null  null
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower
Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Prepared for:
WRIA 16 Planning Unit
Funding Source: WRIA 16 Base Grant,
Department of Ecology Grant #G9900020
As pectconsulti ng
IN- DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
179 Madrone Lane North
Bainbridge Island, WA 98110
(206) 780-9370
811 First Avenue #480
SeaUle, WA 98104
(206)-328-7443
Project No. 0301 16-001-05 - March 30, 2005
HYDROGEOLOGIC STUDY OF THE LOWER
DOSEWALLIPS/BRINNON AREA
Prepared for: WRIA 16 Planning Unit
Funding Source:
WRIA 16 Base Grant,
Department of Ecology Grant #G9900020
Project No. 030116-001-05 • March 30, 2005
Aspect Consulting, LLC
Erick W. Miller
E rick W. Miller, LHG
Senior Associate Hydrogeologist
[email protected]
W :\030116 WRIA 16\FinaJ Report\WRIA 16 Final Report.doc
~79
Madrone Lane North
••
tEXP1REs 02J011orJoseph S. Lubischer, P.E.
Project Engineer
[email protected]
ASPECT CONSULTING
Contents
Executive Summary........................................................................................... 1
1
Introduction ................................................................................................ 3
1.1 Background .................................................................................................. 3
1.2 Overview of Dosewallips Basin.................................................................... 3
1.3 Purpose and Scope...................................................................................... 5
2
Geologic Conditions and Basin Glaciation .............................................. 6
2.1 Previous Investigation and Data Sources.................................................... 6
2.2 Geologic Units .............................................................................................. 6
2.2.1
Crescent Formation.................................................................................7
2.2.2
Glacial Deposits ......................................................................................7
2.3 Effects of Glacier Size on Streamflow........................................................ 10
3
Hydrogeology ........................................................................................... 11
3.1 Well Information ......................................................................................... 11
3.2 Hydrostratigraphic Units............................................................................. 11
3.3 Aquifer Hydraulic Properties ...................................................................... 13
3.3.1
Specific Capacity...................................................................................13
3.3.2
Static Water Level and Aquifer Storage................................................13
3.4 Groundwater Flow...................................................................................... 14
3.5
4
Naturally-Occurring Geochemical Tracers................................................. 15
3.5.1
Major Ions..............................................................................................15
3.5.2
Isotopes.................................................................................................16
Interaction Between the Lower Dosewallips River and Groundwater .. 18
4.1 Methods of Investigation ............................................................................ 18
4.1.1
Seepage Runs ......................................................................................18
4.1.2
Mini-Piezometers ..................................................................................19
4.1.3
Temperature Methods...........................................................................20
4.2 Reach 1 ...................................................................................................... 20
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
Reach 2 ...................................................................................................... 22
Reach 3 ...................................................................................................... 23
Summary of Losing/Gaining Conditions .................................................... 24
Conclusions and Recommendations ...................................................... 25
5.1 Conclusions................................................................................................ 25
5.1.1
Principal Aquifers ..................................................................................25
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5.1.2
Groundwater Flow.................................................................................25
5.1.3
Surface Water/Groundwater Interaction ...............................................25
5.1.4
Water Types and Natural Geochemical Tracers...................................26
5.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................26
6
References ................................................................................................27
Limitations........................................................................................................30
List of Tables
3.1
Laboratory Results and Field Parameters of Water Samples
4.1
Seepage and River Flow
4.2
Construction and Installation Details of Mini-Piezometers
4.3
Data Collected at Mini-Piezometer Locations
4.4
Summary of Parameters for Instream Piezometers
List of Figures
ii
1.1
Project Location Map
1.2
Dosewallips Watershed
1.3
Dosewallips River Corridor
1.4
Average Daily Discharge and Average Monthly Precipitation for Historical
Data
2.1
Geologic Map
2.2
Top of Bedrock Elevation Contour Map
3.1
Well Location Map
3.2
Cross Section Location Map
3.3
Geologic Cross Section A-A’
3.4
Geologic Cross Section B-B’
3.5
Geologic Cross Section C-C’
3.6
Geologic Cross Section D-D’
3.7
Geologic Cross Section E-E’
3.8
Specific Capacity of Unconsolidated and Basalt Aquifer Wells
3.9
Groundwater Elevations and Contours for the Unconsolidated Aquifer
6-12-04
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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3.10
Groundwater Elevations and Flow Paths for the Basalt Aquifer
3.11
Ternary (Piper) Diagram of Major Ions
3.12
Stable Isotope Analysis
4.1
Seepage Survey Results
4.2
Location Map of Mini-Piezometers, Flow Measurement Transects, and
Data Acquisition Instrumentation
4.3
Conceptual Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction
4.4
Calculation of Vertical Hydraulic Gradient
4.5
Comparison of Continuous Surface Water and Groundwater Level
Measurements
4.6a
Profile at Cluster 1
4.6b
Profile at Cluster 2
4.6c
Profile at Cluster 4
4.6d
Profile at Cluster 5
4.7
Temperature Data for Reaches 1, 2 and 3
4.8
Vertical Hydraulic Gradients Between Surface Water and Groundwater
List of Appendices
A
Well Data, Survey Results, and Static Water Levels
B
Surface Water/Groundwater Interaction: Field Methods and Laboratory
Data
C
Hyporheic Zone (Prepared by Kerrie McArthur of MCS Environmental,
Inc.)
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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Acronym List
afy
acre-feet per year
bgs
below ground surface
cfs
cubic feet per second
DEM
digital elevation model
DNR
Washington State Department of Natural Resources
DOH
Washington State Department of Health
Ecology
Washington State Department of Ecology
o
degrees Fahrenheit
ft/ft
feet per feet (hydraulic gradient)
gpm
gallons per minute
LiDAR
light detection and ranging
mg/l
milligrams per liter
mybp
million years before present
RM
river mile
SWL
static water level
µS/cm
microsiemens per centimeter
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
WRIA
Water Resources Inventory Area
WRTS
Water Rights Tracking System
F
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Executive Summary
This report presents a Phase II Level II Study of the hydrogeology of the Lower
Dosewallips/Brinnon Area under the Watershed Planning Act. The Dosewallips River
basin is located in southern Jefferson County, within the Skokomish-Dosewallips
Watershed Planning area. The purpose of the study is to develop the hydrogeologic
framework for the lower Dosewallips River basin, in and around the community of
Brinnon. The study provides a baseline of existing surface water/groundwater interaction
within the basin as a basis for evaluating future water resource management decisions,
including additional water supply development. The Brinnon area is considered in need
of further assessment with respect to hydraulic continuity of groundwater and surface
water due to the current degree of land development, anticipated growth, and pending
water rights applications.
The scope of work for this project included:
Ÿ
Defining principal aquifers and aquitards through compilation and review of existing
hydrogeologic data;
Ÿ
Evaluation of groundwater flow within the principal aquifers through sounding of
selected wells and wellhead elevation survey by Jefferson County; and,
Ÿ
Analysis of groundwater/surface water interaction.
Field methods for evaluating groundwater/surface water interaction included extensive
monitoring of gaining and losing reaches of the river using seepage runs, minipiezometers, temperature and specific conductance measurements and naturally occurring
geochemical tracers.
The principal aquifers in the lower Dosewallips/Brinnon area occur in unconsolidated
deposits and in basalt bedrock. Coarse-grained Recent Alluvium and older glacial
deposits comprise the unconsolidated aquifer. The unconsolidated aquifer deposits
generally exhibit weakly confined or unconfined conditions, depending on the
presence/absence of fine-grained deposits. An aquitard comprised of glacial lake
deposits, glacial till and local fine-grained alluvium results in local confinement of the
unconsolidated aquifer. The water-bearing nature of the basalt bedrock aquifer (Crescent
Formation) is variable and appears primarily associated with secondary fracture
permeability. Water within the basalt aquifer is typically confined.
Recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer occurs as a result of direct infiltration of
precipitation including mountain front recharge and, in the Brinnon Flats area, of losses
from the Dosewallips River. Groundwater flows into the Brinnon Flats area from the
upland areas and from the Dosewallips River subflow. Discharge of groundwater occurs
into a spring creek that flows through Whitney Gardens and by direct discharge to tidal
sloughs and Hood Canal. Discharge from wells also occurs, although pumping
withdrawals are expected to be a relatively small component of the total discharge.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
In the upland terrace areas, the data suggest a downward groundwater flow gradient
exists between the unconsolidated aquifer and the underlying basalt aquifer. Above river
mile 1 (RM-1), groundwater flow in the unconsolidated aquifer discharges into the
Dosewallips River. Local losses from the river to the alluvial aquifer occur, but this
groundwater is discharged back into the river at the bedrock constrictions.
Groundwater in the basalt aquifer flows from the upland areas toward the Dosewallips
River. The relative head difference between the unconsolidated aquifer and the basalt
aquifer in the lowland area is unknown, but is expected to be relatively small.
The Dosewallips River was subdivided into three reaches for study of
groundwater/surface water interaction. The downstream reach (Reach 1) is defined by a
bedrock constriction at RM-1 and by Hood Canal on the downstream end. The upstream
end of Reach 2 is defined by a bedrock constriction at about RM-3.2 and the downstream
end by the bedrock constriction at RM-1. Reach 3 begins at the mouth of a bedrock
canyon near the National Forest boundary and ends at the upper end of Reach 2.
The Dosewallips River exhibits neutral to gaining behavior downstream of the National
Forest boundary and upstream of RM-1 (Reaches 2 and 3). Below RM-1, the river loses
water to the groundwater flow system. Analysis of vertical gradients indicates losses
from the river to the groundwater system reach a maximum in June when the river is high
from spring runoff and groundwater levels have dropped in response to diminished
precipitation. Groundwater discharge into the river was observed at RM-1 and also likely
occurs at the bedrock constriction at about RM-3.2. The discharge of groundwater to
surface water is greatest during winter months when groundwater levels reach a seasonal
maximum as a result of heavy winter precipitation.
Water within the unconsolidated aquifer is typically calcium-bicarbonate type. Two
wells sampled in the Brinnon Flats area exhibited near-identical chemical characteristics
to Dosewallips River surface water, consistent with Dosewallips River losses providing
recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer. Isotope data and continuous water level
measurements indicate that recharge in the Brinnon Flats area also includes a
precipitation component.
The following recommendations for future work are made to:
Ÿ
Improve definition of the seawater/freshwater interface by mapping chloride
distribution in wells;
Ÿ
Improve understanding of storage limitations in the basalt aquifer by aquifer testing
of basalt wells in order to provide decision-making information for future
groundwater development; and
Ÿ
Develop a water balance for use in conjunction with the above recommendations to
define safe yield of the aquifer.
Field work for this project would not have been possible without the assistance of many
residents of Brinnon and the Dosewallips River valley. We thank them for allowing
access to their property and wells.
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
1 Introduction
This section reviews the project background to the study, presents an overview of the
scope of work, and discusses the general characteristics of the study area.
1.1 Background
This report presents a Phase II Level II study of the hydrogeology of the Lower
Dosewallips/Brinnon Area under the Watershed Planning Act. The study was initiated
by the Water Resources Inventory Area 16 (WRIA 16) Planning Unit to develop the
hydrogeologic framework for the lower Dosewallips River basin, in and around the
community of Brinnon, with particular emphasis on the groundwater/surface water
interaction. The study findings provide a baseline to assess potential impacts of future
water resources development.
The Planning Unit contracted with Aspect Consulting to begin work on this project in
October, 2003. The study was initiated based on recommendations from the Level I
technical assessment of the Skokomish-Dosewallips Basin (WRIA 16) (Golder
Associates, 2003). The community of Brinnon, along with several other areas in the
WRIA 16 watershed, was considered in need of further assessment with respect to
hydraulic continuity due to the current degree of land development, anticipated growth,
and pending water rights applications on file with Washington State Department of
Ecology (Ecology).
1.2 Overview of Dosewallips Basin
The Dosewallips River basin is located in southern Jefferson County, within the
Skokomish-Dosewallips Wastershed Planning Area. The locations of the WRIA 16
Planning Area and the Dosewallips Subbasin are shown in Figure 1.1. The Dosewallips
River originates in the Olympic Mountains and is the largest river entering northern Hood
Canal. The drainage area is approximately 83,825 acres (130.9 square miles) (Golder
Associates, 2003). The river originates in sandstones and siltstones at its highest
elevations. Basalts of the Crescent Formation underlie the mid-portion of the basin, and
glacial deposits and Recent Alluvium underlie the lower section. Slopes are relatively
gentle in the glacial valley bottoms and steepen toward the western headwaters (Figure
1.2).
Brinnon is located on the north side of the lower Dosewallips River near its confluence
with the Hood Canal, on a broad alluvial plain referred to as Brinnon Flats. Dosewallips
State Park occupies the low-lying area on the south side of the lower Dosewallips River.
The Dosewallips River delta is second largest in the Hood Canal, after the Skokomish.
On the north side of the river mouth, a large estuarine marsh is drained by several blind,
tidal sloughs (Correa, 2003). Several diked areas are present within the estuarine marsh,
and tidal flow into these areas in controlled in places by tide gates (WDFW/Point No
Point Treaty Tribes, April 2000). A map of the Dosewallips River basin is shown in
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
Figure 1.2. An aerial photo montage of the lower Dosewallips River basin is shown in
Figure 1.3.
There are approximately 28.3 miles of mainstem river and 104.5 miles of tributaries.
Approximately 47,231 acres (56 percent) of the drainage lie within Olympic National
Park and 22,028 acres (26 percent) fall within Olympic National Forest (Golder
Associates, 2003). The remaining 17 percent is divided among forestlands, rural
residential development, park, and commercial uses. Highest elevation in the basin is
Mount Deception at 7,788 feet.
The average annual discharge at the former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging
station at RM-7 is 446 cubic feet per second (cfs) for the period 1930 to 1951. The
runoff pattern is bimodal, with peak runoff occurring as the result of winter rains in the
period from November through February and again as a result of spring snow melt in
May and June. A mean annual hydrograph for the period of 1930 to 1951 is presented in
Figure 1.4. The WRIA 16 Planning Unit is currently collecting streamflow data at the
Highway 101 Bridge for the purposes of instream flow recommendations.
The river valley below RM-3 was a forested floodplain with active side channels until the
late 1800s, when the area was converted to a channelized stream with predominantly
pasture floodplain (WDFW/Point No Point Treaty Tribes, April 2000). The middle and
lower watersheds were intensively logged beginning in the late 1800s. Wetland and tidal
slough infilling occurred during the development of the Town of Brinnon and
construction of Highway 101. This infilling severed the connection between tide
channels and the river. Two major distributary channels that were apparently connected
to the river higher in the delta were cutoff by these activities (WDFW/Point No Point
Treaty Tribes, April 2000).
The upper Dosewallips drainage basin is comprised of the West Fork of the Dosewallips,
Silt Creek, and Dosewallips Subbasins. West Fork of the Dosewallips is the largest of
these subbasins with an area of about 20 square miles. Areas of Silt Creek and
Dosewallips (above the Silt Creek confluence) subbasins are approximately 14 and 16
square miles, respectively. Each of the subbasins has glaciers on the mountain divides.
The largest of the glaciers is Eel Glacier, which is located on Mount Anderson, at the
headwaters of Silt Creek.
A few small lakes are present within the Dosewallips basin. Lakes on lower tributaries
include Jupiter Lakes and Lake Constance. At higher elevations several small tarn lakes
created by alpine glacial scour are present.
Rocky Brook is the largest tributary on the lower Dosewallips with an area of about 8.8
square miles. A penstock and electrical generating facility are present near the base of
Rocky Brook. Its unknown if these facilities are still active.
The year 2000 population of the Dosewallips drainage was 589 and is projected to
increase to 675 by 2010, assuming continuance of the 1.4 percent growth rate that
occurred between 1990 and 2000 (Golder Associates, 2003). Year 2000 groundwater use
was estimated at 76 acre-feet total, 67 acre-feet served by public water systems and 9
acre-feet served by exempt wells. Water use is expected to increase to 88 acre-feet per
year (afy) by 2010. The Town of Brinnon has no community water system. A
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
groundwater sourced public water system in the Lazy C area is operated by Jefferson
County PUD No. 1. Several smaller community water systems supplied by wells also
exist. These include Dosewallips State Park, Jefferson County Fire District, Brinnon
School District, and Brinnon Water Company. A permitted water right to divert 50 cfs of
water from the Dosewallips has been maintained by the City of Port Townsend since
1956, but has never been acted upon (WDFW/Point No Point Treaty Tribes, April 2000).
Minimum flow criteria were developed by Ecology in 1985, but were not implemented.
There is currently an administrative closure to surface water withdrawals for the period
from July to October; however, no instream flows have been set by rule making
(WDFW/Point No Point Treaty Tribes, April, 2000; Golder Associates, 2003). The
WRIA 16 Planning Unit is working under Watershed Planning Act (ESHB 2514/RCW
90.82) to develop recommended instream flows by Fall 2005, including collection of
instream flow data for a 1-year period beginning in June 2004 (Ecology, January 2004).
Several claims, permits or certificates for small diversions (<1 cfs) from the lower
Dosewallips River for irrigation or domestic use were identified in Ecology’s Water
Rights Tracking System (WRTS) database. A certificate of right for 5 cfs for fish
propagation purposes was issued to U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife in 1958.
1.3 Purpose and Scope
The Planning Units objectives in this study were to:
Ÿ
Develop a hydrogeologic framework of the Brinnon Area including defining
groundwater flow; and,
Ÿ
Better understand the groundwater/surface water interaction along the lower reaches
of the Dosewallips River.
A scope of work was developed to meet these objectives consistent with the Planning
Unit funding. The scope consisted of the following tasks:
Ÿ
Compilation and review of existing hydrogeologic data (compilation of well log
information from public agencies and published reports).
Ÿ
Hydrostratigraphic analysis (defining principal aquifers and aquitards).
Ÿ
Development of Groundwater Elevation Contour Maps (sounding of selected
wells, wellhead elevation survey by Jefferson County, and generation of groundwater
flow maps).
Ÿ
Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction Analysis (extensive monitoring of
gaining and losing reaches of the river using mini-piezometers, temperature and
specific conductance measurements, seepage runs, and naturally occurring
geochemical tracers).
Ÿ
Report Preparation.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
2 Geologic Conditions and Basin Glaciation
Geologic units comprise the framework through which groundwater flows. The geologic
history and distribution of geologic units are described below.
2.1 Previous Investigation and Data Sources
The principal data source for geologic conditions in the Brinnon area is geologic mapping
by Carson (1976) compiled on the Seattle 1:100,000 quadrangle. Geologic mapping of
eastern Jefferson County, including the Brinnon area, also is published by Ecology
(Grimstad and Carson, 1981) and in a master’s thesis from the University of Washington
(Frisken, 1965). The upper portion of the Dosewallips River basin is presented in
Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) 1:100,000 geologic map of
the Mount Olympus Quadrangle (Gerstel and Lingley, 2003). Spicer (1986) inventoried
and evaluated changes in modern alpine glacial size.
2.2 Geologic Units
The lower Dosewallips River Basin is covered by a considerable thickness of sediment,
including glacial deposits and Recent Alluvium. Beneath those unconsolidated sediments
and underlying the middle reaches of the Dosewallips River are basalts of the Crescent
Formation. Tertiary (1.8 to 65 million years before present [mybp]) silt and sandstones
underlie tributaries in the higher reaches of the river within Olympic National Park. The
principal geologic units in the study area, from youngest to oldest are:
Ÿ
Recent Alluvium
Ÿ
Recessional Glacial Outwash
Ÿ
Vashon Till
Ÿ
Vashon Glaciolacustrine Deposits
Ÿ
Vashon Advance Outwash
Ÿ
Crescent Formation (basalt)
The distribution of these units at the surface is shown on the geologic map in Figure 2.1
(from DNR 1:100,000 scale map). Greater detail of mapped geologic conditions is
available in Carson (1976), particularly for exposures along steep hill slopes.
With respect to groundwater flow in the study area, the most important geologic units are
Vashon Glacial/Recent Alluvial deposits and the Crescent Formation. The Recent
Alluivum and glacial deposits form a shallow aquifer collectively referred to as the
unconsolidated aquifer. Water-bearing basalts of the Crescent Formation form a second
aquifer in the project area referred to as the basalt aquifer. Characterization of these units
as aquifers and aquitards is further discussed in Section 3.
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
2.2.1
Crescent Formation
The Crescent Formation is a basalt of marine origin. The upper Crescent Formation is
flow dominated and consists predominantly of columnar to randomly jointed basalt. The
lower member of the Crescent Formation is comprised of pillows to massive flows and
flow breccias (Gertsel and Lingley, 2003; Haug, 1998). The upper Crescent Formation
outcrops a short distance upstream of Wilson Creek and the pillow dominated, lower
member outcrops downstream of this point and is exposed in the study area. The
Crescent Formation was uplifted and folded into a broad antiform (a convex upward fold
of rocks) during formation of the Olympic Mountains. The basalt is, therefore, fractured
with moderately to steeply dipping beds.
In the study area, the Crescent Formation basalts underlie the glacial deposits and are
exposed on the hill slopes of the Dosewallips River valley. The Dosewallips has incised
through two basalt promontories segmenting the lower river into three distinct reaches.
Moving downstream, the upper reach (referred to as Reach 3 in this report), is defined at
the upstream end by a bedrock canyon near the National Forest boundary and at the
downstream end by a bedrock constriction just downstream of the confluence with Rocky
Brook. The downstream end of the middle reach (Reach 2) is defined by a bedrock
constriction at about RM-1. The lower reach extends from the bedrock constriction at
RM-1 to the Hood Canal. These reaches are further discussed in Section 4 and are
presented in Figure 4.1.
A contour map showing the elevation of top of basalt in the study area is shown in Figure
2.2. The map was developed by extrapolating between known basalt elevations identified
on well logs, and minimum basalt depth obtained from wells completed in the
unconsolidated deposits. Well logs are summarized in Table A-1 in Appendix A. The
map indicates that bedrock is at or below sea level from the coast to about 2 miles
upstream, with the lowest elevation bedrock surface along the river channel. Two wells
(136 and 137) encountered bedrock at about elevation -60 feet (NAVD 88) near the coast.
A small ancestral bedrock channel is indicated on the upland by well 106. The glacial
deposits appear to form a thin veneer over bedrock in the upland areas. Highest glacial
deposits in the project vicinity are at about elevation 1,360 feet. The greatest depth to
bedrock (about 226 feet below ground surface [bgs] in well 126, above the gravel pit)
occurs at the upland terrace on the north margin of Brinnon Flats.
2.2.2
Glacial Deposits
Unconsolidated glacial deposits overlying the Crescent Formation in the study area were
deposited predominantly during the Fraser Glaciation about 15,000 years before present.
The Fraser Glaciation was one of five glacial advances ranging from 2 million to 10,000
years before present.
Pre-Fraser Glacial Deposits
Other than two isolated outcrops in the upland areas, no pre-Fraser deposits have been
mapped in the area. Frisken (1965) speculated that cemented sand and gravel
encountered at the base of the State Park’s well (well 4) may be pre-Fraser deposits.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
Alpine Glacial Deposits
Two distinct stades (substages of a glaciation) occurred during the Fraser Glaciation that
affected the project area. The Evans Creek Stade occurred during the initial cooling
associated with the Fraser Glaciation. During this cooler period (about 20,000 to 16,000
years ago), continental glaciers advanced southward from British Columbia and in the
alpine regions of western Washington. A radial system of large alpine valley glaciers
developed in the interior of the Olympic Mountains (Spicer ,1986). Alpine glacial
deposits have been mapped as far downstream as the National Forest boundary (about
RM-6). Although not identified in the study area, they could be present in the subsurface
in the upper project area.
Continental Glacial Deposits
A minor warming event occurred after the Evans Creek Stade, and the alpine glaciers
retreated upvalley. Following retreat of the alpine glaciers, the continental glacier
continued to advance during the Vashon Stade of the Fraser Glaciation. At the onset of
the Vashon Stade, an arm of the ice sheet advanced southward, blocking off the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, forming a large pro-glacial (i.e., in front of the glacier) lake. The
continental glacial advance eventually blocked drainages of the Olympic Mountain
valleys including the Dosewallips River. Fine-grained sediment settled into the
proglacial lake. The continental glaciers reached their maximum southerly limit about
15,000 years ago (Booth, 1986). At the maximum glacial extent, the Olympic Mountains
were bounded by the continental Cordilleran ice sheet with the Puget ice lobe to the east
and the Juan de Fuca ice lobe to the north. Glacial ice covered the area to about elevation
3,000 feet (Grimstad and Carson, 1981).
As the Puget lobe advanced southward, sediments were deposited by glacial meltwater
(on top of the lacustrine silts), creating an outwash plain in front of the advancing ice.
This unit is referred to as Vashon Advance Outwash. The unit tends to be finer grained
in the lower sections and coarsens upward as the glacier advanced south and deposition
occurred closer to the glacial snout by higher energy streams proximal to the glacier. The
Vashon Advance Outwash is a regionally important aquifer. An exposure of Advance
Outwash has been mapped between RM-3 and RM-4 and its presence is inferred in the
subsurface based on well log descriptions and mapped exposures.
During the Vashon period, the Hood Canal was a north-south trending glacial trough
along the west side of the Puget ice lobe (Haug, 1998). As the Puget ice lobe advanced
into the Hood Canal, ice entered the many drainages of the east Olympic Mountains
including the Dosewallips River valley, impounding stream flow behind the ice-choked,
lower river valleys. Relatively fine-grained Glaciolacustrine Deposits comprised
predominantly of silts and clays were deposited in the low-energy lake environment in
these drainages. Good exposures of glaciolacustrine unit are seen on the undercut river
bank across from the Lazy C development where they are mantled by recessional
outwash. Frisken (1965) suggests two advances of the valley glacier into the Dosewallips
drainage occurred. The maximum upvalley ice advance is marked by end moraines
deposited about 5.4 miles upvalley.
Vashon Till was deposited beneath the ice as continental glaciers advanced. Glacial
lodgement till is an unsorted to poorly-sorted soil mixture composed of clay- to boulder-
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
size particles that were deposited at the base of the glacier. Compaction by the weight of
the overlying ice resulted in a concrete-like texture and appearance. Glacial till overlies
the advance outwash and mantles the bedrock in the upland areas. Glacial till is present
overlying the lacustrine deposits in the steep slope rising up from the floodplain, in
Section 34 above RM-1. The till is mantled by recessional outwash over much of this
area.
Retreat of the glacial ice resulted in deposition of Recessional Outwash. Recessional
Outwash typically consists of well-sorted sands and gravels deposited in meltwater
channels, deltas and depositional environments. Where higher energy streams enter
lakes, a rapid decline in energy results in deposition of the suspended load and deltas
form. A large delta complex comprised of stratified sand and gravel is comprises a
terrace the north side of the Dosewallips River drainage near Highway 101 (Grimstad and
Carson, 1981). A small remnant of the terrace also is present upstream in the southeast
portion of Section 28 below RM-3. The terrace likely extended across the lower valley
prior to erosion by the Dosewallips River (Frisken, 1965).
The lake in the Hood Canal trough drained during the breakup of the continental ice sheet
resulting in erosion of glacial deposits within the stream valley. Downcutting occurred,
which superimposed the rivers onto the basalts of the Crescent Formation (Frisken, 1965)
and resulted in the bedrock constrictions observed at RM-1 and RM-3.
Post-Pleistocene Glaciation
Alpine glaciers wasted away during post-glacial time, and all but the largest glaciers on
Mount Olympus and Mount Anderson may have disappeared completely about 8,000 to
4,000 years before present (Spicer, 1986). Temperatures during this time were estimated
to be about 2 degrees C above present temperatures. This period was followed by a
gradual cooling. The period from 1450 to 1800s is referred to as the “Little Ice Age,”
which resulted in glacial advances (Mayewski and Bender, 1995). Dating of glacial
moraines on Mount Olympus suggest that the Olympic alpine glaciers reached their
maximum post-Pleistocene (within the past 10,000 years) extent in the early 1800s
(Spicer, 1986).
The Dosewallips River channel transported and deposited sediment locally derived from
the Olympic Mountains. These Recent Alluvial deposits consist predominantly of coarse
bedload materials deposited in the Dosewallips River channel. Floodplain deposits
formed terraces about 5 to 10 feet above the current river. The floodplain terraces narrow
where the river incises through bedrock restrictions. The Recent Alluvium is comprised
almost entirely of locally derived clasts. Clasts from northern provenances (i.e.,
transported by continental glaciation) were not identified in the Recent Alluvium
(Frisken, 1965). A large delta has built out into the Hood Canal from the Dosewallips
River. Within the study area, Recent Alluvial deposits have been identified
predominantly within the lower portions of the stream valley, below about RM-4.
The upper portions of the Dosewallips drainage have been subdivided into the following
subbasins: West Fork of the Dosewallips River, Silt Creek, and the Dosewallips River
(Figure 1.2). Each of these subbasins supports alpine glaciers, which in turn, feed
streamflow into the Dosewallips River. Silt Creek is the most heavily glaciated of the
three subbasins. Nine glaciers have been identified in the Silt Creek drainage ranging in
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
size from 0.008 to 0.43 square mile (Spicer, 1986). Of these glaciers, the Eel Glacier is
the largest. Other glaciers, including Hanging Glacier, are all relatively smaller, with
areas less than 0.07 square mile size. Eight glaciers have been identified in the West
Fork of Dosewallips ranging in size from 0.004 to 0.05 square mile. Twelve glaciers
have been identified in the Dosewallips subbasin ranging in size from 0.0004 square mile
to the Mystery Glacier at 0.06 square mile. These glaciers include valley glaciers,
mountain glaciers, and perennial ice patches (Spicer, 1986).
Spicer (1986) examined the glacial variations in the Dosewallips River drainage for the
period 1890 to 1982 using a combination of historical ground photos and aerial
photography. Overall glacier recession characterized this period. Greatest losses of ice
mass occurred in the 1930s and 1940s, with a corresponding rise in the mean glacial
altitude. From 1939 to 1982, the area of the Eel Glacier was reduced by 17 percent with
an overall reduction of 40 percent since its Neoglacial maximum. The Mystery Glacier
was reduced by about 19 percent from 1939 to 1982, with 31 percent reduction since its
maximum extent. Based on studies of other glaciers in the Cascade region, the glaciated
area of the Dosewallips River basin has continued to shrink since Spicer’s work in 1986.
2.3 Effects of Glacier Size on Streamflow
Glaciers act as a reservoir for water, storing it as snow and ice, and internally. Glaciers
that are increasing in size will “bank” water that may otherwise be available for runoff.
Glaciers that decrease in size over a winter will augment stream flows with glacial melt
water (Fountain and Tangborn, 1985).
Glaciers delay peak runoff through melting of snow and ice. Factors that encourage
snowmelt (solar radiation, cloud cover and snow-ice albedo) peak in late July and
August. As such, glaciers tend to supplement stream flow during periods when runoff
from non-glacial basins is at its lowest. Qualitative inspection of the glacial cover in the
Dosewallips basin indicates a relatively small amount of the total basin area has glacial
cover. The total contribution to runoff from a glacial basin is proportional to the
glaciated area (Fountain and Tangborn, 1985). The relatively small glaciated area of the
Dosewallips basin would therefore be expected to have a small contribution to the total
basin runoff. However, because the peak glacial runoff occurs during low summer flows,
the glacial contribution may be significant component of low flows.
Further glacial retreat would diminish glacial runoff and consequently lower the summer
flows. Gaging of the glaciated subbasin tributaries and quantification of changes in
glacial mass balance would be necessary to quantify the contribution of glacial melt
water to low flows on the Dosewallips River and to project the impacts of diminished
flows as a result of further glacial retreat.
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3 Hydrogeology
An aquifer is a water-bearing unit comprised of some combination or part of geologic
formations that can yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. In the lower
Dosewallips-Brinnon area, the primary aquifers are:
Ÿ
the unconsolidated aquifer comprised predominantly of Recent Alluvial deposits and
of glacially deposited sand and gravel layers; and,
Ÿ
the basalt aquifer comprised of the Crescent Formation.
The principal constraints on groundwater development in the region relate to the
relatively low yield potential of the basalts and hydraulic continuity with the Dosewallips
River in the unconsolidated aquifer. The potential for hydraulic continuity between the
basalt aquifer and the Dosewallips River exists, but insufficient data were available to
define this relationship. Seawater intrusion may also constrain groundwater development
in the region, although limited data exists on the occurrence of saline water in the project
area.
3.1 Well Information
There is little published information on groundwater conditions in the lower DosewallipsBrinnon area. Grimstad and Carson (1981) discuss groundwater conditions in east
Jefferson County. Well information was compiled from several sources in this study.
Well logs on file with Ecology for the study area were compiled. Washington State
Department of Health (DOH) listings of Group A and B water systems in the project area
were obtained. Jefferson County’s electronic well database and wells in the project area
from the USGS well database were also obtained.
Well construction details and aquifer completion zones are summarized in Appendix A,
Table A-1. Also included are wells that were identified during the course of our field
work, but which had not been identified by any of the previous sources. Comprehensive,
field identification and verification of wells in the project area was not performed. Each
well was assigned a unique, consecutive identification number for this study.
A total of 146 wells were identified in the project area from the data sources. Of these
wells, eight were identified as sources for Group A systems and seven were identified as
Group B systems. The largest annual groundwater right (either claim or certificate)
identified in the study area (as of 2002) was Washington State Parks and Recreation
Commission with an instantaneous withdrawal rate of 60 gallons per minute (gpm) and
an annual rate of 36 acre-feet.
3.2 Hydrostratigraphic Units
A hydrostatigraphic unit is a geologic formation, part of a formation, or a group of
formations with similar hydrologic characteristics such as porosity and permeability that
can be characterized as an aquifer or non-water bearing confining layer.
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ASPECT CONSULTING
Three hydrostratigraphic units are of importance in the hydrogeologic conceptual model
for the lower Dosewallips/Brinnon area. These include:
Ÿ
Coarse-grained, unconsolidated glacial and alluvial deposits, which form the
unconsolidated aquifer;
Ÿ
Fine-grained glacial till, glaciolacustrine deposits, and alluvial deposits, which act as
an aquitard; and,
Ÿ
The basalt, which acts as both an aquifer as an aquitard.
Of the 146 wells identified in Table A-1, 67 are completed in unconsolidated deposits
and 66 are completed in the basalt aquifer. For the balance, the completion cannot be
determined with existing information. Figure 3.1 shows well locations and identifies the
aquifer in which the well was completed. Wells completed in basalt predominate in areas
away from the river floodplain, although at least two wells (136 and 137) located in the
lowland area near the coast penetrate through the unconsolidated aquifer and are
completed within the basalt. Each of these wells encountered salty water in the
unconsolidated aquifer before being completed in the basalt.
Five hydrostratigraphic cross sections were developed through the study area. The
locations of the cross section lines are shown in Figure 3.2 and the cross sections are
presented in Figures 3.3 through 3.7. The geologic interpretation of the soil descriptions
as shown on the well logs is incorporated into the sections based on mapped surficial
geology and assuming a relatively continuous stratigraphic sequence. As additional age
dating and descriptions of geologic materials are developed in the Dosewallips area, these
geologic assignments may change.
The major hydrostratigraphic units are depicted with similar color to assist in differentiating aquifers and aquitards. The unconsolidated aquifer consists predominantly of
glacial outwash sands and gravels and Recent Alluvium. Where the permeable Recent
Alluvium and permeable glacial deposits are in direct contact with one another, water
moves freely between them. These coarse-grained geologic units are considered
collectively as a hydrostratigraphic unit and are shown in a yellowish color in the cross
sections. Where these units are saturated, they comprise the unconsolidated aquifer.
The glacial till, lacustrine deposits, and the fine-grained material within the Recent
Alluvium act as an aquitard that retard groundwater flow. Where the aquitard overlies
the unconsolidated aquifer, they may result in local confinement of the unconsolidated
aquifer. The existing well log control suggests the fine-grained unit is continuous in the
upper reaches of the study area (Section A-A', Figure 3.3), but shows lateral discontinuity
in the lower reaches of the study area. The fine-grained units are shown in green on the
cross sections.
Basalt wells are typically confined, and bear water from fracture zones and faults. Unlike
the Columbia River basalts of eastern Washington where water-bearing flow tops may be
traced over large distances, the greater structural complexity of the basalts in the Olympic
Mountains makes correlating water-producing zones difficult. No apparent pattern to
depth of yield from basalts could be identified with existing data. Several basalt wells
have large intervals on the order of 100 feet or more open to the aquifer, indicating that
only limited yield is obtained from fracture zones throughout the well depth. Well 61
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(Lazy C well 4) was drilled to a depth of 440 feet and a small water-bearing zone from
302 to 305 feet was identified on the well log. This well was reportedly not used due to
lack of production (Graham, 2003). Groundwater producing zones in the basalt are
typically described as “fractured basalt” on driller’s logs, suggesting that water is
predominantly derived from fracture zones as opposed to flow tops, where sedimentary
interbeds would also be expected to be present and indicated on well logs.
3.3 Aquifer Hydraulic Properties
3.3.1
Specific Capacity
Specific capacity is a simple, empirical measure of well productivity that is computed by
dividing the pumping rate in gpm by the water level drawdown below static level in feet
(ft). Specific capacities are a function of both the aquifer and the well construction.
Because drawdown commonly continues to increase slowly over time, specific capacity
is most meaningful if the duration of pumping is specified. For wells of similar
construction, specific capacity provides a measure of aquifer transmissivity.
Transmissivity is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to transmit water horizontally.
Transmissivity is most accurately defined by pumping tests, but can also be estimated
from specific capacity. Other than driller’s tests that provide limited drawdown data in
the pumping well, no pump tests were identified for any wells in the study area. Specific
capacities were calculated based on information provided on driller’s logs and are listed
in Table A-1. Figure 3.8 is a map depiction of these data for the unconsolidated and
basalt aquifers.
Specific capacities of the wells completed in basalt aquifer are considerably lower than
the specific capacities of the wells completed in the unconsolidated aquifer. Most wells
completed in the basalt aquifer have specific capacities of 0.5 gpm/ft of drawdown or
less. In the unconsolidated aquifer, specific capacities are typically greater than 1. Nine
wells of 34 shown on Figure 3.8 have specific capacities of 10 or greater. The highest
specific capacities are found in wells in the Brinnon Flats area and are completed in the
unconsolidated aquifer.
3.3.2
Static Water Level and Aquifer Storage
Static water level is measured as the depth to water in a well before pumping. Static
water elevations, or heads, define the potentiometric surface of the aquifer. If the level to
which water rises in the well is above the top of the aquifer, the aquifer is “confined” or
“artesian”. If the water level is free to fluctuate within the aquifer zone and is not
constrained by the stratigraphic top of the aquifer, it is an “unconfined” aquifer. The
unconsolidated aquifer appears unconfined in the Recent Alluvial deposits close to the
Dosewallips River and semi-confined or confined where it occurs beneath the
lacustrine/till unit. The basalt aquifer is typically confined and one well (well 65) near
the confluence with Rocky Brook was flowing at ground surface.
Static water level depths at the time of drilling are normally reported on driller’s logs.
During this investigation, static water level measurements were made on 17 wells on
March 18, 2004 and again on June 12, 2004 by Aspect Consulting and Jefferson County
personnel. These wells plus 12 mini-piezometers were surveyed using survey grade GPS
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
equipment by Jefferson County. In addition, as part of the surface water/groundwater
interaction investigation, well 9 was instrumented with a pressure transducer. This well
showed tidal fluctuations on the order of 1 foot that are discussed in Section 4.2. Static
water level data are reported on Table A-1.
Storage coefficient is a dimensionless measure of the relationship between aquifer yield
and drawdown. For equivalent quantities of groundwater withdrawn, drawdown of the
potentiometric surface will be much greater in a confined (artesian) aquifer than in an
unconfined (water table) aquifer. The pore space is drained in the unconfined case,
whereas a confined aquifer yields water by elastic expansion of the aquifer skeleton and
of the water as pressure is reduced. Storage coefficients are typically on the order of 10-5
for confined aquifers, 10-3 for semiconfined aquifers and 10-1 for unconfined aquifers.
Storage coefficients are most reliably calculated from multi-well pumping tests where
drawdown was monitored in an observation well. No multi-well pumping test data were
available in the study area. Storage coefficients for the unconsolidated aquifer may be
expected to be in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 and in areas with locally greater confinement
could be expected to be around 10-4. Storage coefficient in the basalt aquifer is expected
to be low, on the order of 10-5. Total storage at any given location within the basalt
aquifer could be limited by poor interconnection of fractures.
3.4 Groundwater Flow
Based primarily on the June 12, 2004 static water level measurements and to a lesser
degree on driller’s reports, a potentiometric surface map was generated for the
unconsolidated aquifer relative to mean sea level (Figure 3.9). Ground surface elevation
control for the wells used in computing groundwater elevation are presented in Table
A-1.
Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifer in the Brinnon Flats area is recharged by
subsurface flow from the upland areas and from stream losses in the lower Dosewallips
River below RM-1. Direct runoff from upland areas provides recharge where it infiltrates
into the unconsolidated material (referred to as mountain front recharge).
Below the bedrock constriction near RM-1, surface water from the Dosewallips River
loses water to groundwater. The interaction of surface water and groundwater along the
lower Dosewallips is presented in detail in Section 4. The unconsolidated aquifer
discharges to a small spring creek that runs through Whitney Gardens. Examination of
the aerial photographs (Figure 1.3) suggests this channel is a remnant of a former
distributary channel. Discharge also likely occurs directly into the Hood Canal and into
tidal sloughs through high-permeability alluvium and outwash. Limited aquifer
discharge also occurs through wells completed within the aquifer. Upstream of RM-1,
groundwater upwells and discharges into the Dosewallips River upstream of the bedrock
constriction at RM-1 (refer to Section 4.2).
A groundwater elevation map of the basalt aquifer in the Brinnon area was constructed
using average groundwater elevations relative to mean seal level (NGVD29) (Figure
3.10). The basalt aquifer flows from the upland areas toward the Brinnon Flats area. The
basalt aquifer generally exhibits lower heads than the unconsolidated aquifer in the
terraces on the north side of the river, suggesting downward movement of groundwater
14
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ASPECT CONSULTING
from the unconsolidated aquifer to the basalt aquifer. In places, for example well 100,
the hydraulic connection between these units is limited and water within the
unconsolidated formation perches on the bedrock. Two wells (wells 129 and 126)
located near the edge of the terrace area do not indicate saturation of the overlying
unconsolidated sediment.
Recharge to the basalt aquifer occurs through direct precipitation onto basalt exposures in
upland areas and, in the unconsolidated terrace areas, through downward discharge of the
unconsolidated aquifer. Available well data generally show an increasing depth to water
with increasing well depth, indicating a downward vertical gradient within the basalts for
basalt wells in the upland areas. Groundwater development in the Brinnon Flats area has
been nearly exclusively from the unconsolidated aquifer, due to its shallow occurrence
and limited expense of development.
Because of the absence of basalt wells in the Brinnon Flats area, the interaction between
the unconsolidated aquifer and basalt aquifer cannot be characterized with certainty;
however, two wells (136 and 137) were completed in basalt after penetrating saline water
in the unconsolidated aquifer. Presuming that the water quality of the basalt aquifer in
these wells is suitable for domestic use (e.g., has not been impacted by seawater) then a
confined high head condition in the basalt aquifer can be inferred that limits seawater
intrusion in this area.
Heads within the basalt aquifer are variable, indicating limited interconnection within the
aquifer. The groundwater elevations presented in Figure 3.10 reflect the general pattern
of head within the basalt aquifer. Because of the many local variations in head, the
groundwater elevations were not contoured. Nearby wells completed in short distance of
one another showed marked variations in head (see for example wells 85 and 86, cross
section B-B', Figure 3.4).
3.5 Naturally-Occurring Geochemical Tracers
Naturally-occurring dissolved constituents and isotopes in water can serve as a means for
tracking water movement through a watershed (Winter and others, 1998). Major ions and
a stable oxygen isotope (18O) and hydrogen isotope (Deuterium or 2H) were analyzed
from the Dosewallips River and selected wells in order to evaluate groundwater flow
paths and mixing of recharge sources (Dosewallips River and direct precipitation). Water
samples were collected on March 18, 2004 at each of the transects on the Dosewallips
River and at three wells completed in the unconsolidated aquifer (134/135, 9, and 89) and
two wells completed in the basalt aquifer (91 and 144). Streamflow at the time of
collection was estimated at about 430 cfs. Major ion results are summarized in Table 3.1
along with specific conductance and pH measurements made during the sampling event.
3.5.1
Major Ions
Figure 3.11 presents a ternary plot of the major cations and anions. Ternary plots provide
a method for displaying the chemical data from multiple sample points on a single graph.
In the lower left hand corner of the diagram, the major cations are plotted. Anions are
plotted in the lower right trilinear plot. For each cation and anion, a line is extended up to
the diamond shaped graph, and the intersection of the two points, representative of the
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
hydrochemical facies as defined by major ion concentrations, is plotted as single point.
These diagrams are useful for showing mixing of water from two different sources. A
water mixture will plot along a straight line, to the extent that the water chemistry has not
been affected by ion exchange or other processes within the aquifer such as precipitation
or dilution of salts.
No significant difference was noted in the geochemical fingerprint for the four samples
collected from the Dosewallips River. The Jefferson County Fire District wells
(combined sampled from the water tank supplied by wells 134 and 135) and well 9 show
a near-identical chemical fingerprint to the Dosewallips River water, indicating that
recharge occurs predominantly from the river to the aquifer in the Brinnon Flats area.
The Dosewallips River and wells 134/135 and 9 are calcium-bicarbonate type water.
These data are further discussed in Section 4.2 in relation to surface water/groundwater
interaction.
Wells 144 and 89 show similar chemical signatures. Both are located in an upland area
with completion intervals well above sea level. Well 89 is completed at a depth of 40
feet (elevation 141 feet) in the unconsolidated aquifer and well 144 is completed at a
depth of 258 feet (elevation 47 feet) in the basalt aquifer. Both are calcium-bicarbonate
type water, with greater magnesium than the samples from the Dosewallips River.
Magnesium is slightly greater in the unconsolidated well (89) than the basalt well (144).
Specific conductance was greater in well 144 (171 microsiemens per centimeter [µS/cm])
compared to well 89 (92 µS/cm). The data from these two wells suggest that the
chemical signature from the unconsolidated aquifer and the basalt aquifer are similar in
the upland area, but with the basalt aquifer having higher concentrations of total
dissolved solids.
Well 91 is also completed in basalt (open interval from elevation -163 to -263 feet), but
exhibits calcium-magnesium chloride type water. No data was available on the pumping
water level in this well. Concentrations of all dissolved constituents were greater in well
91 than any of the other wells tested. The chloride concentrations in this well (61
milligrams per liter [mg/l]) is elevated compared to other wells sampled and could be
either a result of seawater intrusion or representative of the geochemical condition of the
basalt aquifer. Additional investigations would need to be performed to differentiate
chloride sources in well 91.
3.5.2
Isotopes
Naturally-occurring isotopes provide data that can assist in differentiating recharge
sources. Isotopes are variations of elements that differ in atomic weight due to additional
neutrons. Common isotopes used in hydrologic investigations are deuterium (2H,
hydrogen with one additional neutron) and heavy oxygen (18O – oxygen with two
additional neutrons). During the hydrologic cycle, water will evaporate, condense and
fall as precipitation. Heavy oxygen and deuterium undergo fractionation during
evaporation; that is, lighter isotopes are preferentially removed, leaving the residual water
relatively enriched in heavier isotopes (Mazor, 1991). Similarly, snow melt may also
become relatively enriched in heavier isotopes
Heaviest isotopes condense more readily and would be expected to be preferentially
removed by precipitation events on the west side of the Olympic Mountains. As storm
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
fronts progress over the Olympic Mountains, moisture becomes enriched in lighter
isotopes and precipitation falling on the summit of the Olympic Mountains would be
expected to be enriched in lighter isotopes. This pattern is often not observed on the
leeward side of mountains (Kendall and others, 2004).
Water sampled from the same five wells and four surface water stations was analyzed for
deuterium and heavy oxygen. Results of the analyses are plotted in Figure 3.12. The
ratio of deuterium and heavy oxygen to their respective light isotopes were measured and
expressed relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW). An increase in the ratios of
18
O /O and 2H/H ratios are indicated by less negative values. Negative values on Figure
3.12 indicate the heavy to light isotope ratio is less than SMOW. Also shown in Figure
3.12 is a local meteoric water line for Victoria, British Columbia derived from data
obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP database,
accessible at http://isohis.iaea.org). The local meteoric water line for Victoria provides
reference values for deuterium and heavy oxygen based on precipitation samples
collected from 1975 to 1980 and has been used in other regional studies.
The Dosewallips River samples have the lightest isotopic composition. The orographic
effect previously described is consistent with the light isotopic composition identified in
the Dosewallips River. Wells 9 and 134/135 are enriched in heavier isotopes relative to
Dosewallips River water, which suggests a portion of recharge derived from direct
precipitation. These data are discussed in Section 4.2. The heaviest isotopic composition
was measured in the upland wells 89 and 144. These wells are completed above the level
of the Dosewallips River and are considered to be indicative of the isotopic signature of
water derived directly from precipitation. Well 91 is intermediate in isotopic
composition between precipitation dominated wells (144 and 89) and the Dosewallips
River dominated wells (9 and 134/135).
As expected, river water exhibits relatively lighter isotopic composition due to the
orographic effect. Surface water is not the sole source of groundwater recharge in the
Brinnon Flats area. Incident precipitation contributes to groundwater recharge, which
correspondingly exhibits heavier isotopic fractionation.
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ASPECT CONSULTING
4 Interaction Between the Lower Dosewallips River
and Groundwater
4.1 Methods of Investigation
An analysis of the interaction between the Dosewallips River and the shallow
alluvial/glacial aquifer system was made. The objective of the analysis was to estimate
river reaches that gain water from groundwater inflow and reaches that lose surface water
through the river bed to the shallow aquifer system. Hydraulic, thermal, and naturallyoccurring geochemical tracers were used to delineate the spatial and temporal variability
in seepage along the lower reaches of the Dosewallips River. These methods are
discussed in the subsections below. Seepage measurements provide an overall estimate
of gains or losses along a given reach, while mini-piezometer data provide locationspecific data. Collectively, all these techniques offer multiple lines of evidence for
evaluating groundwater/surface water interaction. Sections 4.2 through 4.5 provide an
interpretation of these data for each reach of the river. Detailed field methodology is
presented in Appendix B.
Mixing of river water and groundwater is important to the ecological functions of rivers
(Woesner, 2000). The zone where mixing occurs is referred to as the hyporheic zone.
The hyporheic zone performs a critical function in the transport and exchange of nutrients
to a river system. Details on the function of the hyporheic zone and its relationship to
fish habitat were prepared by MCS Environmental, Inc. as part of this study and are
presented in Appendix C.
4.1.1
Seepage Runs
The amount of groundwater gained or lost to the stream was estimated using seepage
measurements for three reaches of the stream. The reaches were delineated based on
bedrock constrictions, which subdivided the river into the three reaches shown in Figure
4.1. A flow measurement was made using the area velocity technique at upstream and
downstream transects for each reach. The difference between the upstream and
downstream measurement after accounting for tributary inflow and diversions is the
estimated groundwater gain/loss along the reach. Seepage measurements were made on
October 9 and 10, 2003 and again prior to snow melt on February 27, 2004 and March 4,
2004. Results of the seepage runs are presented in Table 4.1 and on Figure 4.1 and are
discussed in detail in Sections 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4.
Stage measurements were recorded relative to a reference point on the Highway 101
Bridge at the beginning, middle and end of the day of seepage measurements. Flow at
Transect A was also re-measured at the end of each day. Seepage measurements were
corrected for changes in flow during the day, by assuming a linear change in river stage
between measurements and adjusting flow for the upstream and downstream transects for
a given reach to the same time. This correction was small as the time between upstream
and downstream transects was relatively short. Because the measurements were made
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
after the irrigation season, irrigation diversions were assumed to be zero. Tributary
inflow was estimated by direct measurement or by estimating inflow based on basin area
(Appendix B). During the October 9 and 10, 2003 seepage runs, the only tributary
identified with flow was Rocky Brook. The late winter measurements were split between
2 days, as the highest transects were not wadeable on February 27, 2004. Tributary
inflow was based on extrapolating runoff from the Rocky Brook drainage to the ungaged
basin areas. As such, the groundwater seepage estimates for late February are noted as
estimated on Table 4.1. Details of flow measurement methodology are presented in
Appendix B.
4.1.2
Mini-Piezometers
Mini-piezometers are small diameter (3/4- or 1.25-inch diameter), hollow steel probes
that were driven into the subsurface to provide a head (or water level) measurement
corresponding to the depth of the open interval. A portion of the tip (0.8 foot) was
perforated to allow water within the aquifer to flow freely into the mini-piezometer. A
total of 19 mini-piezometers were installed in a total of six clusters. Clusters 1, 2, and 3
were located in Reach 1, Clusters 4 and 5 in Reach 2, and Cluster 6 near the intersection
of Reaches 2 and 3. Typical installation depths for the mini-piezometers ranged from 4
to 6 feet bgs. The construction details for the mini-piezometers are presented in Table
4.2 and the mini-piezometer locations are presented in Figure 4.2.
The mini-piezometers were monitored on a monthly basis from November 2003 through
August 2004. Data collected at the mini-piezometers included temperature, specific
conductance, and the relative head between the mini-piezometer and the river level. A
manometer board was used to measure the relative difference between groundwater
levels in the mini-piezometer and surface water levels. Detailed field methodology for
installation and monitoring of the mini-piezometers is presented in Appendix B.
The relative water level difference between the surface water and groundwater indicates
the direction of water flow. If the surface water level is higher than groundwater level,
the stream is in a losing condition. Conversely, if the groundwater level measured in the
mini-piezometer is higher than the surface water level, then the stream is gaining water
from the groundwater system. An unsaturated zone may exist between the groundwater
and surface water, indicating a stream that is “disconnected” from the groundwater
system (Winter and others, 1998). These interactions of surface water and groundwater
are presented in Figure 4.3.
Mini-piezometers were installed both directly in the flowing stream and adjacent to it.
Those placed out of the channel were installed to either ensure that a monitoring point
would be in place if a significant runoff event destroyed a mini-piezometer in the flowing
channel, or to obtain lateral profile of water levels perpendicular to the river.
The relative groundwater/surface water gradient was computed by taking the difference
between the surface water level and groundwater level (dh) and dividing it by the
separation distance between the bottom of the stream channel and the middle of
perforated interval in the piezometer (dl). Figure 4.4 presents the calculation
methodology, which also discussed in detail in Appendix B.
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ASPECT CONSULTING
Continuous groundwater temperature measurements were made using Tidbit temperature
sensors and dataloggers at six locations. River temperature was measured at three
locations (Clusters 2, 4 and 5) and air temperature was measured outside the well house
at well 17 at Dosewallips State Park. Groundwater temperatures were monitored at P-11,
P-12, P-14, P-16, P-18, P-19 and well 9. The mini-piezometer (P-18), located at Cluster
5 between the river and the Lazy C wells, was instrumented with a pressure/temperature
transducer. Well 9 (located near a residence on the northeast side of the intersection of
the Dosewallips River and Highway 101) was similarly instrumented (Table 4.1). A
stilling well and pressure/temperature transducer were installed into the river along the
riprap bank at the Lazy C community in order to monitor river stage. Water level data
collected at P-18, well 9, and the Dosewallips River is presented in Figure 4.5 with
precipitation measured at Quilcene.
Cross sectional profiles were developed at four locations along the stream to illustrate
surface and groundwater level changes between the March and June, 2004 water level
measurements. The profiles were developed using water level measurements in the minipiezometers and nearby supply wells. Profiles were developed through Clusters 1, 2, 4
and 5 (Figures 4.6a through 4.6d).
4.1.3
Temperature Methods
For a losing stream condition, the groundwater temperature and river water temperature
would track in a similar manner. Specific conductance would also be expected to be
similar for a losing condition. For a gaining stream condition, the groundwater
temperature will be largely independent of surface water temperature. Groundwater
temperature will be relatively constant, reflecting broad seasonal changes in temperature,
whereas surface water temperature will be dependent on short-term air temperature
fluctuations. Gaining reaches will typically exhibit groundwater temperature conditions
that are warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. Specific conductance may
exhibit considerable differences from river specific conductance for a gaining condition
(Simonds and Sinclair, 2002). Data collected at the mini-piezometers are presented in
Tables 4.3 and 4.4 and temperature data are presented in Figure 4.7. Results are
discussed by reach in Sections 4.2 through 4.4.
4.2 Reach 1
Reach 1 extends from RM-0 to about RM-1. The downstream end of this reach occurs on
the delta on the east side of Highway 101, near where the river enters the Hood Canal. A
bedrock constriction at RM-1 marks the upstream extent of the reach. River gradient
along this reach is estimated at 0.0046 feet per feet (ft/ft). Gravel bars are present
throughout the reach and in places are vegetated with small alder. River bank sides are
typically less than 10 feet. The floodplain is relatively broad on the north side of the river
in the Brinnon Flats area and is limited in extent on the south side of the channel where
Dosewallips State Park is located. A riprap bank extends for about 200 yards along the
north side of the river, just upstream from the old Highway 101 Bridge location. No
tributaries or diversion from the Dosewallips River were identified in this reach of the
river during our October 2003 reconnaissance. A side channel that receives groundwater
inflow is present along the south side of the river. A creek informally referred to as “State
Park Creek” drains a small valley on the south side of the Dosewallips State Park.
20
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All data along this reach indicate that a losing condition exists downstream of the
bedrock constriction at RM-1. Seepage losses computed for Reach 1 were consistently
losing during each of the three seepage measurement dates (Table 4.1). Losses ranged
from a low of 13 cfs on October 10, 2003 to a high of 30 cfs on February 27, 2004. The
seepage losses generally showed an increase in loss with increased river flow. These
losses ranged from 5 to 14 percent of the total flow and are slightly greater than those
reported by Simonds and Sinclair (2002) for the Dungeness River in the Sequim vicinity,
which ranged from 1 to 8 percent of flow. A portion of the February 2004 stream flow
loss was likely partially offset by shallow groundwater inflow entering the stream via the
steep bank on the south side of the river.
The mini-piezometers also indicated a downward vertical gradient from the streambed to
the aquifer. At mini-piezometer Cluster 1 located near the Highway 101 Bridge, a
consistent surface to groundwater gradient was identified, with gradient increasing during
the lower groundwater levels (Figure 4.2, Table 4.4). At P-1, a maximum vertical
gradient of 0.42 ft/ft was measured in June, 2004. The gradient declined between the
June and August measurements, in response to declining river stage. Temperature and
specific conductance differences between surface and groundwater were relatively small,
ranging from 0.2 to -1.6 degrees (oF) and -1.4 to 1.5 µS/cm, respectively at P-18. These
results are consistent with surface water to groundwater losses.
Cluster 2, located at RM-0.4 also exhibited a losing condition, although gradients were
very small, and for the period December through May, near neutral conditions (neither
gaining nor losing) were identified. Further upstream at Cluster 3, the largest downward
vertical gradients for the study were identified, with June measurements at minipiezometer P-15 approaching a unit gradient. At P-3, also located in Cluster 3, the minipiezometer was dry in early November and again in May through August. Apparently,
the groundwater mound beneath the river channel had dissipated during the drier months
and the river became locally detached from the groundwater system. The maximum and
minimum temperature differences between groundwater and surface water were very
close at piezometer P-15 and support the theory of surface to groundwater flow (Table
4.4).
The continuous water level monitoring data at well number 9, located near Cluster 1,
indicates this well responds predominantly to precipitation events (Figure 4.5). The blue
line in Figure 4.5 presents the Dosewallips River stage measured at the Lazy C riprap
bank. Well 9 water level data is shown with the red line and the black line represents the
moving average. Tidal influence of the well is indicated by the typical 1-foot diurnal
variations in water level shown in the red line. A longer term monthly tidal trend is
superimposed on the diurnal water level trends in well 9. During the winter periods of
precipitation dominated runoff, both the groundwater level and river stage rise in
response to precipitation events. As river levels rise in response to snow melt, the
response in groundwater changes at well 9 is small or greatly attenuated. During the late
June to August recession in river flows, the monthly tidal effects dominate water levels in
well 9, masking the water level decline.
Continuous temperature measurements made at Clusters 1 (P-19, RM-0.2) and 3 (P-14,
RM-0.75) track surface water temperature changes very closely and are consistent with
losing conditions at each of these locations (Figure 4.7). However, the temperature
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
response at well 9 appears characteristic of a gaining condition, but the large distance
(about 500 feet) and travel time likely attenuate the temperature signal. Furthermore, the
well casing at P-9 could act as a heat sink, effectively attenuating temperature changes.
Water level profiles through Cluster 1 and wells 9 and 6 indicate the head at well 9 was
consistently lower than the river level, consistent with a losing condition (Figure 4.6a).
Similarly the profile at Cluster 2 (RM-0.4), indicates a similar head loss from the river to
wells 132 and 134 located on Brinnon Flats (Figure 4.6b).
Major ion data provides further support for the losing condition along Reach 1. Water
samples collected from wells 9 and 134 and the river samples are calcium bicarbonate
type water and plot in a near-identical position on the ternary plot (Figure 3.11).
Specific conductances measured at wells 9 and 134 of 87 and 85 µS/cm, respectively,
were slightly less than specific conductance measured in the river water (ranging from 98
to 101 µS/cm), suggesting dilution from direct precipitation recharge or from lower
conductivity Dosewallips River water (Table 3.1). The minimum specific conductance in
the Dosewallips River measured in this investigation was approximately 77 µS/cm
measured in June, 2004, during spring melt. As such, spring runoff could also contribute
lower specific conductance water to the aquifer, and with mixing lead to the lower
conductance values measured in wells 9 and 134.
The isotope data indicate that water becomes increasingly enriched in heavier isotopes
with increasing distance from the river and are consistent with a component of recharge
being derived from direct precipitation (Figure 3.12). Direct recharge from precipitation
that undergoes fractionation due to evaporation would result in an enrichment in heavier
isotopes. Consideration of the isotope data collectively with the major ion data suggests
a chemical fingerprint dominated by river water, with dilution of the dissolved solids and,
hence specific conductance, by direct precipitation and spring melt water. Other than
diluting the dissolved ion concentration, recharge from direct precipitation appears to
have no identifiable effect on the chemical signature for these two wells.
4.3 Reach 2
Reach 2 spans from a downstream bedrock constriction at RM-1 to a second bedrock
constriction at about RM-3.2. A steep right bank is present along the south side of the
river on this reach extending up to the Mount Jupiter ridge line. The valley reaches a
maximum width of the about 1,500 feet along this reach. The Lazy C development is
located on the north side of the river at about RM-2. Gravel bars are present within the
channel and as point bars. Upstream of Lazy C the steam channel is relatively straight
and there does not appear to be any significant gravel bars.
Seepage runs along Reach 2 indicated slight gains to near neutral (neither gaining nor
losing) conditions. A gain of 15 cfs was indicated by the October 9 seepage runs and a
near neutral condition was indicated for the October 10 measurements (Table 4.1). A
slight gain, within the measurement error, was noted for the February measurements.
The mini-piezometers were located above the bedrock constriction at RM-1 (Cluster 4)
and along the river bank bordering the Lazy C development (Cluster 5, approximately
RM-1.9). Mini-piezometer data at Lazy C indicate that losing conditions exist along
portions of this reach near Lazy C; however, significant groundwater discharge occurs
22
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
upstream of the bedrock constriction at the lower end of the reach (Cluster 4). The minipiezometer data at Cluster 4 showed a consistent gaining pattern. Average gradient at
this location measured at P-10 was 0.23 foot. Temperature difference between
groundwater and surface water varied from -10 to 9 oF. This relatively large difference is
consistent with a gaining condition.
Water level profile developed from the mini-piezometer transect upstream of the bedrock
construction at RM-1 was consistent with the gaining condition, with the groundwater
gradient sloping consistently toward the river for both the March and June measurement
dates (Figure 4.6c). The gradient showed a general decrease during the low water period
from March through June. The gradient increase during the August measurement is
attributed to a drop in river level that outpaced declines in groundwater levels.
Continuous temperature data further support gaining conditions at this location.
Groundwater temperatures exceed the surface water temperatures for the period from
November through mid-April. The relationship reverses from mid-April through August.
Moreover, the groundwater temperatures are relatively constant and exhibit little diurnal
to monthly fluctuations as observed for Dosewallips River.
Mini-piezometers at Lazy C generally indicated a loss of groundwater to surface water.
The piezometers were located around the point bar where the Lazy C community is
located. Gradients ranged from a neutral condition in late December, 2004 to a
maximum of -0.44 ft/ft in June, 2004 (Table 4.2). Continuous water level measurements
at piezometer P-18 are consistent with a losing condition (Figure 4.5). Changes in water
levels in P-18 track consistently with river level changes. A losing condition in the Lazy
C vicinity is further illustrated by the water level profiles through piezometer P-18 and
the Lazy C wells (study well numbers 92 and 93). Mini-piezometer P-18 was located
between the Lazy C wells and the river. Static water levels were lower in the Lazy C
wells than in mini-piezometer P-18 (Figure 4.6). Continuous temperature data measured
at P-18 is also consistent with a losing condition throughout the study period (Figure 4.7).
The temperature measured at P-18 closely tracks the average river temperature, indicating
a strong influence from river water.
4.4 Reach 3
Reach 3 extends from the boundary with the National Forest land downstream to the
bedrock constriction at RM-3.2. The river exits an incised bedrock canyon just above
Transect D at the National Forest boundary. Numerous steep gradient tributaries enter
the Dosewallips River along this reach, particularly from the south. Rocky Brook
dominates the drainage along the north side of the river and enters just below Transect C.
Several pastures are present on the north side of the river. The south side is bounded by a
steep hill slope. Several braided channels are present above the confluence with Rocky
Brook.
Similar to Reach 2, this reach has shown neutral to gaining conditions. Seepage runs
indicate a 14 cfs gain or about 8 percent of river flow during the October 9, 2003
measurements. The groundwater gain expressed as cfs/mile was consistent between
Reaches 2 and 3 at 5.6 cfs/mile for the October 9 measurements. Neutral or near neutral
conditions were identified in Reach 3 during the October 10 and early March
measurements, also similar to Reach 2.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
One mini-piezometer cluster was installed upstream of Rocky Brook. Near neutral
conditions prevailed at this location. A slight gain of groundwater to surface water was
noted from late November through March and a slight loss of surface water to
groundwater was noted from May through August. The continuous temperature data at
this station do not corroborate the hydraulic data, likely as a result of the near neutral
condition. The groundwater temperature data tracks with surface water temperature data
through late May, suggesting that surface water flows to groundwater for this period.
4.5 Summary of Losing/Gaining Conditions
A summary of losing and gaining conditions indicated by the hydraulic data from the
mini-piezometers is shown in Figure 4.8 (after Simonds and Sinclair, 2002). Although
the mini-piezometers are representative only of the specific location where they were
installed, consideration of vertical gradients, the geomorphic setting, and seepage
measurements permits generalizations regarding the gaining and losing characteristics of
the lower Dosewallips River.
Beginning upstream, Reaches 3 and 2 are neutral to slightly gaining. Local surface water
to groundwater losses in the upper portions of these reaches are returned to the river
upstream of bedrock constrictions where groundwater discharges into the river.
Groundwater likely moves in a parallel-flow manner within the valley alluvium due to
the higher permeability of alluvium compared to the surrounding uplands. Parallel flow
reaches are indicated where groundwater head and surface water head are equal
(Woesner, 2000). These conditions are indicated by the near neutral conditions observed
at Cluster 6 and seasonally at Cluster 2.
Hydraulic gradients at local losing sections increase through June, corresponding to high
river flows from snow melt and declining groundwater levels as seasonal precipitation
diminishes. In later summer following snow melt, river stage decline exceeds
groundwater level decline and the downward vertical hydraulic gradient diminishes
slightly. At the local gaining areas above the bedrock constrictions, the smallest upward
gradient occurs in June when the difference between river levels and groundwater levels
is the smallest. The vertical gradient is greatest in late summer when river levels are low
and in early winter when groundwater levels are high as a result of winter precipitation.
The Dosewallips River appears to be a losing stream throughout Reach 1. The change in
vertical gradients follows that discussed above. Losses in the lower reach may occur
preferentially through former distributary channels. A former distributary channel,
extending from the Dosewallips River downstream of the bedrock constriction at RM-1
and merging with the existing spring fed creek at Whitney Gardens is indicated by the
vegetative pattern shown in Figure 1.3.
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ASPECT CONSULTING
5 Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Conclusions
5.1.1
Principal Aquifers
The principal aquifers in the lower Dosewallips-Brinnon area occur in the unconsolidated
deposits and the underlying basalt bedrock. The unconsolidated deposits are comprised
of relatively high permeability Recent Alluvium and older glacial deposits. The
unconsolidated aquifer generally exhibits unconfined to semi-confined conditions. An
aquitard comprised of glaciolacustrine deposits, glacial till, and local fine-grained
alluvium, where present, results in local confinement of the unconsolidated aquifer.
The water-bearing nature of the basalt aquifer, occurring in the Crescent Formation, is
variable and associated primarily with secondary fracture permeability. Water within the
basalt aquifer is typically confined.
5.1.2
Groundwater Flow
Recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer occurs as a result of direct infiltration of
precipitation and, in the Brinnon Flats area, from losses from the Dosewallips River.
Groundwater flows from the upland areas and from the Dosewallips River into the
Brinnon Flats area. Discharge occurs into a spring creek that flows through Whitney
Gardens and by direct saltwater discharge. Discharge from wells also occurs, although
pumping withdrawals are expected to be a relatively small component of the total
discharge. In the upland areas, a downward groundwater flow gradient exists between
the unconsolidated aquifer and the underlying basalt aquifer. Above RM-1, groundwater
flow in the unconsolidated aquifer has a slight net discharge to the Dosewallips River,
although locally the river loses water to the alluvial aquifer.
Groundwater in the basalt aquifer flows from the upland areas toward the Dosewallips
River. The relative head difference between the unconsolidated aquifer and the basalt
aquifer in the lowland area is unknown but is expected to be fairly small.
5.1.3
Surface Water/Groundwater Interaction
The Dosewallips River exhibits neutral to gaining behavior downstream of the National
Forest boundary and upstream of RM-1. Below RM-1 the river loses water to the
groundwater flow system. Downward vertical gradients between the river and
groundwater reach a maximum in June when the river is high from spring runoff and the
groundwater levels are dropping in response to diminished precipitation. Groundwater
discharge into the river was observed above the bedrock constriction at RM-1 and also
likely occurs at the bedrock constriction near RM-3.2. The upward gradient is greatest
during winter months when groundwater levels reach a maximum as a result of heavy
winter precipitation.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
5.1.4
Water Types and Natural Geochemical Tracers
Water in the Dosewallips River and in the unconsolidated aquifer is typically calcium
bicarbonate type. Samples collected at the upstream and downstream end of each reach
had nearly identical chemical characteristics, indicating limited groundwater inflow
consistent with the size of seepage gains observed. The two wells sampled in the
Brinnon Flats area exhibited chemical characteristics nearly identical to the Dosewallips
River surface water. The Dosewallips River water was relatively enriched in lighter
isotopes. This finding is consistent with other studies that have shown the orographic
effect to result in precipitation with an isotopically lighter composition. Groundwater
exhibited an increase in heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the river. That
pattern indicates that a greater portion of groundwater recharge was derived from direct
precipitation.
Of the two basalt wells sampled, one exhibited calcium bicarbonate water (well 144) and
the other exhibited calcium-magnesium chloride type water (well 91). This well is
completed below sea level about 1 mile inland from the Hood Canal. The source of
chloride in this well is uncertain but may be related to either upconing of seawater or
geochemical conditions within the basalt aquifer.
5.2 Recommendations
1. Better definition of the seawater/freshwater mixing zone should be obtained by
mapping chloride distribution in wells in the unconsolidated and basalt aquifers. This
mapping will provide data to support decision making that will minimize seawater
intrusion into the aquifer during future groundwater development in the area.
2. Aquifer testing of the basalts should be performed in order to evaluate the storage of
the aquifer and its ability to sustain long term pumping.
3. A water balance should be developed and used, in conjunction with results from
Recommendations 1 and 2, in order to define the safe yield of the aquifer.
26
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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6 References
Booth, D.B., 1986, The formation of ice-marginal embankments into ice-dammed lakes
in the eastern Puget Lowland, Washington, U.S.A., during the late Pleistocene,
Boreas, vol. 15, pp. 247-263. Oslo. ISSN 0300-9483.
Carson, R.J., 1976, Geologic map of the Brinnon area, Jefferson County, Washington.
Washington Department of Natural Resources, OF 76-3.
Correa, G., 2003, Salmon and steelhead habitat limiting factors, Water Resource
Inventory 16 Dosewallips-Skokomish Basin. Washington State Conservation
Commission; 257 p.
Drever, J.I., 1982, The geochemistry of natural waters: Englewood Cilffs, Prentice-Hall.
Fountain, A.G. and Tangborn, W.V., 1985, The effect of glaciers on streamflow
variations, Water Resources Research, v. 21, no. 4, pp. 579-586.
Frisken, J.G., 1965, Pleistocene glaciation of the Brinnon area, east-central Olympic
Peninsula, Washington: University of Washington unpublished M.S. thesis, 75 p.
Gerstel, W.J., and Lingley, W.S., Jr., 2003, Geologic Map of the Mount Olympus
1:100,000 quadrangle, Washington. Washington Division of Geology and Earth
Resources. Open File Report 2003-4.
Golder Associates, 2003, Skokomish-Dosewallips Basin Watershed Planning (WRIA
16), Level 1 technical assessment, Redmond, Washington, Unpublished work.
Graham, B., December 2003, Jefferson County PUD, Personal Communication.
Grimstad, P., and Carson, R.J., April 1981, Geology and ground-water resources of
Eastern Jefferson County, Washington. Washington Department of Ecology, Water
Supply Bulletin No. 54; 125 p.
Haug, B.J., 1998, High resolution seismic reflection interpretations of the Hood CanalDiscovery Bay Fault Zone; Puget Sound, Washington. MS, Porland State
University. Formats: HTML, AI.
Kendall, C., Snyder, D. and Caldwell, E., 2004, Resources on Isotopes. USGS website
www.rcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/period/h_iig.html.
Mayewski, P.A. and Bender, M., 1995, The little ice age and medieval warm period, U.S.
National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994, Rev. Geophys. v. 33 suppl., American
Geophysical Union.
Mazor, E., 1991, Applied chemical and isotopic groundwater hydrology, John Wiley and
Sons, New York; 274 p.
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National Climatic Data Center, 2004, Weather Observation Station Record, Quilcene 2
SW, Quilcene, WA. (http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgiwin/wwcgi.dll?wwDI~StnSrch~StnID~20027821)
Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe, 2002, Color Orthophotos, April 2002, Dosewallips River
Study.
Puget Sound Lidar Consortium, 2004, Lidar Bare Earth ASCII data: Seattle, WA.
(http://rocky2.ess.washington.edu/data/raster/lidar/lidardata/index.htm#DEMs_and
_geo-referenced_topographic).
Simonds, F.W. and Sinclair, K.A., 2002 , Surface water-ground water interactions along
the lower Dungeness River and vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed
sediments, Clallam County, Washington, September 1999-July 2001; U.S.
Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, Water-Resources
Investigations Report 02-4161, Washington State Department of Ecology Report
02-03-27.
Spicer, R.C., 1986, Glaciers in the Olympic Mountains, Washington: Present distribution
and recent variations. University of Washington Master Thesis, Department of
Geological Sciences; 158 p.
Tabor, R.W. and Snavely, P.D. Jr., 1983, Geologic guide to the Northern Olympic
Peninsula, U.S. Geological Survey.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1951, Daily Streamflow for Washington, USGS station 12053000,
Dosewallips River near Brinnon, WA.
(http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wa/nwis/discharge/?site_no=1205300).
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1953, Brinnon Quadrangle, Washington, 7.5-minute series
(Topographic), photorevised 1985, 1:24 000, 1 sheet.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1958, Seattle Quadrangle, Washington, 1 x 2 degree series
(Topographic-Bathymetric), revised 1974, 1:250 000, 1 sheet.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1985, Mt. Jupiter Quadrangle, Washington–Jefferson County, 7.5minute series (Topographic), provisional edition, 1:24 000, 1 sheet.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1988, Mt Olympus Quadrangle, Washington, 30’x60’ series
(Topographic), 1:100 000, 1 sheet.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 1992, Seattle Quadrangle, Washington, 30’x60’ series
(Topographic), 1:100 000, 1 sheet.
U.S. Geologic Survey, 2001a, 10-meter Digital Elevation Model, Brinnon Quadrangle,
USGS code 47122f8.
(http:// rocky.ess.washington.edu/data/raster/tenmeter/byquad/seattle/index.html)
U.S. Geologic Survey, 2001b, 10-meter Digital Elevation Model, Mt. Jupiter Quadrangle,
USGS code 47123f1.
(http:// rocky.ess.washington.edu/data/raster/tenmeter/byquad/seattle/index.html)
28
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Washington Department of Ecology, 1998, 1998 303(d) Impaired and Threatened Water
Bodies, Coverage or Shapefile formats.
(http://www.ecy.wa.gov/services/gis/data/data.htm)
Washington Department of Ecology, 2004, Instream flow setting progress across the
state; report to the legislature. Document 04-11-001; 24 p.
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Point-No-Point Treaty Tribes, April
2001, Summer chum salmon conservation initiative in Ares, J., Graves, G., and
Weller, C., eds., available at www.wa.gov/wdfw.
Washington Department of Natural Resources, 2000, Department of Geology and Earth
Sciences, 1:100,000-Scale Digital Geologic Map Project, Q303 Seattle.
(http://www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/dig100k.htm)
Winter, T.C., Harvey, J.W., Franke, O.L., and Alley, W.M., 1998, Ground water and
surface water, a single resource, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological
Survey Circular 1139.
Woesner, W.W., 2000, Stream and fluvial plain ground water interactions: Rescaling
Hydrogeologic Thought; Ground Water, v. 38, no. 3; p. 423-429.
Yount, J.C., Minard, J.P., and Dembroff, G.R., 1993, Geologic Map of Surficial Deposits
in the Seattle 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, Washington, 1:100 000, 1 sheet.
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Limitations
Work for this project was performed and this report prepared in accordance with
generally accepted professional practices for the nature and conditions of work completed
in the same or similar localities, at the time the work was performed. It is intended for the
exclusive use of WRIA 16 Planning Unit for specific application to the referenced
property. This report does not represent a legal opinion. No other warranty, expressed or
implied, is made.
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
Page 1 of 1
Table 3.1
Laboratory Results and Field Parameters of Water Samples
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\Ion Analysis.xls
Sample Information
Sample Location
River (Transect D)
River (Transect C)
River (Transect B)
River (Transect A)
#91 (PUD)
#89 (Haley)
#134/135 (JCFD #4)
#9 (WSPRC #3)
#144 (Hockett)
Rocky Brook
Seawater 3
Sample ID
#1 Transect 4
#2 Transect 3
#4 Transect 2
#5 Transect 1
#6 PUD
#7 Haley
#8 Fire
#9 Well 9
#10 Hockett
NA
NA
Date
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
3/18/2004
NA
Time
16:00
8:25
18:50
8:00
11:15
17:00
11:50
11:00
16:00
16:15
NA
Field Parameters
Conductivity
(uS/cm)
pH
100.00
7.25
101.00
7.14
97.50
7.20
99.00
6.93
NA
NA
92.00
NA
85.00
6.87
87.00
7.10
171.00
6.78
57.00
7.25
NA
NA
Calcium
(mg/l)
18.60
18.70
17.60
18.00
28.10
10.30
14.20
14.70
25.00
NA
421.28
Notes:
NA = Not Applicable
ND1 = Not Detected; Detection Limit is 2.0 mg/l
ND2 = Not Detected; Detection Limit is 5.0 mg/l
3
Seawater composition from Drever, 1982; based on a seawater density of 1025 kg/m3.
Cations
Magnesium Sodium Potassium Chloride
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
1.63
2.21
2.28
0.71
1.68
2.20
2.47
0.71
1.67
2.17
3.04
0.83
1.76
2.47
2.97
0.82
2.71
29.70
2.42
62.70
ND1
4.08
4.79
1.18
ND1
1.66
2.07
0.83
ND1
1.55
1.95
0.87
ND1
5.16
7.29
1.02
NA
NA
NA
NA
1322.25
11029.00
408.98
19833.75
Sulfate
(mg/l)
7.72
7.72
7.28
7.34
8.98
1.33
5.59
5.96
1.49
NA
2777.75
Anions
Bicarbonate
(mg/l)
44.60
46.80
43.20
43.80
30.80
50.00
38.40
37.80
98.00
NA
145.55
Carbonate
(mg/l)
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
8.80
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
NA
NA
Hydroxide
(mg/l)
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
ND2
NA
NA
Table 4.1
Seepage and River Flow
Aspectconsulting
'
IN-DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
Page 1 of1
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
w :\0301 16WRIA161Fina1Report\DosewampsAv nows10-10-04.xls
Jefferson County, WA
Reach ID
Length of reach (miles)
Basin area (acres)
Date
Maximum flow
10/9/03
212 cfs
10/10/03
2
2/27/04
158 cfs
564 cfs
1
Reach 3
Reach 2
Reach 1
2.5
2.65
0_75
2,870
9,423
967
Groundwater Gain/Loss
Units
(cfs)
14.1
14.9
-28.8
(cfs/mile)
5.6
5_6
-38.5
(gain or loss)
Gain
Gain
Loss
(%)
8%
8%
-14%
(cfs)
-5.2
0_5
-12.9
(cfs/mile)
-2.1
0.2
-17.2
(gain or loss)
Neutral
Neutral
Loss
(%)
-3%
0%
-8%
(cfs)
-0.5
10.7
-30.3
(cfs/mile)
-0.2
4 _0
-40.4
(gain or loss)
Neutral
Gain
Loss
(%)
0%
2%
-5%
1. Measured at Transect B.
2. Values are estimated for Reaches 2 and 3 (Appendix B).
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Page 1 of 1
Table 4.2
Construction and Installation Details of Mini-Piezometers
Installed Along the Lower Dosewallips River
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Depth to
center of
Piezometer Diameter and Instrumentation
perforations
(feet)
River Mile
Northing
(WA State
Plane 83)
Easting
(WA State
Plane 83)
Installation
Date
Piezometer
length L
(feet)
Installation
depth
(feet)
P-1
0.23
258747.00
1131695.60
10/31/03
7.0
5.6
5.0
1/2" Piezometer
P-2
0.41
259207
1130866
10/31/03
7.0
4.7
4.1
1/2" Piezometer
P-3
0.75
259768.00
1129416.00
10/31/03
7.0
5.2
4.6
1/2" Piezometer
P-4
1.11
261656
1128588
10/31/03
7.0
5.1
4.5
1/2" Piezometer
P-5
1.04
261438.50
1129024.58
10/31/03
14.0
10.2
9.6
1/2" Piezometer
P-6
Mini-Piezometer
Number
1.98
262826
1125137
11/4/03
7.0
5.9
5.3
1/2" Piezometer
P-7
1.85
262758.27
1125780.90
11/4/03
7.0
5.6
5.0
1/2" Piezometer
P-8
3.45
268656
1120917
11/4/03
7.0
4.9
4.3
1/2" Piezometer
P-9
0.41
259135
1130899
11/25/03
7.0
4.6
4.0
1/2" Piezometer
P-10
1.04
261335.00
1128853.40
11/25/03
7.0
4.2
3.6
1/2" Piezometer
P-11
1.04
261373.40
1128920.50
11/25/03
6.9
4.3
3.7
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ temp logger
P-12
1.04
261400.60
1128974.50
11/25/03
7.0
4.5
3.9
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ temp logger
P-13
0.41
259135.00
1130833.00
12/22/03
7.0
4.7
4.1
1/2" Piezometer
P-14
0.74
259803.00
1129444.00
12/30/03
7.0
5.3
4.7
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ temp logger
P-15
0.74
259762.80
1129412.00
12/30/03
7.0
4.5
3.9
1/2" Piezometer
P-16
3.45
268672
1120933
12/30/03
7.0
5.4
4.8
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ temp logger
P-17
1.76
263145
1126065
1/20/04
na
na
na
In-river stilling well w/ level/temp transducer
P-18
1.95
262722.90
1125339.80
1/20/04
10.1
7.3
6.7
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ level/temp transducer
P-19
0.23
258756.00
1131708.48
1/20/04
6.9
5.4
4.8
1-1/4" Piezometer w/ temp logger
Notes:
1. Depth is below riverbed or groundsurface and is calculated using initial stickup. "na" = not applicable.
Page 1 of 4
Table 4.3
Data Collected at Mini-Piezometer Locations
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Mini-Piezometer1
Date
Temperature
(oF)
Time2,5
River
Manometer Reading3,4,5
(inches H2O)
Specific Conductance
(µS/cm @ 25 oC)
Groundwater Difference
River
Groundwater Difference
River
Piezometer
5
dh (feet)
Stickup
(feet)
6
SWL
(feet)
dl7 (feet)
Gradient
Direction
Difference
Vertical
Hydraulic
Submerged8
Gradient4,5
(ft/ft)
Cluster 1
P-1
10/31/03
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/22/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
8:40
8:25
9:20
13:30
10:05
9:15
9:50
8:55
11:30
9:35
39.9
37.9
40.1
41.4
41.0
42.8
43.2
45.0
46.6
57.0
1/20/04
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
17:00
9:22
9:30
10:30
9:20
11:15
9:55
12/22/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
16:00
10:40
10:07
10:55
9:50
12:20
10:45
P-9
P-2
P-19
Cluster 2
P-13
1.9
7.1
9.3
10.9
4.6
9.6
11.6
16.0
13.4
16.0
-5.5
-2.3
-1.8
2.6
-4.8
0.1
1.0
2.6
-13.4
0.9
-7.4
-9.4
-11.1
-8.3
-9.4
-9.5
-10.6
-13.4
-26.8
-15.1
-0.62
-0.78
-0.93
-0.69
-0.78
-0.79
-0.88
-1.12
-2.23
-1.25
1.39
--1.16
-1.10
1.02
1.10
-1.10
--1.00
0.84
0.95
1.05
-1.10
2.22
2.02
1.5
-1.5
1.5
-1.5
1.5
5.14
5.32
5.44
5.41
5.46
6.54
6.35
0.00
-0.02
-0.01
-0.03
-0.11
-0.63
-0.56
2.30
2.45
2.43
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
1.66
1.85
2.00
0.8
0.07
1.3
-2.5
0.9
0.10
-0.21
0.08
38.7
40.6
41.2
41.0
43.0
44.1
45.5
48.2
58.3
-0.7
-0.5
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.9
-0.5
-1.6
-1.3
116.2
104.5
104.4
101.5
99.9
100.1
91.0
77.2
101.8
114.7
104.0
104.1
100.8
99.7
100.2
90.9
77.1
103.2
1.5
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.2
-0.1
0.1
0.1
-1.4
42.3
32.0
42.8
43.2
42.3
0.0
97.5
94.9
2.6
43.7
47.1
-0.9
-4.0
99.9
100.1
134.9
129.3
-35.0
-29.2
14.6
7.5
3.3
-5.1
-11.3
-12.6
-0.94
-1.05
41.5
41.4
43.2
44.6
45.1
46.9
56.8
41.5
42.6
43.7
45.9
46.0
48.7
59.4
-0.1
-1.3
-0.5
-1.3
-0.9
-1.8
-2.5
105.6
101.5
100.1
99.9
91.0
77.5
101.4
106.9
101.7
100.2
99.1
90.9
77.3
102.1
-1.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.8
0.1
0.2
-0.7
10.1
8.5
5.2
4.3
6.6
15.9
10.7
10.1
8.3
5.1
3.9
5.3
8.4
4.0
0.0
-0.2
-0.1
-0.4
-1.3
-7.5
-6.7
11/25/03
12/22/03
8/3/04
11:15
40.6
40.8
-0.2
104.7
14:30 River channel moved. P-9 is bent and in deep water.
10:45 Probe found on bank and removed.
102.1
8.8
9.6
10/31/03
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/22/03
11:00
10:54
10:25
14:30
2.0
11.1
6.6
3.3
8.6
7.5
39.4
40.6
44.8
42.4
-5.4
-1.8
116.4
103.8
110.0
91.2
6.4
12.6
4.99
5.07
5.14
5.22
5.25
5.28
5.36
5.28
5.28
5.28
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
1.75 SW to GW
1.89 SW to GW
-0.12 Y (assumed)
-0.15 Y (assumed)
-0.18
Y
-0.13
Y
-0.15
Y
-0.15
Y
-0.16
Y
-0.21
Y
-0.42
Y
-0.24
Y
-0.54
-0.55
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
2.64
2.04
3.32
4.10
3.95
3.97
3.95
3.95
3.95
3.64
Neutral
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
0.000
-0.004
-0.002
-0.007
-0.027
-0.158
-0.153
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
2.45
3.50
1.72
3.95 GW to SW
0.02
Y
Y
2.35
-0.30
--1.85
4.05 GW to SW
4.33 SW to GW
4.48 GW to SW
0.03
Y
-0.05 Y (assumed)
0.02
N
Page 2 of 4
Table 4.3
Data Collected at Mini-Piezometer Locations
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Mini-Piezometer1
Date
Temperature
(oF)
Time2,5
River
Cluster 3
P-15
P-3
P-14
Manometer Reading3,4,5
(inches H2O)
Specific Conductance
(µS/cm @ 25 oC)
Groundwater Difference
12/30/03
1/22/04
2/27/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
11:00
12:15
11:40
11:50
10:20
12:50
12:15
37.8
41.5
43.2
44.8
45.1
46.8
57.2
37.8
41.4
43.0
44.6
46.2
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
-1.1
57.9
-0.7
10/31/03
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
2/27/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
13:00
10:15
12:00
11:00
12:00
11:22
11:50
10:40
12:50
11:30
42.1
38.8
40.8
37.8
41.5
43.2
44.8
43.9
-1.8
40.6
37.6
41.0
43.2
44.8
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
12/30/03
1/22/04
2/27/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
12:00
11:35
11:22
11:22
10:45
13:00
11:35
River
106.4
101.6
94.3
99.9
91.1
77.9
100.0
116.3
103.8
106.4
101.6
94.3
99.9
Groundwater Difference
River
Piezometer
5
dh (feet)
-0.4
1.4
0.3
-0.1
1.5
14.0
9.4
16.6
12.7
0.0
-9.7
-5.6
-15.5
< -40
-14.0
-19.1
-22.2
-28.2
< -40
-1.17
-1.59
-1.85
-2.35
< -3.33
99.7
0.3
Pump dry.
< -36
< -36.0
< -3.00
44.0
0.0
-44.0
-3.67
11.3
15.6
12.8
15.7
12.3
-4.4
0.1
-8.4
-7.4
-16.3
-15.7
-15.5
-21.2
-23.1
-28.6
Dry
-1.31
-1.29
-1.77
-1.93
-2.38
8.7
0.4
1.4
-0.3
-0.2
SWL
(feet)
dl7 (feet)
Gradient
Direction
Difference
106.8
100.2
94.0
100.0
89.6
95.1
106.0
100.2
94.6
100.1
Stickup
(feet)
6
2.49
2.85
3.10
3.10
3.00
3.00
--
2.68
3.29
3.40
-6.26
Dry
6.30
3.91
3.55
3.30
3.30
3.40
3.40
3.40
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
GW to SW
Dry
GW to SW
1.80
-1.75
1.85
1.90
1.84
2.00
1.90
-Dry
4.11
4.10
4.70
4.82
-6.80
Dry
Dry
4.60 SW to GW
Dry
3.60 SW to GW
3.59 SW to GW
4.50 SW to GW
3.51 SW to GW
4.40 SW to GW
Dry
Dry
Dry
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.65
1.70
5.11
5.46
5.50
5.87
Dry
Dry
Dry
Dry
Dry
Dry
Vertical
Hydraulic
Submerged8
Gradient4,5
(ft/ft)
-0.30
-0.45
-0.56
-0.71
< -0.98
< -0.88
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
-0.80 Y (assumed)
-0.36
N
-0.36
N
-0.39
Y
-0.55
N
-0.54 Y (assumed)
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
Page 3 of 4
Table 4.3
Data Collected at Mini-Piezometer Locations
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Mini-Piezometer1
Date
Temperature
(oF)
Time2,5
River
Manometer Reading3,4,5
(inches H2O)
Specific Conductance
(µS/cm @ 25 oC)
Groundwater Difference
River
Groundwater Difference
River
Piezometer
5
dh (feet)
Stickup
(feet)
6
SWL
(feet)
dl7 (feet)
Gradient
Direction
Difference
Vertical
Hydraulic
Submerged8
Gradient4,5
(ft/ft)
Cluster 4
P-4
10/31/03
11/4/03
12/22/03
15:00 In direct contact with the river.
17:03
39.0
47.3
-8.3
Abandoned due to direct contact with river.
116.4
101.8
14.6
-1.9
13.0
-1.8
13.0
0.1
0.0
0.01
0.00
1.95
--
---
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
15:15
13:15
14:15
11:04
15:05
11:37
15:45
13:15
41.9
39.9
43.0
44.1
48.7
46.6
47.3
58.3
47.7
-5.8
106.0
-2.0
4.3
15.1
10.8
0.90
94.8
94.6
96.0
94.4
89.9
93.3
5.2
4.0
2.6
-3.0
-10.1
3.6
5.7
2.6
5.3
1.4
1
3
16.8
14.0
15.9
11.6
10.9
13.9
11.1
11.4
10.6
10.3
9.6
10.5
0.93
0.95
0.88
0.85
0.80
0.875
1.83
2.01
1.92
2.03
-1.87
1.8
2.49
3.58
3.80
3.85
3.87
3.80
3.75
3.78
3.80
0.25
-2.0
0.0
2.3
-0.5
-1.6
6.8
2.82
2.60
2.55
2.53
2.60
2.65
-2.6
GW to SW
45.0
44.1
46.4
47.1
48.9
51.4
104.0
104.4
100.0
98.6
98.6
91.4
79.8
96.9
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
0.24
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.21
0.23
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y (assumed)
P-11
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
15:45
13:45
14:45
11:30
15:35
12:20
16:30
14:00
41.9
39.9
43.0
44.1
48.7
46.6
47.3
58.3
50.9
49.1
48.9
46.6
46.9
45.9
46.4
52.0
-9.0
-9.2
-5.9
-2.5
1.8
0.7
0.9
6.3
104.0
104.4
100.0
98.6
98.6
91.4
79.8
96.9
103.1
95.6
88.3
89.9
92.6
93.7
93.3
95.7
0.9
8.8
11.7
8.7
6.0
-2.3
-13.5
1.2
2.0
-5.4
-3.5
-3.5
0.1
4.2
4.2
-2.9
13.1
6.5
8.4
8.7
11.2
14.5
13.8
9.4
11.1
11.9
11.9
12.2
11.1
10.3
9.6
12.3
0.93
0.99
0.99
1.02
0.93
0.86
0.8
1.025
2.62
2.30
2.25
2.26
2.25
2.45
2.5
2.5
2.25
2.37
2.32
2.44
2.40
2.35
2.29
2.82
3.14
2.95
3.00
2.85
2.99
3.10
3.22
2.47
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
0.30
0.34
0.33
0.36
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.42
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
P-12
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
16:15
14:15
15:15
11:50
15:53
12:40
16:45
14:30
41.9
39.9
43.0
44.1
48.7
46.6
47.3
58.3
49.1
50.4
49.6
47.8
48.2
47.3
46.9
49.3
-7.2
-10.4
-6.7
-3.8
0.5
-0.7
0.4
9.0
104.0
104.4
100.0
98.6
98.6
91.4
79.8
96.9
107.0
93.3
86.6
86.8
89.0
93.0
96.4
96.1
-3.0
11.1
13.4
11.8
9.6
-1.6
-16.6
0.8
-0.5
1.9
-0.4
-1.6
2.7
1.9
5.0
1.4
13.1
17.9
14.2
13.4
16.4
14.3
16.7
17.6
13.6
16.0
14.6
15.0
13.7
12.4
11.7
16.2
1.13
1.33
1.22
1.25
1.14
1.03
0.98
1.35
2.47
2.25
-2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.30
2.20
2.26
2.22
2.31
2.33
2.29
2.25
2.63
3.07
2.81
2.96
2.84
2.93
3.08
3.18
2.42
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
0.37
0.48
0.41
0.44
0.39
0.34
0.31
0.56
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
P-5
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
16:27
17:00
14:45
15:45
12:07
16:20
13:00
17:00
15:40
41.9
41.9
49.5
48.9
-7.6
-7.0
109.4
104.0
107.3
109.1
2.1
-5.1
-6.9
-10.0
15.2
7.6
22.0
17.6
1.83
1.47
48.9
46.9
48.6
49.1
48.9
50.5
-5.9
-2.9
0.2
-2.5
-1.6
7.7
100.0
98.6
98.6
91.4
79.8
96.9
91.7
86.4
89.7
94.0
95.3
96.9
8.3
12.2
8.9
-2.6
-15.5
0.0
-3.8
-6.1
-1.0
-4.2
0.1
-5.6
14.3
12.4
16.0
11.3
14.8
13.3
18.1
18.4
17.0
15.5
14.7
18.9
1.51
1.53
1.42
1.29
1.225
1.575
4.69
-4.77
4.76
4.87
4.89
4.87
4.84
5.24
3.18 GW to SW
3.50 GW to SW
43.0
44.1
48.7
46.6
47.3
58.3
--3.80
--3.90
3.90
3.90
--
P-10
4.45 GW to SW
4.45 GW to SW
3.43
3.30
3.39
3.54
3.64
2.89
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
GW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
to SW
0.002 Y (assumed)
0.000 Y (assumed)
0.58
N
0.42 Y (assumed)
N
0.44
N
0.47
N
0.42
N
0.37
N
0.34
N
0.55
N
Page 4 of 4
Table 4.3
Data Collected at Mini-Piezometer Locations
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Mini-Piezometer1
Date
Temperature
(oF)
Time2,5
River
Manometer Reading3,4,5
(inches H2O)
Specific Conductance
(µS/cm @ 25 oC)
Groundwater Difference
River
Groundwater Difference
River
Piezometer
5
dh (feet)
Stickup
(feet)
6
SWL
(feet)
dl7 (feet)
Gradient
Direction
Difference
Vertical
Hydraulic
Submerged8
Gradient4,5
(ft/ft)
Cluster 5
P-6
11/4/03
P-7
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/22/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
12:52
15:50
10:30
16:30
14:45
14:25
15:05
14:55
16:10
38.8
40.6
40.5
42.4
44.6
46.9
48.4
46.2
58.5
39.2
41.2
40.6
41.4
43.5
44.2
45.9
48.6
58.6
-0.4
-0.5
-0.2
1.1
1.1
2.7
2.5
-2.3
-0.2
117.0
104.5
104.4
102.5
101.0
99.8
91.0
78.6
101.6
114.6
102.8
104.0
101.4
100.7
100.0
91.7
78.1
100.1
2.4
1.7
0.4
1.1
0.3
-0.2
-0.7
0.5
1.5
5.6
1.9
0.6
1.7
0.0
10.3
5.1
14.7
5.3
-0.1
0.2
0.5
-0.8
-3.1
5.9
-1.9
4.3
-3.2
-5.6
-1.7
-0.1
-2.5
-3.1
-4.4
-7.0
-10.4
-8.5
P-8
11/4/03
11/25/03
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
15:10
12:45
16:00
12:50
15:50
13:00
15:50
14:00
18:58
38.7
40.5
38.8
41.9
44.1
45.5
48.0
45.9
56.8
48.2
49.1
44.6
42.6
42.6
45.5
46.9
48.4
54.1
-9.5
-8.6
-5.8
-0.7
1.4
0.0
1.1
-2.5
2.7
118.8
107.5
113.4
105.8
107.2
101.5
91.6
78.5
101.8
115.9
106.6
62.8
61.9
51.2
77.0
89.1
80.3
97.6
2.9
0.9
50.6
43.9
56.0
24.5
2.5
-1.8
4.2
6.5
8.4
10.4
5.6
4.1
11.0
-4.2
4.4
8.6
5.1
8.7
10.9
6.3
5.4
11.2
-4.5
3.8
7.8
-1.4
0.3
0.5
0.7
1.3
0.2
-0.3
-0.6
-0.8
P-16
12/30/03
1/22/04
3/1/04
4/8/04
5/11/04
6/12/04
8/3/04
16:00
13:25
16:05
13:00
16:15
13:55
18:54
44.1
41.2 <--downhole reading.
42.4
1.6
107.2
Insufficient production for making measurements.
1.1
--
-0.47
-0.14
-0.01
-0.21
-0.26
-0.37
-0.58
-0.87
-0.71
-1.45
3.50
4.10
4.40
4.40
4.45
4.45
2.25
-1.71
1.62
-2.01
-2.07
2.27
3.05
4.83
4.83
2.90
2.30
2.00
2.00
1.95
1.95
4.15
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
to GW
-0.10 Y (assumed)
-0.03
N
0.00
Y
-0.09
Y
-0.13
Y
-0.18
Y
-0.30
Y
-0.44
Y
-0.17
Y
-0.12
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.11
0.02
-0.03
-0.05
-0.07
2.14
-2.27
2.40
2.30
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.27
-2.17
2.41
2.24
2.36
-2.16
2.08
2.88
4.20
4.20
3.95
4.00
3.93
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.59
SW to GW
GW to SW
GW to SW
GW to SW
GW to SW
GW to SW
SW to GW
SW to GW
SW to GW
-0.03 Y (assumed)
0.01
Y
0.01
N
0.01
Y
0.03
N
0.00
Y
-0.01
Y
-0.01
Y
-0.02
N
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
5.27
5.12
5.07
5.22
5.22
5.14
16.01
Cluster 6
49.4
57.8
-3.3
2.6
5.9
0.49
1. In each cluster, piezometers are ordered from the probe furthest into the channel to that most inland.
2. Times are reported in PST or PDST as recorded in the field.
3. Manometer measurements for P-5, P-12, P-11, and P-10 reference the river level in an eddy on the north bank against a bedrock constriction (Appendix B).
4. Head differences and vertical gradients are positive for a gaining location.
5. Values in bold font are estimates.
6. SWL data corrected for angle of piezometer (P-8).
7. For an in-river piezometer, dl = L - stickup was used; for an out-of-river piezometer, dl = L - SWL - dh was used. Bold font indicates use of an interpolated value for the stick-up.
8. Y (assumed) indicates piezometers at the edge of the river.
0.84 GW to SW
0.59
N
N
N
Page 1 of 1
Table 4.4
Summary of Parameters for Instream Piezometers
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\piezometers.xls
Cluster
In-River
Mini-Piezometer
Temperature Difference
(°F)
Conductivity Difference
(µS/cm)
Vertical Hydraulic Gradient
(ft/ft)
Min
Average
Max
Min
Average
Max
Min
Average
Max
2003-2004 Conditions
1
P-1
-1.62
-0.62
0.18
-1.40
0.21
1.50
-0.42
-0.19
-0.12
Losing.
2
P-13
-2.52
-1.20
-0.09
-1.30
-0.17
0.80
-0.16
-0.05
0.00
Neutral to losing.
3
P-15
-1.08
-0.21
0.18
-0.40
0.50
1.50
-0.71
-0.50
-0.30
Losing.
4
P-10
-5.76
-0.10
6.84
-10.10
0.04
5.20
0.21
0.23
0.25
Gaining.
5
P-7
-2.34
0.42
2.70
-0.70
0.78
2.40
-0.44
-0.16
0.00
Neutral to losing.
6
P-8
-9.54
-2.44
2.70
-1.80
20.41
56.00
-0.03
0.00
0.03
Neutral.
Positive differences indicate that parameter values in the river are higher than groundwater values.
/
-
.........~if>l.l. Dosew«J~S Wate
Washi'
hed
n
c:J Dosewallips Watershed Boundary
• •
' - • WRIA Boundary
Note: Base map is USGS 1:250,000 scale
topographic map
(U.S. Geological Survey, 1958).
200 foot contour interval.
Project Location Map
fn l<M"4~W *~
~"""<Jt!OI
~.-.H
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Oosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
030116
RGVRENO.
1.1
Note Base maps are USGS 1·100,000 scale
metric topographic - bathymetnc maps (U S
Geological Survey, 1988 and 1992).
Contour intervals are 50 meters (west) and
20 meters (east).
PROJECT NO.
Aspedconsulting
IN·DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
179 1.19d'Cr1e l.MeNorth
B&intridgeltblld, WA96PO
V'OOJ iQ0.9.110
8 11 Fit81AWVlllE1#4&J
S6atl•, W.\.9!110.f
{2'.")((1..3211-74'1.:t
030116
Dosewallips Watershed
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
MA~BY.
GJC
REVISEDBY.
ACM
FIGURE NO.
1.2
.A
River miles - USGS
+
Transect
Note: Orthorectified aerial photos taken
April 2002 (Port Gamble S'Klallam
Tribe, 2002).
DATE
•-=:::::i••-====-•Feet
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
Aspedconsulting
•N-OFP'rH PCRSPF,CTIVF
0
1 79Mt:lroi..,,1.&11e ~
~l)l\(!ga1$111fl<l \V/. 116110
(2!111)~
81 1 Fii;t A~!!!Y.ie~
setclliii. 'NA $il6t04
(2(16)-.1211-744"!1
Dosewallips River Corridor
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
September 200
DES(;M:DBY.
GJC
DRAWN BY:
GJC
REVISEOB'I:
ACM
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
1.3
Data Sources:
Dosewallips daily average river flow computed for USGS Station #12053000from1930 through 1951 (U.S. Geological Survey, 1951 ).
Precipitation data measured at Quilcene 2 SW from 1948 through 2004 (National Climatic Data Center, 2004).
10
~ AverageMo~h~ Pracip~tion On J ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- - Average Discharge (cfs)
1000
- - - - Average Annual Discharge
8
800
Ui'
G>
Iii
LL
~
0
-=c:
.Q
~
~
600
6
GI
...en
Cll
~
·a
0
IJ)
·;;
G>
....
0
11..
4
400
2
200
J'"
~0~
c:l~
Average Daily Discharge and
Average Monthly Precipitation for Historical Data
w:\0301 16 WRlA 161Fina1Report\Discharge o ata 1910-1951 .x1s
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Figure 1.4
0
Geology Units
Recent Nonglacial Deposits
I Artificial Fill; Qf
I Alluvium; Qa
~:::::::::;:
I Beach Deposits; Qb
~:::::::::;:
~:::::::::;:
~-~I Mass Wasting Deposits, Rockfall ; Qls(r)
Fraser (Vashon) Glacial Deposits
I
I Recessional Outwash; Qvr
Glacial Till; Qvt
• • • Glaciolacustrine Deposits, Fraser Age (or Late Wisconsin); Qgl
I Advance Outwash, Fraser Age; Qva
~:::::::::;:
..___ _.!
Glacial Drift, Undivided; Qgu
Alpine Glacial Deposits
I
I Alpine Till, Fraser Age; Qat
I~:::::::::;:I Alpine Outwash Deposits, Fraser Age; Qao
~I-~I Alpine Glacial Drift, Fraser Age; Qad
Pre-Fraser Deposits
Pre-Fraser Gravel; Qog
Tertiary Volcanics
Undifferentiated Basalt, Cresent Formation; Ev(c), Ev(cf), or Ev(cp)
- - - Cross Section Lines
- - - Rivers
Marine Waters
Aspect consulting
IN-DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
--c:::==----
0
1,500 3,000
Feet
6,000
•
I
GEOLOGIC MAP
Hydrogeologic Study of the Low er Dosewallips I Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Figure 2.1
Qvt
Qa .'
Qa
Qvr
Qvr
•
Qa
Bedrock elevation (NAVO 88) from well logs
(First number is the study's well identification.
Bedrock elevation follows in parentheses.)
•
Wells ending in unconsolidated formations
78(<57711)
r.-n (<57211)
(First number is the study's well identification.
Greatest possible bedrock elevation follows
in parentheses.)
- - 200fl contour for top of bedrock elevation
- - 50ft contour for top of bedrock elevation
-
Cross section locations
- - Rivers
Geologic Units
Recent Nonglacial Deposits
Qog
Alluvium; Qa
Fraser (Vashon) Glacial Deposits
-
Recessional Outwash; Qvr
-
Glacial Till; Qvt
Qvt
Advance Outwash, Fraser Age; Ova
Pre-Fraser Deposits
Pre-Fraser Gravel; Qog
Tertiary Volcanics
Undifferentiated Basalt, Crescent Formation; Ev(c), Ev(cf), or Ev(cp)
Aspect consulting
IN-DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
NOTES:
[1] Non-bedrock geologic units are shown on the south side of the Dosewallips River (where no data on the depth to bedrock is available).
[2] The greyscale background is the current ground surface hillshade, from UDAR and 10-meter DEM datasets (Puget Sound LIDAR
Consortium, 2004 and U.S. Geological Survey, 2001a and 2001b)
(3] Geologic mapping (Washington Department of Natural Resources, 2000)
[4] Refer to Table A-1 for elevation and locational accuracy of wells. Vertical datum is NAVO 88.
[5] Bedrock elevation contours are inferred from well logs, mapped bedrock exposures, and interpretations from the cross sections.
Contours are queried where uncertain. Control points based on bedrock outcrops are not shown.
•-c::::===----•
0
1,000 2,000
Feet
4,000
Ev(c)
TOP OF BEDROCK ELEVATION CONTOUR MAP
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips I Brin non Area
Jefferson County, WA
Figure 2.2
~
~
~
g
q9
l()
0
0
£!
......
()
Well - Completed in Unconsolidated Aquifer
Q
Well - Completed in Basalt Aquifer
0
Well - Completion is Undetermined
Location accuracy varies by well (GPS data, parcel
center, or center of quarter · quarter section).
$
..,,,
~
Aprl 2005
OQIG~IJY:'
EWM
811 Flt9tAWit!U9'480
Se.ed9, WA 981CW
(208)-32&7443
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
PMS
Jefferson County, Washington
PMS
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
3.1
<O
......
0
"'<(
0
Ci'.
~
(j
~
~
~
g
q9
l()
0
0
~
()
Well· Completed in Unconsolidated Aquifer
Q
Well - Completed in Basalt Aquifer
0
$
..,,,
~
Aprl 2005
OQIG~IJY:'
Well· Completion is Undetermined
EWM
811 Flt9tAWit!U9'480
Se.ed9, WA 981CW
(208)-32&7443
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
PMS
Jefferson County, Washington
PMS
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
3.2
<O
~
0
"'<(
0
Ci.'.
~
(j
A
A"
West
East
142-24P
Bettinaer
500
Intersection
a.a·
e-c·
'
I 7J..30J
lnteTSectlon Intersection
E-E'
500
Goodwin
1'41·24N
Kennedy
Buckholtz
0
,::;~ ~
400
6~28L
;
' '
ThompsOll
'
I
I
I
. . .:_~"" O~
Qal
300
~
0
75-300
·•
: : - ~~" !·~
"
wlbF/flCBll
wlbFrs:Bll
'
...ii.Bl ~~'
;r""'s.
\I
m.a.
r.
I.
'-''
,~,
• . .•.L
Kuk loll.
(Pro}etted
.L
250' s0uthJ
-----~
v...r
S.CI
'\ ••
"l.-..,.
-
.,
-
--...,_,,
100
~-....
..,
•II-~_,___~~.
Qv/IQI
•
-.................
'~.:'
t:'lva
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--- - - · /-- - - - - - - - -
-,__ ~
I
-fl~
"~ -
.
~""'--- - - -,.••. . _ .,.__
w;os.·~
-.....--.
--......,?__
-
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.,.-..--~~-~~
_ _,__ ..i "~
--- --:--___,....,_____....,_~ -
.
~~
-
,
-
----?------~------?
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'"'
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air.: •
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1
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ci
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i
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--_,,_ , ..
-------------?-----:_: ____ -~ ---?--
?
"
~
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wfQJ,Bo
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,_,..,,.
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"~­
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,
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.
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•
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,
•
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:
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rn·~
\ Qw
~•- ~. ~: ~•
-~ I
•'
Laz C #1,
-"
Sµ,log
~ ~
'
"
\\
'
' "' ,
•"'
f' Gr.
·1 c
- 100
_00~20_
93-3'E
r
Qw
. ,_
'•
s.
8,J3A_
Johns ton
"
Ba 1:.
0
sch~·
80-33A
Mullinax
'
Tb
Cooo~ ~
1
J------~------~-----~------~~~~--~------~-~~~~~-~C
ora
McKl!ever l
•
.
Tb
_ _.-
:- - -
300
Q..r/QI
I
"
_o
I
69-28Q
Johnston
II
..
65-2~E
RadebalJJl<I
-~
"
- ---..,.._
7'I ""
I
~Isch
72-29F
-
\\.
~·
I
63-29f-
74.JOA
Balle
\\. I
~:
"
200
Winnem
~
:·.'
~
1
400
70 ~28..,
I•
',
~ .•.
J
,,.,.,-.
· -Gr..'
~~
t
..
.
I
.
1'"
\
"
, " " ,,,, .•
· ·-
.
\' ,
Qvl
_·------'·•
W!bGr
.
Gr
"
Q
a
i
.•
,,-
' ••
,____ -
o__..-
__,....-r
VI/ /
_.. . Q/ /
-
-7
-/ .
-
-
'
\
134- 3SN
JCFD#4
; -- - - -
,/-
-?--..._
I
QI
'-1' ' -
\ ·
'
I \.
,
posewallips
~
4- 28
S tate Park #1
Enf1,m11n
'~~. ~ ~~ I
~-,_ --------·--------·
~'~
~.'-·
I
'
.
I
.
..,...;..::+
df!,"-.
"'
Gr
Qvl/Q/
·
" , Qva
=
"'
'' •
-' '
""""'·
. ..
200
9- 2C
~
QvlfQ/
_,-----f------i-------i
·' r.
I
"'
•-•••
- - '-
ti-'•.
• -• Qa1- .?
-
•
~-
"; '".~~-----;1
100
.
•
0
Qva
Tb
Tb
~-
-100
s. '"
-200
0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
I
I
I
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
21,000
22,000
23,000
24,000
25,000
26,000
27,000
28,000
I
I
29,000
30,000
31,000
I
I
I
32,000
33,000
34,000
35,000
I
I
I
36,000
37,000
38,000
'
39,000
-200
40,000
LEGEND
SY MB O L S
Gro1md Suifara
~
n
LJ
GO<Jloglc Unit Contact I""""""''"'
Woll Scroon or PorforMod Cas109 I"""""'
Op.on HolG, Unoa&O<I
StatlcWa!efl8'1el
and Poln1 of -
G E OLOGY
RE ~O RTE O
SO I L
O E ICR l~ T I C N B
.um NAVO 88
B
West
l,ooo
I
B'
64- 28A
Johnston
East
Intersection
e-c·
1,00( 600
~-
Intersection
Intersection
D· D'
E-E'
600
86 -34A
Mein re
85 -34A
900
900
800
800
Coo
500
6 - 34C
L .z C#4
400
Tb
Qva
•~~-+--43.....26C~~-+-~~~~~~-+-~~~~~---1
700
700
300
600
600
200
200
100
100
Broderson
300
\
Ir
r~
500
' 400\
400
300
300
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
0
0
-100
5,000
4,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11 ,000
12,000
13,000
-100
14,000
Cl
~
ai
<$?
0
~
~
~
0
LEGEND
SY MBOLS
~
n
LI
1
94- 34F
Brown
Ground SOOace
.')a.
= Recent Alluvium
Geologic Untt Contact ( _ . . - )
..iv
Qv:
= Glacial RecessionaJ OUtwash
Well Screen or Perforated Qasing Interval
Open Hae, Uncased
Static Water Level Reported on Well Log
and Point of Measwement
Well No. - Section and Quarter-Quarter
Owner Name-Referto Tab4e A-1
for locational accuracy of wells
R E POR T EO
GEOLOGY
';Jvtl
Qv
Th
=Glacial Till (Includes alp ine till in
west portion of A-A1
= Undifferentiated Gtacial Tilt/
Glaciolacustrine Deposits
=Glacial Advance Outwash
=Basalt (Crescent Fonnation)
m
fine
medilm
c
coarse
"'
with
occ
occasionol
SC
I
'tac
""'
some
and
scattered
little
water-bearing
fractured
Cl
Si
Sa
Gt
Bo
Co
Tdl
Olp
IW
Ts
Ba
Hp
Clay
Silt
Sand
Gravel
Boulders
Cobbles
Glacial Till
Organics
Wood
Topsoil
Basalt
Hardpan
SO I L
DESCR I PTIONS
abd
abundant
Example: f-c SIGt,s Sa, tr Co + Bo
irt
interbeds
Fine to coarse Si~ltel. some sand,
rem cemented
lam
lamilations
lay
layers
lenses
light
oxidized
trace
len
I
ax
tr
"""
volcanics
trace cobbles an
D
D
D
u
rs
Unconsolidated Coarse
Grained Deposits
Unconsolidated Fine
Grained Deposits
Basalt
Elevation Datum NAVO 88
<(
--~~~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~--~-- ~
Aspedconsulting
...atfl"rH l'f!lfSPl!CTME
119 Maclrone Lane Norm
Balnbflctge e&land, \VA 98110
(206) 78Cl-9370
811 flr5l Avenue ll480
SNtbe, WA98 t 04
(206)-32~744.J
Geologic Cross Section B-B'
c·
c
South
North
Intersection
Intersection
A ·A'
B-B'
900
900
800
800
700
700
600
600
500
500
61-34C
Laz C#4
400
400
91 - ~4D
PUDl#1
Qvr
300
300
Dosew alli
~]L
200
Qvtl
QI
200
9i3 -
34E
L<1z C#1
Tb
Tb
I
I
100
100
I
I
Ts
?
I _./
v
Q.a/
?
,/
?------?---
0
0
Tb
-100
-100
Ba
Frac wkBa
FracwkBa
Ba
-200
-200
-300
0
1,000
2,000
4,000
3,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
-300
8,000
Elevation Datum NAVO 88
----------------------------------------------------------------------------t ~
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------......
LEGEND
1----------------S-Y_M_B_O_L_S__________________
___________:;:...,;:;;....;;::;....;::'-'-''-"'----------------R-E_P_O_R_T_E_O___S_O_l_L___O_E_S_C_R_IP_T
_l_O_N_S__________________-ll 0
'!!
~---------------G-E_O_L_O_
G_
Y
']al
G!oundSurface
l§j
n
u
l
94 - 34F
B
Geologic Unit Contact (approx.male)
Well Screen or Perforated Casing Interval
Open Hole, Uncased
Static Water Level Reported on Well l og
and Point of Measurement
Well No . - Sectioo and Quarte<-Quarter
OWner Name - Refer to Table A-1
Qv
QV:
Q tJ
V
Qv~
= ReeentAllwium
~ ~ ~um
g
~~Y
= Glacial Recessional Outwash
c
= coarse
Sd
Sand
w/
= with
= some
= and
= occasional
= scattered
Gr
Bo
Gravel
Boulders
Cobbles
Glacial T ill
Organics
= Glacial Till (lndud es alpine til in
west portion of A-A')
= Undifferentiated Glacial Till/
Glaciofacusbine Deposits
= Glacial Advance OUtwa sh
s
+
occ
sc
!A> : =-bearing
Ji'ac = tractured
Co
1iR
(kg
~d fo~1
= ~ :u,,:~:
;,t = inted>eds
File to coarse 5'M'favet. some sand
lam =laminations
trace cobbles an
lay =layers
Jen =lenses
= light
ox = oxidized
1
~c :
::...ics
Example: f-cSiGr,sSa,rCo+Bo
D
D
Ba
Basalt
~
Hp
Hardpan
L__J
ers.
Unconsolidated Coarse
Grained Deposits
g
o
-~
8
g~fn':'~~~ine
"'
Basalt
::3;
~
,____ro_w
___
n___1or
___~
_ca_ti_·oo_a1_a_c_cu_ra_cy_~
___
we
_ 11.s _________. ____~
_t
_______=_ea_~_n_<_crescen
------tFoon
___a_tioo
___
>____.______________________________________________....,..,.._________....,,....._______________-I ~
Aspedconsulting
IN-DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
,,.M.................. •...... ,..........
Balnbndge 16liln<I, WA981t0
(206)780-9370
seame
WA98104
(206>=·"43
Geologic Cross Section C-C'
Apri12oos
PROJEcrNo.
~
EWM
030116
C'l
~
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area -----------------------------PMs
FIGURE No.
Q::
Jefferson County, Washington
PMB
3 5
•
$
-:-:
...------------------------------------------------------.....~------------------------------.........---------------------------------------------------------~---~-------------------------------------------------------------~.. o
D
D'
South
Intersection
A -A '
500
Intersection
B -B'
400
North
105 - 34H
Snow
118 - 35E
Thornton
Qvtl
QI
300
121- f 5E
Thom ton
D osewallip s
River
109- 2D
Core
200
17 - 2E
WAPRC#3
136- 35Ni
Sea Farms
Pro ·ected 800' W
11 - ~D
p -20
Bloom uist
Johnson
Qvr
J33 - 35N
'(Vase//
~1-1-1+--I~
100
Tb
i
Qvt!QI
I
0
Tb
-100
-200
-300
0
1,000
2,000
4,000
3,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11 ,000
L EGEND
SY MB O LS
~
n
LI
1
94- 34F
Brown
Ground SOOace
:)a
= Recent Alluvium
Geologic Untt Contact (_.xm.te)
..)V
= Glacial RecessK>naJ OUtwash
Qv:
= Glacial Till (lnchJdes a lp ine till in
w est portion of A-A1
Well S creen or Pe<forated casing Interval
Open Ha e . Uncased
Static Water Level Reported o n Well Log
and Point of MeaS46ement
Well No. -Section and Quarter-Quarter
Owner Name - Refer to Table A-1
for locational accuracy of wells
R E POR T EO
GE O LOGY
;Jvl/
Qv
Th
m
c
wl
= Undifferentiated Glacial TilV
Glaciolacustrine Deposits
=Glacial Advance Outwash
=Basalt (Crescent Fonnation)
fine
medium
coarse
with
some
and
occ
occasionol
SC
scattered
little
I
wA>
tac
water-bearing
fractured
Cl
Si
Sa
Gt
Bo
Co
Tdl
Otg
IW
T•
Ba
Hp
Clay
Silt
Sand
Gravel
Boulders
Cobbles
Glacial Till
Organics
Wood
Topsoi
Basalt
Hardpan
abd
rem
int
SO I L
D E SCR I P TI O N S
abundant
cemented
interbeds
lam
lamilations
lay
layers
lenses
light
oxidized
trace
/en
I
ax
tr
"""
volcanics
Example: f.c SiGt,s Sa, tr Co + Bo
f ine to coarse
Sintcrraeet.
some sand,
u rs
trace cobbles an
D
D
D
Unconsolidated Coarse
Grained Deposits
Unconsolidated Fine
Grained Deposits
Basalt
Aspedconsulting
ll'HJIEl"rH l"f!lfSPl!C'mlf;
179 Maarone Lane North
Balnbflctge t&land, \VA 98110
(206) 78Cl-9370
6 1 1 F11'$l AVMl.le ll480
SNtbe, WA98 t 04
(206)-32~7443
Geologic Cross Section D-D'
12,000
E
E'
South
North
Intersection
A -A '
21 •
Intersection
B-B '
+.
'f"
Ne~qn
l- + - - - - - - - + - - - - - 1 - 1 - -'
·Jf.-26! n ~~~~-1-~~~~~--+~~~~~~-1-~~~
9-+
2C - - - - - - - + - - - _ _ , _ - l - - - - - + - - - - - - - " 'Broders_o_
45-26J
~-+-~~~~~--1-~~~~~~--+-~~~~~--<-
300
400
41- 26R
rinnon Beach
Estates
Dose~1 /lips
~.
Neel
54 - 26
Almasi
State ark #1
44 - 26H
Olsen
Bo
~
,,.
;.;
300
Peder~on
48- 26H
Olson
46-26J
Baxter
5-2C
Johnston
113-35R
~
Qvr
·-~~~~~--+-~~~~~~-1-~~~~~~<--~~~~~-1 ~~~11~~~~-+--~~~~~~-+-~~~~~~-1-~~~~~~1--~~~~~--1-~~~~~~--+-1-~~~~~-1-~~~~~1--+--~~~~~~47--26J~--1~--<1---1
200
120 - 35F
Irle
8-2C
Dlo sewallips
R iver
14- E
Dosewallips
State Pat k #4
200
El(in son
19-35~
SGS lnq.
100
100
Tb
Qvr.
Qv"IJQI
en
=~- - - q•
wJliGr
0
Tb
~
~
CeSa+Gr
CeGrw!Bo
~-
?/
-
SaCI
-..i_
-- -?
. -- _
----.__.-....._
----?-wQI
--- - - --?
0
_j
Qal
~---?-~~?---'7
---?-- ~
I /
Qva
,,
--- ---------~-------
~~
,? --
-1 00
-100
Tb
-200
-200
-300
0
1,000
2 ,000
3,000
4 ,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
-300
20,000
19,000
LE G END
SYMBO L S
Ground Stnace
Geologic Unft Contact
~
n
u
1
94 - 34F
Brown
GEOLOGY
,_.-.J
Well Screen or Pe<forated Casing Interval
Open Hole , Uncased
Static Water Level Repated on Well Log
and Point of Measurement
Well No. - Section and Quarter-Quarter
OWner Name - Refer to Table A-1
for locational accuracy of wel s
~a
~v
Qv
~vt/
Qv,
Tb
=Recent Allu..;um
=Glacial RecessionaJ OUtwash
=Glacial Till (Inch.Ides alpine till in
west portion of A-A1
= Undifferentiated Glacial Till/
Glaciolacustrine Dej)osits
=Glacial Advance OUtwash
= Basalt (Crescent Foonation)
REPORTED
m
c
wt
occ
SC
N
ll'b
tac
fine
medium
coarse
with
some
and
occasional
scattered
little
water-bearing
fractured
Cl
Si
Sa
Gr
Bo
Cc!
Tdl
Olp
IW
Ts
8d
Hp
Clay
Si t
Sand
Gravel
Boulders
Cobbles
Glacial Till
Organics
Wood
Topsoi
Basalt
Hardpan
abd
rem
in/
""'
lay
fen
I
ox
IT
vole
SO I L
DESCR I PTIONS
abundant
cemented
interbeds
Fine to coarse Si~Jra't3el. some sand,
layers
lenses
light
oxidized
trace
volcanics
D
D
lamilations
Elevation Datum NAVO 88
Example: f<:SiGr,•Sa, trCc!+Bo
trace cobbles an
LJ
rs
Unconsolidated Coarse
Grained Dej)osits
Unconsolidated Fine
Grained Dej)osits
Basalt
Aspedconsulting
Geologic Cross Section E-E'
EWM
IN-DEPTH PE1'1IPECTME
179 Maarone l.afle Nortn
Balntlddge l61and, WA 98110
(206) 781).9370
a 11 flr5tAvem.1e M80
seat!le. WA98104
~206}328-7443
April 2005
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
PMB
Jefferson County, Washington
PMB
PROJECT NO.
0301 16
FIGURE NO.
3.7
c
~
Specific capacity (gpm/ft drawdown)
•
<1
•
1- 5
•
5-50
e
>50
Unconsolidated Wells
Specific capacity (gpm/ft drawdown)
•
<1
•
1- 5
•
5 - 50
e
DATE:
September 2004
>50
Note: Each well is labelled with a well number
followed by the specific capacity in gpmln .
DESIGIEDBY:
GJC
MA*' BY.
GJC
REVISEDBY:
ACM
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
3.8
I
I
87() . -
() 82
.fi 1441
I
88()
I
I
() 78
..
I
' ... W)105
••
l
() 79
'
•
I - ~ ~
I .• .
a
I
~'-'\~,~ -~~\_~''--- .:.::-..~··~ ~--~
~
'"..,'.:.....,;
-...\ -. .'\....... ·\. -\ - .O.'"'.~
'-' .,. ... · I
a_
"""'O
'
'I
i
.
.......
..
'
,
.
I
'
,~ ·
"-
•
1
l /
" ·\_ \
." , .'
(56'id
\_\._ ' - " "
' ' .,L . \ .. \.. _-,
......
--....... ~:>..._
'\. •
,
'·
-
\
'-,
l
I
·~
'
.
..
\J...
\
I '\
.
.........
,,.
\ \..
J .'-...::
/
f/
·\
-,
·--..... \' ' \ \
, \
"' '\ \\ '\
-,, \
..
'
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\
'-
\
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\
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t
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,
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.
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fI
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\
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'-"
;
' \.
,
\
I
/
i
('
Well - Completed in Unconsolidated Aquifer
0
Well - Completion is Undetermined
108
Well ID
P-1
Mini-Piezometer
(9.2)
Static Water Level Elevation
(NGVD 29, MSL)
-so--=---
~
Groundwater Elevation Contour
(Intervals Vary)
Groundwater Flow Path
l. \ "
~ .
. \\
}
"
~
~\
'-
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'
-
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:
/.I :'.:; : :· ~.'.': : .-: : •; . ·.:,::. · .. .... ..
t ~_. . . . . . . - . ,. . . . ..If .,~ . . <I .,. , . • .•
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f, -
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-~ .........,,, ' .
1 · -. \,
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roo
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\
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.- .. ... .. ,. -. - .-. -.-,
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·.">,·::·::">::::_-:.:::::::::.::·:·.
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t. ~~ ·f'·>?::}~:::.-::;:~:~·~·:·~:..-~:.:. ::_:~:·:·:=:~
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t\ •.\. .....:'......·.. "'.r':-...--7,-........
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lH-DEPTHco~
:;::.,.,:::i
(2\l6f4le-7« 3
.
for the Basalt Aquifer
.
Ew.4
.
Hyd rogeolog IC Study of the Lower Do sewalhps/Bnnnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
"""""'
-
':"'
PMB
.
..
• <( . • • t
...... .
~
°30116
§;
3.10
a
FIGURE NO
8
A
6.
A
A
River (Transect D at NFS Boundary)
River (Transect C)
River (Transect B)
River (Transect A at Highway 101)
"
#9 (WSPRC #3)
#91 (PUD}
#89 (Haley)
#134/1 35 (JCFD #4)
0
•
•
0
#144 (Hockett)
•
Seawatar
1
{p - 1025 kg/m
9
)
100
~
~
~
ro
~
~
~
oo
~
w
o
•
~
~
~
~
~
ro
~
~
~
er
~~
~
-q
N
<;>
...
<O
~
~
.;,
0
0
~
...
1. Drever, J .I., 1982, The Geochemistry of Natural Waters: Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall.
~
!:
1Aspedconsulting
•
BIWlbllCIQe WMO, WAie 110
911 FhtA"91lle#480
S.• Ce. WA $81(M
(2~-7·~
AprA2005
EWM
IN-DEF'1'H P&IS1"ECIM
119M.edlQMlanetbih
(20&/7ro-9<l70
Ternary (Piper) Diagram of Major Ions
Hydrogeolog ic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
CffA~e'r;
PMB
PMB
PRQJECTNO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
3.11
......
"'~
<O
0
0::
~
0
-ro
Vk:4ooa, BC Pteolpitallon 19(5-1982
O
~-
I
-0
~
E
::a
·c
::a
s
#144 {Hockett)
-1
- - Interpolated Meteoric Una (Vic:toria, BC
wO
,
,
Precipitation 1975-1982)
,
eo---~~~~+-~~~~~~~~~~~~~-+-~~~~---.
, ,~~~~
o --~~~~-1-~~~~
,
•
I
I
A
#91 (PUD)
,
;
I
~5 ---~~~~t--~~~~~~~~-+-~~~~-+----
•
~
II
Q
~~
,
,
, , #134/135 (JCFD)
I
-90 ~---+----+----4-<11'!9.~ #9 (WSPRC)
,.
,
,
,
,
,
·1S
,
,.
,
,
,
,
......
.......
I
D -
T
I
,
,
.I
.......
"
·-t
c
A
Dosewallips River
B
seepage transects
-
_,,
-
I
-13
-14
-12
·11
18
b 0=18 Oxygen (%0)
Analyses are reported in %0 notation and are computed as follows:
oRsample %o = [ :sample -1
standard
l
= 0.000316
x 1000, where D/H
standard
and
18
16
0 I 0
standard
=0.0039948
Negative values indicate that the concentration of the sample is less than the standard. Values of-100%0
and -70%0 represent concentrations that are 10% and 7%, respectively, less than the standard.
Aspedconsulting
fN.Dl!l'TH~
Stable Isotope Analysis
~
~
~
l:Q
c
~
"(
~
/
Reach Boundary (Stream flow
measurement transect)
See Appendix B for computation
methodology.
FIGURE NO.
4.1
Cluster 4
~ P-1 ~$
P-f1?
P-1 ~ )
--,·-==:::JFeet
W-01
200
Legend
B
Mini-piezometer (Y.")
0
Mini-piezometer (1%") with temperature logger
Q
@
Mini-piezometer (1%") with stage/temperature transducer
In-river stilling well ( 1%") with stage/temperature transducer
-$-
Well w ith logger and transducer
~
Temperature logger (in air)
o
Temperature logger (in river)
+
Flow measurement transect
\
f----1
-+:-~~p~
.J
Cluster 3
-
River Reach 2
-
River Reach 3
D
Waterbodies (Ecology)
clu-~
stJ 1
P-140
River Reach 1
P-3
P-1 @
P-19
P-
0
---====:::::iFee
Marine Waters (Ecology)
0
100
200
I
- - Hydrology (Ecology)
D
Parcel Boundaries (Jefferson County)
~ Wetlands (Jefferson County)
l::=J Section Lines (DNR)
!MTE:
Asped consulling
IN-DEPTH PEASPECnVE
t 79 •.19d'Or1e LMe. Nooh
B&if'ltridge ldalf'ld. w;.. 961 i o
{10f•JT00.9.170
8 1l f'"'1 A\'19'1116 #480
SMtr•, VI-'. 9610.f
{2'.Y(1.J211-74.4.:S
Location Map of Mini-Piezometers, Flow Measurement
Transects, and Data Acquisition Instrumentation
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, Washington
September 2004
DESIG~BY.
GJC
DRAMIHBV:
GJC
REVISEOtfY:
ACM
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
4.2
A.
LOSING STREAM
~dlteeliOtl
B.
GAINING STREAM
--
----..
~Shallow aqul~
a.
I
'
b.
1/<later-lable QOnlour
60
~
~
G•01J!'IU•\\'i>lv-r
so--~--
~i----~
fia.1 ltne
40
2
::i
20
losing stree.ms lose water to lhe ground·watt'r S)ISIElrr1IA}.
Thos can bo 001crmlnoo from wateMable contour ma~
because tl'le oonrour llne-s point in the down[)troom oirecuon
Whefe lfley cross the stream (a)
Gafnfng $lreams reoetve water from 11'\e groufld-water system
(8). Th•s can bo detcrmll'\Cd lrom waler-table contour maps
because ltl& c:ootOur lll'Qs l)Oinl n lhe ul)Slr'eam direction
wtiere they cross the stream (b)
c.
D.
DISCONNECTED STREAM
BANK SiORAGE
Flow di111c1*\
Flowa.recllon
-/
/Waler labte
01scon~cteo sueams are SEpara~e<I from the grouno·
water system bV an Un$111Uratoo zone
Wale• taole
our '191:!0~.t
"°"'
JI sueam IP.11el nses higtler 1han acl,aoenl groond·.,...ate'
levels. stroam wator mcwos fl'lto 11"10 slfoambaoks as
bank s torage.
en
~
~
~
Interaction between surface water and groundwater to form a losing stream,
a gaining stream, a disconnected stream, and bank storage.
9
9
IO
8
From Winter et al. (1998) as modified by Simonds and Sinclair (2002).
~
'.e
<(
~
Aspectconsulting
IN-Of!l"r>f ~
179 Maarone Lane Norm
8all'lbl1dlJE' !$land, WA 98110
{206} 7~370
8 1 J Flr&t Avenue mo
SNttJe, WA 98104
(206)-328-7443
Conceptual Surface Water and
Groundwater Interaction
April 20GS
EWM
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
PMB
Jefferson County, Washington
PMB
PROJECT NO.
030116
FIGURE NO.
4.3
-g
'.e
9<(
~
0
Gaining Location:
Cl.
:J
~
iS
(/)
155
0
/\
.s::
Grounclwater Level ----'~-­
River Level - -
..J
-0
streambed - -
Piezometer, Typ.
(112" or 1 1/4" pipe
with 14 1/8" diameter
holes over 0.8' length)
Losing Location:
Cl.
:J
.><.
,.,u
(/)
0
~
(/)
River Level - -
v
.s::
-0
~
Cl.
:J
.><.
(/)
,g
..J
(/)
0
Grounclwater Level
streambed - -
v
.s::
-0
sz
..J
'l3
'l3
In-River Formula:
dh
di
Aspedconsulting
IH-Ol!l'T>f ~
dh
= L - Stickup
Out-of-River Formula:
dh
di =
dh
L-SWL - dh
Calculation of Vertical Hydraulic Gradient
Data Source:
Precipitation data from Quilcene 2 SW (National Climatic Data Center, 2004 ).
No data reported for 1/6/04, 1/31/04, 5/9/04, 5/10/04, 5/29/04, 6/5/04, 6/6/04, 7/10/04, 7/11/04, 8/22/04, or 8/23/04.
9t--;::::::================================:::;--------------------------t
39
• Precipitation (in)
i~
:§.
"'
8
(;j
c
c:
0
z
"'
'.§.
~
- - River Level (P17, RipRap at Cluster 5, PT2X)
- - P18 Level (Cluster 5, PT2X)
#9 Level (PT2X)
Moving Average of#9 Level
7 + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + 37
...
u
~
~
~
~
~
i
c
6
---- - - - --+-- - - - - - -.+.-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + -
36
!:
~
~
>
~
c:
~
0
~
..."'
;
>
"'
35 ~
5
"'
E
~
"'
i
;
0
4 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -----'--
----'-'-'UIJ.!.'-----IU------l- 34
~
~
Qj
>
l
j
:::. 3 + - - - - - -------!r---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + 33 ~
Qj
>
~
~
co
~
2 +----~---t----".-r----P---\-iik"--~,----------;;f--S.:~-----,~.----llt-----.,f-JlL-~~l"!'-----""'-----=-----1.~~jL--'\--:-,..-----------+ 32
~
c:
"'...
~
~
1 -1-----------11~---<114------_...,J+-_ _ _~-----------------------'11-1- 31
0
1/1104
1/31/04
Aspect consulting
W:\0301 16 WRIA 16\Final Report\Temp & level data.xis
3/1/04
3/31/04
4130104
5130104
6129104
7129104
Comparison of Continuous Surface Water
and Groundwater Level Measurements
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Figure 4.5
Dosewallips
.Bl~
P-19
Ground Surface \
[email protected]= ~
#14
20 -
T
\
!
#6
--
Ir---...........: ~
sz
sz (3/1/04)
- :g_ r 3 ~¥
10 1 - - - - - -1
1-1-----~jooo,,,,._
=~~~~
·-(3_1_
18_ffi_4_
) 1
_ sz (3118104)
dry
(3/18/04)
~~
(6/1 2104)
sz_
_ :g
- (6/12104)
~ :sz-
(6/ 12104)
0 1 - - - - - -11-1-1- -
- - -·1- - - - - - 1 - -11- - -
-
-10 1 - - - - - -1-1-l'.:le --
- - - r - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - l - - - - - - - - -··- - - - - - - ' - -''- - -
-20 1 - - - - - -1
-30 1 - - - - - -1-1-1- -
4 0 1 - - - - - -1-1-1- -
_
-
Open Hole
---i-------+--------l--------l.------J__I_~ ~
CJ Open Hole
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Vertical Exaggeration 50:1
Vertical Scale: 1" 10'
Horizontal Scale: 1" = 500'
=
0
500
1000
Feet
Aspedconsulting
~~CTIYE
179Maaronelafle Hortl'I
8alnb11d1Je t6:1and.. WA 98110
{206)781>9370
81 1 flf'61A'lenUel480
Seattle. WA 98104
(206)-32~7«3
Profile at Cluster 1
Elevation Datum NGVD 29
#17
--
f
+- Ii
.Bi~
3
0 1
20
¥'.
(3/1/04)
=
(6/12/04)
10
0
-10
-20
-30
I (&'2104. lll
~
~-
I
sz
13
~
I
I
I
.
1----,
#132
#134
Dosewallips
~~l____
Groun d s urface
(3/18/04)
"7
(3/18/04)
_ g-
--
I
(6112/04)
(6/12/04)
~
~
I
~
~
~
~
I
~
I
i...
-40
...
~
"Q
~
...
~
0
"'9
0
1000
500
1500
2000
2500
Vertical Exaggeration 50:1
Vertical Scale: 1" = 10'
Horizontal Scale: 1" = 500'
0
500
v
J:
8
~
1000
Elevation Datum NGVD 29
<
r-~~~~~~-..,.~~~~~~~~~~Fee~t~~~~~~~~~~--~~~--~~~~ ~
Aspedconsulting
Profile at Cluster 2
~
__...______. ~
~~~
,. ...... .......... , ."""'A..........
8alnb11d1Je t&:land.. WA 918110
Seattle. WA 98104
...,.,...,..
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
~
.....
~~-1_
1~
_,_
ro_ _ _ _<_
-_
~_
~_
™_
' ....__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _J~e~
ff~
e~
~~
o~
n~C~o~
u~
n~
fy~
,~
W~a=
s~
hi~
n~gt=
o~
n ________L...,!~_.L._:::=.::_.J 8
40
-
~
Groundwat!
drainage
channel
-- PI S
Dosewallips
River
35
T
--
P- '10
T
(3/1 /04)
(6/12/04)
30
-
""
-
P-11
P-12
T
T
-
Ground
Surface
"-
"
l
251 - - -/- - -+-- - - - - - + - - - - - -ll--L Level 1of eddy used fo~
measurement of surface
w ater level.
20 -
o
_-=+I~-
100
200
300
All piezometers at Cluster 4 were measured on both 3/ 1/04 and 6/ 12/04.
Vertical Exaggeration 20: 1
Vertical Scale: 1" =5'
Horizontal Scale: 1" =100'
0
100
200
Feet
Aspedconsulting
fN.Dl!l'T>f ~
179 Maarcne lafle North
8all'ltH1ctlje k.land, WA 918110
{206)780-9370
8 1 J Flf6t Avenue "480
SNttle, WA 98 104
(206)-32~74"3
Profile at Cluster 4
70
65
60
P-18
1-;;;,sew
amps
River
II
LL
-
#92
Ground Surface
\ TT
............
-.,.-,
.....
I
--
-
(3/1/04 & ~
6/12/04)
I
#93
-
I
55 I -
(6 12/~
-
"l
_ 6 .12104}_ _
16
-
50
45
40
I
~
-
-
0 1en hole
40
L
0
200
100
Vertical Exaggeration 20:1
Vertical Scale: 1" = 5'
Horizontal Scale: 1" 100'
=
0
Aspedconsulting
~~
179 Maarone Lafle Nortl'I
8 alnb11d1Je t&:land.. WA 918110
{206)781>9370
8 11 flf'61 Awnue1480
Seattle. W A 98104
(206)-32~7«3
100
200
Profile at Cluster 5
-
300
Temperature Data for Clusters 1, 2, and 3 (Reach 1)
i£ 65
~
Buria.I of the sensor at P-2 caused a time lag in recorded
m~
_ra
_ru_re_rr_
om_1_
1-_
29-0
_
3 t_
o1_
2-_
22_
~_
3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--+f
60 +----ra~
~
~ 55
+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --..,+--
-1+-- >___......,_.,
i+-i!tlt- :lffi-lm
E
~
50 + - - - - -
~---------~
-
Air (Well #17)
-
P-19 (Cluster1)
<
- +-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - < - - P-14 (Cluster 3)
2 5 + - - - - - - - - - ---->,
'- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l -
Well#9 (PT2X at 35' belowSWL)
River (P-2, Cluster 2)
f-------l
20 ..........~~~~.........~~~~..........~~~~..,......,~~~~...........~~~~...........~~~~~...........~~~~..........~~~~...........~~~~..............,..,,..,.
11/3/03
1213/03
1/2/04
2/1/04
3/2/04
4/1/04
511/04
6130/04
5/31/04
7130/04
Temperature Data for Cluster 4 (Reach 2)
95
90
85
80
75
70
€
65
41
~ 60
...
.I
<G
~ 55
E
41
.- 50
45
40
35
.,...__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____, -
30
Air (Well #17; WSPRC #3)
P-11 (Cluster 4)
P-12 (Cluster 4)
25
-
""- Sensor P-10 in air.
20
11/3/03
12/3/03
1/2!04
2/1/04
312/04
4/1/04
River (P-10, Cluster 4)
5/31/04
5/1/04
6/30/04
7130/04
Temperature Data for Clusters 5 and 6 (Reach 3)
95
90
85
80
I
75
I
70
ii:'
65
.a
60
41
~
~ 55
E
f!!.
50
45
40
35
-
Air (Well #17)
P-16 (Cluster 6)
+ - - - - - - - - - ----H•'-+---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
- - P-18 (Cluster 5, PT2X)
River (P-7, Cluster 5)
25 + - - - - - - - - - - --+:" --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 River(P-1 7, RipRap at Clusters, PT2X)
30
20
11/3/03
1213/03
• Aspeclconsul1ing
W:\030116 WRJA 16'Fmal Report\Temp & level data.Xis
1/2/04
2/1/04
3/2/04
4/1/04
5/1/04
5/31/04
Temperature Data for Reaches 1, 2 and 3
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
6/30/04
7130/04
Figure 4.7
1
Reach 3
I
~,---------
Reach 2
Reach 1
1
0.8
P-8
P-7
Cluster 5
Cluster 6
P-11 I
Cluster4 I
P-15
Cluster 3
P-13
Cluster 2
0.6
P-1
Cluster 1
0.4
~
~ 0.2
cQ)
"O
...
ca
C>
0
----:. . ._ - - -
CJ
::J
...ca
"O
-0.2
>-
-
11/4/03
-
11/25/03
-
12122103
-
12/30/03
J:
ii
CJ
~
-0.4
Q)
>
--- 1/22/04
-0.6
-
3/1/04
418104
-0.8
-1
-
5/11/04
-
6/11/04
-
813104
Bedrock
Constrictions
-1.2
4
3
2
1
0
Approximate River Mile
'
Aspectconsulting
'
IN-DEPTH PERSPECTIVE
W:\0301 16 WRlA 16\Final Report14liezometer_river_miles.xls
Vertical Hydraulic Gradients Between
Surface Water and Groundwater
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Figure 4.8
APPENDIX A
Well Data, Survey Results, and
Static Water Levels
ASPECT CONSULTING
A.1 Well Log Tabulation Methods
Well data for the WRIA 16 area was compiled from the Washington Department of
Ecology well log database (http://apps.ecy.wa.gov/welllog/), Washington State
Department of Health (DOH) database, the Jefferson County well database, and the
USGS online database (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis). Wells identified during the
course of field work were also added. An Excel spreadsheet with well data was
developed which summarized locational information, construction details, and data
sources for the wells.
Well locations were located with varying degrees of accuracy, and are described here
with the associated accuracy code from Table A-1. The lowest accuracy positions are
known only to the nearest section and are identified as township-range-section (TRS).
These wells were not used for data analysis as a TRS location accuracy is insufficient for
analytical purposes. The next grade of accuracy gives locations to the nearest quarterquarter (¼¼) section (TRSQQ), corresponding to the location listed on Ecology well
logs. A combination of tax assessor and GIS data was used to match wells to particular
parcels in the WRIA 16 area in order to improve on the ¼¼ section accuracy. Wells that
were correlated with the assessor data are located to the center of the matching parcel
(PC). Some additional wells have been field located (map) or located with recreational
grade GPS (GPS) by Aspect Consulting field staff. Selected wells were surveyed by a
contractor to Jefferson County (JC) using survey grade GPS equipment.
Once well locations were established, well elevations were approximated using either
LiDAR data, wherever available, or USGS 10-meter DEM data. The accuracy of each
method is dependent on the accuracy of the original well location, but, in general, the
LIDAR is significantly more accurate than the USGS-supplied DEMs.
A.2 Groundwater Level Measurements and
Wellhead Survey
In order to determine groundwater elevation conditions, static water levels and survey
data were obtained for the mini-piezometers and selected wells in the study area.
Static water levels for wells were measured on March 18, 2004 and June 12, 2004.
Levels in piezometers were measured on March 1, 2004 and June 12, 2004. Measurements were referenced to the top-of-casing using a level indicator (Waterline Model 300
or 500). Stability of water levels was checked to ensure that the wells were not being
pumped. A total of 15 wells were sampled on each day, with 13 wells being measured on
both days. Eleven of the wells were in Brinnon Flats, two at Lazy C, and four located
upslope north and northwest of Brinnon. The wells in Brinnon Flats and at Lazy C were
all completed in unconsolidated formations. Of the upslope wells, one was completed in
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
A-1
ASPECT CONSULTING
an unconsolidated formation and three in basalt. The selection of specific wells was
dependent on acquiring owner permission.
Position and elevation data for all piezometers and wells were determined by a Jefferson
County survey. The survey was performed using survey grade GPS equipment owned by
Jefferson County and operated by Doug Kelly, LHG.
A-2
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
Table A-1
Study Area Well Summary
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Installation Details
General Information
Aspect
Well ID
Number
Owner Name (from
Well Log)1
Well Address
1
Ward, ?
Blk 3 Lot 19 Carrols Canal
View Estate #1
2
3
4
Ingle, Al
Sakneffer, Paul
Engman, Gary
5
Johnston, Stan
6
Seeley, Ernie
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Mullinax, Porter
Casey, William
Dosewallips State Park
306565 Hwy. 101 Brinnon
(Well #1)
"Flock in Travel" Trailer
Park
Johnson, Arnold
Corey Lane
Brinnon Booster Club
Bloomquist
State Parks &
Recreation Comission
(Well #4)
Figuly, Laurie
67 Moose Mount Road,
Brinnon
21
22
Nelson, Hank
Gail, Hunter
Jefferson County Fire
District #4
23
24
25
26
306413 Hwy. 101
Chapman, Floyd
Almasi, William K.
Pullen, William N.
Alco #3
Olson, Paul
Blackmore, Calvin M.
Boling, Michael
Braun, Walt
37
Allen, Mary E.
38
39
40
Nealey, Michael
Engberg, Vic
Weigand, George
41
Brinnon Beach Estates
42
43
Durham, Ramona
Broderson, DeEtte
1132945
TRS
AC
8
LIDAR
D
30
30
6
10/1/1976
30
960453
1132945
1133620
1133515
TRS
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
AC
DOE
DOE
8
9.6
10.6
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
35
275
39
35
275
39
6
6
6
2/14/1986
8/24/1983
5/5/1980
35
12
39
H00746
275
10.00
20
1
100
19
250
10
2
3
4
Minimum Maximum
(feet)
(feet)
Completed
Unit Type
Bailer Test
10
10
10
U
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
6
25
10
6
25
10
6
25
10
U
B
U
25N 02W 02 C
259484
1132209
PC
AC
13.7
LIDAR
D
39
38.58
6
8/11/1994
38.58
50
1
Air Test
7.33
7.33
7.33
U
259405
1132578
GPS
JC
12.81
SURVEY
D
54
53.1
6
8/22/1994
53.1
30
1
Air Test
4.53
4.05
5
U
602331007
25N 02W 02 C
25N 02W 02 C
265062
259550
1123349
1132290
PC
GPS
AC
USGS
93.4
13.3
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
M
40
24
39.6
24
6
6
9/8/1994
9/1/1970
39.6
19
3
Air Test
Pump Test
7
8
7
8
7
8
U
U
25N 02W 02 C
259141
1132027
GPS
JC
16.37
SURVEY
D
44
44
6
10/22/2002
42
1
Air Test
8.17
7.88
8.63
U
25N 02W 02 C
259190
1132195
TRSQQ
DOE
17.6
LIDAR
GRPB
B
25605
28
25N 02W 02 D
25N 02W 02 D
25N 02W 02 D
259769
259513
259224
1131312
1130987
1131226
PC
PC
PC
AC
AC
AC
21
24.4
20.3
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
GRPB
D
6
10/5/1992
35
U
58691
36
30
34
35
A
34
6
6/12/1973
34
25N 02W 02 D
257290
1131235
GPS
JC
16.55
SURVEY
TNC
A
60
60
3/2/1964
20
25N 02W 02 D
259240
1130875
TRSQQ
DOE
24.3
LIDAR
D
31
31
6
3/2/1974
31
25N 02W 02 E
256502
1131515
GPS
DOH
17
LIDAR
TNC
144
144
6
5/14/1990
20
M
25N 02W 02 E
258490
1130652
GPS
JC
26.36
SURVEY
T
69
65
8
1/17/1984
54.375
602353026
25N 02W 02 H
259891
1132409
PC
AC
14.8
LIDAR
TNC
502105014
25N 02W 02 N
253613
1128274
PC
AC
417.1
LIDAR
D
160
160
6
8/24/1999
160.9
25N 02W 02 N
25N 02W 02 N
255305
255305
1130785
1130785
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
AC
AC
233
233
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
400
112
400
112
6
6
6/28/1989
7/6/1993
941700209
941700301
941700323
M
960456
960457
960458
960461
961049
960460
WELL 1
871 Seal Rock Drive,
Brinnon
30
1.05
Average
(feet)
25N 02W 02 C
Old Brinnon Hwy.
H00664
960459
H00940
Test
Duration Test Type
(hours)
502022005
ACM 517
WELL #1
Drawdown
(feet)
Geologic
Information
502022010
WELL #1
ACM 515
Summary of Static Water
Level (SWL) Readings
Well Test Information
Well
Bottom of
Specific Pump
Installation Top of Open
Diameter
Open Interval Capacity Rate
Date
Interval (feet)
(inches)
(feet)
(gpm/ft) (gpm)
257190
960451
1113 Black Point Road
Completed
Well Depth
(feet)
257190
258990
259155
H00295
370 Pullock Drive
Drilled
Hole
Depth
(feet)
25N 02W 02
WELL #1
Hardie, Duane
Olympic Canal Truck
(??)
Northing
Easting
Ground Surface
DOH Well
Z Accuracy
Well Use
PWSID
(SP83 WA (SP83 WA XY Method XY Source
Elevation
Code
Group
HARN)
HARN)
(NAVD88 ft)
25N 02W 02
25N 02W 02 A
25N 02W 02 B
502022006
GEODUCK
TAVERN
TRS
Production Zone
991206
WELL 1
BOS 36221 Hwy 101
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
Parcel ID
Number
960450 /
960454
20
19
Jeff. Co.
Database
Tracking #
960452
Eldred, Roy
Dosewallips State Park
17
Ecology
Well Tag
East Side of Highway 101,
Brinnon
163 Sylopash Lane,
Brinnon
Geoduck Tavern / Mr
Murrey
State of Washington
Parks and Recreation
Commision (Well #3)
Brinnon General Store
Inc
16
DOH Source
Name
1 of 3
502312014
502101014
502101024
993600101
Seal Rock Brinnon
A
A
SP215
09556
32944
24
26.67
50
80
3
20
52
Depth to
Bedrock
(feet)
4
1
Air Test
9
9
9
10.00
50
5
2
Bailer Test
10
10
10
U
12.00
60
5
3.5
Pump Test
7.83
5.5
9.48
U2
0.30
6
20
1
Bailer Test
8
8
8
U
144
0.80
80
100
2
Bailer Test
4
4
4
B
65
240.00
60
0.25
4
Pump Test
15.57
12.75
18.39
U
1
Air Test
118
118
118
B
108
62
112
400
0.07
20
20
297
4
1
Bailer Test
Air Test
103
84
103
84
103
84
B
U
60
33
57
40
31
15
25N 02W 03
257280
1127525
TRS
DOE
445
SEC
O
154
133
6
12/20/1985
123
133
0.31
20
64
2.5
Pump Test
6
6
6
B
154
25N 02W 03
25N 02W 03
257280
257280
1127525
1127525
TRS
TRS
DOE
DOE
445
445
SEC
SEC
D
D
99
240
99
240
6
6
7/13/1983
3/1/1982
63
231
83
235
0.50
0.06
2
0.75
4
12
4
0.13
Pump Test
Pump Test
17
222
17
222
17
222
B
B
82
239
25N 02W 03
257280
1127525
TRS
DOE
445
SEC
D
99
99
6
7/13/1984
63
83
0.07
2
29
1.5
Bailer Test
17
17
17
B
82
25N 02W 03
25N 02W 03
25N 02W 03 A
25N 02W 03 A
25N 02W 03 A
25N 02W 03 G
25N 02W 03 R
25N 02W 03 R
26N 02W 16 D
257280
257280
259424
259275
259275
233076
252822
254186
280840
1127525
1127525
1129481
1129560
1129560
1110189
1129035
1128930
1120665
TRS
TRS
GPS
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
PC
PC
PC
TRSQQ
DOE
DOE
USGS
DOE
DOE
AC
AC
AC
AC
445
445
27
28.8
28.8
368.9
307.4
312.3
3207.6
SEC
SEC
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
DEM
LIDAR
LIDAR
DEM
O
D
M
D
GRPB
D
D
D
D
103
29
45
50
45
485
68
378
36
133
29
45
47
6
6
6
6
12/20/1995
2/23/1971
6/11/1974
7/26/1983
123
29
45
42
133
0.44
47
28.67
28
40
80
86
64
0
0
3
2.5
2
1
3
Pump Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
6
8
14
13
6
8
14
13
6
8
14
13
U
U
U
U
485
68
378
36
6
6
6
6
10/30/1998
10/10/1986
10/10/2001
11/5/1990
485
68
38
36
1
1
2
4
Air Test
Bailer Test
Air Test
Bailer Test
257
52
14
5
257
52
14
5
257
52
14
5
B
U
B
U
26N 02W 26
267840
1133005
TRS
DOE
440
SEC
D
183
180
6
8/20/1988
140
180
26N 02W 26
26N 02W 26
26N 02W 26
267840
267840
267840
1133005
1133005
1133005
TRS
TRS
TRS
DOE
DOE
DOE
440
440
440
SEC
SEC
SEC
D
D
D
200
183
108
200
180
108
6
6
6
4/1/1974
8/20/1988
6/1/1972
20
140
75
B
B
36825
25326
30.00
6
10
1.5
30
1
0.05
4
80
1
Bailer Test
2
2
2
B
1
200
180
108
0.06
0.05
10
4
1
180
80
0
1
1
0.5
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
20
2
25
20
2
25
20
2
25
B
B
B
8
1
14
0.03
2.50
41
4
29
178
936100023
26N 02W 26 A
271010
1134532
PC
AC
257.5
LIDAR
GRPB
403
400
6
9/24/1985
25
400
12
366
2
Pump Test
34
34
34
B
6
270124
264792
1134899
1132239
GPS
PC
USGS
AC
133.3
173.2
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
104
257
104
257
6
6
6/1/1972
2/17/1992
100
237
104
257
4
7
0
1
1
Bailer Test
Air Test
25
142
25
142
25
142
B
B
14
11
602352023
26N 02W 26 A
26N 02W 26 H
44
Olsen, J.W. & Rosanne 304694 Hwy. 101 Brinnon
H00374
964600002
26N 02W 26 H
267938
1134621
PC
AC
90
LIDAR
D
282.5
282.5
6
11/25/1996
182
282.5
6
0.25
Air Test
7.83
7.83
7.83
B
12
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Neely, Mike
Baxter, Marvin
Ellingson, Glen
Olson, Jim
Tomson, Al
Hendricks, Gail
Odmon, Del
Shuokur, Erving
Kelly, Ervin
Almasi, Bill
Almasi, WRK
Jefferson County PUD
Thornton, Shaun
Lormee, Bob
Pfaff, Chris
Richerson, Kathlen
H00297
602264006
602264025
602264033
964601601
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 J
26N 02W 26 K
26N 02W 26 P
26N 02W 26 Q
26N 02W 26 R
26N 02W 26 R
26N 02W 26 R
26N 02W 26 R
26N 02W 26 R
26N 02W 26 R
267411
267326
267125
268145
267125
267125
267125
267160
265865
265840
265895
265895
265895
265895
265895
265895
1134522
1134606
1134518
1134555
1134975
1134975
1134975
1133655
1132300
1133620
1134830
1134830
1134830
1134830
1134830
1134830
PC
PC
PC
PC
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
AC
AC
AC
AC
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
81.7
63.4
70.8
115.1
22.6
22.6
22.6
257
367.5
139.7
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
T
D
D
D
D
193
229
260
227
350
260
150
195
100
295
200
503
185
385
290
185
193
229
260
229.25
350
260
150
195
100
290
199
503
185
380
290
184
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
8
6
6
6
6
8/8/1993
1/8/1988
1/12/1988
5/28/1993
12/31/1987
9/14/1988
9/24/1979
7/28/1977
9/21/1989
7/5/1990
1/4/1989
5/10/1984
12/16/1987
12/21/1987
7/7/1991
1/6/1989
173
18
23
217
29
18
10
20
100
12
34
27
18
18
34
18
193
229
260
222
350
260
150
195
7
40
12
3.5
4
3.5
20
6
10
40
8
1
1.5
1.5
5
1.5
1.5
2.5
1.5
1.5
3
1.5
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
70
89
70
93.16
1
60
50
43
17
7
6
79
2
4
10
14
70
89
70
93.16
1
60
50
43
17
7
6
79
2
4
10
14
70
89
70
93.16
1
60
50
43
17
7
6
79
2
4
10
14
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
U
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
14
3
17
12
26
6
6
16
1.5
3
1.5
Air Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
61
Lazy C #4
62
Brackett
63
Baisch, Joe
64
Johnston, Stan
65
Kuklok, Dennis
66
67
68
69
Buckholtz, Kenneth
Shock, Ken
Shock, Ken
Johnston, Stan
305504 Hwy. 101
30252 Hwy. 101
Hwy 101 Brinnon
H00421
960442
960444
Seal Rock Brinnon
960437
960440
960447
Lazy C Ranch Lot 243
Brinnon
3485 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
Rocky Brook Road
3003 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\WRIA 16 Groundwater Study Wells.xls
0.12
250
199
503
185
380
290
184
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.12
10
10
6
20
136
190
133
349
195
95
83
195
183
380
171
20
30
14
14
15
31
12
961085
966900202
26N 02W 27 N
265235
1126975
PC
AC
364.1
LIDAR
T
440
440
8
12/2/1989
50
440
10
2
Air Test
B
35
H00227
602282003
26N 02W 28
269491
1121541
PC
AC
277.8
DEM
D
144
144
6
11/10/1994
30
144
2
1
Air Test
9
9
9
B
8
602291012
26N 02W 28
269387
1119224
PC
AC
160.8
DEM
TNC
29
27
6
4/27/1992
27
30
0.5
Air Test
11
11
11
U
H00872
602281002
26N 02W 28 A
269210
1124223
PC
AC
919.7
LIDAR
240
240
6
8/18/2000
240
H00834
602285005
26N 02W 28 F
269260
1121160
GPS
AC
144
DEM
D
98
98
6
5/17/2000
55
96
H00994
602283011
602283010
267524
265970
265970
266166
1122226
1121915
1121915
1123602
PC
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
PC
AC
DOE
DOE
AC
315.3
309.6
309.6
203.4
DEM
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
137
305
60
318
137
305
60
318
6
6
6
6
10/23/2001
10/22/1986
7/10/1984
5/11/2001
130
57
60
318
137
61
961086
H00983
26N 02W 28 L
26N 02W 28 P
26N 02W 28 P
26N 02W 28 Q
WELL #1
Dosewallips River Road
0.29
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.21
A
04416
5
0.03
0.42
3
6
5
25
4
98
60
1
Air Test
56
56
56
B
1
Pump Test
>1
>1
>1
B
16
63
2
0.5
1.5
1
Air Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Air Test
124
59
44.5
82
124
59
44.5
82
124
59
44.5
82
B
B
U
B
129
64
25
Aspect Consulting, LLC
3/29/2005
Table A-1
Study Area Well Summary
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Installation Details
General Information
Aspect
Well ID
Number
Owner Name (from
Well Log)1
Well Address
70
Thompson, Dennis
2322 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
71
72
73
Schlagel, Ao
Radebaugh, C.D.
Goodwin
74
Bailey, Harry L.
75
Winnem, Howard E.
76
77
Mattson, Kathrine
Akin, Arthur
78
Schweiger, Rick
79
McKeever, E.J.
80
Johnston, Stan
81
82
83
Brinnon Square
85
86
87
88
Cooper, David
McIntyre, Mike
Castle, Ron
Crowell, Robert
89
Haley, Bob
90
Evans, Mike
96
97
98
99
PUD No. 1 of Jefferson
County
Lazy C Well #2
Lazy C Properties #1
Brown, George
Crowell, A. c/o James
Town Tribe
Call, Richard
Yankee, Albert
Field, Wm
Gietl, Frank
100
Browning, Pat
101
102
103
104
Millard, Jim
Cook, Jess W.
Brekke, S.C.
Call, Richard K.
91
92
93
94
95
Ecology
Well Tag
Dosewallips River Road
6640 Dosewallips Rd
4541 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
5131 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
Dosewallips River Road
6
6/24/1997
208
30
58
140
6
6
6
8/14/1973
11/6/1991
1/2/1999
30
58
40
140
50
66
15
DEM
D
41
41
6
12/30/1994
36
41
30
231.1
DEM
D
58
58
6
10/30/2002
58
610
610
SEC
SEC
D
D
36
38
33
38
6
6
5/28/1991
7/12/1981
33
33
AC
75.5
LIDAR
D
37
37
6
8/21/1998
37
AC
77.3
LIDAR
D
37
37
6
7/20/1992
37
AC
84.7
LIDAR
D
37
36
6
8/6/1992
36
PC
AC
144.4
LIDAR
GRPB
79
79
6
5/6/1979
79
2.22
20
TRSQQ
TRS
DOE
AC
83.7
55
LIDAR
SEC
M
31
29
31
29
6
6
1/20/1989
6/28/1976
31
29
0.86
4.00
25
40
2.00
15
5
14
18
1.18
40
26N 02W 28 Q
266404
1123361
PC
AC
268.7
LIDAR
603234001
26N 02W 29 A
26N 02W 29 F
26N 02W 30
269875
268705
273423
1119610
1116875
1103683
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
PC
AC
AC
AC
344.8
148.4
365.8
DEM
DEM
DEM
602301001
26N 02W 30 A
269196
1114201
PC
AC
171.2
602301011
26N 02W 30 D
270255
1110070
TRSQQ
DOE
602331018
26N 02W 33
26N 02W 33
262655
262655
1122445
1122445
TRS
TRS
AC
AC
602331005
26N 02W 33 A
263916
1124608
PC
602331008
26N 02W 33 A
263668
1124749
PC
602331012
26N 02W 33 A
264567
1123880
PC
602331016
26N 02W 33 A
265180
1123976
M
26N 02W 33 A
26N 02W 34
264605
262585
1124445
1127685
BRINNON
ACM 514
SQUARE WELL
H00397
H00170
H00711
Dosewallips River Road
408
30
58
145
602284007
961087
890 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
Rocky Brook Road,
Brinnon
Off Dosewallips River
Road
408
D
D
H00520
WELL #1
Green Mt. Road
484 Green Moutain Lane
D
TRS
H00819
961088
H00184
994 Dosewallips Road.
Brinnon
Northing
Easting
Ground Surface
DOH Well
Z Accuracy
Well Use
PWSID
(SP83 WA (SP83 WA XY Method XY Source
Elevation
Code
Group
HARN)
HARN)
(NAVD88 ft)
B
26N 02W 34
262585
1127685
TRS
AC
53.4
LIDAR
TNC
602341003
26N 02W 34 A
26N 02W 34 A
26N 02W 34 A
26N 02W 34 B
264919
264913
264575
264275
1129798
1130132
1129645
1127953
PC
PC
TRSQQ
PC
AC
AC
DOE
AC
431.7
418.5
346.2
245.2
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
260
325
144
140
255
325
144
140
6
6
6
6
4/15/1991
4/8/1994
11/19/1979
12/15/1976
235
105
67
128
602341021
26N 02W 34 B
263078
1129439
GPS
JC
180.45
SURVEY
D
40
40
6
3/31/1988
40
602341004
26N 02W 34 C
264263
1128728
PC
AC
283.8
LIDAR
I
258
248
6
5/7/1999
248
602341033
602341038
A
00242
10481
Well
Bottom of
Specific Pump
Installation Top of Open
Diameter
Open Interval Capacity Rate
Date
Interval (feet)
(inches)
(feet)
(gpm/ft) (gpm)
263854
1126947
GPS
JC
217.16
SURVEY
T
485
485
6
4/10/1995
380
480
26N 02W 34 E
26N 02W 34 E
26N 02W 34 F
262845
262879
263760
1125408
1125429
1127624
GPS
GPS
MAP
JC
JC
AC
69.99
69.12
249.2
SURVEY
SURVEY
LIDAR
D
D
D
27
29
98
27
29
98
6
6
6
5/25/1966
6/28/1976
4/30/1966
19
29
98
27
602341005
26N 02W 34 G
263226
1128276
PC
AC
220.5
LIDAR
D
290
290
6
3/16/2000
290
602341009
602341011
602341025
26N 02W 34 G
26N 02W 34 H
26N 02W 34 H
26N 02W 34 H
263260
263748
262657
263090
1128325
1129285
1130118
1129113
TRSQQ
PC
PC
PC
DOE
AC
AC
AC
220
238.5
155.6
190.4
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
66
68
69
40
66
68
69
40
6
6
6
6
6/26/1973
4/10/1975
3/14/1974
3/4/1974
66
68
69
40
21
21
21
U
Air Test
12
12
12
U
42
1
Air Test
12
12
12
U
9
1
Bailer Test
49
49
49
U
29
10
1.5
3
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
19
12
19
12
19
12
U
U
?
9
2
1
1
1
Air Test
Air Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
180
0
63
110
180
0
63
110
180
0
63
110
B
B
U
U
34
2
4.00
1.5
Bailer Test
16.37
10
26.95
U
2
Air Test
155
155
155
B
90
30
1
Air Test
157.88
153.7
162.06
B
102
Bailer Test
11.48
11.23
66
11.055
10.68
66
12
12
66
U
U
U
40
10
3
1
Air Test
187
187
187
B
20
0
68
15
1
2
1
1
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
38
34
1
15
38
34
1
15
38
34
1
15
U
B
U
U
2
Air Test
138
138
138
B
42
0
27
5
2
1
2
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
79
42
46
79
42
46
79
42
46
B
U
U
56
1.5
Air Test
76
76
76
B
58
154
0.86
15
15
25
50
50
0
1.5
1
1.5
2
1
Bailer Test
Air Test
Bailer Test
Air Test
Bailer Test
120
101
14
18
7
120
101
14
18
7
120
101
14
18
7
U
U
U
U
U
8.00
72
9
3
Bailer Test
10.5
9.31
12
U
0.06
10.5
188
1
Pump Test
75
75
75
B
3
?
10
85
20
?
1.5
1.5
1.5
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
70
30
13
70
70
30
13
70
70
30
13
70
B
U
U
U
140
1.00
0.12
0.50
5
10
10
10
1
Air Test
19
19
19
U
20
1.5
2
3
1
Bailer Test
Air Test
Bailer Test
Air Test
234
18
11
9
234
18
11
9
234
18
11
9
B
B
B
U
79
11
128
370
15
40
5
0
1.5
1
1.5
1
2
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
Bailer Test
115.84
10.32
125
6
75
115
9.8
125
6
75
116.68
10.66
125
6
75
B
U
B
U
U
226
20
1.00
0.07
2.67
20
50
5
40
0.44
2.00
227
2
35
12
10
318
318
6
10/27/1991
60
Corey Lane
941700318
D
D
ID
6
6
6
6
9/10/1986
10/18/1989
6/17/1986
7/1/1991
4/12/1974
156
125
31
37
31
26N 02W 35
260544
1131599
GPS
JC
19.23
SURVEY
D
63
63
6
8/14/1978
36
112
26N 02W 35 B
264764
1133515
TRSQQ
AC
0.1
LIDAR
GRPB
113
Pederson, Dick
114
115
116
117
Reynolds, Anita
Look, Barbara
Germeau, Norman
Aflin, Ike
118
Thornton, Richard P.
1
0.10
130
36
52
29
39
26N 02W 35 C
271416
1134977
PC
AC
164.8
LIDAR
D
287
287
6
6/3/1993
247
282
602352014
602352018
264485
262707
264570
264570
1132400
1131041
1130745
1130745
TRSQQ
PC
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
AC
AC
DOE
DOE
96
144.9
312.9
312.9
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
170
45
87
100
167
45
87
100
6
6
6
6
7/27/1983
4/29/1980
9/15/1989
7/6/1982
140
45
87
100
167
Hyw. 101 Brinnon
26N 02W 35 C
26N 02W 35 D
26N 02W 35 D
26N 02W 35 D
337 Church Road, Brinnon
602352008
26N 02W 35 D/E?
262990
1130614
PC
AC
154.4
LIDAR
D
88
88
6
10/28/1992
88
602352002
602352026
26N 02W 35 E
26N 02W 35 F
26N 02W 35 G
26N 02W 35 G
263255
263189
262684
263230
1130705
1132122
1130783
1132420
TRSQQ
PC
PC
TRSQQ
DOE
AC
AC
DOE
159.1
59.8
148.8
47.4
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D
275
260
345
38
275
260
345
38
6
6
6
6
4/6/1982
10/8/2001
3/9/1977
12/3/1991
80
240
122
38
275
260
345
26N 02W 35 G
263230
1132420
TRSQQ
DOE
47.4
LIDAR
GRPB
B
48826
26N 02W 35 L
261205
1130645
MAP
AC
27
LIDAR
NTNC
A
21689
30
26N 02W 35 L
261210
1132242
GPS
DOH
12.8
LIDAR
TNC
A
08430
75
26N 02W 35 L
26N 02W 35 L
26N 02W 35 M
26N 02W 35 M
26N 02W 35 M
261753
260564
261638
261855
261855
1131722
1131599
1131033
1130905
1130905
GPS
GPS
PC
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
JC
JC
AC
AC
AC
139.11
19.32
144.8
146
146
SURVEY
SURVEY
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
D
D
D
D/IR/C
D
378
61
256
27
134
6
6
6
6
6
8/6/1984
6/8/1993
4/27/1982
8/30/1972
5/25/1979
226
55.5
80
27
134
378
60
256
380
61
256
27
135
5
0.50
0.16
0.03
6.67
0.25
4.00
10
5
20
33
10
100
10
20
10
125
602353002
26N 02W 35 N
261027
1130531
GPS
JC
28.54
SURVEY
D
56
56
6
7/12/2002
51
56
150.86
88
0.58
24
Pump Test
15.63
14.82
16.08
U
602353014
26N 02W 35 N
260816
1131403
PC
AC
16.3
LIDAR
D
67
67
6
5/25/1988
57
67
360.00
90
0.25
4
Pump Test
11.5
11.5
11.5
U
72.5
0.30
12
40
2
Pump Test
17.02
15
18.67
U
1
Air Test
13.97
13.22
14.69
U
4
Pump Test
602353029
26N 02W 35 N
260073
1130615
GPS
JC
29.61
SURVEY
D
72.5
72.5
6
7/10/1999
68
602353029
26N 02W 35 N
260133
1130532
GPS
JC
26.10
SURVEY
D
39
38
6
8/9/1994
38
26N 02W 35 P
260460
1132255
TRSQQ
AC
16
LIDAR
GRPB
170
170
6
5/6/1980
80
00383
88
3
602234014
B
40
2
12
150
156
130
31
37
36
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\WRIA 16 Groundwater Study Wells.xls
Air Test
1
43
318
961089
1
42
56
74
73
2
156
130
31
37
36
136
50
9/6/1978
10/15/1975
9/7/1978
???
D
H00745
U
U
6/14/1991
D
135
2
12.50
6
LIDAR
250 Schoolhouse Road,
Brinnon
Corner of Brinnon Lane
and Schoolhouse Road
U
19
20
6
6
6
36
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
SEC
134
17
19
20
227
280
41.9
33.9
23.8
140
46 Schoolhouse Road,
Brinnon
17
19
20
150
74
73
3
261.7
132
17
Air Test
Bailer Test
227
AC
DOE
DOE
AC
DOE
133
Air Test
2
2
150
74
75
3
AC
602353045
602353022
1
18
25
D
PC
Baling, Steve
Gardens, Whitney
Blenz, Bob
Sather, Ceerce
Springer, Larry
Brinnon School Dist.
#46
Wasell, Walt
Jefferson County Fire
District #4
Jefferson County Fire
District #4
Sea Farms Pacific
39
58
D
D
D
D/I
MAP
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
PC
TRS
126
127
129
130
131
U
LIDAR
1129787
ACM 516
3
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR
1130110
1128300
1129585
1131320
1131955
WELL #2
3
200.9
263741
31503 Hwy. 101
3
194.4
194.4
194.4
194.4
264245
261940
260605
259349
262645
125
Air Test
AC
26N 02W 34 J
Brinnon Sr
Center/Bayshore Motel
8
1
DOE
DOE
DOE
DOE
26N 02W 34 J
26N 02W 34 K
26N 02W 34 R
26N 02W 35
26N 02W 35
602353002
93
U
U
B
PC
602341051
124
B
6
27
1
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
TRSQQ
602341034
990400155
123
195
6
27
1
1129350
394 Green Mountain
1990 Discovery Road
H00982
195
6
27
1
1129625
1129625
1129625
1129625
Olympic Canal Tracts Lot 2
Mejnenger, Clayton
Irle, Roger
305743 Hyw. 101 Brinnon
Thornton, Richard P.
Springer, Charles
Dosewallips River Road
Sun Rock Mobile
WELL #1
Home Park
Brinnon School District
WELL ON
ACM 521
#46
SCHOOL PROP.
Depth to
Bedrock
(feet)
195
263411
Snow, Cherie
119
120
121
122
Completed
Unit Type
Air Test
263250
263250
263250
263250
Karla J. Whitting
Nelson, Susan
Sartain, Jim
Corey, Donald
Richardson, Rick
Sather, Ann &
Gardens, Whitney
Brinnon Water Co.
H00287
Minimum Maximum
(feet)
(feet)
Bailer Test
Air Test
Air Test
26N 02W 34 H
24029
Average
(feet)
2
1
1
26N 02W 34 H
26N 02W 34 H
26N 02W 34 H
26N 02W 34 H
105
Hwy. 101 and Seal Rock,
Brinnon
138
26N 02W 34 D
B
Test
Duration Test Type
(hours)
1
1.49
255
325
602342001
KELLY WELL
2.5
25.00
966900030
966900030
602341026
Drawdown
(feet)
Geologic
Information
35
106
107
108
109
110
111
408
38
Summary of Static Water
Level (SWL) Readings
Well Test Information
Completed
Well Depth
(feet)
Parcel ID
Number
H00635
Production Zone
Drilled
Hole
Depth
(feet)
Jeff. Co.
Database
Tracking #
H00683
2027 Dosewallips Road,
Brinnon
2039 Dosewallips River
Road
Nearest to 2039
Dosewallips River Road
Wash. Conference
Seven Day Advent
Church
Donahue, John
Lazy C Properties
84
DOH Source
Name
2 of 3
50
170
0.06
10
170
B
75
76
Aspect Consulting, LLC
3/29/2005
Table A-1
Study Area Well Summary
Hydrogeologic Study of the Lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area
Jefferson County, WA
Installation Details
General Information
Aspect
Well ID
Number
137
Owner Name (from
Well Log)1
139
Engman, Gary
Bailey, Henry / Brinnon
Cemetery
US Forest Service
140
Pollgreen, Thomas
141
Kennedy, Jim & Sandy
142
Bettinger, Tom
138
143
144
145
146
Well Address
DOH Source
Name
Ecology
Well Tag
Jeff. Co.
Database
Tracking #
Parcel ID
Number
ACM 520
5964 Dosewallips Rd.
Brinnon
6380 Dosewallips River
Rd. Brinnon
5911 Dosewallips Rd.
Brinnon
Washington State
Parks (Well #2)
Hockett, Vernie &
Margaret
Mathews, Mike
Whitney Gardens
H00110
26N 02W 35 P
260460
1132255
TRSQQ
AC
16
LIDAR
D
Drilled
Hole
Depth
(feet)
155
26N 02W 35 R
261856
1130248
GPS
JC
154.59
SURVEY
D
135
TRS
3 of 3
Northing
Easting
Ground Surface
DOH Well
Z Accuracy
Well Use
PWSID
(SP83 WA (SP83 WA XY Method XY Source
Elevation
Code
Group
HARN)
HARN)
(NAVD88 ft)
Completed
Well Depth
(feet)
Production Zone
Well
Bottom of
Specific Pump
Installation Top of Open
Diameter
Open Interval Capacity Rate
Date
Interval (feet)
(inches)
(feet)
(gpm/ft) (gpm)
155
6
2/29/1980
80
130
6
4/12/1988
130
155
Summary of Static Water
Level (SWL) Readings
Well Test Information
Drawdown
(feet)
Test
Duration Test Type
(hours)
Average
(feet)
Minimum Maximum
(feet)
(feet)
Geologic
Information
Completed
Unit Type
Depth to
Bedrock
(feet)
76
0.05
7
155
1.5
Bailer Test
3
3
3
B
0.08
10
125
1.5
Bailer Test
58.14
48
75
U
26N 03W 20 E
274143
1084093
GPS
DOE
722.8
DEM
O
56
56
6
4/2/1979
51.5
56
45
603243013
26N 03W 24
273037
1105985
PC
AC
668.2
DEM
D
233
233
6
8/17/1993
213
233
4
603243007
26N 03W 24 N
272282
1105263
PC
AC
337.1
DEM
D
118
118
6
4/24/1993
85
118
7
1
Air Test
50
50
603243009
26N 03W 24 P
272249
1106398
PC
AC
406.1
DEM
D
262
262
6
2/23/1995
242
262
7
1
Air Test
17
17
259105
1132001
PC
AC
15.5
LIDAR
110
Unknown
67.32
63.23
9.945
9.04
2
Artesian
27
27
27
U
Air Test
12
12
12
B
13
50
B
56
17
B
0
72.7
B
15
10.85
U
2
602341040
26N 02W 34 J?
264468
1130122
GPS
JC
305.12
SURVEY
D
258
941700314
26N 02W 35
259256
260375
1131470
1131895
GPS
GPS
JC
AC
21.27
13
SURVEY
LIDAR
D
35.85
35
258
1/1/1984
50
0
6
Notes:
1 - The owners common well reference name or DOH well reference name may also be included.
2 - Well #14 is completed in the unconsolidated formation (20' to 33' bgs), yet also cased 3' into basalt (57' to 60' bgs).
Legend:
Parcel ID Number:
M - Indicates that multiple parcel numbers are associated with a given name, and that no unique match could be made.
XY Method Codes:
GPS - Wells located with a GPS unit.
MAP - Well locations based on coordinates field located on a map.
PC - Well locations based on coordinates at the center of the parcel.
TRS - Well located to the nearest section.
TRSQQ - Well located to the nearest 1/4 1/4 section.
XY Source Codes:
AC - Aspect Consulting
DOE - Washington State Department of Ecology
DOH - Washington State Department of Health
JC - Jefferson County
USGS - United States Geological Survey
Z Accuracy Codes:
DEM - Elevations are based on USGS 10 meter DEM data. However, elevation accuracy is also dependent on XY locational accuracy.
LIDAR - Elevations are based on LIDAR data from the Puget Sound LIDAR Consortium. However, elevation accuracy is also dependent on XY locational accuracy.
SEC - Due to limited XY accuracy, the elevations for these wells have been determined at the center of the section. The elevation is taken from LIDAR data where available, or DEM data. All data rounded to the nearest five feet..
SURVEY - Elevations based on Survey Grade GPS.
Well Use:
C = Commercial
D = Domestic
GRPB = Group B DOH Well
ID = Industrial
IR = Irrigation
M = Municipal Well
NTNC = Non-Transient Non-Community
O = Other
T = Test Well
TNC = Transient Non-Community
PWSID: Public Water System ID
Production Zone: Wells listing only top of open interval are completed with an open end casing at total well depth. For wells with multiple open intervals, only the top opening of the upper interval and the lowest opening of the bottom interval are shown.
Completed Unit Type:
B - The well was completed in a basalt unit.
U - The well was completed in an unconsolidated unit.
W:\030116 WRIA 16\Final Report\WRIA 16 Groundwater Study Wells.xls
Aspect Consulting, LLC
3/29/2005
APPENDIX B
Surface Water/Groundwater
Interaction: Field Methods and
Laboratory Data
ASPECT CONSULTING
This Appendix provides a description of the field methods used in the hydrogeologic
investigation of the lower Dosewallips/Brinnon Area.
B.1 Discharge Measurements
Discharge measurements of the Dosewallips River and Rocky Brook were made using
the USGS standard six-tenths depth area-velocity technique (Rantz, 1982). Transect
locations varied slightly in order to minimize turbulence, avoid eddies, and select a
wadeable site for the stream conditions encountered. For flow measurement, a transect is
divided into 20 to 25 stations using a tape placed across the channel. The stream depth
and the velocity at six-tenths depth are measured at each station using a Swoffer Model
3000 cunent meter with a calibrated 2-inch propeller. Total flow is calculated as the sum
of the velocity-area products for the stations. All measurements are stored in the meter.
Velocity measurements and total flow are later adjusted to the propeller calibration curve.
Measurement accuracy for the area-velocity technique is estimated to be +/- 3 percent.
Flow measurements in cubic feet per second ( cfs) are summarized in the following table:
Transect A
Transect B
Rocky
Brook
Transect C
Transect D
10/9/03
183
212
1 est.
196
182
10/10/04
145
158
1 est.
156
161
2/27/04
533
564
63
448
417 est.
During low flow conditions, discharges were measured at four transects on October 9 and
again on October 10, 2003. The first flow measurements each day began at Transect A,
followed by Transects B, C, and D. Discharge and stage at the Highway 101 Bridge
(Transect A) were measured at both the beginning and end of the day. The iiver flow
was decreasing during both days. The flow measurements at upstream transects were
conected to the time of the first flow measurement at the blidge. A linear change in flow
during the peliod of measurements was assumed and flows reduced accordingly. These
adjustments in flow varied from 1 percent to 8 percent, although the difference in
adjustment between the upstream and downstream location for any given reach was
relatively small, ranging from 1.3 percent to 3.7 percent. Other than inflow of about 1 cfs
from Rocky Brook, no tlibuta1y inflow was identified dming the October measurements.
Small flow (estimated at about 20 gpm) was noted in the upstream po1tion of an unnamed
tlibuta1y on the south side of Reach 3, but infiltrated into subsurface soils before reaching
the Dosewallips River.
Flows were again measured dming high water levels on Febma1y 27, 2004 at Transects
A, B, and C and at Rocky Brook. Transect D could not be safely waded at that time.
Flows at Transects C and D (Reach 3) were measured on March 4, 2004. These flows
were adjusted to Febma1y 27, 2004 flows based on the propo1tional difference in flow at
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 • MARCH 30, 2005
B-1
ASPECT CONSULTING
Transect C on the 2 days for the purposes of applying tributary inflow estimates from the
February 27 gaging.
During the February and March measurements, tributary inflow was occurring down
several steep gradient streams that were not readily measurable. Tributary inflow for this
period was estimated based Rocky Brook gaging. Runoff per unit area was calculated
based on Rocky Brook gaging and applied to the ungaged tributary areas for Reaches 2
and 3. As such, computed seepage values for the February/March measurements are
considered estimated for Reaches 2 and 3. No adjustment was made to Reach 1 for
tributary inflow. This reach has a relatively small catchment to the south as State Park
Creek intercepts a large portion of the runoff from the south. No inflows were identified
along the north side of the channel on this reach.
B.2 Piezometer Installations and Measurements
Mini-piezometers were installed to measure groundwater levels. The piezometers were
hand-driven ½-inch or 1¼-inch steel pipe typically 7 feet long. In two cases (P-5 and
P-18), the pipes were extended with couplers in order to reach groundwater. The tip of a
½-inch pipe was flattened into a wedge. Three triangles were cut from the tip of a
1¼-inch pipe and the remaining points sections hammered into a point. Each pipe was
perforated with a total of fourteen 1/8-inch holes, which were set in four rows and located
at 0.2 to 1.0 feet from the tip.
The piezometers were developed by continuous pumping (with a Geotech peristaltic
pump) and intermittent surging (with ¼-inch by 3/8-inch vinyl tubing). Development
was regarded complete when surging did not bring sediment into the piezometer. Two
piezometers were abandoned. P-6 produced insufficient water, probably due to
installation in silt. The P-4 installation was considered in direct communication with the
river based on identical head values. Additional probes were installed during the study to
replace or supplement those impacted by changes in the channel. All probes were
surveyed with survey grade GPS by Jefferson County.
The ½-inch pipes were installed as in-stream piezometers. The 1¼-inch-diameter pipes
were installed back from the river edge and were instrumented with temperature loggers
(see below). Measurements were made monthly. The measurements for the ½-inch instream piezometers included stickup, static water level (SWL), submergence, head
difference between surface and groundwater, and conductivity and temperature for both
surface water and groundwater. The 1¼-inch piezometers were monitored for stickup,
SWL, and temperature. A peristaltic pump was used to pull both surface and
groundwater through 0.170 x ¼-inch LDPE or ¼ x ¾-inch vinyl tubing for measurement
of specific conductivity and temperature. Flow was directed into an open bottle
containing the instrument probe. The flow was continuous except when readings were
made (Appendix B.4).
Groundwater to surface water head differences were measured with a 36-inch-long,
inverted U-tube manometer (Winter et al., 1988). Groundwater was pulled up through
B-2
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
one tube of the manometer using suction from the peristaltic pump until the flow was
stable and free of bubbles. The bottom of the first tube was then closed and surface water
pulled through the other tube. The bottoms of both tubes were then opened to their
respective sources, the top of the U-tube closed, the pump disconnected, and air bled into
the top of the U-tube. The fluid levels were allowed to equilibrate, the values recorded,
and the differential head calculated. Accuracy of reading was +/- 0.1 inch of water.
Surface water head was usually measured at the instream piezometer. For out-of-stream
piezometers, the surface water head was measured at the nearest in-stream piezometer. A
special circumstance existed at Cluster 4. All four piezometers measured surface water at
a downstream eddy which was receiving groundwater discharge between the row of
piezometers and a bedrock wall (see inset on Figure 4.2). Vertical hydraulic gradient
(dh/dl) was calculated as the difference in groundwater and surface water heads (dh)
divided by a length (dl). For instream piezometers, the point of interaction was taken to
be the stream bottom and the length (dl) calculated as the difference between the stream
bottom and middle of the perforated interval. For out-of-stream piezometers, interaction
was taken to be at a point projected horizontally from the top of the stream. Length (dl)
was then calculated as piezometer length less static water level less head difference.
These relationships are depicted graphically in Figure 4.4.
B.3 Temperature and Level Monitoring
Continuous monitoring of temperature was conducted at ten locations. Level was also
monitored at three of those sites.
Seven recording temperature sensors (Onset Tidbits) were installed. These sensors are
approximately 1.2-inch diameter and 0.8-inches thick. Accuracy was verified in an icewater bath prior to deployment. Air temperature was monitored at the Dosewallips State
Park under the eave of the pump house at well 17. River temperature was monitored at
Clusters 2 and 4 by protecting the sensor in a short length of steel pipe that was cabled to
an anchor. Groundwater temperature was monitored in four out-of-stream 1¼-inch
piezometers. Sensors were hung at the mid-point of the perforations.
Temperature/level transducer/loggers (Instrumentation Northwest, Model PT2X, 15 psi
range) were installed in well 9, in stilling well P-17 in the Dosewallips River at Lazy C,
and in out-of-stream piezometer P-18, also at Lazy C. The transducer elevation, or
depth-to-transducer, was monitored for quality assurance.
B.4 Geochemical Tracer Testing and Analysis
Water sampling for the purpose of measuring field temperature and conductivity was
performed with a peristaltic pump as described above in section B.1. A YSI Model 30
conductivity meter was used to measure specific conductivity and temperature. The
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
B-3
ASPECT CONSULTING
meter was calibrated with a 447 micro/siemens per (µS/cm) standard solution prior to
each day’s use. Readings were made periodically until stable values were achieved.
B.5 Laboratory Reported Analytical Testing Results
Water samples were collected on March 12, 2004 at the four river transects and from five
wells. Water quality parameters (specific conductivity and pH) were measured at the
time of collection. Major ion analysis was conducted by North Creek Analytical, Inc.
following EPA method 200.7 for dissolved metals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and
sodium), Standard Method SM 2320B for carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide, and total
alkalinity, and EPA method 300.0 for anions (chloride and sulfate). Stable isotope ratio
analyses for 18-oxygen and deuterium were performed by Geochron Laboratories.
Sample were collected in laboratory prepared sample jars. Major ion samples were
stored on blue ice during shipping. All samples were transported using standard chain of
custody protocol. Laboratory reported data sheets are included at the end of this
Appendix.
B-4
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
Spokane 1"1922 E. 1s~ AvenLe. Spokane \/3:iey V•'r"-~ 9Sr<1 fl.ST,,~:
5~S
Portland
924.g20C: 1ax 509 924 :;1290
9~05
S'•\' N1rnbJs A.-er::..:e.
~eaver!or
Of( 97008- i'~ 3::
503.9C6.920G fax Sl1 3.906 921G
Bend 2C332 EtT1tJ1re Avemie, Su:te F-'i, Bend, OR ':l7701-5/·J't
541183 9:1'0 iax 541.382 7588
A~chorage 200J \\' :::te~r·at1ora1 ..\1rport Road, Su;te AW ..A.richora]t:. AK 99502-1119
907 563.9.":'0C fax '.-'07 S63.92rn
02 April 2004
Joe Lubischer
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
RE: Dosewallips
Enclosed are the results of analyses for samples received by the laboratory on 03/20/04 09:30. If you have any
questions concerning this report, please feel free to contact me.
Sincerely,
Jeff Gerdes
Project Manager
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Sedt~!e
~~0rt::
C>-eei.: h:'I-) N
S·,~:te
4JO,
S~ithe!i y,,,·.f\'.J80~1"fi2,1~
,125.420 :?7.0C fax 425 470 1:-J/.1 O
~
Spokan.e
Portla'1d S4C:5
ht
Av~n.Je.
~\V N1r.~bus
S:.x...~ane Valley 'N/1,
A.veriue
Beavert~:i~;
9~~JC1f.:J3C2
OR 3?QC:B ./132
)03 906 9200 fax 503 90C 9210
Send 20332 Ernp:reAven;..;e, Su:te F-1,
541 383 93' n fax 541 382.7588
Ber~d. G~ ~i77D1-57i·:
Anchorage
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
ANALYTICAL REPORT FOR SAMPLES
Sample ID
Laboratory ID
Matrix
Date Sampled
Date Received
# 1 Transect 4
B4C0590-0I
Water
03/18/0416:00
03120104 09:30
#2 Transect 3
B4C0590-02
Water
03/18/04 08:25
03120104 09:30
#4 Transect 2
B4C0590-03
Water
03/18/04 18:50
03120104 09:30
#5 Transect 1
B4C0590-04
Water
03/18/04 08:00
03/20/04 09:30
#6PUD
B4C0590-05
Water
03/18/04 11:15
03/20/04 09:30
#7 Haley
B4C0590-06
Water
03/18/04 17:00
03/20/04 09:30
#8 Fire
B4C0590-07
Water
03/18/04 11:50
03/20/04 09:30
#9 Well 9
B4C0590-08
Water
03/18/04 11 :00
03120104 09:30
#10 Hockett
B4C0590-09
Water
03/18/04 16:00
03/20/04 09:30
North Creek Allalyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Page 1 of 13
-172c ~ff)rt!~ Cree!< Pl\wy ~.Suite J.Q~, 80:~':' 1 1 ~''VA :180:·:
425 420 9200 fax 425 £120.9/'IO
Spokanfl "! 1SL2 E. '.st .l\vpnue, Spokane Va!:ey. \VA 992G6 5.'02
SeaWe
509 924
8L-+·+
fax 509.924 9290
Port!and 94CS SW l\J.mbus A·. enue. B~avertor. OR S/C1G8-?;22
503.906.9200 tax 503.906.921
1
a
54138393i0 fa,:: 541 382.7588
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Dissolved Metals by EPA 200 Series Methods
North Creek Analytical- Bothell
Result
Analyte
#1Transect4 (B4C0590-01) Water
Reporting
Limit
Units
Dilution
Batch
Prepared
Analyzed
Method
03123104
EPA200.7
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
18.6
0.250
Potassium
2.28
2.00
03124104
Magnesium
1.63
0.500
03123104
Sodium
2.21
0.250
#2 Transect 3 (B4C0590-02) Water
mg/I
4C23017
03123104
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:25 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
18.7
0.250
Potassium
2.47
2.00
03124104
Magnesium
1.68
0.500
03123104
Sodium
2.20
0.250
#4 Transect 2 (B4C0590-03) Water
mg/I
4C23017
03123104
03123104
Sampled: 03/18/04 18:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
17.6
0.250
Potassium
3.04
2.00
03125104
Magnesium
1.67
0.500
03123104
Sodium
2.17
0.250
#5 Transect 1 (B4C0590-04) Water
mg/I
4C23017
03/23/04
03123104
18.0
0.250
Potassium
2.97
2.00
03125104
Magnesium
1.76
0.500
03123104
Sodium
2.47
0.250
mg/I
4C23017
03123104
03123104
EPA200.7
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:15 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
28.1
0.250
Potassium
2.42
2.00
03125104
Magnesium
2.71
29.7
0.500
0.250
03123104
Sodium
North Creek Aiialyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
EPA200.7
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
#6 PUD (B4C0590-05) Water
EPA200.7
mg/I
4C23017
03123104
03/23/04
EPA200.7
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 2 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
S~att:e
'·: :2l' :"~~ir:r Crrek F 1 ~''•"/ :~. Sc;1te
425 <12C 921X1 1ar. 425.42C.921C.1
Spokanl' ; ~ 92 2 E : st Aver;,,e Soor.aie Vri1ii::~. \.VA 9'.-12C6~:'.;3:~·
sr~o :Ji4 970C fax ;,09 924 9~'9C
Portland 3.:iOS S~V ~'i·rrbus Averiue Beavb'1•:•r,_ OF~ \! lGC:B-7 i ::2
50;; 906 921)1) fax 503 906.921C
Bend 203'.12 E:iipire lwenue, SJ1te F-1. Bent. ·JR c:ino1-~71i
54': 32-3 931:J fax 541 352 7588
Ant:borage
. ..J\./V,J4. II_.
Project: Dosewallips
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
Reported:
Project Number: 030116
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
04/02/04 12:48
Dissolved Metals by EPA 200 Series Methods
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Analyte
#7 Haley (B4C0590-06) Water
Result
Reporting
Limit
Units
Dilution
Batch
Prepared
4C23017
03/23/04
Analyzed
Method
03/23/04
EPA200.7
Sampled: 03/18/04 17:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
10.3
0.250
Potassium
ND
2.00
03/25/04
Magnesium
4.08
0.500
03/23/04
Sodium
4.79
0.250
#8 Fire (B4C0590-07) Water
mg/I
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
14.2
0.250
Potassium
ND
2.00
03125104
03/23/04
Magnesium
1.66
0.500
Sodium
2.07
0.250
#9 Well 9 (B4C0590-08) Water
mg/I
4C23017
03/23/04
03/23/04
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Calcium
14.7
0.250
Potassium
ND
2.00
03/25/04
Magnesium
1.55
0.500
03/23/04
Sodium
1.95
0.250
#10 Hockett (B4C0590-09) Water
mg/I
4C23017
03/23/04
03/23/04
Calcium
25.0
0.250
ND
2.00
03/25/04
Magnesium
5.16
0.500
03/23/04
Sodium
7.29
0.250
North Creek Allalyt1cal - Bothell
EPA 200.7
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Potassium
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
EPA 200.7
mg/I
4C23017
03/23/04
03/23/04
EPA 200.7
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 3 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
Seatte ::720 N0rtf- Cree~. P~,'Ni ~J Si_,:te 4CC, Bn\~r,!, WA 9tC~~-S~!4~
42J 421J fi20J fax 425 a2u 921CJ
Spokane
E :~i: A\er1Je Spokam~ Vaitey 'NA .~::;206-:13CI.
50~.924.920C f3x
Portland
509.924 9290
9·~GS
SV·/ N·rntiu<; Ave~1L;e, Bea·verton. 0::\
503 ~Ot. 920C fox S03.906.92i0
~~
/(J:Jd-7112
Send ~·)332 !:'llf.J;re Averiue. Suiti:: F-~ t\eflcL OR 97701-571!
54~ 38:\ 33!0 fax 54"13827588
,6.nchorage 2000 v\' !r;terna:1or~a! Airp1111 Road SJ.te .A· J. Anchorage. AK 99502- 1119
Project: Dosewallips
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Project Number: 030116
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Reported:
04102104 12:48
Conventional Chemistry Parameters by APHA/EPA Methods
North Creek Analytical- Bothell
Analyte
Result
#1 Transect 4 (B4C0590-01) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
#2 Transect 3 (B4C0590-02) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
Hydroxide Alkalinity
·'r
Total Alkalinity
#4 Transect 2 (B4C0590-03) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
#5 Transect 1 (B4C0590-04) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
44.6
5.00
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
Analyzed
Method
03/23/04
03/23/04
SM 2320B
03/23/04
03/23/04
SM2320B
03/23/04
03/23/04
SM 2320B
4C23039
03/23/04
03/23/04
SM 2320B
4C23039
03/23/04
03/23/04
SM2320B
Note
4C23039
5.00
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
ND
ND
5.00
46.8
5.00
4C23039
5.00
Sampled: 03/18/04 18:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
ND
ND
5.00
43.2
5.00
4C23039
5.00
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
ND
ND
5.00
43.8
5.00
5.00
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:15 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
30.8
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
Carbonate Alkalinity
8.80
5.00
ND
5.00
39.6
5.00
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
Prepared
Batch
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:25 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
43.8
Carbonate Alkalinity
#6 PUD (B4C0590-05) Water
5.00
43.2
Carbonate Alkalinity
Dilution
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
ND
ND
46.8
Carbonate Alkalinity
Units
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
44.6
Carbonate Alkalinity
Reporting
Limit
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Page 4 of 13
Spokane
1: J=i::
A.venue. Spo~.dne \/a::ey, \NA G9LGG-5'3C2
.~·~)9 ~24 :~20 1~1
fa1 so~i 924.92~0
Portland 9JC 5 S',\' '.'J 1 ~ 1 1bJS Avenue. Beaverton, OR Sf'.)08-7: ~1~
50~.9C6 D2GO fax 503.905.9210
Ber.d 20332 Emp1reA\enue, Suite F-1, Bend OR 97701·57:1
54~.383 9li0 fa~ 54i 382.7588
Anr.horage 2(~:o_:v· lnterr,at1:inal A :;;ort Road, St,.;1te A 1C', AncJ1:YClge A..~ 99502··"111 g
Project: Dosewallips
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
Reported:
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
04/02/04 12:48
Conventional Chemistry Parameters by APHA/EP A Methods
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Result
Analyte
#7 Haley (B4C0590-06) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
50.0
ND
ND
Hydroxide Alkalinity
50.0
Total Alkalinity
38.4
Carbonate Alkalinity
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
Batch
Prepared
Analyzed
Method
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
5.00
4C23039
03123104
03123104
SM2320B
4C23039
03123104
03123104
SM 2320B
4C23039
03123104
03123104
SM2320B
03123104
03123104
SM2320B
5.00
5.00
ND
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
5.00
ND
5.00
38.4
5.00
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
37.8
Carbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
5.00
Hydroxide Alkalinity
ND
5.00
37.8
5.00
Total Alkalinity
#10 Hockett (B4C0590-09) Water
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
Carbonate Alkalinity
Hydroxide Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
North Creek Arialyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
Dilution
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
#9 Well 9 (B4C0590-08) Water
Units
Sampled: 03/18/04 17:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Carbonate Alkalinity
#8 Fire (B4C0590-07) Water
Reporting
Limit
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
98.0
ND
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
5.00
ND
5.00
98.0
5.00
4C23039
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Page 5 of 13
~1 :'2G NJrth Creel\ Pkwy~~ S1J1tc JOG 81·.~i 1 e·:. WA '.JBGii-:244
-1L5 .lL:O 9200 fax 425 42C 9210
Spokane i 1S22 E ~ sr Ave;~ue. Spokane \/alley. WA 99206-53l\~
5CS 924 9200 fat. S09 924.9290
Portland S4C5 SW N"i'.bus/i.venui::. Beaverton. GR ~J!'CCIB-1132
503 906 9200 fax 503.906.9210
Bend 20332 '.:1>p1re Aven~1e. Suite F· 1, 8And, oq 91701-5711
541 3B3 9310 fax 541.382 7588
Seattie
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Anions by EPA Method 300.0
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Result
Analyte
#1Transect4 (B4C0590-01) Water
Chloride
Sulfate
#2 Transect 3 (B4C0590-02) Water
Chloride
Sulfate
#4 Transect 2 (B4C0590-03) Water
Chloride
Sulfate
#5 Transect 1 (B4C0590-04) Water
Chloride
Sulfate
#6 PUD (B4C0590-05) Water
Reporting
Limit
0.711
0.400
7.72
0.400
0.707
0.400
7.72
0.400
Prepared
Analyzed
Method
mg/I
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
EPA 300.0
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
mg/I
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
EPA 300.0
Sampled: 03/18/04 18:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
0.828
0.400
7.28
0.400
mg/1
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
EPA 300.0
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
0.820
0.400
7.34
0.400
mg/l
EPA 300.0
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:15 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
20.0
Sulfate
8.98
0.400
mg/I
50
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
EPA 300.0
Sampled: 03/18/04 17:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Chloride
1.18
0.400
Sulfate
1.33
0.400
mg/1
EPA 300.0
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:50 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Chloride
Sulfate
North Creek Allalyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
Batch
Sampled: 03/18/04 08:25 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
62.7
#8 Fire (B4C0590-07) Water
Dilution
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Chloride
#7 Haley (B4C0590-06) Water
Units
0.834
0.400
5.59
0.400
mg/I
4C30001
03/29/04
03/29/04
4C28007
03/26/04
03/26/04
EPA 300.0
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Page 6 of 13
Seat!.le
~ 1 <.t Aven:Je. S::;,)~ane \1Ji;E y. \VA
:'.12.+ 920Ll fax ::ing 924.9290
Portlani:1 g~c::- S\\· N'TDuS A,ver ,Je. BE-8VPr'cor:, o.r.;; ~~."JO~..
Spokaoe
1
I
~
32
50'3 9Cit g200 f3y 5.J3.906 921G
Bend 2C<532 frnpire A-.Tr;ue. Su:tP F-1. Se:-ic:. CR 97?'._;'i ·5711
54 I 383 9'.<1 t> fa> 541382 7588
Anchorage
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
".\ intdn&cGna! A.:port Road. Su1:e A1C. A'":~~'1or~1~~ AK 99502- !~~ 9
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Anions by EPA Method 300.0
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Analyte
#9 Well 9 (B4C0590-08) Water
Result
Reporting
Limit
Dilution
Batch
Prepared
Analyzed
Method
4C30001
03/29/04
03129104
EPA300.0
4C28007
03126104
03126104
4C30001
03129104
03/29/04
4C28007
03126104
03126104
Note
Sampled: 03/18/04 11:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Chloride
Sulfate
#10 Hockett (B4C0590-09) Water
0.870
0.400
5.96
0.400
1.02
0.400
Sulfate
1.49
0.400
North Creek Arialyt1cal - Bothell
mg/I
Sampled: 03/18/04 16:00 Received: 03/20/04 09:30
Chloride
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
Units
mg/I
EPA300.0
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 7 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
Seattle
1·~·2·-1 ~fortr'
425
4~:0
Creeli: Pkwy N S:J!te 40J
9200
;';1X
Bot~.e::,
Wi--\
sC:J:J.8'.24•~
425 42'.J.9210
Spokane ::0;:2 E :s: ..\v'ern!e, Spvkane Valley, Vr'A 9920E·S:<J2
5·J~ 924 920() fox 509 924 9290
Portiand S4'.:5 sv,,, nrnbt...s /weriuE; Beaverlo:i OR n70C8·7~'.j2
503 906.9200 fa;.. 503.jOE.92~0
Bend :'iJ332 Empire Averue. Suite F-~. Bene. OR S77(11·57i1
54~.383 9310 f.;x S4~ 382.7588
Anchorage ~?~O :~ ;,~:t:>rr.at1c1a.l~A,1rport :02'.j, S'-.J•te Al 0 Anch~Jra~Jf AK 99502- i ~ 19
Project: Dosewallips
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
ProjectNumber: 030116
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98 I 10
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Dissolved Metals by EPA 200 Series Methods - Quality Control
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Analyte
Batch 4C23017:
Result
Prepared 03/23/04
Reporting
Limit
Units
Spike
Level
Source
Result
%REC
%REC
Limits
RPD
RPD
Limit
Notes
Using EPA 200 Series
Blank (4C23017-BLK1)
Calcium
ND
0.250
Potassium
ND
2.00
mg/I
Magnesium
ND
0.500
Sodium
ND
0.250
Calcium
4.67
0.250
5.00
93.4
85-115
Potassium
9.26
2.00
10.0
92.6
85-115
Magnesium
4.75
0.500
5.00
95.0
85-115
Sodium
4.81
0.250
5.00
96.2
85-115
Calcium
4.74
0.250
5.00
94.8
85-115
1.49
20
Potassium
9.32
2.00
10.0
93.2
85-115
0.646
20
Magnesium
4.72
0.500
5.00
94.4
85-115
0.634
20
Sodium
4.74
0.250
5.00
94.8
85-115
1.47
20
Calcium
19.0
0.250
18.6
2.13
20
Potassium
2.28
2.00
2.28
0.00
20
Magnesium
1.66
0.500
1.63
1.82
20
Sodium
2.19
0.250
2.21
0.909
20
LCS (4C23017-BS1)
mg/I
LCS Dup (4C23017-BSD1)
mg/I
Duplicate (4C23017-DUP1)
Source: B4C0590-01
mg/I
Matrix Spike (4C23017-MS1)
Source: B4C0590-01
Calcium
23.4
0.250
5.00
18.6
96.0
80-120
Potassium
12.6
2.00
10.0
2.28
103
80-120
Magnesium
6.58
0.500
5.00
1.63
99.0
80-120
Sodium
7.06
0.250
5.00
2.21
97.0
80-120
North Creek Aiialyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
mg/I
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Environmental Laboratory Network
Page 8 of 13
Sea toe ·: 1?20 ~or~r: ~;rc2i.: ~)i.,lhy ~. S;1:te -400. Bot~ . .,n, lf/i'. 9[1.C! 11·8244
425.470.9200 1ax 425 420.9210
Spokane 11 G?2 E ~ sr ,.O.vc-n~e. Spokc:1r:r Valley, WA. 9S/.C1G-SJi)2
'.:/19 ~24.92G 1J f,3:i; 509 q24 9290
N:~•bus
Portland 9•1C5 S'N
Avenue,
Be~:ivertor
OK 97008-7132
503.906 9200 fax 503.906.9210
Bend :J.3'32 Enop1re Avenue. S:.:1te F-1, Bend, OR
97701-57~~
~41.381.93:0
Anchorage 20CC
(',,.
.
\~;
. "'
faw; 5·~1.382.7588
!ritc-.. r,at1or:al Airport qGad. S._:•te Ai:} Anchorage. AK 98502-:1:9
.,..,.., ,.,, "
('
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Dissolved Metals by EPA 200 Series Methods - Quality Control
North Creek Analytical- Bothell
Analyte
Batch 4C23017:
Result
Prepared 03/23/04
Reporting
Limit
Units
Spike
Level
Matrix Spike (4C23017-MS2)
%REC
Limits
RPD
RPD
Limit
Notes
Source: B4C0600-01
27.6
0.250
14.l
Sodium
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
%REC
Using EPA 200 Series
Calcium
Potassium
Magnesium
North Creek Allalyt1cal- Bothell
Source
Result
mg/I
5.00
23.l
90.0
80-120
2.00
10.0
5.25
88.5
80-120
22.1
0.500
5.00
18.0
82.0
80-120
16.0
0.250
5.00
11.3
94.0
80-120
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 9 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
Seattle :H?:J
i'~tY'.h ()f:t?h. Pl..'11-y N. S·.i~te 4r.:c. 80t•el!, WA 96C,11~~:241
425.420 920C! fa,. 425 42C s2:0
Spokane 1~922 !:. ·ist Ave::ue. Spo1<w1~ Va1ley, WA 99::06-:<3C2
SC9.924.9200 fax 509 924 929C
Portland 94C·5 SW N1rrbu;; AvePue, Beaverton. OR 970QEl.?132
503.906 9200 fax 503 906 9210
Bend 20332 Empire.Avenue. Suite F-1. Ber:d OR 97701-s·:1~
541 383 9310 fax 541382 1588
Anchorage 2CCO lv. !n~err.at 1 ona1 ,Airport Road Suite .A10. A'":cboragc .A.K 99502·1119
,..,,~- ;:"':"I
' -
'~~ ' " ' " " "
Project: Dosewallips
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Project Number: 030116
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Reported:
04/02/04 12:48
Conventional Chemistry Parameters by APHA/EPA Methods - Quality Control
North Creek Analytical- Bothell
Analyte
Batch 4C23039:
Result
Prepared 03/23/04
Reporting
Limit
Units
Spike
Level
Source
Result
%REC
%REC
Limits
RPD
RPD
Limit
Notes
Using General Preparation
Blank (4C23039-BLK1)
-----
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
Carbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Hydroxide Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Total Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Blank (4C23039-BLK2)
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
Carbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Hydroxide Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Total Alkalinity
ND
5.00
Duplicate (4C23039-DUP1)
Source: B4C0590-01
44.6
0.449
20
Carbonate Alkalinity
ND
5.00
ND
NA
20
Hydroxide Alkalinity
ND
5.00
ND
NA
20
44.4
5.00
44.6
0.449
20
Bicarbonate Alkalinity
Total Alkalinity
North Creek Aiialyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
44.4
5.00 mg/Las CaC03
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 10 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
fax 425 4.20 9210
Aven...ie, Spoi<a'le \!aiiey. ·1ir·1\ ·3921Jz>S:?.C'7
425.42C.'::2:~i0
Spokane
:;?22 f
:10:1 924 g2ou fr.ix 5'.J9 824:~290
Portland s.;105 ~~W .\i,.n~us Aven.:e, Beavertcr·. OR 97008-7132
5C3.9\)6 9200 fax 503.SOfi :12:0
Bend 2(:332 Er~p.:c Avenue, Suite F·t 8end. OR 97701-5711
5~ ~ 383 93 :C1 fax 54; .382 7538
Anchorage
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98 I I 0
Reported:
04102104 12:48
Anions by EPA Method 300.0 - Quality Control
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Analyte
Batch 4C28007:
Result
Prepared 03/26/04
Blank (4C28007-BLK1)
Sulfate
Reporting
Limit
Units
Spike
Level
Source
Result
Limits
0.400
mg/I
LCS (4C28007-BS1)
Sulfate
6.06
0.400
mg/I
6.00
IOI
90-110
LCS Dup (4C28007-BSD1)
Sulfate
5.99
0.400
mg/I
6.00
99.8
90-110
Duplicate (4C28007-DUP1)
Sulfate
7.72
0.400
mg/I
Duplicate (4C28007-DUP2)
Sulfate
1.38
0.400
mg/I
7.72
1.34
0.800
mg/I
6.00
Matrix Spike (4C28007-MS2)
Sulfate
7.28
0.400
mg/I
6.00
0.00
25
2.94
25
Source: B4C0590-01
7.72
IOI
58-135
Source: B4C0608-01
1.34
99.0
58-135
95.5
90-110
Using General Preparation
Blank (4C30001-BLK1)
Chloride
ND
0.400
mg/I
LCS (4C30001-BS1)
Chloride
1.91
0.400
mg/I
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
20
Source: B4C0608-01
13.8
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
1.16
Notes
Source: B4C0590-01
Matrix Spike (4C28007-MS1)
Sulfate
Prepared 03/29/04
RPD
Limit
Using General Preparation
ND
Batch 4C30001:
RPD
%REC
%REC
2.00
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 11 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
42~·
il2C1 9i00
~a:a:
425 ll20 9210
Spokane 1P22 E 1~): AvenuP Spo~ane l/Jl!ey. SA 99'206"5302
sue 924 s2uo faj S:J9 924.9290
Portland S,!;:;5 SW N·rnbLis P.:.enue. Beaver'tJ:-1, GR 97008"713/
bOJ.906 CJ200 fax 503.906.9210
Send 2c:~32 E::ipire /~.venue, Su 1te F·1. Bel'.d. OR 97701~571'1
541 383.9310 fax 541 382.7588
Anchorage 2L:OG VV !nt~rn2t1ona! ,fl.,rport ~oad. S·Jite A; 0 . .A.ichx0ge. AK 995•J2- ~ ~ 19
Project: Dosewallips
Project Number: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, WA/USA 98110
Reported:
04102104 12:48
Anions by EPA Method 300.0 - Quality Control
North Creek Analytical - Bothell
Analyte
Batch 4C30001:
Result
Prepared 03/29/04
Reporting
Limit
Units
Spike
Level
1.95
Duplicate (4C30001-DUP1)
Chloride
0.775
0.400
mg/I
Duplicate (4C30001-DUP2)
Chloride
0.811
0.400
mg/I
2.00
2.00
0.400
mg/I
%REC
Limits
RPD
Limit
97.5
90-110
2.07
20
8.61
25
2.80
25
RPD
Notes
2.00
Source: B4C0590-01
·----~-·---
0.711
Source: B4C0590-07
Matrix Spike (4C30001-MS1)
Chloride
2.67
0.400
mg/I
Matrix Spike (4C30001-MS2)
Chloride
2.67
0.400
mg/I
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
%REC
Using General Preparation
LCS Dup (4C30001-BSD1)
Chloride
North Creek Allalyt1cal - Bothell
Source
Result
0.834
Source: B4C0590-01
·-------·
0.711
98.0
52-134
Source: B4C0590-07
0.834
91.8
52-134
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 12 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
SeJttie
Spokane
Portland
Bend
Anchorage
Aspect Consulting - Bainbridge Island
179 Madrone Lane N
Bainbridge Island, W NUSA 98110
Project: Dosewallips
ProjectNumber: 030116
Project Manager: Joe Lubischer
?20 ~ur'.~: CiN:k Pill.VY N Suite 400 Bcit:•f' 1'. 1/./,\ ~1P,Qii-824J
425 420 92DC fax 425 421J 9210
: '1 ;22 E i st Avenue, Spo~J::~ Vaik~y '~\/A g~;2D6-G 1C2
s 1:g 92~.:i~co fax 509 924.9290
~;405 SVv N:r<1b..:s Aven1.,e, Beaverton. OR ~i70Qf.7'132
5('3 906 9'.200 fax 503 906.~210
20332 E~p!re Avenue. Suite F-1 Bend. DR S770i-57i1
54; 383 931U fax 541.382 7588
2J(lQ W ir.te;nat:oqal Airport Road. Suite A1O A:1cho1 age. AK 99502-1'.~9
Reported:
04102104 12:48
Notes and Definitions
DET
Analyte DETECTED
ND
Analyte NOT DETECTED at or above the reporting limit
NR
Not Reported
dry
Sample results reported on a dry weight basis
RPD
Relative Percent Difference
North Creek Allalyt1cal - Bothell
Jeff Gerdes, Project Manager
The results in this report apply to the samples analyzed in accordance with the chain of
custody document. This analytical report must be reproduced in its entirety.
North Creek Analytical, Inc.
Page 13 of 13
Environmental Laboratory Network
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CHAIN OF CUSTODY REPORT
CLIENT SAMPLE
IDENTIFICATION
1
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425-420-9200
509-924-9200
503-906-9200
541-383-9310
907-334-9200
Work Order #:
SAMPLING
DATE/TIME
1vlATRIX
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FAX 420-9210
FAX 924-9290
FAX 906-9210
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GEOCHRON LABORATORIES adivisionof
KRUEGER ENTERPRISES, INC.
711 CONCORD AVENUE + CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETIS 02138
TELEPHONE (617) 876-3691 TELEFAX: (617) 661-0148
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STABLE ISOTOPE RATIO ANALYSES
Submitted by:
REPORT OF ANALYTICAL WORK
Date Received:
Joseph Lubischer
Aspect Consulting, LLC
179 Madrone Lane
Bainbridge Is WA 98110
3/26/2004
Date Reported:
5/19/2004
Your Reference:
PO# 030185001-01
Our Lab.
Number
Your Sample
Number
Description
0180*
OD*
HOR- 110618
#1 Transect 4
Water
-95
-13.0
HOR- 110619
#2 Transect 3
Water
-100
-13.4
HOR- 110620
#4 Transect 2
Water
-98
-13.0
HOR- 110621
#5 Transect 1
Water
-97
-13.0, -13.2**
HOR- 110622
#6 PUD
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-83
-11.8
HOR- 110623
#7 Haley
Water
-78, -74**
-10.6
HOR- 110624
#8 Fire
Water
-86
-12.2
HOR- 110625
#9 Well 9
Water
-90
-12.8
HOR- 110626
#10 Hockett
Water
-72
-11.0
** Duplicate analyses on separate aliquots of the original sample.
*Unless otherwise noted, analyses are reported in °/- notation and are computed as follows:
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APPENDIX C
Hyporheic Zone
(Prepared by Kerrie McArthur of MCS Environmental,
Inc.)
ASPECT CONSULTING
The hyporheic zone is the active zone between surface water and groundwater.
Depending on the streambed topography and porosity, the hyporheic zone often extends
laterally beneath the banks to alluvial aquifers that could be kilometers from the main
channel. Within the hyporheic zone, exchanges of water, nutrients, organic matter, and
materials between the groundwater, alluvial aquifers, and the surface water occur.
Upwelling groundwater supplies stream organisms with nutrients while down welling
surface water provides dissolved oxygen and organic matter to microbes and
invertebrates in the hyporheic zone (Boulton et al. 1998; Boulton 2000; Reidy and
Clinton 2004).
Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Regardless of scale, the
importance of the hyporheic zone’s functions is dependant upon its activity and
connection to the surface water. At the microscale, gradients in redox-potential control
chemical and microbial nutrient transformations occurring on particle surfaces (Boulton
et al 1998; Boulton 2000). The microbial biofilms coating the sediments act like a
biological filter, enhancing water quality. These microbial communities are an important
component of the heterotrophic food web within the hyporheic zone and perform
essential functions (Feris et al 2003). At the reach scale, gradients in faunal composition,
uptake of dissolved organic carbon, and nitrification indicate hydrological exchange rates
and water residence times (Boulton et al. 1998).
The hyporheic zones in many areas are threatened by siltation, pollutants, increasing
acidity, physical extraction for gravel, or altered groundwater inputs through pumping
(Boulton 2000; Payn 2003). Infiltration of fines into the stream substrate can reduce
hydraulic conductivity, further reducing hyporheic exchange of stream water and
associated organic matter and nutrients to microbial habitat, thus, decreasing the retention
of biologically active solutes (Payn 2003). Feris et al (2003) examined metal
concentrations of sediment and biological communities within the hyporheic zone.
Although there was no correlation between metal concentration and the total hyporheic
microbial biomass present, microbial community structure showed a significant linear
relationship with the sediment—metal loads. Channel homogenization can reduce
hydrologic forces driving hyporheic exchange, also changing the faunal composition and
rates of organic carbon uptake and nitrification (Payn 2003).
Fluvial geomorphic processes control many of the physical conditions that are required
for spawning habitat. These conditions also promote connectivity between groundwater
and surface water. Recent studies indicate that certain characteristics of the hyporheic
zone (e.g. vertical head gradient, permeability, and nutrient flux) also aid salmon in the
selection of spawning sites (Asbury 2003; Geist et al. 2001). Asbury (2003) found that
groundwater upwelling through the hyporheic zone and high substrate porosity was an
important feature for salmon in selecting a spawning site. Giest et al (2001) looked at the
physiochemical characteristics of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and chinook (O.
tshawytscha) spawning sites at Ives Island in the Columbia River. Chum salmon
spawned in areas where relatively warm water from the hyporheic zone up welled into
the river. In contrast, chinook salmon spawned in areas where river water down welled
into the bed. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) have also
been observed to preferentially spawn in sandy and silty substrate sites where upwelling
is present, rather than use clean gravel in areas where upwelling is absent (Webster and
Eiriksdottir 1976; Carline 1980; Witzel and MacCrimmon 1983; Curry and Noakes 1995;
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
C-1
ASPECT CONSULTING
Lorenz and Eiler 1989 as cited in Geist et al 2001). Areas of upwelling within the
hyporheic zone are thought to protect developing embryos from freezing, optimizing
incubation and emergence periods (Curry et al. 1995). Earlier emergence is an adaptation
that benefits salmon fry by reducing competition for food with species that emerge later
in the year (Geist et al 2001). Egg survival is typically attributed to inadequate supply of
oxygen caused by infiltration of fine sediment into the interstices of the streambed.
However, a recent study has shown that upwelling low-oxygenated groundwater also
causes egg mortality. In redds where some eggs survive, the survival rate was
proportional to the average oxygen level of upwelling groundwater in the hyporheic zone
(FRS 2003).
The importance of salmon carcasses as a marine-derived nutrient for riparian vegetation
and the aquatic food web is well known (Gende et al. 2002; Bartz et al. 2002; Willson et
al. 1998, Cederholm et al. 1999). Hyporheic zones contain much greater epilithic surface
area than streambed surface area for benthos to live (Edwards 1999). Microbial biofilms
on sediment surfaces are a potential storage site for salmon-derived nutrients. These
biofilms have been observed using the dissolved organic matter derived from salmon
carcasses within the first few meter of subsurface flow (O'Keefe, T.C. and R.T. Edwards.
2002). The biofilms store these nutrients for weeks or months, before they are
mineralized and reintroduced into the flowstream, where they become available to
surface algae during the following growing season. Since hyporheic flows may extend
several hundred meters into riparian floodplain forests, the hyporheic zone creates an
enormous potential for storing a large volume of salmon-derived nutrients (Gende et al.
2002; Clinton et al. 2002).
C-2
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
Appendix C References
Asbury, A.B. 2003. Hyporheic and Geomorphic Characteristics of Spring Chinook
Samon Spawning Habitat of the Yakima River Basin, Central Washington.
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program Paper No. 248-12, Vol. 35,
No. 6: 608.
<http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_67141.htm>.
Bartz, K., S. Bechtold, R. Edwards, J. Helfield, R. Naiman, T. O'Keefe, G. Pinay. 2002
[Report cited on the Internet, September 24, 2004]. Keystone Interactions: Salmon,
Bear and Riparian Vegetation in Riverine Corridors of the Pacific Northwest.
<http://www.fish.washington.edu/people/naiman/Salmon_Bear/>.
Boulton, A.J., S. Findlay, P. Marmonier, E.H. Stanley, and H.M. Valett. 1998. The
Functional Significance of the Hyporheic Zone in Streams and Rivers. Annual
Review of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 29: 59-81.
<http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.59;jsessi
onid=jRYHmtzFSzy9?cookieSet=1>.
Boulton A.J. 2000. River Ecosystem Health Down Under: Assessing Ecological
Condition in Riverine Groundwater Zones in Australia. Ecosystem Health. Vol. 6,
No. 2: 108-118.
<http://www.ingenta.com/isis/searching/Expand/ingenta?pub=infobike://bsc/ehe/20
00/00000006/00000002/art00011>
Carline, R.F. 1980. Features of Successful Spawning Site Development For Brook Trout
in Wisconsin Ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109: 453-457.
Cederholm C.J., M.D. Kunze, T. Murota, A. Sibatani. 1999. Pacific Salmon Carcasses:
Essential Contributions of Nutrients and Energy For Aquatic and Terrestrial
Ecosystems. Fisheries 24: 6-15.
Clinton S.M., R.T. Edwards, R.J. Naiman. 2002. Forest-River Interactions: Influence on
Hyporheic Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Floodplain Terrace.
Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38:619-632.
Curry, R.A., and D.L.G. Noakes. 1995. Groundwater and the Selection of Spawning
Sites by Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 52: 1733-1740.
Curry, R.A., D.L.G. Noakes, and G.E. Morgan. 1995. Groundwater and the Incubation
and Emergence of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Canadian Journal of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 1741-1749.
Edwards RT. 1999. The Hyporheic Aone. In Naiman RJ, Bilby RE, eds. River Ecology
and Management. New York: Springer-Verlag.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
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ASPECT CONSULTING
Feris, K., P. Ramsey, C. Frazar, J.N. Moore, J.E. Gannon, and W.E. Holben. 2003.
Differences in Hyporheic-Zone Microbial Community Structure along a HeavyMetal Contamination Gradient. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 69,
No. 9: 5563-5573. <http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/69/9/5563>.
FRS (Fisheries Research Services). 2003. How Groundwater Can Affect the Survival
Rate of Salmon Eggs. Perthshire, UK: Scottish Executive Fisheries Research
Services Freshwater Laboratory.
<http://www.marlab.ac.uk/FRS.Web/Uploads/Documents/FW01Groundwater.pdf>.
Geist, D.R., T.P. Hanrahan, E.V. Arntzen, G.A. McMichael, C.J. Murray, and Yi-Ju
Chien. 2001. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd
site selection of chum and fall chinook salmon, Columbia River. Report to
Bonneville Power Administration by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Contract No. 00000652, Project No. 199900304, 26 electronic pages (BPA Report
DOE/BP-00000652-5).
<http://www.efw.bpa.gov/Environment/EW/EWP/DOCS/REPORTS/GENERAL/I
00000652-5.pdf>.
Gende, S.M., R.T. Edwards, M.F. Willson, and M.S. Wipfli. 2002. Pacific Salmon in
Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Bioscience. Vol. 52, No. 10: 917-928.
<http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2002_gende001.pdf>.
Lorenz, J.M., and J.H. Eiler. 1989. Spawning Habitat and Redd Characteristics of
Sockeye Salmon in the Glacial Taku River, British Columbia and Alaska.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118:495-502.
O'Keefe, T.C. and R.T. Edwards. 2002. Evidence for Hyporheic Transfer and Storage of
Marine-derived Nutrients in Sockeye Streams in Southwest Alaska. Proceedings of
the Restoring Nutrients to Salmonid Ecosystems Conference. Eugene, OR.
American Fisheries Society. 33:99-107.
Payn, R.A. 2003. Hyporheic Function in Forested vs. Agricultural Streams. Geological
Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Paper No. 153-11, Vol. 35, No. 6:
377. <http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_64949.htm>.
Rantz, S.E., 1982, Measurement and Computation of Streamflow: Volume 1.
Measurement of Stage and Discharge: U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper
2175, 284 p. plus index.
Reidy, C. and S. Clinton. 2004. Down Under: Hyporheic Zones and Their Function.
Seattle, WA: Center for Water and Watershed Studies, University of Washington,
Seattle. <http://depts.washington.edu/cwws/Outreach/FactSheets/hypo.pdf>.
Webster, D.A., and G. Eiriksdottir. 1976. Upwelling Water as a Factor Influencing
Choice of Spawning Sites by Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society 105:416-421.
Willson M.P., Gende S.M., Bisson P. 1998. Anadromous fishes as ecological links
between ocean, fresh water, and land. In Polis G, Power M, Huxel G, eds.
Foodwebs at the Landscape. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
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PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
ASPECT CONSULTING
Winter, T.C., LeBaugh, J.W., and Rosenberry, D.O., 1988, The design and use of a
hydraulic potentiomanometer for direct measurement of differences in hydraulic
head between groundwater and surface water, Limnology and Oceanography, v.
33(5), p. 1209-1214.
Witzel, L.D., and H.R. MacCrimmon. 1983. Redd-site Selection By Brook Trout and
Brown Trout in Southwestern Ontario Streams. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 112:760-771.
PROJECT NO. 030116-001-05 Ÿ MARCH 30, 2005
C-5
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