is out of the set range, the ECM will trigger
an alarm for the operator.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) System
Control
DEF Level Sensor – The DEF level sensor signals
the ECM. The ECM determines the signal in order to
give a level reading of the volume of fluid in the tank.
DEF Temperature Sensor – The sensor signals the
ECM. The ECM will determine the temperature of the
DEF within the tank from the signals sent. The
temperature of the DEF is important in order to keep
the DEF injector operation correctly.
Dosing Control Unit (DCU) – The DCU controls the
injection of the DEF and will signal the ECM if the
injection has been interrupted.
The DEF level sensor, DEF temperature sensor, and
the Dosing control unit all connect with the engine
ECM. If the ECM determines that any of the signals
are out of the specified range, an alarm will be
triggered.
Testing
Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check
the indicator lights on the control panel. All the
indicator lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds after
the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect bulbs
immediately.
Refer to Troubleshooting for more information.
i05673972
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Warning System
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is a
system used to reduce NOx emissions from the
engine. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is pumped from
the DEF tank and is sprayed into the exhaust stream.
The DEF reductant is stored on the catalyst and
reduces NOx, leaving nitrogen gas and water vapor.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after the engine has
been working under load can result in overheating of
DEF system components.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Stopping” procedure to allow the engine to cool
and to prevent excessive temperatures in the turbocharger housing and the DEF injector.
NOTICE
Allow the engine to perform a DEF purge of the DEF
system before you turn the battery disconnect switch
to OFF. Disconnecting the battery power too soon
may prevent purging of the DEF lines after the engine
is shut down. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Battery Disconnect Switch” for more
information.
SEBU9063
41
Features and Controls
Selective Catalytic Reduction Warning System
Warning Strategy
World-Wide SCR Warnings
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will be enabled
with a world-wide warning strategy.
• At Level 1 the emission malfunction lamp will be on
solid.
Warning Indicators
• At Level 2 the emission malfunction lamp will flash.
The warning indicators consist of a level gauge for
the DEF, a low-level lamp for the DEF, an emission
malfunction lamp, and the application stop lamp.
• At Level 3 the emission malfunction lamp will flash
and the stop lamp will activate.
• At Level 3 the engine may shut down or operate at
1000 Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
The DEF level gauge will only give an accurate
reading with the application on level ground.
• At Level 3 cycling the keyswitch will give 20
minutes override at full power, before the
shutdown or idle is triggered. The emission
malfunction lamp will continue to flash .If installed,
an audible warning will sound.
Illustration 36
g03069862
(1) DEF gauge
(A) Low-level warning lamp
Illustration 37
g02852336
Emission malfunction lamp
Warning Levels
The SCR has three levels of warning. Depending on
the fault that has been detected and software enabled
will govern the time that the system will stay at each
warning level.
Any warning should be investigated immediately,
contact your Perkins distributor. The system is
equipped with an override option. Once the override
option has been used and the fault still exist, the
engine will be locked in de-rate or shutdown mode.
Table 3
World-Wide
DEF Quality Tampering and Dosing Interruption
(continued)
42
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Selective Catalytic Reduction Warning System
(Table 3, contd)
-
Normal operation
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Override
Inducement Time
First occurrence
None
2.5 Hours
70 minutes
Shut down or idle
Until fault heals
Cycling the keyswitch
will give 20 minutes
of full power
The system must be fault free for 40 hours before the system will reset to zero. If the fault is intermittent, and returns within the 40 hours, then the
repeat inducement time will be triggered.
The override can only be used once
Repeat Inducement
time
None
5 minutes
5 minutes
Inducement
None
None
None
Notification
None
Emission malfunction Emission malfunction
lamp will be on solid
lamp will flash
Shut down or idle
Until fault heals
Cycling the keyswitch
will give 20 minutes
of full power
Emission malfunction
lamp will flash
The stop lamp will be
on solid
Emission malfunction
lamp will flash
Contact your Perkins distributor at level 1 warning, do not let the fault develop.
Table 4
World-Wide
NOx Reduction System Fault
-
Normal operation
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Override
Inducement Time
First occurrence
None
35 Hours
60 minutes
Shut down or idle
Until fault heals
Cycling the keyswitch
will give 20 minutes
of full power
The system must be fault free for 40 hours before the system will reset to zero. If the fault is intermittent, and returns within the 40 hours, then the
repeat inducement time will be triggered.
The override can only be used once.
Repeat Inducement
time
None
48 minutes
60 minutes
Inducement
None
None
None
Notification
None
Emission malfunction Emission malfunction
lamp will be on solid
lamp will flash
Shut down or idle
Until fault heals
Cycling the keyswitch
will give 20 minutes
of full power
Emission malfunction
lamp will flash
The stop lamp will
activate
Emission malfunction
lamp will flash
Contact your Perkins distributor at level 1 warning, do not let the fault develop.
World-Wide DEF Level Warnings
• The low-level warning lamp will operate when DEF
level reaches the trigger point of below 19 percent.
• At Level 1 the low-level warning lamp in the DEF
gauge will illuminate and the emission malfunction
lamp will be on solid.
• At Level 2 the low-level warning lamp for the DEF
is active and the emission malfunction lamp will
flash.
• At Level 3 all level 2 warning are operating, plus
the stop lamp will become activate. The engine will
shut down or will only operate at 1000 RPM. If
installed, an audible warning will sound.
Filling the DEF tank will remove the warning from the
system.
SEBU9063
43
Features and Controls
Battery Disconnect Switch
Table 5
World-Wide DEF Level Option 1
-
Normal operation
Initial indication
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Inducement Trigger
Above 19 percent
Below 19 percent
Below 12.5 percent
0 Percent reading
Empty tank
Inducement
None
None
None
25 percent torque derate
Shut down or idle only
Notification
None
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp on solid
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp flashing
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp flashing
Stop lamp on solid
Table 6
World-Wide DEF Level Option 2
-
Normal operation
Initial indication
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Inducement Trigger
Above 19 percent
Below 19 percent
Below 12.5 percent
6 Percent reading
0 Percent reading
Inducement
None
None
None
None
Shut down or idle only
Notification
None
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp on solid
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp flashing
Low-level lamp
illuminated
Emission malfunction
lamp flashing
Stop lamp on solid
i05862096
Battery Disconnect Switch
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
• Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
The battery disconnect switch is designed to isolate
the engine and application from battery power.
In some applications an auxiliary electrical circuit may
have been included that will allow the DEF system to
cool down and purge even if the battery disconnect
switch is in the off position. Once the DEF system
cools down and the purge procedures are complete,
this auxiliary circuit (if installed) will open. This circuit
then isolates the battery from the rest of the electrical
system.
NOTICE
Perkins strongly recommend the installation of the
wait to disconnect lamp on all applications.
The wait to disconnect lamp will be illuminated during
engine operation, and only when extinguished should
the battery disconnect switch be turned off.
For a DOC and SCR aftertreatment system, allow 10
minutes after the engine has stopped before you turn
the battery disconnect switch off.
For a DOC, DPF and SCR aftertreatment system
allow 15 minutes after the engine has stopped before
you turn the battery off.
If digital communication is lost, the wait to disconnect
lamp will operate for minutes 15 minutes on both
aftertreatment systems after the engine has stopped.
Disconnecting the battery power too soon may
prevent cooling of the DEF system and purging of the
(DEF) lines after the engine is shut down.
Not allowing the DEF system to be cooled can
damage the system. Not allowing the DEF purge to
be performed can damage the DEF system.
For more information on DEF cooling and purging
times, refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Product Description” and see title Cooling
and Purging of the DEF Lines.
i05674030
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
44
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Gauges and Indicators
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins
distributor for assistance.
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap must be installed
on the cooling system. The maximum temperature for
the cooling system is 108° C (226.4° F). This
temperature is measured at the outlet for the water
temperature regulator. The engine coolant
temperature is regulated by the engine sensors and
the engine ECM. This programming cannot be
altered. An engine derate can occur if the maximum
engine coolant temperature is exceeded.
If the engine is operating above the normal range,
reduce the engine load. If high coolant temperatures
are a frequent event, perform the following
procedures:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. If necessary,
consult your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for further information.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
NOTICE
Operation at speeds exceeding high idle rpm should
be kept to a minimum. Overspeeding can result in
serious damage to the engine.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at
rated rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “ +”” side of “ 0”” (zero).
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the engine
speed and Load are stable and the gauge reading
changes, perform the following procedure:
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/
STOP”” switch is in the “ on”” position.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by
pressing the Flash Code button.
1. Remove the load.
2. Stop the engine.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 82° to 94°C
(179.6° to 201.2°F). This temperature
range will vary according to engine load and the
ambient temperature.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates total operating hours of the
engine.
Low Level DEF – The gauge indicates
the amount of DEF in the tank. Level
ground is required for correct operation
of the gauge.
Indicator Lamps
There are four indicator lamps that are available.
45
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
• Shutdown Lamp
Aftertreatment Lamps and Gauges
• Warning Lamp
• Emission malfunction lamp
• Wait to Start Lamp
• Action indicator lamp
• Low Oil Pressure Lamp
• Gauge for Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
For information, refer to this manual, “Monitoring
System (Table for the Indicator Lamps)” for the
sequence of operation of the shutdown lamp and the
warning lamp.
• Low warning lamp for DEF
The function of the wait to start lamp is automatically
controlled at engine start-up.
The function of the low oil pressure lamp is controlled
by the engine ECM. If low oil pressure is detected, the
lamp will be illuminated. The reason for the
illumination of the low-pressure lamp should be
investigated immediately.
All lamps will illuminate for 2 seconds in order to
check that the lamps are functioning when the
keyswitch is turned to the ON position. If any of the
lamps stay illuminated, the reason for illumination
should be investigated immediately.
Instrument panels and Displays
In order to monitor the engine a wide verity of
instrument panels are available. These instrument
panels can contain the indicator lamps and the
gauges for the application.
Also available are mini power displays and
performance monitors. These displays and monitors
can show the operator the following engine
information.
• The system configuration parameters
• The customer specified parameters
• Diagnostic codes
• Event codes
• Coolant temperature
• Oil temperature
• Oil pressure
• Intake temperature
• Intake pressure
• Atmospheric pressure
• Fuel temperature
• Wait to disconnect lamp (optional)
The wait to disconnect lamp will be illuminated during
engine operation and will be extinguished after the
engine has stopped. Do not disconnect the battery
disconnect switch during the period the lamp is
illuminated. The DEF system will be cooled and
purged during this time. Also, during the wait to
disconnect lamp is illuminated the engine electronic
control module is active storing information from the
engine and aftertreatment sensors.
Note: The wait to disconnect lamp will not be
checked at key on. The wait to disconnect lamp will
illuminate at key on.
i05194981
Monitoring System
(Engine Indicators and
Aftertreatment Indicators)
Engine Indicator Lamps
Note: When in operation the amber warning lamp has
three states, solid, flashing, and fast flashing. The
sequence is to give a visual indication of the
importance of the warning. Some application can
have an audible warning installed.
Ensure that the engine maintenance is carried out at
the correct intervals. A lack of maintenance can result
in illumination of the warning lamp. For the correct
intervals of maintenance, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
46
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Overspeed
Table 7
Indicator Lamp Table
Warning
Lamp
Shutdown
Action Indicator Lamp
Lamp State
On
On
Lamp Check
Description of the Indication
Engine Status
When the keyswitch is moved to the ON po- The keyswitch is in the ON position but the ensition, the lamps come on for 2 seconds and gine has not yet been cranked.
the lamps will then go off.
If any of the indicators will not illuminate during indicator check, the fault must be investigated immediately
If any Indicators stay illuminated or flash, the fault must be investigated immediately.
Off
Off
No Faults
With the engine in operation, there are no
active warnings, diagnostic codes, or event
codes.
The engine is operating with no detected faults.
On Solid
Off
Warning
Level 1 warning
The engine is operating normally but there is
one or more faults with the electronic management system for the engine.
As soon as possible the fault should be investigated.
Flashing
Off
Warning
Level 2 warning
The engine continues to be operated, but the
level of importance of the warning has
increased.
Depending on the particular fault and the severity the engine may be de-rated.
The engine could be damaged if continued to
be operated.
Stop the engine. Investigate the code.
Flashing
On
Engine Shutdown Level 3 warning
If both the warning lamp and the shutdown
lamp are in operation, this issue indicates
one of the following conditions.
1. One or more of the shutdown values for
the engine protection strategy has been
exceeded.
The engine is either shutdown or an engine
shutdown is imminent. One or more monitored
engine parameters have exceeded the limit for
an engine shutdown. This pattern of lamps can
be caused by the detection of a serious active
diagnostic code.
Contact your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor.
2. A serious active diagnostic code has been
detected.
If install, the audible warning will sound.
After a short time period, the engine may
shut down.
Flash Codes
Some applications may support flash codes. A flash
code can be viewed by an indicator lamp that when
asked will flash in a particular sequence. The
indicator lamp used to view the codes is the warning
lamp, the lamp can then be refer to as a diagnostic
lamp. For more information refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic Lamp”.
For more information on the illumination of the
aftertreatment indicators refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Selective Catalytic Reduction
Warning System”.
i03554501
Overspeed
Aftertreatment System
The aftertreatment indicators should illuminate at key
on for 2 seconds in order to test the system. If any of
the indicators do not illuminate, the fault must be
investigated immediately.
• ECM
Electronic Control Module
• RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
An overspeed is detected by the speed/timing
sensors.
47
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
The default setting for an overspeed is 3000 rpm. The
ECM will cut the power to the electronic unit injectors,
until the rpm drops below 200 rpm of the overspeed
setting. A diagnostic fault code will be logged into the
ECM memory and a warning lamp will indicate a
diagnostic fault code.
An overspeed can be set from 2600 rpm to 3000 rpm.
This setting depends on the application.
i05769077
Sensors and Electrical
Components
The illustration within the section shows the typical
locations of the sensors and other electrical
components on the Industrial engine. Specific
engines may appear different due to the application.
Also illustration of the aftertreatment system may
appear different due to the application.
48
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Engine Views
Illustration 38
g03419999
Typical example
(1) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Fuel Pressure Sensor (Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor)
(3) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
(4) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
(5) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(6) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
(Barometric Pressure Sensor)
(7) Priming/ Transfer pump
(8) Primary Speed/Timing sensor
(Crankshaft Position Sensor)
(9) Oil Pressure Sensor
(10) Fuel Temperature Sensor
(11) Fuel Metering Solenoid for the High
Pressure Fuel Pump
SEBU9063
49
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 39
g03420017
Typical example
(12) Wastegate Regulator
(13) Inlet Pressure Sensor for the NOx
Reduction System (NRS)
(14) Control Valve for the NRS
(15) Temperature Sensor for the NRS
(16) Differential Pressure Sensor for the
NRS
50
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 40
g03420076
Typical example
(17) Alternator
(18) Starter Solenoid
(19) Starting Motor
(20) Starter Relay
(21) Low Oil Level Switch (if Equipped)
(22) Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
(23) Water in Fuel Switch
(24) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
(Camshaft Position Sensor)
(25) Back Pressure Valve
SEBU9063
51
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 41
g02413838
Typical example
(1) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Fuel Pressure Sensor (Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor)
(3) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
(4) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
(5) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Illustration 42
g03420558
Typical example
(6) Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
(Barometric Pressure Sensor)
(7) Priming/ Transfer pump
(8) Primary Speed/Timing sensor
(Crankshaft Position Sensor)
(9) Oil Pressure Sensor
(10) Fuel Temperature Sensor
(11) Fuel Metering Solenoid for the High
Pressure Fuel Pump
52
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 43
g03421140
Typical example
(12) Wastegate Regulator
(13) Inlet Pressure Sensor for the NOx
Reduction System (NRS)
(14) Control Valve for the NRS
(15) Temperature Sensor for the NRS
Illustration 44
(16) Differential Pressure Sensor for the
NRS
g03421147
Typical example
(17) Alternator
(18) Starter Solenoid
(19) Starting Motor
(20) Starter Relay
(21) Low Oil Level Switch (if Equipped)
SEBU9063
53
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 45
g03421154
Typical example
(22) Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
(23) Water in Fuel Switch
(24) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
(Camshaft Position Sensor)
Aftertreatment Views
• DOC
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
• SCR
Selective Catalytic Reduction
• DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
• DEF
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Two different types of aftertreatment are available.
Both types of aftertreatment will have an identification
module installed.
(25) Back Pressure Valve
54
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
DOC and SCR
Illustration 46
g03421173
Typical example
(1) SCR Temperature Sensor
(2) Identification Module
(3) DEF Injector
(4) DOC Temperature Sensor
55
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
DOC, DPF, and SCR
Illustration 47
g03713372
Typical example
(1) SCR Temperature Sensor
(2) Soot Sensor Connection
(3) DPF Temperature Sensor
(4) DOC Temperature Sensor
(5) Identification Module
(6) Soot Sensor Connection
Note: The NOx sensor (8) can be installed in only
one location, the location will depend on the
application.
(7) DEF Injector
(8) NOx Sensor location
56
SEBU9063
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Sensors and Aftertreatment Components
Illustration 48
g03659936
Typical example
(1) DEF Pump and electronic unit
(2) Coolant Diverter Valve
(3) DEF Tank level and Temperature Sensor
(4) NOx Sensors
(5) Ammonia Sensor and Control
(6) Heated DEF Line
57
SEBU9063
Engine Diagnostics
Self-Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
Use the following procedure to retrieve the flash
codes if the engine is equipped with a
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp:
i05194988
1. Move the keyswitch from the on/off two times within
3 seconds.
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins Electronic Engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp is
activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by
using Perkins electronic service tools.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
A flashing YELLOW lamp indicates a 3-digit code for
the engine. The sequence of flashes represents the
system diagnostic message. Count the first sequence
of flashes in order to determine the first digit of the
flash code. After a two second pause, the second
sequence of flashes will identify the second digit of
the flash code. After the second pause, the third
sequence of flashes will identify the flash code.
For more information refer to Troubleshooting.
i05406659
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged by the ECM can be identified by
the electronic service tool. The active codes that have
been logged will be cleared when the fault has been
rectified or the fault is no longer active. The following
logged faults cannot be cleared from the memory of
the ECM without using a factory password:
Overspeed, low engine oil pressure, high engine
coolant temperature, and aftertreatment codes.
i03554534
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
i03554520
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. A fault diagnostic code will remain
active until the problem is repaired. The diagnostic
code may be retrieved by using the electronic service
tool.
i05421238
Diagnostic Flash Code
Retrieval
Use the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp or an electronic
service tool to determine the diagnostic flash code.
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: If the customer has selected “DERATE” and if
there is a low oil pressure condition, the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) will limit the engine power until
the problem is corrected. If the oil pressure is within
the normal range, the engine may be operated at the
rated speed and load. However, maintenance should
be performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
58
Engine Diagnostics
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
i01797063
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
SEBU9063
System Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never require changing through the life of the
engine. System configuration parameters must be
reprogrammed if an ECM is replaced. System
configuration parameters do not require
reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.
Factory passwords are required to change these
parameters.
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes and
the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i05798673
Configuration Parameters
The engine electronic control module (ECM) has two
types of configuration parameters. The system
configuration parameters and the customer specified
parameters.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the configuration parameters.
Table 8
System Configuration Parameters
Configuration Parameters
Record
Engine Serial Number
Factory Installed Aftertreatment #1 Identification Number
(continued)
SEBU9063
59
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
(Table 8, contd)
DPF #1 Soot Loading Sensing System Configuration Code
Limp Home Engine Speed Ramp Rate
System Operating Voltage Configuration
Rating Number
CAN Communication Protocol Write Security
Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Progress Configuration
Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Regulation Configuration
Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Emergency Override Enable
Status
Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Emergency Override
Activation
Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Emergency Override Mode
Configuration
Engine Emissions Operator Final Inducement Action
Customer Specified Parameters
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to
be configured to the exact needs of the application.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the customer configuration parameters.
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
operational requirements change.
Table 9
Customer Specified Parameters
Specified Parameters
Record
Throttle Type Channel 1
Throttle Type Channel 2
IVS Channel 1
IVS Channel 2
Continuous Position Throttle Configuration 1
Continuous Position Throttle Configuration 2
Multi Position Throttle Switch Configuration
Throttle Arbitration
Equipment ID
Low Idle Speed
Ether Solenoid Configuration
Engine Warm Up Elevated Idle Feature Enable Status
Engine Warm Up Elevated Idle Delay Time
Delayed Engine Shutdown Enable Status
(continued)
60
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
SEBU9063
(Table 9, contd)
Delayed Engine Shutdown Maximum Time
High Soot Load Aftertreatment Protection Enable Status
Air Shutoff
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
PTO Mode
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #2
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Decrement
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
Monitoring Mode Derates
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed
Engine Acceleration Rate
Engine Speed Decelerating Ramp Rate
Intermediate Engine Speed
Fan
Engine Fan Control
Engine Fan Type Configuration
Engine Cooling Fan Temperature Error Increasing Hysteresis
Engine Cooling Fan Temperature Error Decreasing Hysteresis
Engine Cooling Fan Current Ramp Rate
Engine Cooling Fan Speed
Top Engine Fan Speed
Minimum Desired Engine Cooling Fan Speed
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Minimum Current
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Maximum Current
Engine cooling Fan solenoid Dither Frequency
Engine Cooling Fan Solenoid Dither Amplitude
Engine Cooling Fan Pulley Ratio
Engine Cooling Fan Speed (Proportional) Gain Percentage
Engine Cooling Fan Speed (Integral) Stability Percentage
Fan Temperatures
Engine Fan Control Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature Input Enable
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet
Temperature
(continued)
SEBU9063
61
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
(Table 9, contd)
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet
Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Coolant Temperature Input Enable Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Transmission Oil Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Transmission Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Transmission Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Hydraulic Oil Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Control Auxiliary #1 Temperature Input Enable
Status
Engine Cooling Fan Maximum Air Flow Auxiliary #1 Temperature
Engine Cooling Fan Minimum Air Flow Auxiliary #1 Temperature
Other Parameters
Maintenance Indicator Mode
Maintenance Level 1 Cycle Interval Hours
Coolant Level Sensor
Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status
Air Filter Restriction Switch Configuration
Fuel/Water Separator Switch Installation Status
User Defined Switch Installation Status
Auxiliary Temperature Sensor Installation Status
Auxiliary Pressure Sensor Installation Status
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
Number of Engine Operating Mode Switches
Engine Operating Mode Configuration
Glow Plug Start Aid Installation Status
High Idle Configuration
Throttle Channel 1 Droop %
Throttle Channel 2 Droop %
TSC 1 Droop %
Min Max / All Speed Governing
Rated Speed Configuration
Droop No Load Fuel Offset
(continued)
62
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
(Table 9, contd)
PM1 Interval
Engine Oil Level Sensor Installation Status
Engine Change Air cooler #1 Outlet temperature Sensor Installation
Status
SEBU9063
SEBU9063
63
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i05360375
i04935860
Cold Weather Starting
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate diesel
exhaust fluid supply
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open and fuel
supply lines must be open. Damage to the fuel system can occur if fuel lines are closed with the engine
in operation.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
The ability to start the engine will be improved at
temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a
jacket water heater or extra battery capacity.
The following items provide a means of minimizing
starting problems and fuel problems in cold weather:
Engine oil pan heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel
heaters and fuel line insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel
specification is correct and that the fuel condition is
correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished cycle the keyswitch. Turn the
keyswitch to the OFF position and then to the
START position in order to engage the electric
starting motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
64
SEBU9063
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished cycle the keyswitch. Turn the
keyswitch to the OFF position and then to the
START position in order to engage the electric
starting motor and crank the engine.
Note: After starting, the engine may be held at low
speed for a duration between 1 and 25 seconds to
allow engine systems to stabilize. The duration will
depend on ambient temperature, time since last run
and other factors. The glow plug warning lamp will
flash in order to indicate that the engine is been held
at low speed.
6. The engine should not be raced in order to speed
up the warm-up process. Allow the engine to idle
for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow the engine to idle until
the water temperature indicator begins to rise.
When idling after the engine has started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to
1200 rpm. This operation will warm up the engine
more quickly.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the temperature of the
engine.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
Following a cold start white smoke can be seen from
the tailpipe. This smoke is normal and caused by
condensation leaving the exhaust system after
warming up. The white smoke should clear following
working of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
6. After starting, the engine may be held at low speed
for a duration between 1 and 25 seconds to allow
engine systems to stabilize. The duration will
depend on ambient temperature, time since last
run and other factors. The glow plug warning light
will flash in order to indicate that the engine is been
held at low speed.
i05354322
Starting the Engine
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
i03663103
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: During the key on, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check lamp
operation. If any of the lamps do not illuminate, check
the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay illuminated or
flash, refer to Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamp
Circuit - Test”.
SEBU9063
65
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will
Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for
further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i05354355
After Starting Engine
After starting, the engine may be held at low speed
for a duration between 1 and 25 seconds to allow
engine systems to stabilize. The duration will depend
on ambient temperature, time since last run and other
factors.
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C
(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately 3
minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This check
may not possible in some applications.
• Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
66
SEBU9063
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i05890096
The temperature of the DPF must be above a
particular value in order for regeneration to occur. The
exhaust gas provides heat for the regeneration
process.
Engine Operation
Passive Regeneration – The engine provides
sufficient exhaust gas temperature for regeneration.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
Passive regeneration will only be performed on
aftertreatment systems that have a DPF installed.
Passive regeneration is the process that is used by
the DPF in order to remove soot from the DPF. In
some applications, the engine idle speed will
automatically be increased in order to allow passive
regeneration to occur.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine at
no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
If a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) equipped
aftertreatment system are installed, avoid excess
idling. Excessive idling causes soot loading of the
DPF. Also, excessive idling will create carbon buildup
and engine slobber. These issues are harmful to the
engine.
Reduction of Particulate Emissions
Two different types of aftertreatment systems are
available.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
On DOC and SCR aftertreatment system particulate
emissions are reduced during combustion and so
there is no soot or ash stored in the aftertreatment.
Also, there is no regeneration event to consider.
On DPF equipped aftertreatment system the DPF will
reduce particulate emissions. The DPF collects the
soot and any ash that is produced by the combustion
in the engine. During regeneration, the soot is
converted into a gas which is released into the
atmosphere. The Ash remains in the DPF.
During passive regeneration, the back pressure valve
is used to increase exhaust back pressure. This
increase in pressure is in order to raise exhaust
temperatures so that the aftertreatment system can
regenerate efficiently.
During operation of the back pressure valve, trace
amounts of exhaust gas may escape from the
connections in the exhaust system.
i01646335
Engaging the Driven
Equipment
1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm,
when possible.
2. Engage the driven equipment without a load on the
equipment, when possible.
Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drive
train. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get the
driven equipment in motion, engage the clutch
smoothly with no load on the equipment. This
method should produce a start that is smooth and
easy. The engine rpm should not increase and the
clutch should not slip.
3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normal
when the engine is operating at one-half of the
rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operate properly.
4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Always
increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm before
the load is applied.
5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at low
load. Check the gauges and equipment for proper
operation. After normal oil pressure is reached and
the temperature gauge begins to move, the engine
may be operated at full load. Check the gauges
and equipment frequently when the engine is
operated under load.
SEBU9063
67
Engine Operation
Fuel Conservation Practices
Extended operation at low idle or at reduced load
may cause increased oil consumption and carbon
buildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildup
results in a loss of power and/or poor performance.
i04018232
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.
For more information refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect”
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This fault will consume excess power and excess
fuel.
• The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt
Test” for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
68
SEBU9063
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i05676271
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in cold
weather. During cold weather, the starting and the
operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
• Ambient air temperature and altitude
• Parasitic load of the application
• Application hydraulic and transmission oil
viscosities
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• After starting the engine, the engine speed will be
governed for up to a maximum of 25 seconds.
After this period, the engine should be operated at
low loads until a minimum operating temperature
of 80° C (176° F) is achieved.
• Achieving operating temperature will help prevent
the intake valves and exhaust valves from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the retained heat within the
engine will allow the engine readily start.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended
viscosity of oil.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm by
ensuring that the engine is allowed to operated at
normal operating temperature.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating
problems when the ambient air temperature is
between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
SEBU9063
69
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects lubrication properties and wear protection that
the oil provides for the engine. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended viscosity of oil.
At temperatures below −10° C (14° F) damage to
engine components can occur if the engine is allowed
to operate at high load and speed immediately after
starting.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine
is started and the engine is stopped many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not burned completely
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at normal
engine operating temperatures.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This
starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
Engine Block Heaters
• Valves become stuck.
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Startability is improved.
For these reasons, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a
minimum. The free operation of the valves and the
valve components will be maintained.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
After starting the engine, the engine speed will be
governed for a maximum period of 25 seconds. When
idling after the engine is started in cold weather,
increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This
idling will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
The engine must be warmed thoroughly in order to
keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to 10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
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SEBU9063
Cold Weather Operation
Radiator Restrictions
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder
block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve
of the coolant temperature regulator. This return
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab
should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below −25° C (−13° F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and
a heated canister assembly should be installed.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the recommended breather
components for operation from −25° to -40°C
(−13° to -72.°F).
i05203509
Radiator Restrictions
Perkins discourages the use of airflow restriction
devices that are mounted in front of radiators. Airflow
restriction can cause the following conditions:
• High exhaust temperatures
• Power loss
• Excessive fan usage
• Reduction in fuel economy
Reducing air flow over components will also affect
under hood temperatures. Reducing air flow can
increase surface temperatures during an
aftertreatment regeneration and could affect
component reliability.
Reducing air flow can increase surface temperatures
during an aftertreatment regeneration and could
affect component reliability.
If an airflow restriction device must be used, the
device should have a permanent opening directly in
line with the fan hub. The device must have a
minimum opening dimension of at least 770 cm2
(120 in2).
A centered opening that is directly in line with the fan
hub is specified in order to prevent an interrupted
airflow on the fan blades. Interrupted airflow on the
fan blades could cause a fan failure.
Perkins recommends a warning device for the inlet
manifold temperature and/or the installation of an inlet
air temperature gauge. The warning device for the
inlet manifold temperature should be set at 75 °C
(167 °F). The inlet manifold air temperature should
not exceed 75 °C (167 °F). Temperatures that
exceed this limit can cause power loss and potential
engine damage.
i05849931
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
Properties of the diesel fuel can have a significant
effect on the engine cold start capability. It is critical
that the low temperature properties of diesel fuel are
acceptable for the minimum ambient temperature the
engine is expected to see in the operation.
SEBU9063
71
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
Following properties are used to define fuels low
temperature capability:
• Cloud point
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
• Pour point
• Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP)
The cloud point of the fuel is the temperature at which
waxes naturally found in the diesel fuel begin to form
crystals. The cloud point of the fuel must be below
lowest ambient temperature to prevent filters from
plugging.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals and refueling of the fuel tank. Draining will
help prevent water and/or sediment from being
pumped from the fuel storage tank and into the
engine fuel tank.
Cold Filter Plugging Point is a temperature at which a
particular fuel will pass through a standardized
filtration device. This CFPP gives an estimate of the
lower operability temperature of fuel
Fuel Filters
Pour point is the last temperature before the fuel flow
stops and waxing of the fuel will start.
Be aware of these properties when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engines application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are shipped to colder climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing
The following components can provide a means of
minimizing fuel waxing problems in cold weather:
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
Winter and arctic grades of diesel fuel are available in
the countries and territories with severe winters. For
more information refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel For Cold Weather
Operation”
Another important fuel property which can affect cold
start and operation of diesel engine is Cetane
number. Detail and requirements of this property are
given in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations”.
i05359588
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
After you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel
system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual in the Maintenance Section for more
information on priming the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold-weather operation. The Inline filter, primary fuel filter, and the fuel supply line
are the most common components that are affected
by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If so, the temperature of the fuel must not
exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer pump. The
fuel heater should be installed before the electric lift
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
i05769085
Diesel Exhaust Fluid in Cold
Weather
Due to the freezing point of Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) the aftertreatment system is equipped with
electrically heated DEF lines. The system also has a
coolant heated element in the DEF tank.
During periods of weather in which DEF can freeze
the application should be stood on level ground when
not in use. DEF can start to freeze at −11° C
(12.2° F).
Note: At certain angles DEF can cover the DEF filler
cap. If the DEF freezes, the DEF tank vent could
block. A blocked vent in the DEF tank assembly will
course operational difficulties.
For information on DEF refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
72
SEBU9063
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine
Engine Stopping
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
i05857035
i05774857
Stopping the Engine
After Stopping Engine
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after the engine has
been working under load, can result in overheating
and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting down
the engine.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life. Also, selective catalytic
reduction component life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed to low idle. Allow the engine to idle
for 5 minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
3. Disconnecting the battery power too soon may
prevent purging of the DEF fluid lines after the
engine is shut down. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Battery Disconnect Switch”
for more information.
i05195199
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
• Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) purge, do not
disconnect the battery disconnect switch until the
DEF purge has been completed. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Battery
Disconnect Switch” for more information.
• After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. The 10 minute wait will also allow static
charge to dissipate from the low-pressure fuel
system. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication, or air
systems. Replace any high-pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
• Before you check the engine oil, do not operate the
engine. Wait for at least 10 minutes after the
engine has stopped in order to allow the engine oil
to return to the oil pan. Check the crankcase oil
level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN”
mark and the “MAX” mark on the engine oil level
gauge.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank, in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
• Fill the DEF tank, a low level of DEF in the tank
can result in engine de-rate.
SEBU9063
73
Engine Stopping
After Stopping Engine
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic or in this Operation
and
Maintenance
Manual,
“Fluid
Recommendations” topic. Failure to do so can cause
engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
74
SEBU9063
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
i05810113
Refill Capacities
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the Original Equipment
Manufacture (OEM) specifications for the capacity of
the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Section” for
more information on Lubricant Specifications.
Table 10
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump
(1)
(2)
Minimum(1)
Maximum
(2)
6L
14 L
(1.58 US gal) (3.69 US gal)
The minimum value is the approximate capacity for the crankcase oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory
installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of
the auxiliary oil filter. The design of the oil pan can change the
oil capacity of the oil pan.
Approximate capacity of the largest crankcase oil sump. Refer
to OEM for more information.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant/
antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling
System.
Table 11
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
Engine
Engine
TA(1)
TTA(2)
9 L (2.37 US gal)
9.4 L (2.48 US gal)
External System Per OEM(3)
(1)
(2)
(3)
Single Turbocharger
Series Turbochargers
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM
specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of the External System in this row.
75
SEBU9063
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Water
There are two different capacities of DEF tank
available for the industrial engine 19 L (5 US gal) and
38 L (10 US gal).
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
i04229329
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
12 .
Table 12
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Agricultural agent
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Independent laboratory
• Overheating of the engine
Additives
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
76
SEBU9063
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Formation of gel compounds
Coolant Recommendations
• Reduction of heat transfer
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
• ASTM
Materials
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
• Boiling
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210” specifications
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 13 and refer to table 14 .
Table 13
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
NOTICE
The 1200 series industrial engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This
concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used.
Table 15
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D6210”
3000 Service Hours or Two Year
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
Water
3000 Service Hours or One Year
Table 14
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
77
SEBU9063
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
ELC
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
4. Use an appropriate cleaner to clean the system.
Follow the instruction on the label.
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SEBU9063
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the system
is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
Table 16
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 17 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 16 .
Table 17
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
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Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
• API
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
• ACEA
Association des Constructers
European Automobiles.
• SAE
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 18 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 18
American Petroleum Institute
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ECF-3
Engine Crankcase Fluid
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the
Association des Constructers European
Automobilesand (ACRA) is recognized by Perkins .
For detailed information about this system, see the
latest edition of the “API publication No. 1509”.
Engine oils that bear the API symbol are authorized
by API.
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 19 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 18 .
Table 19
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Illustration 49
g01987816
Typical API symbol
Terminology
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
i05196225
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine. Failure to use the appropriate specification of engine oil will also reduce the life of
your aftertreatment system.
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Table 20
Classifications for the 1200 Series Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
API CJ-4
ACEA E9
ECF-3
Refer to illustration 50 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
API CJ-4 and ACEA E9 oil categories have the
following chemical limits:
• 0.1 percent maximum sulfated ash
• 0.12 percent maximum phosphorous
• 0. 4 percent maximum sulfur
The chemical limits were developed in order to
maintain the expected life of the engine
aftertreatment system. The performance of the
engine aftertreatment system can be adversely
affected if oil that is not specified in table 20 is used.
The life of your Aftertreatment system is defined by
the accumulation of ash on the surface of the filter.
Ash is the inert part of the particulate matter. The
system is designed in order to collect this particulate
matter. There is a very small percentage of particulate
matter that is left behind as the soot is burnt. This
matter will eventually block the filter, causing loss of
performance and increased fuel consumption. Most
of the ash comes from the engine oil which is
gradually consumed during normal operation. This
ash is passes through the exhaust. To meet the
designed life of the product, the use of the
appropriate engine oil is essential. The oil
specification that is listed in table 20 has low ash
content.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
Perkins and these engine oils must not be used:
CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4 and CI-4.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 50 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Illustration 50
g03329707
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated, depending on the parasitic load and other
factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine
has not been operated for a period of time. This
interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due
to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
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To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 50 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
General Information
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is a liquid that is injected
into the aftertreatment system before Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR). This system of injecting
the DEF into the exhaust will reactor in the SCR
system. The Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) molecules in the
exhaust are converted to elemental nitrogen and
water. This conversion will reduce the emission of the
engine.
Specification
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i05810173
Fluid Recommendations
(Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF))
DEF that is used in Perkins engines must meet the
ISO specification 22241-1 for quality. The ISO
specification 22241-1 requirements are met by many
brands of DEF, including those that carry the AdBlue
or API certification."
The document series ISO standard 22241 will give
information on quality requirements, test methods,
handling, transportation, storage, and refilling
interface.
Spillage
Care should be taken when dispensing DEF. Spills
should be cleaned immediately. All surfaces should
be wiped clean and rinsed with water.
DEF that has been split will crystallize when the water
within the liquid evaporates. Spilt DEF will attack
paint and metal. If DEF is split, wash the area with
water.
Caution should be used when dispensing DEF near
an engine that has recently been running. Spilling
DEF onto hot components may cause the release of
ammonia vapors. Do not breathe ammonia vapors.
Do not clean up any spills with bleach.
Filling the DEF Tank
The fill cap on the DEF tank must be colored blue.
The DEF level is important, allowing the DEF tank to
run dry or operate at a low level can affect the engine
operation. Because of the corrosive nature of DEF,
the correct materials must be used when filling a DEF
tank.
DEF Quality
The quality of DEF can be measured by using a
refractometer. The DEF must comply with ISO
standard 22241-1 with the urea solution of 32.5
percent. Perkins offer a T400195 Refractometer for
checking the concentration of the DEF.
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Cleanliness
• Polyethylene
Contaminants can degrade the quality and life of
DEF. Filtering DEF is recommended when dispensed
into the DEF tank. Filters should be compatible with
DEF and should be used exclusively with DEF. Check
with the filter supplier to confirm compatibility with
DEF before using. Mesh-type filters using compatible
metals, such as stainless steel, are recommended.
Paper (cellulose) media and some synthetic filter
media are not recommended because of degradation
during use.
• Polypropylene
Care should be taken when dispensing DEF. Spills
should be cleaned immediately. Machine or engine
surfaces should be wiped clean and rinsed with
water. Caution should be used when dispensing DEF
near an engine that has recently been running.
Spilling DEF onto hot components will cause harmful
vapors.
• Polyisobutylene
• Teflon (PFA)
• Polyfluoroethylene (PFE)
• Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
• Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Materials NOT compatible with DEF solutions include
Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc, Nickel coatings, Silver
and Carbon steel and Solders containing any of the
above. Unexpected reactions may occur if DEF
solutions come in contact with any non-compatible
material or unknown materials.
Storage
i05359636
Do not store DEF in direct sunlight.
Table 21
Storage Temperature
Fluid Recommendations
(General Fuel Information)
Expected DEF Life
Below 25° C (77° F)
18 months
25° C (77° F) to 30° C (86° F)
12 months
30° C (86° F) to 35° C (95° F)
6 months
Above 35° C (95° F)
test quality before use
Perkins recommend that all DEF taken from storage
should be checked to ensure the DEF meets ISO
standard 22241-1.
• Glossary
• ISO
• ASTM
Materials
DEF is corrosive. Due to the corrosion caused, DEF
must be stored in tanks constructed of approved
materials. Recommended storage materials:
Stainless Steels:
• 304 (S30400)
American Society for Testing and
• HFRR
High Frequency Reciprocating Rig
for Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME
Materials compatibility
International Standards Organization
• CFR
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• ULSD
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME
Rape Methyl Ester
• SME
Soy Methyl Ester
• 304L (S30403)
• EPA
Environmental Protection Agency of
the United States
• 316 (S31600)
• PPM
Parts Per Million
• 316L (S31603)
• DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
Alloys and metals:
General Information
• Chromium Nickel (CrNi)
• Chromium Nickel Molybdenum (CrNiMo)
• Titanium
Non-metallic materials:
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
SEBU9063
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Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
The PerkinsSpecification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
provides a known reliable baseline in order to judge
the expected performance of distillate diesel fuels that
are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in the
table 22 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key partPerkins Specification
for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
Table 22
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
kg/m
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675” “ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
Density at 15 °C (59
°F)(3)
3
No equivalent test
(continued)
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(Table 22, contd)
Pour Point
°C
Sulfur (1)
%mass
2
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
“ISO”3016
0.0015
“ISO 20846” “ISO 20884”
D5453/D26222
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
mm /s (cSt)
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
Gums and Resins(5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods.
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum
density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test method or the
“ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity at the
fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not
treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel system.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European
Certification. Perkins does not certify diesel engines
on any other fuel.
NOTICE
The Perkins 1200 series of diesel engine must be operated using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur
content of this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This
fuel complies with the emissions regulations that are
prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency
of the United States.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the EPA and other appropriate regulatory
agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor
combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly
reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits in the
combustion chamber and reduced service life of the
engine.
Illustration 51
g02157153
Illustration 51 is a representation of the label that will
be installed next to the fuel filler cap on the fuel tank
of the application.
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The fuel specifications that are listed in the table 23
are released as acceptable to use on all 1200 series
of engine.
Table 23
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the 1200 Series of Engines(1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
“ASTM D975 GRADE 1D S15”
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15 PPM sulfur
level”
“ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15”
“North American Middle Distillate general purpose Diesel fuel with less
than 15 PPM sulfur level”
“JIS K2204”
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are stated in
the section “Lubricity”.
“BS 2869: 2010 CLASS A2 or EU equivalent”
“EU Off Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have less than
10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table for the Perkins Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both extremely cold
temperatures and extremely hot temperatures. If the
kinematic viscosity of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt”
at the fuel injection pump, damage to the fuel injection
pump can occur. This damage can be excessive
scuffing and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to
difficult hot restarting, stalling, and loss of
performance. High viscosity may result in seizure of
the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with
a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to
lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection
pump.
Density
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test
method.
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a density of 841 kg/m 3 in order
to obtain the correct power output. Lighter fuels are
acceptable but these fuels will not produce the rated
power.
86
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Fluid Recommendations
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with a
specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and
the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
Perkins 1200 series diesel engines have been
designed to operate only with ULSD. By using the
test methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO
20846 ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel
must be below 15 PPM (mg/kg) or 0.0015% mass.
NOTICE
Use of diesel fuel with higher than 15 PPM sulphur
limit in these engines will harm or permanently damage emissions control systems and/or shorten their
service interval.
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
ultra low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic fossil fuels.
These fuels are made in order to meet stringent
exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use, and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Recommendation for Biodiesel and Using
B20
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(RME). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines. Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste
cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
“EN14214 or ASTM D6751” (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to 20%
by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting
latest edition of “EN590 or ASTM D975 S15”
designation.
SEBU9063
87
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the sump.
The long-term effect of biodiesel concentration in
crankcase oil is currently unknown.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation of
deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps to
limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner”.
Biodiesel fuel contains metal contaminants (sodium,
potassium, calcium, and/or magnesium) that form ash
products upon combustion in the diesel engine. The
ash can have an impact on the life and performance
of aftertreatment emissions control devices and can
accumulate in DPF. The ash accumulation may cause
the need for more frequent ash service intervals and
cause loss of performance
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin,
and zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the
biodiesel fuel. The oxidation process can cause
deposits formation therefore these materials must not
be used for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
88
SEBU9063
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” used in the United
States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended. This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add the
appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances.
Note: Some anti-corrosion additives can lead to
injector fouling, this fouling can cause the injector to
operate incorrectly.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 22 .
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. The
use of the fuel is in order to remove deposits within
the fuel system that is created with the use of
biodiesel. For more information on the use of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends refer to
“Recommendation for Biodiesel and Using B20”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with
existing and U.S. EPA Tier 4 nonroad certified diesel
engine emission control catalysts and particulate
filters. Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less
than 15 ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with
ULSD fuel.
SEBU9063
89
Maintenance Recommendations
System Pressure Release
Maintenance
Recommendations
1. Stop the engine.
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
i03648938
System Pressure Release
Coolant System
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i05611259
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service or
repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high pressure fuel pump and the high
pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Cat dealer regarding welding on a
chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other
components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
90
Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
SEBU9063
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
• Electric fuel pump
• Aftertreatment ID module
• Diesel exhaust fluid pump controller
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Illustration 52
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to the
following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
SEBU9063
91
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i05196263
Severe Service Application
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Fuel quality
• Extended operation at low idle
• Operational Altitude
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Maintenance intervals
• Operating at excessive loads
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Operating outside the intended application
• Environmental qualities
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Installation
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely cold
environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if the
engine is frequently started and stopped in very cold
temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
92
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SEBU9063
i05676449
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace”................................................... 107
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”............................112
“Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace”..............................116
When Required
“Battery - Replace”...................................................93
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................95
“DEF Filler Screen - Clean” .................................. 101
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”................................................118
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 120
“Radiator - Clean” ................................................. 124
“Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Fill”................................... 102
Every 1000 Service Hours
“Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank - Flush”...................... 104
“Belt Tensioner - Check” ..........................................95
“Engine - Clean”.................................................... 104
“Belt - Inspect”..........................................................96
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 105
“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 128
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace”................................................... 107
Every 1500 Service Hours
“Diesel Exhaust Fluid Filter - Clean/Replace” ...... 103
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”.................................111
“Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” 109
“Fuel System - Prime”............................................117
Every 2000 Service Hours
Daily
“Aftercooler Core - Inspect” .....................................93
“Coolant Level - Check”........................................ 100
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................93
“Driven Equipment - Check” ................................. 104
“Clean Emissions Module Support - Inspect”..........97
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .. 108
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .....................................110
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ................ 109
“Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 124
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.....................................111
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ....................................... 125
“Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” .................................................................... 120
Every 3000 Service Hours
“Walk-Around Inspection” ..................................... 127
“Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace” .......................93
Every Week
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 122
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 122
Every 500 Service Hours
“Coolant (DEAC) - Change”.....................................97
Every 4000 Service Hours
“Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test”................................93
“Fan Clearance - Check” .......................................114
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
Years
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ........................... 100
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................94
Every 10 000 Service Hours
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 105
“DEF Manifold Filters - Replace” .......................... 102
SEBU9063
93
Maintenance Recommendations
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................99
Commissioning
“Fan Clearance - Check” .......................................114
i01807350
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
The air-to-air aftercooler is OEM installed in many
applications. Please refer to the OEM specifications
for information that is related to the aftercooler.
i02322295
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02680137
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i05425759
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Battery - Replace
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use
a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the
core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps and
seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
94
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
SEBU9063
i02747977
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
Note: After the engine has stopped, allow 2 minutes
in order for the diesel exhaust fluid lines to be purged
before disconnecting the power.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the
OFF position.
4. Disconnect the NEGATIVE “-” cable from the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
5. Disconnect the POSITIVE “+” cable from the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
6. Remove the used battery.
7. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
8. Connect the POSITIVE “+” cable to the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal.
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
9. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
10. Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position.
SEBU9063
95
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
i05857042
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
i05424329
Belt Tensioner - Check
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
Note: Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Battery Disconnect Switch” before
disconnecting the battery disconnect switch. Turning
the battery disconnect switch of to soon can damage
the diesel exhaust fluid system.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 V batteries are involved, 2 negative
connections must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to fit incorrectly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
Illustration 53
g03423083
Typical example
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
Ensure that the belt tensioner (1) is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner for damage. Check
that the pulley on the tensioner rotates freely and that
the bearing is not loose. Some engines have an idler
pulley (2). Ensure that the idler pulley is securely
installed. Visually inspect the idler pulley for damage.
Ensure that the idler pulley can rotate freely and that
the bearing is not loose. If necessary, replace
damaged components.
Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
96
Maintenance Recommendations
Belt - Inspect
SEBU9063
i05424335
Belt - Inspect
Illustration 54
g03423085
Typical example
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
• Inspect the belt for cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
displacement of the cord and evidence of fluid
contamination.
The belt must be replaced if the following conditions
are present.
• The belt has a crack in more than one rib.
• More than one section of the belt is displaced in
one rib of a maximum length of 50.8 mm (2 inch).
To replace the belt, refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”. If
necessary, replace the belt tensioner. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator Belt Remove and Install” for the correct procedure.
SEBU9063
97
Maintenance Recommendations
Clean Emissions Module Support - Inspect
i05916407
Clean Emissions Module Support - Inspect
Illustration 55
g03723522
Typical example
There are three mounts on the Clean Emissions
Modules (CEM) that must be inspected.
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
1. Inspect mount (1) for wear or damage.
2. Inspect mounts (2) for wear or damage, if wear or
damage is found the mounts must be replaced.
3. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly, “Support
and Mounting (DEF) Remove and Install” for more
information.
A remote mounted (CEM) must also be inspected for
wear or damage.
i05676795
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
• DEAC
Diesel Engine Antifreeze Coolant
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection is a good opportunity to
replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
98
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
SEBU9063
Drain
2. Install connection hose. Clean the drain plugs.
Install the drain plugs. Tighten drain plug securely.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“General Hazard Information” for information on
Containing Fluid Spillage.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water and install
the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the connection hose or
remove the cooling system drain plugs. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water. Install the connection hose.
Illustration 56
g03423123
Typical example
2. Remove drain plug (1) on the engine. Also remove
the drain plug (2). Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain into a suitable container.
3. Properly dispose of the drained material. Obey
local regulations for the disposal of the material.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water and a
suitable cleaning agent in order to remove any
debris. Refer to your Perkins dealer or distributor
for suitable cleaning agents.
6. The drain plug O rings on the engine block must be
replaced. Clean the drain plugs and install new O
ring seal. Install the drain plugs and tighten to a
torque of 35 N·m (25 lb ft).
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with the coolant/antifreeze.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
SEBU9063
99
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. This
operation will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, perform a pressure test. If the cooling
system filler cap does not retain the correct
pressure, install a new cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for the correct operating temperature.
NOTICE
Service or repair of the engine cooling system must
be performed on level ground. The engine must be
level in order to check the coolant level. The engine
must be level in order to avoid the risk of introducing
an air lock into the coolant system.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
i05676730
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Perkins ELC must be using with an extender in order
to achieve 12000 hours operation. For more information on a suitable extender contact your Perkins dealer or Perkins distributor.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Illustration 57
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. Replace the water pump, the water
temperature regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
g03423123
2. Remove drain plug(1) on the engine. Also remove
the drain plug (2). Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or Perkins distributor.
Flush
100
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SEBU9063
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
2. Install the connection hose. Clean the drain plugs
and install the drain plugs. Tighten the drain plugs
securely.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
i05197396
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the connection hose
and remove the cooling system drain plugs. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water. Install the connection hose.
6. The drain plug O rings on the engine block must be
replaced. Clean the drain plugs and install new O
ring seal. Install the drain plugs and tighten to a
torque of 35 N·m (25 lb ft).
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
In order for Perkins ELC to achieve 12000 hours an
extender must be added at 6000 hours. For a suitable
extender, contact your Perkins dealer or Perkins
distributor.
i05682210
Coolant Level - Check
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. An open
thermostat will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This procedure will allow you to check accurately the coolant
level. This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk
of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
SEBU9063
101
Maintenance Recommendations
DEF Filler Screen - Clean
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
Illustration 58
g02590196
Typical filler cap gaskets
Illustration 59
g03725939
Typical example
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank requires
coolant flow around the tank. The Coolant Diverter
Valve (CDV) will turn the flow on or off. If the coolant
system has been filled with the CDV in the closed
position, coolant level will drop because of the
opening of the CDV. The coolant flow will be diverted
when the ambient temperature is approximately
−5° C (23° F).
i05921440
1. Ensure that the area around cap on the Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank is clean. Remove cap
(1).
2. Using a suitable tool, press the tabs (2) in order to
release the tabs. With the tabs released remove
the filter screen (3) from DEF tank neck adapter
(4).
3. The filter screen can be cleaned in clean water and
dried using compressed air. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “General Hazard
Information” for information on using compressed
air.
DEF Filler Screen - Clean
4. If the filter screen cannot be cleaned or the filter
screen is damaged, then the filter screen must be
replaced.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
5. Install filter screen (3) into DEF tank neck adapter
(4). Press filter screen into neck adapter and
ensure that tabs (2) are located correctly. Install
cap (1).
102
Maintenance Recommendations
DEF Manifold Filters - Replace
SEBU9063
i05921489
i05771029
DEF Manifold Filters - Replace
Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Fill
Illustration 60
Illustration 61
g03726298
g03714036
Typical example
Typical example
Replace the manifold filter (1). Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, “Manifold (DEF Heater) - Remove and
Install” for more information.
Ensure that the correct specification Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) is used. Ensure the cleanliness of the
DEF, refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for more
information.
Care should be taken when dispensing DEF. Spills
should be cleaned immediately. All surfaces should
be wiped clean and rinsed with water.
DEF that has been split will crystallize when the water
within the liquid evaporates. Split DEF will attack
paint and metal. If DEF is split, wash the area with
water.
Caution should be used when dispensing DEF near
an engine that has recently been running. Spilling
DEF onto hot components may cause the release of
ammonia vapors. Do not breathe ammonia vapors.
Do not clean up any spills with bleach.
Ensure that the DEF tank is full before starting work.
1. Before filling the DEF tank, ensure that the DEF
lines have been purged. Purging of the DEF lines
will take place, after the engine has stopped. Only
after purging the DEF lines should the DEF tank be
filled. For more information on the time taken for
purging the DEF lines, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Battery Disconnect Switch”.
SEBU9063
103
Maintenance Recommendations
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Filter - Clean/Replace
2. Ensure that the DEF cap (1) and the surrounding
area is clean and free from dirt. Ensure that all
equipment use in filling the tank is clean and free
from dirt.
3. Remove the DEF cap from the tank.
4. Fill the tank with the required amount of DEF.
Ensure that dirt is not introduced into the tank
during filling. Do not over fill the tank. The DEF will
require room for expansion.
Note: Always fill the DEF tank on level ground. Cold
weather can affect DEF, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid in cold
Weather” for more information.
5. The opening on the DEF tank (2) is a special
diameter. Ensure that the correct nozzle is used
when filling the DEF tank.
6. Install the DEF cap. Check visually the DEF tank
for leakage.
i05774769
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Filter Clean/Replace
Illustration 62
g03700666
Typical example
1. Ensure that the area around the Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) filter is clean and free from dirt. The
DEF filter threaded cap and the filter element are a
combined assembly.
2. Remove the protective cover (1). Remove the DEF
filter assembly (1) and discard the filter assembly.
3. Install a new DEF filter assembly into DEF pump
housing (2).
4. Tighten filter assembly to a torque of 14 N·m
(124 lb in). Install the protective cover.
5. Turning on the power will automatically prime the
DEF system.
104
Maintenance Recommendations
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank - Flush
SEBU9063
i05836621
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank Flush
2. If necessary, install the DEF filler screen. For more
information, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “DEF Filler Screen - Clean”.
3. Install the drain plug (4). Tighten the drain plug to a
torque of 6 N·m (53 lb in). Remove the vessel
used for draining. Dispose of the drain fluid in
accordance with local regulation.
4. Refill the DEF tank (3). Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Fill”
for more information.
If the DEF tank has been fill with another fluid other
than DEF, then contact your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor .
i02151646
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
Illustration 63
g03676503
Typical example
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
If contamination of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is
suspected, the DEF tank (3) will need to be drained
and the DEF tank flushed.
1. Ensure that the purging of the DEF system has
been completed.
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i03991933
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the fluid to be drained.
2. Position the vessel below the drain plug (4).
Remove the filler cap (1) Remove the drain plug
and allow the fluid to drain.
3. Remove the Manifold (DEF Heater) (2). Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Manifold (DEF
Heater)-Remove and Install” after draining the
fluid.
4. If necessary, remove the DEF filler screen. For
more information, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “DEF Filler Screen - Clean”.
The DEF tank must be flushed after draining. Flush
the tank with deionized water Ensure that all the
flushing agents have been drained.
1. Install the Manifold (DEF Heater) (2). Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Manifold (DEF
Heater)-Remove and Install”.
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Moisture can
conductivity.
create
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
SEBU9063
105
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins . The procedure that follows is
for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear. Refer to the OEM information for the correct air
cleaner elements for your application.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in
order to wash the engine.
Aftertreatment
During the engine cleaning process, ensure that
water or cleaning fluids cannot enter the
aftertreatment system. If cleaning fluids enters the
aftertreatment system, damage could occur.
i05207494
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/
Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at
least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears and/
or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket or the
seal of the air cleaner element for damage. Maintain a
supply of suitable air cleaner elements for
replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner
element.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six
times if the element is properly cleaned and properly
inspected. The primary air cleaner element should be
replaced at least one time per year. This replacement
should be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
106
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
SEBU9063
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa 30 psi maximum) pressurized air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary air
cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets, or seals.
Illustration 64
g00736431
(1) Cover
(2) Primary air cleaner element
(3) Secondary air cleaner element
(4) Air inlet
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary air
filter element more than three times. The primary air
cleaner element must be replaced at least one time
per year.
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air cleaner
element.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets, and the
outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep out
dirt.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tape from the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary air
cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
• pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element
can be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner
element is cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter
material. The primary air cleaner element should be
replaced at least one time per year. This replacement
should be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
SEBU9063
107
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Illustration 65
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) in
order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim the
air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the dirty
side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Illustration 66
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 W blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears and/
or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for
light that may show through the filter material. If it is
necessary in order to confirm the result, compare the
primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has any
tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use a
primary air cleaner element with damaged pleats,
gaskets, or seals. Discard damaged primary air
cleaner elements.
i01432811
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Single Element) - Inspect/
Replace
Perform the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”
procedure and perform the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Air Precleaner Check/
Clean” procedure (if equipped) before performing the
following procedure.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
108
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
SEBU9063
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 67
g00310664
(1) Air cleaner cover
(2) Air filter element
(3) Air inlet
1. Remove air cleaner cover (1) and remove air filter
element (2).
2. Cover air inlet (3) with tape or a clean cloth so that
debris cannot enter the air inlet.
3. Clean the inside of air cleaner cover (1). Clean the
body that holds the air cleaner element.
4. Inspect the replacement element for the following
items:damage, dirt and debris.
5. Remove the seal from the opening of the air inlet.
6. Install a clean, undamaged air filter element (2).
7. Install air cleaner cover (1).
Illustration 68
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
8. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
i02335405
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
SEBU9063
109
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
i02927289
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
• The filter element within the crankcase breather
must be serviced at the prescribed service interval.
• The correct filter element must be installed before
the engine is operated.
• The installation of the filter element is very
important.
• The quality of the filter element that is installed is
very important.
• The filter element protects the engine from
excessive quantities of oil from entering the
induction system. The filter element also protects
the engine aftertreatment system.
Note: Excessive quantities of oil that enter the
induction system of the engine can rapidly increase
the engine speed without control.
Illustration 69
g01453058
Typical engine air precleaner
For information on aftermarket products, refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Description”. Within that section, refer to the title
“Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines”.
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i05926015
Engine Crankcase Breather
Element - Replace
Illustration 70
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The crankcase breather is a very important
component in order to keep your engine emissions
compliant.
g02415998
Typical example
1. Ensure that dirt cannot enter the breather
assembly. Ensure that the outside body of the
breather assembly is clean and free from damage.
Place a container under the breather assembly.
2. Rotate the cap (1) counterclockwise into the
unlocked position. Remove the cap from the body
of the breather (3).
3. Note the orientation of the filter element (2).
Remove the filter element .
110
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SEBU9063
Check the System
Illustration 71
g01884135
(B) Alignment position
Note: The cut away from section (5) in the cap allows
access to the seal.
4. Remove the old seal (4) and install a new seal.
5. Install a new filter element into the breather body
(3) and orient the filter element so that position (A)
is aligned. Refer to illustration 70 . Align position
(A) on the filter element to position (B) on the cap.
Illustration 73
g02416001
(1) Connection to breather cap for the engine
(2) Oil drain
(3) Tube assembly to atmosphere
(4) Outlet
Check the system for damage. Replace any
component that is damaged. Ensure that the outlet
(4) is clear and free from obstructions.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Illustration 72
g02415999
Typical example
6. Install the cap (1). Rotate the cap by hand
clockwise until the cap locks into the locked
position C on the breather body.
7. Remove the container.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
SEBU9063
111
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Level - Check
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i05300117
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
If an increase in the oil level is noticed, refer to
Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
Engine Oil Level - Check
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Illustration 74
g02173847
“L” Low
“H” High
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
• Engine model
• Engine number
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the mark (L) and the
mark (H) on the engine oil dipstick. Do not fill the
crankcase above the “H” .
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“H” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into the
oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft dipping into the oil reduces the oils lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
112
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU9063
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in the
oil and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i05679393
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 75
g02131361
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Typical example
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the
oil to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
oil pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from
both ends of the oil pan.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve (2), turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to
drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the
drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the
drain valve.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug should be
cleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the O ring
seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
Remove the container and disposal of the waste oil in
accordance with local regulations.
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins.
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
1. Place a suitable container below the oil filter
assembly. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
SEBU9063
Illustration 76
113
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
g02131364
2. Clean sealing surface (1).
3. Apply clean engine oil to O ring seal (2) for the new
oil filter (3).
Illustration 77
g02132333
1. Place a suitable container below the oil filter
assembly. Remove the drain plug (1) and allow the
oil to drain.
2. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
4. Install the new oil filter (3). Spin on the oil filter until
the O ring contacts the sealing surface (2). Then
rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn. Remove the
container and disposal of the waste oil in
accordance with local regulations.
Horizontal Oil Filter
3. Install the drain plug (1) and tighten to a torque of
12 N·m (106 lb in).
4. Clean the sealing surface (2).
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
5. Apply clean engine oil to O ring seal (3) for the new
oil filter (4).
6. Install the new oil filter. Spin on the oil filter (4) until
the O ring contacts the sealing surface (2). Then
rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn. Remove the
container and disposal of the waste oil in
accordance with local regulations.
Fill the Oil Pan
114
Maintenance Recommendations
Fan Clearance - Check
SEBU9063
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufactures recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in order to
ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that
the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Illustration 78
g02173847
“L” Low
“H” High
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
“L” and “H” marks on the engine oil level gauge.
Do not fill the crankcase above the “H” mark.
i05685634
Fan Clearance - Check
Commissioning Information
Fan tip clearance at commissioning must be set with
the radiator empty.
SEBU9063
115
Maintenance Recommendations
Fan Clearance - Check
Illustration 79
g03609316
Typical example
• A
is the fan tip clearance
1. Set the fan tip clearance at position (1) to 16 mm
(0.63 inch).
2. Set the fan tip clearance at position (4) to 12 mm
(0.47 inch).
3. Fan tip clearance at position (2) and (3) must be
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
4. Fill the cooling system, for more information refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for coolant specification.
5. Operate the engine, allow the engine to reach
normal operating temperature. Stop the engine.
Check the coolant level, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Coolant Level - Check” for
more information.
6. Check the fan tip clearance in position (1) and
position (4). The fan tip clearance should be
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
7. Fan tip clearance at position (2) and (3) must be
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
In Service Information
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
cooling system is full.
116
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace
Illustration 80
• A
SEBU9063
g03609316
is the fan tip clearance
1. Set the fan tip clearance at position (1) to
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
i05814842
Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace
2. Set the fan tip clearance at position (4) to
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
3. Fan tip clearance at position (2) and (3) must be
14 ± 2 mm (0.55 ± 0.079 inch).
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
SEBU9063
117
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The location of the in-line fuel filter will depend on the
application that the engine has been installed.
i05774864
Fuel System - Prime
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are
performed by authorized personnel that have had the
correct training.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
Illustration 81
g03086919
Typical example
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position. Remove any brackets that hold the in-line
fuel filter (1) in place, refer to OEM information.
2. Release the hose clips (3) and remove the hose
lines from the in-line fuel filter. Remove the in-line
filter.
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the “RUN” position.
3. Install a new in-line filter and secure, refer to OEM
information. Ensure that the arrow mark (2) is
aligned to the direction of fuel flow from the tank to
the fuel pump.
3. The keyswitch will allow the electric priming pump
to operate. Operate the electric priming pump. The
ECM will stop the pump after 2 minutes.
4. Install the fuel hose lines and install the hose clips
(3). Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the
ON position.
4. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF” position. The fuel
system should now be primed and the engine
should be able to start.
5. The in-line fuel filter must be changed with the
primary filter and the secondary fuel filter. The fuel
system will need to be primed, refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”
for more information.
5. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. Ensure that
the fuel system is free from leaks.
Note: Operating the engine for this period will help
ensure that the fuel system is free of air. DO NOT
loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
purge air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
118
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
SEBU9063
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
The 10 minute wait will also allow static charge to
dissipate from the low-pressure fuel system. If
necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the low-pressure fuel system and from the
cooling, lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel Injection
Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
i05207487
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Illustration 82
g03086757
Typical example
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open the drain
valve (2). Rotate the drain valve counterclockwise.
Two full turns are required.
4. Loosen the vent screw (1).
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body
of the filter assembly.
5. Allow the fuel to drain into the container. Remove
the tube from the drain valve.
6. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely . Remove the
wiring harness from connection (4).
7. Rotate filter bowl (6) counterclockwise and remove
the filter bowl from assembly.
SEBU9063
Illustration 83
119
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
g02148402
Illustration 84
g03086798
Typical example
Typical example
8. Rotate the filter element (5) counterclockwise and
remove the filter element . Clean the filter bowl.
1. Locate the thread in the new filter element (8) onto
the threads (9). Spin on the filter element and
tighten the drain valve (2) securely.
Install the New Filter Element
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (7) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the bowl with fuel before the assembly
is installed.
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the filter bowl (6) by hand.
Install the filter bowl (6). Turn the filter bowl
clockwise until the filter bowl locks into position
against the stops.
4. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a
safe place.
5. The secondary filter element must be replaced at
the same time as the primary filter element. Also,
the in-line filter must be changed. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Filter - Replace”.
120
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
i04925799
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
SEBU9063
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open the drain
valve (2). Rotate the drain valve counterclockwise.
Two full turns are required. Loosen vent screw (1).
4. Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
5. Tighten the drain valve clockwise by hand pressure
only. Remove the tube and remove the container.
6. Tighten the vent screw securely.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
i05207493
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fluid that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fluid.
2. Ensure that the outer body of the filter assembly is
clean and free from dirt.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel filter in
order to catch any fuel that might spill. Clean up
any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body of the filter
assembly.
Illustration 85
Typical example
g02148370
SEBU9063
Illustration 86
121
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
g03088718
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (4). Open the drain
valve (3). Rotate the drain valve counterclockwise.
Two full turns are required. Loosen vent screw (1).
Illustration 87
g02546456
7. Rotate the filter element (5) counterclockwise and
remove the filter element. Clean the filter bowl.
Install the Element
4. Allow the fuel to drain into the container and
remove the tube.
5. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely.
6. Remove the filter bowl (2). Rotate the filter
assembly counterclockwise in order to remove the
assembly.
Illustration 88
g03088837
1. Locate the thread (7) in the filter element onto the
threads (8). Spin on the element and tighten the
drain valve (3) by hand.
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (6) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the filter bowl (2) with fuel before the
filter assembly is installed.
122
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU9063
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the assembly by hand. Install
the filter bowl (2). Turn the filter bowl clockwise
until the filter bowl locks into position against the
stops.
4. Turn the fuel supply valve to the ON position.
5. The primary fuel filter the secondary fuel filter must
be replaced at the same time. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element Replace”. Also, the in-line fuel must be replaced
when the primary and secondary filters are
replaced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Filter (In-Line)- Replace”
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
i02348492
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02518232
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
SEBU9063
123
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
4. Remove the hose clamps.
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
• Type of fitting material
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The following text describes a typical method of
replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on the coolant
system and the hoses for the coolant system.
124
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator - Clean
SEBU9063
i05799936
Radiator - Clean
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
Note: Some applications will require a fuel cooler to
be installed. The fuel cooler is a type of radiator that
uses air to cool the fuel and the fuel cooler will require
cleaning.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction of
the air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This movement will remove debris that is between the
tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Illustration 89
g03674903
Typical example
If the baffle plate (1) has been removed, the baffle
plate must be installed again after cleaning. An
engine operating without the baffle plate installed
would not be compliant with emission regulations.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This procedure will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order to
inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning,
if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02177969
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
SEBU9063
125
Maintenance Recommendations
Turbocharger - Inspect
i05805424
Single Turbocharger
Turbocharger - Inspect
Hot engine components can cause injury from
burns. Before performing maintenance on the engine, allow the engine and the components to
cool.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occured.
Illustration 90
g02136079
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
Typical example
A visual inspection of the turbocharger or
turbochargers can minimize unscheduled downtime.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger or
turbochargers can also reduce the chance for
potential damage to other engine parts. Do not
inspect the engine with the engine in operation.
2. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe (1). Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean the
interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt from
entering during reassembly.
1. Ensure that the turbocharger is clean and free from
dirt before removing components for inspection.
3. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in the
housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely.
4. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
5. Install the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely. For more information, refer
to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Turbocharger - Inspect”.
126
Maintenance Recommendations
Turbocharger - Inspect
SEBU9063
Engine Install with High Pressure
and Low Pressure Turbochargers
4. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in the
housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely.
5. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
6. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine outlet
for corrosion.
Illustration 91
g03676654
Typical example
(1) High-pressure turbocharger
(2) Elbow
(3) Low-pressure turbocharger
The engine is equipped with a high-pressure
turbocharger (1) and a low-pressure turbocharger (3).
A regular visual inspection of both turbochargers is
recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can damage the
pistons, the valves, and the cylinder head.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor.
1. Ensure that the turbochargers are clean and free
from dirt before removing components for
inspection.
2. Remove the pipe from the high-pressure
turbocharger exhaust outlet and remove the air
intake pipe to the turbocharger. Visually inspect the
piping for the presence of oil. Clean the interior of
the pipes in order to prevent dirt from entering
during reassembly.
3. Remove elbow (2) and check for the presence of
engine oil.
7. Install the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely. For more information, refer
to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Turbocharger - Inspect”.
SEBU9063
127
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection
i05774869
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase
Breather
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. A small amount of
leakage to occur is normal, as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Illustration 92
g02137093
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Pump Remove and Install”.
Inspect the breather tube (1) for damage. Ensure that
the outlet (2) is clean and free from any obstructions.
Ice can cause obstructions in adverse weather
conditions.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters, and the rocker cover.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses.
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections, and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks, or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
128
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
SEBU9063
Engine Aftertreatment
Check the condition of the coolant lines, Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF) lines, and electrical connections.
Check that all clamps, clips, and tie-wraps are secure
and in good condition. Check that the DEF filler cap is
secure and that the cap is clean and free from dirt.
i03570653
Water Pump - Inspect
After the engine has stopped, wait 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair is
performed. The 10 minute wait will also allow static
charge to dissipate from the low-pressure fuel
system. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication, or air systems.
Replace any high-pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
damaged high-pressure fuel lines or high-pressure
fuel lines that have leaked.
Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place and that the clips are not loose.
• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
for loose fuel line clamps.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing tiewraps.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
cannot be calibrated.
Illustration 93
g01904773
(A) Weep hole
(B) Vent hole
Note: The water pump seals are lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur. Refer to illustration 93
for the position of the weep hole and the vent hole.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
SEBU9063
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter must
be replaced. This will remove any contamination that
is caused by the coolant and this will prevent any
irregular oil samples.
The water pump is not a serviceable item. In order to
install a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install”.
129
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
130
SEBU9063
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information
Warranty Section
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the lifetime of the engine
(emissions durability period) subject to prescribed
maintenance requirements being followed.
Warranty Information
i05680169
Emissions Warranty
Information
The certifying engine manufacturer warrants to the
ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser
that:
1. New non-road diesel engines and stationary diesel
engines less than 10 L per cylinder (including Tier
1 and Tier 2 marine engines < 37 kW, but
excluding locomotive and other marine engines)
operated and serviced in the United States and
Canada, including all parts of their emission control
systems (“emission related components”), are:
a. Designed, built, and equipped so as to
conform, at the time of sale, with applicable
emission standards prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) by way of regulation.
b. Free from defects in materials and
workmanship in emission-related components
that can cause the engine to fail to conform to
applicable emission standards for the warranty
period.
2. New non-road diesel engines (including Tier 1 and
Tier 2 marine propulsion engines < 37 kW and Tier
1 through Tier 4 marine auxiliary engines < 37 kW,
but excluding locomotive and other marine
engines) operated and serviced in the state of
California, including all parts of their emission
control systems (“emission related components”),
are:
a. Designed, built, and equipped so as to
conform, at the time of sale, to all applicable
regulations adopted by the California Air
Resources Board (ARB).
b. Free from defects in materials and
workmanship which cause the failure of an
emission-related component to be identical in
all material respects to the component as
described in the engine manufacturer's
application for certification for the warranty
period.
A detailed explanation of the Emission Control
Warranty is available to view on Perkins. com service
and support.
SEBU9063
131
Reference Information Section
Maintenance Records
Reference Information
Section
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills
• Owners repair costs
• Owners receipts
Reference Materials
• Maintenance log
i05204672
Maintenance Records
Perkins recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:
• Determine operating costs.
• Establish maintenance schedules for other
engines that are operated in the same
environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for various other
business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is correctly managed.
Accurate maintenance records can help your Perkins
dealer to fine-tune the recommended maintenance
intervals in order to meet the specific operating
situation. This should result in a lower engine
operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption is
essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – These items should be easy to obtain,
and these items should be kept in the engine history
file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number and engine serial number. The following
types of documents should be kept as proof of
maintenance or repair for warranty:
Keep the following types of documents as proof of
maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
132
SEBU9063
Reference Materials
Maintenance Log
i05204675
Maintenance Log
Table 24
Engine Model
Customer Identifier
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Service
Hours
Quantity Of
Fuel
Service Item
Date
Authorization
SEBU9063
133
Reference Materials
Reference Material
i05204677
Reference Material
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life bt covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mine from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
134
SEBU9063
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine........................................ 65
After Stopping Engine...................................... 72
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) .................................................... 93
Aftercooler Core - Inspect................................ 93
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 39
Alarms.......................................................... 39
Shutoffs........................................................ 39
Testing.......................................................... 40
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 93
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace.................. 93
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 93
Battery Disconnect Switch............................... 43
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 94
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 95
Before Starting Engine ...............................17, 63
Belt - Inspect.................................................... 96
Belt Tensioner - Check..................................... 95
Burn Prevention............................................... 12
Aftertreatment System ................................. 12
Batteries....................................................... 12
Coolant......................................................... 12
Diesel Fuel ................................................... 12
Induction System ......................................... 12
Oils............................................................... 12
C
Clean Emissions Module Support - Inspect..... 97
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 68
Hints for Cold Weather Operation................ 68
Idling the Engine .......................................... 69
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .... 69
Recommendations for the Coolant .............. 69
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil......... 69
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 63
Configuration Parameters................................ 58
Customer Specified Parameters.................. 59
System Configuration Parameters............... 58
Coolant (DEAC) - Change ............................... 97
Drain ............................................................ 98
Fill................................................................. 98
Flush ............................................................ 98
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 99
Drain ............................................................ 99
Fill............................................................... 100
Flush ............................................................ 99
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ....................... 100
Coolant Level - Check ................................... 100
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 15
D
DEF Filler Screen - Clean.............................. 101
DEF Manifold Filters - Replace...................... 102
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ..................... 57
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 57
Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Fill .............................. 102
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Filter - Clean/Replace.. 103
Diesel Exhaust Fluid in Cold Weather ............. 71
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank - Flush ................. 104
Driven Equipment - Check............................. 104
E
Electrical System ............................................. 18
Grounding Practices .................................... 18
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 72
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 31
Emissions Warranty Information.................... 130
Engaging the Driven Equipment...................... 66
Engine - Clean ............................................... 104
Aftertreatment ............................................ 105
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element)
- Inspect/Clean/Replace .............................. 105
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements
................................................................. 106
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ........... 105
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Element) - Inspect/Replace ......................... 107
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ......................................................... 108
Test the Service Indicator........................... 108
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean............ 109
Engine Crankcase Breather Element Replace........................................................ 109
Check the System.......................................110
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 57
Engine Electronics........................................... 19
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................110
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .......................112
SEBU9063
135
Index Section
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil .................112
Fill the Oil Pan.............................................113
Replace the Oil Filter...................................112
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................111
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................ 111
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis...........111
Engine Operation............................................. 66
Reduction of Particulate Emissions ............. 66
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 57
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 58
Engine Starting ...........................................17, 63
Engine Stopping .........................................18, 72
F
Fan Clearance - Check...................................114
Commissioning Information ........................114
In Service Information.................................115
Fault Logging................................................... 57
Features and Controls ..................................... 39
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ...... 13
Ether ............................................................ 14
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 14
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 15
Fluid Recommendations.............................75, 79
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 77
Engine Oil .................................................... 79
General Coolant Information........................ 75
General Lubricant Information ..................... 79
Fluid Recommendations (Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF)) ................................................... 81
General Information ..................................... 81
Fluid Recommendations (General Fuel
Information).................................................... 82
Diesel Fuel Characteristics .......................... 85
Diesel Fuel Requirements............................ 83
General Information ..................................... 82
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 70
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 67
Fuel Filter (In-Line) - Replace .........................116
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 71
Fuel Filters ................................................... 71
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 71
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 71
Fuel System - Prime .......................................117
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Separator) Element - Replace ......................118
Install the New Filter Element .....................119
Remove the Element ..................................118
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain .......................................................... 120
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ....... 120
Install the Element ..................................... 121
Remove the Element ................................. 120
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain.......... 122
Drain the Water and the Sediment............. 122
Fuel Storage Tanks .................................... 122
Fuel Tank ................................................... 122
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 43
Indicator Lamps ........................................... 44
Instrument panels and Displays................... 45
General Hazard Information .............................. 8
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................. 10
Dispose of Waste Properly............................11
Fluid Penetration.......................................... 10
Inhalation ......................................................11
Pressurized Air and Water ........................... 10
Static Electricity Hazard when Fueling with
Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel........................ 10
General Information......................................... 20
H
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................................ 15
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ........... 122
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .......... 123
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 33
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 92
136
SEBU9063
Index Section
Commissioning ............................................ 93
Daily ............................................................. 92
Every 10 000 Service Hours ........................ 92
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 92
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 93
Every 1500 Service Hours ........................... 92
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 92
Every 3000 Service Hours ........................... 92
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 92
Every 4000 Service Hours ........................... 92
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 92
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 92
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 92
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 92
Every Week.................................................. 92
When Required............................................ 92
Maintenance Log ........................................... 132
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 89
Maintenance Records.................................... 131
Maintenance Section ....................................... 74
Model View Illustrations................................... 20
1204F-E44 TA Single Turbocharged Engine
................................................................... 20
1204F-E44TTA Series Turbocharged Engine
................................................................... 21
Aftertreatment Systems ............................... 23
Monitoring System (Engine Indicators and
Aftertreatment Indicators) .............................. 45
Engine Indicator Lamps ............................... 45
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 15
O
Operation Section............................................ 33
Overspeed....................................................... 46
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 30
Aftertreatment Systems ............................... 30
Engine Serial Number Plate (1) ................... 30
Product Description ......................................... 26
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines
................................................................... 29
Aftertreatment System ................................. 28
Electronic Engine Features.......................... 27
Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 27
Engine Diagnostics ...................................... 27
Engine Specifications .................................. 26
Service Life .................................................. 28
Product Identification Information.................... 30
Product Information Section ............................ 20
Product Lifting.................................................. 33
Engine and Aftertreatment Lifting Eyes ....... 33
Engine Only Lifting Eyes.............................. 34
Product Lifting (Aftertreatment Systems)......... 34
DOC and SCR ............................................. 35
DOC, DPF, and SCR.................................... 36
Product Storage (Engine and
Aftertreatment)............................................... 36
Aftertreatment .............................................. 37
Condition for Storage ................................... 36
R
Radiator - Clean............................................. 124
Radiator Restrictions ....................................... 70
Reference Information..................................... 31
Aftertreatment Systems ............................... 32
Record for Reference................................... 32
Reference Information Section ...................... 131
Reference Material (Extended Service
Contract) ...................................................... 133
Reference Materials ...................................... 131
Refill Capacities............................................... 74
Cooling System............................................ 74
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).......................... 75
Lubrication System ...................................... 74
S
Safety Messages ............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
(2) Hand (High Pressure)............................... 6
Ether Warning ................................................ 7
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Selective Catalytic Reduction Warning
System........................................................... 40
Warning Indicators ....................................... 41
Warning Levels ............................................ 41
Warning Strategy ......................................... 41
Self-Diagnostics............................................... 57
Sensors and Electrical Components ............... 47
Aftertreatment Views.................................... 53
Engine Views ............................................... 48
Sensors and Aftertreatment Components ... 56
Severe Service Application.............................. 91
Environmental Factors................................. 91
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 91
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 91
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................. 124
SEBU9063
137
Index Section
Starting the Engine .......................................... 64
Starting the Engine ...................................... 64
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 64
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 72
System Pressure Release............................... 89
Coolant System............................................ 89
Engine Oil .................................................... 89
Fuel System ................................................. 89
T
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................. 125
Engine Install with High Pressure and Low
Pressure Turbochargers .......................... 126
Inspecting................................................... 126
Single Turbocharger .................................. 125
W
Walk-Around Inspection ................................ 127
High Pressure Fuel Lines........................... 128
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................. 127
Inspect the Tube of the Crankcase Breather
................................................................. 127
Warranty Information ..................................... 130
Warranty Section ........................................... 130
Water Pump - Inspect .................................... 128
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 89
138
Index Section
SEBU9063
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission
Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment
Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer
Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone
Number
Hours
©2014Perkins Engines Compony Limited
All Rights Reserved
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