8 PID L O C

8 PID L O C
C HAPTER
HAPTER
PID LOOP OPERATION
8
In This Chapter...
DL250-1 and DL260 PID Loop Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–2
Introduction to PID Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–4
Introducing DL205 PID Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–6
PID Loop Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–9
Ten Steps to Successful Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–16
PID Loop Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–18
PID Loop Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–41
Using the Special PID Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–52
Ramp/Soak Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–57
DirectSOFT Ramp/Soak Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–62
Cascade Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–64
Time-Proportioning Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–67
Feedforward Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–69
PID Example Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–71
Troubleshooting Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–74
Glossary of PID Loop Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–76
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8–78
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
1 DL250-1 and DL260 PID Loop Features
Main Features
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The DL250–1 and DL260 CPUs process loop control offers a sophisticated set of features to
address many application needs. The main features are:
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• DL250–1 – up to 4 loops, individual programmable sample rates
• DL260 – up to 16 loops, individual programmable sample rates
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• Manual/ Automatic/Cascaded loop capability available
• Two types of bumpless transfer available
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• Full-featured alarms
• Ramp/soak generator with up to 16 segments
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• Auto Tuning
The DL250–1 and DL260 CPUs have process control loop capability in addition to ladder
program execution. You can select and configure up to four loops for the DL250-1 or sixteen
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loops for the DL260. All sensor and actuator wiring connects to standard DL205 I/O
modules, as shown below. All process variables, gain values, alarm levels, etc., associated with
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each loop reside in a Loop Variable Table in the CPU. The CPU reads process variable (PV)
inputs during each scan. Then it makes PID loop calculations during a dedicated time slice
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on each PLC scan, updating the control output value. The control loops use the ProportionalIntegral-Derivative (PID) algorithm to generate the control output command. This chapter
describes how the loops operate, and what you must do to configure and tune the loops.
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The best tool for configuring loops in the CPU is the DirectSOFT programming software,
C
Release 2.1 or later. DirectSOFT uses dialog boxes to create a forms-like editor to let you
individually set up the loops. After completing the setup, you can use DirectSOFT’s PID
D
Trend View to tune each loop. The starting address and number of loops is stored in system
Analog or Digital Output
DL250–1 / DL260
PID Loop Calculations
Manufacturing Process
Maintenance
and Troubleshooting
Analog Input
8–2
memory, but tuning parameters are stored in V-memory. The loop parameters also may be
saved to disk for recall later.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Loop Feature
Number of loops
CPU V-memory needed
PID algorithm
Control Output polarity
Error term curves
Loop update rate (time between
PID calculation)
Minimum loop update rate
Loop modes
Ramp/Soak Generator
PV curves
Set Point Limits
Process Variable Limits
Proportional Gain
Integrator (Reset)
Derivative (Rate)
Rate Limits
Bumpless Transfer I
Bumpless Transfer II
Step Bias
Anti-windup (Freeze Bias)
Error Deadband
Alarm Feature
PV Alarm Hysteresis
PV Alarm Points
PV Deviation
Rate of Change
Specifications
DL250-1 - selectable up to 4; DL260 - selectable up to 16
32 words (V locations) per loop selected, 64 words if using ramp/soak
Position or Velocity form of the PID equation
Selectable direct-acting or reverse-acting
Selectable as linear, square root of error, and error squared
0.05 to 99.99 seconds, user programmable
0.05 seconds for 1 to 4 loops (DL250-1/260)
0.1 seconds for 5 to 8 loops (DL260)
0.2 seconds for 9 to 16 loops (DL260)
Automatic, Manual (operator control), or Cascade control
Up to 8 ramp/soak steps (16 segments) per loop with indication of ramp/soak step number
Select standard linear, or square-root extract (for flow meter input)
Specify minimum and maximum setpoint values
Specify minimum and maximum Process Variable values
Specify gains of 0.01 to 99.99
Specify reset time of 0.01 to 99.98 in units of seconds or minutes
Specify the derivative time from 0.01 to 99.99 seconds
Specify derivative gain limiting from 1 to 20
Automatically sets the bias equal to the control output and the setpoint equal to the process
variable when control switches from manual to automatic.
Automatically sets the bias equal to the control output when control switches from manual to
automatic
Provides proportional bias adjustment for large setpoint changes
For position form of PID, this inhibits integrator action when the control output reaches 0% or
100% (speeds up loop recovery when output recovers from saturation)
Specify a tolerance (plus and minus) for the error term (SP-PV), so that no change in control
output value is made
Specifications
Specify 1 to 200 (word/binary) does not affect all alarms, such as PV Rate-of-Change Alarm
Select PV alarm settings for Low-low, Low, High, and High-high conditions
Specify alarms for two ranges of PV deviation from the setpoint value
Detect when PV exceeds a rate of change limit you specify
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
1 Introduction to PID Control
Why use PID Control?
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There are many analog control strategies available for industrial processes, and the best one to
choose depends on the particular application. Let’s compare the two most common types of
analog control used throughout industry:
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1. The ON-OFF controller, sometimes referred to as an open loop controller.
2. The PID controller, sometimes called a closed loop controller.
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Regardless of type, analog controllers require input signals from electronic sensors such as
pressure, differential pressure, level, flow meter or thermocouples. As an example, one of the
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most common analog control applications is located in your house for controlling either heat
or air conditioning, the thermostat.
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You wish for your house to be at a comfortable temperature so you set a thermostat to a
desired temperature (setpoint). You then select the “comfort” mode, either heat or A/C. A
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temperature sensing device, normally a thermistor, is located within the thermostat. If the
thermostat is set for heat and the setpoint is set for 69, the furnace will be turned on to
provide heat at, normally, 2 below the setpoint. In this case, it would turn on at 67. When
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the temperature reaches 71, 2 above setpoint, the furnace will turn off. In the opposite
example, if the thermostat is set for A/C (cooling), the thermostat will turn the A/C unit
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on/off opposite the heat setting. For instance, if the thermostat is set to cool at 76, the A/C
unit will turn on when the sensed temperature reaches 2 above the setpoint or 78, and turn
off when the temperature reaches 74. This would be considered to be an ON-OFF
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controller. The waveform below shows the action of the heating cycle. Note that there is a
slight overshoot at the turn-off point, also a slight undershoot at the turn-on point.
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A
The ON-OFF controller is used in some industrial control applications, but is not practical
in the majority of industrial control processes.
B
The most common process controller that is used in industry is the PID controller.
The PID controller controls a continuous feedback loop that keeps the process output
C
(control variable) flowing normally by taking corrective action whenever there is a deviation
from the desired value (setpoint) of the process variable (PV) such as, rate of flow,
D
temperature, voltage, etc. An “error” occurs when an operator manually changes the setpoint
71°
OFF
OFF
SETPOINT
69°
67°
ON
ON
ON
TIME
or when an event (valve opened, closed, etc.) or a disturbance (cold water, wind, etc.) changes
the load, thus causing a change in the process variable.
8–4
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
The PID controller receives signals from sensors and computes corrective action to the
actuator from a computation based on the error (Proportional), the sum of all previous errors
(Integral) and the rate of change of the error (Derivative).
We can look at the PID controller in more simple terms. Take the cruise control on an
automobile as an example. Let’s say that we are cruising on an interstate highway in a car
equipped with cruise control. The driver decides to engage the cruise control by turning it
ON, then he manually brings the car to the desired cruising speed, say 70 miles per hour.
Once the cruise speed is reached, the SET button is pushed fixing the speed at 70 mph, the
setpoint. Now, the car is cruising at a steady 70 mph until it comes to a hill to go up. As the
car goes up the hill, it tends to slow down. The speed sensor senses this and causes the throttle
to increase the fuel to the engine. The vehicle speeds up to maintain 70 mph without jerking
the car and it reaches the top at the set speed. When the car levels out after reaching the top
of the hill it will speed up. The speed sensor senses this and signals the throttle to provide less
fuel to the engine, thus, the engine slows down allowing the car to maintain the 70 mph
speed. How does this application apply to PID control? Lets look at the function of P, I and
D terms:
• Proportional - is commonly referred to as Proportional Gain. The proportional term is
the corrective action which is proportional to the error, that is, the change of the
manipulated variable is equal to the proportional gain multiplied by the error (the
activating signal). In mathematical terms:
Proportional action = proportional gain X error
Error = Setpoint (SP) - Process Variable (PV)
Applying this to the cruise control, the speed was set at 70 mph which is the Setpoint.
The speed sensor senses the actual speed of the car and sends this signal to the cruise
MPH
70
67
SET
SETPOINT
Deviation from setpoint as car goes uphill
TIME
controller as the Process Variable (PV). When the car is on a level highway, the speed is
maintained at 70 mph, thus, no error since the error would be SP - PV = 0. When the car
goes up the hill, the speed sensor detected a slow down of the car, SP-PV = error. The
proportional gain would cause the output of the speed controller to bring the car back to
the setpoint of 70 mph. This would be the Controlled Output.
• Integral - this term is often referred to as Reset action. It provides additional
compensation to the control output, which causes a change in proportion to the value of
the error over a period of time. In other words, the reset term is the integral sum of the
error values over a period of time.
• Derivative - this term is referred to as rate. The Rate action adds compensation to the
control output, which causes a change in proportion to the rate of change of error. Its job
is to anticipate the probable growth of the error and generate a contribution to the output
in advance.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
DL205 PID Control
1 Introducing
The DL205 (DL250-1 and DL260) is capable of controlling a process where PID control is
required. As previously mentioned, the control of a variable, such as temperature, at a given
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level (setpoint) as long as there are no disturbances (such as cold water entering a process that
heats water) in the process.
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The DL205 PLC has the ability to directly accept signals from electronic sensors, such as
thermocouples, pressure, VFDs, etc. These signals may be used in mathematically derived
control
systems.
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In addition, the DL205 has built-in PID control algorithms that can be implemented. The
basic function of PID closed loop process control is to maintain certain process characteristics
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at desired setpoints. As a rule, the process deviates from the desired setpoint reference as a
result of load material changes and interaction with other processes. During this control, the
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actual condition of the process characteristics (liquid level, temperature, motor control, etc.)
is measured as a process variable (PV) and compared with the target setpoint (SP). When
deviations
occur, an error is generated by the difference between the process variable (actual
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value) and the setpoint (desired value). Once an error is detected, the function of the control
loop is to modify the control output in order to force the error to zero.
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The DL205 PID control provides feedback loops using the PID algorithm. The control
output is computed from the measured process variable as follows:
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Let:
K = proportional gain
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T = Reset or integral time
T = Derivative time or rate
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SP = Setpoint
PV(t) = Process Variable at time “t”
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e(t) = SP-PV(t) = PV deviation from setpoint at time “t” or PV error.
Then:
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M(t) = Control output at time “t”
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M(t) = Kc [ e(t) + 1/T 兰 e(x) dx + T d/dt e(t) ] + M
A
The analog input module receives the process variable in analog form along with an operator
entered setpoint; the CPU computes the error. The error is used in the algorithm
computation to provide corrective action at the control output. The function of the control
B
action is based on an output control, which is proportional to the instantaneous error value.
The integral control action (reset action) provides additional compensation to the control
C
output, which causes a change in proportion to the value of the change of error over a period
of time. The derivative control action (rate change) adds compensation to the control output,
D
which causes a change in proportion to the rate of change of error. These three modes are
c
i
d
t
i
0
d
o
used to provide the desired control action in Proportional (P), Proportional-Integral (PI), or
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control fashion.
8–6
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Standard DL205 analog input modules are used to interface to field transmitters to obtain the
PV. These transmitters normally provide a 4-20mA current or an analog voltage of various
ranges for the control loop.
For temperature control, thermocouple or RTD can be connected directly to the appropriate
module. The PID control algorithm, residing in the CPU memory, receives information from
the user program, primarily control parameters and setpoints. Once the CPU makes the PID
calculation, the result may be used to directly control an actuator connected to a 4-20mA
current output module to control a valve.
With DirectSOFT, additional ladder logic programming, both time proportioning (e.g.
heaters for temperature control) and position actuator (e.g. reversible motor on a valve) type
of control schemes can be easily implemented. This chapter will explain how to set up the
PID control loop, how to implement the software and how to tune the loop.
The following block diagram shows the key parts of a PID control loop. The path from the
PLC to the manufacturing process and back to the PLC is the closed loop control.
External
Disturbances
Loop Configuring
and Monitoring
PLC System
Setpoint Value
+
Error Term
k
–
Loop
Calculation
Control Output
Manufacturing
Process
Process Variable
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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Process Control Definitions
Manufacturing Process – the set of actions that adds value to raw materials. The process can
involve physical changes and/or chemical changes to the material. The changes render the
material more useful for a particular purpose, ultimately used in a final product.
Process Variable – The controlled variable part of the process that you wish to control. It may
be temperature, pressure, level, flow, composition, density, the ratio of two streams, etc. Also
known as the actual value.
Setpoint – This is the target for the process variable. When all conditions of the process are
correct, the process variable will equal the setpoint.
Control Output – The result of the loop calculation, which becomes a command for the
process (such as the heater level in an oven). This is sometimes referred to as control variable.
Error Term – The algebraic difference between the process variable and the setpoint. This is
the control loop error, and is equal to zero when the process variable is equal to the setpoint
(desired) value. A well-behaved control loop is able to maintain a small error term magnitude.
Manipulated Variable – This is what is used to affect the controlled variable. For example, the
fuel used in a furnace might be manipulated in order to control the temperature.
Disturbance – Something in the system that changes such that corrective action is required.
For instance, when controlling a flow and the upstream pressure drops, the control valve must
open wider in order to keep flow constant. The drop in upstream pressure is the disturbance.
Final Control Element – This is the physical device used to control the manipulated variable.
Valves are probably the most widely used final control element.
Lag Time – The time it takes for the process to respond to a change in manipulated variable.
This is also known as the capacitance of the system. When you’re in the shower and you turn
up the hot water a little, the time it takes before the water gets hot is the lag time.
Dead Time – The time it takes for a change in the process to be recognized. Composition
analyzers and quality control are usually sources of significant dead time.
Loop Configuring – Operator-initiated selections which set up and optimize the performance
of a control loop. The loop calculation function uses the configuration parameters in real time
to adjust gains, offsets, etc.
Loop Monitoring – The function which allows an operator to observe the status and
performance of a control loop. This is used in conjunction with the loop configuring to
optimize the performance of a loop (minimize the error term).
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Loop Operation
The Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) algorithm is widely used in process control. The
PID method of control adapts well to electronic solutions, whether implemented in analog or
digital (CPU) components. The DL205 CPU implements the PID equations digitally by
solving the basic equations in software. I/O modules serve only to convert electronic signals
into digital form (or vice versa).
The DL205 uses two types of PID controls: “position” and “velocity”. These terms usually
refer to motion control situations, but here we use them in a different sense:
• PID Position Algorithm – The control output is calculated so it responds to the
displacement (position) of the PV from the SP (error term).
• PID Velocity Algorithm – The control output is calculated to represent the rate of change
(velocity) for the PV to become equal to the SP.
Position Form of the PID Equation
Referring to the control output equation on page 8-6, the DL205 CPU approximates the
output M(t) using a discrete position form of the PID equation.
Let:
Ts = Sample rate
Kc = Proportional gain
Ki = Kc * (Ts/Ti) = Coefficient of integral term
Kr = Kc * (Td/Ts) = Coefficient of derivative term
Ti = Reset or integral time
Td = Derivative time or rate
SP = Setpoint
PVn = Process variable at nth sample
en = SP – PVn = Error at nth sample
Mo = Value to which the controller output has been initialized
Then:
Mn = Control output at nth sample
n
Mn = Kc * en + Ki 兺 ei + Kr (en - en-1) + Mo
i=1
This form of the PID equation is referred to as the position form since the actual actuator
position is computed. The velocity form of the PID equation computes the change in
actuator position. The CPU modifies the standard equation slightly to use the derivative of
the process variable instead of the error as follows:
n
Mn = Kc * en + Ki 兺 ei + Kr (PVn - PVn-1) + Mo
i=1
These two forms are equivalent unless the setpoint is changed. In the original equation, a
large step change in the setpoint will cause a correspondingly large change in the error
resulting in a bump to the process due to derivative action. This bump is not present in the
second form of the equation.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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The DL205 also combines the integral sum and the initial output into a single term called the
bias (Mx). This results in the following set of equations:
Mxo = Mo
Mx = Ki * en + Mxn-1
Mn = Kc * en - Kr(PVn-PVn-1) + Mxn
The DL205 by default will keep the normalized output M in the range of 0.0 to 1.0. This is
done by clamping M to the nearer of 0.0 or 1.0 whenever the calculated output falls outside
this range. The DL205 also allows you to specify the minimum and maximum output limit
values (within the range 0 to 4095 in binary if using 12-bit unipolar).
NOTE: The equations and algorithms , or parts of, in this chapter are only for references. Analysis of
these equations can be found in most good text books about process control.
Reset Windup Protection
Reset windup can occur if reset action (integral term) is specified and the computation of the
bias term Mx is:
Mx = Ki * en + Mxn-1
For example, assume the output is controlling a valve and the PV remains at some value
greater than the setpoint. The negative error (en) will cause the bias term (Mx) to constantly
decrease until the output M goes to 0 closing the valve. However, since the error term is still
negative, the bias will continue to decrease becoming ever more negative. When the PV
finally does come back down below the SP, the valve will stay closed until the error is positive
for long enough to cause the bias to become positive again. This will cause the process
variable to undershoot.
One way to solve the problem is to simply clamp the normalized bias between 0.0 and 1.0.
The DL205 CPU does this. However, if this is the only thing that is done, then the output
will not move off 0.0 (thus opening the valve) until the PV has become less than the SP. This
will also cause the process variable to undershoot.
The DL205 CPU is programmed to solve the overshoot problem by either freezing the bias
term, or by adjusting the bias term.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Freeze Bias
If the “Freeze Bias” option is selected when setting up the PID loop (discussed later) then the
CPU simply stops changing the bias (Mx) whenever the computed normalized output (M)
goes outside the interval 0.0 to 1.0.
Mx = Ki * en + Mxn-1
M = Kc * en - Kr(PVn - PVn-1) + Mx
Mn = 0
Mn = M
Mn = 1
if M < 0
if 0 ⭐ M ⭐ 1
if M > 1
Mxn = Mx
if 0 ⭐ M ⭐ 1
Mxn = Mxn-1 otherwise
Thus in this example, the bias will probably not go all the way to zero so that, when the PV
does begin to come down, the loop will begin to open the valve sooner than it would have if
the bias had been allowed to go all the way to zero. This action has the effect of reducing the
amount of overshoot.
Adjusting the Bias
The normal action of the CPU is to adjust the bias term when the output goes out of range as
shown below.
Mx = Ki * en + Mxn-1
M = Kc * en - Kr(PVn - PVn-1) + Mx
Mn = 0
Mn = M
Mn = 1
if M < 0
if 0 ⭐ M ⭐ 1
if M > 1
Mxn = Mx
if 0 ⭐ M ⭐ 1
Mxn = Mn - Kc * en - Kr(PVn - PVn-1) otherwise
By adjusting the bias, the valve will begin to open as soon as the PV begins to come down. If
the loop is properly tuned, overshoot can be eliminated entirely. If the output went out of
range due to a setpoint change, then the loop probably will oscillate because we must wait for
the bias term to stabilize again.
The choice of whether to use the default loop action or to freeze the bias is dependent on the
application. If large, step changes to the setpoint are anticipated, then it is probably better
to select the freeze bias option (see page 8-35).
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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Step Bias Proportional to Step Change in SP
This feature reduces oscillation caused by a step change in setpoint when the adjusting bias
feature is used.
Mx = Mx * SPn / SPn-1
if the loop is direct acting
if the loop is reverse acting
Mx = Mx * SPn-1 / SPn
Mxn = 0
if Mx < 0
Mxn = Mx if 0 ⭐ Mx ⭐ 1
Mxn = 1
if Mx > 1
Eliminating Proportional, Integral or Derivative Action
It is not always necessary to run a full three mode PID control loop. Most loops require only
the PI terms or just the P term. Parts of the PID equation may be eliminated by choosing
appropriate values for the gain (Kc), reset (Ti) and rate (Td) yielding a P, PI, PD, I and even
an ID and a D loop.
Eliminating Integral Action
The effect of integral action on the output may be
eliminated by setting Ti = 9999 or 0000. When this is
done, the user may then manually control the bias term
(Mx) to eliminate any steady-state offset.
Eliminating Derivative Action
The effect of derivative action on the output may be
eliminated by setting Td = 0 (most loops do not require a
D parameter; it may make the loop unstable).
Eliminating Proportional Action Although rarely done, the effect of proportional term on
the output may be eliminated by setting Kc = 0. Since Kc
is also normally a multiplier of the integral coefficient (Ki)
and the derivative coefficient (Kr), the CPU makes the
computation of these values conditional on the value of
Kc as follows:
Ki = Kc * (Ts / Ti) if Kc ⫽ 0
Ki = Ts / Ti
if Kc = 0 (I or ID only)
Kr = Kc * (Td / Ts) if Kc ⫽ 0
Kr = Td / Ts
if Kc = 0 (ID or D only)
Velocity Form of the PID Equation
The standard position form of the PID equation computes the actual actuator position. An
alternative form of the PID equation computes the change in actuator position. This form of
the equation is referred to as the velocity PID equation and is obtained by subtracting the
equation at time “n” from the equation at time “n-1”.
The velocity equation is given by:
⌬Mn = M - Mn-1
⌬Mn = Kc * (en - en-1) + Ki * (PVn - 2 * PVn-1 + PVn-2)
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Bumpless Transfer
The DL205 loop controller provides for bumpless mode changes. A bumpless transfer from
manual mode to automatic mode is achieved by preventing the control output from changing
immediately after the mode change.
When a loop is switched from Manual mode to Automatic mode, the setpoint and Bias are
initialized as follows:
Position PID Algorithm
Velocity PID Algorithm
SP = PV
SP = PV
Mx = M
The bumpless transfer feature of the DL205 is available in two types: Bumpless I and
Bumpless II (see page 8-27). The transfer type is selected when the loop is set up.
Loop Alarms
The DL205 allows the user to specify alarm conditions that are to be monitored for each
loop. Alarm conditions are reported to the CPU by setting up the alarms in DirectSOFT
using the PID setup alarm dialog when the loop is set up. The alarm features for each loop
are:
• PV Limit – Specify up to four PV alarm points.
High-High PV rises above the programmed High-High Alarm Limit.
High
PV rises above the programmed High Alarm Limit.
Low
PV falls below the Low Alarm Limit.
Low-Low
PV falls below the Low-Low Limit.
• PV Deviation Alarm – Specify an alarm for High and Low PV deviation from the
setpoint (Yellow Deviation). An alarm for High High and Low Low PV deviation
from the setpoint (Orange Deviation) may also be specified. When the PV is further
from the setpoint than the programmed Yellow or Orange Deviation Limit the
corresponding alarm bit is activated.
• Rate of Change – This alarm is set when the PV changes faster than a specified rate-ofchange limit.
• PV Alarm Hysteresis – The PV Limit Alarms and PV Deviation Alarms are programmed
using threshold values. When the absolute value or deviation exceeds the threshold,
the alarm status becomes true. Real-world PV signals have some noise on them, which
can cause some fluctuation in the PV value in the CPU. As the PV value crosses an
alarm threshold, its fluctuations will cause the alarm to be intermittent and annoy
process operators. The solution is to use the PV Alarm Hysteresis feature.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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A
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8–14
Loop Operating Modes
The DL205 loop controller operates in one of three modes, either Manual, Automatic or
Cascade.
Manual
In manual mode, the control output is determined by the operator, not the loop controller.
While in manual mode, the loop controller will still monitor all of the alarms including
High-High, High, Low, Low-Low, Yellow deviation, Orange deviation and Rate-of-Change.
Automatic
In automatic mode, the loop controller computes the control output based on the
programmed parameters stored in V-memory. All alarms are monitored while in automatic.
Cascade
Cascade mode is an option with the DL205 PLC and is used in special control applications.
If the cascade feature is used, the loop will operate as it would if in automatic mode except
that a cascaded loop has a setpoint which is the control output from another loop.
Special Loop Calculations
Reverse Acting Loop
Although the PID algorithm is used in a direct, or forward, acting loop controller, there are
times when a reverse acting control output is needed. The DL205 loop controller allows a
loop to operate as reverse acting. With a reverse acting loop, the output is driven in the
opposite direction of the error. For example, if SP > PV, then a reverse acting controller will
decrease the output to increase the PV.
Mx = -Ki * en + Mxn-1
M = -Kc * en + Kr(PVn-PVn-1) + Mxn
Square Root of the Process Variable
Square root is selected whenever the PV is from a device such as an orifice meter which
requires this calculation.
Error Squared Control
Whenever error squared control is selected, the error is calculated as:
en = (SP - PVn) * ABS(SP - PVn)
A loop using the error squared is less responsive than a loop using just the error; however, it
will respond faster with a large error. The smaller the error, the less responsive the loop. Error
squared control would typically be used in a pH control application.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Error Deadband Control
With error deadband control, no control action is taken if the PV is within the specified
deadband area around the setpoint. The error deadband is the same above and below the
setpoint.
Once the PV is outside of the error deadband around the setpoint, the entire error is used in
the loop calculation.
SP - Deadband_Below_SP < PV < SP - Deadband_Above_SP
en = 0
en = P - PVn
otherwise
The error will be squared first if both Error Squared and Error Deadband is selected.
Derivative Gain Limiting
When the coefficient of the derivative term, Kr, is a large value, noise introduced into the PV
can result in erratic loop output. This problem is corrected by specifying a derivative gain
limiting coefficient, Kd. Derivative gain limiting is a first order filter applied to the derivative
term computation, Yn, as shown below.
Y n = Yn-1 +
Ts
* (PV n - Y n-1 )
Ts + ( Td )
Kd
Position Algorithm
Mx = Ki * en + Mxn-1
M = Kc * en - Kr * (Yn-Yn-1) + Mx
Velocity Algorithm
⌬M = Kc * (en - en-1) + Ki * en - Kr * (Yn - 2 * Yn-1 + Yn-2)
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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A
B
C
D
8–15
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
to Successful Process Control
1 Ten Steps
Controllers such as the DL205 PLC provide sophisticated process control features.
Automated control systems can be difficult to debug, because a given symptom can have
2
many possible causes. We recommend a careful, step-by-step approach to bringing new
control loops online:
3
Step 1: Know the Recipe
The most important knowledge is – how to produce your product. This knowledge is the
4
foundation for designing an effective control system. A good process recipe will do the
following:
• Identify all relevant Process Variables (PV), such as temperature, pressure, or flow rates,
5
etc. which need precise control.
• Plot the desired Setpoint values for each process variable for the duration of one process
6
cycle.
Step 2: Plan Loop Control Strategy
7
This simply means choosing the method the machine will use to maintain control over the
Process Variables to follow their Setpoints. This involves many issues and trade-offs, such as
8
energy efficiency, equipment costs, ability to service the machine during production, and
more. You must also determine how to generate the Setpoint (SP) value during the process,
and whether a machine operator can change the SP.
9
Step 3: Size and Scale Loop Components
Assuming the control strategy is sound, it is still crucial to properly size the actuator and
10
properly scale the sensors.
• Choose an actuator (heater, pump. etc.) which matches the size of the load. An oversized
11
actuator will have an overwhelming effect on your process after a SP change. However, an
undersized actuator will allow the PV to lag or drift away from the SP after a SP change
or process disturbance.
12
• Choose a PV sensor which matches the range of interest (and control) for your process.
Decide the resolution of control you need for the PV (such as within 2C), and make sure
13
the sensor input value provides the loop with at least 5 times that resolution (at LSB
level). However, an over-sensitive sensor can cause control oscillations, etc.The DL205
provides 12–bit and 15–bit unipolar and bipolar data format options, and a 16–bit
14
unipolar option. This selection affects SP, PV, Control Output and Integrator sum.
Step 4: Select I/O Modules
A
After deciding the number of loops, PV variables to measure, and SP values, you can choose
the appropriate I/O module. Refer to the figure on the next page. In many cases, you will be
B
able to share input or output modules, or use an analog I/O combination module, among
several control loops. The example shown sends the PV and Control Output signals for two
C
loops through the same set of modules.
AutomationDirect offers DL205 analog input modules with 4 and 8 channels per module
D
that accept 0–20mA or 4-20mA signals and voltage. Analog combination I/O modules are
also available. Thermocouple and RTD modules can also be used to maintain temperatures to
a 10th of a degree. Refer to the sales catalog for further information on these modules, or find
the modules on our website, www.automationdirect.com.
8–16
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Input
Module
DL250-1/260 CPU
V-memory
Digital
Output
Channel 1
Loop 1 Data
PV
OUT
SP
Channel 1
Process 1
Channel 2
Loop 2 Data
OUT
PV
SP
Channel 2
Process 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
Step 5: Wiring and Installation
After selection and procurement of all loop components and I/O module(s), you can perform
the wiring and installation. Refer to the wiring guidelines in Chapter 2 of this manual, and to
the D2-ANLG-M manual. The most common wiring errors when installing PID loop
controls are:
• Reversing the polarity of sensor or actuator wiring connections.
• Incorrect signal ground connections between loop components.
Step 6: Loop Parameters
After wiring and installation, choose the loop setup parameters. The easiest method for
programming the loop tables is using DirectSOFT (5.0 or later). This software provides PID
Setup using dialog boxes to simplify the task. Note: It is important to understand the
meaning of all loop parameters mentioned in this chapter before choosing values to enter.
Step 7: Check Open Loop Performance
With the sensor and actuator wiring done, and loop parameters entered, we must manually
and carefully check out the new control system using the Manual mode).
• Verify that the PV value from the sensor is correct.
• If it is safe to do so, gradually increase the control output up above 0%, and see if the PV
responds (and moves in the correct direction!).
Step 8: Loop Tuning
If the Open Loop Test (page 8–41) shows the PV reading is correct and the control output
has the proper effect on the process; you can follow the closed loop tuning procedure (see
page 8–47). In this step, the loop is tuned so the PV automatically follows the SP.
Step 9: Run Process Cycle
If the closed loop test shows the PV will follow small changes in the SP, consider running an
actual process cycle. You will need to have completed the programming which will generate
the desired SP in real time. In this step, you may want to run a small test batch of product
through the machine, watching the SP change according to the recipe.
WARNING: Be sure the Emergency Stop and power-down provision is readily accessible, in case
the process goes out of control. Damage to equipment and/or serious injury to personnel can
result from loss of control of some processes.
Step 10: Save Parameters
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
A
B
C
D
When the loop tests and tuning sessions are complete, be sure to save all loop setup
parameters to disk.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
8–17
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Loop Setup
1
2
3
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A
B
C
D
8–18
Some Things to Do and Know Before Starting
Install the analog module, and be sure it is operational before beginning the loop setup (refer
to the DL205 analog modules user manual, D2-ANLG-M. The DL205 PLC gets its PID
loop processing instructions from V-memory tables. There isn’t a PID instruction that can be
used in RLL, such as a block, to setup the PID loop control. Instead, the CPU reads the setup
parameters from system V-memory locations. These locations are shown in the table below
for reference only; they can be used in a RLL program if needed.
Address
Setup Parameter
Data type
V7640
Loop Parameter
Table Pointer
V7641
Number of Loops
BCD
V7642
Loop Error Flags
BITS
Octal
Ranges
Read/Write
V1400 – V7340
V10000-V17740 (DL250-1)
V10000 - V37740 (DL260)
1 – 4 (DL250-1)
1 - 16 (DL260)
0 or 1
write
write
read
NOTE: The V-memory data is stored in RAM memory. If power is removed from the CPU for an
extended period of time, the PID Setup Parameters will be lost. It is recommended to use the
optional D2-BAT-1 for memory backup.
PID Error Flags, V7642
PID Error Flags
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
The CPU reports any programming errors of the setup parameters in V7640 and V7641. It
does this by setting the appropriate bits in V7642 on program-to-run mode transitions.
If you use the DirectSOFT loop setup dialog box, its automatic range checking prohibits
possible setup errors. However, the setup parameters may be written using other methods
such as RLL, so the error flag register may be helpful in those cases. The following table lists
the errors reported in V7642.
Bit
0
1
2
3
4
Error Description (0 = no error, 1 = error)
The starting address (in V7640) is out of the lower V-memory range.
The starting address (in V7640) is out of the upper V-memory range.
The number of loops selected (in V7641) is greater than 4 (DL250-1) and 16 (DL260).
The loop table extends past (straddles) the boundary at V7377. Use an address closer to V1400.
The loop table extends past (straddles) the boundary at V17777 (DL250-1) or V35777 (DL260).
Use an address closer to V10000.
If the CPU is in Run mode and V7642=0000, there are no programming errors.
Establishing the Loop Table Size and Location
On a PROGRAM-to-RUN mode transition, the
CPU reads the loop setup parameters as pictured
below. At that moment, the CPU learns the
location of the loop table and the number of loops
it configures. Then, during the ladder program
scan, the PID Loop task uses the loop data to
perform calculations, generate alarms, and so on.
There are some loop table parameters the CPU will
read or write on every loop calculation.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
CPU Tasks
Ladder
Program
V–Memory Space
READ/
WRITE
User Data
LOOP
DATA
CONFIGURE/
MONITOR
PID Loop
Task
READ
(at powerup)
Setup Parameters
V7640, V7641
DirectSOFT Programming Software
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
NOTE: The DL205 CPU’s PID algorithm requires DirectSOFT and the DL250-1 or DL260 CPUs with
any firmware version.
The Loop Table contains data for only the number of loops
V–Memory
User Data
that are selected. The address for the table is stored in V7641.
Each loop configuration occupies 32 words (0 to 37 octal) in
V2000
LOOP #1
the loop table.
32 words
V2037
V2040
For example, consider an application with 4 loops, and V2000
LOOP #2
32 words
has been chosen as the starting location. The Loop Parameter
V2077
LOOP #3
will occupy V2000 – V2037 for loop 1, V2040 – V2077 for
32 words
loop 2 and so on. Loop 4 occupies V2140 - V2177.
LOOP #4
32 words
Determine the block of V-memory to be used for each PID
loop. Besides being the beginning of the PID parameter memory block, the first address will
be the start of loop 1 parameters. Remember, there are 32 words (0 to 37 octal) needed for
each loop. Once you have determined the beginning V-memory address to be used, you can
setup and store the PID parameters either directly in your RLL program or by using the PID
Setup in DirectSOFT.
NOTE: Whether one or more loops are being setup, this block of V-memory will only be used for the
PID loop parameters, do not use this block of memory for anything else in your program.
Using DirectSOFT is the simplest way to setup the parameters. To setup the PID parameters,
the DL205 must be powered up and connected to the programming computer. The
parameters can only be entered in PID setup when the PLC is in the Program mode. Once
the parameters have been entered and saved for each loop, changes through the PID setup can
be made, but only in Program Mode. You can type the beginning address in the PID Table
Address dialog found when the PID Setup is opened in DirectSOFT. This can be seen in the
diagram below. After the address has been entered, the memory range will appear. Also,
entering the number of PID loops (1 to 4 for the DL250-1, 1 to 16 for the DL260) will set
the total V-memory range for the number of loops entered. After the
V-memory address has been entered, the necessary PID parameters for a basic loop operation
for each loop can be setup with the dialogs made available.
NOTE: Have a DirectSOFT project open, then click on PLC > Setup > PID to access the Setup PID
dialog.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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8–20
Loop Table Word Definitions
These are the loop parameters associated with each of the four loops available in the DL205.
The parameters are listed in the following table. The address offset is in octal, to help you
locate specific parameters in the loop table. For example, if a table begins at V2000, then the
location of the reset (integral) term is Addr+11, or V2011. Do not use the Word # (in the
first column) to calculate addresses.
Word #
Address+Offset
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Addr + 0
Addr + 1
Addr + 2
Addr + 3
Addr + 4
Addr + 5
Addr + 6
Addr + 7
Addr + 10
Addr + 11
Addr + 12
Addr + 13
Addr + 14
Addr + 15
Addr + 16
Addr + 17
Addr + 20
Addr + 21
Addr + 22
Addr + 23
Addr + 24
Addr + 25
Addr + 26
Addr + 27
Addr + 30
Addr + 31
Addr + 32
Addr + 33
Addr + 34
Addr + 35
Addr + 36
Addr + 37
Description
PID Loop Mode Setting 1
PID Loop Mode Setting 2
Setpoint Value (SP)
Process Variable (PV)
Bias (Integrator) Value
Control Output Value
Loop Mode and Alarm Status
Sample Rate Setting
Gain (Proportional) Setting
Reset (Integral) Time Setting
Rate (Derivative) Time Setting
PV Value, Low-low Alarm
PV Value, Low Alarm
PV Value, High Alarm
PV Value, High-high Alarm
PV Value, deviation alarm (YELLOW)
PV Value, deviation alarm (RED)
PV Value, rate-of-change alarm
PV Value, alarm hysteresis setting
PV Value, error deadband setting
PV low-pass filter constant
Loop derivative gain limiting factor setting
SP value lower limit setting
SP value upper limit setting
Control output value lower limit setting
Control output value upper limit setting
Remote SP Value V-Memory Address Pointer
Ramp/Soak Setting Flag
Ramp/Soak Programming Table Starting Address
Ramp/Soak Programming Table Error Flags
PV auto transfer, channel number
Control output auto transfer, channel number
Notes:
Format
Change
on-the-fly1
bits
bits
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
bits
word/BCD
word/BCD
word/BCD
word/BCD
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/BCD
word/BCD
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/binary
word/hex
bit
word/hex
bits
word/hex
word/hex
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
–
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No2
No2
No2
No2
No2
No2
No2
No2
Yes
Yes
No3
Yes
Yes
No3
No3
Yes
Yes
No3
No3
Yes
Yes
“Yes” in the column indicates the PID loop will use an updated PID parameter value immediately.
Read data only when alarm enable bit transitions from 0 to 1.
3
Read data only on PLC Mode change.
1
2
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Mode Setting 1 Bit Descriptions (Addr + 00)
The individual bit definitions of the PID Mode Setting 1 word (Addr+00) are listed in the
following table.
Bit
PID Mode Setting 1 Description
Read/Write
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Manual Mode Loop Operation request
Automatic Mode Loop Operation request
Cascade Mode Loop Operation request
Bumpless Transfer select
Direct or Reverse-Acting Loop select
Position/Velocity Algorithm select
PV Linear/Square Root Extract select
Error Term Linear/Squared select
Error Deadband enable
Derivative Gain Limit select
Bias (Integrator) Freeze select
Ramp/Soak Operation select
PV Alarm Monitor select
PV Deviation alarm select
PV rate-of-change alarm select
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
write
15
Loop mode is independent from CPU mode when set
write
Bit=0
Bit=1
–
01 request
–
01 request
–
01 request
Mode I
Mode II
Direct
Reverse
Position
Velocity
Linear
Sq. root
Linear
Squared
Disable
Enable
Off
On
Off
On
Off
On
Off
On
Off
On
Off
On
Loop with CPU Loop Independent
mode
of CPU mode
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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8–21
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
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2
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B
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D
8–22
PID Mode Setting 2 Bit Descriptions (Addr + 01)
The individual bit definitions of the PID Mode Setting 2 word (Addr+01) are listed in the
following table.
Bit
PID Mode 2 Word Description
(PV) and Control Output Range Unipolar/Bipolar
0 Input
select (See Notes 2 and 3)
1 Input/Output Data Format select (See Notes 2 and 3)
2 Analog Input filter
3 SP Input limit enable
4 Integral Gain (Reset) units select
5 Select Auto tune PID algorithm
6 Auto tune selection
tune start
7 Auto
(See Note 1)
8 PID Scan Clock (internal use)
Data Format 16-bit select
9 Input/Output
(See Notes 2 and 3)
separate data format for input and output
10 Select
(See Notes 3 and 4)
Output Range Unipolar/Bipolar select
11 Control
(See Notes 3 and 4)
12 Output Data Format select (See Notes 3 and 4)
13 Output data format 16-bit select (See Notes 3 and 4)
14–15 Reserved for future use
Read/Write
Bit=0
Bit=1
write
unipolar
bipolar
write
write
write
write
write
write
15 bit
on
enable
minutes
open loop
PI only (rate = 0)
read
12 bit
off
disable
seconds
closed loop
PID
auto tune
cancel/done
–
write
not 16 bit
select 16 bit
write
same format
separate formats
write
unipolar
bipolar
write
write
–
12 bit
not 16 bit
–
15 bit
select16 bit
–
read/write
force start
–
NOTE 1: Bit 7 can be used to cancel Autotune mode by setting it to 0.
NOTE 2: If the value in bit 9 is 0, then the values in bits 0 and 1 are read. If the value in bit 9 is 1,
then the values in bits 0 and 1 are not read, and bit 9 defines the data format (the range is
automatically unipolar).
NOTE 3: If the value in bit 10 is 0, then the values in bits 0, 1 and 9 define the input and output
ranges and data formats (the values in bits 11, 12, and 13 are not read). If the value in bit 10 is 1,
then the values in bits 0, 1, and 9 define only the input range and data format, and bits 11, 12, and
13 are read and define the output range and data format.
NOTE 4: If bit 10 has a value of 1 and bit 13 has a value of 0, then bits 11 and 12 are read and define
the output range and data format. If bit 10 and bit 13 each have a value of 1, then bits 11 and 12 are
not read, and bit 13 defines the data format, (the output range is automatically unipolar).
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Mode/Alarm Monitoring Word (Addr + 06)
The individual bit definitions of the Mode/Alarm monitoring (Addr+06) word is listed in the
following table.
Bit
Mode/Alarm Bit Description
Read/Write
Bit=0
Bit=1
0 Manual Mode Indication
1 Automatic Mode Indication
2 Cascade Mode Indication
3 PV Input LOW–LOW Alarm
4 PV Input LOW Alarm
5 PV Input HIGH Alarm
6 PV Input HIGH–HIGH Alarm
7 PV Input YELLOW Deviation Alarm
8 PV Input RED Deviation Alarm
9 PV Input Rate-of-Change Alarm
10 Alarm Value Programming Error
11 Loop Calculation Overflow/Underflow
12 Loop in Auto-Tune indication
13 Auto-Tune error indication
14–15 Reserved for Future Use
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
read
–
–
–
–
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
–
–
Off
–
–
Manual
Auto
Cascade
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
Error
Error
On
Error
–
Ramp/Soak Table Flags (Addr + 33)
The individual bit definitions of the Ramp/Soak Table Flag (Addr+33) word is listed in the
following table.
Bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8–15
Ramp/Soak Flag Bit Description
Start Ramp/Soak Profile
Hold Ramp/Soak Profile
Resume Ramp/Soak Profile
Jog Ramp/Soak Profile
Ramp/Soak Profile Complete
PV Input Ramp/Soak Deviation
Ramp/Soak Profile in Hold
Reserved
Current Step in Ramp/Soak Profile
Read/Write
write
write
write
write
read
read
read
read
read
Bit=0
Bit=1
–
01 Start
–
01 Hold
–
01 Resume
–
01 Jog
–
Complete
Off
On
Off
On
–
–
decode as byte (hex)
Bits 8–15 must be read as a byte to indicate the current segment number of the Ramp/Soak
generator in the profile. This byte will have the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E,
F, and 10, which represent segments 1 to 16 respectively. If the byte=0, then the Ramp/Soak
table is not active.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
A
B
C
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Ramp/Soak Table Location (Addr + 34)
Each loop that you configure has the option of using a built-in Ramp/Soak generator
dedicated to that loop. This feature generates setpoint (SP) values that follow a profile. To use
the Ramp/Soak feature, you must program a separate table of 32 words with appropriate
values. A DirectSOFT dialog box makes this easy to do.
In the loop table, the Ramp/Soak Table Pointer at Addr+34 must point to the start of the
Ramp/Soak data for that loop. This may be anywhere in user memory, and does not have to
adjoin to the Loop Parameter table, as shown to the left. Each Ramp/Soak table requires 32
words, regardless of the number of segments programmed.
The Ramp/Soak table parameters are defined in the table below. Further details are in the
section on Ramp/Soak Operation in this chapter.
V–Memory Space
User Data
V2000
V2037
LOOP #1
32 words
LOOP #2
32 words
V3000
Ramp/Soak #1
32 words
V2034 = 3000 Octal
Pointer to R/S table
8–24
Addr
Offset
Step
+ 00
+ 01
+ 02
+ 03
+ 04
+ 05
+ 06
+ 07
+ 10
+ 11
+ 12
+ 13
+ 14
+ 15
+ 16
+ 17
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
Description
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Addr
Offset
Step
+ 20
+ 21
+ 22
+ 23
+ 24
+ 25
+ 26
+ 27
+ 30
+ 31
+ 32
+ 33
+ 34
+ 35
+ 36
+ 37
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
Description
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp/Soak Table Programming Error Flags (Addr + 35)
The individual bit definitions of the Ramp/Soak Table Programming Error Flags word
(Addr+35) is listed in the following table. Further details are given in the PID Loop Mode
section and in the PV Alarm section later in this chapter.
Bit
R/S Error Flag Bit Description
Read/Write
Bit=0
Bit=1
0
1
2–3
4
5–15
Starting Addr out of lower V-memory range
Starting Addr out of upper V-memory range
Reserved for Future Use
Starting Addr in System Parameter V-memory Range
Reserved for Future Use
read
read
–
read
–
–
–
–
–
–
Error
Error
–
Error
–
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PV Auto Transfer (Addr + 36) from I/O Module Base/Slot/Channel Option
The nibble definitions for PV Auto Transfer word (Addr + 36) are listed in the table below for
the Transfer from Base/Slot option. When this option is used for any channel on an analog
input module, the ladder logic pointer method can not be used for this module. (Refer to
the DL205 Analog I/O Modules (D2-ANLG-M) for pointer method information).
MSB
15
Bit 15 will be OFF when
0–4
Base
Number
auto transfer from
Base/Slot is selected
CPU
DL250-1
DL260
LSB
0
0
0
0–7
Base
Slot Number
Base Number
1–8
Channel
Number
Base Slot
Number
Channel
Number
0-7
1-8
0-7
1-8
Local CPU base = 0
Local expansion base = 1-2
Local CPU base = 0
Local expansion base = 1-4
PV Auto Transfer (Addr + 36) from V-memory Option
The nibble definitions for PV Auto Transfer word (Addr + 36) are listed in the table below for
the Transfer from V-memory option. The ladder logic pointer method can be used with this
option to get the analog module’s channel values into V-memory. (Refer to the DL205
Analog I/O Modules (D2-ANLG-M) for pointer method information).
Bit 15 will be ON when auto
MSB
15
LSB
0
0
transfer from V–memory is
selected
V–Memory Address (Hex format)
Memory Type
DL250-1 Range
DL260 Range
V-memory
V1400-V7377
V10000-1777
V400-V677
V1400-V7377
V10000-V35777
Control Output Auto Transfer (Addr + 37)
The nibble definitions for Control Output Auto Transfer word (Addr + 37) are listed in the
table below. When the Control Output Auto Transfer function is used for any channel on
an analog input module, the ladder logic pointer method can not be used for this module.
(Refer to the DL205 Analog I/O Modules (D2-ANLG-M) for pointer method information).
MSB
15
0–4
Base
Number
CPU
DL250-1
DL260
LSB
0
0
0
0–7
Base
Slot Number
Base Number
Local CPU base = 0
Local expansion base = 1-2
Local CPU base = 0
Local expansion base = 1-4
1–8
Channel
Number
Base Slot
Number
Channel
Number
0-7
1-8
0-7
1-8
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Configure the PID Loop
Once the PID table is established in V-memory, configuring the PID loop continues with the
DirectSOFT PID setup configuration dialog. You will need to check and fill in the data
required to control the PID loop. Select Configure and the following dialog will appear for
this process.
Select the Algorithm Type
Chose either Position or Velocity. The default algorithm is Position. This is the choice for most
applications which include heating and cooling loops as well as most position and level
control loops. A typical velocity control will consist of a process variable such as a flow
totalizer in a flow control loop.
Enter the Sample Rate
The main tasks of the CPU fall into categories as shown to the right. The
Read
Inputs
list represents the tasks done when the CPU is in Run Mode, on each
PLC scan. Note that PID loop calculations occur after the ladder logic
Service
task.
Peripherals
The sample rate of a control loop is simply the frequency of the PID
Ladder
calculation. Each calculation generates a new control output value. With
Program
PLC
the DL205 CPUs, you can set the sample rate of a loop from 50 ms to
Scan
99.99 seconds. Most loops do not require a fresh PID calculation on
Calculate
PID Loops
every PLC scan. Some loops may need to be calculated only once in 1000
scans.
Internal
Diagnostics
Enter 0.05 sec., or the sample rate of your choice, for each loop, and the
CPU automatically schedules and executes PID calculations on the
Write
appropriate scans.
Outputs
NOTE: If more than 4 loops are programmed, enter a minimum of 0.1 second.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Select Forward/Reverse
It is important to know which direction the control output will respond to the error (SP-PV),
either forward or reverse. A forward (direct) acting control loop means that whenever the
control output increases, the process variable will also increase. The control output of most
PID loops are forward acting, such as a heating control loop. An increase in heat applied will
increase the PV (temperature).
A reverse acting control loop is one where an increase in the control output results in a
decrease in the PV. A common example of this would be a refrigeration system, where an
increase in the cooling input causes a decrease in the PV (temperature).
The Transfer Mode
Choose either Bumpless I or Bumpless II to provide a smooth transition of the control output
from Manual Mode to Auto Mode. Choosing Bumpless I will set the SP equal to the PV
when the control output is switched from Manual to Auto. If this is not desired, choose
Bumpless II.
The characteristics of Bumpless I and II transfer types are listed in the chart below. Note that
their operation also depends on which PID algorithm you are using, the position or velocity
form of the PID equation. Note that you must use Bumpless Transfer type I when using the
velocity form of the PID algorithm.
Transfer
TransferType Select
Bit 3
Bumpless
Transfer I
Bumpless
Transfer II
Manual-to-Auto
Transfer Action
PID Algorithm
Forces Bias = Control Output Forces Major Loop Output =
Forces SP = PV
Minor Loop PV
Forces
Major Loop Output =
Forces SP = PV
Minor Loop PV
Forces Bias = Control Output
none
none
none
Position
0
Velocity
1
Auto-to-Cascade
Transfer Action
Position
Velocity
The transfer type can also be selected in a RLL program by setting bit 3 of PID Mode 1,
V+00 setting as shown.
PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6 5
4
3
2 1
0
Bumpless Transfer I/II Select
SP/PV & Output
Format
Bumpless
Transfer I / II select
This block allows you to select either Common format or Independent format. Common
format is the default and is most commonly used. With this format both SP/PV and Output
will have the same data structure. Both will have the same number of bits and either bipolar
or unipolar. If Independent format is selected, the data structure selections will be grayed out.
They will be independently selectable in the SP/PV and the Output dialogs.
Common Data Format
Select either Unipolar data format (which is positive data only) in 12-bit (0 to 4095), 15-bit
(0 to 32767), or 16-bit (0 to 65535) format, or Bipolar data format, which ranges from
negative to positive (-4095 to 4095 or -32767 to 32767) and requires a sign bit. Bipolar
selection displays input/output as magnitude plus sign, not two’s complement. The bipolar
selection is not available when 16-bit data format is selected.
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Setpoint V+02
+
(
–
Control Output V+05
Process Variable V+03
PID Mode 2 Setting V+01
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Data formats
Select data
format using
bits 0 and 1.
00
LSB
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
12 bit unipolar
0 to 0FFF (0 to 4095)
01
12 bit bipolar
0 to 0FFF, 8FFF to 8001
(0 to 4095, *–4095 to 4095)
10
15 bit unipolar
0 to 32767
11
15 bit bipolar
0 to 7FFF, FFFF to 8001
(0 to 32767, *–32767 to 32767)
= sign bit
* Magnitude plus sign
The data format determines the numerical interface between the PID loop and the PV sensor,
and the control output device. This selects the data format for both the SP and the PV.
Loop Mode
Loop Mode is a special feature that allows the PID loop controller to perform closed-loop
control while the CPU is in the Program Mode. Careful thought must be taken before using
this feature called Independent of CPU mode in the dialog. Before continuing with the PID
setup, a knowledge of the three PID loop modes will be helpful.
The DL205 provides the three standard control modes: Manual, Automatic, and Cascade.
The sources of the three basic variables SP, PV and control output are different for each
mode.
In Manual Mode, the loop is not executing PID calculations (however, loop alarms are still
active). With regard to the loop table, the CPU stops writing values to location V+05 (control
output) for that loop. It is expected that an operator or other intelligent source is manually
controlling the output by observing the PV and writing data to the control output as
necessary to keep the process under control. The drawing below shows the equivalent
schematic diagram of manual mode operation.
Input from Operator
Manual
Control Output V+05
Loop
Calculation
Auto
In Automatic Mode, the loop operates normally and generates new control output values. It
calculates the PID equation and writes the result in location V+05 every sample period of that
loop. The equivalent schematic diagram is shown below.
Input from Operator
Manual
Control Output V+05
Loop
Calculation
8–28
Loop
Calculation
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Auto
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
In Cascade Mode, the loop operates as it does in Automatic Mode, with one important
difference. The data source for the SP changes from its normal location at V+02 to using the
control output value, V+05, from another loop. So in Auto or Manual modes, the loop
calculation uses the data at V+02. In Cascade Mode, the loop calculation reads the control
output from another loop’s parameter table, V+05.
Another loop
Loop
Calculation
Cascaded loop
Cascade
Control Output V+05
Setpoint
+
Normal SP V+02
k
Control Output
Loop
Calculation
–
Auto/Manual
Process Variable
As pictured below, a loop can be changed from one mode to another, but cannot go from
Manual Mode directly to Cascade, or vice versa. This mode change is prohibited because a loop
would be changing two data sources at the same time, and could cause a loss of control.
Manual
Automatic
Cascade
Once the CPU is operating in the Run Mode, the normal operation of the PID loop
controller is to read the loop data and perform calculations on each scan of the RLL program.
When the CPU is placed in the Program Mode, the RLL program halts operation and all PID
loops are automatically put into the Manual Mode. The PID parameters can then be changed
if desired. Similarly, by placing the CPU in the Run mode, the PID loops are returned to the
operational mode which they were previously in, i.e., Manual, Automatic and Cascade. With
this selection you automatically affect the modes by changing the CPU mode.
CPU Modes:
Program
Mode change
Run
Loop Mode Linking
0 = loop follows PLC mode
1 = loop is independent
Bit
of PLC mode
PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6 5
4
3
2 1
0
Loop
Modes:
Manual
Mode change
Automatic
Mode change
Cascade
If bit 15 is set to 1, then the loops will run independent of the CPU mode. It is like having
two independent processors in the CPU...one is running the RLL program and the other is
running the process loops.
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Having the ability to run loops independently of the RLL program makes it feasible to make
a ladder logic change while the process is still running. This is especially beneficial for largemass continuous processes that are difficult or costly to interrupt. The Independent of CPU
feature is used for this.
If you need to operate the PID loops while the RLL program is halted, in Program Mode,
either select the Independent of CPU mode in the dialog or edit your program to set and
reset bit 15 of PID Mode 1 word (V+00) in your RLL program. If the bit is set to a zero, the
loop will follow the CPU mode, then when the CPU is placed in the Program Mode, all
loops will be forced into the Manual Mode.
When Independent of CPU mode is used, you should also set the PV to be read directly from
an analog input module. This can easily be done in the PID setup dialog, SP/PV.
The SP/PV dialog has a block titled Process Variable.
There is a block within this block called Auto
Transfer From (from analog input) with the
information grayed out. Checking the box to the
left of the Auto Transfer From will highlight the
information. Select I/O Module, then enter the slot
number the input module resides in. Next, select
the analog input channel of your choice.
The second choice is V-Memory. When this is
selected, the V-memory address from where the PV
is transferred from must be specified.
Whichever method of auto transfer is used, it is
recommended to check the Enable Filter Factor (a
low-pass filter) and specify the coefficient.
The analog output for the control output to be transferred
to should also be selected. This is done in the PID setup
Output dialog shown here. The block of information in this
dialog is “grayed-out” until the box next to Auto transfer to
I/O module is checked. Once checked, enter the slot number
where the output module is residing and then enter the
analog output channel number.
NOTE: To make changes to any loop table parameters, the PID loop must be in Manual mode and the
PLC must be stopped. If you have selected to operate the PID loop independent of the CPU mode,
then you must take certain steps to make it possible to make loop parameter changes. You can
temporarily make the loops follow the CPU mode by changing bit 15 to 0. Then you will be able to
place the loop into Manual Mode using DirectSOFT. After you change the loop’s parameter settings,
just restore bit 15 to a value of 1 to re-establish PID operation independent of the CPU.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
You may optionally configure each loop to access its analog I/O (PV and control output) by
placing proper values in the associated loop table registers in your RLL program. The
following figure shows the loop table parameters at V+36 and V+37 and their auto transfer
role to access the analog values directly.
Setpoint V +02
k
Error
Loop
Calculation
Control output V+05
Process variable V+03
Loop Table
V2036
0X XX
Base/Slot /Channel number for PV
V2037
0X XX
Base/Slot/Channel number for Output
XX 0X
Channel number 1 to 8
Slot number 0 to 7
Base number 0 to 2 (DL250-1) / 0 to 4 (DL260)
When these loop table parameters are programmed directly, a value of “0102” in register
V2036 directs the loop controller to read the PV data from channel 1 of the analog input. A
value of “0000” in either register tells the loop controller not to access the corresponding
analog value directly. In that case, ladder logic must be used to transfer the value between the
analog input and the loop table.
NOTE: When auto transfer to/from I/O is used, the analog data for all of the channels on the analog
module cannot be accessed by any other method, i.e., pointer or multiplex.
SP/PV Addresses
An SP/PV dialog will be made available to setup how the setpoint (SP) and the process
variable (PV) will be used in the loop. If this loop is the minor loop of a cascaded pair, enter
that control output address in the Remote SP from Cascaded Loop Output area. It is sometimes
desirable to limit the range of setpoint values allowed to be entered. To activate this feature,
check the box next to Enable Limiting. This will activate the Upper and Lower fields for the
values to be entered.
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Set the limits around the SP value to prevent an operator from entering a setpoint value
outside of a safe range. The Square root box is only checked for certain PID loops, such as a
flow control loop. If the Auto transfer from I/O module is selected, a first-order low-pass filter
can be used by checking the Enable Filter box. The filter coefficient is user specified. The use
of this filter is recommended during closed loop auto-tuning. If the Independent format had
been checked previously, make the Data format selections here.
NOTE: The SP/PV dialog can be left as it first appears for basic PID operation.
Set Control Output Limits
Another dialog that will be available in the PID setup will be the Output dialog. The control
output address, V+05, (determined by the PID loop table beginning address) will be in view.
Enter the output range limits, Upper Limit and Lower Limit, that will meet the requirement
of the process and which will agree with the data format that has been selected. For a basic
PID operation using a 12-bit output module, set the Upper Limit to 4095 and leave the
Lower Limit set to 0.
Check the box next for Auto transfer to I/O module if there is a need to send the control
output to a certain analog output module, as in the case of using the Loop Mode independent
of CPU Mode; otherwise, the PID output signal cannot control the analog output when the
PLC is not in RUN Mode. If the Auto transfer to I/O module feature is checked, all channels
of the module must be used for PID control outputs. If Independent format has been
previously chosen, the Output Data Format will need to be set up here, that is, select Unipolar
or Bipolar format and the bit structure. This area is not available and is grayed out if Common
format has been chosen (see page 8-27).
WARNING: If the Upper Limit is set to zero, the output will never get above zero. In effect, there
will be no control output.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Enter PID Parameters
Another PID setup dialog, Tuning, is for entering the PID parameters shown as: Gain
(Proportional Gain), Reset (Integral Gain) and Rate (Derivative Gain).
Recall the position and velocity forms of the PID loop equations which were introduced
earlier. The equations basically show the three components of the PID calculation:
Proportional Gain (P), Integral Gain (I) and Derivative Gain (D). The following diagram
shows a form of the PID calculation in which the control output is the sum of the
proportional gain, integral gain and derivative gain. With each calculation of the loop, each
term receives the same error signal value.
Loop Calculation
P
Setpoint
+
Error T erm
k
I
–
Process Variable
D
+
+
k
Control Output
+
The P, I and D gains are 4-digit BCD numbers with values from 0000 to 9999. They contain
an implied decimal point in the middle, so the values are actually 00.00 to 99.99. Some gain
values have units – Proportional gain has no unit, Integral gain may be selected in seconds or
in minutes, and Derivative gain is in seconds.
Gain (Proportional Gain) – This is the most basic gain of the three. Values range from 0000
to 9999, but they are used internally as xx.xx. An entry of “0000” effectively removes the
proportional term from the PID equation. This accommodates applications which need
integral-only loops.
Reset (Integral Gain) – Values range from 0001 to 9998, but they are used internally as
xx.xx. An entry of “0000” or “9999”causes the integral gain to be “⬁”, effectively removing
the integrator term from the PID equation. This accommodates applications which need
proportional-only loops. The units of integral gain may be either seconds or minutes, as
shown in the above dialog.
Rate (Derivative Gain) – Values which can be entered range from 0001 to 9999, but they are
used internally as xx.xx. An entry of “0000” allows removal of the derivative term from the
PID equation (a common practice). This accommodates applications which require only
proportional and/or integral loops. Most control loops will operate as a PI loop.
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NOTE: You may elect to leave the tuning dialog blank and enter the tuning parameters in the
DirectSOFT PID View.
Derivative Gain Limiting
The derivative gain (rate) has an optional gain-limiting feature. This is provided because the
derivative gain reacts badly to PV signal noise or other causes of sudden PV fluctuations. The
function of the gain-limiting is shown in the diagram below.
Loop Calculation
P
Setpoint
+
Error T erm
k
I
–
D
Proportional
+
+
Integral
Derivative
0
Derivative,
gain-limited
1
k
Control
Output
+
Process Variable
Loop Table
V+25
00XX
P ID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Derivative Gain Limit
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
6 5
4 3
2 1
0
Derivative gain limit select
The gain limit can be particularly useful during loop tuning. Most loops can tolerate only a
little derivative gain without going into uncontrolled oscillations.
If this option is checked, a Limit from 0 to 20 must also be entered.
NOTE: When first configuring a loop, it’s best to use the standard error term until after the loop is
tuned. Once the loop is tuned, you will be able to tell if these functions will enhance control. The
Error Squared and/or Enable Deadband can be selected later in the PID setup. Also, values are not
required in the Tuning dialog, but can be set later in the DirectSOFT PID View.
Error Term Selection
The error term is internal to the CPUs PID loop controller, and is generated again in each
PID calculation. Although its data is not directly accessible, you can easily calculate it
by subtracting: Error = (SP–PV). If the PV square-root extract is enabled, then: Error = 公PV
In any case, the size of the error and algebraic sign determine the next change of the
control output for each PID calculation.
Error Squared – When selected, the squared error function simply squares the error term (but
preserves the original algebraic sign), which is used in the calculation. This affects the Control
Output by diminishing its response to smaller error values, but maintaining its response to
larger errors. Some situations in which the error squared term might be useful:
• Noisy PV signal – using a squared error term can reduce the effect of low-frequency electrical noise
on the PV, which will make the control system jittery. A squared error maintains the response to
larger errors.
• Non-linear process – some processes (such as chemical pH control) require non-linear controllers for best
results. Another application is surge tank control, where the Control Output signal must be smooth.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Enable Deadband – When selected, the enable deadband function takes a range of small error
values near zero, and simply substitutes zero as the value of the error. If the error is larger than
the deadband range, then the error value is used normally.
Freeze Bias
The term reset windup refers to an undesirable characteristic of integrator behavior which
occurs naturally under certain conditions. Refer to the figure below. Suppose the PV signal
becomes disconnected, and the PV value goes to zero. While this is a serious loop fault, it is
made worse by reset windup. Notice the bias (reset) term keeps integrating normally during
the PV disconnect, until its upper limit is reached. When the PV signal returns, the bias value
is saturated (windup) and takes a long time to return to normal. The loop output
consequently has an extended recovery time. Until recovery, the output level is wrong and
causes further problems.
PV
0
PV loss
Reset windup
PV loss
Freeze bias enabled
Bias
Output
Recovery time
Recovery time
In the second PV signal loss episode in the figure, the freeze bias feature is enabled. It causes
the bias value to freeze when the control output goes out of bounds. Much of the reset
windup is thus avoided, and the output recovery time is much less.
For most applications, the freeze bias feature will work with the loop as described above. It is
suggested to enable this feature by selecting it in the dialog. Bit 10 of PID Mode 1 Setting
(V+00) word can also be set in RLL.
NOTE: The freeze bias feature stops the bias term from changing when the control output reaches the
end of the data range. If you have set limits on the control output other than the range (i.e, 0–4095
for a unipolar/12-bit loop), the bias term still uses the end of range for the stopping point and bias
freeze will not work.
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Setup the PID Alarms
Although the setup of the PID alarms is optional, you surely would not want to operate a
process without monitoring it. The performance of a process control loop may generally be
measured by how closely the process variable matches the setpoint. Most process control
loops in industry operate continuously, and will eventually lose control of the PV due to an
error condition. Process alarms are vital in early discovery of a loop error condition and can
alert plant personnel to manually control a loop or take other measures until the error
condition has been repaired.
The alarm thresholds are fully programmable, and each type of alarm may be independently
enabled and monitored. The following diagram shows the Alarm dialog in the PID setup
which simplifies the alarm setup.
Monitor Limit Alarms
Checking this box will allow all of the PV limit alarms to be monitored once the limits are
entered.The PV absolute value alarms are organized as two upper and two lower alarms. The
alarm status is false as long as the PV value remains in the region between the upper and
lower alarms, as shown below. The alarms nearest the safe zone are named High Alarm and
Low Alarm. If the loop loses control, the PV will cross one of these thresholds first. Therefore,
you can program the appropriate alarm threshold values in the loop table locations shown
below to the right. The data format is the same as the PV and SP (12-bit or 15-bit). The
threshold values for these alarms should be set to give an operator an early warning if the
process loses control.
High–high Alarm
High Alarm
PV
Low Alarm
Low–low Alarm
Loop Table
V+16
XXXX
High-high Alarm
V+15
XXXX
High Alarm
V+14
XXXX
Low Alarm
V+13
XXXX
Low-low Alarm
NOTE: The Alarm dialog can be left as it first appears, without alarm entries. The alarms can then be
setup in the DirectSOFT PID View.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
If the process remains out of control for some time, the PV will eventually cross one of the
outer alarm thresholds, named High-high alarm and Low-low alarm. Their threshold values
are programmed using the loop table registers listed above. A High-high or Low-low alarm
indicates a serious condition exists, and needs the immediate attention of the operator.
The PV Absolute Value Alarms are reported in the four bits in PID Mode and Alarm Status V+06
the PID Mode and Alarm Status word in the loop table, as
shown to the right. We highly recommend using ladder logic to Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
monitor these bits. The bit-of-word instructions make this easy High-high Alarm
High Alarm
to do. Additionally, you can monitor PID alarms using
Low Alarm
DirectSOFT.
Low-low Alarm
PV Deviation Alarms
The PV Deviation Alarms monitor the PV deviation with respect to the SP value. The
deviation alarm has two programmable thresholds, and each threshold is applied equally
above and below the current SP value. In the figure below, the smaller deviation alarm is
called the “Yellow Deviation”, indicating a cautionary condition for the loop. The larger
deviation alarm is called the “Red Deviation”, indicating a strong error condition for the loop.
The threshold values use the loop parameter table locations V+17 and V+20 as shown.
Red Deviation Alarm
Yellow Deviation Alarm
Red
Yellow
Green
SP
Yellow Deviation Alarm
Red Deviation Alarm
Loop Table
V+17
XXXX
Yellow Deviation Alarm
V+20
XXXX
Red Deviation Alarm
Yellow
Red
The thresholds define zones, which fluctuate with the SP value. The green zone which
surrounds the SP value represents a safe (no alarm) condition. The yellow zones lie outside
the green zone, and the red zones are beyond those.
The PV Deviation Alarms are reported in the two bits in the
PID Mode and Alarm Status V+06
PID Mode and Alarm Status word in the loop table, as shown
to the right. We highly recommend using ladder logic to
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
monitor these bits. The bit-of-word instructions make this
Red Deviation
easy to do. Additionally, you can monitor PID alarms using Yellow Deviation
DirectSOFT.
The PV Deviation Alarm can be independently enabled and disabled from the other PV
alarms, using bit 13 of the PID Mode 1 Setting V+00 word.
Remember the alarm hysteresis feature works in conjunction with both the deviation and
absolute value alarms, and is discussed at the end of this section.
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PV Rate-of-Change Alarm
An excellent way to get an early warning of a process fault is to monitor the rate-of-change of
the PV. Most batch processes have large masses and slowly-changing PV values. A relatively
fast-changing PV will result from a broken signal wire for either the PV or control output, a
SP value error, or other causes. If the operator responds to a PV Rate-of-Change Alarm
quickly and effectively, the PV absolute value will not reach the point where the material in
process would be ruined.
The DL205 loop controller provides a programmable PV Rate-of-Change Alarm, as shown
below. The rate-of-change is specified in PV units change per loop sample time. This value is
programmed into the loop table location V+21.
PV slope OK
Loop Table
PV slope excessive
V+21
XXXX
PV Rate-of-Change Alarm
PV
PID Mode and Alarm Status V+06
rate-of-change alarm
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Sample time
Sample time
PV Rate of
Change Alarm
As an example, suppose the PV is the temperature for your process, and you want an alarm
whenever the temperature changes faster than 15 degrees/minute. The PV counts per degree
and the loop sample rate must be known. Then, suppose the PV value (in V+03 location)
represents 10 counts per degree, and the loop sample rate is 2 seconds. Use the formula below
to convert our engineering units to counts/sample period:
Alarm Rate-of-Change =
8–38
15 degrees
1 minute
X
10 counts / degree
30 loop samples / min.
=
150
=
5 counts / sample peri
30
From the calculation result, you would program the value 5 in the loop table for the rate-ofchange. The PV Rate-of-Change Alarm can be independently enabled and disabled from the
other PV alarms, using bit 14 of the PID Mode 1 Setting V+00 word.
The alarm hysteresis feature (discussed next) does not affect the Rate-of-Change Alarm.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PV Alarm Hysteresis
The PV Absolute Value Alarm and PV Deviation Alarm are programmed using threshold
values. When the absolute value or deviation exceeds the threshold, the alarm status becomes
true. Real-world PV signals have some noise on them, which can cause some fluctuation in
the PV value in the CPU. As the PV value crosses an alarm threshold, its fluctuations cause
the alarm to be intermittent and annoy process operators. The solution is to use the PV
Alarm Hysteresis feature.
The PV Alarm Hysteresis amount is programmable from 1 to 200 (binary/decimal). When
using the PV Deviation Alarm, the programmed hysteresis amount must be less than the
programmed deviation amount. The figure below shows how the hysteresis is applied when
the PV value goes past a threshold and descends back through it.
Alarm threshold
Hysteresis
Loop Table
PV
V+22
XXXX
PV Alarm Hysteresis
Alarm 1
0
The hysteresis amount is applied after the threshold is crossed, and toward the safe zone. In
this way, the alarm activates immediately above the programmed threshold value. It delays
turning off until the PV value has returned through the threshold by the hysteresis amount.
Alarm Programming Error
The PV Alarm threshold values must have
certain mathematical relationships to be valid.
PID Mode and Alarm Status V+06
The requirements are listed below. If not met,
the Alarm Programming Error bit will be set, as
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
indicated to the right.
Alarm Programming Error
• PV Absolute Alarm value requirements:
Low-low < Low < High < High-high
• PV Deviation Alarm requirements:
Yellow < Red
Loop Calculation Overflow/Underflow Error
This error occurs whenever the output reaches it’s
upper or lower limit and the PV does not reach
the setpoint. A typical example might be when a
valve is stuck, the output is at it’s limit, but the
PV has not reached setpoint.
PID Mode and Alarm Status V+06
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Loop Calculation Overflow/Underflow Error
NOTE: Overflow/underflow can be alarmed in PID View. The optional C-more operator interface panel
(see the automationdirect.com website) can also be setup to read these error bits using the PID
Faceplate templates.
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Ramp/Soak
R/S (Ramp/Soak) is the last dialog available in the PID setup. The basic PID does not require
any entries to be made in order to operate the PID loop. Ramp/Soak will be discussed in
another section.
Complete the PID Setup
Once you have filled in the necessary information for the basic PID setup, the configuration
should be saved. The icons on the Setup PID dialog will allow you to save the configuration
to the PLC and to disk. The save to icons have the arrow pointing to the PLC and disk. The
read from icons have the arrows pointing away from the PLC and disk.
An optional feature is available with the Doc tab in the Setup PID window. You enter a name
and description for the loop. This is useful if there are more than one PID loop in your
application.
Save to disk
Save to PLC
NOTE: It is good practice to save your project after setting up the PID loop by selecting File from the
menu toolbar, then Save project > to disk. In addition to saving your entire project, all the PID
parameters are also saved.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Loop Tuning
Once you have set up a PID loop, it must be tuned in order for it to work. The goal of loop
tuning is to adjust the loop gains so the loop has optimal performance in dynamic conditions.
The quality of a loop’s performance may generally be judged by how well the PV follows the
SP after a SP step change. It is important to keep in mind that understanding the process is
fundamental to getting a well designed control loop. Sensors must be in appropriate locations
and valves must be sized correctly with appropriate trim. PID control does not have typical
values. There isn’t one control process that is identical to another.
Manual Tuning vs. Auto Tuning
You may enter the PID gain values to tune your loops (manual tuning), or you can rely on
the PID processing “engine” in the CPU to automatically calculate the gain values (auto
tuning). Most experienced process engineers will have a favorite method; the DL205 will
accommodate either preference. The use of auto tuning can eliminate much of the trial-anderror of the manual tuning approach, especially if you do not have a lot of loop tuning
experience. However, performing the auto tuning procedure will get the gains close to
optimal values, but additional manual tuning can get the gain values to their optimal values.
WARNING: Only authorized personnel fully familiar with all aspects of the process should make
changes that affect the loop tuning constants. Using the loop auto tune procedures will affect the
process, including inducing large changes in the control output value. Make sure you thoroughly
consider the impact of any changes to minimize the risk of injury to personnel or damage to
equipment. The auto tune in the DL205 is not intended to be used as a replacement for your
process knowledge.
Open-Loop Test
Whether you use manual or auto tuning, it is very important to verify basic characteristics of
a newly-installed process before attempting to tune it. With the loop in Manual Mode, verify
the following items for each new loop.
• Setpoint – verify that the setpoint (SP) source can generate a setpoint. Put the PLC in Run Mode
and leave the loop in Manual Mode, then monitor the loop table location V+02 to see the SP
value(s). (If you are using the Ramp/Soak generator, test it now).
• Process Variable – verify that the PV value is an accurate measurement, and the PV data arriving in
the loop table location V+03 is correct. If the PV signal is very noisy, consider filtering the input
either through hardware (RC low-pass filter), or using the filter in this chapter.
• Control Output – if it is safe to do so, manually change the output a small amount (perhaps 10%)
and observe its affect on the process variable. Verify the process is direct-acting or reverse acting, and
check the setting for the control output (inverted or non-inverted). Make sure the control output
upper and lower limits are not equal to each other.
• Sample Rate – while operating open-loop, this is a good time to find the ideal sample rate (see
Configure the PID Loop earlier in this chapter). However, if you are going to use auto tuning, the
auto tuning procedure will automatically calculate the sample rate in addition to the PID gains.
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Manual Tuning Procedure
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It is not necessary to try to obtain the best values for the P, I and D parameters in the PID
loop by trial and error. Following is a typical procedure for tuning a temperature control loop
which you may use to tune your loop.
Monitor the values of SP, PV and CV with a loop trending instrument or use the PID View
feature in DirectSOFT (see page 8-49).
NOTE: We recommend using the PID View Tuning and Trending window to select manual for the
vertical scale feature, for both SP/PV area and Bias/Control Output areas. The auto scaling feature
would otherwise change the vertical scale on the process parameters and add confusion to the loop
tuning process.
• Adjust the gains so the Proportional Gain = 0.5 or 1.0 (1.0 is a good value based on experience),
Integral Gain = 9999 (this basically eliminates reset) and Derivative Gain =0000. This disables the
integrator and derivative terms, and provides some proportional gain.
• Check the bias value in the PID View and set it to zero.
• Set the SP to a value equal to 50% of the full range.
• Now, select Auto Mode. If the loop will not stay in Auto Mode, check the
troubleshooting tips at the end of this chapter. Allow the PV to stabilize around the 50%
point of the range.
error
60% here
10% of
SP range
SP
PV
Over-damped PV response
50% here
• Change the SP to the 60% point of the range.
The response may take awhile, but you will see that there isn’t any oscillation. This response is
not desirable since it takes a long time to correct the error; also, there is a difference between
the SP and the PV.
• Increase the Proportional gain, for example to 2.0. The control output will be greater and the
60% here
10% of
SP range
SP
PV
50% here
PV response
response time will be quicker. The trend should resemble the figure below.
• Increase the Proportional gain in small increments, such as 4, 6, 7, etc. until the control output
response begins to oscillate. This is the Proportional gain that should be recorded.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Error
60% here
SP
PV
50% here
• Now, return the Proportional gain to the stable response, for example, 9.7. The error, SP-PV, should
be small, but not at zero.
• Next, add a small amount of Integral gain (reset) in order for the error to reach zero. Begin by using
80 seconds (adjust in minutes if necessary). The error should get smaller.
• Set the Integral gain to a lower value, such as 50 for a different response. If there is no response,
continue to decrease the reset value until the response becomes unstable. See the figure below.
60% here
10% of
SP range
SP
PV
50% here
Under-damped PV response
• For discussion, let us say that a reset value of 35 made the control output unstable. Return the reset
value to the stable value, such as 38. Be careful with this adjustment since the oscillation can
destroy the process.
• The control output response should be optimal now, without a Derivative gain. The example
recorded values are: Proportional gain = 9.7 and Integral gain = 38 seconds. Note that the error has
been minimized.
Minimum Oscillations
Shortest response time
The foregone method is the most common method used to tune a PID loop. Derivative gain
is almost never used in a temperature control loop. This method can also be used for other
control loops, but other parameters may need to be added for a stable control output.
Test your loop for a high PV of 80% and again for a low PV.of 20%, and correct the values if
necessary. Small adjustments of the parameters can make the control output more precise or
more unstable. It is sometimes acceptable to have a small overshoot to make the control
output react quicker.
The derivative gain can be helpful for those control loops which are not controlling
temperature. For these loops, try adding a value of 0.5 for the derivative gain and see if this
improves the control output. If there is little or no response, increase the derivative by
increments of 0.5 until there is an improvement to the output trend. Recall that the derivative
gain reacts with a rate of change of the error.
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Alternative Manual Tuning Procedures by Others
The following tuning procedures have been extracted from various publications about PID
process control. These procedures are for comparison to the procedure in this manual.
Tuning PID Controllers
Two-Mode Simple Method - – for P-I controllers
1. Turn off reset and set the gain to a small value (0.5 - 1.0).
2. Increase gain until cycling starts, then decrease gain slightly.
3. Make setpoint changes to observe offset (error).
4. Increase reset to eliminate offset (error).
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 until you obtain the largest gain and reset consistent with the
criteria of the control desired, i.e., offset, overshoot, stability.
Zeigler-Nichols Method– “Quarter amplitude decay”
1. Turn off reset and rate; set the proportional gain to a fairly large value.
2. Make a small setpoint change and observe how the controlled variable cycles.
3. Adjust the gain until the cycle is self-sustaining, and of constant amplitude; this value is
the ultimate gain (Gu).
4. Measure the period of cycling in minutes. This is the ultimate period (Pu).
5. Calculate the controller adjustments as follows:
P only: G = Gu/2
P & I : G = Gu/2.2
Ti = 1.2/Pu
(repeats/minute)
P-I-D: G = Gu/1.6
Ti = 2.0/Pu
(repeats/minute)
Td = Pu/8.0
(minutes)
Pessen Method
1. Follow the procedure described above (Zeigler-Nichols) to determine the ultimate gain
and ultimate period.
2. Apply the formulas below.
For no overshoot during startup:
G = Gu/5.0
Ti = 3/Pu
(repeats/minute)
Td = Pu/2
(minutes)
For some overshoot, but better response to disturbances:
G = Gu/3
Ti = 3/Pu (repeats/minute)
Td = Pu/3 (minutes)
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Auto Tuning Procedure
The auto tuning feature for the DL205 loop controller will only run once each time it is
enabled in the PID table. Therefore, auto tuning does not run continuously during operation
(this would be adaptive control). Whenever there is a substantial change in loop dynamics,
such as mass of process, size of actuator, etc., the tuning process will need to be repeated in
order to derive new gains required for optimal control.
WARNING: Only authorized personnel fully familiar with all aspects of the process should make
changes that affect the loop tuning constants. Using the loop auto tuning procedures will affect
the process, including inducing large changes in the control output value. Make sure you
thoroughly consider the impact of any changes to minimize the risk of injury to personnel or
damage to equipment. The auto tune in the DL205 is not intended to be used as a replacement
for your process knowledge.
Once the physical loop components are connected to the PLC, auto tuning can be initiated
within DirectSOFT (see the DirectSOFT Programming Software Manual), and it can be used
to establish initial PID parameter values. Auto tuning is the best “guess” the CPU can do after
some trial tests.
The loop controller offers both closed-loop and open-loop methods. The following sections
describe how to use the auto tuning feature, and what occurs in open and closed-loop auto
tuning.
The controls for the auto tuning function use three bits in the PID Mode 2 word V+01, as
shown below. DirectSOFT will manipulate these bits automatically when you use the auto
tune feature within DirectSOFT. Or, you may have your ladder logic access these bits directly
for allowing control from another source such as a dedicated operator interface. The
individual control bits allow you to start the auto tune procedure, select PID or PI tuning and
select closed-loop or open-loop tuning. If you select PI tuning, the auto tune procedure leaves
the derivative gain at 0. The Loop Mode and Alarm Status word V+06 reports the auto tune
status as shown. Bit 12 will be on (1) during the auto tune cycle, automatically returning to
off (0) when done.
Auto T une Function
Auto T uning
Controls
Start Auto T une
(0 to 1 transition)
Auto Tune
Active
0=PID tuning,
1=open PI tuning
Auto Tune
Error
0=closed loop,
1=open loop
PID Mode 2 Setting V+01
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Auto T uning
Status
Loop Mode and Alarm Status V+06
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
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Open-Loop Auto Tuning
During an open-loop auto tuning cycle, the loop controller operates as shown in the diagram
below. Before starting this procedure, place the loop in Manual Mode and ensure the PV and
control output values are in the middle of their ranges (away from the end points).
PLC System
Process Variable
Step Function
Response
Open Loop
Auto Tuning
Setpoint Value
+
Error Term
k
Manufacturing
Process
–
Process Variable
NOTE: In theory, the SP value does not matter in this case, because the loop is not closed. However,
the requirement of the firmware is that the SP value must be more than 5% of the PV range from the
actual PV before starting the auto tune cycle (for the DL205, 12 bit PV should be 205 counts or more
below the SP for forward-acting loops, or 205 counts or more above the SP for reverse-acting
loops).
When auto tuning, the loop controller induces a step change on the output and simply
observes the response of the PV. From the PV response, the auto tune function calculates the
gains and the sample time. It automatically places the results in the corresponding registers in
the loop table.
The following timing diagram shows the events which occur in the open-loop auto tuning
cycle. The auto tune function takes control of the control output and induces a 10%-of-span
step change. If the PV change which the loop controller observes is less than 2%, then the
step change on the output is increased to 20%-of-span.
* When Auto Tune starts, step change output m=10%
* During Auto Tune, the controller output reached the full scale positive limit. Auto Tune stopped
and the Auto Tune Error bit in the Alarm word bit turned on.
* When PV change is under 2%, output is changed at 20%.
PV
(%)
SP
Tangent
Rr = Slope
Process Wave
Base Line
LrRr
(%)
Lr
(sec.)
Time (sec)
Step Change im=10%
Output Value
(%)
Auto Tune Cycle
PID Cycle
PID Cycle
Auto Tune Start
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Control
Output
Loop
Calculation
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Auto Tune End
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
When the loop tuning observations are complete, the loop controller computes Rr
(maximum slope in %/sec.) and Lr (dead time in sec). The auto tune function computes the
gains according to the Zeigler-Nichols equations, shown below:
PID Tuning
PI Tuning
P=1.2*m/LrRr
P=0.9*m/LrRr
I=2.0* Lr
I=3.33* Lr
D=0.5* Lr
D=0
Sample Rate = 0.056* Lr
Sample Rate = 0.12*Lr
m = Output step change (10% = 0.1, 20% = 0.2)
We highly recommend using DirectSOFT for the auto tuning interface. The duration of each
auto tuning cycle will depend on the mass of the process. A slowly-changing PV will result in
a longer auto tune cycle time. When the auto tuning is complete, the proportional, integral,
and derivative gain values are automatically updated in loop table locations V+10, V+11, and
V+12 respectively. The sample time in V+07 is also updated automatically. You can test the
validity of the values the auto tuning procedure yields by measuring the closed-loop response
of the PV to a step change in the output. The instructions on how to do this are in the
section on the manual tuning procedure (located prior to this auto tuning section).
Closed-Loop Auto Tuning
During a closed-loop auto tuning cycle the loop controller operates as shown in the diagram
below.
PLC System
Process V ariable
Response
Limit cycle wave
Closed Loop
Auto T uning
Setpoint V alue
+
k
Error T erm
Loop
Calculation
Control
Output
Manufacturing
Process
–
Process Variable
When auto tuning, the loop controller imposes a square wave on the output. Each transition
of the output occurs when the PV value crosses over/under the SP value. Therefore, the
frequency of the limit cycle is roughly proportional to the mass of the process. From the PV
response, the auto tune function calculates the gains and the sample time. It automatically
places the results in the corresponding registers in the loop table.
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The following timing diagram shows the events which occur in the closed-loop auto tuning
cycle. The auto tune function examines the direction of the offset of the PV from the SP. The
auto tune function then takes control of the control output and induces a full-span step
change in the opposite direction. Each time the sign of the error (SP – PV) changes, the
output changes full-span in the opposite direction. This proceeds through three full cycles.
Xo
Process Wave
SP
PV
Output Value
M
To
PID Cycle
PID Cycle
Auto Tune Cycle
Auto Tune Start
Auto Tune End
Calculation of
PID parameter
Mmax = Output Value upper limit setting. Mmin = Output Value lower limit setting.
This example is direct–acting.
When set to reverse–acting, the output will be inverted. When the loop tuning observations
are complete, the loop controller computes To (bump period) and Xo (amplitude of the PV).
Then it uses these values to compute Kpc (sensitive limit) and Tpc (period limit). From these
values, the loop controller auto tune function computes the PID gains and the sample rate
according to the Zeigler-Nichols equations shown below:
Kpc = 4M / ( *Xo)
Tpc = 0
M = Amplitude of output
PID Tuning
P = 0.45*Kpc
I = 0.60*Tpc
D = 0.10*Tpc
Sample Rate = 0.014*Tpc
PI Tuning
P = 0.30*Kpc
I = 1.00*Tpc
D=0
Sample Rate = 0.03*Tpc
Auto tuning error
In open-loop tuning, if the auto tune error bit (bit 13 of loop Mode/Alarm status word
V+06) is on, please verify the PV and SP values are within 5% of full scale difference, as
required by the auto tune function.
NOTE: If your PV fluctuates rapidly, you probably need to use the built-in analog filter (see page
8–54) or create a filter in ladder logic (see example on page 8–55).
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Use Direct SOFT Data View with PID View
The Data View window is a very useful tool which can be used to help tune your PID loop.
You can compare the variables in the PID View with the actual values in the V-memory
location with Data View.
Open a New Data View Window
A new Data View window can be opened in any one of three ways; the menu bar Debug >
Data View > New, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Shift + F3 or the Data button on the Status
toolbar. By default, the Data View window is assigned Data1 as the default name. This name
can be changed for the current view using the Options dialog. The following diagram is an
example of a newly opened Data View. The window will open next to the Ladder View by
default.
The Data View window can be used just as it is shown above for troubleshooting your PID
logic, and it can be most useful when tuning the PID loop.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Open PID View
The PID View can only be opened after a loop has been setup in your ladder program. PID
View is opened by selecting it from the View submenu on the Menu bar, View > PID View.
The PID View can also be opened by clicking on the PID View button from the PLC Setup
toolbar if it is in view.
The PID View will open and appear over the Ladder View which can be brought into view by
clicking on it’s tab. When using the Data View and the PID View together, each view can be
sized for better use as shown on the facing page.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
The two views are now ready to be used to tune your loop. You will be able to see where the
PID values have been set and see the process that it is controlling.
With both windows positioned in this manner, you are able to see where the PID values have
been set and see the process that it is controlling. In the diagram below, you can see the
current SP, PV and Output values, along with the other PID addresses. Refer to the Loop
Table Word Definitions (page 8-20) for details for each word in the table. This is also a good
data type reference for each word in the table.
Scale the time axis of the viewing
window by using this input box.
The trend can be cleared and
restarted from the left at anytime.
Process Variable and
Setpoint trends are
color coded.
The loop name area
turns red whenever there
is an overflow error.
P
I
D
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Special PID Features
1 Using the
It’s a good idea to understand the special features of the DL205 and how to use them. You
may want to incorporate some of these features for your PID.
2
How to Change Loop Modes
The first three bits of the PID Mode 1 word (V+00) request
3
the operating mode of the corresponding loop. Note: these
bits are mode change requests, not commands (certain
4
conditions can prohibit a particular mode change – see next
page).
The normal state of these mode request bits is “000”. To request a mode change, you must
5
SET the corresponding bit to a “1”, using a one-shot. The PID loop controller automatically
resets the bits back to “000” after it reads the mode change request. Methods of requesting
6
mode changes are:
• DirectSOFT’s PID View – this is the easiest method. Use the pull-down menu, or click on one of
7
the radio buttons if using older DirectSOFT versions, and the appropriate bit will get set.
• Ladder program– ladder logic can request any loop mode when the PLC is in Run Mode. This will
be necessary after application startup if mode changes are part of the application.
8
Use the program shown to the right to SET the mode bit (do not
Go to Auto Mode
use an OUT coil). On a 0–1 transition of X0, the rung sets the
9
Auto bit equal to 1. The loop controller resets it.
• Operator panel – interface the operator’s panel to ladder logic
10
using standard methods, then use the logic to the right to set the
mode bit.
Since mode changes can only be requested, the PID loop controller will decide when to permit
11
mode changes and provide the loop mode status. It reports the current mode on bits 0, 1, and
2 of the Loop Mode/Alarm Status word, location V+06 in the loop table. The parallel
12
request/monitoring functions are shown in the figure below. The figure also shows the two
possible mode-dependent SP sources, and the two possible Control Output sources.
13
14
k
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PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Cascade
Manual
Automatic
X0
Control Output
from another loop
Input from Operator
B2000.1
SET
Manual
Cascade
Control Output
Setpoint
Error T erm
+
Normal Source
Loop
Calculation
–
Auto/Manual
Auto/Cascade
Process Variable
Mode Select
PID Mode
Control
PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
Mode Request
8–52
7
6 5
4
Loop Mode and Alarm Status V+06
3
2 1
0
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6 5
4
3
2 1
0
Mode Monitoring
Cascade
Manual
Automatic
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Cascade
Manual
Automatic
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Operator Panel Control of PID Modes
Since the modes Manual, Auto and Cascade are the most fundamental and important PID
loop controls, you may want to “hard-wire” mode control switches to an operator’s panel.
Most applications will need only Manual and Auto selections (Cascade is used in special
applications). Remember that mode controls are really mode request bits, and the actual loop
mode is indicated elsewhere.
The following figure shows an operator’s panel using momentary push-buttons to request
PID mode changes. The panel’s mode indicators do not connect to the switches, but interface
to the corresponding data locations.
Operator ’s Panel
Manual
Auto
Mode Request
PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Cascade
Mode Monitoring
Loop Mode and Alarm Status V+06
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
PLC Modes Effect on Loop Modes
If you have selected the option for the loops to follow the PLC mode, the PLC modes
(Program, Run) interact with the loops as a group. The following summarizes this interaction:
• When the PLC is in Program Mode, all loops are placed in Manual Mode and no loop calculations
occur. However, note that output modules (including analog outputs) turn off in PLC Program
Mode. So, actual manual control is not possible when the PLC is in Program Mode.
• The only time the CPU will allow a loop mode change is during PLC Run Mode operation. As
such, the CPU records the modes of all 4 loops as the desired mode of operation. If power failure
and restoration occurs during PLC Run Mode, the CPU returns all loops to their prior mode
(which could be Manual, Auto, or Cascade).
• On a Program-to-Run mode transition, the CPU forces each loop to return to its prior mode
recorded during the last PLC Run Mode.
• You can add and configure new loops only when the PLC is in Program Mode. New loops
automatically begin in Manual Mode.
Loop Mode Override
In normal conditions the mode of a loop is determined by the request to V+00, bits 0,
1, and 2. However, some conditions exist which will prevent a requested mode change
from occurring:
• A loop that is not set independent of PLC mode cannot change modes when the PLC is in Program
mode.
• A major loop of a cascaded pair of loops cannot go from Manual to Auto until its minor loop is in
Cascade mode.
In other situations, the PID loop controller will automatically change the mode of the loop to
ensure safe operation:
• A loop which develops an error condition automatically goes to Manual.
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• If the minor loop of a cascaded pair of loops leaves Cascade Mode for any reason, its major loop
automatically goes to Manual Mode.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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PV Analog Filter
A noisy PV signal can make tuning difficult and can cause the control output to be more
extreme than necessary, as the output tries to respond to the peaks and valleys of the PV.
There are two equivalent methods of filtering the PV input to make the loop more stable.
The first method is accomplished using the DL205’s built-in filter. The second method
achieves a similar result using ladder logic.
The DL205 Built-in Analog Filter
The DL205 provides a selectable first-order low-pass PV input filter. We only recommend
the use of a filter during auto tuning or PID control if there is noise on the input signal.
You may disable the filter after auto tuning is complete, or continue to use it if the PV input
signal is noisy.
+
k
Loop
Calculation
Control Output
–
0
Unfiltered
PV
Process V ariable
1
Filtered
PV
P ID Mode 2 Setting V+01
Loop Table
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
PV filter
enable/disable
V+24
XXXX
FIlter constant
Bit 2 of PID Mode Setting 2 provides the enable/disable control for the low-pass PV filter
(0=disable, 1=enable). The roll-off frequency of the single-pole low-pass filter is controlled by
using register V+24 in the loop parameter table, the filter constant. The data format of the
filter constant value is BCD, with an implied decimal point 00X.X, as follows:
• The filter constant has a valid range of 000.1 to 001.0. The smaller the filter value, the greater the
filtering performed (for example, the value 001.0 provides no filtering.)
• DirectSOFT converts values above the valid range to 001.0 and values below this range to 000.1
• Values close to 001.0 result in higher roll-off frequencies, while values closer to 000.1 result in lower
roll-off frequencies.
We highly recommend using DirectSOFT for the auto tuning interface. The duration of each
auto tuning cycle will depend on the mass of your process. A slowly-changing PV will result
in a longer auto tune cycle time.
When the auto tuning is complete, the proportional and integral gain values are automatically
updated in loop table locations V+10 and V+11 respectively. The derivative is calculated if
you autotune for PID and updated in loop table location V+12. The sample time in V+07 is
also updated automatically. You can test the validity of the values the auto tuning procedure
yields by measuring the closed-loop response of the PV to a step change in the output. The
instructions on how to do this are in the section on the manual tuning procedure.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
The algorithm which the built-in filter follows is:
yi = k (xi – yi–1) + yi–1
yi is the current output of the filter
xi is the current input to the filter
yi–1 is the previous output of the filter
k is the PV Analog Input Filter Factor
Creating an Analog Filter in Ladder Logic
A similar algorithm can be built in your ladder program. Your analog inputs can be filtered
effectively using either method. The following programming example describes the ladder
logic you will need. Be sure to change the example memory locations to those that fit your
application.
Filtering can induce a 1 part in 1000 error in your output because of “rounding.” If your
process cannot tolerate a 1 part in 1000 error, do not use filtering. Because of the rounding
error, you should not use zero or full scale as alarm points. Additionally, the smaller the filter
constant the greater the smoothing effect, but the slower the response time. Be sure a slower
response is acceptable in controlling your process.
LD
V2000
BIN
BTOR
SUBR
V1400
Loads the analog signal, which is a BCD value
and has been loaded from V-memory location
V2000, into the accumulator. Contact SP1 is
always on.
Converts the BCD value in the accumulator
to binary. This instruction is not needed if the
analog value is originally brought in as a
binary number.
Converts the binary value in the accumulator
to a real number.
Subtracts the real number stored in location
V1400 from the real number in the
accumulator, and stores the result in the
accumulator. V1400 is the designated
workspace in this example.
MULR
R0.2
Multiplies the real number in the
accumulator by 0.2 (the filter factor),
and stores the result in the
accumulator. This is the filtered value.
ADDR
V1400
Adds the real number stored in
location V1400 to the real number
filtered value in the accumulator, and
stores the result in the accumulator.
OUTD
V1400
RTOB
BCD
OUT
V1402
Copies the value in the accumulator
to location V1400.
Converts the real number in the
accumulator to a binary value, and
stores the result in the accumulator.
Converts the binary value in the accumulator
to a BCD number. Note: the BCD instruction
is not needed for PID loop PV (loop PV is a
binary number).
Maintenance
SP1
Loads the BCD number filtered value from
the accumulator into location V1402 to use
in your application or PID loop.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Use the DirectSOFT Filter Intelligent Box Instruction
For those who are using DirectSOFT, you have the opportunity to use Intelligent Box (IBox)
instruction IB-402, Filter Over Time in Binary (decimal). This IBox will perform a first-order
filter on the Raw Data on a defined time interval. The equation is,
New = Old + [(Raw - Old) / FDC] where:
New =New Filtered Value
Old = Old Filtered Value
FDC = Filter Divisor Constant
Raw = Raw Data
The Filter Divisor Constant is an integer in
the range K1 to K100, such that if it
equaled K1, then no filtering is performed.
The rate at which the calculation is performed is specified by time in hundreths of a second
(0.01 seconds) as the Filter Freq Time parameter. Note that this Timer instruction is
embedded in the IBox and must NOT be used any other place in your program. Power flow
controls whether the calculation is enabled. If it is disabled, the Filter Value is not updated.
On the first scan from Program to Run mode, the Filter Value is initialized to 0 to give the
calculation a consistent starting point.
Since the following binary filter example does not write directly to the PID PV location, the
BCD filter could be used with BCD values and then converted to BIN.
FilterB Example
Following is an example of how the FilterB IBox is used in a ladder program. The instruction
is used to filter a binary value that is in V2000. Timer (T1) is set to 0.5 seconds, the rate at
which the filter calculation will be performed. The filter constant is set to 3.0. A larger value
will increase the smoothing effect of the filter. A value of 1 results with no filtering. The
filtered value will be placed in V2100.
See Chapter 5, page 242, for more detailed information.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Ramp/Soak Generator
Introduction
Our discussion of basic loop operation noted the setpoint (SP) for a loop will be generated in
various ways, depending on the loop operating mode and programming preferences. In the
figure below, the ramp/soak generator is one of the ways the SP may be generated. It is the
responsibility of your ladder program to ensure only one source attempts to write the SP value
at V+02 at any particular time.
Setpoint Sources:
Operator Input
Ramp/soak generator
Ladder Program
Another loop’s output (cascade)
Setpoint V+02
+
Loop
Calculation
k
Control Output
–
Process Variable
If the SP for your process rarely changes or can tolerate step changes, you probably will not
need to use the ramp/soak generator. However, some processes require precisely-controlled SP
value changes. The ramp/soak generator can greatly reduce the amount of programming required
for these applications.
The terms “ramp” and “soak” have special meanings in
SP
the process control industry, and refer to desired setpoint
Soak
values in temperature control applications. In the figure
Ramp
to the right, the setpoint increases during the ramp
segment. It remains steady at one value during the soak
slope
segment.
Time
Complex SP profiles can be generated by specifying a
series of ramp/soak segments. The ramp segments are specified in SP units per second time.
The soak time is also programmable in minutes.
It is instructive to view the ramp/soak generator as a dedicated function to generate SP values,
as shown below. It has two categories of inputs which determine the SP values generated. The
ramp/soak table must be programmed in advance, containing the values that will define the
ramp/soak profile. The loop reads from the table during each PID calculation as necessary.
The ramp/soak controls are bits in a special loop table word that control the real-time
start/stop functionality of the ramp/soak generator. The ladder program can monitor the
status of the ramp soak profile (current ramp/segment number).
Ramp/soak table
Ramp/soak controls
Ramp/soak
Generator
Setpoint
+
Loop
Calculation
k
Control Output
–
Process Variable
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Now that we have described the general ramp/soak generator operation, we list its specific
features:
• Each loop has its own ramp/soak generator (use is optional).
• You may specify up to eight ramp/soak steps (16 segments).
• The ramp soak generator can run anytime the PLC is in Run mode. Its operation is independent of
the loop mode (Manual or Auto).
• Ramp/soak real-time controls include Start, Hold, Resume, and Jog.
• Ramp/soak monitoring includes Profile Complete, Soak Deviation (SP minus PV), and current
ramp/soak step number.
The following figure shows a SP profile consisting of ramp/soak segment pairs. The segments
are individually numbered as steps from 1 to 16. The slope of each of the ramps may be either
increasing or decreasing. The ramp/soak generator automatically knows whether to increase
or decrease the SP based on the relative values of a ramp’s end points. These values come from
the ramp/soak table.
15
13
6
5
3
Step
SP
1
Ramp
2
Ramp
4
Ramp
Ramp
14
Ramp
16
Soak
Soak
Soak
Soak
Soak
Ramp/Soak Table
The parameters which define the ramp/soak profile
for a loop are in a ramp/soak table. Each loop may
have its own ramp/soak table, but it is optional.
Recall the Loop Parameter table consists of a 32-word
block of memory for each loop, and together they
occupy one contiguous memory area. However, the
ramp/soak table for a loop is individually located,
because it is optional for each loop. An address
pointer in location V+34 in the loop table specifies
the starting location of the ramp/soak table.
In the example to the right, the loop parameter tables
for Loop #1 and #2 occupy contiguous 32-word
blocks as shown. Each has a pointer to its ramp/soak
table, independently located elsewhere in user Vmemory. Of course, you may locate all the tables in
one group, as long as they do not overlap.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
V–Memory Space
User Data
V2000
LOOP #1
V2037
V2040
32 words
LOOP #2
V2077
32 words
V3000
Ramp/Soak #1
32 words
V3600
Ramp/Soak #2
32 words
V2034 =
3000 octal
V2074 =
3600 octal
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
The parameters in the ramp/soak table must be user-defined. the most convenient way is to
use DirectSOFT, which features a special editor for this table. Four parameters are required to
define a ramp and soak segment pair, as pictured below.
• Ramp End Value – specifies the destination SP value for the end of the ramp. Use the same data
format for this number as you use for the SP. It may be above or below the beginning SP value, so
the slope could be up or down (we don’t have to know the starting SP value for ramp #1).
• Ramp Slope – specifies the SP increase in counts (units) per second. It is a BCD number from
00.00 to 99.99 (uses implied decimal point).
• Soak Duration – specifies the time for the soak segment in minutes, ranging from 000.1 to 999.9
minutes in BCD (implied decimal point).
• Soak PV Deviation – (optional) specifies an allowable PV deviation above and below the SP value
during the soak period. A PV deviation alarm status bit is generated by the ramp/soak generator.
Ramp End
SP Value
Slope
SP
Soak PV
deviation
Soak
duration
segment becomes active
Ramp/Soak Table
V+00
XXXX
Ramp End SP Value
V+01
XXXX
Ramp Slope
V+02
XXXX
Soak Duration
V+03
XXXX
Soak PV Deviation
The ramp segment becomes active when the previous soak segment ends. If the ramp is the
first segment, it becomes active when the ramp/soak generator is started, and automatically
assumes the present SP as the starting SP.
Offset
Step
+ 00
+ 01
+ 02
+ 03
+ 04
+ 05
+ 06
+ 07
+ 10
+ 11
+ 12
+ 13
+ 14
+ 15
+ 16
+ 17
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1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
Description
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Offset
Step
+ 20
+ 21
+ 22
+ 23
+ 24
+ 25
+ 26
+ 27
+ 30
+ 31
+ 32
+ 33
+ 34
+ 35
+ 36
+ 37
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9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
Description
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
Ramp End SP Value
Ramp Slope
Soak Duration
Soak PV Deviation
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Many applications do not require all 16 R/S steps. Use all zeros in the table for unused steps.
The R/S generator ends the profile when it finds ramp slope = 0.
Ramp/Soak Table Flags
The individual bit definitions of the Ramp/Soak Table Flag (Addr+33) word is listed in the
following table.
Bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8–15
Ramp/Soak Flag Bit Description
Start Ramp/Soak Profile
Hold Ramp/Soak Profile
Resume Ramp/Soak Profile
Jog Ramp/Soak Profile
Ramp/Soak Profile Complete
PV Input Ramp/Soak Deviation
Ramp/Soak Profile in Hold
Reserved
Current Step in Ramp/Soak Profile
Read/Write
write
write
write
write
read
read
read
read
read
Bit=0
Bit=1
–
01 Start
–
01 Hold
–
01 Resume
–
01 Jog
–
Complete
Off
On
Off
On
Off
On
decode as byte (hex)
Ramp/Soak Generator Enable
The main enable control to permit ramp/soak
generation of the SP value is accomplished with bit 11
in the PID Mode 1 Setting V+00 word, as shown to the
right. The other ramp/soak controls in V+33 shown in
the table above will not operate unless this bit=1 during
the entire ramp/soak process.
PID Mode 1 Setting V+00
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Ramp/Soak
Generator Enable
Ramp/Soak Controls
Ramp/Soak Settings V+33
The four main controls for the ramp/soak generator are in bits
0 to 3 of the ramp/soak settings word in the loop parameter
table. DirectSOFT controls these bits directly from the
Jog
ramp/soak settings dialog. However, you must use ladder logic
Resume
to control these bits during program execution. We
Hold
Start
recommend using the bit-of-word instructions.
Ladder logic must set a control bit to a “1” to command the corresponding function. When
the loop controller reads the ramp/soak value, it automatically turns off the bit for you.
Therefore, a reset of the bit is not required, when the CPU is in Run Mode.
The example program rung to the right shows how an
Start R/S Generator
external switch X0 can turn on, and the PD contact uses
X0
B2033.0
the leading edge to set the proper control bit to start the
SET
ramp soak profile. This uses the Set Bit-of-word
instruction.
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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0
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
The normal state for the ramp/soak control bits is all zeros. Ladder logic must set only one
control bit at a time.
• Start – a 0 to 1 transition will start the ramp soak profile. The CPU must be in Run Mode, and the
loop can be in Manual or Auto Mode. If the profile is not interrupted by a Hold or Jog command,
it finishes normally.
• Hold – a 0 to 1 transition will stop the ramp/soak profile in its current state, and the SP value will
be frozen.
• Resume – a 0 to 1 transition cause the ramp/soak generator to resume operation if it is in the hold
state. The SP values will resume from their previous value.
• Jog – a 0 to 1 transition will cause the ramp/soak generator to truncate the current segment (step),
and go to the next segment.
Ramp/Soak Profile Monitoring
You can monitor the Ramp/Soak profile status using other bits
in the Ramp/Soak Settings V+33 word, shown to the right.
• R/S Profile Complete – equals 1 when the last programmed step
is done.
• Soak PV Deviation – equals 1 when the error (SP–PV) exceeds
the specified deviation in the R/S table.
Ramp/Soak Settings V+33
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6 5
4
3
2 1
0
R/S Profile in Hold
Soak PV Deviation
R/S Profile Complete
• R/S Profile in Hold – equals 1 when the profile was active but is
now in hold. Ramp/Soak Settings V+33
The number of the current step is available in the upper 8 bits
of the Ramp/Soak Settings V+33 word. The bits represent a
2-digit hex number, ranging from 1 to 10. Ladder logic can
monitor these to synchronize other parts of the program with
the ramp/soak profile. Load this word to the accumulator and
shift right 8 bits and you have the step number.
Ramp/Soak Settings V+33
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6 5
4
3
2 1
0
Current Profile Step, 2–digit hex
Value = 01 to 10 hex,
or 1 to 16 decimal
Ramp/Soak Programming Errors
The starting address for the ramp/soak table must be a valid
location. If the address points outside the range of user
V-memory, one of the bits to the right will turn on when
the ramp/soak generator is started. We recommend using
DirectSOFT to configure the ramp/soak table. It
automatically range checks the addresses for you.
Testing Your Ramp/Soak Profile
Ramp/Soak Table Error V+35
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Starting Address set in
reserved system V-memory
Starting Address set out of
V-memory upper range
Starting Address set out
of V-memory lower range
It’s a good idea to test your ramp/soak profile before using it to control the process. This is
easy to do, because the ramp/soak generator will run even when the loop is in Manual Mode.
Using DirectSOFT’s PID View will be a real time-saver, because it will draw the profile onscreen for you. Be sure to set the trending timebase slow enough to display completed rampsoak segment pairs in the waveform window.
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Ramp/Soak Example
1 DirectSOFT
The following example will step you through the Ramp/Soak setup.
Setup the Profile in PID Setup
2
The first step is to use Setup PID in DirectSOFT to set the profile of your process. Open the
Setup PID window and select the R/S tab, and then enter the Ramp and Soak data.
3
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7
8
9
Program the Ramp/Soak Control in Relay Ladder
Refer to the Ramp/Soak Flag Bit Description table on page 8-60 when adding the control
10
rungs to your program similar to the ladder rungs below.
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DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Test the Profile
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Test your profile using PID View.
Manual
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
8–63
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
1 Cascade Control
Introduction
2
Cascaded loops are an advanced control technique that is superior to individual loop control
in certain situations. As the name implies, cascade means that one loop is connected to
another loop. In addition to Manual (open loop) and Auto (closed loop) Modes, the DL205
3
also provides Cascaded Mode.
4
NOTE: Cascaded loops are an advanced process control technique. Therefore we recommend their
use only for experienced process control engineers.
5
When a manufacturing process is complex and contains a lag time from control input to
process variable output, even the most perfectly tuned single loop around the process may
yield slow and inaccurate control. It may be the actuator operates on one physical property,
6
which eventually affects the process variable, measured by a different physical property.
Identifying the intermediate variable allows us to divide the process into two parts as shown
7
in the following figure.
8
9
The principle of cascaded loops is simply that we add another process loop to more precisely control
the intermediate variable! This separates the source of the control lag into two parts, as well.
10
The diagram below shows a cascade control system, showing that it is simply one loop nested
inside another. The inside loop is called the minor loop, and the outside loop is called the
11
major loop. For overall stability, the minor loop must be the fastest responding loop of the
two (try a factor of 10 for a better response time). We do have to add the additional sensor to
measure the intermediate variable (PV for process A). Notice the setpoint for the minor loop
12
is automatically generated for us, by using the output of the major loop. Once the cascaded
control is programmed and debugged, we only need to deal with the original setpoint and
13
process variable at the system level. The cascaded loops behave as one loop, but with
improved performance over the previous single-loop solution.
14
A
k
k
B
C
One of the benefits to cascade control can be seen by examining its response to external
disturbances. Remember the minor loop is faster acting than the major loop. Therefore, if a
D
disturbance affects process A in the minor loop, the Loop A PID calculation can correct the
PROCESS
Control input
Intermediate
Variable
Process A
Process B
Process
Variable (PV)
External
Disturbances
Loop B
Calculation
Setpoint
+
–
Output B/
Setpoint A
+
Loop A
Calculation
Output A
Process A
(secondary)
External
Disturbances
Process B
(primary)
–
Major
Loop
Minor
Loop
PV, Process A
PV, Process B
resulting error before the major loop sees the effect.
8–64
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Cascaded Loops in the DL205 CPU
In the use of the term “cascaded loops”, we must make an important distinction. Only the
minor loop will actually be in the Cascade Mode. In normal operation, the major loop must
be in Auto Mode. If you have more than two loops cascaded together, the outer-most (major)
loop must be in Auto Mode during normal operation, and all inner loops in Cascade Mode.
NOTE: Technically, both major and minor loops are “cascaded” in strict process control terminology.
Unfortunately, we are unable to retain this convention when controlling loop modes. Remember that
all minor loops will be in Cascade Mode, and only the outer-most (major) loop will be in Auto Mode.
You can cascade together as many loops as necessary on the DL205, and you may have
multiple groups of cascaded loops. For proper operation on cascaded loops you must use the
same data range (12/15 bit) and unipolar/bipolar settings on the major and minor loop.
To prepare a loop for Cascade Mode operation as a minor loop, you must program its remote
Setpoint Pointer in its loop parameter table location V+32, as shown below. The pointer must
be the address of the V+05 location (control output) of the major loop. In Cascade Mode, the
minor loop will ignore its local SP register (V+02), and read the major loop’s control output
as its SP instead.
Minor Loop (Cascade Mode)
Major Loop (Auto mode)
Loop Table
Loop Table
V+02
XXXX
SP
V+02
XXXX
SP
V+03
XXXX
PV
V+03
XXXX
PV
V+05
XXXX
Control Output
V+05
XXXX
Control Output
V+32
XXXX
Remote SP Pointer
When using DirectSOFT’s PID View to monitor the SP value of the minor loop,
DirectSOFT automatically reads the major loop’s control output and displays it for the minor
loop’s SP. The minor loop’s normal SP location, V+02, remains unchanged.
Now, we use the loop parameter arrangement above and draw its equivalent loop schematic,
shown below.
Minor Cascaded loop
Major loop
Loop
Calculation
Cascade
Control Output V+05
Remote
SP
Setpoint
+
Local SP
V+02
k
Loop
Calculation
Control
Output
–
Auto/Manual
Process Variable
Remember that a major loop goes to Manual Mode automatically if its minor loop is taken
out of Cascade Mode.
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Tuning Cascaded Loops
In tuning cascaded loops, you will need to de-couple the cascade relationship and tune the
loops individually, using one of the loop tuning procedures previously covered.
1. If you are not using auto tuning, then find the loop sample rate for the minor loop, using the
method discussed earlier in this chapter. Then set the sample rate of the major loop slower than the
minor loop by a factor of 10. Use this as a starting point.
2. Tune the minor loop first. Leave the major loop in Manual Mode and generate SP changes for the
minor loop manually as described in the loop tuning procedure.
3. Verify the minor loop gives a critically-damped response to a 10% SP change while in Auto Mode.
Then we are finished tuning the minor loop.
4. In this step, you will need to get the minor loop in Cascade Mode, and then the Major loop in
Auto Mode. We will be tuning the major loop with the minor loop treated as a series component in
its overall process. Therefore, do not go back and tune the minor loop again while tuning the major
loop.
5. Tune the major loop by following the standard loop tuning procedure in this section. The response
of the major loop PV is actually the overall response of the cascaded loops together.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Time-Proportioning Control
The PID loop controller in the DL205 CPU generates a smooth control output signal across
a numerical range. The control output value is suitable to drive an analog output module,
which connects to the process. In the process control field, this is called continuous control,
because the output is on (at some level) continuously.
While continuous control can be smooth and robust, the cost of the loop components (such
as actuator, heater amplifiers) can be expensive. A simpler form of control is called timeproportioning control. This method uses an actuator which is either on or off (no in-between).
Loop components for on/off-based control systems are lower cost than their continuous
control counterparts.
In this section, we will show you how to convert the control output of a loop to timeproportioning control for the applications that need it. Let’s take a moment to review how
alternately turning a load on and off can control a process. The diagram below shows a hot-air
balloon following a path across some mountains. The desired path is the setpoint. The balloon
pilot turns the burner on and off alternately, which is his control output. The large mass of air
in the balloon effectively averages the effect of the burner, converting the bursts of heat into a
continuous effect: slowly changing balloon temperature and ultimately the altitude, which is
the process variable.
Time-proportioning control approximates continuous control by virtue of its duty-cycle – the
ratio of ON time to OFF time. The following figure shows an example of how duty-cycle
approximates a continuous level when it is averaged by a large process mass.
period
Desired
Effect
On/Off
Control
On
Off
If we were to plot the on/off times of the burner in the hot-air balloon, we would probably
see a very similar relationship to its effect on balloon temperature and altitude.
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On/Off Control Program Example
The following ladder segment provides a time proportioned on/off control output. It converts
the continuous output in V2005 to on/off control using the output coil, Y0.
SP
+
Loop
Calculation
k
–
V2005
Time
Proportioning
Y0
continuous
PV
Process
P
V
on/off
The example program uses two timers to generate On/Off control. It makes the following
assumptions, which you can alter to fit your application:
• The loop table starts at V2000, so the control output is at V2005.
• The data format of the control output is 12-bit, unipolar (0 – FFF).
• The time base (one full cycle) for the On/Off waveform is 10 seconds. We use a fast timer (0.01
sec/tick), counting to 1000 ticks (10 seconds).
• The On/Off control output is Y0.
The time proportioning program must match the resolution of the output (1 part in 1000) to
the resolution of the time base of T0 (also 1 part in 1000).
NOTE: Some processes change too fast for time proportioning control. Consider the speed of your
process when you choose this control method. Use continuous control for processes that change too
fast for time proportioning control. Also, consider using a solid state switch for a longer switch life
instead of a relay.
T0
T0
TMRF
K1000
T0
LD
V2005
At the end of the 10 second period, T0 turns on, and
loads the control output value (binary) from the loop table
V+05 location (V2005).
BTOR
The BTOR instruction changes the number in the
accumulator to a real number.
DIVR
R4.095
Dividing the control output by 4.095, converts the
0 – 4095 range to 0 – 1000, which “matchs” the
number of ticks in the 10 second timer range.
RTOB
This instruction converts the real number back to
binary. This step prepares the number for conversion
to BCD. There is no real-to-BCD instruction.
BCD
Convert the number in the accumulator to BCD format.
This satisfies the timer preset format requirement.
OUT
V1400
T0
T1
TMRF
T1
V1400
TA1
K0
A fast timer (0.01 sec. timebase) establishes the primary
time interval. The constant, K1000, sets the preset at 10
seconds (1,000 ticks). The N.C. enabling contact, T0,
makes the timer self-resetting. T0 is on for one scan
each 10 seconds, when it resets itself and T1.
Output the result to V1400. In our example, this is the
location of the timer preset for the second timer.
The second fast timer also counts in increments of .01
seconds, so its range is variable from 0 to a maximum
of 1000 ticks, or 10 seconds. This timer’s output, T1,
turns off the output coil, Y0, when the preset is reached.
Y0
OUT
The N.C. T1 contact, inverts the T1 timer output. The
control output is on at the beginning of the 10-second time
interval. Y0 turns off when T1 times out. The STRNE
contact prevents Y0 from energizing during the one scan
when T0 resets T1. Y0 is the actual control output.
END
END coil marks the end of the main program.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Feedforward Control
Feedforward control is an enhancement to standard closed-loop control. It is most useful for
diminishing the effects of a quantifiable and predictable loop disturbance or sudden change in
setpoint. Use of this feature is an option available to you on the DL205. However, it’s best to
implement and tune a loop without feedforward, and adding it only if better loop
performance is still needed. The term “feed-forward” refers to the control technique involved,
shown in the diagram below. The incoming setpoint value is fed forward around the PID
equation, and summed with the output.
Feedforward path
Setpoint
+
k
kf
Loop
Calculation
+
+
k
Control Output
–
Process Variable
In the previous section on the bias term, we said that “the bias term value establishes a
“working region” or operating point for the control output. When the error fluctuates around
its zero point, the output fluctuates around the bias value.” Now, when there is a change in
setpoint, an error is generated and the output must change to a new operating point. This
also happens if a disturbance introduces a new offset in the loop. The loop does not really
“know its way” to the new operating point... the integrator (bias) must increment/decrement
until the error disappears, and then the bias has found the new operating point.
Suppose that we are able to know a sudden setpoint change is about to occur (common in
some applications). We can avoid much of the resulting error in the first place, if we can
quickly change the output to the new operating point. If we know (from previous testing)
what the operating point (bias value) will be after the setpoint change, we can artificially
change the output directly (which is feedforward). The benefits from using feedforward are:
• The SP–PV error is reduced during predictable setpoint changes or loop offset disturbances.
• Proper use of feedforward will allow us to reduce the integrator gain. Reducing integrator gain gives
us an even more stable control system.
Feedforward is very easy to use in the DL205 loop controller, as shown below. The bias term
has been made available to the user in a special read/write location, at PID Parameter Table
location V+04.
Parameter Table location V+04.
Loop Calculation
Setpoint
+
Error T erm
k
kp
P
ki
I
kd
D
V+04
Bias T erm
+
+
k
Control Output
+
–
Process Variable
XXXX
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To change the bias (operating point), ladder logic only has to write the desired value to V+04.
The PID loop calculation first reads the bias value from V+04 and modifies the value based
on the current integrator calculation. Then it writes the result back to location V+04. This
arrangement creates a sort of “transparent” bias term. All you have to do to implement feed
forward control is write the correct value to the bias term at the right time (see the following
example).
NOTE: When writing the bias term, one must be careful to design ladder logic to write the value only
once, at the moment when the new bias operating point is to occur. If ladder logic writes the bias
value on every scan, the loop’s integrator is effectively disabled.
Feedforward Example
How do we know when to write to the bias term, and what value to write? Suppose we have
an oven temperature control loop, and we have already tuned the loop for optimal
performance. Refer to the figure below. We notice that when the operator opens the oven
door, the temperature sags a bit while the loop bias adjusts to the heat loss. Then when the
door closes, the temperature rises above the SP until the loop adjusts again. Feedforward
control can help diminish this effect.
Oven Closed
door
Open
PV
PV sags
Closed
PV excess
Bias
First, we record the amount of bias change the loop controller generates when the door opens
or closes. Then, we write a ladder program to monitor the position of an oven door limit
switch. When the door opens, our ladder program reads the current bias value from V+04,
adds the desired change amount, and writes it back to V+04. When the door closes, we
duplicate the procedure, but subtracting desired change amount instead. The following figure
shows the results.
Oven Closed
door
Open
Closed
PV
Feed-forward
Feed-forward
Bias
The step changes in the bias are the result of our two feed-forward writes to the bias term. We
can see the PV variations are greatly reduced. The same technique may be applied for changes
in setpoint.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Example Program
Program Setup for the PID Loop
After the PID loop, or loops, have been setup with DirectSOFT, you will need to edit your
RLL program to include the rungs needed to setup the analog I/O module to be used by the
PID loop(s).
The following example program shows how an RTD module, F2-04RTD, and an analog
output module, F2-02DA-2, are used and setup for a PID loop. This example assumes that
the PID table for loop 1 has a beginning address of V2100.
All of the analog I/O modules used with the DL205 are setup in a similar manner. Refer to
the DL205 Analog Manual for the setup information for the particular module that you will
be using.
DirectSOFT
Set up for an F2-04RTD located in Slot 0 to use the four inputs. One input
will be used for PID loop 1. The inputs will be read in binary format.
Input 1=V2000, Input 2=V2002, Input 3=V2004, Input 4=V2006.
_FirstScan
SP0
LD
1
K8400
Note: The inputs will be read in binary format. Full range is ±32767, which equates to ±3276.7 degrees, since the
RTD card reads directly in tenths of a degree. The input resolution of the PID loop needs
to be set based on the max. temperature of the application since the RTD card is always
16 bit resolution.
OUT
Slot 0 data format & no.
of channels
V7660
LDA
O2000
OUT
Slot 0 Input pointer
V7670
SP0
LD
2
K440
OUT
PID Table Address
V7640
LD
K1
OUT
V7641
SP0
LD
3
K37
OUT
V2110
LD
K765
OUT
V2111
LD
K0
OUT
V2112
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DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
8–71
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Example program continued
Set up for an F2-02DA-2 located in Slot 1 to use its outputs. The outputs will be read in binary format.
Output 1=V2020, Output 2=V2021.
_FirstScan
SP0
LD
4
K82
OUT
Slot 1 data format & no.
of channels
V7661
LDA
O2020
Store the binary value for RTD input 1 into the V-memory location for PID loop 1, PV.
PID loop 1 begins with V2100.
_On
SP1
OUT
Slot 1 Output pointer
V7701
LD
5
RTD 1
Note: RTD 1 is the nickname given to V2000, input 1 on the RTD module.
OUT
Store PID loop 1 control output (binary data) in V-memory to Ch. 1 analog output.
_On
SP1
LD
6
The setpoint (SP) value stored in V-memory is converted from BCD to binary and stored
to Loop 1 SP.
_On
SP1
Note: The value stored in V1400 must be in the same scale as
the PV value, or tenths of a degree in this example.
Loop 1 Output
V2105
OUT
LD
7
X0
8
Analog Out 1
V2020
Setpoint Location
V1400
BIN
OUT
Select PID loop 1 Manual Mode
Loop 1 Manual
Loop 1 PV
V2103
Loop 1 SP
V2102
Manual Mode Request
B2100.0
SET
Select PID loop 1 Auto Mode
Loop 1 Auto
X1
Auto Mode Request
B2100.1
9
SET
10
END
11
NOP
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Note that the modules used in the PID loop example program were set up for binary format.
They could have been set up for BCD format. In the later case, the BCD data would have to
be converted to binary format before being stored to the setpoint and process variable, and
the control output would have to be converted from binary to BCD before being stored to
the analog output.
By following the steps outlined in this chapter, you should be able to setup workable PID
control loops. The DirectSOFT Programming Software Manual provides more information
for the use of PID View.
For a step-by-step tutorial, go to the Technical Support section located on our website,
www.automationdirect.com. Once you are at the website, click on Technical Support Home.
After this page opens, find and select Guided Tutorials located under the Using Your
Products column. An Animated Tutorial page will open. Under Available Tutorials, find
PID Trainer and select View the Powerpoint slide show and begin viewing the tutorial. The
Powerpoint Viewer can be downloaded if your computer does not have Powerpoint installed.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Troubleshooting Tips
8–74
Q. The loop will not go into Automatic Mode.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• A PV alarm exists, or a PV alarm programming error exists.
• The loop is the major loop of a cascaded pair, and the minor loop is not in Cascade Mode.
Q. The Control Output stays at zero constantly when the loop is in Automatic
Mode.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• The Control Output upper limit in loop table location V+31 is zero.
• The loop is driven into saturation, because the error never goes to zero value and changes (algebraic)
sign.
Q. The Control Output value is not zero, but it is incorrect.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• The gain values are entered improperly. Remember, gains are entered in the loop table in BCD,
while the SP and PV are in binary. If you are using DirectSOFT, it displays the SP, PV, Bias and
Control output in decimal (BCD), converting it to binary before updating the loop table.
Q. The Ramp/Soak Generator does not operate when I activate the Start bit.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• The Ramp/Soak enable bit is off. Check the status of bit 11 of loop parameter table location V+00.
It must be set =1.
• The hold bit or other bits in the Ramp/Soak control are on.
• The beginning SP value and the first ramp ending SP value are the same, so first ramp segment has
no slope and consequently has no duration. The ramp/soak generator moves quickly to the soak
segment, giving the illusion the first ramp is not working.
• The loop is in Cascade Mode, and is trying to get the SP remotely.
• The SP upper limit value in the loop table location V+27 is too low.
• Check your ladder program to verify it is not writing to the SP location (V+02 in the loop table). A
quick way to do this is to temporarily place an end coil at the beginning of your program, then go
to PLC Run Mode, and manually start the ramp/soak generator.
Q. The PV value in the table is constant, even though the analog module receives
the PV signal.
A. Your ladder program must read the analog value from the module successfully and write it
into the loop table V+03 location. Verify the analog module is generating the value, and
the ladder is working.
Q. The Derivative gain doesn’t seem to have any affect on the output.
A. The derivative limit is probably enabled (see section on derivative gain limiting).
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
Q. The loop Setpoint appears to be changing by itself.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• The Ramp/Soak generator is enabled, and is generating setpoints.
• If this symptom occurs on loop Manual-to-Auto Mode changes, the loop is in Bumpless Transfer 1.
• Check your ladder program to verify it is not writing to the SP location (V+02 in the loop table). A
quick way to do this is to temporarily place an end coil at the beginning of your program, then go
to PLC Run Mode.
Q. The SP and PV values I enter with DirectSOFT work okay, but these values
do not work properly when the ladder program writes the data.
A. The PID View in DirectSOFT lets you enter SP, PV, and Bias values in decimal, and
displays them in decimal for your convenience. For example, when the data format is
12-bit unipolar, the values range from 0 to 4095. However, the loop table actually requires
these in hex, so DirectSOFT converts them for you. The values in the table range from 0
to FFF, for 12-bit unipolar format.
Q. The loop seems unstable and impossible to tune, no matter what gains I use.
A. Check the following for possible causes:
• The loop sample time is set too long. Refer to the section near the front of this chapter on selecting
the loop update time.
• The gains are too high. Start out by reducing the derivative gain to zero. Then reduce the integral
gain, and the proportional gain if necessary.
• There is too much transfer lag in your process. This means the PV reacts sluggishly to control
output changes. There may be too much “distance” between actuator and PV sensor, or the actuator
may be weak in its ability to transfer energy into the process.
• There may be a process disturbance that is over-powering the loop. Make sure the PV is relatively
steady when the SP is not changing.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
of PID Loop Terminology
1 Glossary
Automatic Mode An operational mode of a loop, in which it makes PID calculations and updates the
loop’s control output.
2
Bias Freeze A method of preserving the bias value (operating point) for a control output, by inhibiting
the integrator when the output goes out-of-range. The benefit is a faster loop recovery.
3
Bias Term In the position form of the PID equation, it is the sum of the integrator and the initial
control output value.
4
Bumpless Transfer A method of changing the operation mode of a loop while avoiding the usual
sudden change in control output level. This consequence is avoided by artificially making the SP and
PV equal, or the bias term and control output equal at the moment of mode change.
5
Cascaded Loops A cascaded loop receives its setpoint from the output of another loop. Cascaded loops
have a major/minor relationship, and work together to ultimately control one PV.
6
Cascade Mode An operational mode of a loop, in which it receives its SP from another loop’s output.
Continuous Control Control of a process done by delivering a smooth (analog) signal as the control
7
output.
Control Output The numerical result of a PID equation which is sent by the loop with the intention of
8
nulling out the current error.
Derivative Gain A constant that determines the magnitude of the PID derivative term in response to
9
the current error.
Direct-Acting Loop A loop in which the PV increases in response to a control output increase. In other
10
words, the process has a positive gain.
Error The difference in value between the SP and PV, Error = SP – PV
11
Error Deadband An optional feature which makes the loop insensitive to errors when they are small.
You can specify the size of the deadband.
12
Error Squared An optional feature which multiplies the error by itself, but retains the original algebraic
sign. It reduces the effect of small errors, while magnifying the effect of large errors.
13
Feedforward A method of optimizing the control response of a loop when a change in setpoint or
disturbance offset is known and has a quantifiable effect on the bias term.
14
Integral Gain A constant that determines the magnitude of the PID integral term in response to the
current error.
A
Major Loop In cascade control, it is the loop that generates a setpoint for the cascaded loop.
Manual Mode An operational mode of a loop, it which the PID calculations are stopped. The operator
B
must manually control the loop by writing to the control output value directly.
Minor Loop In cascade control, the minor loop is the subordinate loop that receives its SP from the
C
major loop.
On/Off Control A simple method of controlling a process, through on/off application of energy into
the system. The mass of the process averages the on/off effect for a relatively smooth PV. A simple ladder
D
program can convert the DL205’s continuous loop output to on/off control.
8–76
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
PID Loop A mathematical method of closed-loop control involving the sum of three terms based on
proportional, integral, and derivative error values. The three terms have independent gain constants,
allowing one to optimize (tune) the loop for a particular physical system.
Position Algorithm The control output is calculated so it responds to the displacement (position) of the
PV from the SP (error term)
Process A manufacturing procedure which adds value to raw materials. Process control particularly
refers to inducing chemical changes to the material in process.
Process Variable (PV) A quantitative measurement of a physical property of the material in process,
which affects final product quality and is important to monitor and control.
Proportional Gain A constant that determines the magnitude of the PID proportional term in response
to the current error.
PV Absolute Alarm A programmable alarm that compares the PV value to alarm threshold values.
PV Deviation Alarm A programmable alarm that compares the difference between the SP and PV
values to a deviation threshold value.
Ramp/Soak Profile A set of SP values called a profile, which is generated in real time upon each loop
calculation. The profile consists of a series of ramp and soak segment pairs, greatly simplifying the task
of programming the PLC to generate such SP sequences.
Rate Also called differentiator, the rate term responds to the changes in the error term.
Remote Setpoint The location where a loop reads its setpoint when it is configured as the minor loop in
a cascaded loop topology.
Reset Also called integrator, the reset term adds each sampled error to the previous, maintaining a
running total called the bias.
Reset Windup A condition created when the loop is unable to find equilibrium, and the persistent error
causes the integrator (reset) sum to grow excessively (windup). Reset windup causes an extra recovery
delay when the original loop fault is remedied.
Reverse-Acting Loop A loop in which the PV increases in response to a control output decrease. In
other words, the process has a negative gain.
Sampling time The time between PID calculations. The CPU method of process control is called a
sampling controller, because it samples the SP and PV only periodically.
Setpoint (SP) The desired value for the process variable. The setpoint (SP) is the input command to the
loop controller during closed loop operation.
Soak Deviation The soak deviation is a measure of the difference between the SP and PV during a soak
segment of the Ramp/Soak profile, when the Ramp/Soak generator is active.
Step Response The behavior of the process variable in response to a step change in the SP (in closed
loop operation), or a step change in the control output (in open loop operation)
Transfer To change from one loop operational mode to another (between Manual, Auto, or Cascade).
The word “transfer” probably refers to the transfer of control of the control output or the SP,
depending on the particular mode change.
Velocity Algorithm The control output is calculated to represent the rate of change (velocity) for the PV
to become equal to the SP.
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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Chapter 8: PID Loop Operation (DL250-1/DL260 only)
1 Bibliography
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Fundamentals of Process Control Theory, Second Edition
Author: Paul W. Murrill
Publisher: Instrument Society of America
ISBN 1–55617–297–4
PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning, 2nd Edition Author:
K. Astrom and T Hagglund
Publisher: Instrument Society of America
ISBN 1–55617–516–7
Process / Industrial Instruments & Controls Handbook, Fourth
Edition
Author (Editor-in-Chief): Douglas M. Considine
Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc
ISBN 0-07-012445-0
Programmable Controllers Concepts and Applications, First
Edition
Authors: C.T. Jones and L.A. Bryan
Publisher: International Programmable Controls
ISBN 0-915425-00-9
Process Control, Third Edition Instrument Engineer’s Handbook
Author (Editor-in-Chief): Bela G. Liptak
Publisher: Chilton. . . . . . . ISBN 0–8019–8242–1
8–78
Application Concepts of Process Control
Author: Paul W. Murrill
Publisher: Instrument Society of America
ISBN 1–55617–080–7
Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements,
Third edition
Author: Robert P. Benedict
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
ISBN 0–471–89383–8
pH Measurement and Control, Second Edition
Author: Gregory K. McMillan
Publisher: Instrument Society of America
ISBN 1–55617–483–7
Fundamentals of Programmable Logic Controllers, Sensors, and
Communications
Author: Jon Stenerson
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN 0-13-726860-2
Process Measurement and Analysis, Third Edition Instrument
Engineer’s Handbook
Author (Editor-in-Chief): Bela G. Liptak
Publisher: Chilton. . . . . . . ISBN 0–8019–8197–2
DL205 User Manual, 4th Edition, Rev. B
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