Gro2000p

Gro2000p
Using PanMap
Contents
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Contents
Disclaimer
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2
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Introduction
1.1 About this manual . . . . . . . . .
1.2 What is PanMap . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 What can PanMap do . . . . . . .
1.4 Download of the PanMap software
1.5 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick Start / The first map
2.1 Start of the program . . . . . . . .
2.2 Loading the coast line layer . . . .
2.3 Loading the city layer (point layer)
2.4 Defining map boundaries . . . . .
2.5 Controlling map size and scale . .
2.6 Configuring the city layer . . . . .
2.7 Loading the river layer . . . . . .
2.8 Save your work . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 Printing of a map . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Working with maps
3.1 The layer concept of PanMap . . . . . . . .
3.2 Defining a default layer . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Importing tabular data to point layers . . . .
3.4 Importing vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Import of GF3-data (GEBCO) . . . . . . .
3.6 Designing maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 Add, replace and delete map layers
3.6.2 Applying layer colours . . . . . . .
3.6.3 Defining point layer layout . . . . .
3.6.4 Color mapping with point layers . .
3.6.5 Defining topo layer layout . . . . .
3.6.6 Selecting projection and map center
3.6.7 Attributes and layout of a map . . .
3.6.8 Selecting scale and size of a map . .
3.6.9 Defining the map area . . . . . . .
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Contents
4
Supplementing PanMap tools and functions
4.1 Toolbar and status line on and off . . . . . . .
4.2 Label and pop-up information . . . . . . . .
4.3 Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Operating on several maps in the same session
4.5 Exporting maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A File formats
A.1 Point data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 Line data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 GEBCO / GF3-Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1
Disclaimer
The PanMap software was developed to easily and quickly display georeferenced data in
maps. It is distributed by the PANGAEA web server together with various geographic data
in PanMap format.
The information system PANGAEA and related software is operated by the Alfred Wegener
Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences.
The operators do not take responsibility for any errors or failures of the software or problems
arising from it’s use, or the use of data retrieved from the software.
PanMap is available for the scientific community and is distributed as Freeware for the
operating systems Windows and MacOS .
Reference:
Diepenbroek, M; Grobe, H & Sieger, R (2000) PanMap,
http://www.pangaea.de/Software/PanMap
The geographic data available on the PanMap website is to be quoted by the references listed
there.
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM)
University of Bremen
28334 Bremen, Germany
E-mail: [email protected]
1
1
Introduction
2
Introduction
1.1 About this manual
This manual was written as an introduction to using PanMap and as a reference of the PanMap functions. The manual exclusively refers to the Windows version of PanMap. Fundamental knowledge of the Windows user interface is required for the use of this manual.
The deviations of the Macintosh version essentially refer to the different handling of the
user interface - the desktop, differences in the arrangement of the menus and Apple specific
data formats (graphics).
Text or terms from menus or dialog windows of PanMap are typographically emphasized in
the manual: E XAMPLE . Menu nestings are represented by arrows. The call of the O PEN
dialog in the F ILE menu is represented in the manual like this: F ILE
O PEN .
1.2 What is PanMap
PanMap is a computer program for displaying point data and vector data in geographical
maps. One could call it a simple geographic information system (mini GIS). It is recommended to use this software in connection with data from the PANGAEA Information System. PanMap was developed for personal computers and is available in a Windows and a
Apple Macintosh version. PanMap is Freeware.
1.3 What can PanMap do
PanMap displays georeferenced data, i.e. information, that has a geographical reference, in
maps. Some common cartographic projections are supported. Map extension (boundaries)
and scale are interactively selectable, layout and graphic display of imported data can be
defined by the user. PanMap works vector-oriented, raster data can not be displayed by
PanMap; a geographical datum cannot be defined.
Georeferenced data is translated into PanMaps proprietary format and is used as a layer.
Each individual layer can be processed and arranged separately and be used in various maps.
Together with a set of additional map characteristics one or more layers form a PanMap
map. These characteristics are for instance: map extension, geographical projection, scale
and layout.
1
Introduction
3
1.4 Download of the PanMap software
The PanMap program is available on the PANGAEA webserver:
http://www.PANGAEA.de/Software/PanMap/
On this page you find links to the Windows version (PanMap.zip) and the Macintosh
version (PanMap.sea.hqx). After clicking on the chosen link, your browser will ask you
to give a file name and a location (directory) for the downloaded file. Usually you can
acknowledge the pre-set values with O K . The program archive then is written to your hard
disk.
In addition you find a set of data sets in layer format as Zip archives on the download
page, which have been prepared for use by PanMap. First load the files for cities (major
cities) and rivers (major rivers) to your computer. The file names are: MajorCities.zip
and MajorRiver.zip. These layers are generally useful and will by used also in the
following map examples. Other layer files, supplied through the PANGAEA web server,
can be added to your installation according to requirement.
1.5 Installation
Move or copy the file with the PanMap archive (PanMap.zip) and the files with the city
layer (MajorCities.zip) and the river layer (MajorRiver.zip) into a directory of
your choice. Open the file with a compression program, which supports the Zip format and
unpack the files. After this you can close the compression program. 1
Change into the PanMap directory of your system. With the Windows version of PanMap you also find two program libraries, which are necessary for working with PanMap,
(*.dll)2 and a batch script, which deletes temporary PanMap files in the system. Additionally you find a layer file with world-wide coastal lines (Coast.lay), which can be
defined as the default layer (see Chapter 3.2, page 15) for PanMap, as with the examples in
this manual.
It is recommended to create a directory for your own (or additional) layer files. Move the
layer files, which you have downloaded from the PANGAEA server, into this directory and
unpack them according to the procedure for the program archive. Now the installation of
PanMap is complete and you can start with the generation of maps.
1
Macintosh users find a document with a guide for unpacking Zip files under MacOS on the PanMap
page of the PANGAEA webserver: How to extract Zip archives on Macintosh.
2
Displaying is often disabled by the system.
2
Quick Start / The first map
4
Fig. 1: The PanMap directory
2
Quick Start / The first map
2.1 Start of the program
After installing of the program and the coastline layer you can create a first map. Open the
PanMap directory on your system and double-click the program icon of PanMap.
The PanMap window opens (Fig. 2). At the top margin of the window to the right of the
PanMap logo icon you find the menubar. Below the menubar, you find the toolbar with eight
buttons for important and frequently used PanMap functions. You may move the menubar
by using drag and drop techniques.
After starting PanMap, a map of the world in Mercator projection appears within the PanMap window. This map shows the coastline between 83 northern latitude and 83 southern
latitude. This set-up is due to the fact that the coastal lines layer Coast.lay is defined as
the default layer for the PanMap distribution.3 This layer will be used for every new map
you generate unless you delete it from your set of layers or define a different default layer.
2.2 Loading the coast line layer
If the coastal line does not appear as described after the program starts, you are working with
an installation, in which the coast line layer is not defined as the default layer. In this case
3
The PanMap distribution is configured to load the coast line-layer automatically with every PanMap session. You may de-activate this feature or define another default layer or map. More on this topic in chapter 3.2
"Defining a Default Layer".
2
Quick Start / The first map
5
Fig. 2: PanMap working bench with loaded Coast.lay
you can load this layer manually. You can define this layer as the default layer - described
in Chapter 3.2, "Defining a Default Layer" -, or you can load this layer as part of a current
map.
Since loading of PanMap layers is a frequently used function, there is a button for this function in the toolbar. Move the mouse pointer over this button (a note "Edit the layers of the
current map" appears in the status bar) and click on it. This opens the M AP P ROPERTIES
dialog (Fig. 3). On the left of this dialog window there is a white box, in which currently
loaded layers are listed. The coast line layer would also be listed, if it were defined as default
layer. As in our example this is not the case, the field is empty.
2
Quick Start / The first map
6
Fig. 3: The Map Properties Dialog
2.3 Loading the city layer (point layer)
To load the PanMap layer, containing the cities, you proceed in the same way. Click on
the button for processing map layers, the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog appears. If you click
the A DD button to the right of the layer list, a file select box opens ( S ELECT A LAYER ,
Fig. 4).
Select the file Cities.lay from the directory where you store the layers. If you followed
the example installation as described in Chapter 1.5 "Installation", it is the directory Layer
in the PanMap directory. Select the file Cities.lay and click on O PEN to load the file.
The layer you have just loaded appears in the list below the Coast.lay. For now, leave
all other option of this dialog on the default values and click O K ; the coastal lines will
now be displayed on your map.
With the standard settings the location of the cities on the map are represented as red points.
The colour of the points was already indicated by a red box to the right of the C ITIES . LAY
entry in the list. In the next paragraph you will modify the indicators for the cities on the
map. For the sake of clarity you will work on a larger scale map, not a world map, i.e. you
will define a smaller mapping area (boundaries).
2
Quick Start / The first map
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Fig. 4: Loading of Layers
2.4 Defining map boundaries
For determining map boundaries, i.e. the enlargement of the area mapped, a button in the
toolbar (magnifying glass) is available. You activate this function by clicking on this button.
Move the mouse pointer to a corner of the new map area and greate a rectangular frame
around the area by draging the mouse to the opposite corner while keeping the mouse button
pressed. In the following examples we will use an area covering the Iberian Peninsula and
adjacent areas (Fig. 5).
Directly after releasing the mouse button, the new area will instantly be drawn. The menu
E DIT
R ESTORE L AST S ECTION will always restore the previous map extend. Directly
after you released the mouse button, he new map instantly gets drawn. To go back to the
global map, you have to click the button for the global view in the toolbar. 4
4
Attention! When working with voluminous layers, the drawing of the global view may take quite a while.
2
Quick Start / The first map
8
Fig. 5: Defining map boundaries
2.5 Controlling map size and scale
With the magnifying glass you can quickly and intuitively choose the area and the scale
desired for your map. In addition, it is possible to give an accurate scale for the map. In
the previous example for instance, a scale of about 1:13 Mio. results from the area selection
with the magnifying glass. This scale is now to be defined accurately to this value. This is
achieved by using E DIT
C HANGE M AP S IZE (Fig.6).
You get the dialog window for adjusting the scale and map size. Correct the displayed
value to 13000000 by typing in the field and click the O K button. The entry under S IZE
instantly indicates the new physical size of your map. With the F IT
adjust the map scale to the physical size of the page.
TO
PAPER button, you
2
Quick Start / The first map
9
Fig. 6: Controlling Map Size and Scale
2.6 Configuring the city layer
Now after you have selected the new map area, the representation of the cities on the map
will be redesigned and optimized. Until now the geographical locations of the cities are
marked only by red points on the map. Naturally one would also like to plot the names of
the cities into the map, change appearance of the markers and make an entry into the legend
of the map. The names of the cities are provided by the layer Cities.lay, and they can
be made visible at any time.
This is configured by the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog, which you either call from the menubar ( E DIT
E DIT M AP ), or by clicking the appropriate button in the toolbar.
In the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog you double click the Cities.lay entry in the layer list
(or you mark this entry and click on the Edit button to the right). You will be presented
with the P OINT L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog, which lets you determine the layout and appearance of point layers (Fig. 7).
The P OINT L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog has three fields:
- L EGEND to determine a legend entry,
- S YMBOL defines a symbol for the representation of the locations on the map and
- L ABEL to define the labels to be drawn at the point markers on the map.
In L EGEND you can enter the text, which is to appear in the legend. In this example
the text would be Cities. Select a type of marker under S YMBOL /S HAPE , for example
C IRCLE , FILLED , set the size of the marker to 4 and leave the marker colour on red. In
case you wish to set a different colour for the representation of the point markers on the
map, click the red S ELECT button beside the C OLOR entry. You will then be prompted
with the system specific dialog for the selection or definition of colours.
Now, select the label (annotation) of the point markers on the map. Click the arrow of the
attribute selection list and select the entry NAME . This will select city names as the label
attribute to appear in the map beside the point marker.
From the attribute selection list, select the value 12 in the field F ONTSIZE , and Arial in
the F ONT field. Leave the font colour on black. Now, click on the O K buttons of the
2
Quick Start / The first map
10
Fig. 7: Configuring point layers
P OINT L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog and the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog. Your map should
now look like in figure 8.
For the appearance of the example map some additional features can be changed and adapted.
These features are controlled by the M ISCELLANEOUS ATTRIBUTES dialog, which is activated through the menubar: E DIT
C HANGE M AP ATTRIBUTES (Fig. 9).
For our example, type in a title for the map under H EADER . Leave the selection of the map
title font family and the font size on the suggested values and activate the plotting of scale
information and legend entries by clicking the check boxes under OTHER TEXT .
In the N ET GRID area (right part of the dialog) select 5 for the graticule. You do this
by clicking on the current value or the arrow of the appropriate drop down list next to
L ATITUDE SPACING and L ONGITUDE SPACING . Highlight the desired value 5 . Leave
the line colour on the displayed grey tone and the line width on the value of 1.
Click O K , the redefined attributes will be cascaded at once. You can now easily reposition the legend with the direct selection tool and optimize the position of the point marker
annotations. With this tool activated you simply drag these features with the mouse. Select the direct selection tool from the toolbar (arrow) and click an annotation. Keeping the
mouse button pressed, drag the annotation to the desired place on the map. If necessary,
PanMap automatically inserts a lead between the text and point marker. Proceed likewise to
reposition the legend. The example map should now look like in figure 11.
The position of annotations and legend, which you have defined with the direct selection
tool, will be lost if you save the map and re-open it. These properties are not saved.
2
Quick Start / The first map
Fig. 8: Map with annoted locations
Fig. 9: Miscellaneous attribute dialog
11
2
Quick Start / The first map
12
Fig. 10: Moving annotation
2.7 Loading the river layer
To load the river layer you proceed the way you did with loading the city layer:
A DD
R IVER . LAY
O PEN
OK
Define the layout characteristics of the river layer with the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog.
Highlight the River.lay entry in the L AYER list and select the E DIT button or double
click the River.lay entry in the list.
You are prompted with the TOPO L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog (Fig. 12). Enter Rivers in
the L EGEND text box, and leave the line width on 1. Select a blue tone for the colour of
the rivers on the map. Now click O K in the TOPO L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog and in the
M AP P ROPERTIES dialog also. The rivers will appear on the map as blue lines.
2.8 Save your work
Save your work as usual with the menu F ILE
S AVE AS . Give a name for the map
5
(e.g. Ibero.map) and click the S AVE button. The map will be saved with all features
and graphical attributes. Scale, area, projection, map attributes and layers incorporated
belong to a saved map. You may later re-open the map and continue working on it, provided
the paths to the layers used in the map are still the same. To open the map again, use the
O PEN
dialog in the FILE menu. From the F ILE menu you can select a map to open
also from the list of the four most recent processed maps.
2.9 Printing of a map
First make sure that the current page setup (page size, orientation, colour or gray tone printing, etc.) corresponds to that of the attached printer ( F ILE
PAGE SETUP
). If this is
the case, the map can be printed by selecting F ILE
P RINT
.
5
The Windows version of PanMap needs the extension *.map.
2
Quick Start / The first map
Fig. 11: Map including annotation and high-resolution coast line
13
3
Working with maps
14
Fig. 12: Configuring topo layers
2.10 Status
In this chapter the most important PanMap functions and features were used and you have
acquired basic PanMap skills. The layer structure of a map is now common to you, just
as important ways to organize and design a map. Many of these topics will be revisited in
the following chapters on working with layers. However, you will get to know about other
functions, which will enable you to import your own data to PanMap, convert it into the
layer format and merge it into your maps.
3
Working with maps
3.1 The layer concept of PanMap
In chapter 2 "Quick start / The first map" you became acquainted with the layer concept of
PanMap. You merged ready-made layers, a point layer and a vector layer, into your map
and determined the layout of the map and the layers. In this section additional functions
and options of handling layers are presented and described. These are – for instance – the
definition of a default layer, but more importantly the options for importing your own or third
party data into the program and then converting it into PanMap layers. PanMap provides
corresponding import and conversion functions.
Each map consists of one or more layers. Both point and vector layer can be combined in a
single map and each layer can be configured individually.
There are two types of layers: point layers and vector layers. You know these layer types
from the tutorial as the cities layer and the river layer. Both layer types differ in the type of
the data they contain.
With point layers this data is a variety of geographical locations, defined by Phi (geographical latitude) and Lambda (geographical longitude), that can be linked to other data. The
3
Working with maps
15
locations in the point layer Cities.lay, for instance, have labels (the name of the city),
as an additional record. It is also possible to store the numbers of inhabitants of the cities as
a record of each point in this layer and show this information on the map.
With PanMap’s vector layers line information is kept geo-referenced. Not always is the
direction of a line of importance in the real world (for example with topographical contours,
or with political boundaries) and therefore needs no further consideration. In a PanMap
vector layer however all lines do have a direction, i.e. a starting point and an end point.
3.2 Defining a default layer
With PanMap the term default layer defines an arbitrarily selectable layer or a PanMap map,
which is automatically imported and displayed starting the program or creating a new map.
Therefore the user can load important data, which are merged frequently or always in his or
her maps up front. The PanMap distribution under Windows is configured to load the coast
line layer (a vector layer) as the default layer.
This layer is useful for many mapping tasks. But it could be just as useful to select a different
default layer. For example for creating sets of similar maps. You may also switch off the
default layer function completely if you do not want this feature.
In order to define the default layer, select the menu F ILE
P REFERENCES . On the top
left side of the P REFERENCE dialog you can switch the default layer feature on and off by
clicking the check box (Fig. 13). If this option is activated, a black check mark appears in
the box.
Fig. 13: File selection
On the right side of the default layer entry there is a button, which shows the path to the
current default layer. Click on this button in order to enter the dialog for selecting a default
layer. With this dialog you have the option of selecting a layer file (extension .lay) or a
3
Working with maps
16
map (extension .map). These two options are available depending on the file type indicated
in the lower area of the file select dialog. Change the file type by clicking the arrow to the
right of this field. The definition of the default layer only becomes effective when creating
a new map. Select menu F ILE
N EW or leave the program and start again.
3.3 Importing tabular data to point layers
Tabular point data can be imported as text files. Column separator is a tabulator (char 9), a
common exchange format for tabular data. Such text files can also be retrieved through the
web interface of the PANGAEA information system. Data can be exported with geographical coordinates an imported directly into PanMap.
In the following example a file with locations and names of Spanish cities is imported and
converted into a layer. As a contrast to the cities layer from the tutorial this file also has additional information on the population rank as a data record. This classification is expressed in
size classes from 1 to 6 and kept in the file as the fourth column (after geographical latitude,
longitude and city name):
Tab. 1: Example of an ASCII import table
Latitude Longitude Name
Rang
39.57416
2.65499 Palma
1
39.78666
2.70472 Sóller
6
40.00166
3.84166 Ciudadela
2
39.88777
4.26194 Mahon
6
38.87055
39.00111
42.04888
-1.08833 Almansa
-1.85222 Albacete
-8.64083 Túy
3
4
5
The first two entries in each line represent the geographical coordinates of the cities in decimal degrees. Then follows the designator or name for the location and then the population
rank of the place in arbitrary size classes from 1 to 6. The file should have a heading containing the column names.
One can export such tables from most spreadsheet programs or data base systems. They can
of course also be created with a text editor. Further columns with additional information
can be added to this type of files for the visualization in PanMap. To import such tables and
I MPORT SPREADSHEET
(Maconvert them into the layer format you select F ILE
cOS: F ILE
I MPORT
P OINT DATA
).
Once you do so, the file is read and the dialog for saving the respective new layer opens.
Give this new layer a name with the extension *.lay and click O K .
3
Working with maps
17
Fig. 14: The ’Attribute Edit’ dialog
Another dialog opens automatically (Fig. 14): within the ATTRIBUTE E DIT dialog the
names of the columns (the column headers of the text file) appear under Name, together
with a suggested format of the data under Type. For geographical latitude and longitude
this format is floating point numbers (Float), for city names the format is character string
(String), and the suggested format for Rank also is Float. You may alter this into the Integer-format, since we know that these data (the population rank in this file) only take integer
values. After confirming by clicking O K , the text file is converted to a layer. In Chapter 3.6.3, Defining Point Layer Layout further options will be described for the layout of
point layers.
3.4 Importing vectors
Importing vectors to layers is quite similar to importing point information from spreadsheet
type text files. However, the menu F ILE
I MPORT COURSE
is available for this (under MacOS: F ILE
I MPORT
S INGLE VECTOR DATA
). But when converting vector
files into a vector layer only pairs of geographical co-ordinates in the source file are recognized and processed. These co-ordinates form the way points for the line feature to be represented in the map. Additional columns or data are ignored when using the import-vectors
function of PanMap.
Select the menu F ILE
I MPORT COURSE
. Select your text file with the co-ordinates
for the line feature (e.g. a track, a profile or a ship course) and click O K . Now you enter
dialog. Type in a name for the newly generated layer and confirm
the S AVE F ILE AS
3
Working with maps
18
by clicking O K . The co-ordinates listed in the source file are connected on the map with a
line, exactly in the same order they are listed in the file.
The newly generated layer has to be merged into your map ( E DIT
E DIT M AP ). You
may also call this dialog by clicking the respective button in the toolbar. Within the Layer
Manager you can load the layer into your current map and define the layout and other
characteristics of this layer. These are line width and colour for PanMap vector layers. You
can find more information on this in Chapter 3.6 Defining topo layer layout.
3.5 Import of GF3-data (GEBCO)
For importing sets of vectors the function F ILE
C ONVERT GEBCO DATA
is available (under MacOS: F ILE
I MPORT
M ULTI VECTOR DATA
). The name of this
function is derived from the ASCII export format, which is used by GEBCO (General Bathymetric Chart Of the Oceans) for vector streams. This is an ASCII format, which designates
a single-line header record and an arbitrary number of following records or lines with pairs
of coordinates for each vector.
In the header two dates are stored:
1. A numeric code for the following vector, which can consist of up to 6 digits and
2. the number of records, which describe the respective vector.
Both are separated by a tabulator (char 9). The header is followed by pairs of coordinates.
The geographical latitude as floating point value, a tabulator, the geographical longitude
likewise as floating point value. Any series of vectors, which adhere to this format, can be
imported and converted into a PanMap layer6 .
C ONVERT GEBCO DATA
is particularly suitable for the
The PanMap function F ILE
import of homogeneous or similar vectors of different locations. Typical examples for this
type of vectors are topographic or bathymetric contours. In this case the code in the header
record of each vector would contain the e.g. ’meter above sea-level’ or the ’water depth’.
Select F ILE
C ONVERT GEBCO DATA
from the menubar to select an ASCII file
with the format described above. You are then prompted for a name of the newly created
layer, as with the conversion of tabular data into point layers. Type in the name and confirm by clicking O K . The dialog I MPORT TOPOLOGICAL DATA then follows to control
further processing of the source data. If the source file contains vectors with different codes
(designations), then a layer can be created for each of these vectors. Matching vectors will
be stored in the same layer and the resulting classes of layers may by represented or styled
differently on a map. This, for instance, is useful if you plan to use colour coded contours
in a map.
When importing vector data you can also reduce the resolution of the vector (meaning the
number of vertices), for example in order to quickly display highly resolved lines in smallscale maps.
6
For an example of the GF3-format see the appendix.
3
Working with maps
19
Fig. 15: The ’import topological data’ dialog
You have now become acquainted with one of the most important functions of PanMap:
importing of external data for further processing in maps. All data which you have prepared
this way, are now PanMap layers and may be combined with any map you generate. Depending on the nature of the data, point or vector information, the resulting layers are point
layer or topo layer, for which different layout and display options are available.
3.6 Designing maps
Due to the proceeding chapters you already know how to convert your own data into both
layer types (point and vector) and how to prepare the data for plotting within PanMap. The
organization of layers of a map and the characteristics and the appearance of the layers, are
controlled via the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog.
3.6.1 Add, replace and delete map layers
A map consists of one or more layers, that can be combined as required. A part from the
possibly defined default layer (chapter3.2, Defining a default layer) further layers must be
selected explicitly. This is done via the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog which can be called from
the menubar or by clicking the button in the toolbar.
On the left side of this dialog you find a list of already loaded layers. The default layer is
also listed there. In the upper right area of this dialog you find buttons for loading ( A DD ),
removal ( R EMOVE ), replacing ( R EPLACE ) and editing ( E DIT ) of layers.
Add a layer
To load a new layer, click the A DD button in order to call the S ELECT A LAYER dialog.
Open the directory, in which the desired layer is stored, highlight the appropriate entry
(file name) and click on O PEN . The layer is loaded and appears in the layer list. After
confirming with O K the new layer will be displayed in the current map. 7 .
7
Attention! Larger layers can take a bit longer to be displayed depending on the capacity of your computer.
3
Working with maps
20
Fig. 16: The ’Map Properties’ Dialog
Remove a layer
Select a layer from the layer list of the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog and click the R EMOVE
button. The layer is removed from the list and the current map is updated accordingly.
Replace a layer
Select a current layer in the list and click the R EPLACE button. Select a new layer from
the file select dialog as you did with loading a new layer, confirm with O K . The new layer
will replace the highlighted one in the layers list. With R EPLACE the graphical attributes
as defined for the layer to be replaced, are applied to the new layer.
3.6.2 Applying layer colours
For the colour coding and the selection of line width and legend entry of vector layers, you
click the E DIT button of the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog. You may define these characteristics for each layer individually or for a set of layers which are topologically related
(contours for instance) in one step. Open the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog and select a vector
layer. Click the E DIT button. You are prompted with the TOPO L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog and are ready to define legend entry, colour and line width for the vector layer (Fig. 17).
If you have several homogeneous vector layers in your map, you can also define a colour
gradation ( C OLOR RAMP ) for these layers. This is suitable for topographic contours.
Select a set of layers from the list in the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog holding the SHIFT
or CTRL key on the keybord down while clicking (highlighting) the layer entries, or by
3
Working with maps
21
Fig. 17: The ’Topo Layer Properties’ Dialog
Fig. 18: Creating a color ramp
keeping the mouse button pressed and dragging the mouse over the layer entries. Click
on the E DIT button. You can select colours for the first and the last layer by clicking
the buttons F IRST COLOR and L AST COLOR . Then click the corresponding select field,
choose a colour and confirm your choice with O K . The colour ramp will be assigned
automatically.
3
Working with maps
22
Fig. 19: The ’Point Layer Properties’ Dialog
3.6.3 Defining point layer layout
The representation of a point layer is likewise controlled by the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog.
Mark a point layer in the list and click the E DIT button. You receive the P OINT L AYER
P ROPERTIES dialog (Fig. 19).
This dialog provides three areas for the plotting and layout of point layers: L EGEND , S YMBOL , and L ABEL .
In the area L EGEND type the name of the layer, you
want to appear in the legend, into the text box. In the area
S YMBOL you can determine the graphical attributes of
the markers or symbols on the map.
S HAPE is an drop down menu where you can select
from different marker shapes. All marker shapes or types
can by applied to the layer as outlined or filled forms.
Under S IZE you can determine the size of the used
marker with values from 0 to 10. Either type the desired
value in the appropiate textbox or select from the scroll
list to apply the desired value.
Fig. 20: The shape of symbol dialog
Under C OLOR the colour of the marker is defined. The button S ELECT besides the colour
entry displays the current colour of the marker. Click the S ELECT button to define another
3
Working with maps
23
colour for the marker. You will obtain the dialog for selecting colours, specific to your
operating system.
3.6.4 Color mapping with point layers
PanMap also provides an extended function for the definition of colours for point markers.
The marker colours on the map can be defined according the values or data, belonging to
the respective sites.
You open the C OLORIZE TABLE – D EFINE A COLOR MAP dialog for point layers by clicking the C OLOR MAPPING button of the S YMBOL area (MacOS: M ARKER ) of the M AP
P ROPERTIES dialog. This dialog defines the graphical attributes of the point markers of
a layer as a function of associated values or data. With the example of the point layer for
Spanish cities, the size class information (Classes 1 to 6) will by used as criteria for the
colour of the markers. Each class will be represented on the map by a different colour.
Fig. 21: Color mapping with point layers
Within the upper area of the C OLORIZE TABLE – D EFINE A COLOR MAP dialog you find
a drop down menu where the point attributes of the layer are listed (Fig. 21). Select the
attribute which holds the data that will control the colour scheme for the markers from this
list. The data itself has to be in a numerical format. Under ATTRIBUTE the available
attributes of the currently selected point layer are listed. Generally, and also in our example,
the attributes Latitude, Longitude and Rank could be chosen for the colour coding of the
markers, as these attributes are numerical.
3
Working with maps
24
With this example you select the rank (Rang) as the attribute to be used for colour coding.
The idea is, that the city locations appear on the map in different colours depending on their
relative size (the rank value) on the map.
First select a BASE COLOR . This is the colour, with which all markers on the map are
represented, whose values lie outside the range of the colour ramp defined. This can for
instance be useful when importing data, where not all attribute fields are filled with values,
or not all of the cities have entries for the rank. Such cities will be displayed with an uniform
colour: the BASE COLOR .
Below the BASE COLOR button there is a text box and a colour selection button. You may
define certain size classes here (>=, meaning larger or equal) with different colour representation. For example, type in a value of 5, select a red tone and click A DD /C HANGE .
Now your definition will be part of the current colour map. Continue like this for the other
size classes. Type in 4, select a green colour tone, and click A DD /C HANGE . Repeat this
accordingly for the values of 3, 2 and 1 until the desired colour map is complete.
For continuous values, like here in the example from 1 to 6, you can also select the M AKE
RAMP -function. Click on the appropriate button on the right side of the dialog, and select
a starting colour and a final colour for the colour tone, for example gray and black (Fig. 22).
For the first value which will be covered by the ramp, type in the value 1 ( F IRST VALUE ),
for S TEP INCREMENT also type in 1, and for the last value ( L AST VALUE ) to be considered by the colour Ramp type in 6. By doing so, you required the entire scope of values of
the Rank attribute to be covered by the ramp. Now click O K , the ramp will be calculated
and transferred to the dialog C OLORIZE TABLE – D EFINE A COLOR MAP .
Fig. 22: Making color ramp for point layers
There is a variety of options for the definition of colours and colour maps applied to point
layers with numerical attributes. These options provide for specific and deliberately designed representations of point layers or a quick relation of values to colour codes for PanMap maps.
3
Working with maps
25
3.6.5 Defining topo layer layout
Topo layers are PanMap layers with line or vector information. In order to define the graphic
characteristics of a Topo layer, you open the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog as described for the
definition of Point layers properties, select a Topo layer from the list (here the river layer
from the tutorial) and click on E DIT .
In the TOPO L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog (Fig. 23) you write the entry for the legend
( L EGEND ), select a line width for the line on the map ( L INE W IDTH ), and a colour
( C OLOR ). Thus the characteristics of a Topo layer are defined.
Fig. 23: The ’Topo Layer Properties’ Dialog
3.6.6 Selecting projection and map center
So far you worked in the examples with the Mercator projection. PanMap however makes
further cartographic projections available:
Mercator
Kartesisch
Polar Stereografisch (North)
Polar Stereografisch (South)
Lambert
Mollweide
In this manual the different projections and their properties
will not be discussed. Definition of a geographical datum is
not possible in PanMap.
The selection of a projection is done within the M AP
P ROPERTIES dialog, which you call from the menubar
( E DIT
E DIT M AP ) or from the toolbar button. Select
a projection from the drop down menu P ROJECTION and
click O K . Your map now is drawn with the selected projection.
Fig. 24: The Projection Dialog
This projection remains as characteristic of your map even after saving and re-opening the
map. The selected map projection is also preserved, if you select another or a new map area
with the magnifying glass tool.
3
Working with maps
26
Apart from the projection you can also determine the central meridian of your map in the
M AP P ROPERTIES dialog. For this the function Map center is available (Fig. 25).
You can select values between 180 west and 180 east for
the central meridian with the slide rule at the lower area of
the M AP P ROPERTIES dialog (Steps of 10 with the arrows and steps of 1 by clicking on the gray block). The
value displayed is the central meridian of the projection.
Attention: Every time a new central meridian is selected the
map is re-drawn in the global view.
Fig. 25: Defining the map
center
3.6.7 Attributes and layout of a map
Most graphical attributes and layout characteristics of a map are bound to the layers used.
(see chapter 3.6.3, "Defining point layer layout" or chapter 3.6.5, "Defining topo layer layout"). With the M ISCELLANEOUS ATTRIBUTES dialog Fig. 26) you define the title of
the map, the layout of legend and scale bar and the graticule of the map. Select the menu
E DIT
C HANGE M AP ATTRIBUTES
from the menubar.
Fig. 26: The ’Miscellaneous Attribute’ Dialog
The M ISCELLANEOUS ATTRIBUTES dialog has three areas for the definition of the attributes of a map: H EADER , OTHER TEXT and N ET GRID . Under H EADER you find a
text box, into which you type a title for the map. Below that you find a drop down menu to
select font family and font size for the title.
3
Working with maps
27
Within the area OTHER TEXT you activate legend and scale bar for a map by clicking the
check boxes S HOW SCALE INFORMATION and S HOW LEGEND . Check marks appear in
the boxes indicating that the options have been activated. Below the control for legend and
scale you find menus for font family and font size for legend and scale.
In the N ET GRID area the attributes for the display of a graticule to the map are defined.
Under L ATITUDE SPACING and L ONGITUDE SPACING you find drop down menus to determine the distance between graticule lines in north/south and east/west direction. Different
gradations from 30 degrees to 0.001 seconds are available (Fig. 27). If you select the option
N ONE , no graticule lines are drawn for the longitude or latitude.
Fig. 27: Changing the distance between graticule lines
With L INE COLOR and L INE WIDTH you can select the respective graphical properties
for the graticule lines. The graticule is annotated at the boundary of the map. The properties
(font family and font scale) for the annotations follow the values of the OTHER TEXT menu.
3.6.8 Selecting scale and size of a map
The menu E DIT
C HANGE MAP SIZE
serves for the adjustment of the scale of a map.
It offers two options to determine the scale: by typing in the scale value into the text field,
or by clicking the F IT TO PAPER button.
When you type in the scale or change the value in the text field the physical size of the
map is adjusted directly under S IZE . You can vary the scale of the map to come up with
the desired size of the map. If you click the button F IT TO PAPER , the scale is adjusted
automatically to fill the paper size given by the PAGE LAYOUT dialog. This is also the
default when creating new maps ( F ILE
N EW ) or when starting PanMap.
4
Supplementing PanMap tools and functions
28
3.6.9 Defining the map area
In the tutorial and in the chapter on "Working with layers" you have already worked with
map areas. PanMap offers more than one option to determine the map area, meaning the
geographical boundaries of the map: the "magnifying glass" tool and the menu options
R ESTORE L AST S ECTION and S HOW W HOLE W ORLD under the E DIT menu. Under
MacOS you also have the option of entering fixed coordinates in the S ELECT A REA function of the layer manager.
Click the magnifying glass tool in the toolbar to determine the map area by clicking in the
map and pulling of the mouse keeping the mouse button pressed. The previous map area
can be restored by selecting E DIT R ESTORE L AST S ECTION . You can always go back
to the global view by clicking the button for the global view in the toolbar.
4
Supplementing PanMap tools and functions
4.1 Toolbar and status line on and off
Select the V IEW menu from the menubar. There you can switch on and off the
and the STATUS BAR . This function is not available under the MacOS.
TOOLBAR
4.2 Label and pop-up information
Data from a point layer can be made visible permanently on a map as annotations of the
E DIT M AP
markers. Open the P OINT L AYER P ROPERTIES dialog from the menu E DIT
or select the button from the toolbar and define a label. To achieve this select the appropriate
attribute from the drop down menu. Define a font family and a font size for the labels and
confirm your adjustments by clicking O K .
Data from an active point layer can also be retrieved in a map with the info pointer tool
(i). Click on a marker on your map with this tool activated. The attributes of this point are
displayed with their values in a pop-up field. If you click on a place on the map outside of
the point markers with this tool, only the geographical coordinates are displayed in decimal
degrees.
The relative position of the label in respect to it’s marker can be adjusted manually with the
direct selection tool. Select this tool from the toolbar and drag the label to the new position
by holding the mouse button down and moving the mouse pointer to the desired place.
4.3 Zoom
You may zoom a map in and out by way of three buttons of the toolbar. The first of these
buttons zooms the display of the map out, the second zooms in. If you select the third button
4
Supplementing PanMap tools and functions
29
the zoom factor is setback to 100%, e.g. the size of the map on the screen is almost exactly
the physical size of the map.
4.4 Operating on several maps in the same session
You can work with more than one map during a PanMap session. You can move a map to
the front or back (with respect to the other maps) by way of the W INDOW menu. You can
also choose from different window arrangements ( C ASCADE , T ILE , A RRANGE ). This
is not availble under MacOS.
4.5 Exporting maps
PanMap maps can be used as graphic files in other programs. In Windows you select the
C OPY entry from the E DIT menu (or CTRL-C). A copy of the map will by transferred
to the Windows Clipboard. This copy can be transferred by the PASTE function in the
Windows E DIT menu into an open document of a graphic program or word processor.
entry from the
With the Macintosh version of PanMap you select the E XPORT PICT
E DIT menu to save the map in a Macintosh specific graphic file format (PICT). The PICTgraphic has to be reduced to the required size.
A
File formats
A
30
File formats
A.1
Point data
For the generation of point layers, data from spreadsheet programs can be imported by
I MPORT S PREADSHEET
(MacOS: F ILE
I MPORT
selecting the menu F ILE
P OINT DATA
). These data records must be stored as text files (ASCII) in the following
format:
All values in one line are seperated by tabulators (char 9), lines are seperated by <cr>/<lf>.
The first column must always contain the value for the geographical latitude of the site in
decimal degrees. The second column holds the geographical longitude of the site in decimal
degrees.8 The file can have a leading header line with column designators, seperated by
tabulator.
Tab. 2: Format of a point data file
latitude
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
A.2
longitude
nnn.nnn
nnn.nnn
nnn.nnn
nnn.nnn
attr1
val11
val21
val31
val41
attr2
val12
val22
val32
val42
attr3
val13
val23
val33
val43
attr4
val14
val24
val34
val44
attr5
val15
val25
val35
val45
attr6
val16
val26
val36
val46
(
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
)
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
Line data
To import single vectors and convert them into topo layers, select F ILE
I MPORT C OURSE
(MacOS: F ILE
I MPORT
S INGLE VECTOR DATA ). The data format for suitable files
corresponds to the format above, however only the columns for latitude and longitude are
required. Attribute columns are not necessary, and – if present – are ignored.
A.3
GEBCO / GF3-Data
To import groups of lines or vectors, you select F ILE
(MacOS: I MPORT
M ULTI VECTOR DATA
).
C ONVERT GEBCO
DATA
Suitable files are text files (ASCII) in which each vector is described by a header record and
following records of vertices. The header record for each vector comprises of a numerical
code with up to six digits, a tabulator and the number of vertices for the vector to follow.
Then n records with decimal degree values for the geographical latitude and the geographical
longitude of the vertices, separated by a tabulator. The number of vectors in the file is not
limited, likewise the number of vertices per vector.
8
Conversion of other Latitude/Longitude formats can be made with PanTool. PanTool is available under
http://www.pangaea.de/Software.
A
File formats
31
Tab. 3: Example of the GEBCO GF3 format
1000
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
1500
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
2000
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
4
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
3
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
7
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
nn.nnn
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
<cr><lf>
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