Installation guide | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Installation Guide for x86, Itanium

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
Installation Guide for x86,
Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel®
Extended Memory 64
Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4: Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64,
and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Copyright © 2005 Red Hat, Inc.
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Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................................................................ i
1. Document Conventions ........................................................................................ i
2. How to Use This Manual ................................................................................... iv
2.1. We Need Feedback! ..............................................................................v
3. Accessibility Solutions ........................................................................................v
1. Itanium System Specific Information...........................................................................1
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview..............................................................1
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell ...................................................................1
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names ............................................1
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition .........................................2
2. Steps to Get You Started................................................................................................5
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals...........................................................................5
2.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible? .........................................................................5
2.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?...................................................................6
2.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?...............................................................6
2.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods ..................................................................7
2.4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM..............................................7
2.5. Preparing for a Network Installation.................................................................8
2.5.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs .................................................10
2.6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation...........................................................10
3. System Requirements Table ........................................................................................13
4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux..........................................................................17
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ........................................17
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles ........................................................18
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ......................................19
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ......................................................21
4.3. Starting the Installation Program ....................................................................21
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
21
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems ....................23
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options ..................................................................24
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method ....................................................................26
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM................................................................................27
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found? ...................................28
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive ...........................................................................28
4.7. Performing a Network Installation..................................................................29
4.8. Installing via NFS ...........................................................................................29
4.9. Installing via FTP............................................................................................30
4.10. Installing via HTTP.......................................................................................31
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux .........................................................32
4.12. Language Selection .......................................................................................32
4.13. Keyboard Configuration ................................................................................33
4.14. Disk Partitioning Setup .................................................................................34
4.15. Automatic Partitioning ..................................................................................36
4.16. Partitioning Your System ..............................................................................38
4.16.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s) ...............................................40
4.16.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons ....................................................................40
4.16.3. Partition Fields ...............................................................................41
4.16.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ..............................................42
4.16.5. Adding Partitions ...........................................................................44
4.16.6. Editing Partitions ...........................................................................46
4.16.7. Deleting a Partition ........................................................................47
4.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration ....................47
4.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration ...........................................49
4.17.2. Rescue Mode..................................................................................51
4.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders ...............................................................51
4.17.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB .....................................................52
4.18. Network Configuration .................................................................................53
4.19. Firewall Configuration ..................................................................................56
4.20. Language Support Selection .........................................................................59
4.21. Time Zone Configuration ..............................................................................60
4.22. Set Root Password ........................................................................................62
4.23. Package Group Selection ..............................................................................64
4.24. Preparing to Install ........................................................................................66
4.25. Installing Packages........................................................................................66
4.26. Installation Complete ....................................................................................67
4.27. Activate Your Subscription ...........................................................................67
4.27.1. Provide a Red Hat Login................................................................68
4.27.2. Provide Your Subscription Number ...............................................68
4.27.3. Connect Your System.....................................................................68
4.28. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and Post-Installation Setup .....69
4.28.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options...........................................70
4.28.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically.........................70
A. Upgrading Your Current System...............................................................................73
A.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install.............................................73
A.2. Upgrading Your System .................................................................................74
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration..............................................................75
A.4. Upgrading Packages.......................................................................................75
A.5. Upgrade Complete .........................................................................................76
B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux ........................................................................77
C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux...........................79
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux ........................................79
C.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card? ...........................79
C.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? .................................79
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation .................................................................80
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected? .........................................................80
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation ...................81
C.3. Trouble During the Installation ......................................................................81
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error M
82
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive ...................82
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables ..........................................................82
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space ..................................................................83
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users ........................83
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users ..................83
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ......................................................84
C.4. Problems After Installation ............................................................................85
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
85
C.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ...........................................85
C.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)..................................86
C.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users ...........87
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .................................................87
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized? ............................................88
C.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work ...........................................................89
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration ...............................................89
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ......89
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset.......................................................90
D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions ............................................................................91
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts .............................................................................91
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It...........................92
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many .......................................93
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
96
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux.................................96
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme .............................................................101
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems...............................103
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points .................................................103
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?...................................................................103
E. Driver Media..............................................................................................................105
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media? ....................................................................105
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?...............................................105
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media? ...................................................105
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation .....................................107
F. Additional Boot Options ...........................................................................................109
G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux....................................................115
Index................................................................................................................................ 117
Colophon......................................................................................................................... 123
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide. This guide contains useful information to assist you during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4. From
fundamental concepts such as installation preparation to the step-by-step installation procedure, this book will be a valuable resource as you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1. Document Conventions
In this manual, certain words are represented in different fonts, typefaces, sizes, and
weights. This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style
to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented
this way include the following:
command
Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented
this way. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on
the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. Sometimes a command
contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as file
names). In these cases, they are considered to be part of the command, so the entire
phrase is displayed as a command. For example:
Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile,
in the current working directory.
file name
File names, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this
way. This style indicates that a particular file or directory exists with that name on
your system. Examples:
The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases
for your own use.
The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and file
systems.
Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.
application
This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system
software). For example:
Use Mozilla to browse the Web.
ii
Introduction
[key]
A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:
To use [Tab] completion, type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Your terminal displays the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.
[key]-[combination]
A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:
The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination exits your graphical session and returns
you to the graphical login screen or the console.
text found on a GUI interface
A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window is shown in this
style. Text shown in this style indicates that a particular GUI screen or an element on
a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). Example:
Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require
a password before stopping.
top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window
A word in this style indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you
click on the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should appear. For example:
Under File on a GNOME terminal, the New Tab option allows you to open multiple
shell prompts in the same window.
Instructions to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu look like the following example:
Go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => Programming => Emacs Text
Editor to start the Emacs text editor.
button on a GUI screen or window
This style indicates that the text can be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen.
For example:
Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.
computer output
Text in this style indicates text displayed to a shell prompt such as error messages and
responses to commands. For example:
The ls command displays the contents of a directory. For example:
Desktop
Mail
about.html
backupfiles
logs
mail
paulwesterberg.png
reports
Introduction
iii
The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the
directory) is shown in this style.
prompt
A prompt, which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input
something, is shown in this style. Examples:
$
#
[stephen@maturin stephen]$
leopard login:
user input
Text that the user types, either on the command line or into a text box on a GUI screen,
is displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this style:
To boot your system into the text based installation program, you must type in the
text command at the boot: prompt.
<replaceable>
Text used in examples that is meant to be replaced with data provided by the user
is displayed in this style. In the following example, <version-number> is displayed in this style:
The directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/kernels/<version-number>/,
where <version-number> is the version and type of kernel installed on this
system.
Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of
information. In order of urgency, these items are marked as a note, tip, important, caution,
or warning. For example:
Note
Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is not a
rOsE.
Tip
The directory /usr/share/doc/ contains additional documentation for packages installed
on your system.
iv
Introduction
Important
If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes do not take effect until you restart
the DHCP daemon.
Caution
Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to
use the root account for system administration tasks.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary partitions. Removing other partitions could result
in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
2. How to Use This Manual
This manual focuses on a CD-ROM-based installation and is ideal for users (both new and
old) who want a quick and simple installation solution. It helps you prepare your system
and walk you through the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes multiple installation CD-ROMs. Note that only the first
CD-ROM (CD #1) is bootable. The additional installation CD-ROMs are required, even
for a minimal installation. Red Hat also provides supplementary CD-ROMs containing
source RPMs and documentation for all the packages, as well as a Linux Applications CD
(LACD).
Note
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 (or greater) on an x86 system, you can
perform an upgrade.
Introduction
v
Although upgrades are supported by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors, you are likely to have a more consistent experience by backing up your data and
then installing this release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the
best system stability possible.
To perform an upgrade, type the following command at the boot prompt:
linux upgrade
Skim Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started to review the basics, then read
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux , following the directions as you go.
Once you have chosen to perform an upgrade in the installation program, refer to
Appendix A Upgrading Your Current System.
If you are an experienced user and you do not need a review of the basics, you can skip
ahead to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation process.
2.1. We Need Feedback!
If you discover a typo in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide or have thought
of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you. Submit a bug report
against the component rhel-ig-x8664 in Bugzilla at:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual’s identifier:
rhel-ig-x8664(EN)-4-Print-RHI (2004-09-24T13:10)
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible
when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some
of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.
If you have a support question (for example, if you need help configuring X, or if you are
not sure how to partition your hard drive[s]), use the online support system by registering
your subscriptions at:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
3. Accessibility Solutions
While the graphic user interface (GUI) is convenient for sighted users, it is often inhibiting to those with visual impairments because of the difficulty speech synthesizers have
vi
Introduction
interpreting graphics. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an ideal operating system for users with
visual limitations because the GUI is not required by the kernel. Most modern tools including email, news, Web browsers, calendars, calculators, and much more can run on Linux
without a graphical environment. The working environment can also be customized to meet
the hardware or software needs of the user.
Red Hat, Inc. is the distribution of choice for people with special needs because of the
outstanding support that is offered with the purchase of any boxed set. Many Linux distributions provide limited or nonexistent support to customers. Red Hat’s installation support
is deliverable via email or via the telephone and special circumstances will be considered
and addressed for users with physical limitations. Customers should inform the support
technician if they require specialized support.
For more information, refer to:
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Accessibility-HOWTO/
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO.html
•
The README-Accessibility file provides more information and instructions for using some of the tools available for users with special needs. This file can be found in
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-X/, where X is the release number of your installed subscription.
Chapter 1.
Itanium System Specific Information
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system is different from installing Red
Hat Enterprise Linux on an x86-based system. In general, the sequence of steps to a successful installation are the following:
1. Boot into the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) Shell.
2. If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM, make an LS-120 diskette from the boot image
file provided with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
3. Using the EFI Shell and the ELILO boot loader, load and run the kernel, and boot
into the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell
Before you start to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium, you must have a basic
understanding of the EFI Shell, what it does, and the information it can provide.
The EFI Shell is a console interface used to launch applications (such as the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program), load EFI protocols and device drivers, and execute
simple scripts. It is similar to a DOS console and can only access media that is FAT16
(VFAT) formatted.
The EFI Shell also contains common utilities that can be used on the EFI system partition.
These utilities include edit, type, cp, rm, and mkdir. For a list of utilities and other
commands, type help at the EFI Shell prompt.
The EFI Shell contains a boot loader called ELILO. Additional information on EFI can be
found at the following URL:
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm
2
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names
The map command can be used to list all devices and file systems that EFI can recognize.
When your Itanium system boots into the EFI shell, it probes your system in the following
order:
1. LS-120 drive (if it contains media)
2. IDE hard drives on the primary IDE interface
3. IDE hard drives on the secondary IDE interface
4. SCSI hard drives on the SCSI interface
5. CD-ROM drives on the IDE interface
6. CD-ROM drives on the SCSI interface
To view the results of this system poll, type the following command at the EFI Shell
prompt:
map
The output is listed in the order the system was probed. So, all FAT16 file systems are listed
first, then IDE hard drives, then SCSI hard drives, then IDE CD-ROM drives, and finally
SCSI CD-ROM drives.
For example, output of the map command might look like the following:
Device
fs0
fs1
fs2
blk0
blk1
blk2
blk3
blk4
blk5
blk6
blk7
blk8
blk9
mapping table
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:00)
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part2,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)/HD(Part1,Sig725F7772)
Device:FF)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
In this example, there is an LS-120 diskette in the LS-120 drive as well as a CD-ROM in
the CD-ROM drive. All the listings beginning with fs are FAT16 file systems that EFI can
read. All the listings beginning with blk are block devices that EFI recognizes. Both the
file systems and block devices are listed in the order they are probed. Therefore, fs0 is the
system partition on the LS-120, fs1 is the system partition on the hard drive, and fs2 is
the system partition on the CD-ROM.
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
3
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition
When partitioning your hard drive for Linux, you must create a system partition that is
FAT16 (VFAT) formatted and has a mount point of /boot/efi/. This partition contains
the installed Linux kernel(s) as well as the ELILO configuration file (elilo.conf). The
elilo.conf file contains a list of kernels from which you can boot your system.
4
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
Chapter 2.
Steps to Get You Started
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals
Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online or on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Documentation CD included with your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription.
If you are a new user and need information on getting started with Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you may find the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide to be helpful.
For an overview of system administration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration. If you are looking for information on system configuration,
you may find the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide to be helpful.
If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you
may find the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide to be helpful.
If you need information on securing your system, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Security Guide.
HTML, PDF, and RPM versions of the manuals are available on the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available
prior to our documentation being finalized. The Release Notes can be found on the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-4<product>/ directory after installation, where
<product> is AS, ES, WS, or Desktop.
2.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 should be compatible with most
hardware in systems that were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware
6
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
specifications change almost daily, so it is difficult to guarantee that your hardware is 100%
compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
2.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If you have not worked with
disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used
by other OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a
different version of Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology
(Intel® EM64T) systems, at least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red
Hat Enterprise Linux. For Itanium systems, at least three partitions (/, /boot/efi/, and
swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
•
have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
or
•
have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended
partitioning sizes discussed in Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how
to create free disk space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
2.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1.
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing
to has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like
a separate disk drive.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
7
Installing from a CD-ROM requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 product, or you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM, and you have a CD-ROM
drive. Most new computers allow booting from the CD-ROM. If your system supports
booting from the CD-ROM, it is an easy way to begin a local CD-ROM installation.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your
CD-ROM drive. For more information about changing your BIOS, refer to
Section 4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems.
2.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods
Boot CD-ROM
If you can boot using the CD-ROM drive, you can create your own CD-ROM to
boot the installation program. This may be useful, for example, if you are
performing an installation over a network or from a hard drive. Refer to
Section 2.4.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM for further instructions.
USB pen drive
If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, but you can boot using a USB device,
such as a USB pen drive, the following alternative boot method is available:
To boot using a USB pen drive, use the dd command to copy the diskboot.img
image file from the /images/ directory on CD-ROM 1. For example:
dd if=diskboot.img of=/dev/sda
Your BIOS must support booting from a USB device in order for this boot method to
work.
2.4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation CD. To create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program, use
the following instructions:
Copy the isolinux/ directory from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 into a temporary
directory (referred to here as <path-to-workspace>) using the following command:
cp -r <path-to-cd >/isolinux/ <path-to-workspace>
Change directories to the <path-to-workspace> directory you have created:
cd <path-to-workspace>
Make sure the files you have copied have appropriate permissions:
8
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
chmod u+w isolinux/*
Finally, issue the following command to create the ISO image file:
mkisofs -o file.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat -no-emul-boot \
-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T isolinux/
Note
The above command was split into two lines for printing purposes only. When you execute
this command, be sure to type it as a single command, all on the same line.
Burn the resulting ISO image (named file.iso
<path-to-workspace>) to a CD-ROM as you normally would.
and
located
in
2.5. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not in your hosting partition’s
drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a CD in the drive may
cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following
steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate machine which can provide the complete RedHat/ directory. Both the RedHat/base/
and RedHat/RPMS/ directories must be available and populated with all files from all installation CD-ROMs.
Note
The directory specified in the following refers to /location/of/disk/space/. This
means it is the directory up to, but not including, the RedHat/ distribution directory.
For example, if you have Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 installation files located in
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
9
/export/rhel/ on the installation staging server, /location/of/disk/space/ would
be /export/rhel/.
To copy the RedHat/ directory from the installation CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which
acts as an installation staging server, perform the following steps:
•
For each binary CD-ROM, execute the following commands:
•
mount /mnt/cdrom
•
cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space
where /location/of/disk/space/ is a directory you create such as
/export/rhel/
•
•
umount /mnt/cdrom/
Note that the Release Notes are not included in the RedHat directory. Unless they are
specifically copied over, the Release Notes will not be available during your installation
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The Release Notes are formatted in HTML files located at
the root of the disc. Copy the files to your installation directory. For example:
cp /mnt/cdrom/RELEASE-NOTES*.html /location/of/disk/space/
The Release Notes are also available online from http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
•
Next, make /location/of/disk/space/ available for network installation via NFS,
FTP, or HTTP and verify access from a client system.
•
For NFS, export the directory by adding an entry to /etc/exports to export to a specific system:
/location/of/disk/space client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all machines (not appropriate for all NFS systems), add:
/location/of/disk/space *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux machine, use /sbin/service
nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
System Administration Guide.
If the RedHat/ directory does not appear in the NFS shared directory, the wrong path
may have been mounted and/or exported.
•
FTP and HTTP installations also support a second type of tree structure. To make it
easier to access the contents of the installation CD-ROMs, mount each CD-ROM or
ISO image with the following mount point on the FTP or HTTP server (where X is the
number of the CD-ROM or ISO image):
10
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
/location/of/disk/space/discX/
For example:
mount -o loop CD1.iso /location/of/disk/space/disc1/
2.5.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs
NFS installations can use ISO (or CD-ROM) images rather than copying an entire installation tree. After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install via NFS. You will then point the installation
program at that directory to perform the installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid
problems that are often encountered during an NFS installation. To verify the ISO images
are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation
methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the
installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following
command at the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you
install, then it will be used for installation program updates. Refer to the file
install-methods.txt in the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the
various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as well as how to apply the installation
program updates.
Note
You can only have the ISO images for one release and one variant of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux in the directory.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
11
2.6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you have a file
system other than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be able to perform a
hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is
a file containing an exact copy of a CD-ROM image. Because Red Hat Enterprise Linux
has so many packages included with its distribution, there are several ISO images available.
After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs)
in a directory, choose to install from the hard drive. You can then point the installation
program at that directory to perform the installation.
To prepare your system for a hard drive installation, you must set the system up in one of
the following ways:
•
Using a set of CD-ROMs — Create CD-ROM ISO image files from each installation
CD-ROM. For each CD-ROM, execute the following command on a Linux system:
•
Using ISO images — transfer these images to the system to be installed.
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid
problems. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an
md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems).
An md5sum program should be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the
installation media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation
methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the
installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs
reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following
command at the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
12
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
Additionally, if a file called RedHat/base/updates.img exists in the directory
from which you install, it is used for installation program updates. Refer to the file
install-methods.txt in the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the
various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as well as how to apply the installation
program updates.
Chapter 3.
System Requirements Table
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
This system requirements table will help you keep a record of your current system settings
and requirements. Enter information about your system in the table provided as a handy
reference to help make your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation go more smoothly.
hard drive(s): type,
label, size; ex: IDE
hda=40 GB
partitions: map of
partitions and mount
points; ex:
/dev/hda1=/home,
/dev/hda2=/ (fill this
in once you know
where they will reside)
memory: amount of
RAM installed on your
system; ex: 128 MB,
512 MB
CD-ROM: interface
type; ex: SCSI, IDE
(ATAPI)
SCSI adapter: if
present, make and
model number; ex:
BusLogic SCSI
Adapter, Adaptec
2940UW
network card: if
present, make and
model number; ex:
Tulip, 3COM 3C590
14
mouse: type, protocol,
and number of buttons;
ex: generic 3 button
PS/2 mouse,
MouseMan 2 button
serial mouse
monitor: make, model,
and manufacturer
specifications; ex:
Optiquest Q53,
ViewSonic G773
video card: make,
model number and size
of VRAM; ex: Creative
Labs Graphics Blaster
3D, 8MB
sound card: make,
chipset and model
number; ex: S3
SonicVibes, Sound
Blaster 32/64 AWE
IP, DHCP, and BOOTP
addresses: four
numbers, separated by
dots; ex: 10.0.2.15
netmask: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
255.255.248.0
gateway IP address:
four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
10.0.2.245
one or more name
server IP addresses
(DNS): one or more
sets of dot-separated
numbers; ex: 10.0.2.1
Chapter 3. System Requirements Table
Chapter 3. System Requirements Table
15
domain name: the
name given to your
organization; ex:
example.com
hostname: the name of
your computer; your
personal choice of
names; ex: cookie,
southpark
Table 3-1. System Requirements Table
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network administrator for assistance.
16
Chapter 3. System Requirements Table
Chapter 4.
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from the
CD-ROM, using the graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics
are discussed:
•
Becoming familiar with the installation program’s user interface
•
Starting the installation program
•
Selecting an installation method
•
Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning,
etc.)
•
Finishing the installation
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The [Tab] key allows
you to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, [+]
and [-] keys expand and collapse lists, while [Space] and [Enter] selects or removes from
selection a highlighted item. You can also use the [Alt]-[X] key command combination as
a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where [X] is replaced with
any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, and you do not wish to use the
GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the
text mode installation program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 4.2 The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
overview of text mode installation instructions.
for a brief
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program.
The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
18
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode
installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation
instructions and obtain all needed information.
Note
If you are using an Itanium system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, type the following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
elilo linux text
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of
the installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well
as a way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these
messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke
combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the
physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red
Hat Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help
pinpoint a problem. Refer to Table 4-1 for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used
to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #7 for graphical
installations) unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Console
Keystrokes
Contents
1
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F1]
installation dialog
2
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2]
shell prompt
3
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F3]
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F4]
system-related messages
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
19
Console
Keystrokes
Contents
5
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F5]
other messages
7
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F7]
X graphical display
Table 4-1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface
that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.
Figure 4-1, and Figure 4-2, illustrate the screens that appear during the installation process.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode
installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions.
Figure 4-1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration
20
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2:
•
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your
screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another;
in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in
that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
•
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox,
press [Space] to select or deselect a feature.
•
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by
the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or
edit information on that line.
•
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times,
text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar
appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the [Up] and
[Down] arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your current position
is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as
you scroll.
•
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part
of a list or document is currently in the window’s frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to
move to any part of a file.
•
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by
navigating these buttons, using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys. Buttons can be selected when
they are highlighted.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
21
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to
change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In
Figure 4-1, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 4-2, shows the cursor on
the Edit button.
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes.
To move the cursor, use the [Left], [Right], [Up], and [Down] arrow keys. Use [Tab], and
[Alt]-[Tab] to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the
bottom, most screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using [Tab], for example) and press
[Space] or [Enter]. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you
wish to select and press [Enter]. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the
checkbox and press [Space] to select an item. To deselect, press [Space] a second time.
Pressing [F12] accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent
to pressing the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation
process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
4.3. Starting the Installation Program
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you
have already read through Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started, and followed the instructions, you should be ready to start the installation process. When you have verified that
you are ready to begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROM #1 or any boot media that you have created.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver diskette during the installation. A driver diskette adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the
installation program. Refer to Appendix E Driver Media for more information.
22
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and
Intel® EM64T Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending
upon what your system can support):
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM
drive and you have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM set.
•
Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to
perform network or hard drive installation.
•
USB pen drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB pen drive for installation, refer to
Section 2.4.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system. Your BIOS settings may need to be changed
to allow you to boot from the CD-ROM or USB device.
Tip
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, watch the instructions provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears,
telling you which key to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter
your boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot
from your hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the CDROM is first in your boot order and that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is
second. This instructs the computer to first look at the CD-ROM drive for bootable media;
if it does not find bootable media on the CD-ROM drive, it then checks your hard drive or
diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help
screens associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as
listed in the line at the bottom of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
•
Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you
take no action within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen
function keys.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
23
If you press a help screen function key, there is a slight delay while the help screen is
read from the boot media.
Normally, you only need to press [Enter] to boot. Be sure to watch the boot messages to
review if the Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly
detected, continue to the next section. If it does not properly detect your hardware,
you may need to restart the installation and use one of the boot options provided in
Appendix F Additional Boot Options.
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems
Your Itanium system should be able to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
program directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. If your Itanium cannot boot
the installation program from the CD-ROM (or if you want to perform a hard drive,
NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation) you must boot from an LS-120 diskette. Refer to
Section 4.3.2.2 Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
for
more
information.
4.3.2.1. Booting the Installation Program from the CD-ROM
To boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 follow these steps:
1. Remove all media except Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change to the file system on the CD-ROM. For example,
in the above sample map output, the system partition on the CD-ROM is fs1. To
change to the fs1 file system, type fs1: at the prompt.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
4.3.2.2. Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
If your Itanium cannot boot from Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, you must boot from an
LS-120 diskette. If you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you
must boot from boot LS-120 diskette.
You must create an LS-120 boot image file diskette from the boot image file on CD #1:
images/boot.img. To create this diskette in Linux, insert a blank LS-120 diskette and
type the following command at a shell prompt:
dd if=boot.img of=/dev/hda bs=180k
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Replace boot.img with the full path to the boot image file and /dev/hda with the
correct device name for the LS-120 diskette drive.
If you are not using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD, the installation program starts in
text mode and you must choose a few basic options for your system.
If you are using the CD-ROM to load the installation program, follow the instructions
contained in Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To boot from an LS-120 diskette follow these steps:
1. Insert the LS-120 diskette you made from the boot image file boot.img. If you are
performing a local CD-ROM installation but booting off the LS-120 diskette, insert
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 also. If you are performing a hard drive, NFS,
FTP, or HTTP installation, you do not need the CD-ROM.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change the device to the LS-120 drive by typing the command fs0:, using the example map output above.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation, sometimes
there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This
section discusses additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For Itanium users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an Itanium system, enter the following at the EFI
Shell prompt:
elilo linux option
For x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, use the
instructions as provided in the boot loader option samples below.
Note
Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in
this section.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
25
•
To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
•
ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an
ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
linux mediacheck
The installation program prompts you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test,
and select OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be
performed on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD and does not have to be performed in
a specific order (for example, CD #1 does not have to be the first CD you verify). It
is strongly recommended to perform this operation on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This command works with the CD,
DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
•
•
Also in the images/ directory is the boot.iso file. This file is an ISO image than can
be used to boot the installation program. To use the boot.iso, your computer must be
able to boot from its CD-ROM drive, and its BIOS settings must be configured to do so.
You must then burn the boot.iso file onto a recordable/rewriteable CD-ROM.
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0
or ttyS1). For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports
UTF-8. Under UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit ’95
works well. Non-UTF-8 capable terminals works as long as only English is used during
the installation process. An enhanced serial display can be used by passing the utf8
command as a boot-time option to the installation program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
4.3.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to instruct the kernel to use all the
RAM in a system with 128 MB of RAM, at the installation boot prompt, enter:
linux mem=128M
For text mode installations, use:
linux text mem=128M
26
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
With most computers, there is no need to pass this argument to the kernel. The kernel
detects the amount of memory your system has in most cases. However, using this command is often helpful for testing purposes. For example, you can boot with less memory
by passing a linux mem=64M or linux text mem=64M option to the kernel.
After entering any options, press [Enter] to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The
boot options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration for more
information).
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods
are available:
CD-ROM
If you have a CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, you can
use this method. Refer to Section 4.5 Installing from CD-ROM, for CD-ROM installation instructions.
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local
hard drive, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM. Refer to
Section 4.6 Installing from a Hard Drive, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red
Hat Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the
linux askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 4.8 Installing via NFS for network
installation instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI
mode.
FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You
need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to
Section 4.9 Installing via FTP, for FTP installation instructions.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
27
HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You
need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to
Section 4.10 Installing via HTTP, for HTTP installation instructions.
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a CD-ROM, choose the CD-ROM option and
select OK. When prompted, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD into your CD-ROM
drive (if you did not boot from the CD). Once the CD is in the CD-ROM drive, select OK,
and press [Enter].
Note
The first CD-ROM is required when booting the installation program, and again after subsequent CD-ROMs have been processed.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your
CD-ROM drive. It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM
drive. If found, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to
Section 4.12 Language Selection).
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot
media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the About to Install
screen. Refer to Section 4.24 Preparing to Install for more information.
If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, the installation program
prompts you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your
adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect
your SCSI adapter automatically.
28
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
A partial list of optional parameters for CD-ROM drives can be found in the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Reference Guide, in the General Parameters and Modules appendix.
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, but
the installation program fails to find your IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM and asks you what type
of CD-ROM drive you have, try the following boot command. Restart the installation, and
at the boot: prompt enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace X with one of the following
letters, depending on the interface the unit is connected to, and whether it is configured as
master or slave (also known as primary and secondary):
• a
— first IDE controller, master
• b
— first IDE controller, slave
• c
— second IDE controller, master
• d
— second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order,
going from controller to controller, and master to slave.
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that
is, if you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you
to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
29
Figure 4-3. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images.
There is also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO
images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory
holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO
images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would
enter /new/.
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.7. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This
dialog asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP
address and Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, enter the IP address you are using during installation and press [Enter]. The installation program attempts
to guess your Netmask based on your IP address; you may change the netmask if it is incorrect. Press [Enter]. The installation program guesses the Default gateway and Primary
nameserver addresses from your IP address and netmask; you may change them if they are
incorrect.
4.8. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you selected NFS
Image in the Installation Method dialog).
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you
are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter
eastcoast.example.com in the NFS Server field.
30
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described
in Section 2.5 Preparing for a Network Installation, you would enter the directory
/location/of/disk/space/ which contains the RedHat/ directory.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the directory which contains the RedHat/ directory. (If you do not know this directory
path, ask your system administrator.) For example, if the NFS site contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch is
replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
Figure 4-4. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs,
enter the directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.9. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP
in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from
which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
31
Figure 4-5. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name
of the directory containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For
example, if the FTP site contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/,
enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch is replaced with the architecture type of
your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything was specified properly, a
message box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server.
To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying
them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop example-1.iso discX
4.10. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected
HTTP in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about
the HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of
the directory containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter
/mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything was specified properly, a message
box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Figure 4-6. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server.
To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying
them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop example-1.iso discX
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. Read over the help text in the
left panel for additional instructions and information on where to register your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux product.
Notice the Hide Help button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The help screen is
open by default. To minimize the help text, click on Hide Help.
Click on the Next button to continue.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
33
4.12. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select a language to use for the installation (refer to Figure 4-7).
Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in
the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on
what you specify on this screen.
Figure 4-7. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
4.13. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to
Figure 4-8).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
34
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-8. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the
Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.14. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple
operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
35
On this screen, you can choose to perform automatic partitioning, or manual partitioning
using Disk Druid.
Automatic partitioning allows you to perform an installation without having to partition
your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is
recommended that you do not choose to partition manually and instead let the installation
program partition for you.
To partition manually, choose the Disk Druid partitioning tool.
Warning
The Red Hat Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/spool/up2date/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be
sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
Figure 4-9. Disk Partitioning Setup
36
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you chose to manually partition
Section 4.16 Partitioning Your System.
using
Disk
Druid,
refer
to
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation saying
something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must
be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not
be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems,
causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation
began).
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on
your systems should always be made.
4.15. Automatic Partitioning
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed
(if any) from your system. Your options are:
•
Remove all Linux partitions on this system — select this option to remove only Linux
partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This does not remove
other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
•
Remove all partitions on this system — select this option to remove all partitions on
your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as
Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep
on the hard drive(s) where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
•
Keep all partitions and use existing free space — select this option to retain your
current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard
drive(s).
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
37
Figure 4-10. Automatic Partitioning
Using your mouse, choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux
to be installed. If you have two or more hard drives, you can choose which hard drive(s)
should contain this installation. Unselected hard drives, and any data on them, are not
touched.
Caution
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example,
if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you
wish to keep on your hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all
your data.
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the
38
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition
outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is
necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and
manually edit your /boot/ partition.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward,
the partitions created for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these
partitions if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
4.16. Partitioning Your System
If you chose automatic partitioning and did not select Review, skip ahead to
Section 4.18 Network Configuration.
If you chose automatic partitioning and selected Review, you can either accept the current
partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the manual partitioning tool.
If you chose to partition manually, you must tell the installation program where to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk
partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create
and/or delete partitions at this time.
Note
If
you
have
not
yet
planned
how
to
set
up
your
partitions,
refer
to
Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions
and
Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme. At a bare minimum, you need an
appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap partition equal to twice the amount of RAM
you have on the system. Itanium system users should have a /boot/efi/ partition of
approximately 100 MB and of type FAT (VFAT), a swap partition of at least 512 MB, and
an appropriately-sized root (/) partition.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
39
Figure 4-11. Partitioning with Disk Druid on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
40
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-12. Partitioning with Disk Druid on Itanium Systems
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception
of certain esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a
typical installation.
4.16.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display.
Double-click to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/hda), the Geom (which
shows the hard disk’s geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of
cylinders, heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive
as detected by the installation program.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
41
4.16.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid’s actions. They are used to change the attributes of
a partition (for example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID
devices. Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to
exit Disk Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:
•
New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing
fields (such as the mount point and size fields) that must be filled in.
•
Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section. Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending
on whether the partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new
partition within that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button,
or double-click on the free space to edit it.
•
To make a RAID device, you must first create (or reuse existing) software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID
to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
•
Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
•
Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if
you Reset the partitions.
•
RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used
if you have experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID
partitions into a RAID device.
•
LVM: Allows you to create an LVM logical volume. The role of LVM (Logical Volume
Manager) is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such
as a hard drive(s). LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise,
the individual partitions present on them. It should only be used if you have experience
using LVM. To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System
Administration Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
To create an LVM logical volume, you must first create partitions of type physical volume (LVM). Once you have created one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions,
select LVM to create an LVM logical volume.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.16.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you
are creating. The labels are defined as follows:
•
Device: This field displays the partition’s device name.
•
Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at which a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field
indicates where the partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you
need to define its mount point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button.
•
Type: This field shows the partition’s file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
•
Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
•
Size (MB): This field shows the partition’s size (in MB).
•
Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
•
End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want
to view any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
4.16.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions for Itanium systems:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition (100 MB minimum) — the partition mounted on /boot/efi/
contains all the installed kernels, the initrd images, and ELILO configuration files.
Warning
You must create a /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT and at least 100 MB in size as
the first primary partition.
•
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to
store the data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of
RAM on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
•
The applications running on the machine.
•
The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
43
The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then 1x
physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap,
while one with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap
space partition can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get
away with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
•
A root partition (500 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located.
In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot/efi) are on the root partition.
A 500 MB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root
partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems:
•
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to
store the data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of
RAM on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
•
The applications running on the machine.
•
The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
•
The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then 1x
physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap,
while one with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap
space partition can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get
away with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
•
A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along
with files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes,
creating a small partition to hold these files is a good idea. For most users, a 100 MB
boot partition is sufficient.
44
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured
more than two years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the /
(root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the
RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition
outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
•
A root partition (500 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located.
In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 500 MB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root
partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
4.16.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 4-13).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more
information, refer to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
45
Figure 4-13. Creating a New Partition
•
Mount Point: Enter the partition’s mount point. For example, if this partition should be
the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also
use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition.
•
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system
type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to
Section 4.16.5.1 File System Types.
•
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system.
If a hard disk’s box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard
disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk.
By using different checkbox settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where
you need them, or let Disk Druid decide where partitions should go.
•
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 100
MB; unless changed, only a 100 MB partition will be created.
•
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow
it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to
grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to
the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your
hard drive for future use.
•
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are
creating should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive.
If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to
46
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Section D.1.3 Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions,
more information.
for
•
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
•
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
4.16.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file
system they will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems
available, and how they can be utilized.
•
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories,
symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
•
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage
— journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system
after a crash as there is no need to fsck1 the file system. The ext3 file system is selected
by default and is highly recommended.
•
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions
allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using
physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux System Administration Guide.
•
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
•
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is
written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system
is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide for
additional information.
•
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft
Windows long filenames on the FAT file system. This file system must be used for the
/boot/efi/ partition on Itanuim systems.
4.16.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
1.
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally
repair one or more Linux file systems.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
47
Note
If the partition already exists on your hard disk, you can only change the partition’s mount
point. To make any other changes, you must delete the partition and recreate it.
4.16.7. Deleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button.
Confirm the deletion when prompted.
For further installation instructions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems, skip to
Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration.
For
further
installation
instructions
Section 4.18 Network Configuration.
for
Itanium
systems,
skip
to
4.17. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader
Configuration
To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot
loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for
loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in
turn, initializes the rest of the operating system.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot
loader. GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating
systems with chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems,
such as DOS or Windows, by loading another boot loader).
48
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-14. Boot Loader Configuration
If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader, where
you can choose not to install a boot loader at all.
If you already have a boot loader that can boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and do not want
to overwrite your current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on
the Change boot loader button.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly, and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader
application). Use this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the
system!
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems.
The partition holding the system’s root file system has a Label of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (for GRUB). Other partitions may also have boot labels. To add or change the boot
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
49
label for other partitions that have been detected by the installation program, click once on
the partition to select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit
button.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You
cannot move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot
loaders, in order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label
or type [e] for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the
boot label you have selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical
access to your server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system.
Without a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to
the kernel which can compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in
place, the password must first be entered before selecting any non-standard boot options.
However, it is still possible for someone with physical access to the machine to boot from
a diskette, CD-ROM, or USB media if the BIOS supports it. Security plans which include
boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot methods.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to
select the checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected
before clicking Next.
4.17.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you
want the boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
•
The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader,
unless the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by
your computer’s BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB
50
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
•
The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using
another boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control
first. You can then configure that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
Figure 4-15. Boot Loader Installation
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the
RAID card. In cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of
the RAID array. Rather, the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive
as the /boot/ partition was created.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
51
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if
your BIOS does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful
if you have multiple SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot
from the SCSI device.
The Force LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder
limit for the /boot/ partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension
for booting operating systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your
/boot/ partition above cylinder 1024, you should select this option.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems
cannot access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave
enough room for the /boot Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to
boot Linux. The other Linux partitions can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
To add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field.
Any options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots.
4.17.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment
entirely from boot media or some other boot method instead of the system’s hard drive.
There may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your system’s hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can
access the files stored on your system’s hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use rescue mode, try the following
method:
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, type linux
rescue at the installation boot prompt. Itanium users should type elilo linux
rescue to enter rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.17.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux
kernel (and an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MSDOS partition. The only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system using some other method (for example, from a boot CD-ROM) and then
copy the kernel to an MS-DOS partition. LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available
from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander
and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB to be installed in
your Linux root partition).
Note
Boot loaders such as LOADLIN and System Commander are considered to be third-party
boot loaders and are not supported by Red Hat.
4.17.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs
available to complete individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it automatically
creates two boot loader entries.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
53
Note
An SMP kernel is installed by default on Intel® Pentium® 4 systems with hyperthreading.
The two GRUB entries are Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version)
and
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version-smp).
The
Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (kernel version-smp) boots by default. However, if you have
trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(kernel version) entry instead. You retain all the functionality as before, but only
operate with a single processor.
4.18. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, this screen does not appear during your installation
and you should advance to Section 4.19 Firewall Configuration.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-16. Network Configuration
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and displays
them in the Network Devices list.
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up
screen, you can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP
(or manually if DHCP is not selected) and you can choose to activate the device at boot
time. If you select Activate on boot, your network interface is started when you boot. If
you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, please contact
your network administrator.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
55
Figure 4-17. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work
for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your
network administrator for assistance.
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can
choose to have DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or
you can manually enter the hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the
Gateway address and the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary DNS addresses.
Tip
Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as
localhost.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the
Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network
Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.19. Firewall Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. A firewall exists between your computer and the network, and determines which resources on
your computer remote users on the network can access. A properly configured firewall can
greatly increase the security of your system.
Figure 4-18. Firewall Configuration
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
57
Next, you can decide whether to enable a firewall for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
No firewall
No firewall provides complete access to your system and does no security checking.
Security checking is the disabling of access to certain services. This should only be
selected if you are running on a trusted network (not the Internet) or plan to do more
firewall configuration later.
Enable firewall
If you choose Enable firewall, connections are not accepted by your system (other
than the default settings) that are not explicitly defined by you. By default, only connections in response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests,
are allowed. If access to services running on this machine is needed, you can choose
to allow specific services through the firewall.
If you are connecting your system to the Internet, this is the safest option to choose.
Next, select which services, if any, should be allowed to pass through the firewall.
Enabling these options allow the specified services to pass through the firewall. Note, these
services may not be installed on the system by default. Make sure you choose to enable
any options that you may need.
Remote Login (SSH)
Secure Shell (SSH) is a suite of tools for logging in to and executing commands on
a remote machine. If you plan to use SSH tools to access your machine through a
firewall, enable this option. You need to have the openssh-server package installed
in order to access your machine remotely, using SSH tools.
Web Server (HTTP, HTTPS)
The HTTP and HTTPS protocols are used by Apache (and by other Web servers) to
serve webpages. If you plan on making your Web server publicly available, enable
this option. This option is not required for viewing pages locally or for developing
webpages. You must install the httpd package if you want to serve webpages.
File Transfer (FTP)
The FTP protocol is used to transfer files between machines on a network. If you plan
on making your FTP server publicly available, enable this option. You must install the
vsftpd package in order to publicly serve files.
Mail Server (SMTP)
If you want to allow incoming mail delivery through your firewall, so that remote
hosts can connect directly to your machine to deliver mail, enable this option. You do
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
not need to enable this if you collect your mail from your Internet Service Provider’s
server using POP3 or IMAP, or if you use a tool such as fetchmail. Note that an
improperly configured SMTP server can allow remote machines to use your server to
send spam.
Note
By default, the Sendmail mail transport agent (MTA) does not accept network
connections from any host other than the local computer. To configure Sendmail as
a server for other clients, you must edit /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and change the
DAEMON_OPTIONS line to also listen on network devices (or comment out this
option entirely using the dnl comment delimiter). You must then regenerate
/etc/mail/sendmail.cf by running the following command (as root):
make -C /etc/mail
You must have the sendmail-cf package installed for this to work.
Additionally, you can now setup SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux) during your installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
SELinux allows you to provide granular permissions for all subjects (users, programs, and
processes) and objects (files and devices). You can safely grant an application only the
permissions it needs to do its function.
The SELinux implementation in Red Hat Enterprise Linux is designed to improve the security of various server daemons while minimizing the impact on the day-to-day operations
of your system.
Three states are available for you to choose from during the installation process:
•
Disable — Select Disable if you do not want SELinux security controls enabled on this
system. The Disabled setting turns enforcing off and does not set up the machine for the
use of a security policy.
•
Warn — Select Warn to be notified of any denials. The Warn state assigns labels to
data and programs, and logs them, but does not enforce any policies. The Warn state is a
good starting place for users who eventually want a fully active SELinux policy, but who
first want to see what effects the policy would have on their general system operation.
Note that users selecting the Warn state may notice some false positive and negative
notifications.
•
Active — Select Active if you want SELinux to act in a fully active state. The Active
state enforces all policies, such as denying access to unauthorized users for certain files
and programs, for additional system protection. Choose this state only if you are sure
that your system can still properly function with SELinux fully enabled.
For additional information about SELinux, refer to the following URLs:
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
•
http://www.redhat.com/docs/
•
http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/
59
Tip
To change your security configuration after you have completed the installation, use the
Security Level Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-securitylevel command in a shell prompt to launch the Security Level Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password
to continue.
4.20. Language Support Selection
You can install and support multiple languages for use on your system.
You must select a language to use as the default language. The default language is the language used on the system once the installation is complete. Typically, the default language
is the language you selected to use during the installation.
If you choose to install other languages during this installation, you can change your default
language after the installation. If you are only going to use one language on your system,
selecting only that language saves significant disk space.
Caution
If you select only one language, you can only use that specified language after the installation is complete.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-19. Language Support Selection
To use more than one language on your system, choose specific languages to be installed
or select all languages to have all available languages installed on your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
Use the Reset button to cancel your selections. Resetting reverts to the default; only the
language you selected for use during the installation is installed.
Tip
To change the language configuration after you have completed the installation, use the
Language Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-language command in a shell prompt to launch the Language
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
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61
4.21. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer’s physical location.
There are two ways for you to select your time zone:
•
Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by
a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
•
You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone.
Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 4-20. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the
Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date
Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
4.22. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows
NT machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform
most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for
this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance
or administration.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
63
Figure 4-21. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your
general use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules
minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter].
Then, enter the root password and press [Enter].
The installation program prompts you to set a root password2 for your system. You cannot
proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
2.
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You
should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate
within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications
for your entire system.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed
to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the
installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that
is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals
with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or
420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down
your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write
down this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these
passwords could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root
Password Tool.
Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch the Root
Password Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.23. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm
the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.
If you choose to accept
Section 4.24 Preparing to Install.
the
current
package
list,
skip
ahead
to
To customize your package set further, select Customize the set of packages to be installed option on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection
screen.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
65
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function
(for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of
the two.
Note
Users of AMD64, Intel® EM64T, and Itanium systems who want support for developing
or running 32-bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support
and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecure specific
support for their systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 4-22).
Figure 4-22. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install. Selecting Everything (at the end of the component list) installs all packages included with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Once a package group has been selected, click on Details to view which packages are
installed by default, and to add or remove optional packages from that group.
Figure 4-23. Package Group Details
4.24. Preparing to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in
/root/install.log once you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your
last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press
the Next button, partitions are written and packages are installed. If you wish to abort the
installation, you should reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is
rewritten.
To cancel this installation process, press your computer’s Reset button or use the [Control][Alt]-[Delete] key combination to restart your machine.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
67
4.25. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed.
How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer’s speed.
4.26. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to
remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader
prompt appears at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating
system corresponding to the boot label.
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot
loader automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of
messages should scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you
installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical
run level), the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you
configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
For more information on using the Setup Agent, refer to the chapter titled Getting Started
in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to
Section 4.27 Activate Your Subscription.
4.27. Activate Your Subscription
Before you can access service and software maintenance information, and the support documentation included in your subscription, you must activate your subscription by registering with Red Hat. Registration includes these simple steps:
68
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Provide a Red Hat login
•
Provide a subscription number
•
Connect your system
The first time you boot your installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you are prompted to
register with Red Hat using the Setup Agent. If you follow the prompts during the Setup
Agent, you can complete the registration steps and activate your subscription.
If you can not complete registration during the Setup Agent (which requires network
access), you can alternatively complete the Red Hat registration process online at
http://www.redhat.com/register/.
4.27.1. Provide a Red Hat Login
If you do not have an existing Red Hat login, you can create one when prompted during
the Setup Agent or online at:
https://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/newlogin.html
A Red Hat login enables your access to:
•
Software updates, errata and maintenance via Red Hat Network
•
Red Hat technical support resources, documentation, and Knowledgebase
If you have forgotten your Red Hat login, you can search for your Red Hat login online at:
https://rhn.redhat.com/help/forgot_password.pxt
4.27.2. Provide Your Subscription Number
Your subscription number is located in the package that came with your order. If your
package did not include a subscription number, your subscription was activated for you
and you can skip this step.
You can provide your subscription number when prompted during the Setup Agent or by
visiting http://www.redhat.com/register/.
4.27.3. Connect Your System
The Red Hat Network Registration Client helps you connect your system so that you can
begin to get updates and perform systems management. There are three ways to connect:
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
69
1. During the Setup Agent — Check the Send hardware information and Send system package list options when prompted.
2. After the Setup Agent has been completed — From Applications (the main menu
on the panel), go to System Tools, then select Red Hat Network.
3. After the Setup Agent has been completed — Enter the following command from
the command line as the root user:
• /usr/bin/up2date --register
4.28. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and
Post-Installation Setup
This section describes how to boot your Itanium into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and how
to set your EFI console variables so that Red Hat Enterprise Linux is automatically booted
when the machine is powered on.
After you reboot your system at the end of the installation program, type the following
command to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
elilo
After you type elilo, the default kernel listed in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file is loaded. (The first kernel listed in the file is the default.)
If you want to load a different kernel, type the label name of the kernel from the file
/boot/efi/elilo.conf after the elilo command. For example, to load the kernel
named linux, type:
elilo linux
If you do not know the names of the installed kernels, you can view the
/boot/efi/elilo.conf file in EFI with the following instructions:
1. At the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted as
/boot/efi in Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0:
at the EFI Shell prompt.
2. Type ls at the fs0:\> to make sure you are in the correct partition.
3. Then type:
Shell>type elilo.conf
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This command displays the contents of the configuration file. Each stanza contains a
line beginning with label followed by a label name for that kernel. The label name
is what you type after elilo to boot the different kernels.
4.28.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options
In addition to specifying a kernel to load, you can also enter other boot options such as
single for single user mode or mem=1024M to force Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use
1024 MB of memory. To pass options to the boot loader, enter the following at the EFI
Shell prompt (replace linux with the label name of the kernel you want to boot and
option with the boot options you want to pass to the kernel):
elilo linux option
4.28.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically
After installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux you can type elilo and any boot options at the
EFI Shell prompt each time you wish to boot your Itanium system. However, if you wish
to configure your system to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically, you need to
configure the EFI Boot Manager.
To configure the EFI Boot Manager (may vary slightly depending on your hardware):
1. Boot the Itanium system and choose Boot option maintenance menu from the EFI
Boot Manager menu.
2. Choose Add a Boot Option from the Main Menu.
3. Select the system partition that is mounted as /boot/efi/ in Linux.
4. Select the elilo.efi file.
5. At the Enter New Description: prompt, type Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 4, or any name that you want to appear on the EFI Boot Manager menu.
6. At the Enter Boot Option Data Type: prompt, enter N for No Boot Option if
you do not want to pass options to the ELILO boot loader. This option works for
most cases. If you want to pass options to the boot loader, you can configure it in the
/boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file instead.
7. Answer Yes to the Save changes to NVRAM prompt. This returns you to the EFI
Boot Maintenance Manager menu.
8. Next, you want to make the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 menu item the default. A
list of boot options appears. Move the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 menu item up
to the top of the list by selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing the [u] key to
move it up the list. You can move items down the list by selecting it and pressing the
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
71
[d] key. After changing the boot order, choose Save changes to NVRAM. Choose
Exit to return to the Main Menu.
9. Optionally, you can change to boot timeout value by choosing Set Auto Boot TimeOut => Set Timeout Value from the Main Menu.
10. Return to the EFI Boot Manager by selecting Exit.
4.28.2.1. Using a Startup Script
It is recommended that you configure the ELILO Boot Manager to boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux automatically. However, if you require additional commands to be executed before
starting the ELILO boot loader, you can create a startup script named startup.nsh. The
last command should be elilo to boot into Linux.
The
startup.nsh
script
should
be
in
the
(/boot/efi/startup.nsh) and contain the following text:
/boot/efi
partition
echo -off
your set of commands
elilo
If
you
want
to
pass
options
to
the
boot
loader
(refer
Section 4.28.1 Post-Installation Boot Loader Options) add them after elilo.
to
You can either create this file after booting into Red Hat Enterprise Linux or use the editor
built into the EFI shell. To use the EFI shell, at the Shell> prompt, change devices to
the system partition (mounted as /boot/efi in Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system
boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt. Type ls to make sure you are in the
correct partition. Then type edit startup.nsh. Type the contents of the file and save it.
The next time the system boots, EFI detects the startup.nsh file and use it to boot the
system. To stop EFI from loading the file, type [Ctrl]-[c]. This aborts the process, and
returns you to the EFI shell prompt.
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Appendix A.
Upgrading Your Current System
This appendix explains the various methods available for upgrading your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
A.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install
Although upgrades are supported from Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions 2.1 and 3 by the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors (or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 on an
AMD64, EM64T or Itanimum system), you are more likely to have a consistent experience
by backing up your data and then installing this release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 over
your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
This recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
For more information about re-installing your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, refer to
the Whitepapers available online at http://www.redhat.com/solutions/info/whitepapers/.
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 2.1 or 3 on an x86 system (or Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 3 on an AMD64, EM64T or Itanimum system), you can perform a
traditional, installation program-based upgrade.
However, before you chose to upgrade your system, there are a few things you should keep
in mind:
•
Individual package configuration files may or may not work after performing an upgrade
due to changes in various configuration file formats or layouts.
•
If you have one of Red Hat’s layered products (such as the Cluster Suite) installed, it
may need to be manually upgraded after the Red Hat Enterprise Linux upgrade has been
completed.
•
Third party or ISV applications may not work correctly following the upgrade.
Upgrading your system installs the modular 2.6.x kernel as well as updated versions of the
packages which are currently installed on your system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an
.rpmsave extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also
creates a log of its actions in /root/upgrade.log.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Caution
As software evolves, configuration file formats can change. It is very important to carefully
compare your original configuration files to the new files before integrating your changes.
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example,
if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you
wish to keep on your hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all of
your data.
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If you choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve
dependency problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies,
but it may need to install additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt
you to add an additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that
equals twice your RAM, it asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your system
does not have a lot of RAM (less than 128 MB), it is recommended that you add this swap
file.
A.2. Upgrading Your System
The Upgrade Examine screen appears if you have instructed the installation program to
perform an upgrade.
Note
If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the default,
your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade
to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following boot
command:
linux upgradeany
Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was
not given as an option to upgrade.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
75
To perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation. Click
Next when you are ready to begin your upgrade.
To re-install your system, select Perform a new Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation and refer to http://www.redhat.com/docs/wp/ as well as
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux for further instructions.
To perform a new installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system,
select Perform a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux for further instructions.
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
A software boot loader is used to start Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your x86-based system.
It can also start other operating systems, such as Windows. If you are using a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux software boot loader, such as GRUB, it is detected automatically.
Note
The boot loader information presented here is not applicable for Itanium, AMD64, or
EM64T systems.
On the Boot Loader Configuration Screen, your options are:
Update boot loader configuration — Choose this option to keep your current boot loader
configuration (GRUB or LILO depending on what you have currently installed) and have
updates applied.
Skip boot loader updating — Choose this option if you do not want to make any changes
to your current boot loader configuration. If you are using a third party boot loader, you
should not update your boot loader.
Create new boot loader configuration — Choose this option if
you want to create a new boot loader for your system (refer to
Section 4.17 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration
for
more
information).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
A.4. Upgrading Packages
At this point, there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been upgraded
or installed.
A.5. Upgrade Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 upgrade is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to
remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader
prompt appears at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating
system corresponding to the boot label.
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot
loader automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of
messages should scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you
installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to
Section 4.27 Activate Your Subscription.
Appendix B.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR).
Note
It is always a good idea to backup any data that you have on your system(s). Mistakes do
happen and can result in the loss all of your data.
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the
undocumented flag /mbr. This ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition.
The command should look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the
default DOS (Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not
exist problem. The best way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands
partitions other than DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and boot your system. Once you have
booted off the CD, a boot prompt appears. At the boot prompt, type: linux rescue.
This starts the rescue mode program.
You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you
would during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux install to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions
you would like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on
your system that are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in
megabytes.
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Appendix B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing
other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda
is the device on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number
of the partition to remove:
print
The print command also displays the partition’s type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, and
so on). Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the
partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with
minor number 3:
rm 3
Important
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command
before committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from
the partition table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make,
type quit to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your
system, instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically.
If it does not, you can reboot your computer using [Control]-[Alt]-[Delete].
Appendix C.
Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red
Hat Enterprise Linux
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need
to reinstall and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a
text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB:) and a flashing
cursor may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is
necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive
that is outside of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/
partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot
the system properly.
C.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a memory location that was not assigned.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in memory on your system’s bus. A hardware error in memory can be caused
by problems in executables or with the system’s hardware. Like other operating systems,
Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system’s hardware. Some of
this hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under
another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
be due to a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or
CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS.
You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the
problem is either slot or memory related.
You can also try running the installation with only 256 MB of memory. This can be done
by booting the installation program with the mem=256M boot option. To try this option, at
the installation boot prompt, type:
mem=xxxM
where xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in megabytes.
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the
machine. This may be needed for some older systems where only 16MB is detected by the
installation program (but more RAM is present in the system), and for some new machines
where the video card shares the video memory with the main memory.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation CD-ROMs. The Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation
media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation
process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are
actually due to improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at
the boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
If the Mouse Not Detected screen (refer to Figure C-1) appears, then the installation program was not able to identify your mouse correctly.
You can choose to continue with the GUI installation or use the text mode installation,
which does not require using a mouse. If you continue with the GUI installation, you are
prompted to provide the installation program with your mouse configuration information.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
81
Figure C-1. Mouse Not Detected
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in
a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text
mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. This option may be
most helpful for laptop users. Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for more information.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try
using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some
screen reading hardware.
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.3. Trouble During the Installation
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by
the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor’s website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to
Appendix E Driver Media.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive
If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a
diskette.
If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message
to a remote system.
When the traceback dialog appears, the traceback error message is automatically written
to a file named /tmp/anacdump.txt. Once the dialog appears, switch over to a new tty
(virtual console) by pressing the keys [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2] and scp the message written
to /tmp/anacdump.txt to a known working remote system.
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If
you
receive
an
error
after
the
Disk
Partitioning
Setup
(Section 4.14 Disk Partitioning Setup) phase of the installation saying something similar
to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not
be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems,
causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began)
that could not be recovered.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
83
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on
your systems should always be made.
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition
to use the remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you
want the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A / (root) partition
•
A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk Druid
automatically assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT
•
A / (root) partition
•
A <swap> partition of type swap
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, you do not have to assign it a mount point. Disk
Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may
occur after the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in
the /tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py",
line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module ’sys’ (built-in)>
ToDo object:
(itodo
ToDo
p1
(dp2
S’method’
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4
(dp5
S’progressWindow’
p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or
have been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the
installation process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
85
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda.
Errata can be found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat’s bug tracking system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and
contact our support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
C.4. Problems After Installation
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an
x86-based System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot
screen. To do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashimage by
inserting the # character at the beginning of the line.
Press [Enter] to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line
back into the grub.conf file.
C.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window
System graphical interface using the command startx.
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Once you enter this command and press [Enter], the graphical desktop environment is
displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for
future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one
file, /etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are
finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab
opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[Q] keys.
A window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical
login prompt.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
87
C.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have
installed it during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROMs or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE,
or both, during the upgrade package selection process.
C.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root
Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone other than root logs in,
you may have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in
this example), refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/
and /tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some
room on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running
X as the user that was unsuccessful before.
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password
you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for
edit when the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the
configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must
type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you
can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become
root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd
<username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues.
The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this
with the cat /proc/meminfo command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system.
If they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
#NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
#
all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.9-5.EL)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list
of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
89
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press [Enter] to boot.
C.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work
properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
If, for some reason, you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed, you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool (system-config-soundcard)
utility.
To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool, choose Main Menu => System Settings =>
Soundcard Detection. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password.
You can also type the system-config-soundcard command at a shell prompt to launch
the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
To run the text-based configuration tool, as root, type sndconfig in a terminal window.
Note, the sndconfig application is not installed by default but can be found on the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs.
If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you
still do not have audio sounds), there are alternatives, although they are not quite as simple
as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. You can edit your modules.conf file
(this strategy is not recommended for most new users), or refer to the documentation that
came with your sound card for more information.
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During
Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at
startup, make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset
If you have an NVIDIA chipset and have just updated your kernel, you may experience
problems with the video card, such as not having any video output.
If you experience a similar problem, you should download the latest kernel drivers available
for your NVIDIA chipset. For more information, refer to:
http://www.nvidia.com/view.asp?IO=linux_display_1.0-3123
Appendix D.
An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Note
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the
general concepts mentioned here may apply.
Disk partitions are a standard part of the personal computer landscape and have been for
quite some time. However, with many people purchasing computers featuring pre-installed
operating systems, relatively few people understand how partitions work. This chapter attempts to explain the reasons for and use of disk partitions so your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation is as simple and painless as possible.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to
Section D.1.4 Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, for more information on the
process of freeing up disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
This section also discusses the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems, sharing
disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on
command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the
underlying hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this appendix uses a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really
happening when a disk drive is partitioned. Figure D-1, shows a brand-new, unused disk
drive.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure D-1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is
adequate. Say that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it
will not work. There is something we need to do first. . .
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the
drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive,
creating order out of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
Figure D-2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure D-2, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves some trade-offs:
•
A small percentage of the drive’s available space is used to store file system-related data
and can be considered as overhead.
•
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For
Linux, these segments are known as blocks. 1
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are
usually seen as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure D-3, shows,
a disk drive may have one of many different file systems written on it. As you might guess,
different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that supports
one file system (or a handful of related file system types) may not support another. This
last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
1.
Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average
disk drive contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these
minor discrepancies.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
93
supports a wide variety of file systems (including many commonly used by other operating
systems), making data interchange between different file systems easy.
Figure D-3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to
actually store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been
written to it.
Figure D-4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure D-4, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are now holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside
on this drive. There may only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and
some files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks do
not have to form a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. This
is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part when attempting to resize an
existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their
capacity to store information. And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in
the way disk drives were used.
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted
space in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several
issues, some philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size,
it seemed that the additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the
technical side, some file systems were never designed to support anything above a certain
capacity. Or the file systems could support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the
overhead imposed by the file system to track files became excessive.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be
accessed as if it was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the
actual disk drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the
very start of the disk, before any file system or user data. But for clarity, they are separate
in our diagrams.
Figure D-5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure D-5 shows, the partition table is divided into four sections or four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can contain only one logical
drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary to define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
•
The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
•
Whether the partition is "active"
•
The partition’s type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points
actually define the partition’s size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by
some operating systems’ boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition
that is marked "active" is booted.
The partition’s type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition’s anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning
of the partition type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote
a specific file system type, to flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition contains a bootable operating system, or some
combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used.
Refer to Figure D-6, for an example.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
95
DOS
Figure D-6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and
it points to the start of the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of
several possible partition types listed in Table D-1, it is adequate for the purposes of this
discussion.
Table D-1, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their
hexadecimal numeric values.
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
65
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
Novell
51
DOS access
e1
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
PPC PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
Table D-1. Partition Types
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk
drives continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure
four reasonably-sized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be
some way of creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table D-1, there is an "Extended"
partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table
is created. In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it
has a partition table that points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions,
as opposed to the four primary partitions) contained entirely within the extended partition
itself. Figure D-7, shows a disk drive with one primary partition and one extended partition
containing two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned free space).
DOS
Extended
Linux native
OS/2 HPFS
Figure D-7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there
can only be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical
partitions that can exist. However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux,
you should avoid defining more than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge
to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
97
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your hard disk:
•
Unpartitioned free space is available
•
An unused partition is available
•
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do
not reflect the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
D.1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving
unallocated space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure D-8, shows what this
might look like.
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure D-8, 1 represents an undefined partition with unallocated space and 2 represents
a defined partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference
is that all the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space.
Unfortunately, this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have
just purchased a new disk just for Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed
operating systems are configured to take up all available space on a disk drive (refer to
Section D.1.4.3 Using Free Space from an Active Partition).
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
D.1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you
dedicated to it never seem to be used anymore. Figure D-9, illustrates such a situation.
DOS
DOS
CP/M
Linux native
Figure D-9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure D-9, 1 represents an unused partition and 2 represents reallocating an unused
partition for Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition.
You first must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its
place. You can delete the unused partition and manually create new partitions during the
installation process.
D.1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main
problem is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition
that is already in use. If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard
disk most likely has one massive partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you
might imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means
that making a complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups,
use verification (if available in your backup software), and try to read data from your
backup before you delete the partition.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
99
Caution
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs to
be reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating systems may not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating
system. The best time to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy
your original partition and its operating system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall
any software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Figure D-10 shows this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure D-10, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Caution
As Figure D-10, shows, any data present in the original partition is lost without proper
backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition
smaller without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found
this method to be reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform
this feat? There are several disk management software products on the market. Do
some research to find the one that is best for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are
a number of steps involved:
•
Compress and backup existing data
•
Resize the existing partition
•
Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
D.1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure D-11, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your existing partition. The
reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available free space
at the "end" of the partition.
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure D-11, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from
being resized to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be moved. If this is the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)),
you may be forced to destructively repartition your disk.
D.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure D-12, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed space is used
to create an unformatted partition of the same type as the original partition.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure D-12, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed
space, so that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would
be best to delete the new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
101
D.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions.
However, unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the
partition that was created during the resizing process. Figure D-13, shows this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure D-13, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Note
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available
program that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar
with disk storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make
two copies of all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable
media (such as tape, CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable
before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two
partitions: the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space.
If your goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the
newly created partition, either by using the partitioning utility under your current operating
system or while setting up partitions during installation.
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be
confusing, particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
and their partitions. In the DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following
method:
•
Each partition’s type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
•
If the partition’s type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start
with a "C" and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions
to be labeled.
•
The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system
contained on that partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more
information than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is
file-based, with file names in the form of /dev/xxyN .
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside
on hard disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions
reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the
partition resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the
first IDE hard disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions
are numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3
is the third primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6
is the second logical partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike
DOS/Windows, all partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of
course, this does not mean that Red Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on every type
of partition, but in many cases it is possible to access data on a partition dedicated to
another operating system.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
103
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting
up the partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by
other operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are
certain combinations of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are
used and accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple:
Each partition gets a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and
directories on its corresponding partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with
disk storage in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part
of the storage necessary to support a single set of files and directories. This is done by
associating a partition with a directory through a process known as mounting. Mounting a
partition makes its storage available starting at the specified directory (known as a mount
point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that all
files and directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would
be mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be
mounted on /usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside
on /dev/hda7 rather than /dev/hda5.
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must
give some consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new
operating system. The question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within
the Linux community and, without any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there
are probably as many partition layouts as there are people debating the issue.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise,
you should at least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/ (or a /boot/efi/ partition for Itanium systems), a /var/ partition for Itanium systems, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 4.16.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
Appendix E.
Driver Media
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media?
While the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program is loading, a screen may appear
asking you for driver media. The driver media screen is most often seen in the following
scenarios:
•
If you need to perform an installation from a network device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a block device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a PCMCIA device
•
If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the installation boot
prompt (Itanium users should enter elilo linux dd)
•
If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?
Driver media can add support for hardware that may or may not be supported by the installation program. Driver media could include a driver diskette or image produced by Red
Hat, it could be a diskette or CD-ROM you make yourself from driver images found on the
Internet, or it could be a diskette or CD-ROM that a hardware vendor includes with a piece
of hardware.
Driver media is used if you need access to a particular device to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Drivers can be used for network (NFS) installations, installations using a PCMCIA
or block device, non-standard or very new CD-ROM drives, SCSI adapters, NICs, and
other uncommon devices.
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system,
continue with the installation and add support for the new piece of hardware once the
installation is complete.
106
Appendix E. Driver Media
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media?
Driver images can be obtained from several sources. They may be included with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, or they may be available from a hardware or software vendor’s website.
If you suspect that your system may require one of these drivers, you should create a driver
diskette or CD-ROM before beginning your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
For users with x86-based systems, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 includes
driver images (including images/drvnet.img — network card drivers and
images/drvblock.img — drivers for SCSI controllers) containing many drivers (both
common and obscure).
Tip
It is also possible to use a driver image via a network file. Instead of using the linux dd
boot command, use the linux dd=url command, where url is replaced by an HTTP,
FTP, or NFS address of the driver image to be used.
Another option for finding specialized driver information is on Red Hat’s website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available
after a release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that does not work with drivers already in the
installation program or included on the driver images on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD
#1. In such cases, the Red Hat website may contain a link to a driver image.
E.1.2.1. Creating a Driver Diskette from an Image File
To create a driver diskette from a driver diskette image using Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
1. Insert a blank, formatted diskette (or LS-120 diskette for Itanium system users) into
the first diskette (or LS-120) drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver diskette image, such as drvnet.img ,
type dd if=drvnet.img of=/dev/fd0 as root.
Tip
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports using a USB pen drive as a way to add driver images
during the installation process. The best way to do this is to mount the USB pen drive and
copy the desired driverdisk.img onto the USB pen drive. For example:
dd if=driverdisk.img of=/dev/sda
Appendix E. Driver Media
107
You are then prompted during the installation to select the partition and specify the file to
be used.
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation
If you need to use a driver image, such as during a PCMCIA device or NFS installation,
the installation program prompts you to insert the driver (as a diskette, CD-ROM, or file
name) when it is needed.
However, there are some cases where you must specifically tell the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation program to load that driver diskette and use it during the installation
process.
For example, to specifically load a driver diskette that you have created,
begin the installation process by booting from the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux CD #1 (or using boot media you have created). For x86-based
systems, at the boot: prompt, enter linux dd if using an x86 or x86-64 system. Refer to
Section 4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
for details on booting the installation program. For Itanium systems,
at
the
Shell>
prompt,
type
elilo linux dd.
Refer
to
Section 4.3.2 Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems for details on booting
the installation program.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program asks you to insert the driver diskette.
Once the driver diskette is read by the installation program, it can apply those drivers to
hardware discovered on your system later in the installation process.
108
Appendix E. Driver Media
Appendix F.
Additional Boot Options
This appendix discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the
installation boot: prompt.
Boot Time Command Arguments
askmethod
This command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when
booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
apic
This x86 boot command works around a bug commonly encountered in the Intel
440GX chipset BIOS and should only be executed with the installation program kernel.
apm=allow_ints
This x86 boot command changes how the suspend service is handled (and may be
necessary for some laptops).
apm=off
This x86 boot command disables APM (Advanced Power Management). It useful
because some BIOSes have buggy power management (APM) and tend to crash.
apm=power_off
This x86 boot command makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux shutdown (power off) the
system by default. It is useful for SMP systems that do not shutdown by default.
apm=realmode_power_off
Some BIOSes crash on x86-based systems when trying to shutdown (power off) the
machine. This command changes the method of how this is done from the Windows
NT way to the Windows 95 way.
dd
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver diskette.
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Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
dd=url
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image
from a specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=IP:0
This command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, IP should be
replaced with the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command
xhost +remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host
from which you are running the original display. Using the command xhost
+remotehostname limits access to the remote display terminal and does not allow
access from anyone or any system not specifically authorized for remote access.
driverdisk
This command performs the same function as the dd command and also prompts you
to use a driver diskette during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ide=nodma
This command disables DMA on all IDE devices and may be useful when having
IDE-related problems.
linux upgradeany
This command relaxes some of the checks on your /etc/redhat-release file. If
your /etc/redhat-release file has been changed from the default, your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 4. Use this option only if your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation was not detected.
mediacheck
This command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an
ISO-based method). This command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and
NFS ISO installation methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you
attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during an
installation.
mem=xxxM
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the
machine. This may be needed for some older systems where only 16 MB is detected
and for some new machines where the video card shares the video memory with
the main memory. When executing this command, xxx should be replaced with the
amount of memory in megabytes.
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
111
nmi_watchdog=1
This command enables the built-in kernel deadlock detector. This command can be
used to debug hard kernel lockups. By executing periodic NMI (Non Maskable Interrupt) interrupts, the kernel can monitor whether any CPU has locked up and print out
debugging messages as needed.
noapic
This x86 boot command tells the kernel not to use the APIC chip. It may be helpful for
some motherboards with a bad APIC (such as the Abit BP6) or with a buggy BIOS.
Systems based on the NVIDIA nForce3 chipset (such as the ASUS SK8N) have been
known to hang during IDE detection at boot time, or display other interrupt-delivery
issues.
noht
This x86 boot command disables hyperthreading.
nofb
This command disables frame buffer support and allows the installation program to
run in text mode. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen
reading hardware.
nomce
This x86 boot command disables self-diagnosis checks performed on the CPU. The
kernel enables self-diagnosis on the CPU by default (called Machine Check Exception). Early Compaq Pentium systems may need this option as they do not support processor error checking correctly. A few other laptops, notably those using the Radeon
IGP chipset, may also need this option.
nopass
This command disables the passing of keyboard and mouse information to stage 2
of the installation program. It can be used to test keyboard and mouse configuration
screens during stage 2 of the installation program when performing a network installation.
nopcmcia
This command ignores any PCMCIA controllers in system.
noprobe
This command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware
information.
112
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
noshell
This command disables shell access on virtual console 2 during an installation.
nousb
This command disables the loading of USB support during the installation. If the
installation program tends to hang early in the process, this command may be helpful.
nousbstorage
This command disables the loading of the usbstorage module in the installation program’s loader. It may help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
numa=off
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) on the
AMD64 architecture. While all CPUs can access all memory even without NUMA
support, the NUMA support present in the updated kernel causes memory allocations
to favor the CPU on which they originate as much as possible, thereby minimizing
inter-CPU memory traffic. This can provide significant performance improvements in
certain applications. To revert to the original non-NUMA behavior, specify this boot
option.
reboot=b
This x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T boot command changes the way the kernel
tries to reboot the machine. If a kernel hang is experienced while the system is shutting
down, this command may cause the system to reboot successfully.
rescue
This command runs rescue mode. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide for more information about rescue mode.
resolution=
Tells the installation program which video mode to run. It accepts any standard resolution, such as 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, and so on.
serial
This command turns on serial console support.
skipddc
This x86 boot command skips the ddc monitor probe which causes problems on some
systems.
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
113
text
This command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation
program to run in text mode.
updates
This command prompts you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates (bug fixes).
It is not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed
the updates image contents in RHupdates/ on the server.
vnc
This command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
This command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
114
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
Appendix G.
Additional Resources about Itanium and
Linux
Other reference materials, related to running Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system, are available on the Web. A few of the available resources are as follows:
•
http://www.intel.com/products/server/processors/server/itanium/index.htm?iid=sr+itanium&
— The Intel website on the Itanium Processor
•
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm?iid=sr+efi& — The Intel website
for the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)
•
http://www.itanium.com/business/bss/products/server/itanium2/index.htm — The Intel
website on the Itanium 2 processor
116
Appendix G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux
Index
Symbols
/boot/ partition
recommended partitioning, 42
/boot/efi/, 42
/root/install.log
install log file location, 66
/var/ partition
recommended partitioning, 42
A
accessibility, v
boot option
nofb, 111
activating your subscription, 67
adding partitions, 44
file system type, 46
ATAPI CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 28
autoboot
ELILO, 70
automatic partitioning, 34, 36
B
boot CD-ROM, 7
creating, 7
boot loader, 47
alternatives to, 52
commercial products, 52
LOADLIN, 52
SYSLINUX, 52
configuration, 47
GRUB, 47
installing on boot partition, 50
MBR, 49
password, 49
boot loader password, 49
boot methods
boot CD-ROM, 7
USB pen drive, 7
boot options, 24
additional, 109
kernel, 109
boot.iso, 25
linux mediacheck, 11
mediacheck, 25
serial mode, 25
UTF-8, 25
text mode, 25
boot.iso, 25
booting
installation program
from a CD-ROM, 23
from an LS-120 diskette, 23
Itanium, 23
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T, 22
C
canceling the installation, 27
CD-ROM
ATAPI, 27
unrecognized, problems with, 28
boot CD-ROM, creating, 7
IDE, 27
unrecognized, problems with, 28
installation from, 27
SCSI, 27
clock, 61
configuration
clock, 61
GRUB, 47
hardware, 13
network, 53
time, 61
time zone, 61
consoles, virtual, 18
conventions
document, i
118
D
DASD installation, 28
Disk Druid
adding partitions, 44
file system type, 46
buttons, 41
deleting partitions, 47
editing partitions, 46
partitions, 38
disk partitioning, 34
disk space, 6
diskette
media, 105
documentation
other manuals, 5
driver diskette, 21
driver media, 105
creating diskette from image, 106
produced by others, 106
produced by Red Hat, 106
using a driver image, 107
E
EFI
system partition, 2
EFI Shell, 1
ELILO
autoboot, 70
post-installation boot setup, 69
extended partitions, 96
no firewall, 57
FTP
installation, 8, 30
G
GRUB, 47, 75
alternatives to, 52
commercial products, 52
LOADLIN, 52
SYSLINUX, 52
configuration, 47, 75
SMP motherboards, 52
H
hard disk
basic concepts, 91
extended partitions, 96
file system formats, 92
partition introduction, 93
partition types, 95
partitioning of, 91
hard drive installation, 28
F
feedback
contact information for this manual, v
file system
formats, overview of, 92
file system types, 46
firewall configuration, 56
customize incoming services, 57
customize trusted services, 57
security levels
enable firewall, 57
preparing for, 11
hardware
compatibility, 5
configuration, 13
hostname configuration, 55
how to use this manual, iv
HTTP
installation, 8, 31
119
I
ia64
(see Itanium)
IDE CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 28
install log file
/root/install.log, 66
installation
aborting, 27
can you install with a CD-ROM, 6
CD-ROM, 27
DASD, 28
disk space, 6
FTP, 8, 30
GUI
CD-ROM, 17
hard drive, 11, 28
HTTP, 8, 31
Itanium overview, 1
keyboard navigation, 21
mediacheck, 25
method
CD-ROM, 26
FTP, 26
hard drive, 26
HTTP, 27
NFS image, 26
selecting, 26
network, 8
NFS, 8, 29
server information, 30
partitioning, 38
problems
IDE CD-ROM related, 28
program
graphical user interface, 17
starting, 21
text mode user interface, 19
virtual consoles, 18
serial mode, 25
UTF-8, 25
starting, 27
text mode, 25
installation media
testing, 11
installation overview, 1
installation program
Itanium
booting, 23
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T
booting, 22
installing packages, 64
introduction, i
K
kernel
boot options, 109
kernel options, 25
keyboard
configuration, 33
navigating the installation program using, 21
keymap
selecting type of keyboard, 33
L
language
selecting, 33
support for multiple languages, 59
LOADLIN, 52
LS-120 boot diskette
creating from boot image file, 23
LS-120 boot.img, 23
M
manuals, 5
MBR
installing boot loader on, 49
mount points
partitions and, 103
mouse
not detected, 80
120
N
network
configuration, 53
installations
FTP, 30
HTTP, 31
NFS, 29
network installation
performing, 29
preparing for, 8
NFS
installation, 8, 29
O
online help
hiding, 32
OS/2 boot manager, 49
P
packages
groups, 64
selecting, 64
installing, 64
selecting, 64
parted partitioning utility, 101
partition
extended, 96
Partition Magic, 52
partitioning, 38
automatic, 34, 36
basic concepts, 91
creating new, 44
file system type, 46
deleting, 47
destructive, 98
editing, 46
extended partitions, 96
how many partitions, 94, 103
introduction to, 93
making room for partitions, 97
mount points and, 103
naming partitions, 101
non-destructive, 99
numbering partitions, 101
other operating systems, 103
primary partitions, 94
recommended, 42
types of partitions, 95
using free space, 97
using in-use partition, 98
using unused partition, 98
password
boot loader, 49
setting root, 62
post-installation setup, 69
R
re-installation, 73
recursion
(see recursion)
registering your subscription, 67
removing
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, 77
rescue mode, 51
root / partition
recommended partitioning, 42
root password, 62
S
security levels
firewall configuration, 56
SELinux, 58
selecting
packages, 64
SELinux
security levels, 58
SMP motherboards
GRUB, 52
starting
installation, 21, 27
startup.nsh, 71
steps
disk space, 6
hardware compatibility, 5
121
signal 11 error, 79
CD-ROM failure
CD-ROM verification, 11, 25
during the installation
No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux error message, 82
saving traceback messages without a
diskette drive, 82
during the installation, 82
completing partitions, 83, 83
partition tables, 82
Python errors, 84
using remaining hard drive space, 83
installing with CD-ROM, 6
subscription registration, 67
swap file
upgrade, 74
swap parition
recommended partitioning, 42
SYSLINUX, 52
System Commander, 52
System Partition, 2
system requirements table, 13
T
tables
reference, 13
system requirements, 13
TCP/IP configuration, 29
time zone
configuration, 61
traceback messages
saving traceback messages without a floppy
drive, 82
troubleshooting, 79
after the installation
Apache-based httpd service hangs during
startup, 89
after the installation, 85
booting into a graphical environment, 85
booting into GNOME or KDE, 85
booting into the X Window System, 85
graphical GRUB screen, 85
logging in, 87
NVIDIA, 90
printers, 89
RAM not recognized, 88
Sendmail hangs during startup, 89
sound configuration, 89
X (X Window System), 87
X server crashes, 87
beginning the installation, 80
frame buffer, disabling, 81
GUI installation method unavailable, 81
mouse not detected, 80
booting, 79
RAID cards, 79
U
uninstalling, 77
upgrade, 73
adding a swap file, 74
boot loader configuration, 75
USB pen card
driver image, 106
USB pen drive
boot methods, 7
user interface, graphical
installation program, 17
user interface, text mode
installation program, 19
V
virtual consoles, 18
Colophon
The manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4.1 format. The HTML and PDF formats are
produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. The DocBook
SGML files are written using Emacs with the help of PSGML mode.
Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note, tip, important, caution, and warning). They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation.
The Red Hat Product Documentation Team consists of the following people:
Sandra A. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology
(Intel® EM64T); Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation
Guide for the IBM® POWER Architecture; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for the IBM® S/390® and IBM® eServer™ zSeries®
Architectures
John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a Cluster; Co-writer/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide;
Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts
Edward C. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Release Notes; Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64,
and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Karsten Wade — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat SELinux Guide; Contributing
Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide
Andrius T. Benokraitis — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide; Co-writer/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide;
Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide
Paul Kennedy — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat GFS Administrator’s Guide;
Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a Cluster
Mark Johnson — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Desktop Deployment Guide;
Contributing Writer of Red Hat Network documentation
Melissa Goldin — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By
Step Guide; Contributing Writer of Red Hat Network Documentation
Lucy Ringland — Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation Editor.
The Red Hat Localization Team consists of the following people:
Amanpreet Singh Alam — Punjabi translations
Jean-Paul Aubry — French translations
David Barzilay — Brazilian Portuguese translations
124
Runa Bhattacharjee — Bengali translations
Chester Cheng — Traditional Chinese translations
Verena Fuehrer — German translations
Kiyoto Hashida — Japanese translations
N. Jayaradha — Tamil translations
Michelle Jiyeen Kim — Korean translations
Yelitza Louze — Spanish translations
Noriko Mizumoto — Japanese translations
Ankitkumar Rameshchandra Patel — Gujarati translations
Rajesh Ranjan — Hindi translations
Nadine Richter — German translations
Audrey Simons — French translations
Francesco Valente — Italian translations
Sarah Wang — Simplified Chinese translations
Ben Hung-Pin Wu — Traditional Chinese translations
Tongjie Tony Fu — Simplified Chinese Translations
Manuel Ospina — Spanish Translations
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