HP | Capio 325 | User manual | HP Capio 325 User manual

Neoware Image Manager 4.6
USER MANUAL
© 2007 by Neoware, Inc.
3200 Horizon Drive,
King of Prussia, PA 19406 USA
Tel.: +1-610-277-8300
Fax: +1-610-771-4200
Email: info@neoware.com
Web: http://www.neoware.com
This manual is copyrighted by Neoware, Inc. All rights are reserved. This document may not, in
whole or in part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or reduced to any electronic
medium or machine-readable form without prior consent, in writing, from Neoware, Inc.
Neoware, Neoware Image Manager, Neoware UbiBoot, Eon, Capio, ThinSTAR, TeemTalk and
ezRemote Manager are trademarks or registered trademarks of Neoware, Inc. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MetaFrame, WinFrame, and ICA are registered trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. Other trademarks used in this manual are the property of
their respective owners.
Disclaimer: The information provided in this manual is intended for instructional purposes only
and is subject to change without notice. Neoware, Inc. accepts no responsibility or liability for
errors, omissions, or misleading information that may be contained in this manual.
November 2007
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction 1
What is Neoware Image Manager?
About This Manual 2
Conventions 2
Overview of Contents 3
CHAPTER 2
1
Overview of Neoware Image Manager 7
Software Suite Components 7
How Neoware Image Manager Works 8
Neoware Image Manager Boot Process 9
Adding a New Desktop & Upgrading Hardware 11
Client Writing Modes 12
Normal Mode 12
Volatile Mode 12
Persistent Mode 13
Administrator Mode 13
High Availability & Fast System Recovery 13
Stateless NVD Protocol 13
Replacing Servers 13
Servers List 14
iii
Table of Contents
Using a Cluster of Servers 14
Technical Notes 14
Neoware Image Manager Licenses 15
Server Licenses 16
Client Package Licenses 16
Licenses Explained 16
Evaluation Version 17
CHAPTER 3
Installing Image Manager Components 19
System Requirements 19
Client Requirements 19
Server Requirements 20
Network Requirements 22
Installation Summary 23
Running the InstallShield Wizard 24
Image Manager Server Configuration 32
Disk Storage Required on Server 32
File Locations on the Server 32
Uninstalling Neoware Image Manager 35
Uninstall Procedure 35
Undoing Client Builder Changes on an HDD-based
Configuration 38
CHAPTER 4
Creating a Client Image 39
Introduction 39
Using Client Builder 40
Testing the Image 54
Advanced Client Builder Options 55
CHAPTER 5
Enabling Clients to Access Images 59
TFTP & DHCP Server Configuration
Windows 59
Linux/FreeBSD 60
Testing the TFTP Service 60
iv
59
Table of Contents
DHCP Server Configuration
Client Configuration 62
Troubleshooting 63
CHAPTER 6
61
Assigning Volumes to Clients 65
Introduction 65
Running the Image Manager Console 65
Adding New Clients 67
Adding a New Group 68
Assigning a Volume to a Group 69
Creating or Modifying a Volume 70
Adding a Volume from Another Configuration File 73
Changing a Volume’s Write Mode 75
Modifying a Configuration File Currently Running 75
CHAPTER 7
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes 79
The Image Configuration File 79
Client Volume Overlay Files 80
Location of CVol Files 81
Maximum Size of CVol Files 81
Volume Write Modes 82
Admin Mode 83
CVolwrite Mode 83
Normal Mode 83
Volatile Mode 84
Persistent Mode 84
CHAPTER 8
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image 87
Overview 87
Before Using the UbiBoot Extractor & UbiBoot Inserter
Tools 89
Extracting Boot Device Details 90
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image 95
Testing the Image 101
v
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 9
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or
TC 103
What is Neoware UbiBoot? 103
Installing Neoware UbiBoot 104
Potential Incompatibilities 105
Running Neoware UbiBoot 106
Using a UbiBoot Enabled Hard Disk 110
Learn to Use Unknown Hardware 110
Master HD for Building Images 110
Detecting New Hardware 111
Updating or Removing Drivers for Off-line
Devices 112
Additional Uses for Neoware UbiBoot 113
Creating a Windows Installation that can Run
Unknown Hardware 113
Creating a Windows Installation that can Run
Heterogeneous Hardware 113
HAL Considerations 113
Mixing ACPI & Non-ACPI Computers 115
Mixing Unicore & Multicore (or multi-CPUs)
Computers 115
HAL Selection 115
Choosing a Specific HAL at Windows Installation
115
Downgrading HAL After Windows Installation 116
Recommended HAL 117
HAL Related Resources 117
Windows Product Activation 118
UbiBoot & Microsoft SysPrep 118
UbiBoot Expiry Date 119
Troubleshooting 119
CHAPTER 10
Managing Local Hard Disk Access 123
Introduction 123
Using the Local HD Manager
vi
123
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 11
Windows Product Activation 127
Introduction 127
Product Activation Procedure
CHAPTER 12
128
Windows User Profiles 131
Domain Roaming Profiles 131
"Local" Roaming Profiles 132
Folders Redirection 134
CHAPTER 13
Adding Clients & New Software 135
Adding a New Client 135
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several
Clients 136
Using Admin Mode 136
Using the CVolMerge Tool 137
Managing & Updating Images Located at Multiple Remote
Sites 141
Restoring a Virtual Volume to an Actual Hard Disk 144
CHAPTER 14
Adding Clients to Windows Domains 147
Introduction 147
How the Neoware Domain Wizard Works 147
Repository for Domain Credentials 148
Repository in a Server Directory 148
Repository in the System Partition 148
Repository in a Non-System Partition 149
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server
Directory 151
Windows XP Professional Clients 151
Windows 2000 Professional Clients 159
Client Names 159
Adding a New Client to the Domain 159
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
Client IP Addresses 168
162
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Table of Contents
Adding a New Client to the Domain 168
Do I Need to Reboot? 169
Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
Client Names 174
Adding a New Client to the Domain 174
CHAPTER 15
Merging Image & CVol Files 177
Introduction 177
Using the CVolCompactor Tool 178
Using the CVolMerge Tool 178
CHAPTER 16
The Image Manager Console 181
Introduction 181
Running the Image Manager Console 181
The Toolbar 183
The File Menu 184
The Edit Menu 184
The Tools Menu 185
The View Menu 186
The Help Menu 186
Displaying & Changing Properties 186
Client Properties 187
Group Properties 191
Volume Properties 192
Creating a Volume 193
The General Tab 193
The Parameters Tab 195
The CVol Tab 196
The Computers tab 197
The Allowed Computers Tab 198
Generic Options 199
The General Tab 199
The Directories Tab 201
The Executable Paths Tab 203
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Table of Contents
The Network Tab 205
The Authorized Subnets Tab 206
The Nvdd Manager 207
Merging Configuration Files 209
Password for Remote Administration 210
CHAPTER 17
The NVDD Configuration File 213
Introduction 213
The nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf File 214
Configuration File Settings 217
IP Addresses & Port Numbers 217
Timing 218
Directory for Client Volumes 218
Directories for File Transfer 219
Directory for Binaries 219
Certificate File 221
Maximum Size of CVol Files 221
Computer Name Change Default 222
Flush Disk Buffers on Write 222
Number of Processing Units 223
Buffer Size 223
User Definitions 223
Client MAC Address 224
Computer Name Change 225
Volume Definitions 225
Volume ID & Name 225
Volume Geometry 226
Volume Type 226
Volume Integrity 227
Volume Write Mode 227
Directory for CVol Files 230
Cache Size 230
Allowed Clients 231
Group Definitions 231
ix
Table of Contents
Client Naming 233
Setting Client Name using NVD Protocol 233
Updating Client Name from Client 234
Enabling Client MultiBoot 235
Example nvdd.conf with Multi-Volume Support 238
CHAPTER 18
NVDD Server Administration 241
Introduction 241
Secured NVDAdmin Protocol 242
The NVDDAdmin Tool 242
NVDDAdmin Command Syntax 242
Command Examples 243
NVDDAdmin Commands 243
Considerations Related to File Operations 243
Considerations Related to put & get
Commands 243
Conventions 244
Command Descriptions 244
CHAPTER 19
The mPXELdr Configuration File 251
Introduction 251
Contents & Syntax 253
Example mPXELdr .ini File 255
Keywords 256
The Include Keyword 256
The NVDServers Keyword 258
The BootMode Keyword 260
The VolSelectionTO Keyword 265
The PreBootPause Keyword 266
The ReQueryDHCP-Options Keyword
The NICRxTxQs Keyword 268
CHAPTER 20
Neoware Active Cloner 271
Introduction
x
271
267
Table of Contents
Cloning a Partition 272
Example Cloning Procedures 273
Cloning Directly to an Attached Hard Disk 273
Cloning to a Network Shared Hard Disk 274
Cloning to Another Image Manager Virtual Hard
Disk 275
Expert Options 276
Disable Options 276
Boot Options 277
Command Line Options 277
Error Messages 279
Could Not Copy a File 279
Client-Specific Settings on the Target System 279
CHAPTER 21
Virtualized Environments 281
VMWare Environment 281
Introduction 281
Streaming Disk Images to Virtual Machines 281
Provisioning VMs with Image Manager 284
Running Image Manager Server in a VM 284
Using Private Networks 284
Using Public & Private Networks 284
Performance & Storage Optimization 286
Image Consolidation 286
Limitations 286
Microsoft VirtualPC Virtual Server Environments 287
Enabling Network Boot 287
Other Virtualized Environments 288
APPENDIX A
Upgrading Image Manager 289
Important 289
Upgrading from Previous Versions of Neoware Image
Manager 4 289
Order of Upgrading Operations 289
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Table of Contents
Troubleshooting
APPENDIX B
291
The TFTPD Installer 293
Introduction 293
Using the TFTPD Installer 294
Managing the TFTPD Service 295
APPENDIX C
Configuring the DHCP Server 297
Introduction 297
Before Installing DHCP Server
Configuring the Server 298
Configuring DHCP 301
DHCP Reservations 312
Related Resources 315
APPENDIX D
297
DHCP Reference 317
How Clients Locate the Image Manager Server
dhcpd.conf File Example 318
Native DHCP Options 319
Optional Subkeys & Values 322
Examples 324
NetBIOS Name for Clients 326
Windows DHCP Client 327
APPENDIX E
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service 329
Introduction 329
Installation Procedure 329
Using NVDD as a Service 333
Configuring NVDD Service Options
Uninstalling the Service 335
Changing Service Settings 335
xii
317
333
Table of Contents
APPENDIX F
NVDD Reference 337
Introduction 337
Command Syntax 337
Verbose Mode 337
Port Number 338
Configuration File 338
Log File 338
No Lock File Check 338
APPENDIX G
NVD.SYS Reference 341
Introduction 341
Parameters 341
IP Address 341
APPENDIX H
File Transfer 345
Introduction 345
Root Folder for File Transfers
APPENDIX I
345
NVDD Temporary Files 347
The NVDD Configuration File 347
The nvdd.conf.LOCK File 348
USER_REP Files 348
How to Retrieve Restored Files 349
APPENDIX J
Boot Process Comparison 351
APPENDIX K
Troubleshooting 355
Technical Support 355
Check Versions 355
PXE 356
PXE Implementations 356
Etherboot 357
PXE Error File Not Found 357
xiii
Table of Contents
Issues 357
Network Adapters 358
VIA Rhine Family 358
Servers with Several Network Adapters 359
Volumes 359
Multi-Volume Windows 2000 Clients 359
ACPI 360
Stand By & Hibernation 360
Shutdown & Reboot 360
NVD.SYS Shutdown Delay 360
Windows 2000 Without the Latest Service
Pack 361
Startup 361
Clients Using Intel i810 Chipset Under Windows
2000 361
Inaccessible Boot Device 361
Boot Process Stuck 362
Global Performances 362
Single Client Running Slowly 362
Number of Sectors Per Read/Write Request 362
Network Facilities 363
Global Connectivity 363
1000BT/100BT Ethernet Switches 363
Operations on Virtual Volumes 364
Delayed Write Failed or Disk Full Error in Client
OS 364
Delayed Write Failed Warnings 365
Large File Support on Linux 2.2 368
Error When Opening a Large Volume 368
Computer SIDs 368
Limitations 369
Data Transfer During Single Client Boot-up 369
Maximum Clients Attached to a Single Server 369
Clients Booting Same Images on Several
Servers 371
xiv
Table of Contents
Maximum Number of Applications Run from an
Image 371
Recommended Network Configuration 372
APPENDIX L
Copyright Notices & License Terms 375
Patents 375
Third Parties Copyrights 375
Software Copyrighted by Aladdin Enterprises 375
Software Copyrighted by Paul Kocher 376
Software Copyrighted by Brian Gladman 376
Software Copyrighted by Lukas Gebauer 377
Software Copyrighted by Jordan Russell 379
Index 381
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Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
This chapter introduces Neoware Image Manager and describes
the scope of this User Manual.
What is Neoware Image Manager?
Neoware Image Manager delivers operating systems and applications on-demand from your server to PCs or thin clients. The server
is used as a virtual disk drive, so clients do not require a hard disk
or flash memory. All application processing is done by the client.
A single software image containing the operating system, application and hardware drivers for multiple hardware platforms can be
streamed on-demand to any PC or thin client - regardless of the
device’s hardware configuration. PC and thin client users keep
their personal configurations and settings, and their data remains
unique and secure on the server.
Using Neoware Image Manager you can easily manage multiple
images from a graphical interface representing client desktops,
groups of desktops and their related hard disk images (volumes).
You centrally manage images and define each client’s virtual
drives in just a few mouse clicks.
• Changes are made to a single image on the server.
• Applications can be deployed instantly.
• Images can be swapped in and out quickly.
• Desktops can be re-purposed just by rebooting.
• Software failure gets repaired by a simple reboot.
1
Introduction
You can think of Neoware Image Manager as a network storage
product (a SAN product) that makes it possible to boot several
clients off a single virtual drive hosted on the server.
About This Manual
This manual describes how to install and use Neoware Image Manager version 4.6. It assumes that you are familiar with Windows and
server operating system administration, as well as DHCP/BOOTP
and TFTP server configuration.
Conventions
The following names may be abbreviated within the text of this
manual:
Neoware Image Manager
may be abbreviated to "Image Manager".
Neoware Image Manager Server may be abbreviated to "Image
Manager server" or "NVDD server".
Neoware Image Manager Console may be abbreviated to "Image
Manager Console" or just "the Console".
Neoware UbiBoot
may be abbreviated to "UbiBoot".
Neoware Image Manager Client Builder may
be abbreviated to
"Client Builder".
Neoware Active Cloner
may be abbreviated to "Active Cloner".
The following abbreviations are also used:
"HD"
for Hard Disk.
"HDD" for Hard Disk Drive.
"TC"
2
About This Manual
for Thin Client.
Introduction
Overview of
Contents
This manual is divided into the following chapters and appendices:
Chapter 1:
Introduction
Introduces Neoware Image Manager and describes the
scope of this User Manual.
Chapter 2:
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Provides a brief description of how Neoware Image
Manager works.
Chapter 3:
Installing Image Manager Components
Describes how to install Neoware Image Manager
components on the server and client computers.
Chapter 4:
Creating a Client Image
Describes how to use Client Builder to create a client
image on the Image Manager server.
Chapter 5:
Enabling Clients to Access Images
Describes how to configure the network and clients so
that hard disk images can be accessed.
Chapter 6:
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
assign volumes to clients.
Chapter 7:
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
Describes the image configuration file settings that
determine how clients can use images and volumes.
Chapter 8:
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Describes how to add bootable network card details to
an image so it can be remote booted on different
machines.
Chapter 9:
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot Any PC or TC
Describes how to use Neoware UbiBoot to build a virtual hard disk that can boot a range of PC and TC hardware configurations.
About This Manual
3
Introduction
Chapter 10: Managing Local Hard Disk Access
Describes how to enable or disable client access to
local hard disks.
Chapter 11: Windows Product Activation
Describes how to activate Windows products for Image
Manager clients.
Chapter 12: Windows User Profiles
Describes how to configure your Neoware Image
Manager system so that clients can use Windows user
profiles.
Chapter 13: Adding Clients & New Software
Describes how to add a new client, add new software,
and restore a virtual hard disk volume to an actual hard
disk.
Chapter 14: Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Describes how to add Neoware Image Manager clients
to a Windows domain using the Neoware Domain
Wizard.
Chapter 15: Merging Image & CVol Files
Describes how to use the CVolMerge tool to create a
new hard disk image from an existing image and a
CVol file.
Chapter 16: The Image Manager Console
Describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
change settings in an nvdd configuration file.
Chapter 17: The NVDD Configuration File
Describes the nvdd configuration file and the settings
that can be specified in it.
Chapter 18: NVDD Server Administration
Describes the NVDDAdmin tool and NVDAdmin
protocol commands for administering a remote NVDD
server.
4
About This Manual
Introduction
Chapter 19: The mPXELdr Configuration File
Describes the mPXELdr configuration file and the
settings that can be specified in it.
Chapter 20: Neoware Active Cloner
Describes how to use Neoware Active Cloner to clone
the current system partition to another partition.
Chapter 21: Virtualized Environments
Describes how to use Neoware Image Manager with
virtual machines, which can run Image Manager clients
or server.
Appendix A: Upgrading Image Manager
Describes how to upgrade from earlier versions of
Neoware Image Manager.
Appendix B: The TFTPD Installer
Describes how to use the TFTPD Installer to configure
Windows 2000/2003/XP TFTP Server for Image
Manager clients.
Appendix C: Configuring the DHCP Server
Describes how to configure the Windows 2000/2003
DHCP server.
Appendix D: DHCP Reference
Describes how clients locate the Neoware Image
Manager server, and the DHCP options used.
Appendix E: Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
Describes how to configure the Image Manager server
as a Windows service.
Appendix F: NVDD Reference
Describes the command line options that can be used
when launching the nvdd server module.
Appendix G: NVD.SYS Reference
Describes the parameters that can be set in the registry
entry for the nvd.sys driver.
About This Manual
5
Introduction
Appendix H: File Transfer
Describes issues relating to the file transfer capabilities
of Image Manager.
Appendix I: NVDD Temporary Files
Describes issues relating to temporary files created by
the nvdd process.
Appendix J: Boot Process Comparison
Provides a side-by-side comparison between a HDDbased boot process and the Neoware Image Manager
based boot process.
Appendix K: Troubleshooting
Provides help on how to overcome problems when
using Neoware Image Manager with various systems.
Appendix L: Copyright Notices & License Terms
Provides the copyright notices and license terms for
software embedded in Neoware Image Manager components.
6
About This Manual
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 2
Overview of Neoware
Image Manager
This chapter provides a brief description of how Neoware Image
Manager works.
Software Suite Components
Neoware Image Manager consists of the following main components:
• Neoware Image Manager Server - Allows the remote boot and
central management of Windows 2000, XP, XP Embedded, XP
Home, XP Pro desktops (diskless PCs or flashless thin clients)
from Windows/Linux/FreeBSD servers.
• Neoware Image Manager Client Builder - Enables you to create
a virtual disk off an existing hard disk drive.
• Neoware Image Manager Console - Allows easy configuration
of hard disk drive image servers and allocates configurations
and operating modes in a few mouse clicks.
• Neoware UbiBoot - Enables a single hard disk drive image to be
built that can be used across a wide variety of desktop hardware
configurations.
• Neoware Active Cloner - A partition duplicator that works on a
file by file basis and enables differential cloning and duplication
of the current system partition to another partition while Windows is working. The Active Cloner enables very fast back-up
operations and allows for optimized image update processes
when used with Neoware UbiBoot.
7
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
How Neoware Image Manager Works
Neoware Image Manager enables you to quickly build and distribute
virtual hard disk images (volumes) to diskless PCs and clients. The
procedure is very straightforward and can be summarized as follows.
First of all you would install then run Neoware Image Manager
Server on a server, then, on another PC (a "client" PC), install and
run Client Builder on a hard disk containing the required Windows
operating system and software configuration. Client Builder will
create an image of the hard disk on the server. The hard disk image
can be hosted on virtually any type of server, which acts as a virtual
hard disk drive. There is no increase in the number of processors
required because all application processing is done at the client
desktop, not by the server.
Neoware Image Manager client desktops are then configured to use
PXE-based remote boot to find the operating system, hardware drivers and applications they need to load from the Image Manager
server, instead of loading them from their local hard drive or flash
memory. When you turn on the PC or thin client you will immediately receive a complete pre-installed configuration.
The Client Builder will generate a configuration file associated with
the hard disk image. This enables you to specify which clients can
use the image and how they can use it. The settings in the configuration file can be modified using the Neoware Image Manager Console, which provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface.
An example of an Image Manager server setup in a retail organization would be as follows. Each store would have a local Image Manager server providing hard disk images to all the clients in that store.
The Head Office would have a server running the Neoware Image
Manager Console which would provide central control over the hard
disk images being used at each store.
Client desktops can run with different modes of operation, allowing
or preventing changes to the desktop by users, while also sharing the
same image on the server. For example, in Volatile mode, users will
8
How Neoware Image Manager Works
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
always boot from the originally defined configuration. User profiles
(desktop, shortcuts, favourites, bookmarks, application settings, etc.)
may be stored on a remote server and presented according to which
user logs into the desktop device. This enables user personalization
based on Windows User Profiles while desktops are not dedicated to
any one user. However, running desktops in Normal mode allows
users to individually configure them, enabling basic per-client product activation and license management.
Neoware Image Manager Boot Process
When it boots, a Neoware Image Manager client performs several
steps that are very similar to the HDD boot process. The first steps of
the boot process, usually devoted to BIOS and BIOS-based mechanisms, also exist in Neoware Image Manager.
The Network Boot Program named mPXELdr.BIN (supplied with
Neoware Image Manager), is the first component to be involved in
Neoware Image Manager clients boot process. It acts as a BIOS
extension and provides a BIOS-based interface for the first step of
the boot process (the step that experts call int13h based or “real
mode” portion of the boot process).
At first, mPXELdr.BIN is downloaded into the client memory using
the PXE boot prom capabilities. mPXELdr.BIN is then executed. It
sets the BIOS extensions (int13h redirector in particular) so that read
and write operations of disk drives that are usually BIOS-based can
be processed by mPXELdr if the drive is a virtual disk drive. mPXELdr translates these BIOS based disk operations into the corresponding Neoware Virtual Disk (NVD) operations.
NVD is the name of the protocol and technology that enables
Neoware Image Manager to share virtual drives with several clients.
mPXELdr sends NVD operations as NVD packets, on the Local
Area Network, to a server that processes them. The server is a program named nvdd (Neoware Virtual Disk Daemon) that runs on a
remote host.
Neoware Image Manager Boot Process
9
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
mPXELdr sends an “init” packet to the server to retrieve information
about the bootable virtual drives available to the client that runs
mPXELdr. If several bootable virtual drives are available, mPXELdr
displays a boot menu. The users can then choose the drive to be used
as the system (boot) drive.
mPXELdr then loads and runs the MBR (Master Boot Record) of the
virtual system drive, just as the BIOS loads and runs the MBR of an
actual HDD. The boot process then goes on normally (with all the
int13h based read/write operations being handled by mPXELdr and
nvdd); MBR locates the active partition, loads and runs the Boot
Sector, which loads NTLDR.
NTLDR is Windows 2000/XP/2003 OS loader. It does a lot of
things, but in particular, it initializes Windows kernel, then loads and
runs the boot device drivers. During a Neoware Image Manager
client boot process, NTLDR loads and runs BDruPD.SYS, NVD.SYS
and DSKIMG.SYS, which are the Neoware Image Manager core client
drivers. These drivers create a pseudo device that Windows
considers as a disk drive. The operations on this pseudo device,
especially read and write operations, are translated into NVD
requests to read or write data on the virtual drive served by nvdd.
These requests are processed by nvdd. Windows can then use the
Neoware Image Manager virtual system disk drive to finish the
loading and execution of the rest of the operating system, just as it
does when booted off an actual HDD.
For a comparison between the HDD based boot process and the
Neoware Image Manager based boot process, refer to the appendix
“Boot Process Comparison” on page 351.
10
Neoware Image Manager Boot Process
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Adding a New Desktop & Upgrading Hardware
Neoware Image Manager provides a set of UbiBoot utilities that can
enable you to modify a hard disk image so that it is able to serve a
range of desktops (PCs and thin clients) with heterogeneous hardware configurations. The UbiBoot utilities are used whenever you
want to add a new desktop or upgrade hardware. Note that it is not
always possible to create a single image that will be usable with all
your hardware and associated features. For example, you cannot create an image that will boot both mono-core and dual-core processor
clients that will use the two cores of the dual-core clients.
The administrator has two choices when building an image that can
support heterogeneous hardware:
1
Boot the new desktop you want to support on a local device
(HDD for instance) using the same OS version as the one in the
virtual disk image (e.g. Windows XP Professional with Service
Pack 2). Launch UbiBoot Extractor on the new desktop. This
will create a file that contains "boot details" about the new desktop to support. This file is then given to UbiBoot Inserter which
is running on a Neoware Image Manager client booted off the
disk image you want to modify. UbiBoot Inserter modifies the
existing virtual disk image so that it can be used to boot the new
desktop type. The new desktop can then be booted off the image
and Windows will be able to detect the unknown hardware.
2
Launch Neoware UbiBoot on a client actually booted off an
Image Manager virtual drive to enhance it (this will enable the
operating system on this virtual drive to boot unknown hardware
when booted off an actual hard disk drive). Use Neoware Active
Cloner to transfer the hard disk image to an actual hard disk and
make it boot on the new hardware. The hard disk learns to recognize the new hardware configuration, then the administrator
only has to rebuild the image on the server using Client Builder.
Note that Neoware UbiBoot needs to be launched each time just
prior to connecting the hard disk to each new hardware configuration.
Adding a New Desktop & Upgrading Hardware
11
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Client Writing Modes
Image Manager allows administrators to customize how clients
write data to virtual volumes. The main writing modes are described
below. Refer to the chapter “Controlling the Use of Images &
Volumes” on page 79 for a complete description of all the modes
available.
Normal Mode
Normal mode enables a client user to install applications and make
system changes without modifying the original hard disk image file.
Any changes made by the user are written to a write cache file called
a CVol (Client Volume OverLay) file on the server. This enables
clients to have different configurations while sharing the same hard
disk image file.
This mode saves significant time when administrators want to
provide users with a configuration defined on a ’per desktop’ basis
in a simple way, or when users require complete control of their
desktops. Restoring a clean installation for a specific client is just a
matter of deleting the write cache file on the server.
Note: If the common hard disk image file is modified, all per-client
customizations will be discarded.
Volatile Mode
Volatile mode enables clients to use exactly the same volume configuration after every reboot. Anything written to the volume by the
client will be lost when rebooted. One of the advantages of this
mode is that clients boot up from the server very quickly.
You can use Windows User Profiles (desktop, shortcuts, favourites,
bookmarks, application settings, etc.) in Volatile mode. User Profiles are stored on a server and copied to the client volumes at logon
time.
12
Client Writing Modes
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Persistent Mode
Persistent mode is similar to Volatile mode except it enables you to
retain some customization of the volume for each client, separate
from the hard disk image. For example, to retain Windows XP activation data customized for each computer.
Note: Persistent mode uses the same CVol files as in Normal mode,
so if the common hard disk image file is modified, all per-client
customizations will be discarded.
Administrator Mode Administrator mode is usually reserved for administrators so that
they can deploy applications and make system changes to the configuration. All modifications are performed and saved on the actual
hard disk image. This mode can also be used for all stations at the
same time if each station has its own private volume on the server,
making it a very private mode.
High Availability & Fast System Recovery
Stateless NVD
Protocol
The NVD (Neoware Virtual Disk) protocol used by the Neoware
Image Manager client and server to access virtual drives is completely stateless. This means that even if the network connection
fails between the client and the server, operation will resume
smoothly as soon as the network connection is re-established.
You can reboot the Image Manager server while clients are still running. Of course, during the time Neoware Image Manager is not running the clients will not be able to access their virtual drives and thus
they will not be able to do much. But as soon as the server is up and
running, the clients will be able to work again.
Replacing Servers
Neoware Image Manager clients know the server they have to contact by using that server’s IP address. This means you can replace a
server with another one as long as the new server has the same IP
address and the files required by the clients (volume image file and
CVol files) are accessible to the new server (if they are stored on
Network Storage for instance).
High Availability & Fast System Recovery
13
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Servers List
Neoware Image Manager clients use an initialization file that the
Image Manager boot loader loads and interprets to determine the
server to contact from a list of servers. Neoware Image Manager clients can also use a specific DHCP option (DHCP Option 132) to
determine the server to contact from a list of servers.
Neoware Image Manager boot loader builds a list of the servers to
contact from the initialization file and from DHCP Option 132. If the
first server in this list does not answer, the client tries to contact the
next server in the list, and so forth. If the client reaches the last
server in its list and this server does not answer, it then tries the first
server again.
You can use Servers List and license files to achieve a form of loadbalancing. A server that has reached the maximum number of clients
it can serve will refuse to serve a new client. Then a client that tries
to boot off that server will fail and will try the next server. By tuning various different initialization files and/or DHCP options 132
and the license file for each server, you can balance the number of
clients that connects to each server in your network.
Using a Cluster of
Servers
Using a cluster of servers that are exposed to the outside world as a
single IP address is a very good way to add fast recovery and high
availability capabilities to the servers.
Technical Notes
• If a network cable is unplugged the session will not crash or
’blue-screen’. The desktop will wait for the network to return.
• If the server fails, the client waits for the server to reboot. No
data will be lost as long as the user does not shut down the client
and the files on the server (especially CVol files) are free from
error loss.
• Neoware Image Manager provides support for various storage
options. Hard disk images can be stored on IDE, SCSI, iSCSI,
SAN, NAS, RAID, SATA, etc.
14
Technical Notes
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
• There is no theoretical limitation to the number of clients that can
be connected to a single Neoware Image Manager server, as long
as there are enough bandwidth and hard disk resources on the
network and server to fulfill all the client requests in an acceptable time.
• Neoware Image Manager has little effect on memory or perfor-
mance requirements of software applications running on the clients. The number of applications that can be run at the same time
on the same client depends on the client CPU and available memory.
Neoware Image Manager Licenses
Neoware Image Manager license files are used for the server module
to determine how many clients it can serve and the expiration date of
the system if any. Each license file also embeds the servers’ MAC
addresses that are activated so that each license file is usable by only
one set of servers.
Please note that you cannot change the server MAC address programmatically (in drivers, NIC EEPROM etc.). If you do so, the
Neoware Image Manager system will fail to function properly. You
cannot legally use the Neoware Image Manager system with a server
where the MAC address has been changed or spoofed (in drivers,
NIC EEPROM etc.)
There are two types of license files: Server License and Client Package License. All license files must be located in the same directory
where the server module (nvdd.exe or nvdd) is located. The total
number of clients that can be served by a single server is the sum of
all the number of clients embedded in the license files.
License files are available when you purchase the Neoware Image
Manager system or when you order an evaluation copy.
Neoware Image Manager Licenses
15
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Server Licenses
A Server License file is required. There can be only one server
license file and the server license file must be named lanpcsrv.lic.
Server license files contain the number of clients and the expiration
date(s).
Client Package
Licenses
Client Package License files are optional. There can be up to 99 Client Package License files. Client Package License files must be
named lanpccltNN.lic (where NN is a number between 01 and 99).
Each Client Package License file contains a number of additional
clients.
Note: You may need to rename the Client Package License files in
order for them to comply with the lanpccltNN.lic names.
If you received several Server License files for the same server
MAC address, you can rename one of the Server License files to
lanpccltNN.lic to make it a Client Package License file. This will
allow the server to use the sum of the number of licenses in each
Server License file. On the other hand, if you rename the original
Client Package License file to lanpcsrv.lic, it will not function as
a Server License file.
Licenses Explained
Assume that you have three license files:
lanpcsrv.lic
is a Server License file for 10 clients.
lanpcclt01.lic
is a Clients Package License file for 20 clients.
lanpcclt04.lic
is a Clients Package License file for 5 clients.
The server can then serve 10 + 20 + 5 = 35 clients.
Please note that if the Server License file embeds an expiration date,
the server will cease to function after this date is reached.
16
Neoware Image Manager Licenses
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
Evaluation Version
If you use an evaluation version of Neoware Image Manager, there
are some limitations with the product.
• It is limited to a certain date. The expiration date is displayed in
Neoware Image Manager Server logs when the server module
starts. The evaluation product cannot be used legally after this
date without Neoware’s written consent.
• It is limited to a certain maximum number of client computers.
The maximum number of clients computers is displayed in
Neoware Image Manager Server logs when the server module
starts. The evaluation product cannot be used legally with more
clients than the maximum number of clients.
• It is limited to the default settings, specifically in terms of net-
work settings and system settings. If available, Neoware technical support (for evaluation versions of the product) is limited to a
product using the default settings.
Evaluation Version
17
Overview of Neoware Image Manager
18
Evaluation Version
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 3
Installing Image
Manager Components
This chapter describes how to install Neoware Image Manager
components on the server and client computers.
System Requirements
Client Requirements
• PXE 2.x enabled.
• Any CPU supported by the operating system to be downloaded
from the Neoware Image Manager server.
• Main memory: 128 MB minimum, 256+ MB recommended.
• Network card (100 Mb/s recommended).
In order to successfully install Neoware Image Manager, you will
need at least one client workstation with PXE 2.x capabilities that
will be used to create a hard disk or "flash disk" image. This client
station must have Windows XP, XPe or Windows 2000 properly
installed and configured on a regular hard disk drive, and all the
required software applications. It is recommended that the latest
service packs, patches, updates and hotfixes are applied to the operating system.
The system partition size (the partition where Windows OS is
installed) must be smaller than 2 terabytes. The system partition
will be used to build a hard disk image file that will be stored on
the Image Manager server. You must be sure that the file system
used on the server can handle files the same size as the partition.
For instance, if your hard disk image file is created on a FAT32
19
Installing Image Manager Components
partition on the server, the partition size cannot be larger than 4 GB
because FAT32 does not support files larger than 4 GB. Listed
below are the typical maximum file sizes for common file systems.
NTFS
File size limited only by size of server volume.
FAT
Maximum file size is 2 GB.
FAT 32 Maximum file size is 4 GB.
Ext-2
Maximum file size is 2 GB
Ext-3
Maximum file size is 2 TeraBytes (if LFS support is
completely implemented).
UFS
32 GB (with default block size of 8K, default in FreeBSD).
Windows and all the applications must be installed in C: drive. The
C: drive should be the only hard disk partition available to the client
workstation. Additional applications can be installed in the free
space on the hard disk image after the image has been built. If more
storage is required, it is recommended that a network share is used.
A network drive (a folder on a Windows or Samba server) may be
mounted automatically at boot time. Adding this network drive (and
extra applications) can be done after the diskless system has been set
up.
The network card should be configured to use Auto Media Detection
(in EEPROM and in drivers).
The client BIOS settings must specify that the hard disk is accessed
in Automatic mode (or LBA mode if no Automatic mode is available).
Server
Requirements
• Operating system: Windows NT/2000/XP/2003, Linux, or
FreeBSD (see note below).
• Main memory: 128 MB minimum, 512 MB or more recom-
mended.
• Processor: equivalent to Pentium III 800 or faster.
20
System Requirements
Installing Image Manager Components
• Hard drive capacity: 1.5 MB dedicated to Image Manager, plus
disk space required to store the client hard disk image files and
cache files (the default maximum cache file size is 512 MB per
client).
Note: Some releases of Neoware Image Manager do not include the
latest version of Linux/FreeBSD components. If you have such a version and you need Linux/FreeBSD server support, contact your
Neoware representative.
The following server OS have successfully been used to run
Neoware Image Manager server:
x86 architecture:
• Windows NT 4, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows
2003,
• Suse Linux 9.2,
• Debian Linux (kernel 2.2, 2.4 and 2.6),
• Ubuntu Linux 6.06 (Drapper Drake) and 7.04 (Feisty Fawn),
• RedHat Linux 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 8.0, 9.0, EL ES 3,
• Mandrake Linux/Mandriva 7.2 and 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 10.1,
• FreeBSD 4.4 to 6
PowerPC architecture:
• TimeSys Linux
Note: If your server OS is not listed here, the Linux/FreeBSD
version may work as long as you are using a compatible OS and
architecture. Other server OS and architecture may be supported on
request. If you have such a request, please contact your Neoware
representative.
Neoware Image Manager requires a computer to house the server
module. This computer should have a minimum of 128 MB of RAM
and must be properly installed and configured. Servers that have to
serve a large number of clients should have at least 512 MB of RAM
(2GB or more is recommended). It is recommended that the latest
System Requirements
21
Installing Image Manager Components
service packs, patches, updates and hotfixes are applied to the server
operating system.
A server class Network Adapter is recommended for the Image
Manager server network card. You should install the latest NIC
(Network Interface Card) drivers for the NICs in the server, which
are usually available from the NIC manufacturer web site. These
drivers are usually more efficient than the drivers shipped with Windows XP/2000. (On a Windows 2000 server with 3C905C-TX-M,
the Neoware Image Manager system is twice as fast with 3Com’s
NIC drivers than with the NIC drivers shipped with Windows 2000.)
When using multiple clients booting off a single server, a performance bottleneck may occur during network and server hard drive
data transfers. It is therefore recommended that you use the fastest
hard drives and hard disk controllers available, and to have as much
RAM as possible in the server to improve disk caching. Having several hard disk drives in the server can also help increase performance. If there is a RAID adapter in the server, we recommend that
you use RAID 1 instead of RAID 5.
Network
Requirements
• Ethernet 100 Mb/S or better.
• Ethernet Switching.
• A computer running DHCP service and a computer running
TFTP service. (This computer can be the same as the Neoware
Image Manager server, another single computer, or two separate
computers.)
Switches are preferable to hubs. It is recommended that you enable
full duplex communication and flow control. Clients and server must
be able to send and receive DHCP packets from and to each other.
TCP/IP connectivity between the server and the clients must be
established.
A configurable DHCP (or BOOTP) service must be available on
your network. For example, MS-DHCP Server for Windows Server
NT/2000/2003, freeware TFTPD32 that includes a DHCP service. If
22
System Requirements
Installing Image Manager Components
you are using a Microsoft DHCP server, refer to the appendix
“Configuring the DHCP Server” on page 297 for a step-by-step
installation procedure.
A configurable TFTP service must be installed and properly
configured to serve boot files to PXE PROM. For example, MSTFTPD for Windows 2000/2003 Server, 3Com freeware tftp server
for Windows systems, tftpd daemons shipped with Linux and Unix,
freeware TFTPD32. A Samba server can be useful if you use Linux/
FreeBSD server. For a Windows TFTPD installation, refer to the
appendix “The TFTPD Installer” on page 293.
Installation Summary
The installation procedure consists of two stages. First you need to
run the Neoware Image Manager InstallShield Wizard on the server
and then again on the client to install the relevant software components. Secondly (optionally), you need to configure the server by
copying various files into the directory that will contain the hard
disk images (if the default location does not suit your requirements due to not enough available storage space for example).
The server will host the NVDD (Neoware Virtual Disk Daemon)
server module and, eventually, the hard disk images that clients will
access. This server must be on the same LAN as the clients that will
access the images, and must be running either Windows NT/2000/
XP/2003 or Linux/FreeBSD. The Neoware Image Manager Console,
which enables you to control how images are assigned and used by
clients, can either be installed on the NVDD server (if it runs Windows OS) or on a remote PC running Windows OS.
The client computer will provide the basis for the hard disk image
that will eventually be created. The InstallShield Wizard will install
various tools to enable you to build an image that can be served to
clients from the NVDD server.
Installation Summary
23
Installing Image Manager Components
Running the InstallShield Wizard
You will need to run the InstallShield Wizard on the server (or a
Windows PC if the server is running Linux or FreeBSD - see note
below) and then again on the client computer to install the relevant
Neoware Image Manager software components.
Note: If you want to install Neoware Image Manager on a server
running Linux or FreeBSD, you will need to run the InstallShield
Wizard on a Windows PC, selecting Decompress as the Setup type,
then copy the server software component files installed on the Windows PC to the server.
1
24
Run the Neoware Image Manager InstallShield Wizard by
inserting the Neoware Image Manager disk into your CD drive,
or by starting the install using the download from Neoware.com.
Running the InstallShield Wizard
Installing Image Manager Components
2
Click Next to begin the install process.
3
Type in your software License Key exactly as provided in your
documentation, then click Next.
4
This and the following dialog provide instructions on how to
install the software. Click Next to continue.
Running the InstallShield Wizard
25
Installing Image Manager Components
26
5
Click Next to continue.
6
Read the License Agreement and, if you agree to the terms,
select the I accept option then click Next.
Running the InstallShield Wizard
Installing Image Manager Components
7
Enter the User Name and Company Name and specify if the
application is to be installed for a single user or multiple users. It
is usually recommended to install only for you (the administrator) so that users do not have easy access to Neoware Image
Manager components that are usually reserved for administrators. Click Next to continue.
Running the InstallShield Wizard
27
Installing Image Manager Components
8
Select the type of installation required from the following
options:
Server Installation (Windows)
Select this option if you are installing Neoware Image Manager
on the Windows server that will host your images.
Decompress (required for Linux/FreeBSD server)
Select this option if you plan to run Neoware Image Manager
server on a Linux/FreeBSD server that will host your images
(you will need to install onto a Windows PC then copy the
Server Module and tools onto your server), or in order to perform a simple decompression without shortcuts creation in the
Start menu. This Wizard will decompress the components of the
distribution archive (selected in the next dialog - shown below)
into a folder tree.
Client Image Creation
Select this option if you are running this InstallShield Wizard on
a client desktop. This will install the components that you will
run to customize the Windows-based configuration on that desktop’s hard disk, and to create an image of it for storing on the
server.
28
Running the InstallShield Wizard
Installing Image Manager Components
Console
Select this option if you would like to install only the Neoware
Image Manager Console on a computer running a Windows OS.
UbiBoot Extractor
Select this option if you are installing UbiBoot Extractor on a
client machine that needs to be added to the current capabilities
of existing images.
Neoware UbiBoot
Select this option if you are installing Neoware UbiBoot on a
client machine in order to enhance an existing Virtual Disk
Drive so that it will support new hardware platforms.
9
Click Next to continue. (Note that if Decompress was selected,
an additional dialog will be displayed before the one shown
below, allowing you to select the features you want to install.)
10 Specify the directory where the software components will be
installed. The default directory is:
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6
Running the InstallShield Wizard
29
Installing Image Manager Components
11 Click Next to review the settings before continuing.
12 If the settings are correct, click Next to begin installing the files
to the specified location. A progress bar will indicate the current
status of the installation.
30
Running the InstallShield Wizard
Installing Image Manager Components
Note that if the destination device does not have enough disk
space for the software to be installed, the following message will
be displayed:
13 When the installation has been completed, click Finish.
14 Now that the software components have been installed, you
need to configure the server as described in the section “Image
Manager Server Configuration” on page 32.
If you want to remove the Neoware Image Manager software
from your computer, refer to the section “Uninstalling Neoware
Image Manager” on page 35.
Running the InstallShield Wizard
31
Installing Image Manager Components
Image Manager Server Configuration
Disk Storage
Required on Server
The Image Manager server must have a partition containing enough
free space to contain all the virtual hard disks required by clients. A
virtual hard disk consists of a hard disk image file plus a CVol (Client Volume OverLay) write cache file that will contain all data written by the clients. The contents of the CVol files can be retained or
deleted when the clients reboot. The hard disk image will be the size
of the client partition from which the image was created.
The amount of disk storage needed on the Image Manager server for
virtual hard disks is dependent on the mode of operation.
If the clients are using a shared image in Volatile mode, Windows
XP Pro and Office 2000 can utilize less than 2 GB. Let us assume
that the image size is 2 GB. Every CVol file would use 512 MB
maximum and they are deleted at each reboot.
If the user is using their own unique virtual hard disk image in
Normal mode, then the CVol files will grow in size. As the
Windows file system works so that every sector will be written on
eventually, the worst case would be 2 GB for the hard disk image
and 2 GB per client. If every sector was rewritten, the CVol files
could take up to the virtual hard disk image size. The average case
would be when the virtual HD image is updated regularly (once per
quarter). This would be approximately 2 GB for the HD and 800 MB
per client. Some Windows settings, such as virtual memory settings,
have an impact on the size of CVol files.
File Locations on
the Server
The following procedure assumes you have already installed the
Server components of the Neoware Image Manager using the
InstallShield Wizard described earlier.
1
Navigate to the directory on the server containing the installed
Neoware Image Manager software.
If you performed a Server or Server with Console installation,
the default directory is:
32
Image Manager Server Configuration
Installing Image Manager Components
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6
If your server runs Linux or FreeBSD OS, the required server
module and server tools are stored in the following subdirectory
of the target directory in which the Neoware Image Manager
archive was decompressed:
Server\Linux or Server\FreeBSD
Server
or Server with Console installation: Only Windows
versions of the server module (NVDD.EXE) and server tools are
copied to the following default directory:
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server
Decompress
installation: In the Server directory you will find
three subdirectories labelled FreeBSD, Linux and Windows,
which contain versions of the NVDD server module, one for
Windows NT/2000/XP/2003, two for Linux (one statically
linked to libraries, the other will dynamically load the required
libraries), and two for FreeBSD (static and dynamic, as for
Linux):
NVDD.EXE
is for Windows NT/2000/XP/2003
nvdd
is for Linux/FreeBSD
2
If required, copy the relevant NVDD file for the operating system you are using into a directory in the server partition where
the virtual hard disks will be stored.
3
If required, copy the files SmallDisk.vol and nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf from the Server directory to the directory containing the NVDD server module.
4
Copy the server license file to the directory containing the
NVDD server module. Optionally copy the clients package
license files to the same directory.
Note: The license file will be sent to you (if you are evaluating
Image Manager), or generated by you from our dedicated web
pages (http://license.neoware.com) if you purchased the
product.
Image Manager Server Configuration
33
Installing Image Manager Components
This completes the Neoware Image Manager server initial configuration. You can test that the NVDD server module is installed correctly by navigating to the directory containing NVDD then typing
one of the following at the command prompt to launch it:
Windows system:
nvdd -c nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf
Linux/FreeBSD system:
./nvdd -c nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf
You should see various messages similar to that shown in the illustration below.
To stop the NVDD server module, press the keys Ctrl + C.
34
Image Manager Server Configuration
Installing Image Manager Components
Uninstalling Neoware Image Manager
This section describes how to remove Neoware Image Manager
from your computer. Note that it is possible to uninstall the Image
Manager software from an Image Manager bootable drive. It will
just uninstall the components that have been copied during
InstallShield installation, but will not uninstall the components and
configuration performed during Image Creation. In other words, you
can uninstall the InstallShield package without making your virtual
drive unbootable by Image Manager.
Uninstall Procedure
1
To uninstall Neoware Image Manager, select the Add/Remove
Programs icon in the Control Panel.
2
Select the Neoware Image Manager entry in the list of installed
programs, then click the Change/Remove button. The
InstallShield Wizard dialog will be displayed.
Uninstalling Neoware Image Manager
35
Installing Image Manager Components
36
3
Select Remove then click Next.
4
A warning message will be displayed to check whether you
really want to remove the software. Click Yes to start the remove
software process.
Uninstalling Neoware Image Manager
Installing Image Manager Components
5
When the InstallShield Wizard has completed removing the
software, click Finish.
Uninstalling Neoware Image Manager
37
Installing Image Manager Components
Undoing Client Builder Changes on an HDD-based Configuration
It is possible to undo the changes that Neoware Image Manager
Client Builder has performed on an HDD based configuration, in
case the creation process did not complete smoothly or was not
closed neatly.
To undo changes:
1
Open a command prompt and navigate to the folder where the
file NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe is installed (usually
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image Manager 4.6\Client.)
2
Enter the following command:
NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe –r
The last dialogs of Neoware Image Manager Client Builder will be
displayed and when it exists, Neoware Image Manager will undo
every change it may have made to the local OS configuration, if such
changes are still active in your OS. You will have to reboot in order
for all these changes to be actually undone. A dialog asking you to
reboot or shutdown will be displayed by Client Builder.
38
Undoing Client Builder Changes on an HDD-based Configuration
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 4
Creating a Client
Image
This chapter describes how to use Client Builder to create a client
image on the Image Manager server.
Introduction
The Client Builder component of Neoware Image Manager makes
a complete image of a system partition (hard disk) based on the size
of the partition, not its contents. It is recommended that the size of
the partition is adjusted once all software has been installed (using
PowerQuest Partition Magic, for example). If the partition is too
big then the image created from it will have a negative effect on
manageability and make administration and backups more
difficult. However, performance is not affected by partition size.
The partition size should ideally be under 16 GB. If extra storage is
required, you can use a network shared directory housed by a
Windows, Samba or CIFS/SMB compatible server. It is also
recommended that the partition is defragmented before the image is
built.
39
Creating a Client Image
Using Client Builder
The following procedure assumes that you have already installed the
Client components of the Neoware Image Manager on the hard disk
drive that will be used to create the client image. You must be
logged on as a user with administrator privileges.
1
Before running Client Builder you must always make sure the
NVDD server module is running on the Image Manager server,
and is serving a non-bootable virtual disk to the client running
Client Builder. A non-bootable virtual disk called SmallDisk is
supplied with Neoware Image Manager.
2
To launch the NVDD server module so that it serves the nonbootable virtual disk (e.g. SmallDisk) to all the clients, navigate
to the directory containing NVDD then type one of the following at the command prompt:
Windows system:
nvdd -c nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf
Linux/FreeBSD system: ./nvdd -c nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf
3
Close all applications on the client computer.
4
(Optional but recommended) Defragment the hard disk partition
from which the image will be created using the Defrag utility.
Note that you can defragment the virtual disk drive after it has
been created by Client Builder.
5
40
Using Client Builder
Run Client Builder, either by launching the executable file
NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe, or from the Start menu by
selecting Programs/Neoware/Image_Manager_4.6/Client
Builder.
Creating a Client Image
The Client Builder dialog will be displayed.
6
If your server’s IP address does not appear in the dialog, please
verify that your Image Manager server is running, shares a nonbootable virtual disk such as SmallDisk, and both client and
server can access the network.
Note that Client Builder finds the existing server on your network by sending server broadcast packets. If the server is behind
a router, you will need to enter expert mode by checking the
Expert box, then enter the Server Address or Name.
Using Client Builder
41
Creating a Client Image
In order to enter the IP address manually, check the Expert box
to access the options in the dialog. Enter the Server Address or
Name of the server hosting Neoware Image Manager. Do not
change the Server port default setting 2184 unless your server
listens on a non-default port. Clicking the Find NVD servers button will enable you to search for the required server (using
broadcast packets).
Clicking the Advanced settings button will display additional
options. These should not normally be changed from the default
settings. Refer to the section “Advanced Client Builder Options”
on page 55 for details.
42
7
Click Next to continue.
8
An information message will be displayed. Click Yes to
continue.
Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
9
Read the license agreement then click Accept to continue.
10 A list of available network interface cards (NICs) will be dis-
played. This enables you to specify which NIC(s) to use to boot
the client on Neoware Image Manager. All the available NICs
are selected by default.
Check the Expert box to enable the tick box settings next to the
listed NICs to be changed. You may select multiple NICs if this
will be a multi-hardware image, but if you have multiple NICs
in the same client you must only select one of them as the boot
NIC. Note that you must select at least one NIC. Only Ethernet
NICs are supported. WiFi NICs are not supported. If you select a
WiFi NIC, your image will not be bootable using this NIC.
Tip: If you intend to have many hardware clients booting off the
same image, you may want to rename each NIC (in Network
Properties) so that it is easier to find out which NICs to select.
11 Click Next.
Using Client Builder
43
Creating a Client Image
If your client OS is Windows XP SP2 and you have Windows
XP Security Center enabled, you may be prompted that Automatic Windows Updates have been disabled. This is normal if
you did not change Advanced Settings in the first step. You
should not restore Automatic Windows Update (or any other
Windows settings) before the image has been created. Client
Builder will restore the original settings after it has completed.
12 On Windows 2000 and Windows XP you will see Found New
Hardware wizard messages indicating the detection of new
hardware (see the illustrations on the following pages). Just
click on Next in each window until the driver installation has
been completed, then click Finish.
Note: Two "Neoware Emulated Disk Drive" devices may be
detected. This is normal. If Windows asks you to reboot while
installing one of these drivers, you must NOT reboot!
Windows will tell you that the driver has not been digitally
signed. Click the Use Anyway or Continue button when this
message appears. You should then see some messages on the
server side (in NVDD Server Module outputs) stating that the
client has been detected.
44
Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
Using Client Builder
45
Creating a Client Image
Click the Continue Anyway button.
13 Right-click on My Computer and select Explore in the pop-up
menu. An additional hard disk called SMALLDISK should now be
listed in the My Computer list of hard disk drives. For example:
46
Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
You can also right-click on My Computer and select Manage/
in the pop-up menu. If you do, do not do
anything on this volume, even if Windows proposes actions to
be performed on it (for example: Initialize and Convert Disk
wizard).
Disk management
Wait for the Found New Hardware wizard to finish the installation, then click Next.
Using Client Builder
47
Creating a Client Image
14 The Client Builder dialog is displayed with the volume name
and server address automatically set by the system. If you need
to change the entries in this dialog, check the Expert box to
enable the options.
Note that the settings in the right half of the dialog use the internal protocol between Client Builder and the NVDD server module to create the image. The target directory will need to be set
from the server’s perspective so that the image is created in the
correct server directory. Specifying "." as the target directory is
the usual way to create the image file in the directory containing
the NVDD server module.
You can enter a name for the hard disk volume to be created in
the Volume Name box. This name will be used to identify the
volume to the NVDD server module. The Filename box will
automatically display the volume name entered but with the
.vol extension. It is recommended that you do not change the
filename.
You can specify the Target directory where the client hard disk
image file will be created. Specifying "./" as the target directory is the usual way to create the image file in the directory
where the NVDD server module is located.
When Create image on server is selected, the Server IP address
and Port number will be automatically filled in by default using
the information supplied earlier. A password may be needed if
you have set one on the NVDD server using the NVDD Password utility.
When the Whole disk image option is not selected, Client
Builder will build an image based on the first partition of the
hard disk drive. It will contain the MBR (Master Boot Record)
of the original hard disk drive with a modified partition table so
that the virtual disk drive contains only one partition (the first
partition).
If the system partition (usually C:) is not the first partition, the
option will be selected by default. This
Whole disk image
48
Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
ensures that when Client Builder creates an image from an
existing Neoware or ThinTune XPe flash disk, it will create the
correct type of image.
If the system partition is the first partition, only the first partition
(actually the MBR plus the first partition) will be used as the
source of the image. Administrators using XP Pro booted from
an actual hard disk drive will then, usually, create an image of
their system (first) partition.
If you use Expert mode, you can also create the image as a regular file instead of using a special communication channel
between the server and Client Builder. Just deselect the Create
image on server option.
In this case the image file must be stored on another computer
or, at least, a different partition to the one from which it is created. We recommend that the target directory is the one containing the NVDD server module (this implies that Samba server is
installed on the NVDD server if it is not a Microsoft Windows
server, or is not natively able to accept connections from remote
clients in the Windows Networking fashion).
15 Click Next to display a confirmation dialog that summarizes the
details of the image to be created. If the details are not correct,
click the Cancel button to make the required changes.
16 Click OK to begin building the client hard disk image. It should
take no more than 5 minutes per gigabyte (usually 3 minutes per
gigabyte on a 100mb/s full duplex network). A progress bar will
indicate the progress of the build.
Using Client Builder
49
Creating a Client Image
Important: When you create the image file on the server, if the
image creation takes more than 5 minutes per gigabyte of partition, this implies that the global performance of your system is
not adequate. You may then have problems when using diskless
clients, especially when using several clients at the same time.
You should investigate why the image creation is slow. Look for
problems in the server hard disk, network, server resources and
client network resources. You may increase performance with
updated drivers for the server and client NIC and server HD
controllers, and also with a defragmentation of the server drives
before the image is created.
17 The following dialog will be displayed once the Client Builder
has finished creating the image.
50
Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
Client Builder has created an image that contains exactly the
same data as stored on your original hard disk drive, including
the disk signature. Windows may not be able to reliably handle
two drives that have the same signature, nor detect such a situation in a manner that suits your requirements. Usually you will
want the Virtual drive to be mounted as C:, but Windows will
mount your Local hard disk drive as C: if its signature has not
changed, making the Virtual drive mounted on another letter. As
a result you must either ask Client Builder to change the signature on the Local drive, or physically disconnect the local drive
before booting off the newly created image.
Note: Changing the disk signature may have an impact on some
operating systems where the license is based on the hardware.
For example, you should not change the disk signature on a thin
client using flash to boot from Windows XPe. If your client OS is
XPe you MUST remove the local drive or flash before booting
off the image created from the local hard disk drive or flash
drive. In other cases there should be no problems in booting
from a drive changed in this way.
18 Click Finish. A message box will be displayed if you did not
check the Change disk signature on local hard drive option.
Using Client Builder
51
Creating a Client Image
If you click No, the previous dialog will be displayed and you
will be able to check the Expert box and configure Client
Builder for it to change the local drive signature.
The following dialog will be displayed if you configured Client
Builder to change the local drive signature:
Click Yes if you want to change the signature on the local drive.
(If you click No, the previous dialog will be displayed and you
will be able to change the Client Builder configuration so that it
will not change the local drive signature.)
Client Builder will then display a dialog that summarizes what is
left to be done in order for your clients to be able to boot off the
newly created image.
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Using Client Builder
Creating a Client Image
19 Click OK.
In order to restore the original configuration of your client OS,
Windows needs to be stopped. This is required in order to completely remove all the drivers installed previously.
20 Click Yes to shutdown the client computer. If you click No,
Neoware Image Manager Client drivers will not be completely
removed from the local OS. They will be completely removed at
Windows shutdown.
21 On the Neoware Image Manager server, shut down the NVDD
server module:
Windows system: Press the keys Ctrl + C
Linux/FreeBSD system:
Either press the keys Ctrl + C, or send a SIGINT signal to nvdd
from another shell (for example, by using the killall command with the appropriate parameters).
Two files will have been created by Client Builder in the target
directory for the client hard disk image:
• a file containing the actual image (e.g. disk0.vol)
• a configuration file (e.g. nvdd.disk0.vol.conf)
You now need to configure the server in order for clients to be able
to access the image. This is described in the chapter: “Enabling Clients to Access Images” on page 59.
Using Client Builder
53
Creating a Client Image
Testing the Image
You can check that the image works correctly by running it on the
Image Manager server as follows:
1
Run NVDD with the parameter:
-c nvdd.<image filename>.conf
For example:
Windows:
nvdd.exe -c nvdd.disk0.vol.conf
Linux/FreeBSD: ./nvdd -c nvdd.disk0.vol.conf
2
54
Testing the Image
Check that the messages displayed are OK. If any error messages are displayed, relaunch NVDD with the extra parameter
-vall to generate a complete log.
Creating a Client Image
Advanced Client Builder Options
The Client Builder includes additional options for more advanced
control over its operation. You can display these options by clicking
the Advanced settings button in the initial dialog displayed when
you run Client Builder.
You should not change the default settings in this dialog, except for
the Virtual Memory settings, unless you are fully aware of the effect
the changes will have.
All the settings in this dialog are only applied to the remote-booted
operating system that will rely on the hard disk image to be created
by Client Builder. They will have no impact on the operating system
hosted by the Reference HD after Client Builder has completed.
Disable Autocheck at Startup
Default: Unchecked
This option prevents Windows from performing a ChkDsk command to check volume integrity at start-up.
Advanced Client Builder Options
55
Creating a Client Image
Disable Windows Updates
Default: Checked
This option prevents Windows from using the Automatic Updates
features. You should NOT uncheck this option unless you only use
volumes mounted in Admin mode (i.e. a unique volume for each
client computer).
If Automatic Updates are allowed when volumes are not mounted in
Admin mode, they could make too many changes to the volume and
cause the CVol write cache files on the server to become too big.
Administrators can perform Windows Updates manually by mounting the volume in Admin mode then using Windows Update in the
Start menu.
Note that if this option is checked and your client is Windows XP
with SP2 and has the Security Center enabled, after you chose the
network cards to be used as Virtual Disk Drive Controllers, you may
be prompted that Automatic Windows Updates have been disabled.
This is normal. You should not restore Automatic Windows Updates
(or any other Windows settings) before the image has been created.
Client Builder will restore the original settings after it has completed.
Disable Daylight Saving
Default: Unchecked
This option prevents Windows from changing the system time
according to daylight savings in certain countries. If this option is
unchecked, Windows may change the system time at each boot
when the boot volume is mounted in CVolwrite/Volatile mode. This
is because the new time setting cannot be saved, so it will be lost on
reboot.
Administrators can change the system time manually using BIOS
settings, semi-manually using login scripts or startup scripts.
With Image Manager client, it is recommended that you use a tool
that can automatically synchronize the client system time to another
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Advanced Client Builder Options
Creating a Client Image
system, such as an NTP server. For example, you can tweak the
W32Time service according to the following document:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q223184
Disable Memory Dumps
Default: Checked
If Windows crashes, it tries by default to dump the crashed computer
memory into a file that can be used later by experts to analyze the
cause of the crash. With Neoware Image Manager clients, it is not
normally necessary to retrieve these crash dump files, especially if
the client computer is running in protected mode, because the dump
file would be created and then deleted after a reboot.
Change Virtual Memory Settings
Default: Unchecked
This option, when selected, enables you to specify the size of virtual
memory on the remote booted system. If you change it, it is recommended that the minimum and maximum virtual memory sizes are
set to the same value, and that this value does not exceed the maximum CVol file size divided by 4.
XP Settings
These settings are specific to Windows XP clients and are not
applicable to other client operating systems.
Disable Defrag During Screen Saver
Default: Checked
By default, Windows XP internal disk defragmenter will try to
defragment the hard disk when the computer has been in an idle state
for a certain time period. With Neoware Image Manager clients not
using Admin mode, defragmentation must be avoided, otherwise the
CVol write cache files will be filled up very quickly.
Defragmentation is only to be performed manually on volumes
mounted in Admin mode.
Advanced Client Builder Options
57
Creating a Client Image
Disable System Restore
Default: Checked
The System Restore feature enables users to restore a previous state
of their hard disk. With Neoware Image Manager clients, system
restore is usually not needed. It would use up disk space unnecessarily.
With Neoware Image Manager, if the system volume is opened in a
protected mode, writes to this volume are not kept after a reboot. If
the volume is mounted in Normal client mode, restoring the clean
volume state is just a matter of deleting the corresponding CVol file.
System Restore would only be required with volumes mounted in
Admin mode, when each client mounts its own volume.
Set Windows Prefetcher for Boot
Default: Checked
This decreases the time required to boot a client computer. You
should leave this option checked.
Set Windows Prefetcher for Applications
Default: Unchecked
This increases the amount of data required to boot a client computer.
You should leave this option unchecked.
58
Advanced Client Builder Options
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 5
Enabling Clients to
Access Images
This chapter describes how to configure the network and clients so
that hard disk images can be accessed.
TFTP & DHCP Server Configuration
Before clients can access and boot from images on the Neoware
Image Manager server, your TFTP and DHCP server must be configured to serve the Neoware Primary Bootstrap Loader file mPXELdr.bin to clients. This network boot program can be found in
the Server directory of the Neoware Image Manager distribution
package (for instance C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_
Manager_4.6\Server).
Windows
1
If you are already using standard Windows 2000/2003 TFTPD
server, kill the TFTPD service (using the "Services" applet for
instance).
2
Locate the following registry entry to specify the directory
where the mPXELdr.bin file will be located:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tftpd\parameters\directory
Edit the directory if required. If some other files are to be
served by TFTP, you will have to make sure that they are all in
the directory specified by this parameter.
3
Start the TFTPD service again.
59
Enabling Clients to Access Images
4
Copy the file mPXELdr.bin from the Server directory of the
Neoware Image Manager distribution package, into the directory specified by the registry entry above.
(Neoware Image Manager includes a utility called TFTPD Installer
that helps you to do this. Refer to the appendix “The TFTPD
Installer” on page 293 for details.)
Note: You can use any standard RFC compliant TFTP service. The
freeware TFTPD32 (http://www.jounin.net/) for instance has
been successfully tested with Neoware Image Manager.
Linux/FreeBSD
The directory where files served by TFTP are stored is usually
/tftpboot or /tftproot.
Copy the file mPXELdr.bin from the Server directory of the
Neoware Image Manager distribution package, into the relevant
directory where files served by TFTP are stored.
Make sure that the TFTPD daemon is configured correctly and
working.
Testing the TFTP
Service
You can test the TFTP service from a standard Windows 2000/XP/
2003 PC by typing the following at the command prompt:
tftp -i <host_IP_address> get mPXELdr.bin %TEMP%\mPXELdr.bin
If the TFTP command fails, you need to rectify the problem before
you can actually boot your clients from the network.
If the TFTP command succeeds, this means that the TFTP server is
correctly configured to serve mPXELdr.bin (at least to the client that
was used to launch this command). You can then delete the mPXELdr.bin file that has been copied to a temporary directory by
entering the following commands:
attrib -r %TEMP%\mPXELdr.bin
del %TEMP%\mPXELdr.bin
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TFTP & DHCP Server Configuration
Enabling Clients to Access Images
DHCP Server
Configuration
Configure your DHCP server so that it serves the file mPXELdr.bin
to the clients. (Refer to the DHCP , TFTP and PXE documentation
for details.)
If you use Microsoft Windows DHCP Server on a Windows 2000/
2003 server, refer to the appendix “Configuring the DHCP Server”
on page 297.
The DHCP/BOOTP next-server entry must be set to the TFTP
server’s IP address.
Refer to the appendix “DHCP Reference” on page 317 for information on how clients locate the Neoware Image Manager server, and
the DHCP options used.
Note: The freeware TFTPD32 (http://www.jounin.net) embeds a
simple DHCP server that has been successfully tested with Neoware
Image Manager. TFTPD32 should then provide the TFTP and
DHCP services on the same computer. If the computer that runs
TFTP and DHCP services also runs NVDD service (Neoware Image
Manager Server module), there is no need to configure extra DHCP
options.
TFTP & DHCP Server Configuration
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Enabling Clients to Access Images
Client Configuration
1
If the client contains a bootable hard disk drive or flash disk,
either disable the disk or physically remove it.
2
Make sure the client is configured to boot with PXE (boot from
LAN).
3
Start the client.
The client’s PXE PROM will display some messages. The
Neoware Primary Bootstrap Loader file mPXELdr.bin is served
to the client. The client then executes Neoware Primary Bootstrap Loader.
Messages specific to Neoware Primary Bootstrap Loader are
displayed, followed by a screen showing the Neoware logo.
If a Windows Start menu was present on the original hard disk,
it will be displayed. Windows is booted and you may be
prompted to enter your login and password. Any login/password
that could be used on the hard disk-booted client can also be
used when remote booted.
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Client Configuration
Enabling Clients to Access Images
Troubleshooting
If you experience any problems when the client boots, such as a blue
screen or the client freezing, please do the following:
1
Power off the client. Wait for 1 minute. Power on the client
again.
2
Check the NVDD server messages.
3
Power Off the client. Open its case and reconnect the original
system boot drive to the IDE or SCSI and power cables, then
boot the client from it.
4
Open the registry editor and, if they exist, remove the keys (and
subkeys) in:
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Enum\DSKIMG
(you may need to give full control authorizations to everyone on
key and subkeys to be able to actually remove them)
DSKIMG
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\CriticalDeviceDatabase\diskimage
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\DSKIMG
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\NeoDomMgr
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\NVD
5
Run the Client Builder. Open the Device Manager and check for
hardware changes. Wait until Client Builder finishes. Shutdown
the client. Exit the nvdd process on the server. If required, copy
the image file on the server (in the folder where NVDD is
located). Make sure that NVDD configuration file (nvdd.conf
by default) is OK for the image. Run nvdd again on the server.
Remove the hard disk from the client. Start the client and boot it
from LAN (PXE boot).
Troubleshooting
63
Enabling Clients to Access Images
64
Troubleshooting
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 6
Assigning Volumes
to Clients
This chapter describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
assign volumes to clients.
Introduction
This chapter describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
assign volumes to clients. "Volume" is the name of the Virtual
Disk Drive logical object. For a complete description of all the
options available using the Console, refer to the chapter “The
Image Manager Console” on page 181. For a description of the
image configuration file that the Console modifies, refer to the
chapter “The NVDD Configuration File” on page 213.
Running the Image Manager Console
The Image Manager Console enables you to create volumes and
assign them to specific clients. The Console also provides a userfriendly way of accessing and changing the settings in a hard disk
image’s configuration file (nvdd.<image filename>.conf) without having to use a text editor to manually edit it.
To run the Image Manager Console from the Start menu, select
Programs/Neoware/Image Manager 4.6/Neoware Image
Manager Console. You can also run the executable file
NIMConsole.exe.
65
Assigning Volumes to Clients
To open a Neoware Image Manager Server configuration file in the
Console, display the File menu and select Open. Neoware Image
Manager Server configuration files have the file extension .conf.
You can also open a configuration file actually in use on a remote
server by clicking the nvdd button in the tool bar. Refer to the chapter “The Image Manager Console” on page 181 for details.
When a Neoware Image Manager Server configuration file is
opened in the Image Manager Console, the two panels will list the
associated Clients and Volumes.
The Clients panel on the left displays the names of computers and
groups of computers. The Volumes panel on the right displays the
names of all the volumes (images) that can be assigned to the groups
of computers.
Each volume name has a check box next to it. This indicates whether
the volume is assigned to the currently selected computer group.
Selecting a computer name will indicate the volumes associated with
66
Running the Image Manager Console
Assigning Volumes to Clients
its group. You can easily select or deselect volumes for a specific
group by selecting the name of the group (or a computer within it)
then clicking the relevant volume check boxes.
If you want to make a computer a member of a group, just drag and
drop the computer icon on the target group.
Adding New Clients
A Client object in the Image Manager Console can refer to a collection of computers on a subnet, not just a single workstation, connected to the Image Manager server. To add a new Client object to
the Clients list, right-click either on the Computers item at the top of
the panel, or on the name of the group to which you want to assign
the new computer. Select Create then Computer in the pop-up menu.
The Client Properties dialog will be displayed.
Specify a name for the client as it will appear in the Clients list. If
you would like the client to be able to change and save the client
name in the nvdd configuration file in the future, select the appropriate option for Client-Driven Name Change (refer to the section “Client-Driven Name Change” on page 190 for details).
Computers are identified either by specifying an IP subnet mask, full
IP address (actually an IP subnet with a subnet mask of 32 bits) or a
unique MAC address.
Adding New Clients
67
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Typical subnet masks are:
32 This is the subnet mask for a single IP address.
For example, 194.199.93.24/32 means a range of 1 IP address
(a single client computer).
24 254 IP addresses (a complete class C).
For example, 192.168.0.0/24 means all the IP addresses
between 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.0.254.
16 65534 IP addresses (a complete class B).
For example, 172.16.0.0/16 means all the IP addresses between
172.16.0.0 and 172.16.254.254.
0
Is usually only used with IP address 0.0.0.0.
0.0.0.0/0 means all the IP addresses.
If you want to make a Client object (that can actually be a group of
workstations identified as belonging to a subnet) a member of a
group, just drag and drop the computer icon on the target group.
Adding a New Group
Groups are used to link computers to volumes. To create a group,
right-click on the Computers item at the top of the Console Clients
panel, select Create then Group in the pop-up menu. The Group
Properties dialog will be displayed.
Specify a name for the group then click OK.
After you have specified the volumes to be used by this group (as
described in the next section), display the Group Properties dialog
again to select the volume the group will use to boot from by default.
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Adding a New Group
Assigning Volumes to Clients
The drop-down list box will list all the bootable volumes currently
associated with the group. Select the name of the default volume to
boot from then click OK.
Note that if there are two or more bootable volumes associated with
a group, when you switch on a client that belongs to that group, it
will display a list of the volumes available to boot from. If you do
not select a volume from the list, after ten seconds the client will
automatically boot using the default volume specified here. (Refer to
the section “Enabling Client MultiBoot” on page 235 for more
details.)
Assigning a Volume to a Group
The name of each volume in the Console Volumes list has a check
box next to it. This indicates whether the volume is assigned to the
currently selected computer group in the Clients list. Selecting a
computer name in the Clients list will indicate the volumes associated with its group. You can easily select or deselect volumes for a
specific group by selecting the name of the group (or a computer
within it) then clicking the relevant Volume check boxes.
Volumes can be shared by any number of computer groups and can
be used as a boot disk or as storage. The volume used by a group to
boot from is specified in the Group Properties dialog, which is displayed by double-clicking on the group name.
Assigning a Volume to a Group
69
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Creating or Modifying a Volume
You can create a new volume by right-clicking in the Volume panel
and selecting Create Volume in the pop-up menu. You can modify
an existing volume by double-clicking on the Volume item in the
Volume panel, or by right-clicking on this item and selecting Properties. A dialog consisting of several tabs is displayed.
The General tab enables you to specify a name for the volume that
will be used to identify it in the Console.
Specify the name of the hard disk image file to use in the File name
box (click the ... button to browse for it). Note that the file paths are
relative to the location of the running nvdd server. This is particularly important to remember when you modify the configuration of a
remote Image Manager server (then using the browse button is irrelevant).
The Description box enables you to provide a brief description of the
volume which will be displayed on the client screen when it starts.
The Physical Parameters options enable you to specify the actual
size of the volume and whether it is used as a boot drive or storage.
70
Heads:
255 (usually)
Sectors:
63 (usually)
Creating or Modifying a Volume
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Cylinders:
(size of volume image (bytes) / (512 * heads * sectors)) + 1
Note that Client Builder will automatically provide the correct
geometry parameters when it creates an image file and the associated configuration file.
The Parameters tab enables you to specify the client writing mode
for the volume and how it is shared. The Volume Mode settings
enable you to specify the standard writing mode to be used, while
the Special Clients options enable you to specify a different writing
mode for individual clients. (For a description of the writing modes,
refer to the section “Volume Write Modes” on page 82.) You can
also specify a unique Volume ID number, but you should let Image
Manager generate it automatically.
Creating or Modifying a Volume
71
Assigning Volumes to Clients
The CVOL tab enables you to specify a different directory for this
volume’s CVol files if they are not to be stored in the general CVol
directory. Note that the file paths are relative to the location of the
running nvdd server. This is particularly important to remember
when you modify the configuration of a remote Image Manager
server (then using the browse button is irrelevant).
You can also specify the maximum size of the CVol files if this
maximum size is not the default one.
The Computers tab will display the names of all the computers that
share this volume. (This is for information purposes only and not
where you specify which computers share the volume.)
72
Creating or Modifying a Volume
Assigning Volumes to Clients
The Allowed Computers tab enables you to specify which computers
are allowed to access this volume, and which computers are allowed
in Admin mode.
When you have finished specifying volume settings, click the OK
button and the new volume name will appear in the Console Volumes list. You can now assign this volume to groups of computers.
Note: Client Builder automatically creates a configuration file in
which "everybody" (all the IP addresses in the world) can mount the
created volume in Admin mode. We strongly recommend that you
change this property after the first boot and when you are happy
with the image, so that only trusted computers can mount a volume
in Admin mode.
Adding a Volume from Another Configuration File
The Console enables you to open the configuration file of another
hard disk image (i.e. a configuration file created using Client
Builder) in order to copy volume definitions and parameters from it
into the current configuration file.
Display the Merge Information dialog by selecting Merge conf file
in the Tools menu.
Select the hard disk image configuration file containing the required
volume definitions by using the ... button to browse for it. Click the
Adding a Volume from Another Configuration File
73
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Load volumes from file
button to list the names of the volumes
defined in the configuration file.
Select the volume you want to copy to the current configuration file
then click Add. The volume will appear in the Console Volumes list.
Repeat for each volume you want to add.
You must make sure that the properties of each copied volume
specify the location of the hard disk image file associated with the
configuration file currently being modified. To do this, double-click
on the name of the volume to display the Volume Properties dialog,
then change the path specified in File name, or browse to find the
image file. Note that the file paths are relative to the location of the
running nvdd server. This is particularly important to remember
when you modify the configuration of a remote Image Manager
server (then using the browse button is irrelevant).
Click OK to finish.
You may have to adjust the Volume ID in the Volume Properties,
Parameters tab after you have added it.
74
Adding a Volume from Another Configuration File
Assigning Volumes to Clients
Changing a Volume’s Write Mode
You can quickly change the write mode of a volume. Just doubleclick on the name of the volume to display the Volume Properties
dialog, then click on the Parameters tab.
Change the Volume Mode (or Special clients) settings as required
and click OK. (For a description of the writing modes, refer to the
section “Volume Write Modes” on page 82.)
Note: If you select Admin for the Write mode, make sure the client
computer you want to use in that mode is included in the list of
Admin computers on the Allowed Computers tab.
Modifying a Configuration File Currently Running
One of the most useful features of the Console is the ability to manage configuration files currently running, either on the local PC that
runs the Console (if this PC also acts as a Neoware Image Manager
server) or on remote Image Manager servers.
Selecting Nvdd Manager in the Tools menu will display the Nvdd
Manager dialog. This enables you to connect to and manage Image
Manager servers directly.
Changing a Volume’s Write Mode
75
Assigning Volumes to Clients
To connect to an Image Manager server, enter the server’s IP
address, port number (leave as 0 if using default port number on
server side), and password if required, then click the Connect button.
Note that the drop-down list contains the server addresses that have
been used previously, so you can quickly select one of these.
If you want to connect to a Neoware Image Manager server that runs
on the same PC that runs the Console, you can enter 127.0.0.1 as the
IP address to connect to.
Note: This method is the only one that can be used to actually
modify a configuration file currently running. Editing the file (either
using a text editor or with the Console using File > Open) is not
possible as the configuration file is locked.
When communication has been established with the remote server,
the two list boxes on the left side of the dialog will show the volumes shared by the server and the clients currently communicating
with it. You can select volumes or clients to obtain detailed information on them.
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Modifying a Configuration File Currently Running
Assigning Volumes to Clients
The name of the configuration file currently being used by the
remote server is also displayed. You can edit this configuration file
within the Nvdd Manager dialog by clicking the Open conf file from
server button. When you have finished, Save the file. A message
should indicate that the file has been correctly saved back on the
server. You should then click the Reload conf file button to make the
remote server take the changes into account.
Clicking the Refresh every button will update the contents of the
dialog, otherwise the contents will be updated automatically after
every number of seconds specified.
Modifying a Configuration File Currently Running
77
Assigning Volumes to Clients
78
Modifying a Configuration File Currently Running
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 7
Controlling the Use of
Images & Volumes
This chapter describes the image configuration file settings that
determine how clients can use images and volumes.
The Image Configuration File
With each hard disk image it creates, Client Builder also creates a
corresponding configuration file that allows you to control how the
image is used by clients. The configuration file is stored in the
same directory as the image file and has the name nvdd.<image
filename>.conf.
The Image Manager Console provides a user-friendly way of
accessing and changing the settings in the nvdd.<image filename>.conf file without having to use a text editor to manually
edit it. To run the Image Manager Console from the Start menu,
select Programs/Neoware/Image Manager 4.6/Neoware Image
Manager Console.
Note: You may need to enter a password if you want to access configuration files on a remote Neoware Image Manager server.
This chapter describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
modify basic settings affecting the way images and volumes can be
used by clients. The equivalent commands used in the
nvdd.<image filename>.conf file are described in the chapter
“The NVDD Configuration File” on page 213. A complete description of the Image Manager Console can be found in the chapter
“The Image Manager Console” on page 181.
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Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
Client Volume Overlay Files
In the Image Manager system, a client mounts a server-based virtual
disk drive (volume) consisting of a hard disk image file and a pair of
Client Volume Overlay (CVol) files. The CVol files are created
automatically by Neoware Image Manager Server based on settings
in the hard disk image configuration file. Each client will have its
own unique pair of CVol files: a header file that specifies how the
client uses the volume, and a write overlay file used to store data
written by the client.
The name of the CVol files incorporates the name of the hard disk
image volume and the MAC address of the client. The data file will
have the same name as the header file but with the file extension
.dat.
<VolumeName>@<ClientMACAddress>
<VolumeName>@<ClientMACAddress>.dat
(CVol header file)
(CVol data file)
For example, a client using the volume named testdisk could have
a pair of CVol files named as follows:
testdisk@00E0C554E700
testdisk@00E0C554E700.dat
(CVol header file)
(CVol data file)
The volume name that is used is the one defined in the server configuration file. It is usually the name of the image file without the .vol
suffix.
The CVol header file specifies the write mode that is used when the
client mounts the volume. This mode affects the way in which data
written by the client is handled. Refer to the section “Volume Write
Modes” on page 82 for details.
You can merge the contents of a CVol data file with a hard disk
image file in order to create a new hard disk image file. This is
described in the chapter “Merging Image & CVol Files” on
page 177.
80
Client Volume Overlay Files
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
Location of CVol
Files
CVol files are stored in the same directory as the NVDD server
module by default. You can specify a different general directory
using the Image Manager Console by displaying the menu Tools >
Options > Generic Options, then clicking on the Directories tab.
The CVol directory can be set relative to a specific volume, thus on a
"per-volume" basis. This will take precedence over the general CVol
directory setting. For example, the CVol files for WinXP.vol can be
stored in D:\temp\CVol, and CVol files for Win2K.vol can be stored
in E:\ToBeSaved\CVols\Win2K.vol.
If you run several NVDD processes on the same server on different
ports, and have volumes with the same name in several configuration files currently in use, you should configure each NVDD to use a
different folder to store CVol files. The same applies if you use "per
volume" CVol folders.
Maximum Size of
CVol Files
The default maximum size for CVol files can be specified by displaying the menu Tools > Generic Options, then the General tab.
You can specify, on a per-volume basis, the maximum size that each
Client Volume Overlay Files
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Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
CVol file created for this volume can grow to using the Image Manager Console. Right-click on the Volume name, select Properties in
the pop-up menu, then click the CVOL tab in the dialog. The CVOL
Size setting determines the total number of megabytes that can be
used by each CVol data file.
For more information on setting the CVol maximum size and what
happens when the file becomes full, refer to the section “Maximum
Size of CVol Files” on page 221.
Volume Write Modes
The volume write mode determines where data written by the client
is stored and whether it is saved or lost on re-boot. The mode to be
used when a client mounts a volume is specified in the Image Manager Console Volume Properties dialog, on the Parameters tab. To
display this tab, right-click on the Volume name, select Properties in
the pop-up menu, then click on the Parameters tab.
82
Volume Write Modes
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
The Volume Mode settings enable you to specify the standard
writing mode to be used when a client mounts the volume, while the
Special Clients options enable you to specify a different writing
mode for individual clients. You can also specify a unique Volume
ID number, but you should let Image Manager generate it
automatically.
There are two main write modes called Admin and CVolwrite. The
CVolwrite mode consists of three submodes: Normal, Volatile and
Persistent.
Admin Mode
Admin mode is used when you want to install a new application or
make permanent changes to the hard disk image file. In this mode
the client will write directly to the image file, not the CVol write
cache file. The write is permanent.
Note the following:
• A volume can be mounted by only one client at the same time in
Admin mode.
• No other client can mount a volume while it is being used by a
client in Admin mode.
• No client can mount a volume in Admin mode if that volume is
currently mounted by another client in any opening mode.
You can specify which clients are allowed to mount the volume in
Admin mode by using the Allowed Computers tab.
CVolwrite Mode
In CVolwrite mode, all client writes will be directed to the client’s
own CVol data file. It has three submodes called Normal, Volatile
and Persistent, that determine whether the write data is saved or lost
on re-boot.
Normal Mode
Normal CVolwrite mode is used when you want the client to be able
to install applications and make system changes without modifying
the hard disk image file. Any application installations, system
changes and disk writes made by the client are stored in the CVol
Volume Write Modes
83
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
write cache file and will not be lost when the volume is re-mounted.
This enables clients to have different configurations while sharing
the same image file.
The CVol files can be sent to remote sites where an identical reference hard disk image file exists. This makes deployment of updated
images to remote sites easier because you do not need to send a fullsized hard disk image. Note that the remote hard disk image will
need to be updated using the CVolMerge tool.
The administrator can cancel all modifications made by the client
user just by deleting the CVol files. The client will then mount the
original unmodified volume again.
Important: If any changes are made to the image file (e.g. using
Admin mode), all the associated CVol files will be obsolete and
Neoware Image Manager will usually automatically empty them.
Volatile Mode
Volatile CVolwrite mode is used when you want the client to be able
to use the volume without saving any client writes. Anything written
to the CVol data file will be lost when the client is rebooted, thereby
ensuring the volume configuration is exactly the same after each
reboot. One of the advantages of this mode is that clients boot up
from the server very quickly.
You can use Windows Roaming User Profiles (desktop, shortcuts,
favourites, bookmarks, application settings, etc.) in Volatile mode.
Roaming User Profiles are stored on a server and copied to the client
volumes at logon time.
Persistent Mode
84
Persistent CVolwrite mode is similar to Volatile mode except that
any client writes are replaced by a standard reference CVol content
when the volume is mounted. When using this mode, the reference
CVol content is created, for each client, at the first boot if it does not
already exist. This enables you to specify a minimal safe customization for each computer (e.g. to retain Windows XP activation data
customized for each computer). A complete description of this mode
is provided in the section “Volume Write Modes” on page 82.
Volume Write Modes
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
Note that if the hard disk image file is modified, the CVol files associated with it will be obsolete. Therefore Persistent mode should
only be used when the original image file will not change often or
when you can easily recreate persistent files after the image file has
changed.
Tip: As Neoware Image Manager Server automatically copies the
reference CVol files to the actual CVol files to be used, it is recommended that the reference CVol files are compacted using the CVolCompactor tool before they are actually used.
Volume Write Modes
85
Controlling the Use of Images & Volumes
86
Volume Write Modes
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 8
Adding Network Boot
Devices to an Image
This chapter describes how to add bootable network card details to
an image so it can be remote booted on different machines.
Overview
Neoware UbiBoot is a suite of tools that enable you to reduce the
number of images required for a fleet of heterogeneous client hardware, making image management easier.
The UbiBoot Extractor and UbiBoot Inserter tools enable you to
extract information about a bootable network interface card (NIC)
and insert it into a Neoware Image Manager virtual disk. This
allows the image to be remote booted on a collection of completely
different machines.
The UbiBoot Extractor tool (UBExtract.exe) is run on the source
machine containing the bootable NIC. It locates the active NIC,
extracts information about it and stores it in a file within a directory. This directory is named UbiBootData by default and is
located in the directory from which the UbiBoot Extractor program
is run. You can change the location of this directory using the
browse button at the top right of the UbiBoot Extractor window.
The directory will be automatically created if it does not already
exist. UbiBoot Extractor will not change the configuration or any
registry items on the source machine.
The UbiBoot Inserter tool (UBInsert.exe) is run on the destination
machine which must be running an existing Neoware Image Manager booted image, with the write-mode preferably configured as
87
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
‘Normal’ (an image with a CVol file that will still be accessible at
the next reboot - the common image file itself must then be modified
using the CVolMerge tool), or ‘Admin’ (we recommend that you create a backup copy of the image before making changes to it in
Admin mode).
The UbiBoot Inserter dialog lists the descriptions of any bootable
NIC data files stored in the UbiBootData directory to enable you to
select the one to insert in the image. If the extracted data you want to
insert are not in the default UbiBootData directory, you can select
another directory using the browse button at the top right of the UbiBoot Inserter window. Clicking the Insert button once a selection is
made will cause the information contained in the bootable NIC data
file to be inserted either in the CVol file or the image file, depending
on the writing mode of the virtual disk currently running.
Usually you would need to run UbiBoot Extractor and UbiBoot
Inserter from the same operating system and service pack configuration. If the operating systems are too different then you might be
able to extract and insert data, but the resulting image might not be
bootable. When such a risk exists, UbiBoot Inserter displays the suspicious devices in red. For example, using UbiBoot Extractor on
Windows 2000 sp4 then inserting the extracted data running UbiBoot Inserter on Windows XP sp2 is a hazardous operation for the
Windows XP sp2 image. If you still decide to insert the data, UbiBoot Inserter will warn you that such an operation is not supported
and will display a confirmation dialog requesting user confirmation.
UbiBoot Extractor and Inserter come with pre-extracted data for
some Neoware thin clients, so that you do not even need to perform
the extraction step to add hardware support for these devices into
existing Neoware Image Manager virtual disks. Extra pre-extracted
data may be available from Neoware technical support on request.
88
Overview
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Before Using the UbiBoot Extractor & UbiBoot Inserter Tools
The data file created by UbiBoot Extractor must be stored in a workspace that is accessible by both source and destination machines.
The workspace can be a USB key, a share on a networked machine,
or any other storage that can be accessed by both machines. The user
must have enough rights to create both directories and files.
We recommend leaving the UBExtract.exe and UBInsert.exe programs in the same directory on the workspace storage, and running
them from there. By default UbiBoot Extractor will create the data
file in a subdirectory of this directory, called UbiBootData. You can
specify a different directory using the browse button at the top right
of the window. When running UbiBoot Inserter from the same directory containing UbiBoot Extractor, it will automatically look for the
data files for insertion in the subdirectory named UbiBootData
located in the directory where UbiBoot Inserter is run from.
As both programs access restricted parts of the registry on their
respective machines, they must be run from accounts with full
administrative rights. Please note that being network administrator
of an NT or Active Directory domain does not necessarily grant
administrative rights on any local machine.
Note that UbiBoot Inserter will not accept being run from a nonNeoware Image Manager disk partition. There are two reasons for
this restriction:
• UbiBoot Inserter expects to modify certain Neoware Image Man-
ager-specific settings and will not be able to complete its insertion (and will fail) should this machine be locally booted.
• If the insertion operation fails or does not provide the expected
results, it is far easier and faster to delete its CVol file, or to overwrite the copy of the virtual drive image file with the original
image file, than to reinstall Windows on the destination machine
then build an image again.
Before Using the UbiBoot Extractor & UbiBoot Inserter Tools
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Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Extracting Boot Device Details
Note: Before you perform the actual extraction process, we recommend that you update the Network Card Drivers on the computer
whose hardware support is to be added to an existing Neoware
Image Manager virtual disk.
The following procedure will extract the details of a bootable network device and store the data in a file.
1
Select Start > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > UbiBoot
Extractor, or run the UBExtract.exe program on the machine
from which hardware support is to be added to an existing
Neoware Image Manager virtual disk. You must use an account
that provides full administrative rights.
UbiBoot Extractor will immediately detect and list the active
NIC devices in the middle of the dialog.
90
Extracting Boot Device Details
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Clicking on a device in the list will display a summary of its
technical characteristics, such as its descriptive name and manufacturer, the OS of the machine containing the device (in this
case, the OS currently running on the machine), and some file
information that describes the device driver and environment.
2
If you wish to use another repository other than the default one
(subdirectory UbiBootData, located in the same directory where
UBExtract.exe and UBInsert.exe are located), press the ...
button at the end of the Device data repository line near the top
of the window. This will display a dialog that allows you to navigate to a different directory. If the path is too long for it to be
displayed entirely, just leave your mouse pointer on it for a few
seconds. A ’hint’ box will be displayed with the complete path.
3
Select the device whose details you wish to extract, then click
the Export button.
Extracting Boot Device Details
91
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Note that if the device details have already stored as a file in the
UbiBoot Extractor directory, the following dialog will be displayed.
Clicking Cancel will cancel the export operation.
Clicking OK will overwrite the information currently stored for
this NIC with the latest information. This could be useful if a
more recent revision of the NIC drivers have been installed, and
the user wants to ensure that the latest version is inserted in the
destination image. Note that if the manufacturer changed the
internal code for the device from one revision to the next, UbiBoot Extractor will see the new NIC software revision as a different device and will record it in addition to the existing, older
one.
92
4
You will be prompted to enter descriptive text for this data file
so you can identify it for selection using UbiBoot Inserter later.
The descriptive text will appear between parentheses after the
name of each NIC in the NIC list, as well as in the full description information of the selected NIC.
5
Either enter a description then click OK, or click Cancel to continue with no description. (Entering a description is optional but
highly recommended!)
Extracting Boot Device Details
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
All the information about the currently selected NIC will be
saved in a file in the repository directory. By default the name of
the file is the complete PCI ID of the network adapter with the
.DEV extension. For example: VEN_14E4&DEV_167D&SUBSYS_
05771014&REV_11-4&111a1fd8&0&00E0.Dev. You can rename
this file but you must keep the .DEV extension.
6
The following dialog will be displayed when the operation has
been completed successfully.
If there was an error, a dialog will be displayed and a red error
message will appear at the bottom of the UbiBoot Extractor
main window.
You can display log messages in a separate window by checking
the Show Log checkbox.
The log messages can be saved in a file by selecting Save Log in
the File menu, or by copying and pasting them into a word processor.
7
Click the Exit button to leave the program.
Extracting Boot Device Details
93
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
IMPORTANT NOTE
Starting with version 1.2 of the UbiBoot Extractor/Inserter programs, the original date and time of the driver files (typically the
.INF and .SYS files) are preserved across extraction and insertion.
Previous versions did not preserve the original date and time, and the
files were marked as last modified at the time they were inserted.
The .DEV files stored in the UbiBoot Extractor/Inserter repository
are fully compatible between the 1.2 and pre-1.2 versions, but the
pre 1.2 versions did not record the timestamps of the original files. If
you use a 1.2 (or later) UbiBoot Inserter program with pre-1.2 .DEV
files, the inserted files will now have the timestamp of the UbiBoot
Extractor operation.
If you wanted to preserve the timestamp of the original files, you
would have to recreate the .DEV files in your repository from the
original driver files. In other words, extract all the devices using
UbiBoot Extractor 1.2 or later again, then insert them using UbiBoot
Inserter 1.2 or later.
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Extracting Boot Device Details
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
The following procedure will insert the details of a bootable network
device in a Neoware Image Manager image.
1
Select Start > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > UbiBoot
Inserter, or run the UBInsert.exe program on a machine booting off the disk image in which the bootable NIC data is to be
inserted. You must use an account that provides full administrative rights.
A dialog very similar to that of the UbiBoot Extractor tool will
be displayed. It will list the descriptions of device data files created by UbiBoot Extractor that are currently stored in the UbiBootData directory. If you wish to use another repository other
than the default one, press the ... button at the end of the Device
data repository line near the top of the window. This will display a dialog that allows you to navigate to a different directory.
UbiBoot Inserter will then scan the specified directory and display the descriptions of device data files stored in it. If the path
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
95
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
is too long for it to be displayed entirely, just leave your mouse
pointer on it for a few seconds. A ’hint’ box will be displayed
with the complete path.
In the device list, any device that was extracted from a machine
environment that is not strictly compatible with that of the current machine will appear in red letters. If the UbiBoot Extracted
file came from a different OS, or an OS with a different service
pack, or a machine running a different HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer), it is hazardous to insert it in the current machine.
Inserting such a device is possible, but is not supported. If the
operation is attempted anyway, UbiBoot Inserter will display a
confirmation dialog and request user confirmation before actually inserting the device.
Note: If you launch UbiBoot Inserter when the destination
machine is not running from a Neoware Image Manager virtual
disk, the following message will appear at the bottom of the
dialog:
Can only insert into an NVD image.
In this situation, while it is still possible to browse the device
repository, the Insert button is disabled and the only possible
option is to click the Exit button.
2
96
Selecting a device description will cause the information that
UbiBoot Extractor obtained from that NIC to be displayed
below the device list.
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
3
Click the Insert button. If the device was marked in red in the
list (the OS or HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) of the source
and destination machines are not identical), the following confirmation message(s) will pop up:
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
97
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Even if the same NIC device drivers could be used on the source
and destination machines, extracting and inserting are only supported on source and destination machines that:
• run the same OS, service pack included. For example,
extracting from Windows XPe (XP Embedded) and inserting
in Windows XP Pro might damage the destination image to
the point that a later successful, valid, same OS insertion will
result in a machine that will not be able to boot from the
inserted NIC.
• have the same basic architecture (for instance, extracting
from a dual CPU machine and inserting into a single CPU
machine might result in different HALs being used by the
source and destination OS).
Clicking the OK button after this warning still allows the operation to continue, though, because the insertion may succeed in
some cases.
4
98
Click the Insert button and accept the confirmation message to
enter the device information in the target system configuration.
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
If the device files that you are about to insert into the NVD
image are older than the device files in the current (destination)
machine, warning and confirmation messages similar to the following will appear:
This message might be displayed twice, once for the device
file and once for the device .SYS file. Note that if the
device already in the machine was created using a version of
UbiBoot Extractor/Inserter earlier than 1.2, the file time/date of
the file(s) already present in the machine might reflect the date
of the latest insertion, rather than the actual driver file release
date. In this case, it is probably safe to accept to overwrite the
existing file.
.INF
Our recommendation is to always keep the newest .SYS and
.INF file.
5
The following dialog will be displayed when the operation has
been completed successfully.
If there was an error, a dialog will be displayed and a red error
message will appear at the bottom of the UbiBoot Inserter main
window.
You can display log messages in a separate window by checking
the Show Log checkbox.
Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
99
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
The log messages can be saved in a file by selecting Save Log in
the File menu, or by copying and pasting them into a word processor.
6
Click the Exit button to leave the program.
Note: It is possible (although completely useless and strongly discouraged) to inject the same NIC information multiple times on the
same machine. This only results in filling the system configuration of
the destination machine with unnecessary data.
The reason such an extraneous action is not blocked by UbiBoot
Inserter is that the newly inserted NIC data might be subtly different
from previous (and presumably obsolete) similar information, and
UbiBoot Inserter cannot check if an identical set of data is being
inserted yet again. It is thus up to the user of the UbiBoot Extractor
and Inserter programs to use them appropriately.
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Inserting Boot Device Details into an Image
Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
Testing the Image
When the Neoware Image Manager virtual disk on the destination
machine has been correctly modified by UbiBoot Inserter, you must
validate that the source machine can actually be booted off that
image:
1
If you were using CVolwrite/Normal mode on the destination
machine, you might:
• rename or copy the CVol files to associate them with the
source machine. This implies that you already know the
MAC address of the source machine that is to be included in
the CVol file names. Refer to the section “Client Volume
Overlay Files” on page 80 for details.
• use CVolMerge to merge the changes in the destination
machine’s CVol files into the HD image file.
If you had booted the destination machine in Admin mode, do
not forget to switch back to either CVolwrite/Volatile mode or
CVolwrite/Normal mode.
2
Boot test the source machine and the destination machine. Both
should now boot. The instance of Windows that booted the
source machine should now detect, configure or offer to configure all of its “new hardware”.
3
If the source machine has successfully booted, it is now possible
to add this enhancement to the HD image:
Shutdown the source and the destination machines and change
the writing mode to Admin or CVolwrite/Normal.
Boot the source machine off the virtual drive and let Windows
detect and install the hardware in the usual way. Re-boot each
time Windows asks you to.
When Windows has successfully detected all the hardware, if
you were using CVolwrite/Normal mode, you may now want to
commit the changes that are in the CVol files into the HD image
Testing the Image
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Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image
itself using the CVolMerge tool and, optionally, the CVolComtool (if you intend to deploy the CVol file to remote
locations, for instance).
pactor
The image has now been enhanced and you can now switch back
to CVolwrite/Volatile mode.
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Testing the Image
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 9
Building a Virtual
Hard Disk to Boot any
PC or TC
This chapter describes how to use Neoware UbiBoot to build a virtual hard disk that can boot a range of PC and TC configurations.
What is Neoware UbiBoot?
Neoware UbiBoot is a suite of tools that enable you to reduce the
number of images required for a fleet of heterogeneous client hardware, making image management easier.
Neoware UbiBoot makes it possible to build a hard disk-based configuration that contains the hardware drivers for different PC and
TC hardware configurations, thus rendering that configuration
bootable from those PCs and TCs. Booting a PC or a TC from a
UbiBoot-enabled configuration (cloned onto a hard disk using
Neoware Active Cloner) will cause Windows to boot using compatible drivers for core hardware components such as PCI bus, IDE
drives, CPU, video, etc. Once booted using these drivers, Windows
will then detect the actual hardware devices and install the specific
drivers. An image of that modified configuration will then boot
Windows 2000, Windows XPe or Windows XP Pro on those two
different hardware configurations.
Thus, Neoware UbiBoot offers an alternative to the use of UbiBoot
Extractor and UbiBoot Inserter, with eventually the same objective.
UbiBoot can be used to create a variety of Windows installations:
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
• Create a hardware-independent Windows installation containing
operating system, hardware drivers and applications which can
be used on any hardware configuration. The hardware will be
detected and configured when Windows boots.
• Create a Windows installation containing all the hardware drivers
for a variety of PC configurations, then build a master hard disk
image for deployment.
• Configure Windows on a Neoware Image Manager Virtual HD to
recognize unknown hardware.
Installing Neoware UbiBoot
Neoware UbiBoot is installed when you perform a Client installation using the InstallShield Wizard as described in the chapter
“Installing Image Manager Components” on page 19. Neoware
UbiBoot must be installed on a regular IDE hard disk drive that
stores a correctly configured instance of Windows 2000, Windows
XP or Windows 2003 Server in partition C:. The contents of this
hard disk drive will form the basis of the hard disk image that will be
created later.
Note: SCSI hard drives can be supported, but the detection of the
SCSI controllers must be performed while Windows is booted off an
IDE hard drive. SATA controllers are usually treated as IDE controllers and can be used directly.
In order to achieve the most efficient results, the following points
should be noted when you want to build a Windows system configuration that can run on heterogeneous hardware:
• Use the oldest computer in your fleet to perform the reference
Windows installation (the installation that, after having been
patched with Neoware UbiBoot, is to be deployed on several PCs
and TCs). Refer to the section “HAL Considerations” on
page 113 for more details about this.
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
• Start with a freshly formatted hard disk containing a clean instal-
lation of Windows. Note that Pre-installed Windows setups often
embed proprietary components that may not be compatible with
all the hardware configurations your Windows installation may
need to run on. Pre-installed Windows setup should not be used
as the base for a Neoware UbiBoot-enabled configuration.
• Avoid installing hardware-specific applications if the corre-
sponding hardware is not present in every computer that will run
with this installation of Windows. For example, the software
modules THOTKEY or TfcnKy that are used to associate programs
to some Toshiba Laptops extra keyboard keys may use up to 98%
of CPU time when running on a non-Toshiba computer.
Note that because of the Plug’N’Play capabilities of Windows 2000/
XP/2003, a hardware driver specific to a device on one PC can be
installed on the Neoware UbiBoot enabled hard disk even if another
PC or TC which does not have that device will be using the hard disk
image. The operating system of the PC or TC will not be compromised as Windows will only invoke the device driver if the hardware
is actually detected.
For information on HAL and ACPI, refer to the sections “HAL Considerations” on page 113, and “Mixing ACPI & Non-ACPI Computers” on page 115.
Potential Incompatibilities
It may not always be possible to create a single image that can boot
all your hardware. Some drivers can be incompatible with each
other, or with a piece of hardware. In this case it is recommended
that several different images are created, one for each set of clients
that can share a common disk image.
Potential Incompatibilities
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Running Neoware UbiBoot
The following basic procedure describes how to create a Windows
system hard disk that can boot a variety of PC hardware configurations. It assumes that you have already installed the Client components of Neoware Image Manager on a regular IDE hard disk
containing a correctly configured Windows installation in partition
C: (partition size should not exceed 10 GB), and an image of that
partition has been created using Client Builder.
1
Boot a client device off an image containing Neoware UbiBoot.
Note that the mode ( Admin mode, Volatile mode, etc.) does not
really matter as long as you run UbiBoot and then Active Cloner
without rebooting between the two operations.
2
Log on as a user with Administrators Rights.
3
Run Neoware UbiBoot from the Start menu by selecting
Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > Neoware
UbiBoot.
Note that you can also run the Neoware UbiBoot executable
(ubiboot.exe) "directly", as long as all the required files
(QDrivers.QAR and license.txt) are stored in the same directory.
4
106
Check that the Windows System Folder path and Windows Drivers Cache Path are correct for the hard disk being UbiBoot’ed.
Running Neoware UbiBoot
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
5
Click the Go! button.
6
An end-user License Agreement dialog will be displayed. Read
the agreement and, if you agree to the terms, select I accept then
click the Go On button.
UbiBoot will install and configure the required drivers. An
Operation Completed message will appear when successful.
The virtual hard disk is now UbiBoot-enabled.
7
Run Neoware Active Cloner.
To run Neoware Active Cloner from the Start menu, select
Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > Neoware
Active Cloner.
Running Neoware UbiBoot
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Note that you can also run the executable file (NIMClonerGUI.exe) “directly” as long as the required files (NIMCloner.exe, NRdmpSvc.exe and VVSAToolsDll.dll) are stored
in the same directory as the executable file.
Select as the target the hard disk drive that you will be using to
detect the new hardware whose support is to be added to the
operating system on the virtual disk drive. Keep the default settings in Active Cloner.
The target HDD can be attached directly to the client (as a nonbootable drive). As an alternative, the target HDD root folder
can be a shared folder, locally mounted on the client (Neoware
Active Cloner needs a drive letter to access the target drive).
The target HDD must have been partitioned and formatted under
Windows. Its main partition must be large enough to contain the
content of the Virtual Disk Drive. Its main partition must have
been activated.
Refer to the chapter “Neoware Active Cloner” on page 271 for
more details.
8
108
When Active Cloner has completed, shutdown the computer that
the target HDD is physically connected to (the client or the computer that is sharing the target HDD root folder). The target
Running Neoware UbiBoot
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
HDD now has a UbiBoot-enabled Windows installation in its
system partition.
9
Connect the target HDD to the platform whose hardware is to be
detected in order to add support for it.
10 Switch on the PC or TC so that it boots off the target HDD. Win-
dows will automatically detect the new hardware configuration
and may ask you to provide driver media (CD-ROM) or reboot
the PC or TC - do so when prompted.
If you experience any problems during this phase, please refer to
the section “HAL Considerations” on page 113.
11 Apply any required patches, new drivers, or chipset utility.
12 Check in the Windows Device Manager that all the hardware
has been installed successfully and is working correctly. (Right
click on the My Computer icon, select Properties, click on the
Hardware tab, then the Device Manager button.)
13 When all the hardware is working as expected, use Client
Builder to create an image of the system partition. That image
may now be used as a bootable virtual hard disk on any PC or
TC of both hardware configurations.
If you need to add another hardware configuration, run UbiBoot
in the newly created image and click Go! before cloning the virtual drive to the actual HDD. Then repeat steps 7 to 12.
14 Once all the required hardware has been recognized by the Win-
dows configuration, it is recommended that the resulting virtual
hard disk be defragmented.
15 This virtual hard disk is now bootable on all hardware configu-
rations that have been used in steps 7 through 12. It may also be
cloned onto a hard disk that may be used to boot Windows 2000/
XP/XP Pro on those different hardware configurations (or the
actual target HDD in its latest state can be used for this purpose).
Running Neoware UbiBoot
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
A hard disk image is created by running Client Builder on any of the
clients that can be booted from the target HDD, as described in the
chapter “Creating a Client Image” on page 39. If in the future you
need to add or change a client configuration in the hard disk image,
you may need to transfer the image to an actual IDE hard disk to
enable Windows to recognise the new client hardware configuration.
Using a UbiBoot Enabled Hard Disk
Learn to Use
Unknown
Hardware
You can make an instance of Windows 2000 or Windows XP learn
to use unknown hardware. Use Neoware UbiBoot and then Neoware
Active Cloner to create a UbiBoot-enabled hard disk drive, then connect that HDD to a PC or a TC containing the unknown hardware.
Power-on the PC or TC and make it boot off the UbiBoot-enabled
hard disk. Windows will detect the new hardware. You may need to
provide drivers media (CD-Rom for instance) for the detected hardware. Windows may ask you to reboot the PC or TC and you should
do so when asked to. In Device Manager, check that all the hardware
has been successfully installed and is working according to your
requirements. Once this is the case, the UbiBoot-enabled HD can be
used to boot any client in which hardware has been detected and
related drivers have been installed.
Master HD for
Building Images
You can use a Neoware UbiBoot-enabled hard disk as a master HD
for creating an image that can be used for cloning your systems.
Make sure that the original master HD is an IDE hard disk. The following are IDE hard disks: UDMA 33, UDMA 66, UDMA 100,
UDMA 133. SATA disk drives are also usually considered as IDE
disk drives.
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Using a UbiBoot Enabled Hard Disk
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Detecting New
Hardware
You must run Neoware UbiBoot each time you want to detect new
hardware. If you don’t run Neoware UbiBoot just before connecting
the UbiBoot enabled HD to the new hardware, Windows may not be
able to start correctly (BSOD, reboot…) and then it won’t be able to
detect the new hardware.
The correct procedure is as follows:
1
Connect the UbiBoot enabled HD to a client whose hardware is
already known by the Windows installation stored on the virtual
drive. We will call this client, Client-A and this HD, HD1.
2
Boot Client-A off the virtual drive.
3
Launch Neoware UbiBoot on Client-A.
4
Run Active Cloner and dump the virtual drive to HD1
5
Shutdown Client-A.
6
Remove HD1 from Client-A.
7
Connect HD1 to a client whose hardware is not already usable
by the Windows installation stored on the virtual drive (we will
call this client Client-B).
8
Boot Client-B off HD1. Let Windows detect the new hardware
and provide drivers when you are asked to. Reboot Client-B
each time you are asked to.
9
Make sure all the devices are correctly detected and that the
drivers for them are running correctly (check this in Device
Manager).
10 Apply any patches, new drivers or chipset utilities that you need
to apply.
Now HD1 can be used to boot Client-A and Client-B, and any other
clients that have the same hardware configuration. You can also boot
Client-A or Client-B off HD1 and create a new image (virtual drive)
with Client Builder.
Using a UbiBoot Enabled Hard Disk
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Updating or
Removing Drivers
for Off-line Devices
You can update all the drivers for different clients on a single computer that boots a Neoware UbiBoot enabled system. You can also
delete drivers for devices that will not be used anymore. In most
cases you can perform the following procedure:
1
Right-click on My Computer and select Properties.
2
Click on the Advanced tab.
3
Click on Environment Variables.
4
Click on the New button near the bottom of the dialog, below the
System variables list box.
5
For Variable Name, enter devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices.
6
For Variable Value, enter 1.
7
Click OK to close Environment Variables and OK again to close
System Properties.
8
Right-click on My Computer and select Properties.
9
Select Manage.
10 Click on Device Manager.
11 In the View menu select Show hidden devices.
12 Select the name of the device requiring the updated driver.
13 Right-click on the device and select Update Driver.
14 Provide the path to the driver file.
Occasionally this procedure may not work; the driver may not work
as expected, or the update wizard does not work when Windows
fails to detect the actual device. If this is the case, you should boot
the PC containing the device whose driver is to be updated and
update the driver in the usual way.
You can use this procedure if you want to delete existing drivers for
devices that will not be used anymore; in step 13 choose to remove
the device.
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Using a UbiBoot Enabled Hard Disk
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Additional Uses for Neoware UbiBoot
Creating a
Windows
Installation that can
Run Unknown
Hardware
Neoware UbiBoot enables you to create a Windows installation that
can be run on unknown hardware. This can then be used as a
hardware independent pre-installed and preconfigured Windows
installation (containing Windows System and applications). The
hardware will be detected and configured when Windows boots on
each different hardware.
In order to achieve this, run Neoware UbiBoot and then run Active
Cloner to dump the UbiBooted OS installation to an actual HDD.
Use this actual HDD to create the Windows installation that will be
able to boot unknown hardware. (For instance, use this HDD to
create an image ready to be deployed using a cloning tool.)
Creating a
Windows
Installation that can
Run Heterogeneous
Hardware
You can boot a Neoware UbiBooted system disk on each of the PC
hardware configurations being used so that Windows recognises
them and loads the required drivers. Then you can use this Windows
installation to build a master image for deployment with cloning
tools, or build a disk image for use with Neoware Image Manager or
CD/DVD-Boot systems.
HAL Considerations
HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) is the Windows component that
controls communications between the operating system and the
hardware. There are several types of HAL.DLL file and the one used
depends on the hardware Windows is installed on:
• Standard PC HAL, Non-ACPI PIC (HAL.DLL)
• MPS Uniprocessor PC HAL, Non-ACPI APIC UP (HALAPIC.DLL)
• MPS Multiprocessor PC HAL, Non-ACPI APIC MP
(HALMPS.DLL)
Additional Uses for Neoware UbiBoot
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
• Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) PC HAL,
ACPI PIC (HALACPI.DLL)
• ACPI Uniprocessor PC HAL, ACPI APIC UP (HALAACPI.DLL)
• ACPI Multiprocessor PC HAL, ACPI APIC MP (HALMACPI.DLL)
Usually there is an ascending compatibility between HALs. For
instance, Standard PC HAL is the most compatible HAL. If your
Windows installation uses Standard PC HAL, when it is UbiBootenabled it should be able to boot ACPI computers etc., but you
won’t be able to use ACPI-specific functions (such as ACPI power
button functions).
On the other hand, if your Windows installation uses ACPI Uniprocessor PC HAL, this instance of Windows will not be able to boot
Standard PCs (non-ACPI) or “ACPI only” computers, even after it
has been UbiBoot-enabled.
When you want to deploy a UbiBoot-enabled Windows installation
to clients that could use different HALs, you must make sure that
Windows installs the most compatible HAL. The best practice is
usually to build the reference Windows installation using the oldest
computer in your fleet, or to use a “Standard PC” Windows setup
(press the F5 key during the first part of Windows installation, then
when you can see Press F6 if you need to install a SCSI or RAID
controller, select Standard PC as the PC type for your Windows
installation).
Note that Neoware thin clients are compatible only with Standard
PC HAL, Non-ACPI PIC (HAL.DLL) and Advanced Configuration
and Power Interface (ACPI) PC HAL, ACPI PIC (HALACPI.DLL).
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HAL Considerations
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Mixing ACPI & Non-ACPI Computers
Advanced Control and Power Interface (ACPI) is considered by
Windows 2000/XP/2003 OS as the root-most device in a PC architecture. A Windows 2000/XP/2003 installation that was made for an
ACPI enabled computer will not be able to boot a non-ACPI computer, even if Neoware UbiBoot has been applied to the system HD.
In case you have to mix ACPI and non ACPI computers that must
boot from the same HD (or HD image, cloned HD etc), you must
perform your original Windows® 2000/XP/2003 installation on a
non ACPI computer, or downgrade your HAL.
Mixing Unicore & Multicore (or multi-CPUs) Computers
The HAL to use in order to take advantage of multi-CPUs (or
multicore CPUs) is the ACPI Multiprocessor PC HAL, ACPI APIC
MP (HALMACPI.DLL). Note that this HAL cannot be used on Unicore
CPU computers. The Unicore capable HALs can be used to boot
Multicore computers, but in this case only one core is used. This is
not recommended for performance reasons. If you have to manage a
fleet of computers that comprise Unicore and Multicore computers,
it is recommended that you create several different images with the
appropriate HALs.
HAL Selection
Choosing a Specific
HAL at Windows
Installation
You can specify the HAL to use when performing the Windows
installation. If the Standard PC HAL is chosen, Windows will be
installed with APM (Advanced Power Management) support, not
ACPI. APM is the predecessor of ACPI.
If you perform Windows installation on a non-ACPI compatible PC,
Windows will generally be installed with Standard PC HAL. If you
don’t have a non-ACPI PC when you perform your installation of
Mixing ACPI & Non-ACPI Computers
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Windows, you can disable ACPI in your PC BIOS setup before you
install Windows.
You can also press the F5 key during the first part of the Windows
installation (when you can see Press F6 if you need to install a SCSI
or RAID controller). Then select Standard PC as the PC type for
your Windows installation, or the specific HAL you want to use.
Note: Non-ACPI installations of Windows can boot ACPI computers. The opposite is not true. When a computer does not use ACPI, it
can’t use advanced power control features such as hibernation,
stand by, software shutdown when the power button is pressed, etc.
Downgrading HAL
After Windows
Installation
You can use an existing Windows installation and “downgrade” the
HAL used by Windows. The procedure is as follows:
1
Open the Device Manager (Control Panel > System > Hardware
> Device Manager).
2
Develop the entry under Computer.
3
Right-click on this entry.
4
Select Properties.
5
Click the Driver tab.
6
Click the Update Driver button.
7
Select Install from a list or specific location (Advanced), then
click Next.
8
Select Don't Search, I will choose the driver to install, then
click Next.
9
Make sure the Show compatible hardware check box is
checked.
10 Select the desired HAL, then click Next.
Note that if you plan to boot a Neoware thin client off the image
you are currently modifying, you must select either Standard PC
or Advanced Configuration and Power Interface PC.
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HAL Selection
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
11 Click Finish then Close.
12 Reboot the computer.
13 Let Windows re-detect the hardware (detection may not occur).
The HAL used by the Windows installation on the system drive
(either HDD or virtual drive) is now the one you just selected.
Recommended HAL
Depending on the fleet of computers that must boot off the same
UbiBooted drive, we recommend you use the following HAL:
• If all your clients are ACPI compatible, our recommendation is to
use Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) PC
HAL (original file name HALACPI.DLL).
• If you have at least one type of client that is not ACPI compati-
ble, our recommendation is to use Standard PC HAL (original file
name HAL.DLL).
HAL Related
Resources
The following Internet links are useful for obtaining more information about HALs.
• HAL options after Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 setup:
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=309283
• How to force a HAL during an upgrade or an installation of
Windows XP:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;ENUS;299340
• How to troubleshoot Windows 2000 HAL issues:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?kbid=237556
• How to determine the HAL that is used in Windows XP:
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=298898
HAL Selection
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
Windows Product Activation
When changing the hardware of a Windows system that needs to be
activated (Windows XP, Microsoft Office XP, etc.), you may need
to re-activate the product.
It is recommended that you use VLA (Volume License Agreement)
editions of the products. VLA editions do not need to be activated. If
VLA editions are not available, you may have to enter each PC’s
own product serial key in order to re-activate. This may also require
that you use the “activation by telephone” feature.
Check the following Internet links for more details about Activation:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/evaluation/features/
activation.mspx
http://www.microsoft.com/piracy/activation_faq.mspx
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;enus;328874
UbiBoot & Microsoft SysPrep
Neoware UbiBoot and Neoware Image Manager can be used in conjunction with Microsoft SysPrep. In particular, a Windows installation stored on a virtual drive can be resealed using SysPrep’s
"Reseal" feature before it is deployed. This can be useful especially
if your clients will be using Normal mode.
With Neoware UbiBoot, the administrator just lets Windows 2000/
XP/2003 learn to detect and use the hardware. With Microsoft
SysPrep used to build a Windows installation that can boot heterogeneous hardware platforms, the administrator needs to take inventory
of all the hardware components and identify and copy the driver files
for all these components.
Neoware UbiBoot builds a single image integrating all drivers.
Microsoft SysPrep does not create a single image containing all
drivers; the driver integration process must be repeated each time
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Windows Product Activation
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
after the image is enriched with new or modified hardware, necessitating the handling of multiple logical images.
Note that both Neoware UbiBoot and Microsoft SysPrep may be
used together. SysPrep will not overwrite what UbiBoot has done.
UbiBoot Expiry Date
The UbiBoot expiry date, if any, only affects the GUI application
that runs when you apply Neoware UbiBoot. It has no effect on the
Windows installations you have created using UbiBoot.
Troubleshooting
I get a “Security Check Failed” error when running Neoware UbiBoot.
Some versions of Neoware UbiBoot check that the product has not
expired by getting the current time from the Internet. This message
may be displayed if it cannot access the Internet to check the time, or
if your copy of Neoware UbiBoot has expired. In that case, please
contact your Neoware representative for a renewed license.
I get a “Cannot perform security check. Please make sure your
computer is connected to the Internet” error when running
Neoware UbiBoot.
Neoware UbiBoot uses HTTP and then SNTP protocol to get the
current time from the Internet. The PC that runs Neoware UbiBoot
must be able to act as an HTTP client or a SNTP client. If you cannot get the time from the Internet, you must check the following:
• Your client is actually connected to the Internet or can do “Web
Browsing” using port 80, either directly or through a proxy. You
can specify the proxy settings by clicking the Proxy Settings button in the Neoware UbiBoot dialog.
UbiBoot Expiry Date
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
• Your client can use at least one of the following protocols:
HTTP protocol using port 80, either directly or through a proxy
server.
SNTP protocol to connect to NTP servers outside your LAN.
This protocol uses UDP port 123. If you are behind a network
address translator, you may need to configure your network
address translator ports redirection for this purpose.
I applied Neoware UbiBoot to a Windows installation and cloned it
to an actual HD, but the HD cannot boot my new client.
You must run Neoware UbiBoot on a well-known computer (a computer whose hardware is totally known by Windows) just before
moving the HD to the new computer.
Boot a well-known computer with the Windows installation on your
virtual drive. Then run Neoware UbiBoot on this client. Clone the
virtual drive to the actual HDD using Neoware Active Cloner. Shutdown the client, remove the HDD and connect it in the new client.
Note that if the Windows installation was made with ACPI capabilities or HAL specific capabilities, the new client must have the same
capabilities. (See also the section “HAL Considerations” on
page 113.)
When a Windows installation used on Client-A cannot boot Client-B
even after this Windows installation has been UbiBoot enabled, it is
recommended that you install and run UbiBoot on the Windows
installation that can boot Client-B, and use this on Client-A.
If you have performed off-line UbiBooting, you may apply UbiBoot
on the off-line system again and make sure you selected the Reset
Drive Letters option.
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Troubleshooting
Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
After I applied Neoware UbiBoot successfully, Windows detected
my new hardware and is running correctly but is very slow and
reacts as if it was overloaded.
There might be a process that is using a lot of system resources.
Open the Task Manager, click on the Process tab, check the box
Show processes from all users, sort the process by CPU occupation
and check if there is a process other than System Idle Process that is
using the CPU intensively. If so, kill this process and check that
Windows is running better. If this is the case, you will need to make
sure that this process is not launched at Windows start time. You
may need to uninstall some applications, disable some services,
delete entries in the Startup folder of the Start menu, or delete some
entries in the registry keys that control automatic startup of applications.
After moving a UbiBooted HDD that was made for an Intel-based
Windows installation to an AMD-based computer, the AMD-based
computer cannot boot. The computer blue screens, freezes or
reboots during boot process.
This is usually caused by IntelPPM.SYS driver that cannot run on
AMD based computers. To rectify this, disable IntelPPM.SYS
before cloning the virtual drive. This does not usually cause any
problem on the Intel or AMD based computer.
To disable IntelPPM.SYS you can use the following Registry file
and merge it into Windows registry before cloning the virtual drive
to the actual HDD:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\IntelPPM]
"Start"=dword:00000004
Troubleshooting
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Building a Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC
After moving an UbiBooted HDD that was made for an AMDbased Windows installation to an Intel-based computer, the Intelbased computer cannot boot. The computer blue screens or reboots
just before the desktop should be displayed.
This is caused by AMD specific utilities that cannot run on Intel
based computers. To rectify this, uninstall (or don't install) any
AMD specific utility before cloning the virtual drive to the actual
HDD.
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Troubleshooting
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 10
Managing Local
Hard Disk Access
This chapter describes how to enable or disable client access to
local hard disks.
Introduction
Neoware Image Manager clients can be customized in order to
enable or disable access to local hard disks. This is achieved using
the Local HD Manager wizard LocalHDManager.exe.
The Local HD Manager wizard modifies a virtual disk image so
that client local hard disks can be made available or unavailable,
and enable new local HDs to be accessed (that is local hard disks
that have never been detected nor used by the Windows instance
currently running) without rebooting the clients. This is very useful
when the volume write mode is set to volatile.
Local HD Manager should be run only on diskless clients. When
run on clients booted off actual HDs, if local HD access is disabled, Windows won’t be able to access the local HDs after a
reboot and then won’t be able to complete the boot process.
Using the Local HD Manager
Once the client computers boot correctly with Neoware Image
Manager, use Local HD Manager as follows:
1
Shutdown all the clients.
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Managing Local Hard Disk Access
2
Backup the HD image on the server.
3
Modify the relevant nvdd configuration (using Neoware Image
Manager Console or a text editor) so that the virtual volume will
be opened in Admin mode.
4
Reload the new configuration to the NVDD server module
(either click the Reload conf file button in the Neoware Image
Manager Console NVDD Manager dialog, or stop then restart the
NVDD server module).
5
Boot ONE client.
6
Log on this client using an Administrator Account. (A user
account with administrative rights. This account can be a local
user account or domain user account, as long as it has complete
control over the client computer.)
7
On this client, run Local HD Manager from the Start menu by
selecting Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools >
Local HD Manager, or by executing the file LocalHD.exe.
8
Select the required parameters then click the Apply button.
Typical settings are:
Disable Local HDs detection
access local disk drives.
124
Using the Local HD Manager
- Windows will not be able to
Managing Local Hard Disk Access
Enable delayed (or late) local HDs detection - Windows will
detect the local disk drives in the second (or third) part of the
boot process (not as boot devices). This is useful when there are
issues accessing certain local disk drives.
The option Enable new Local HDs detection without rebooting
must be selected if you want your user to be able to access
"unknown" local disks without having to reboot the client computer which, if the system volume is mounted in Volatile mode,
will have to keep rebooting in order to access the local drives.
Note: This option may need to be set again after some unknown
local disk has been detected when the system volume was
mounted in non-volatile mode. Actually, when Windows detects
a new hard drive, it restores the default behaviour for Windows,
which corresponds to the Local HD Manager parameters
Enable Local HD detection at boot and Disable new Local HD
detection without rebooting.
Clicking the Default button then the Apply button will set the
client operating system so that it behaves as if Local HD
Manager had never been used. Local disk drives will be detected
at boot time, and a reboot will be required to be able to use
unknown HDs.
9
Read the warning messages (if any) and click the appropriate
buttons.
10 Close the Local HD Manager by clicking the Close button.
11 Shutdown Windows.
12 Modify the relevant nvdd configuration (using Neoware Image
Manager Console or a text editor) so that the virtual volume will
be opened in the previous mode (usually Volatile mode).
13 Reload the new configuration to the NVDD server module
(either click the Reload conf file button in the Neoware Image
Manager Console NVDD Manager dialog, or stop then restart the
NVDD server module).
Using the Local HD Manager
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Managing Local Hard Disk Access
14 Start at least one client computer and check that access to the
local HDs meet your requirements.
NOTES
• Note that the Local HDs Detection setting will apply to all local
HDs. If you need more detailed options, such as preventing some
specific drive letters to appear in Windows Explorer, you may
want to use TweakUI. This free tool can be download from the
following link:
http://www.microsoft.com/ntworkstation/downloads/PowerToys/Networking/NTTweakUI.asp
• When a new hard drive is detected while the HD image is not
mounted in Volatile mode, you may need to run Local HD Manager again. Actually, when Windows detects a new hard drive, it
restores the default behavior for Windows, which corresponds to
the Local HD Manager parameters Enable Local HD Detection at
boot and Disable new local HD detection without rebooting.
126
Using the Local HD Manager
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 11
Windows Product
Activation
This chapter describes how to activate Windows products for
Image Manager clients.
Introduction
Windows XP and some other products edited by Microsoft need to
be activated. This activation is made through a link between a
unique Product Key and data that are specific to each computer.
When you are using client stations that are based on 100% identical
hardware, it is theoretically possible to activate the product only
once (for one station) and to use this product on other client stations, for instance when using HD cloning products.
For example, it is theoretically possible to activate all the products
that need to be activated before building the HD image with
Neoware Client Builder. However, it may be illegal to use
Microsoft products this way, even if there are legal licenses for all
the products and all the client stations.
If you want to use Microsoft products this way (single activation
for several clients), you must contact your Microsoft representative. If you want to use Microsoft products that need to be activated
on several client stations, it is recommended that you use the Volume License edition of the products. Volume License products do
not need to be activated individually.
It is possible to activate the products individually, even when the
HD image is shared among several client machines. You may use
127
Windows Product Activation
CVolwrite/Persistent (or CVolwrite/Normal) client writing mode so
that each client machine would have its own activation link.
Product Activation Procedure
The administrator can use the following procedure to activate
products.
1
Modify the nvdd configuration file (using Neoware Image Manager Console or a text editor) so that the system volume will be
opened in CVolwrite/Persistent write mode (or in CVolwrite/
Normal mode).
2
Reload the new configuration to the NVDD server module
(either click the Reload conf file button in the Neoware Image
Manager Console NVDD Manager dialog, or stop then restart the
NVDD server module).
3
Boot all the clients and activate them individually. Of course,
you must follow the procedures that allow a specific Product
Key to be entered for each client station. For details, refer to the
following articles:
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=810892
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;
en-us;Q328874
http://xphelpandsupport.mvps.org/how_do_i_change_
the_windows_xp_p.htm
128
4
If you use CVolwrite/Persistent mode, once all the activations
are done, reboot the clients so that the reference CVol files are
created.
5
You may then change the system volume opening mode to a
mode in which the CVol files are retained after clients reboot, as
long as you keep the reference CVol files in order to be able to
restore the activation link in case it has been lost or destroyed.
The best client writing mode to use is CVolwrite/Persistent
mode (or CVolwrite/Normal mode if it is required that modifications to the system volume are kept after a reboot).
Product Activation Procedure
Windows Product Activation
When you use this method to manage activations, you must re-activate each client computer every time the shared HD image file is
modified. This is because the reference CVol files that contain the
individual activation data are not valid anymore (they contain clientspecific differences (deltas) to the HD image file).
Product Activation Procedure
129
Windows Product Activation
130
Product Activation Procedure
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 12
Windows User
Profiles
This chapter describes how to configure your Neoware Image
Manager system so that clients can use Windows user profiles.
Domain Roaming Profiles
Neoware Image Manager can be used to set up a system in which
user profiles are kept persistent. This is a “thin client like” usage.
In order to do so, you can use a standard Windows Profiles system,
using a logon server (Windows NT Server, 2000 Server or Samba
Server), domain logon and profile paths.
Note that if your client OS is Windows XP SP1 (or later) and your
profiles are stored on a Samba server, you may need to enable the
policy Do not check for user ownership of Roaming Profile Folders. To do this, run gpedit.msc and go to Computer Configuration
> Administrative Templates > System > User Profiles.
Windows Roaming Profiles are copied from the Profiles server to
the "local disk drive". You should keep the profile files as small as
possible. In particular, the administrator should use folder redirections for My Documents folders and other folders that are, by
default, embedded within the profile.
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Windows User Profiles
"Local" Roaming Profiles
You can use an original setup where all the users are created only on
the reference local shared configuration (in fact in the local system
users accounts database). Users are created on a client computer
booted from an actual HD or from a remote HD Image in Admin
mode. Here are some tips for this kind of setup:
1
Create the required user accounts on the Windows XP/2000 client reference installation. These accounts are local to the Windows 2K/XP Reference configuration (not domain or Active
Directory users accounts). The accounts can either be created on
a local HD that will later be used as a reference for a virtual volume image file, or they can be created directly on the virtual volume when the NVDD server module is configured so that the
virtual volume is opened in Admin mode.
2
Identify a computer that will host Profiles for the users. This will
now be referred to as the Profile server.
3
On the Profile server, create one account per user created in step
1, and also create one shared folder per user created in step 1.
Account names must be the same as the user names created in
step 1. Apply access rights so that each user has read-write
access to their own shared folder. In each user shared folder, create a sub folder named PROFILE.
4
Make sure the folders \\<ProfileServerIPAddressOrName>\<UserName>\PROFILE exist and are accessible. Each user
must have total control (Read/Write/Execute) in their profile
folder.
132
5
Modify the nvdd configuration (using Neoware Image Manager
Console or a text editor) so that the volume in which you want to
add the user accounts will be opened in Admin mode.
6
Reload the new configuration to the NVDD server module
(either click the Reload conf file button in the Neoware Image
Manager Console NVDD Manager dialog, or stop then restart the
NVDD server module).
"Local" Roaming Profiles
Windows User Profiles
7
Boot only ONE client.
8
On the client computer, issue the following command at the
command prompt for each user created earlier:
net user <UserName> /profilepath:\\<ProfileServerIPAddressOrName>\<UserName>\PROFILE
9
Log on successively with each user login name and password
and check that everything is running correctly. (This step is recommended because it will create the appropriate “local profile
folders” for every user.)
10 Shutdown the client station.
11 Restart the server so that it shares the virtual drive in CVolwrite/
Normal mode, or in CVolwrite/Volatile mode.
12 Start any of your Neoware Image Manager client computers and
log on with any of the user names and passwords used in step 9.
13 Log off this user.
14 On another Neoware Image Manager client station, log on with
the user name and password used in step 12. Check that the profile (desktop, shortcuts, bookmarks/favorites) is the same.
Using this user management method, the users accounts database is
stored in a virtual drive that can be opened in Admin mode to make
any desired changes. This user management method relies only on
the “reference” Windows system local user database.
TIP
Some settings can be fine-tuned in the users profiles:
In the registry, in the key:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
the value ExcludedProfileDirs (string) can be tuned. This value is
a list of folders that do not get copied from central profile mounting
point to local profile (refer to Profile sections in Windows Network-
"Local" Roaming Profiles
133
Windows User Profiles
ing documentation). Local Settings may contain, typically, Outlook
files, WallPaper etc.
The directories Local Settings and History should not be in this
list. The directory Local Settings\Application Data\
Microsoft\Windows may be in this list, though it is not in this list by
default.
This setting can be applied to HKEY_USERS\.Default before the
users are created. Then, this setting does not need to be applied individually for all users after they have been created.
Related resources:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/treeview/
default.asp?url=/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/maintain/
XPUsrDat.asp
Folders Redirection
When using Roaming Users Profiles, whether Domain based or
“Locally” based, you should redirect each user’s My Document
folder outside the profile itself, and also redirect the folder where
user’s email data is stored. Please refer to the following documents
for more details:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/232692
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/community/newsgroups/
upfrfaq.mspx#XSLTsection122121120120
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
bb490855.aspx#EIAA
Redirecting these folders is very useful in order to reduce the users’
profiles size. Each roaming profile is copied “locally” on the client
local volumes when the user logs on, so large profiles lead to longer
logon time (when Windows displays Loading Your Personal
Settings), stressed networks and long logout times (when Windows
displays Saving Your Personal Parameters).
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Folders Redirection
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 13
Adding Clients &
New Software
This chapter describes how to add a new client, add new software,
and restore a virtual hard disk volume to an actual hard disk.
Adding a New Client
When you add a new client so that it boots off one of the existing
virtual drives, its hardware must be 100% identical to the clients
that can boot off that virtual drive. In particular, the network card
must be in the same PCI slot for both clients. If this is not the case,
please refer to the UbiBoot sections in the chapters “Building a
Virtual Hard Disk to Boot any PC or TC” on page 103, and “Adding Network Boot Devices to an Image” on page 87.
To add a new client with identical hardware:
1
Make sure that the new client is able to get an IP address from
the DHCP server.
2
Boot the new client.
Repeat this process to add more clients.
Note: You can use clients that have different hardware as long as
the reference hard drive can boot each hardware configuration.
Hard drives that have been enhanced using Neoware UbiBoot and
that have been used to boot and perform automatic hardware
detection can be used to build HD images usable by clients with
different hardware, after each hardware configuration has been
recognized by the Windows installation on the HD.
135
Adding Clients & New Software
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
Using Admin Mode
The following procedure enables you to make changes to a hard disk
image that is used by several clients. For example, to add a new
application so that it is available to all the clients. This must be done
each time you want to modify the reference configuration so that
every client can benefit from the changes you make.
Note: This is the method that you will use every time you want to
make changes to the system drive, such as adding a new application,
but also applying system and software patches, modifying the system
configuration, modify some registry settings, adding users, etc. The
changes that are performed this way will be applied to every station
that uses the modified volume when it is shared.
1
Shutdown all the clients connected to the volumes that will be
affected by the installation of the new application (e.g. the system volume and, potentially, other volumes that will store some
of the files that are part of the new application).
In order to update a volume currently used by clients, you may
also copy the HD image file you want to modify and configure
Neoware Image Manager so that the client used to perform the
changes will mount the copy of the HD image file in Admin
mode. This client will then be the only client that mounts the
volume in Admin mode, making it possible for the clients currently using the original HD image file to keep on working. You
can copy a hard disk image file that is currently being used by
clients, as long as it is not opened in Admin mode. We recommend that you check that this copy will not decrease server performance.
2
136
Modify the nvdd configuration (using Neoware Image Manager
Console or a text editor) so that the virtual volume on which the
changes are to be made is served in Admin mode to the client
that will perform the changes.
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
Adding Clients & New Software
Using the
CVolMerge Tool
3
Reload the new configuration to the NVDD server module
(either click the Reload conf file button in the Neoware Image
Manager Console NVDD Manager dialog, or stop then restart the
NVDD server module).
4
Boot only the client that will perform the changes.
5
Log on to this client with a user that has enough rights to perform the desired changes on the volume.
6
Install the new application(s), patches, and modify the configuration. You can reboot as many time as you want.
7
Once the reference configuration suits your requirements, shutdown the client.
8
Modify the nvdd configuration so that the virtual volume on
which the changes are to be made is served to the desired clients
in the desired mode (usually CVolwrite/Volatile).
9
Boot all your clients. Now they all can use the new application,
the new system settings are applied to them, etc.
When you use CVolwrite/Normal mode, it is possible install applications and make changes to the system volumes that survive a
reboot of the client computer. However, these changes are available
only to the actual client computer on which they have been made.
When you want to make a HD configuration that is currently only
available to a specific client to be a new common virtual volume,
you can use the CVolMerge tool. This tool builds a new HD image
from a server based CVol write cache file and the corresponding HD
image file. This new HD image file is equivalent to the logical volume composed by the client CVol file, plus the former HD image
file.
The following procedure will enable you to add a new application
that will be available to all the clients. For more details on the
CVolMerge tool and how to reduce the size of a CVol file using the
CVolCompactor tool, refer to the chapter “Merging Image & CVol
Files” on page 177.
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
137
Adding Clients & New Software
1
Make sure your NVDD server module runs so that the system volume you want to modify is mounted in CVolwrite/Normal mode
by the client used to perform the changes on the HD image file.
Let us assume that the volume you want to modify is named
MyDisk and that the corresponding image file path is /HDImages/
MyDisk.vol. Let’s also assume that the CVol files for this volume
are stored in /CVols on your server. You can, for example, make
sure that the client that will be used to perform the changes is
listed in the Normal clients in the Volume Properties dialog
Parameters tab.
2
Boot one client. Let’s assume this client has the MAC address
00-e0-c5-59-32-ed. The other clients can be up and running during all this process.
3
Log on to this client as a user that has enough rights to install
applications. Install the new application(s), patches, and modify
the configuration as required. You can reboot as many time as
you need to.
4
Once the reference configuration suits your requirements, shutdown the client.
5
Locate the file CVolMerge (or CVolMerge.exe) in the Neoware
Image Manager Distribution software (usually in SERVER/
LINUX/TOOLS or SERVER\WINDOWS\TOOLS folder). Copy this file
on your server HD. Let’s assume this copy of the CVolMerge
file is /Tools/CVolMerge.
6
Open a command prompt to your server and if required log on as
a user that has administrative rights to the server.
7
At this command prompt, launch the file CVolMerge as follows:
/Tools/CVolMerge /HDFiles/MyDisk.vol /CVols/
MyDisk@00E0C55932ED /HDFiles/MyNewDisk.vol
Note: You must replace the paths to the files by the actual paths
for the corresponding files in your server.
The CVolMerge tool displays its progression (in percentage).
138
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
Adding Clients & New Software
8
When CVolMerge completes, you have two images: the original
unchanged image on which clients are still running, and the new
updated image. To make your clients boot from the new image,
you can either (1) stop all clients and change the configuration
file so that they boot from the new one, or (2) let the clients run
the old image and make the NVDD server give them the new
one the next time they reboot. These methods are as follows:
First Method:
1. Shutdown all the clients running the image.
2. Change the nvdd configuration so that the actual disk image
file is changed from its old value (/HDFiles/MyDisk.vol) to its
new value: /HDFiles/MyNewDisk.vol
OR
Stop the NVDD server module.
Rename the file /HDFiles/MyDisk.vol to:
/HDFiles/MyDisk.vol.bak
Rename (or copy) the file /HDFiles/MyNewDisk.vol to:
/HDFiles/MyDisk.vol
Second Method:
1. Change the configuration file and add the new volume. You
can copy all the parameters of the unchanged volume to create
this new one. Only the filename, and optionally the description,
will change. In particular, the geometry parameters will remain
the same.
2. When the new volume is included in the configuration file,
make the clients boot from it. With this method, the running clients can continue their work. They will get the new image only
when they reboot.
3. When you are sure that no clients are running on the old
image, remove that image from the configuration file.
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
139
Adding Clients & New Software
You can keep the old image definition in the configuration file.
Then, when you update the new image using the CVolMerge
tool, you can commit the changes to update the old image file
which will become your newest image.
For example, let us assume you have two image files:
MyImage1.vol and MyImage2.vol, and the corresponding volumes in the configuration file (MyImage1 and MyImage2).
MyImage1 is your current production image. When you update it,
you must commit the changes into the file MyImage2.vol. Then
you configure the clients to boot off MyImage2. Later, when you
want to update MyImage2 (which is now your production image),
you commit the changes to MyImage1.vol and set the clients to
boot off MyImage1. Using this method is very efficient and
secure, as you always have a backup copy of the unmodified
image.
9
Start or reload the NVDD server module with its new configuration.
Now when the clients boot, they can use the new application, the
new system settings are applied to them, etc.
140
Modifying an HD Image to be Used by Several Clients
Adding Clients & New Software
Managing & Updating Images Located at Multiple Remote Sites
Neoware Image Manager servers are usually located on the same
LAN as the clients that mount the virtual volumes. If you have several servers at different locations (at different branches for example),
you may require a mirrored copy of the same image at each location.
In this case the original mirrored copies of the image can be created
at each location using a DVD-based or HD-based copy of the original Master image.
When an administrator wants to update an image that is mirrored on
multiple remote Image Manager servers, it is not usually convenient
to copy the complete updated image to each remote site over WAN.
A more efficient way of updating remote images can be achieved by
using scripts to activate the various image management tools that
Neoware Image Manager provides. In particular, the tool nvddadmin
can be used. Refer to the chapter “NVDD Server Administration” on
page 241 for details.
The functions performed by the scripts could be as follows:
On the Master server (the server based at the Administrator facilities that contains the Master copy of the image):
1
Configure the NVDD server so that the image to be updated will
be mounted in CVolwrite/Normal mode by the client to be used
to update the image (Client-A).
2
Boot Client-A off the image and update it (run security patches,
hotfixes, install or remove applications, change settings, etc.).
3
When the image works on Client-A as required, shut down Client-A.
4
Run CVolCompactor to reduce the size of the CVol file.
5
Compress the CVol file (using gzip, WinZip, etc.).
6
Copy the compressed CVol file to each of the remote NVDD
servers containing the same image to be updated. (You can use
the nvddadmin tool to do this.)
Managing & Updating Images Located at Multiple Remote Sites
141
Adding Clients & New Software
On the Remote NVDD server(s) (the server(s) containing the mirrored copy of the same image that is mounted by local clients):
7
Decompress (unzip) the CVol file. (You can use the nvddadmin
tool to do this.)
8
Use CVolMerge to merge the CVol file and the image file into a
new updated image file. (The nvddadmin tool can remotely
launch CVolMerge on the remote server. CVolMerge will actually
run on the remote server.
9
Change the nvdd configuration in order to serve the new image
file to the clients. (The nvddadmin tool can retrieve the configuration file from the remote server and copy a new configuration
to the remote server.)
The following is an example script that could be used on a Master
server running Windows.
Note: The following scripts have been provided as examples only, to
illustrate the steps you need to perform in order to manage disk
image mirroring. We cannot guarantee that the scripts will actually
work or are free of errors.
142
Rem
Rem
Rem
Rem
This script will copy a CVol file on a server
(accessed by its IP address or name) and create
a batch file that will create an updated image on
the remote server.
Rem
Rem
Rem
Rem
The CVol file to be sent to the remote server is
reduced in size using CVolCompactor, then the gzip
file compression utility is used to compress the
CVol file before copying it to the remote server.
Rem
Rem
Rem
This script assumes that gzip and the server tools
CVolMerge and CVolCompactor are in the PATH of
both servers.
Rem
Rem
%1 is path and name of the CVol header file (The
CVol Data file is then %1.dat).
Rem
%2 is the path of the folder that contains the Image
Managing & Updating Images Located at Multiple Remote Sites
Adding Clients & New Software
Rem
file on the Master server.
Rem
%3 is the image filename on the servers.
Rem
Rem
Rem
%4 is the UNC Path of the remote server folder in
which the CVol File is to be copied and where the
Image to be modified resides.
CVolCompactor %1 %2\%3 New%1
gzip New%1
gzip New%1.dat
copy New%1.gz %4 /y
copy New%1.dat.gz %4 /y
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
gzip –d New%1.gz > %4\RemoteJob.bat
gzip –d New%1.dat.gz >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
move New%1 %1 >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
move New%1.dat %1.dat >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
CVolMerge %3 %1 New%3 >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
Net stop nvdd >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
If exist Old%3 del Old%3 /y >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
Ren %3 Old%3 >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
Ren New%3 %3 >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
Net start nvdd >> %4\RemoteJob.bat
The script RemoteJob.bat can now be run automatically. Its execution can, for example, be scheduled automatically by Task Scheduler
with a simple script:
if exist <Path_to_file>\RemoteJob.bat call RemoteJob.bat
Managing & Updating Images Located at Multiple Remote Sites
143
Adding Clients & New Software
Restoring a Virtual Volume to an Actual Hard Disk
It may sometimes be necessary to dump the current system volume
that a Neoware Image Manager client used to boot from to an actual
hard disk. This is necessary if you intend to use Neoware UbiBoot in
order for an existing volume to be used on new hardware and you
cannot use the UbiBoot Extractor and Inserter tools. The "new hardware detection" enabled by Neoware UbiBoot can only be performed when Windows is run off an actual IDE or SATA hard disk.
Some changes on network components, such as binding new service
or protocols to a network interface in a client computer can also only
be performed when Windows is run from an actual HDD.
To restore a system virtual volume onto an actual hard disk, you
must use the Neoware Active Cloner tool. This tool can copy the
current system volume to an existing partition in an actual hard
drive.
Neoware Active Cloner can either be launched from a command
prompt, as described here, or via a graphical user interface which is
described in the chapter “Neoware Active Cloner” on page 271.
The procedure is as follows:
144
1
Connect an actual hard drive in the client that will be used to
perform the operations (you can also connect this actual hard
drive to another Windows computer in your local network).
2
Boot the client off the Neoware Image Manager volume to be
cloned.
3
Log on to the client as a user that has administrative privileges.
4
If necessary, create a primary partition in the actual hard drive
large enough to store the files in the current system partition.
Mark this partition as Active (bootable). Use the computer to
which the actual HD is physically connected to perform these
operations.
5
If necessary, format the primary partition in the local HD using
any of the filesystems supported by Windows. The filesystem of
Restoring a Virtual Volume to an Actual Hard Disk
Adding Clients & New Software
the primary partition in the local hard drive can be different from
the filesystem of the current system volume (for instance, the
system volume can use FAT32 filesystem and the target partition can be formatted with NTFS filesystem). Use the computer
to which the actual HD is physically connected to perform these
operations.
6
Stop as many processes as possible on the Neoware Image Manager client. In particular, try to exit or stop all the processes that
display an icon near the Windows clock and that have a Stop,
Exit or Quit option. This will reduce the risk of interference with
the cloning process.
7
If you want to use the actual HDD to perform Neoware UbiBoot
hardware detection, run Neoware UbiBoot now (assuming
default installation, from the Start menu select Programs >
Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > Neoware UbiBoot).
As Active Cloner clones the current logical partition, you do not
have to use a particular write mode if you run Active Cloner just
after having run UbiBoot. Neoware UbiBoot modifies the system actually running and this modified system will be cloned.
8
If the actual HDD is physically connected to another computer
on your local network, you must share this hard drive’s root
folder and connect this shared folder to the Neoware Image
Manager client that runs Active Cloner, so that this shared hard
drive is assigned a drive letter on the client. You can use the net
use command to achieve this.
Launch Neoware Active Cloner. For example, if the target partition is E: and NIMCloner.exe is located in C:\Program
Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Client\tools, type the
following:
C:
cd \Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Client\
tools\NIMCLONER E:
if the target partition is D: and NIMCloner.exe stands in
\\MYSERVER\NIMCLONER, type the following:
Restoring a Virtual Volume to an Actual Hard Disk
145
Adding Clients & New Software
\\MYSERVER\NIMCLONER\NIMCLONER E:
Neoware Active Cloner will dump the contents of the actual system
partition used to boot the client onto the target partition in the actual
local hard disk. It uses an incremental cloning system so that files
that are the same in the source and the target partition are not actually copied. This makes upgrades to the target partition very efficient
and fast.
If errors or problems are encountered while Neoware Active Cloner
runs, messages are displayed. Note that errors relating to temporary
or log files not being able to be copied are usually not severe and can
be ignored.
Once the target partition is actually copied and is the exact image of
the current system partition, the client computer can be shutdown.
The actual HDD can then be used to boot the client computer (or
another computer, especially if Neoware UbiBoot had been run
before cloning), and a Neoware Image Manager virtual volume can
be created after the primary partition in this actual HD, using the
Client Builder tool.
For a detailed description of Neoware Active Cloner, refer to the
chapter “Neoware Active Cloner” on page 271.
146
Restoring a Virtual Volume to an Actual Hard Disk
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 14
Adding Clients to
Windows Domains
This chapter describes how to add Neoware Image Manager clients to a Windows domain using the Neoware Domain Wizard.
Introduction
The Neoware Domain Wizard NeoDomain.exe enables you to add
Image Manager clients to a Windows domain. This wizard modifies the disk image so that domain membership is available for
multiple computers using the same image as their system virtual
hard disk. The Windows domain controllers can be Windows NT
(3.51/4.0), Windows 2000/2003 (Active Directory or NT4 style),
or Samba.
How the Neoware Domain Wizard Works
The Neoware Domain Wizard is able to use personalized domain
credentials for each client that boots off the same shared image.
The wizard stores the domain credentials for each client in a repository. It then uses the correct credentials when a client connects to a
domain. The repository where Domain Credentials are stored can
be either:
• A directory on the NVDD server
• In the System Drive (the shared image itself)
• On an extra drive
147
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Domain Credentials are stored when the client computer shuts down.
When a client computer boots off a shared virtual HD it will use its
own personalized Domain Credentials.
Repository for Domain Credentials
The Neoware Domain Wizard can store the domain credentials for
each member either in a directory on the server (default), the system
partition, or in another partition.
Repository in a
Server Directory
Domain credentials can be stored at shutdown directly onto the
NVDD server, in a directory named using the client’s MAC address.
The domain credentials will be loaded from this directory at boot
time.
The root directory where the client directories are created can be
defined in the nvdd configuration file with the line (global
parameter):
client_files_dir=<path>
You can also specify the client files directory in the Neoware Image
Manager Console using the Client files folder option (select Generic
options in the Tools menu, then click the Directories tab).
This parameter is set to "." by default (the working directory of the
NVDD server).
Note: The NVD protocol file transfer feature can only enable the
storage and loading of domain credentials from a subdirectory
named after the client’s MAC address, and this subdirectory must be
in the directory specified by the client_files_dir=<path> line in
the nvdd configuration file.
Repository in the
System Partition
148
When the domain credentials are stored in the system partition and
this partition is mounted in CVolwrite/Volatile mode, it is recommended that you disable the password renewal policy. This is
because if a new password is elected by the client and the server, it
Repository for Domain Credentials
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
will not be saved with the domain credentials because the system
Virtual HD is mounted in CVolwrite/Volatile mode. The domain
controllers will assume that the client knows its new password when
this password has actually been forgotten by the client when it
rebooted.
The Neoware Domain Wizard will automatically disable Machine
Accounts Passwords changes when the Repository in System Partition option is selected.
Repository in a
Non-System
Partition
When the domain credentials are not stored in the system partition
and the system partition is mounted in CVolwrite/Volatile mode by
the clients, the partition where the domain credentials are stored can
be mounted in CVolwrite/Normal mode. The domain credentials can
even be stored in a hard disk partition.
If the partition used to store the domain credentials is in a Neoware
Image Manager virtual volume, the recommended write mode for
this volume is CVolwrite/Normal. This will allow each client to
have its own domain credentials in its own CVol file.
If you want to use an additional Neoware Image Manager Virtual
HD as the repository to store domain credentials, it is recommended
that you use a copy of smalldisk.vol drive and to make it available
as a non-boot drive to every client computer that will be a member
of the domain. In normal operations, this small HD volume should
be mounted in Normal mode (CVolwrite/Normal).
The administrator can specify any folder in this drive to be used as
the repository for domain credentials.
In CVolwrite/Normal mode, the personalized data on a drive is
retained after a reboot. So when the machine account password
changes it will be retained by both the client (Machine Domain
Account Password is part of domain credentials) and the Domain
Controller.
Repository for Domain Credentials
149
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Same Repository used by Different Shared System HD
Images
When the repository is stored on a Neoware Image Manager server
or in a separate drive, the domain credentials can be associated with
different shared system HD images that have been created from a
common "strain" image. This is because the domain credentials
depend on data contained in the image itself. As long as the clients
always get the same computer name, they can use the same domain
credentials with different images. In this case, when the domain credentials are stored on the Neoware Image Manager server, it is
recommended that the different hard disk images are shared using
the same server configuration file. This will ensure that the client
files directory and client names are consistent for each image.
If you want to use several images and you also want the clients to be
members of a domain, the recommended procedure is as follows:
1
Create one image with the common set of components that will
be used by all your images. This is your common or basic image.
2
Use the standard procedure to add the clients to the domain with
this common image.
3
Duplicate this image as many times a needed in order to create
the desired number of images.
4
Modify separately each image (in Admin mode or by merging
CVol files into the image).
Note that you can use several images with the same set of clients
even if the images are not coming from a common strain image, as
long as only one image is configured so that Image Manager will
process the domain credentials. If you do not activate any repository
for domain credentials in a specific image (and thus the clients using
this image in volatile mode cannot be members of a domain), there
will be no problem making this image co-exist with a domainenabled image.
For example, if the user can choose from three different Windows
XP Pro images at boot time (e.g. Windows XP-Pro Back-Office,
Windows XP-Pro Diagnotic, Windows XP-Pro Open access), the
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Repository for Domain Credentials
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
client computer can still be a member of the domain and use the
same domain credentials no matter which HD image was used to
boot up the computer.
Another application of this unique feature is when the Administrator
changes the unique HD image that is assigned to a client computer
as its system image. For example, the system image is changed from
WindowsXP-Pro-Diag.vol to WindowsXP-Pro-Office.vol. Both
images are made for clients that are members of the same domain
and come from a common strain image. When the system HD image
changes, the domain credentials in the repository do not change. The
same domain credentials will be used whatever the system image.
As the client computers get the same name (from the Neoware
Image Manager server or DHCP), the same domain credentials must
be used (Domain Controllers and Domain Members use client name
as the identifier for joining a domain); this is made possible because
the domain credentials are the same whatever the system HD image.
This is not possible with standard HD based Windows systems.
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Windows XP
Professional Clients
The following procedure requires that you use the Windows XP
Professional client operating system.
Before you perform the following procedure, make sure that the client computer is not a member of a domain. If it is a member of a
domain, you must remove it before you continue.
Once the client computers boot correctly with Neoware Image Manager, do the following:
1
Backup the hard disk image on the server.
You can copy the image to another image file that you will modify. You can copy an image currently used by clients as long as
it is not currently used in Admin mode.
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
151
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
2
Shutdown all the clients that are using the image you will be
modifying. If you will be working on a copy of an image created
in the previous step, make sure that no clients are using that
image.
3
Use the Neoware Image Manager Console to change the default
writing mode for the virtual system volume (the volume usually
mounted as C: on your clients) to Admin mode.
4
Save the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console.
5
Reload the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console so that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
6
Boot ONE client allowed to open the image in Admin mode.
7
Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client user’s database with administrative rights). You cannot use a domain user account because your
client is not a member of a domain.
8
On this client, launch the Neoware Domain Wizard either from
the Start menu by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image
Manager > Tools > Neoware Domain Wizard, or by running the
executable file NeoDomain.exe (usually stored in the subdirectory Client\NeoDomMgr of the Neoware software distribution
package).
The file NeoDomMgr.sys must be stored in the same directory
from which NeoDomain.exe is run.
The following window will be displayed.
152
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
9
Click Next to continue.
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
153
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
10 Select the option Repository on Image Manager server (default)
then click Next.
11 If you use CVolwrite/Volatile mode for your system Virtual
HD, you should keep the default options.
12 Click Apply to continue.
You will see the message Operation completed in the Neoware
Domain Wizard window.
13 Make sure that the client preferred DNS IP address is set to a
Domain Controller IP address. You may need to tune your
DHCP options in order to set the correct preferred DNS Server.
If you are told that there are several network cards with the same
IP address in the client computer, click the No button and leave
the system as it is.
14 On the client, open System Properties (Control Panel > Sys-
Click the Computer Name tab, then click the Network ID
button.
tem).
15 Configure your client so that it becomes a member of your
domain. The following screen captures illustrate the usual
method for joining clients in a domain using the Network Identification Wizard.
154
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
155
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
156
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
157
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
16 When needed, provide the domain administrative account user
name and password. If a computer account already exists in the
domain for the client, you can re-use this account.
17 Reboot the computer.
18 Log on to the client computer using any Domain Account.
19 Shutdown the client computer.
20 Use the Image Manager Console to change the default writing
mode for the virtual volume to CVolwrite/Volatile mode.
Reload the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console so that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
21 Boot one other client.
22 Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client users database with administrative rights), not a domain user account.
23 On the client, open System Properties (Control Panel > System).
Click on the Network ID button. Join the computer to the
domain as you did previously.
24 Reboot the client computer and log in with a Domain User
account.
25 Shutdown the client computer.
26 Repeat steps 20-26 until all the required client computers’
accounts are created.
27 Shutdown the last client.
28 Start all the clients.
29 At the Windows login prompt choose to log on the domain.
You can now enjoy domain related features (roaming profiles, centralized user account management... etc.)
158
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Windows 2000
Professional Clients
The procedure is the same as for Windows XP Professional clients
described in the previous section, except that there is no Network ID
wizard in Windows 2000. Instead, you have to do the following to
replace Network ID wizard operations:
1
Run the Control Panel > System applet.
2
Select the Computer Name tab.
3
Click the Change button.
4
If the client is indicated to be a member of a domain, make it a
member of a workgroup. Do not reboot when Windows asks you
to reboot.
5
Select the Domain option to add the client into the domain. Provide user credentials as needed (you must provide the credentials of a user that can add and remove computers in the desired
domain).
6
Validate each step until Windows asks you to reboot.
7
Reboot the client computer.
Client Names
As domain controllers use the client name to retrieve the security
data relative to each client so that it can connect to the domain, it is
required that each client always get the same name. To achieve this
you can use client host name and static DHCP entries (DHCP reservations). If a client name changes, it must be added to the domain
again.
Adding a New
Client to the
Domain
When you need to add a new client computer to the domain, if the
Neoware Domain Wizard has already been applied to the virtual volume, you do not need to re-apply it. You just need to make the new
client computer boot on the virtual volume in the same way that you
added the clients previously. Use the Network Identification Wizard,
just as you did for the other clients.
It is possible to add Neoware Image Manager clients to the domain
without having to sit in front of each client to perform domain membership subscription.
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
159
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
It is possible to use automated scripts that use the Microsoft netdom
utility in order to perform the "join domain" task.
Netdom for Windows 2000 sp4 clients is available at the following
Internet address:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/servicepacks/SP4/supporttools.asp
for Windows XP sp2 clients is available at the following
Internet address:
Netdom
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=49ae8576-9bb9-4126-9761-ba8011fabf38&displaylang=en
The following is an example of a startup script for automatically
joining clients to a domain:
net start workstation
set verif=0
SET DomainName=ADomain
SET UserName=AnAdmin
SET UserPass=s3cr3tp4ssw0rd
netdom.exe verify %computername% /Domain:%DomainName%
IF %ERRORLEVEL% NEQ 0 (
set verif=1
netdom.exe join %computername% /Domain:%DomainName%
/Userd:%UserName% /Passwrdd:%UserPass%
)
IF %verif% EQU 1 (
IF %ERRORLEVEL% EQU 0 (
Shutdown -f -r -t 120
goto end
)
)
:end
SET DomainName=
SET UserName=
SET UserPass=
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Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
In order for such a script to work, you have to make sure that:
• netdom.exe is in the system search path (for example, copy it in
c:\windows\system32).
• the Environment variables DomainName, UserName and UserPass
are consistent. (UserName must be the name of a user account in
the domain specified by DomainName. UserName must have the
right to add and remove computers in DomainName.)
• the settings of the Windows instance contained in your image are
such that the service NetLogon is started automatically.
• this script is launched before the login dialog is displayed. To
achieve this, use a computer startup script that you would set
using the Group Policy editor (gpedit.msc) run on a client that
had mounted the image in Admin mode.
• there is no pre-existing NeoDomSO file (where the domain creden-
tials are stored) for the client that has to be added to the domain.
These files are usually stored in a folder named with the client’s
MAC address in the folder specified by the client_files_dir
parameter.
Note that this script can stay in the image even after the clients are
joined to the domain. Then, when you add a new client, all you have
to do is make sure that it gets the name you specified (e.g. in the
Image Manager console). It will boot once and join the domain, then
reboot and be a member of the domain.
Storing Domain Credentials in an NVDD Server Directory
161
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
The following procedure requires that you use the Windows 2000
Professional or Windows XP Professional operating system.
Before you perform the following procedure, make sure that the
client computer is not a member of a domain. If it is a member of a
domain, you must remove it before you continue.
Once the client computers boot correctly with Neoware Image
Manager, do the following:
1
Backup the hard disk image on the server.
You can copy the image to another image file that you will modify. You can copy an image currently used by clients as long as
it is not currently used in Admin mode.
162
2
Shutdown all the clients that are using the image you will be
modifying. If you will be working on a copy of an image created
in the previous step, make sure that no clients are using that
image.
3
Use Neoware Image Manager Console to change the default
writing mode for the virtual system volume (the volume usually
mounted as C: on your clients) to Admin mode.
4
If you want to store the domain credentials in a Neoware Image
Manager virtual HD, modify the Neoware Image Manager
server configuration so that the clients will mount an extra drive.
Set the relevant writing mode so that your clients will mount this
extra virtual HD in Admin mode. This virtual HD should not be
set as a bootable HD. You can use a copy of smalldisk.vol as
this secondary volume. The size of smalldisk.vol is 8MB
which is enough for domain credentials. If the repository is on
hard disks local to each client computer, you must make sure
that all these hard disks will be mounted with the same driver
letter on every client. Note that using USB-Keys or USB disks
to store the domain credentials is not possible.
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
5
Save the nvdd configuration file in Neoware Image Manager
Console.
6
Reload the nvdd configuration file in Neoware Image Manager
Console so that the writing mode changes are taken into
account.
7
Boot ONE client.
8
Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client user’s database with administrative rights). You cannot use a domain user account because the
client is not a member of a domain.
9
Check that you can actually access the new extra drive. (Use
Windows Explorer, check that the extra drive is present and that
you can create and delete files or directories on it.)
10 Reboot the client computer. (This step is important, do not miss
it!)
11 Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client user’s database with administrative rights).
12 On this client, launch the Neoware Domain Wizard either from
the Start menu by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image
Manager > Tools > Neoware Domain Wizard, or by running the
executable file NeoDomain.exe (usually stored in the subdirectory Client\NeoDomMgr of the Neoware software distribution
package).
The files NeoDomMgr.sys and License.txt must be stored in
the same directory from which NeoDomain.exe is run.
The following window will be displayed.
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163
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
13 Click Next to continue.
14 Select the option Repository in non-system Partition.
15 In the field Path to repository folder, enter the path of the direc-
tory in which you do want the domain credentials to be stored
164
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
(e.g. D:\). Note that you can only choose a directory on an existing drive as the path to repository folder.
If you check the option Hide repository drive in Windows
the drive on which the repository is housed will not
appear in Windows explorer. This uses the NoDrive registry
feature of Windows. For more details about NoDrive, refer to:
Explorer,
http://www.windowsitpro.com/Article/ArticleID/37880/
37880.html?Ad=1
16
Click Next to continue.
17 If you plan to use CVolwrite/Volatile mode for your system Vir-
tual HD when it is used in production, you should keep the
default options.
Refer to the following web sites for information on the Foreground Policy option:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q305293/
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/
windowsserver2003/library/ServerHelp/274e614e-f5154b80-b794-fe09b5c21bad.mspx
18 Click Apply to continue.
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165
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
You will see the message Operation completed in the Neoware
Domain Wizard window.
19 Make sure that the client preferred DNS IP address is set to a
Domain Controller IP address. You may need to tune your
DHCP server options in order to set the preferred DNS server
for your clients. If you are told that there are several network
cards with the same IP address in the client computer, click the
No button and leave the system as it is.
20 On the client, open System Properties (Control Panel > Sys-
Click on the Computer Name tab then click the Change
button.
tem).
21 Check the Domain option so that the computer is made a mem-
ber of a domain. Provide the domain name. If needed, provide
the domain administrative account user name and password. If a
computer account already exists in the domain for the client, you
can re-use this account.
22 Change the write mode for the extra volume (the one that stored
Domain Credentials) to CVolwrite/Normal and reload the configuration on the server side. Reload the configuration file so
that Neoware Image Manager server takes this new setting into
account.
23 Reboot the computer.
24 Log on to the client computer using any Domain Account.
25 Shutdown the client computer.
26 Use the Neoware Image Manager Console to change the default
writing mode for the virtual system volume (the volume usually
mounted as C: on your clients) to CVolwrite/Normal mode, or
CVolwrite/Volatile mode if you know that you can remove client computers from the domain and insert them again without
rebooting (refer to the following sections).
27 Save the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console.
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Adding Clients to Windows Domains
28 Reload the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Con-
sole so that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
29 Boot one other client.
30 Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client user’s database with administrative rights). Do not use a domain user account.
31 On the client, open System Properties (Control Panel > Sys-
Click on the Computer Name tab then click the Change
button.
tem).
32 Change the Domain options so that the computer is made a
member of a WORKGROUP and not a domain anymore. Provide the workgroup name (use the Domain name as the workgroup name). If needed, provide the domain administrative
account user name and password. Click the OK buttons until the
system properties windows close.
33 Optional, if you validated it (refer to the section “Do I Need to
Reboot?” on page 169): Reboot the computer as Windows asks.
34 If you rebooted in the previous step, log on this client using an
Administrator Local User account. Open System Properties
(Control Panel > System). Click on the Computer Name tab
then click the Change button.
35 Check the Domain option so that the computer is made a mem-
ber of a domain. Provide the domain name. If needed, provide
the domain administrative account user name and password. If a
computer account already exists in the domain for the client, you
can re-use this account.
36 Reboot the client computer and log in with a Domain User
account.
37 Shutdown the client computer.
38 Repeat steps 29-38 until there are no more clients to add to the
domain.
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167
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
39 Optional, depending on the "no-need for reboot" validation
(refer to the section “Do I Need to Reboot?” on page 169): Use
the Neoware Image Manager Console to change the default writing mode for the virtual system volume (the volume usually
mounted as C: on your clients) to CVolwrite/Volatile. Save the
nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console. Reload
the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console so
that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
40 Now, at the Windows login prompt, you can choose to log on
the domain.
You can now enjoy domain related features (roaming profiles,
centralized user account management... etc.).
Client IP Addresses
If the domain credentials are stored in a Neoware Image Manager
virtual HD, the Neoware Domain Wizard uses the client IP address
to retrieve the security data relative to each client. This data makes it
possible for the client to connect to the domain (the personalized
data are stored in a CVol file that uses the client IP address). It is
therefore essential that each client always get the same IP address.
To achieve this you can use client host name and static DHCP
entries (DHCP reservations). If a client IP address changes, it must
be added to the domain again.
Adding a New
Client to the
Domain
When you need to add a new client computer to the domain, if the
Neoware Domain Wizard has already been applied to the virtual volume, you do not need to re-apply it. You just need to make the new
client computer boot on the virtual volume in the same way that you
added the clients previously. Make sure that this client has access to
the disk where the Domain Credentials are stored, then make this client leave the domain and join it again, just as you did for the other
clients.
It is possible to add Neoware Image Manager clients to the domain
without having to sit in front of each client to perform domain membership subscription. You can use the Microsoft resource tool netdom and perform the steps Remove from domain/add to workgroup,
168
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
add to domain again using scripts run by the clients when they boot-
up.
It is possible to use automated scripts that use the Microsoft netdom
utility in order to perform the "leave domain" and "join domain"
tasks. Netdom can even be configured to reboot the computer after it
has performed "leave domain" or "join domain" tasks, if you validated that this step is needed.
Netdom for Windows 2000 sp4 clients is available at the following
Internet address:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/servicepacks/SP4/supporttools.asp
Netdom for Windows XP sp2 clients is available at the following
Internet address:
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=49ae8576-9bb9-4126-9761-ba8011fabf38&displaylang=en
Do I Need to
Reboot?
Usually, depending on each system configuration, you do not need
to reboot after the client leaves the domain and before it can join it
again. However, it has been reported that joining a domain has failed
when you have not rebooted, while it succeeded when it has been
rebooted and the client opened the System volume in CVolwrite/
Normal mode during the leave/join domain operation.
All that we can recommend is that you do your own tests. Testing
domain integration without rebooting can be done as follows:
• After you added the first client to the domain, change the default
writing mode to CVolwrite/Volatile.
• Use at least 3 client computers. If you use less than 3 clients, the
test is not relevant.
• Try to remove the clients from the domain and then join them to
the domain again without rebooting between the leave domain
and join domain step.
Storing Domain Credentials on a Non-Volatile Drive
169
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
• Try to log on to each of these client computers with Domain User
credentials.
If you can log on these clients using Domain User name and password, you do not need to reboot between removing and joining each
client to the domain again.
Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
The following procedure requires that you use the Windows 2000
Professional or Windows XP Professional operating system.
When you run Client Builder to build the image of the Reference
HD, the client computer must not be a member of a domain.
Once the client computers boot correctly with Neoware Image Manager, do the following:
1
Backup the hard disk image on the server.
You can copy the image to another image file that you will modify. You can copy an image currently used by clients as long as
it is not currently used in Admin mode.
170
2
Shutdown all the clients that are using the image you will be
modifying. If you will be working on a copy of an image created
in the previous step, make sure that no clients are using that
image.
3
Use the Neoware Image Manager Console to change the default
writing mode for the virtual system volume (the volume usually
mounted as C: on your clients) to Admin mode.
4
Save the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console.
5
Reload the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console so that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
6
Boot ONE client.
Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
7
Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client user’s database with administrative rights). Do not use a domain user account.
8
On this client, launch the Neoware Domain Wizard either from
the Start menu by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image
Manager > Tools > Neoware Domain Wizard, or by running the
executable file NeoDomain.exe (usually stored in the subdirectory Client\NeoDomMgr of the Neoware software distribution
package).
The files NeoDomMgr.sys and License.txt must be stored in
the same directory from which NeoDomain.exe is run.
The following window will be displayed.
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171
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
9
Click Next to continue.
10 Select the option Repository in System Partition then click
Next.
11 If you use CVolwrite/Volatile mode for your system Virtual
HD, you should keep the default options.
172
Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
Refer to the following web sites for information on the Foreground Policy option:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q305293/
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/
windowsserver2003/library/ServerHelp/274e614e-f5154b80-b794-fe09b5c21bad.mspx
12 Click Apply to continue.
You will see the message Operation completed in the Neoware
Domain Wizard window.
13 Make sure that the client preferred DNS IP address is set to a
Domain Controller IP address. You may need to tune your
DHCP options in order to set the correct preferred DHCP
Server. If you are told that there are several network cards with
the same IP address in the client computer, click the No button
and leave the system as it is.
14 On the client, open System Properties (Control Panel > System)
and click the Change button.
15 Check the Domain option so that the computer is made a mem-
ber of a domain. Provide the domain name. If needed, provide
the domain administrative account user name and password. If a
computer account already exists in the domain for the client, you
can re-use this account.
16 Reboot the computer.
17 Log on to the client computer using any Domain Account.
18 Shutdown the client computer.
19 Boot one other client, or the same client after having changed its
computer name. In the second case, you will need to change the
computer name in the Neoware Image Manager configuration,
or in DHCP settings, so that the computer name gets the new
name when it boots. (Refer to the section “Client Names” on
page 174 for details.)
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173
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
20 Log on this client using an Administrator Local User Account (a
user account local to this client users database with administrative rights), not a domain user account.
21 Repeat steps 13-20 until all the required client computers’
accounts are created.
22 Shutdown the last client.
23 Use the Image Manager Console to change the default writing
mode for the virtual volume to CVolwrite/Volatile mode (or
CVolwrite/Normal mode if this suits your requirements).
24 Save the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Console.
25 Reload the nvdd configuration file in the Image Manager Con-
sole so that the writing mode changes are taken into account.
26 Start all the clients.
27 At the Windows login prompt choose to log on the domain.
You can now enjoy domain related features (roaming profiles,
centralized user account management... etc.).
Client Names
As domain controllers use the client name to retrieve the security
data relative to each client so that it can connect to the domain, it is
required that each client always get the same name. To achieve this
you can use Neoware Image Manager client naming or DHCP client
host name and static DHCP entries (DHCP reservations). If a client
name changes, it must be added to the domain again.
Adding a New
Client to the
Domain
When you need to add a new client computer to the domain, if the
Neoware Domain Wizard has already been applied to the virtual volume, you do not need to re-apply it. You just need to make the new
client computer boot on the virtual volume in Admin mode to make
it a member of the domain (log on with Local Administrator
account, make it leave the domain, reboot it, join it to the domain)
and then reboot it once.
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Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
Adding Clients to Windows Domains
It is possible to add Neoware Image Manager clients to the domain
without having to sit in front of each client to perform domain membership subscription. You can just use one client PC to add all the
clients into the domain. All that is required is that the clients’ computer names are added to the domain. Then, using the same client
PC, change its name in Neoware Image Manager server or DHCP
configuration between each reboot and add the new client name to
the domain as described earlier.
You can use the netdom tool from the Windows Resource Kit to create automated scripts that can be used to add/remove clients to/from
a domain. Refer to the relevant Resource Kit documentation for
more details about the netdom tool.
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Adding Clients to Windows Domains
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Storing Domain Credentials in the System Partition
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 15
Merging Image &
CVol Files
This chapter describes how to use the CVolMerge tool to create a
new hard disk image from an existing image and a CVol file.
Introduction
The CVolMerge tool enables you to create a new hard disk image
file from an existing image and a CVol file, or update an existing
image with the content of a CVol file. In the new hard disk image
file, the sectors in the existing image file are replaced by the corresponding sectors in the CVol file. The size of the CVol file can be
reduced by using the CVolCompactor tool before merging the two
files.
Assuming default Server installation, the CVolMerge and
CVolCompactor executable files can be found in the following
directory:
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\
Server\Tools
Assuming default Decompress installation, the CVolMerge and
CVolCompactor executable files can be found in one of the following directories:
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server\
Windows\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server\
Linux\Dynamic\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server\
Linux\Static\Tools
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Merging Image & CVol Files
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server\
FreeBSD\Dynamic\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\Server\
FreeBSD\Static\Tools
Using the CVolCompactor Tool
The CVolCompactor tool is used to reduce the size of a CVol file
before merging it with a hard disk image file.
CVolCompactor will look at the sectors in the CVol file and compare
them with the sectors in the image file. If the sectors are the same,
they are removed from the CVol file. The new CVol file that is generated will only contain the sectors that are actually different from
those in the image file. Note that sectors are written consecutively in
the new CVol file, so it effectively defragments it. The CVolCompactor tool is also useful because several processes in Windows OS are
actually writing the same data in the same sectors at regular intervals
(registry hives, for example, are regularly dumped on the hard disk).
The syntax for the CVolCompactor command is as follows:
CVolCompactor <CVol header filename> <image filename>
<new CVol filename>
Windows example:
CVolCompactor testdisk@00E0C554E700 testdisk.vol
testdisknew@00E0C554E700
Using the CVolMerge Tool
The CVolMerge tool is used to merge the contents of a CVol file with
a hard disk image file to create a new image file.
The syntax for the CVolMerge command is as follows:
CVolMerge <existing HD image file path> <CVol file path> [new
HD image file path]
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Using the CVolCompactor Tool
Merging Image & CVol Files
Please note that CVolMerge does not check if the parameter <CVol
file path> actually refers to a CVol file relative to the hard disk
image in <Existing HD image file path>.
Also, remember that the [new HD image file] parameter is
optional; if you do not specify it, CVolMerge will just update the
existing image file with the content of the CVol file.
Windows example:
CVolMerge \HDimages\big2k.vol \cvols\big2k@00E0C554E700
\HDImages\NewBig2K.vol
Linux/Unix example:
./CVolMerge /HDimages/big2k.vol/cvols/
big2k@00E0C554E700 /HDImages/NewBig2K.vol
Using the CVolMerge Tool
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Merging Image & CVol Files
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Using the CVolMerge Tool
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 16
The Image Manager
Console
This chapter describes how to use the Image Manager Console to
change settings in an nvdd configuration file.
Introduction
The Image Manager Console provides a graphical interface for
editing an nvdd.<image filename>.conf configuration file. Each
Neoware Image Manager Server module will use its own nvdd
configuration file that defines virtual hard disk volumes and
specifies which clients can access them. Refer to the chapter “The
NVDD Configuration File” on page 213 for more detailed
information on the settings that the Image Manager Console
enables you to modify.
Running the Image Manager Console
To run the Image Manager Console from the Start menu, select
Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Neoware Image Manager Console.
Note: You may need to enter a password if you want to access configuration files on a remote Neoware Image Manager server. Refer
to the section “Password for Remote Administration” on page 210
for details on how to set a password.
To open a configuration file in the Console, display the File menu
and select Open. Image configuration files have the file extension
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The Image Manager Console
.conf.
(See later in this chapter for how to open a server configuration file of a server that is actually running, and how to reload a
modified configuration file into a server that is running.)
When an image configuration file is opened in the Image Manager
Console, the two panels will list the associated Clients and Volumes.
The Clients panel on the left displays the names of computers (i.e.
subnets) and groups of computers. The Volumes panel on the right
displays the names of all the volumes (i.e. disk images) that can be
assigned to the groups of computers.
Each volume name has a check box next to it. This indicates whether
the volume is assigned to the currently selected computer group.
Selecting a computer or group name will indicate the volumes
associated with it. You can easily select or deselect volumes for a
specific group by selecting the name of the group (or a computer
within it) then clicking the relevant volume check boxes.
If you want to make a computer a member of a group, just drag and
drop the computer icon on the target group.
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Running the Image Manager Console
The Image Manager Console
The Toolbar
The toolbar provides a quick way of accessing menu options just by
clicking a button.
New
To create a new configuration file.
Open
To open an existing configuration file.
Save
To save the currently opened configuration file.
New Group
To define a new group of computers.
New Client
To define a new computer or subnet of computers.
New Volume
To define a new volume.
Merge
To merge volume details contained in another
configuration file with the currently opened one.
Generic Properties
To define various properties such as
network access, client overlay file directories, etc.
Nvdd Manager
To control any running Neoware Image Manager,
especially remote (access, load and reload
configuration files).
Properties
To view the properties of the selected object.
Delete
To delete the selected object.
The Toolbar
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The Image Manager Console
Search
To search an object.
About
To open the About dialog.
The File Menu
The File menu provides standard functions for opening and saving
files, and exiting the Image Manager Console.
The Edit Menu
The Edit menu enables you to create clients and volumes, and view
and edit their properties.
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The File Menu
The Image Manager Console
Selecting Create will display a menu enabling you to create a new
Computer, Group or Volume. Note that you must select a corresponding object in the relevant Console panel in order to create a
new version of that object. The dialogs displayed when you select
these options are the same as those when you select Properties.
Selecting Properties will display a Properties dialog for the currently selected Computer, Group, or Volume. Refer to the section“Displaying & Changing Properties” on page 186 for details.
Selecting Delete will delete the currently selected Computer, Group,
or Volume in the Console panel.
Selecting Find will display a dialog enabling you to search for a
specified name within Groups, Computers and Volumes. This makes
it easy to find an element in a large configuration file..
The Tools Menu
The Tools menu provides a set of tools for managing the Image
Manager server, clients and volumes.
Selecting Generic options will display a dialog enabling you to specify general settings such as the default maximum CVol size, network
buffer size, etc.
The Tools Menu
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The Image Manager Console
Selecting Nvdd Manager will display a dialog enabling you to connect to a running Image Manager server and open and edit configuration files on it.
Selecting Merge conf file will display a dialog that enables you to
open another configuration file in order to copy volume settings
from it into the currently open configuration file.
The View Menu
The View menu enables you enable or disable display of the Toolbar
and Status bar.
The Help Menu
The Help menu enables you to display information about your version of the Neoware Image Manager Console.
Displaying & Changing Properties
The properties of a Computer, Group, or Volume can be displayed
and changed either by right-clicking on its name and selecting Properties from the pop-up menu, or by selecting its name then display-
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The View Menu
The Image Manager Console
ing the Edit menu and selecting Properties. A Properties dialog is
displayed when you create a Computer, Group or Volume.
Client Properties
The Client Properties dialog enables you to specify the properties of
a client Object. These properties contain the name assigned to the
client object, whether this object is a collection of workstations or a
subnet (or a single workstation), or an individual client identified by
its IP address or MAC address.
Name
This field enables you to specify a name for the Client Object as it
will appear in the Clients list.
Client Identification
The Client Identification property specifies how Neoware Image
Manager identifies the Client Object: either by specifying a single IP
address,
Displaying & Changing Properties
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The Image Manager Console
or specifying a unique MAC Address,
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Displaying & Changing Properties
The Image Manager Console
or specifying an IP subnet.
When idenfified as a subnet, the identification is made of two fields.
The IP address (address of the “network”) and the subnet mask.
Typical subnet masks are:
32 This is the subnet mask for a single IP address.
For example, 194.599.93.24/32 means a range of 1 IP address
(a single client computer). When a client object identified by
subnet has a subnet mask of 32, it is in fact a unique IP address
and it will be treated accordingly.
24 254 IP addresses (a complete class C).
For example, 192.168.0.0/24 means all the IP addresses
between 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.0.254.
16 65534 IP addresses (a complete class B).
For example, 172.16.0.0/16 means all the IP addresses between
172.16.0.0 and 172.16.254.254.
0
Is usually only used with IP address 0.0.0.0.
0.0.0.0/0 means all the IP addresses.
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The Image Manager Console
If several definitions exist that match the same client, the priorities
are as follows (highest priority first):
1
MAC address,
2
Unique IP address (actually IP subnet with subnet mask of 32
bits),
3
IP subnet with subnet mask of 31 bits,
4
IP subnet with subnet mask of 30 bits,
...
33 IP subnet with subnet mask of 1 bit,
34 IP subnet with subnet mask of 0 bit (actually 0.0.0.0/0, the
“everybody” group in the default nvdd.conf file).
It is recommended that you keep the "everybody" client object in
order to define the “otherwise unknown clients”.
Client-Driven Name Change
Neoware Image Manager has the capability to retain individual client names, based on their MAC addresses, even when they booted in
volatile mode. In particular, Neoware Image Manager server can
record a name that changed so that the corresponding client will get
the new name when it reboots, even if it boots in volatile mode. The
feature, called “Client-Driven name change” can be enabled or disabled. In most cases, you do not want the users to be able to change
a client name.
The Neoware Image Manager configuration file contains a parameter that specifies the default behavior. This parameter is available in
the Tools > Generic options dialog (see later in this section).
If you would like a specific client object to be able to change and
save the client name in the nvdd configuration file in the future, uncheck the Use Generic Option check box and select the Enabled
option.
If you want to forbid this option, select Disable.
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Displaying & Changing Properties
The Image Manager Console
If you want this client to follow the default behaviour set in the
Generic Properties dialog, check the Use Generic Option check box.
Note that when Use Generic Option is checked, the greyed options
will reflect the value of the default options (either Enabled or
Disable).
For more information on client naming, refer to the section “Client
Naming” on page 233.
Group Properties
The Group Properties dialog specifies the name of a collection of
computers (i.e. subnets). The volume that this group of computers
use to boot from by default is specified by making a selection from
the Volume to boot from list.
The boot volumes listed here are those that have the Boot option
checked in their properties dialog and have been selected in the Volumes panel for the current group. Note that all the bootable volumes
listed here will also be displayed on the client screen at boot time,
enabling the user to choose the volume to boot from. This setting
determines the volume that is used by default if the user does not
make a selection within ten seconds.
If no bootable volumes are assigned to the currently selected group,
the Volume to boot from list will be empty.
Displaying & Changing Properties
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The Image Manager Console
Volume Properties
The Volume Properties dialog provides a range of options for defining a volume that can be accessed by clients. It is divided into several tabs, with the General tab shown by default. Refer to the section
“Creating a Volume” on page 193 for details.
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Displaying & Changing Properties
The Image Manager Console
Creating a Volume
You can create a new volume either by right-clicking in the Volume
panel and selecting Create Volume in the pop-up menu, or by displaying the Edit menu and selecting Create then Volume. A dialog
consisting of several tabs is displayed. This dialog is also displayed
when you view the Properties of a selected volume.
The General Tab
The General tab enables you to specify a name for the volume that
will be used to identify it in the Console and also as a prefix for associated CVol files, and the physical parameters of the volume.
CAUTION: You should not change the name of a volume currently
in use by Neoware Image Manager client, nor should you change a
volume name if there are CVol files related to this volume that you
want to use. If you change the name of a volume, existing CVol files
related to this volume will not be linked to the volume anymore. The
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193
The Image Manager Console
names of the CVol files are directly derived from the related Volume
name and changing this name while the volume is mounted by
Neoware Image Manager client will crash the clients.
The Console will display a warning when you want to change an
existing volume name
Specify the name of the hard disk image file to use in the File name
box (click the ... button to browse for it), or enter the complete or relative (to the directory where the NVDD server module is located)
path and filename if it is not in the same directory as the NVDD
server module.
CAUTION:
• You can change the File name of a volume currently in use by
Neoware Image Manager client only when the new file is a copy
of the old file. If this is not the case, changing the file name of a
volume currently in use would be equivalent to hot-swapping the
system disk of your clients with another system disk!
• If the volume is not currently mounted by Image Manager clients
and you change the File name to an HDD image file that is not
an exact copy of the previous one and there are existing CVol
files associated with the volume, you must delete the CVol files
(or make sure the client will all use Volatile mode) before the clients can actually mount the volume.
The Description field enables you to provide a brief description of
the volume which will be displayed on the client screen when it
starts, when multi-boot is enabled (when the client can boot off various volumes).
The Physical Parameters options enable you to specify the "physical
parameters" of the volume and whether it is used as a boot drive or
as storage. The single-volume configuration file that Client Builder
creates contains the parameters (especially geometry parameters) to
be used with the corresponding volume.
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Creating a Volume
The Image Manager Console
The Parameters Tab
The Parameters tab enables you to specify the client writing mode
for the volume and how it is shared.
The Volume Mode settings enable you to specify the standard writing mode to be used, while the Special clients options enable you to
specify a different writing mode for individual clients. (For a
description of the writing modes, refer to the section “Volume Write
Modes” on page 82.) The clients listed in the Special clients mode
tabs are defined in the Neoware Image Manager server configuration
file. (Refer to the appropriate sections for details.)
The Volume ID is the internal identification number that will be used
for client/server communications. This number must be unique (one
per volume). The numbers are usually generated automatically if the
configuration file does not set them. The numbers are not generated
automatically when a volume definition is imported from an existing
configuration file (for instance, from a single-volume configuration
file created by Client Builder).
Creating a Volume
195
The Image Manager Console
The CVol Tab
The CVOL tab enables you to specify a different directory for this
volume’s CVol files if they are not to be stored in the general CVol
directory (specified in the General tab of the Generic Properties
dialog). You can also specify the maximum size that the CVol data
file for this volume can grow to. Note that you can change this
maximum size even when there are existing CVol files related to this
volume, even if some have reached the current maximum size. All
you would need to do would be to restart the server or reload the
configuration file and, sometimes (when the clients are frozen
because of "disk full" errors), reboot the clients.
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Creating a Volume
The Image Manager Console
The Computers tab
The Computers tab will display the names of all the computers that
can share this volume. (This is not where you specify which computers share the volume.)
Double-clicking on a group or computer name will display the relevant Properties dialog.
We highly recommend that you set Admin computers according to
your requirements and do not leave the client object "everybody" in
this field. Only the actual clients allowed to perform administrative
operations (changes in the image file itself) should be listed in this
field.
Creating a Volume
197
The Image Manager Console
The Allowed
Computers Tab
The Allowed Computers tab enables you to specify which computers
or subnets are allowed to access this volume, and which computers
or subnets are allowed in Admin mode.
To add a computer to the Allowed computers or Admin computers
list, select the computer name in the central list box then click the +
(plus) button under the relevant list box to add it to that list. To
delete a computer from a list, just select its name then click the (minus) button under the list.
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Creating a Volume
The Image Manager Console
Generic Options
The General Tab
The General tab enables you to specify settings that affect network
access, the directory to use for client volumes, and the default maximum size of the CVol file and the default Client-Driven name
change behaviour.
The CVOL Size setting specifies the maximum size that CVol data
files can grow to.
Note that you can change this maximum size even when there are
existing CVol files, even if some have reached the current maximum
size. All you would need to do would be to restart the server or
reload the configuration file and, sometimes (when the clients are
frozen because of “disk full" errors), reboot the clients.
Generic Options
199
The Image Manager Console
The Flush disk data on write operation option is used when you
want to make 100% sure that when a client sends a request to write
some data, it gets an acknowledgement that the write operation succeeded when the data have actually been written on the disk drive.
This option is usually set when you have a cluster of servers that use
a shared storage.
Note: This option has a negative impact on performance and is not
recommended for servers that are not tailored for very fast disk
operations.
When used in “high-availability” environments, checking this option
will make sure that if one of the servers in the cluster fails, no data
will be lost: data that would have been sent to the server in write
requests and that would not have been actually written to the disk
would be considered by the client as non-written, then the client
would re-send its write request.
When used in “high-availability” environments, unchecking this
option could lead to situations when a client would have considered
some data to have been written on the server’s disk when actually
this data could have not been transferred from the server’s buffers to
the disk. If the server fails while there are uncommitted data in its
write buffer, another server would replace it (because there is a cluster of servers) but the data that have not been committed to the disk
by the server that just failed would be lost, though the client would
consider them as been written, resulting in potential data corruptions.
The setting of the Client-Driven name change allowed (default
behaviour) option determines the default action of the NVDD server
when a computer name is changed by a client during a session, and a
specific Client-Driven name change property is not defined for the
Client Object that contains that client. When this option is selected
the server will store the new computer name in the nvdd configuration file by default so that it is reapplied the next time that client
boots. When this option is not selected, the new computer name will
not be stored, so when the client reboots it will reassert its original
name. Note that the Client Properties dialog has a similar setting to
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Generic Options
The Image Manager Console
allow specific clients to override this general setting. For more information on client naming, refer to the section “Client Naming” on
page 233.
Note: If you disable the parameter Client-Driven Name Change
(default behavior) and you enable Client-Driven Name Change for
the Client Object “everybody” (IP range:0.0.0.0/0), this has the
result that unknown clients (not identified by a unique MAC or IP
address, belonging to “everybody” subnet), can store their name on
the NVD server, but then this name cannot be changed unless the
configuration file is modified so that the client has its Client-Driven
Name Change property explicitly enabled.
The other options in this dialog are described in the chapter “The
NVDD Configuration File” on page 213.
The Directories Tab
The Client volume folder setting specifies the general directory
where CVol files will be stored. Note that you can specify a different
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201
The Image Manager Console
directory for a volume’s CVol files on the CVOL tab of the Volume
dialog.
Properties
The Client files folder setting specifies the root directory for file
transfer. Files transferred by a client will be placed in a subdirectory
within this directory. The name of each subdirectory will consist of
the MAC address of the client initiating the file transfer. Any file
transferred to or from the admin client (nvddadmin) must be based
on this directory, or a subdirectory of it. If you used Domain Credentials on NVDD Server, the domain credentials for each client are also
stored in this folder. Refer to the chapter “Adding Clients to Windows Domains” on page 147 for further details.
The Client files folder directory stores temporary files that the nvdd
process creates, including a copy of the original server configuration
file which the nvdd process actually works with. If the NVDD server
experiences any problems, such as a power failure, temporary files
that were in use will be stored in a subdirectory called restoredfiles, enabling an administrator to recover the data stored in them.
For more information on file transfer, refer to the appendix “File
Transfer” on page 345.
The Certificates file setting specifies the name of the SSL certificate
that the server is to use for admin connection.
The Certificates pwd setting specifies the password used to encrypt
the certificate file (if any).
Note that even if SSL encryption is disabled in Neoware Image
Manager, the certificate still has to be specified and valid.
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Generic Options
The Image Manager Console
The Executable
Paths Tab
The Binary files folder setting specifies the path to the tools that can
be launched by the server during a remote session from nvddadmin.
MD5 Executable and Archiver Executable enable you to specify different executable files to the default ones used for these operations.
MD5 Parameters and Archiver Parameters allow you to set custom
parameters for the defined executables. These parameters will be
taken into account ONLY if you provide executable names in the
corresponding fields.
MD5 Executable default: md5sum.exe
(Windows) or md5sum (Linux/
BSD).
MD5 Parameters default: the only parameter given to the executable
file will be the filename given by the administrator through nvddadmin. If MD5 Parameters is set, the parameters will be given first, followed by the filename. For example:
<md5_file> [<md5_params>] <filename>
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203
The Image Manager Console
Archiver Executable
default: gunzip.exe (Windows) or gunzip
(Linux/FreeBSD).
Archiver Parameters default:
the only parameter given to the executable file will be the filename given by the administrator through
nvddadmin. If Archiver Parameters is set, the parameters will be
given first, followed by the filename. For example:
<unzip_file> [<unzip_params>] <filename>
Note that you can use batch file (.bat or .cmd under windows, shell
scripts under Linux/FreeBSD) as the executable. This may be useful
when using executable files that do not accept the file name as the
last parameter.
These fields must contain the names of executable files names,
which must reside in the folder indicated by Binary files folder. The
appropriate permissions must be given to the executable files. Note
that when run as a service under Windows, Neoware Image Manager
runs by default under the authority of “SYSTEM” account
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Generic Options
The Image Manager Console
The Network Tab
The Network tab specifies the address and port to use for communicating with clients, and the Admin protocol address and port for
communicating with the Image Manager server. Admin protocol is
used by Client Builder to create the image file and by Neoware
Image Manager Console to control running servers.
Specifying an IP address of 0.0.0.0 means all the IP addresses
assigned to the server.
Generic Options
205
The Image Manager Console
The Authorized
Subnets Tab
The Authorized subnets tab is a security feature that allows you to
configure the subnets the Image Manager server will accept. The
server will accept requests from any IP address if no subnets are
specified here.
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Generic Options
The Image Manager Console
The Nvdd Manager
One of the most useful features of the Console is the ability to manage running Image Manager servers.
Display the Nvdd Manager dialog by selecting Nvdd Manager in the
Tools menu. This enables you to connect to and manage Image Manager servers directly.
To connect to a running Image Manager server, enter the server’s IP
address, port number (leave as 0 if using the default port number on
the server side), and password if required, then click the Connect
button. Note that the drop-down list contains the server addresses
that have been used previously, so you can quickly select one of
these.
The Nvdd Manager
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The Image Manager Console
When the Console runs on a computer that also runs the Neoware
Image Manager server module, you can use Nvdd Manager and connect to IP address 127.0.0.1 (local host) or to any of the server’s
assigned IP addresses. This makes it possible to reload a modified
configuration file, as long as the file has been opened by clicking the
Open conf file from server button.
Note: This method is the only one that can be used to actually modify a configuration file currently running. Editing the file (either with
a text editor or with the console using File > Open) is not possible as
the configuration file is locked.
When communication has been established with the remote server,
the two list boxes on the left side of the dialog will show the volumes shared by the server and the clients currently communicating
with it. You can select volumes or clients to obtain detailed information on them.
You can force the deletion of a client by clicking the Delete Client
button. This will not remove the client from the configuration, but
stop communication with it - and remove any resource allocated to
it. It may be useful to allow administrators to access CVol files.
The name of the configuration file currently being used by the
remote server is displayed in the Configuration file field. You can
edit this file within the Nvdd Manager dialog by clicking the Open
conf file from server button. When you have finished, click the
Reload conf file button to make the remote server take the changes
into account. The configuration file must have been saved beforehand (using the Save command or button). When you click the
Reload conf file button, the connection to the server is lost. You can
click on Connect again when you want to reconnect to the server.
Clicking the Refresh every button will update the contents of the
dialog that contains the refresh interval, otherwise the contents will
be updated automatically after every number of seconds specified.
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The Nvdd Manager
The Image Manager Console
Merging Configuration Files
The Console enables you to import volume details stored in another
configuration file, especially single-volume configuration files created using Client Builder. The merge command enables you to copy
volume definitions from another configuration file into the current
configuration file.
Display the Merge Information dialog by selecting Merge conf file
in the Tools menu or by clicking the corresponding icon.
Select the desired Configuration file by using the ... button to browse
for it. Click the Load volumes from file button to list the names of
the volumes defined in that configuration file.
Select the volume you want to copy to the current configuration file
then click Add. The volume will appear in the Console Volumes list.
Repeat for each volume you want to add.
You must make sure that the properties of each copied volume specify the location of the hard disk image file associated with the configuration file currently being modified. To do this, double-click on
the name of the volume to display the Volume Properties dialog,
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The Image Manager Console
then change the path specified in File name, or browse to find the
image file. Click OK to finish. Volume IDs for imported volumes
may also have to be tuned manually so that they do not use an existing ID.
Password for Remote Administration
You can configure an NVDD server module so that a password is
required in order to control it remotely using the Image Manager
Console or Client Builder. This is achieved using the NvddPasswd
utility.
The procedure is as follows:
1
Locate the file NvddPasswd.exe, usually in one of the following
subdirectories:
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\
SERVER\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\
SERVER\WINDOWS\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\
SERVER\Linux\Static\Tools
C:\Program Files\Neoware\Image_Manager_4.6\
SERVER\Linux\Dynamic\Tools.
2
Copy NvddPasswd.exe (or NvddPasswd for Linux/FreeBSD
servers) into the same directory as the nvdd server module.
3
Open a shell (command prompt) and key in NvddPasswd.exe
(Windows) or ./NvddPasswd (Linux/*BSD).
4
Type in the password to be used, press the Return key, then
confirm the password by typing it again.
The NvddPasswd utility must be launched whenever the administrator wants to set or change a password that Neoware Image Manager
Console users must enter when they want to control an NVDD
server module remotely.
210
Password for Remote Administration
The Image Manager Console
Note: NvddPasswd can be used while nvdd is running. You do not
need to restart nvdd for the new password to be taken into account
for new connections.
Password for Remote Administration
211
The Image Manager Console
212
Password for Remote Administration
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 17
The NVDD
Configuration File
This chapter describes the nvdd configuration file and the settings
that can be specified in it.
Introduction
The nvdd configuration file is used to define virtual hard disk volumes and specify which clients can access them. Every hard disk
image that Client Builder creates will have an associated configuration file called nvdd.<image filename>.conf. When you install
Neoware Image Manager it will provide you with a basic hard disk
image file called smalldisk.vol and a configuration file called
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf.
Whenever you build a hard disk image using Client Builder, it will
automatically create a new configuration file called nvdd.<image
filename>.conf. For example, if you create an image file called
XPe123.vol, the configuration file for that image will be named
nvdd.XPe123.vol.conf.
The Image Manager Console provides a graphical interface for
editing an nvdd configuration file (see “The Image Manager Console” on page 181), or you can use any text editor to manually edit
the file as described in this chapter.
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The NVDD Configuration File
The nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf File
The nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf file supplied in the Image Manager
installation provides default configuration settings for the basic hard
disk volume smalldisk.vol that is used as the foundation for creating hard disk images and volumes for clients to access.
The following shows the initial contents of the configuration file
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf. These settings enable you to start using
Image Manager to create images and volumes straight away.
address=0.0.0.0
port=2184
admin_addr=0.0.0.0
admin_port=29035
#authorized_subnets = 127.0.0.1/32, 192.168.0.0/24
authorized_subnets=
# client_volumes_dir is the directory where the client
# storage files are stored. The leading slash is needed.
# Note that you can not use backslashes (\) in the files
# and path names, you must use slash (/) instead.
# A sample for client_volume_dir being stored in
# D:\LANPC3\CVOL (Windows Style):
# client_volumes_dir = D:/LANPC3/CVOL/
# A sample for client_volume_dir being stored in
# /usr/local/lanpc3/cvol (Linux/Unix Style):
# client_volumes_dir = /usr/local/lanpc3/cvol/
client_volumes_dir=./
max_idle_time=3600
# sectors_map_size is the max number of sectors that
# can be stored in a client storage file (aka write
# cache file located on the server)
# One sector = 512Bytes = 0.5KB. 1048576 sectors = 512MB
sectors_map_size=1048576
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The NVDD Configuration File
disk_threads=1
recv_buf=131072
send_buf=131072
client_files_dir=./
bin_directory=./tools
certificate_file=./nimcert.pem
certificate_passwd=78gfd3sD
#
# USERS definitions
#
users=everybody, admin
everybody.subnets=0.0.0.0/0
admin.subnets=127.0.0.1/32
#
# VOLUME definitions
#
#volumes = vol0, vol1
volumes=SmallDisk
SmallDisk.id=1
SmallDisk.file=smalldisk.vol
SmallDisk.desc=Small 8MB Virtual Volume
SmallDisk.cylinders=1
SmallDisk.heads=255
SmallDisk.sectors=63
SmallDisk.floppy=false
SmallDisk.boot_device=false
SmallDisk.check_cvol=true
SmallDisk.no_admin_cvol=true
SmallDisk.write_mode=cvolwrite
SmallDisk.cvol_mode=volatile
SmallDisk.sectors_map_size=0
SmallDisk.client_volumes_dir=
SmallDisk.cache_size=0
SmallDisk.type=0
The nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf File
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The NVDD Configuration File
SmallDisk.users=admin, everybody
SmallDisk.unicast_users=admin, everybody
SmallDisk.admin_users=admin, everybody
SmallDisk.admin_mode_users=
SmallDisk.normal_mode_users=
SmallDisk.volatile_mode_users=
#
# GROUP definitions
#
groups=group0
#group0.vols = vol0, vol1
group0.vols=SmallDisk
group0.unicast=true
group0.read_only=false
group0.users=everybody, admin
216
The nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf File
The NVDD Configuration File
Configuration File Settings
The following configuration file setting descriptions generally follow the order shown in the example nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf file
shown in the previous section.
Comments can be specified in the configuration file by beginning
the line with the # character.
Caution: Neoware Image Manager will erase existing comments
when it modifies a configuration file.
An example of a configuration file that supports multiple volumes
can be found at the end of this chapter.
IP Addresses & Port
Numbers
address
(optional – default: 0.0.0.0)
Specifies the IP address used by the nvdd server for NVD (virtual
HDD related) communications. Set this parameter if your server has
several NICs or IP addresses.
port
(optional – default: 2184)
Specifies the port number used by the nvdd server.
admin_addr
(optional – default: same as address)
Specifies the IP address that nvdd must use for administration
purposes (NVDDAdmin protocol). Useful if the server contains
multiple network cards.
admin_port
(optional – default: 29035)
Specifies the port number used by the administration interface.
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The NVDD Configuration File
authorized_subnets
(optional – default: all subnets)
If this setting is present, nvdd will deny access to clients whose IP
addresses do not match the comma-separated list of subnets.
A subnet definition is of the form: a.b.c.d[/bits|:netmask]
where a, b, c, and d must be fully specified.
Timing
max_idle_time
(optional – default: 120)
Clients that have not communicated with nvdd during this time (in
seconds) will be automatically deleted.
Note that contexts are saved in CVol files, allowing clients to communicate with the server again without any problems.
Directory for Client
Volumes
client_volumes_dir=./
This specifies the directory where client CVol files are stored for all
volumes in this configuration file, unless overridden by the same
command used in a volume definition. The trailing slash is required.
Note that you can not use backslashes (\) in the file and path names,
you must use slash (/) instead.
Example for client CVol files being stored in D:\LANPC3\CVOL
(Windows format):
client_volumes_dir = D:/LANPC3/CVOL/
Example for client CVol files being stored in /usr/local/lanpc3/
(Linux/Unix format):
cvol
client_volumes_dir = /usr/local/lanpc3/cvol/
client_volumes_dir=./
To specify different CVol directories for individual volumes, precede the command with the volume name in the relevant volume
definition. For example:
testdisk.client_volumes_dir = F:/LANPC3/CVOL/
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Configuration File Settings
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Directories for File
Transfer
client_files_dir = ./files/
This option specifies the root directory for file transfer.
Files transferred by a client will be placed in a subdirectory within
this directory. The name of each subdirectory will consist of the
MAC address of the client initiating the file transfer.
Any file transferred to or from the admin client (nvddadmin) must be
based on this directory, or a subdirectory of it.
When NeoDomain has been run to enable Domain Credentials on
Neoware Image Manager Server, Domain Credentials are stored in
these subdirectories, in a file called NeoDomSO.
The directory specified by the parameter client_files_dir also
stores temporary files that the nvdd process creates, including a copy
of the original server configuration file which the nvdd process actually works with. If the NVDD server experiences any problems,
such as a power failure, temporary files that were in use will be
stored in a subdirectory called restoredfiles, enabling an administrator to recover the data stored in them.
For more information on file transfer and the directories used, refer
to the appendix “File Transfer” on page 345.
Directory for
Binaries
Bin_directory = ./tools/
This option specifies the path to the tools that can be launched by the
server during a remote session from nvddadmin.
Md5_file = [<filename>]
(optional – default: md5sum.exe (Windows) or md5sum (Linux/BSD)
This specifies the name of the executable file the server is to use
when it receives an "MD5" command from nvddadmin. The specified executable file will be used instead of the default md5sum.exe
(Windows) or md5sum (Linux/BSD).
The executable file MUST be placed in the directory pointed to by
bin_directory.
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The NVDD Configuration File
Md5_params = [<params>]
(optional)
If md5_file is set, this option is used to give the executable file its
command line.
By default, the only parameter given to the executable file will be
the filename given by the administrator through nvddadmin. If
md5_params is set, the parameters will be given first, followed by the
filename. For example:
<md5_file> [<md5_params>] <filename>
unzip_file = <filename>
(optional – default: gunzip.exe (Windows) or gunzip (Linux/BSD)
This provides the name of the executable file the server is to use
when it receives an "UNZIP" command from nvddadmin. The specified executable file will be used instead of the default gunzip.exe
(Windows) or gunzip (Linux/BSD).
This executable MUST be placed in the directory pointed to by
bin_directory.
unzip_params = <params>
(optional)
If unzip_file is set, this option will be used to give the executable
file its command line.
By default, the only parameter given to the executable file will be
the filename given by the administrator through nvddadmin. If
unzip_params is set, the parameters will be given first, followed by
the filename. For example:
<unzip_file> [<unzip_params>] <filename>
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Configuration File Settings
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Certificate File
certificate_file=./Certificates/cacert.pem
This specifies the name of the SSL certificate that the server is to use
for admin connection. Although SSL encryption is disabled in
Neoware Image Manager 4.5, the certificate file must still be present
and the parameter that specifies its path must be correctly set.
certificate_passwd=[<xxx>]
(optional)
This gives the server the password used to encrypt the certificate file
(if any).
Maximum Size of
CVol Files
sectors_map_size
(optional – default: 512)
This specifies the maximum number of sectors that can be stored in
each client CVol write cache (data) file for all volumes defined by
this configuration file, unless overridden by the same command used
in a volume definition. One sector = 512Bytes = 0.5KB. 1048576
sectors = 512MB.
Warning: Once you have changed this value, you need to restart
server or reload the configuration file in order for the new setting to be taken into account.
nvdd
To specify different sizes for individual volumes, precede the command with the volume name in the volume definition. For example:
smalldisk.sectors_map_size=16128
For small volumes, administrators can set the sector map size to be
exactly the same number of sectors in the logical volume. This will
enable the volume to be completely customised on a per-volume
basis.
If the CVol file becomes full and the sector map size for a volume is
less than the total number of sectors in the volume, Image Manager
will issue a Disk Full error message. The Windows operating system
will not crash and you can usually shut it down (though the user may
Configuration File Settings
221
The NVDD Configuration File
have to respond to many Delayed Write Failed messages by clicking
the OK button). You can then increase the sector map size value so
that when the server is restarted the client can continue its write
operations.
If the CVol file becomes full and the sector map size for a volume is
the same as the total number of sectors in the volume, a "Disk Full"
or "Delayed Write Failed" error message will be issued. In this case,
just erase some files from the mounted volume, on the client side, to
make some sectors in the CVol file considered as available by the
Windows operating system running on the client.
Computer Name
Change Default
default_save_name=[true¦false]
(optional – default: false)
The setting of this option determines the default behaviour of the
server when a computer changes its name during a session.
If true, the new name for the computer will be saved in the configuration file and will be restored to the computer the next time it boots.
If false, the change is lost, and the computer will keep its previous
name.
For more information on client naming, refer to the section “Client
Naming” on page 233.
Flush Disk Buffers
on Write
do_flush_on_write=[true¦false]
(optional – default: false)
The setting of this option determines the default behaviour of the
server when a client computer sends a write request.
If set to true, the server will send a write acknowledgement to the
client only after data has actually been written on the physical storage. Therefore, if there are uncommitted data in the server’s write
buffer and the server fails before committing this data, the client will
not consider them written and will resend its write request.
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Configuration File Settings
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This option is intended to be used in a high-availability environment
when there are several servers that can write to the same shared
storage.
Number of
Processing Units
disk_thread
(optional – default: 1)
Specifies the number of processing units dedicated to disk operations. This value can be tuned depending on the server resources to
enhance performance.
It is useless setting this parameter to a value exceeding the maximum number of clients that access the server at the same time.
It is usually useless to set this parameter to a number greater than the
the number of CPU in your server added to the number of physical
hard disk drives that are accessible in parallel at the same time.
If you have only one HDD in a single CPU server, this value should
be set to 1.
Buffer Size
recv_buf
Specifies the size, in bytes, of the buffer for receiving network data.
send_buf
Specifies the size, in bytes, of the buffer for data to be transmitted on
the network.
User Definitions
users
Comma separated list of valid user definitions. User definitions are
actually client objects and are determined by their IP address range
or MAC address. For example:
users=everybody, admin
<user>.subnets
Defines a comma separated list of subnets.
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The NVDD Configuration File
A station is identified by its IP address and given the name of the last
matching subnet of different client (named “users”) definitions.
More details about IP addresses notation with slash can be found
here:
http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/inetpages/ip-address.html
Note that if the subnets restrict the identification to a unique computer (bits=32), then the client will be able to receive its name from
the NVDD server.
Client MAC Address
<user>.MAC=<MAC_address>
This specifies the MAC address of a client. This client will be
uniquely defined in the configuration file and will be able to receive
its name from the NVDD server.
Note that a client can still be identified by an IP subnet or IP address
(in fact an IP subnet with a subnet mask of 32 bits). If several definitions exist that match the same client, the priorities are as follows
(highest priority first):
1
MAC address,
2
Unique IP address (actually IP subnet with subnet mask of 32
bits),
3
IP subnet with subnet mask of 31 bits,
4
IP subnet with subnet mask of 30 bits,
...
33 IP subnet with subnet mask of 1 bit,
34 IP subnet with subnet mask of 0 bit (actually 0.0.0.0/0, the
“everybody” group in the nvdd.conf file).
It is recommended that you keep the "everybody" client object in
order to define the "otherwise unknown clients".
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Configuration File Settings
The NVDD Configuration File
Computer Name
Change
<user>.save_name=[true¦false]
This option defines the behavior of the server when the client
changes its name during a session. If it is not specified, it defaults to
the global value default_save_name.
When defined for a subnet, this parameter is applied to all the clients
that belong to this subnet and do not belong to a more precise subnet
or are not defined by MAC address.
If save_name is true, the new client's name will be saved in the configuration file. Otherwise the change is lost and the computer keeps
its previous name at next reboot.
For more information on client naming, refer to the section “Client
Naming” on page 233.
Volume Definitions
volumes
Comma separated list of valid volumes definitions. Please note that
at least one volume must be present. For example:
volumes=SmallDisk, XPe512, TestDisk
Each volume has to be defined with details such as file, cylinders,
heads and sectors, etc. using the following commands.
Volume ID & Name
<volume_name>.id
Assigns a unique ID number for this volume.
<volume_name>.file
Specifies the name of the hard disk image file to use. For example:
SmallDisk.file=smalldisk.vol
<volume_name>.desc
(optional)
Provides a description of the volume. This text is displayed in the
client’s boot menu when there is a choice of bootable volumes to
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225
The NVDD Configuration File
choose from (i.e. if several bootable volumes are available to this
client).
For example:
disk0.desc=Windows XP sp2 (Back Office)
Volume Geometry
The following parameters are created by Client Builder when it creates the image file and associated configuration file.
<volume_name>.cylinders
Specifies the number of cylinders for the virtual disk.
<volume_name>.heads
Specifies the number of heads for the virtual disk.
<volume_name>.sectors
Specifies the number of sectors for the virtual disk.
Volume Type
<volume_name>.floppy
(optional – default: false)
Specifies if this volume is a floppy image. Unit letters at DOS/BIOS
level depend on this. Value: true or false.
<volume_name>.boot_device
(optional – default: false)
Specifies if this volume is a boot device. Value: true or false.
Refer to the section “Enabling Client MultiBoot” on page 235 for
details on how to specify a choice of volumes for a client to boot
from.
<volume_name>.type
226
Configuration File Settings
The NVDD Configuration File
This parameter is now obsolete and performs no function. It is
retained only for compatibility with earlier versions of Neoware
Image Manager.
Volume Integrity
<volume_name>.check_cvol
(optional – default: false)
This parameter is used to make nvdd check the integrity of CVol
files before opening them. Integrity is checked by the comparing the
CVol file date with the image file date. If a CVol file is older than
the image file it refers to, this means that modifications has been
made on the image and the CVol file has not been updated. In this
case, if check_cvol=true, the CVol file is deleted and reconstructed. If a reference CVol file exists for this client, it is also
deleted (see cvol_mode for more information on reference CVols).
This check is made when a client boots, before the client actually
mounts the corresponding volume, and only for the CVol file corresponding to this client and that volume.
If this parameter is not specified, the default value is false.
When this parameter is enabled, it is then required that the server’s
date is correctly set.
Volume Write Mode <volume_name>.write_mode=[admin¦cvolwrite]
<volume_name>.cvol_mode=[normal¦volatile¦persistent]
These commands specify the default write mode for a volume.
If the write mode is set to admin, and the following command is
specified:
<volume_name>.no_admin_cvol=true
the CVol file relating to the client mounting the volume will be
deleted before the client actually boots. All write operations will
then be made on the hard disk image file itself. The default setting
for <volume_name>.no_admin_cvol is false.
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227
The NVDD Configuration File
If the write mode is set to cvolwrite, then the cvol_mode command
specifies the submode.
You can also specify different write modes for specific clients using
the same volume, so the default write mode is ignored. The following commands would be used to indicate which clients are to use
which mode:
<vol_name>.admin_mode_users=<comma separated clients>
<vol_name>.normal_mode_users=<comma separated clients>
#(CVolWrite/Normal)
<vol_name>.volatile_mode_users=<comma separated clients>
#(CVolWrite/Volatile)
If the writing mode is set to CVol write and the submode is normal,
the following command will cause the Image Manager server to
automatically check if the hard disk image has changed. If it has,
then the CVol files will be emptied:
<volume_name>.check_cvol=true
(The check is made on the file dates.)
Normal CVolwrite Mode
When CVolwrite Normal mode is specified, write operations are
kept in the CVol files when the corresponding client is booting.
Volatile CVolwrite Mode
If CVolwrite Volatile mode is specified, when a client is booting, the
corresponding CVol file is emptied. Write operations are then not
kept when a client is rebooted and the system configuration is
always in the same state after a reboot. All changes to the volume,
such as creating new files or folders, installing applications, modifying the system settings, do not survive a reboot.
Persistent CVolwrite Mode
If CVolwrite Persistent mode is specified, when a client is booting,
the corresponding CVol file is replaced by reference CVol files that
228
Configuration File Settings
The NVDD Configuration File
will have the same name plus the extension .ref for the header, and
for the data file. If this reference CVol does not exist, it
will be copied from the existing CVol file for this client. This means
that the first time a volume is opened by a client in Persistent mode,
the reference CVol file is automatically copied from the existing
CVol file. Each time after that, the CVol file is replaced by this copy
when the client boots, ensuring that the client boots a well known
configuration and retains all the information contained in the first
CVol file (for instance, Windows XP activation data for this client).
.ref.dat
The following example is a detailed description of what happens
when vol0.cvol_mode = persistent and a client with the MAC
address 00E0C554E700 boots and mounts the volume named vol0:
Case 1: If a file named vol0@00E0C554E700.ref exists in the folder
where CVol files are stored, the file vol0@00E0C554E700.ref is
copied to vol0@00E0C554E700 before vol0 is actually mounted by the
client. The same is done for the data file
vol0@00E0C554E700.ref.dat, copied to vol0@00E0C554E700.dat
So the files vol0@00E0C554E700.ref and
vol0@00E0C554E700.ref.dat replace vol0 CVol files for the client 00E0C554E700. In this case, the presence of a file named
vol0@00E0C554E700 does not make any difference in nvdd behavior.
Case 2: If a file named vol0@00E0C554E700.ref does not exist in
the folder where CVol files are stored but a file named
vol0@00E0C554E700 does exist in this folder, the file
vol0@00E0C554E700 is copied to vol0@00E0C554E700.ref and the
file vol0@00E0C554E700.dat is copied to
vol0@00E0C554E700.ref.dat before vol0 is actually mounted by
the client. Those files then become the reference CVol files for client
00E0C554E700. Each time it is rebooted afterwards, the client
mounts vol0 volume with a copy of vol0@00E0C554E700.ref and
vol0@00E0C554E700.ref.dat as its CVol files.
Case 3: If the files named vol0@00E0C554E700.ref and
vol0@00E0C554E700 do not exist in the folder where CVol files are
stored, then a file named vol0@00E0C554E700 will be created in the
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The NVDD Configuration File
CVol file folder and will be treated as a normal CVol. Note that in
this case, when the client reboots, the reference CVol file will be
created from the current CVol file for this client (file
vol0@00E0C554E700) as described in Case 2 above.
In order to create a reference CVol file, you can either copy an existing CVol file to the corresponding reference CVol file, or you can
make sure that no CVol file exists for a particular client, set the
cvol_mode parameter for the volume to persistent, boot the client,
perform the needed customization tasks (activate Windows XP for
instance), and reboot the client. The reference CVol file will then be
created automatically.
You can also set the cvol_mode parameter for the volume to normal,
make all the required modifications until your CVol suits your
needs, including reboot if required, and then change the mode to
persistent, making this CVol the reference for all subsequent
reboots.
Directory for CVol
Files
<volume_name>.client_volumes_dir
(optional)
If defined, this will be the folder used to store the CVol files for this
volume.
If not defined, the CVol files will be stored at the normal folder (see
the section “Directory for Client Volumes” on page 218).
Cache Size
<volume_name>.cache_size
(optional)
This parameter specifies the size, in number of sectors, of the server
cache for the specified volume. The value must be a signed integer
(only positive values are valid). Value 0 means no cache and this is
recommended on systems with good disk cache (Windows Servers,
Linux/*BSD Servers).
This option is currently unsupported and is present only for compatibility with earlier versions of Neoware Image Manager.
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Configuration File Settings
The NVDD Configuration File
Allowed Clients
<volume_name>.users
Comma separated list of clients allowed to access this volume.
<volume_name>.admin_users
(optional)
Comma separated list of clients allowed to access this volume as
administrators. Note that only one administrator client is allowed at
the same time. When an administrator is accessing the disk, all other
clients are refused. An administrator client cannot access specified
volumes when some other (non-Admin) clients are still present.
<volume_name>.read_only_users
(optional)
Comma separated list of clients allowed to access this volume in
read only mode. See also group.read_only.
<volume_name>.unicast_users
Comma separated list of users allowed to access this volume in unicast. See also group.unicast.
Group Definitions
groups
This is a comma separated list of group definitions. A group is used
at initialization time to determine which clients can access the
shared drives. Depending on the client user name (see users), nvdd
will tell the client which volumes it should mount and assign specific modes. Please note that this information is only general, real
authentication is ruled at volume level.
<group_name>.vols
This is a comma separated list of volume names that stations belonging to the group should access.
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<group_name>.unicast
(optional – default: false)
This specifies if the stations should mount volumes in unicast or not.
Values: true or false.
<group_name>.read_only
(optional – default: false)
This specifies if the station should mount volumes in read only mode
or not. If so, all write requests will be discarded.
<group_name>.users
This is a comma separated list of users in group. The best matching
user subnet is chosen to specify if a client uses the group parameters.
<group_name>.wrappers
(optional)
This is a comma separated list of wrapper definitions in the form:
a:b, where a is the origin unit and b is the mapping unit. a or b can
be specified in using 0x prefix (specifying hexadecimal) or 0 prefix
(specifying octal) instead of the default decimal base.
This option is currently unsupported and is present only for compatibility with earlier versions of Neoware Image Manager.
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The NVDD Configuration File
Client Naming
Neoware Image Manager uses several methods to assign names to
clients. You can either specify the name of a client directly in the
nvdd configuration file using the NVD protocol (highest priority), or
if no name is specified one will be assigned either based on DHCP
option 12 (client host name) or, if no DHCP option 12 was set for
this client, a name consisting of the letter H + the client MAC
address.
This name is used as the NetBIOS client name (Windows Client
Name) and also as the “Internet Host Name” (TCP/IP name). Both
names are usually the same in Windows 2000, XP and 2003.
Setting Client Name
using NVD Protocol
The following example nvdd configuration file entries show the various methods of specifying client names. The highlighted entries
show the client name set directly using the NVD protocol.
User=everybody, office, pc-john, pc-paul
everybody.subnets=0.0.0.0/0
office.subnets=192.168.2.0/24
pc-john.mac=00015474AB1B
pc-paul.subnets=192.168.15.64/32
The client with MAC address 00015474AB1B will be named PCJOHN (Windows computer name).
The client with IP address 192.168.15.64 will be named PC-PAUL.
The clients in the subnet 192.168.2.0 will be named according to the
DHCP option #12 for each client or, if no DHCP option #12 exists
for such a client, it will be named H<client_MAC_address>
Client Naming
233
The NVDD Configuration File
Updating Client
Name from Client
When a client name has been set using the NVD protocol, it can be
updated from the client side. At shutdown time the client sends a
message to the NVDD server in which the client’s name is embedded. If the client name has changed or does not exist, the NVDD
server can then record this name in the nvdd configuration file. This
feature can be disabled using the save_name property of the client
object so that unauthorized clients cannot actually change their
name.
If you set the default global property default_save_name to false
and the property everybody.save_name to true, this has the result
that unknown clients (not identified by a unique MAC or IP address,
belonging to “everybody” subnet), can store their name on the NVD
server, but then this name cannot be changed unless the configuration file is modified so that the client has its save_name property set
to true.
If existing clients (identified by a unique IP or MAC address) do not
have their own save_name property, their default behaviour is ruled
by the value of the global parameter default_save_name.
For example, if the client name has changed (using a Windows System applet or by manipulating the registry), and if the property
save_name is set to true for the client (or IP range if the client is not
uniquely defined), the new name can be stored on the server side so
that it will be used at next boot (standard Windows behaviour). This
will also be the case if the global parameter default_save_name is
set to true and the client has a unique definition but no save_name
property.
Note: The property save_name is set to false by default.
The property is NOT propagated. This means that, though everybody.save_name is set to true, a client that does not have the property save_name explicitly set to true will not be able to change its
name from the client side (even if that client is a member of the
group everybody), unless the global parameter default_save_name
is set to true.
234
Client Naming
The NVDD Configuration File
Enabling Client MultiBoot
Neoware Image Manager provides a MultiBoot feature. When two
or more bootable volumes are associated with a client, the client will
display the descriptions of these volumes so that the user can select
the one to boot from. If no selection is made within 10 seconds, the
client will boot using the default volume.
The names of the boot volumes are specified together with any other
volumes using the parameter <group_name>.vols, where
<group_name> is replaced by the actual group name that the client
belongs to. This is followed by a comma-delimited list of volume
names. For example:
AsusGroup.vols=WinXP, Win2K
At boot time, mPXELdr gets the list of bootable volumes for the client
it is run on and displays a menu similar to the following:
Neoware Primary BootStrap Loader
1.5.0.9 (NVD protocol v3.0)
Copyright 2000-2006 Neoware Systems
All rights reserved
Available RAM (KB): 556
No .ini file (or ’NVDServers’ key invalid/not found).
Client Config:
Subnet : 255.255.255. 0
Gateway : 192.168.0.1
MAC :
00 :E0 :C5 :59 :32 :FA
IP :
192.168. 0.155
Trying to connect to nvd server :
IP : 192.168 0. 10
PORT : 2184
MAC : 00:16:36:07:62:CF
1) HD, Windows XP Pro
2) HD, Windows 2000 Pro
The user then keys in the number of the volume to boot from.
Enabling Client MultiBoot
235
The NVDD Configuration File
mPXELdr gets the parameter <volume_name>.desc of each bootable
volume. mPXELdr displays this description after the number assigned
to the corresponding volume. If there is no <volume_name>.desc
parameter for a specific volume, mPXELdr will not not display anything after HD,.
The first volume in the list is assigned the number 1, the second volume is assigned number 2 etc. The user can press 1 to boot from volume number 1, 2 to boot from volume number 2, etc. After a timeout of 10 seconds, if no volume was chosen, mPXELdr will start booting from volume number 1.
Note:
• Only bootable volumes (volumes for which the parameter
<volume_name>.boot_device is set to true, which corresponds
to the "boot" option in the General tab of Volume properties in
the Neoware Image Manager Console) are displayed as boot
menu choices.
• The volumes in the <group_name>.vols list that are not bootable
are mounted as extra volumes under Windows (assigned to the
drive letters D:, E:, etc. for instance).
• Only one bootable volume is mounted by Windows. This is the
volume that was chosen as the boot volume at boot time. The
other bootable volumes are ignored.
• The default boot volume (Virtual HD #1) is the first volume
name listed by <group_name>.vols.
Tip:
If you want to mount a volume that is usually a bootable volume as
an extra volume, you can change the <volume_name>.boot_device
parameter for that volume to false, then specify the name of this
volume in the <group_name>.vols parameter for the relevant client(s).
You could also copy a volume definition that uses the same disk
image file as the bootable volume, but then set this new volume def-
236
Enabling Client MultiBoot
The NVDD Configuration File
inition to be non-bootable. For example, you could have the following entries in the nvdd configuration file:
...
volumes= VolXPHE, VolXP, VolXPNoBoot
VolXPHE.file=VolXPHE.vol
VolXPHE.desc="Windows XP HOME Edition"
VolXPHE.boot_device=true
...
VolXP.file=VolXP.vol
VolXP.desc="Windows XP PRO"
VolXP.boot_device=true
...
VolXPNoBoot.file=VolXP.vol
VolXPNoBoot.desc="Windows XP PRO Non Bootable"
VolXPNoBoot.boot_device=false
...
groups= group0, group1
group0.vols=VolXPHE, VolXP
...group1.vols=VolXPHE, VolXPNoBoot
Users of clients belonging to group0 will have the choice to boot
from VolXPHE or VolXP.
Users of clients belonging to group1 will have no boot menu, will
boot from VolXPHE and will see two volumes, their boot volume
(VolXPHE, usually mounted on C:) and another volume, VolXPNoBoot, that may be mounted on D:. Clients in group0 and in group1
can be used at the same time with no problems, as long as no client
mounts VolXPNoBoot or VolXP in Admin mode.
Enabling Client MultiBoot
237
The NVDD Configuration File
Example nvdd.conf with Multi-Volume Support
The following example nvdd configuration file shows typical settings for multi-volume support.
# nvdd.conf generated by Neoware Image Manager Console
#Network Settings
address=0.0.0.0
port=2184
admin_addr=0.0.0.0
admin_port=29035
authorized_subnets=
#Server settings
max_idle_time=3600
sectors_map_size=2000000
default_save_name=true
disk_threads=1
recv_buf=131072
send_buf=131072
#Directories
client_volumes_dir=./
client_files_dir=./
bin_directory=./
certificate_file=./nimcert.pem
certificate_passwd=78gfd3sD
#
# USERS definitions
#
users=P640-149, e140-156, h00e0c5590bbf, admin, everybody, h00e0c559475a, e90-157
P640-149.mac=00E0C559316B
e140-156.mac=00E0C554E700
h00e0c5590bbf.mac=00E0C5590BBF
admin.subnets=127.0.0.1/32
everybody.subnets=0.0.0.0/0
h00e0c559475a.mac=00E0C559475A
e90-157.mac=00E0C5570540
238
Example nvdd.conf with Multi-Volume Support
The NVDD Configuration File
#
# VOLUME definitions
#
volumes=disk2, disk1
disk2.id=1
disk2.file=./disk2.vol
disk2.desc=disk2
disk2.cylinders=447
disk2.heads=255
disk2.sectors=63
disk2.floppy=false
disk2.boot_device=true
disk2.check_cvol=true
disk2.no_admin_cvol=true
disk2.write_mode=cvolwrite
disk2.cvol_mode=normal
disk2.sectors_map_size=0
disk2.client_volumes_dir=
disk2.cache_size=0
disk2.type=0
disk2.users=admin, everybody
disk2.unicast_users=admin, everybody
disk2.admin_users=admin
disk2.admin_mode_users=
disk2.normal_mode_users=
disk2.volatile_mode_users=
disk1.id=2
disk1.file=./disk1.vol
disk1.desc=disk1
disk1.cylinders=447
disk1.heads=255
disk1.sectors=63
disk1.floppy=false
disk1.boot_device=true
disk1.check_cvol=true
disk1.no_admin_cvol=true
disk1.write_mode=cvolwrite
disk1.cvol_mode=normal
disk1.sectors_map_size=0
disk1.client_volumes_dir=
disk1.cache_size=0
disk1.type=0
Example nvdd.conf with Multi-Volume Support
239
The NVDD Configuration File
disk1.users=admin, everybody
disk1.unicast_users=admin, everybody
disk1.admin_users=admin, everybody
disk1.admin_mode_users=
disk1.normal_mode_users=
disk1.volatile_mode_users=
#
# GROUP definitions
#
groups=group0
group0.vols=disk1, disk2
group0.unicast=true
group0.max_ram_sectors=102400
group0.read_only=false
group0.users=admin, everybody
240
Example nvdd.conf with Multi-Volume Support
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 18
NVDD Server
Administration
This chapter describes the NVDDAdmin tool and NVDAdmin
protocol commands for administering a remote NVDD server.
Introduction
The NVDAdmin protocol is used to communicate with a running
nvdd program. This protocol is used between a Neoware Image
Manager console and a remote NVDD server in order to retrieve
the configuration file currently in use, to reload it after it has been
modified, and also to get information about the clients currently
attached to the server, etc. Client Builder can also use this protocol
when it creates the image of the original hard disk.
The NVDAdmin protocol uses TCP. The server listens on port
29035 by default, but this port can be changed in the server configuration.
NVDAdmin clients are:
• Client Builder,
• Image Manager Console,
• NVDDAdmin tool, which is described in this chapter.
241
NVDD Server Administration
Secured NVDAdmin
Protocol
Neoware Image Manager server and the clients that use NVDAdmin
protocol can use SSL (OpenSSL) to encrypt communications. This
is mainly dedicated to configurations where a console controls a
remote server through WAN. The data sent between the console and
the server are then encrypted.
Note that SSL encryption has been disabled in Neoware Image
Manager 4.5. If you actually want to encrypt the communication
between NVDD server and NVDAdmin clients, you can set up an
SSH tunnel.
Note that the data sent by the image creation process (when Client
Builder creates the image file on the server) are not encrypted for
performance reasons and because image creation usually occurs on a
LAN, which is more secure that a WAN.
The NVDDAdmin Tool
NVDDAdmin is a tool that implements a variety of NVDAdmin
commands. Most of these commands can replace “manual” operations or operations previously devoted to third party tools. Example
operations are: get the current configuration file for a remote server,
copy CVol files to a remote server in order to merge the CVol with
an existing image (image mirroring), launch the merge process on
the remopte server, etc.
NVDDAdmin
Command Syntax
The syntax for NVDDAdmin is:
nvddadmin -h:p:c:
-h <hostname>[:<port>]
The port number is not essential. If you do not specify the -h option,
you will have to use the connect command to establish a connection
to the your server.
-p <port>
The default port number is 29035.
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The NVDDAdmin Tool
NVDD Server Administration
-c <trusted certificates path>
The default certificates path is /etc/ssl/certs/.
-f <filename>
The default filename is stdin. If this option is specified, NVDDAdmin will execute each of the commands in the specified file, making
it possible to automate complex sets of instructions.
Command
Examples
Nvddadmin –h 127.0.0.1
This communicates with the server running on the same machine.
Nvddadmin –h Server64.paris.texas.Company28.com
This communicates with the server running on the machine that has
the DNS name Server64.paris.texas.Company28.com.
Nvddadmin –h winsrv.company.com:29037
This communicates with the NVDD server listening to NVDAdmin
connections on TCP port 29037, on the machine that has the DNS
name winsrv.company.com.
NVDDAdmin Commands
Considerations
Related to File
Operations
All the file operations (list, transfer, create folders etc.) performed
on the server are related to the ‘root folder’ defined on the server
side. The NVDAdmin protocol cannot be used to access files on the
server outside the subtree of which ‘root folder’ is the root.
Considerations
Related to put & get
Commands
The put and get commands are used to transfer a file to the server
(put commands) or from the server to the host running NVDDAdmin (get commands). These commands require a ‘filename’ parameter. This is the name of the file to be transferred (relative to the root
folder of the nvdd server or to the current folder of the host running
NVDDAdmin). The commands can also accept a second, optional
NVDDAdmin Commands
243
NVDD Server Administration
parameter: ‘name’. This is the name of the file after it has been transferred. If this second parameter is not specified, the file keeps its
original name after the transfer.
The put and get commands exist in several flavors: secured (prefix
s) or non secured, with resume (prefix r). "With resume" means that
the command will append the rest of the file to be transferred to the
data already transferred (if any).
To perform “resume” put and get commands, the host that receives
the file checks the presence of a file with the same name as the file to
be transferred (the name it will have after the transfer). If such a file
exists, the receiving host sends the size of the file already present to
the transmitting host. The transmitting host then performs an fseek
on the file to be transferred and reads the data in the file starting at
the offset that corresponds to the size of the file already present on
the receiving host. The data are sent to the receiving host and
appended to the data already existing in the file on the receiving
host.
Conventions
The command descriptions in this section use the following conventions:
[P] indicates that the command requires authentication using a
password.
[X] indicates that the command requires an exclusive Admin
connection. This also implies a password.
All commands are case sensitive and must be in lowercase.
Command
Descriptions
ping
Ping the NVDD server.
auth <password>
Authentification with password. The password is the one set by the
NvddPasswd tool. It will be displayed in clear text on the screen
when using this auth command.
244
NVDDAdmin Commands
NVDD Server Administration
nopwd
Switch to AUTH mode when the password on the server side has not
been set.
exit
Exit this utility.
help
Display basic help text.
admin
[P] Use single admin mode (aka exclusive admin mode, exclusive
admin connection).
This mode is used to make sure that the NVDAdmin connection to
the remote server is the only connection of this kind that exists. The
connection is then an NVDAdmin Exclusive connection. Further
exclusive NVDAdmin connection requests (either sent by NVDAdmin, by the Console or by Client Builder) will fail.
connect <host> [<:port>]
Connect to the specified remote host. If a connection is already
established to another host, it is closed, and a new connection is
established.
put <filename> [<name>]
[P] Copies filename to server without resume mode on nonsecured socket.
rput <filename> [<name>]
[P] Copies filename to server with resume mode on non-secured
socket.
NVDDAdmin Commands
245
NVDD Server Administration
get <filename> [<name>]
[P] Gets filename from server without resume mode on nonsecured socket.
rget <filename> [<name>]
[P] Gets filename from server with resume mode on non-secured
socket.
sput <filename> [<name>]
[P] Copies filename to server without resume mode on secured
socket.
srput <filename> [<name>]
[P] Copies filename to server with resume mode on secured socket.
sget <filename> [<name>]
[P] Gets filename from server without resume mode on secured
socket.
srget <filename> [<name>]
[P] Gets filename from server with resume mode on secured
socket.
rput <filename> <name>
[P] Copies filename to server with name name with resume mode.
reload
[X] Reload nvdd server. This command actually performs the commands load_conf_current.get_conf_filename. This will load
the configuration file named as current, followed by the name that
has been retrieved by the get_conf_filename command.
In other words, if you want to make a change in the currently running nvdd configuration, you must get the current conf file name,
retrieve this file (using a get command), modify it, push it on the
246
NVDDAdmin Commands
NVDD Server Administration
remote server as current.<filename> (using a put command), and
send the reload command to the server.
load_conf <filename>
[X] Reload server with the specified configuration file.
Caution: When using this command, you must make sure that existing clients that may be running and have mounted virtual volumes
defined in a conf file will not be disrupted. In particular, in case the
volume(s) they mounted do not exist anymore or are not shared with
the same ID or volume name.
get_conf_filename
[P] Prints the name of the current configuration file used by nvdd
server.
check_conf <filename>
[P] Check validity of the specified nvdd configuration file.
stop
[X] Stops nvdd server.
list [<subdirectory>]
[P] Lists (prints) the contents of the current directory. If a
subdirectory is specified, this command will list the contents of the
subdirectory.
mkdir <directory>
[P] Creates a new directory on the server side (forward slash and
backslash can be used).
rmdir <directory>
[P] Removes the specified empty directory on the server side.
NVDDAdmin Commands
247
NVDD Server Administration
rm <filename>
[P] Removes the specified regular file on the server side.
get_users
[P] Prints a list of IP addresses and port numbers of clients that are
currently connected to nvdd server.
get_volumes
[P] Prints a list of volumes on nvdd.
info_user <IP_address>:<port>
[P] Prints information about a user (a client). (One from a list
exactly as reported by the get_users command. This means that the
port must also be specified).
info_volume <volumeID>
[P] Gets information about the specified volume. (One from the list
obtained using the get_volumes command).
rm_user <IP_address>:<port>
[P] Removes the specified client (deletes client connection) from
nvdd. (Client identification obtained using the get_users command).
md5 <filename>
[P] Computes md5sum of the specified remote file. The
Md5sum.exe file (or Md5sum executable for Linux/FreeBSD) must be
present in bin_directory on the server. bin_directory is specified in the nvdd configuration file. Another md5sum executable and
optional parameters can be specified through the use of the appropriate settings in the conf file.
248
NVDDAdmin Commands
NVDD Server Administration
unzip <filename>
[P] unzip remote file. The gunzip.exe file (or gunzip executable
for Linux/FreeBSD) must be present in bin_directory on the
server. bin_directory is specified in the nvdd configuration file.
Another "decompressor" executable and optional parameters can be
specified through the use of the appropriate settings in the conf file.
Of course, the file to be decompressed must have been compressed
previously using a file compression utility that is compatible with
the decompression utility being used.
cvolmerge <VolName> <CVolName> <DestImageName>
[P] Patch volume name (original image file) with CVolFile specified by CVolName to create destination name. CVolName is the name
of the CVol header file. The CVol header file and CVol data file
must have been copied previously on the remote server, e.g. using
put commands.
NVDDAdmin Commands
249
NVDD Server Administration
250
NVDDAdmin Commands
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 19
The mPXELdr
Configuration File
This chapter describes the mPXELdr configuration file and the
settings that can be specified in it.
Introduction
mPXELdr can use a configuration file to set the list of NVD servers
that it will try to communicate with, in addition to DHCP Option
132. This configuration file also allows the setting of several boottime options which are described later in this chapter.
mPXELdr will query the DHCP server that downloaded it for up to
eight configuration files, in a fixed predefined order, until it finds
its .ini file. For example, assume mPXELdr is running on a
machine with a MAC address (Ethernet hardware address) of
m1:m2:m3:m4:m5:m6, and a DHCP-assigned IP address of
ip1.ip2.ip3.ip4. mPXELdr will search for configuration files as
follows:
1
m1_m2_m3_m4_m5_m6.ini
Search for an .ini file specific to the MAC address of the
station.
2
ip1_ip2_ip3_ip4.ini
Search for an .ini file specific to the DHCP-assigned IP
address of the station.
251
The mPXELdr Configuration File
3
ip1_ip2_ip3.ini
Search for an .ini file common to all IP addresses starting with
ip1.ip2.ip3.
4
ip1_ip2.ini
Search for an .ini file common to all IP addresses starting with
ip1.ip2.
5
ip1.ini
Search for an .ini file common to all IP addresses starting with
ip1.
6
m1_m2_m3.ini
Search for an .ini file common to all the machines with this 3byte MAC address prefix, i.e. belonging to the same “Ethernet
MAC address block”. A block always corresponds to a single
manufacturer, but a manufacturer might have one or several
blocks and models. In a number of cases, though, the MAC
address prefix may be used to identify machines with similar
LAN hardware configuration.
7
<mPXELdr boot file name with extension>.ini
Search for an .ini file with exactly the same name as the Network Boot Program that was used to boot this station. For
instance, if mPXELdr was renamed to MyPXELdr.bin, and
MyPXELdr.bin was used to boot this station, the loader will
search for MyPXELdr.bin.ini.
8
mPXELdr.ini
Search for this (hard coded) exact name, with this exact capitalization.
If at this point, no .ini file has been found, mPXELdr will give
an error message and merely use its default options and the
server list provided in Option 132 of the DHCP (if any).
252
Introduction
The mPXELdr Configuration File
This search mechanism can be used to organize a multi-level hierarchy of configuration files, from the most specific (a specific piece of
hardware) to the most general (all stations, for a common default)
configuration.
In order to be processed by mPXELdr, all the configuration files
must be installed in the same directory as mPXELdr itself.
Contents & Syntax
• A whitespace is either a space or a TAB character. Multiple
whitespaces are considered just the same as a single whitespace.
• Comments are allowed in .ini files. A comment starts with a
leading ‘#’, and ends with the end of the line.
• Blank lines are allowed in .ini files.
• Whitespaces may appear before the # sign.
• A keyword is a character string that contains no spaces. Example
of valid keywords could be ‘Foo’, ‘Bar’, ‘NVDServers’, …
• Keywords are case insensitive.
• Keywords start at the beginning of a line, but can be preceded by
whitespaces.
• Keywords are always followed by an ‘=’ sign.
• The ‘=’ sign can be preceded or followed by whitespaces.
• The value associated with a keyword starts with the first non-
whitespace character following the ‘=’ sign.
• A standard value terminator is a ’#’, a ‘;’ a ‘ ‘ (space) or a car-
riage return and/or line feed (end of line control characters).
Contents & Syntax
253
The mPXELdr Configuration File
• The value ends either with a standard value terminator or with a
keyword-specific terminator. Because the end of line control
characters are standard value terminators, values usually do not
extend across lines unless otherwise specified (keyword-specific
syntax).
• Unless specified otherwise, a keyword followed by an invalid
value for that keyword will cause the keyword to be ignored, and
the default value (if any) for that keyword to be applied.
• Unless specified otherwise, when the value associated with a
keyword is a letter, only the first letter of the value is scanned and
checked for validity. It is yet perfectly valid to provide additional
text after that initial value, for instance to make the .ini file
more self-explanatory. For example,
BootMode = SemiAutomatic
is usually considered clearer than
BootMode = S
and
PreBootPause = Y
PreBootPause = Yeah
PreBootPause = Yo
are strictly equivalent for mPXELdr.
• All other syntactic rules regarding a value are defined by the key-
word it belongs to.
254
Contents & Syntax
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Example mPXELdr .ini File
# Comments are allowed in the .ini file.
# Blank lines are allowed too.
#
#
#
#
A ‘whitespace’ is either a space or a TAB character.
Whitespaces may appear before the # sign.
Whitespaces may appear before keywords (such as NVDServers) too.
Comments extend to the end of line.
# Examples of keyword use and syntax:
# Vanilla example:
# NVDServers = 192.168.0.209;
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Whitespaces can be inserted around the NVDServers
keyword and the '=' sign.
Keywords (like NVDServers here) are case insensitive.
The value associated with a keyword starts with the
first non whitespace character following the ‘=’ sign.
The syntax of a value strictly depends on its keyword.
What marks the end of the value is keyword dependant,
but unless otherwise specified, values do not extend
across lines.
NVDSeRveRs
= 192.168.0.209!
NVDServers=192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111;
NVDServers = 192.168.0.9!
# NVD Server addition. Might have several
# such statements (cumulative)
NVDServers = 192.168.0.9:256,192.168.0.209:2184,192.168.0.209:10000! ;
BootMode = i
# I: Interactive, A: Auto, S: Semi-auto (default)
VolSelectionTO = 5
# Time in sec to wait for user input (max 60 s,
# 0 = Infinite)
PreBootPause = Yo
# <Hit any key> before boot transfer.
Example mPXELdr .ini File
255
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Keywords
The Include
Keyword
Syntax:
Include = <Filepath>
Examples:
1
2
3
4
Include
Include
Include
Include
=
=
=
=
MyIncludeFile.ininc
/MyIncludeFile.ininc
SomeRelativePath/MyIncludeFile.ininc
/SomeAbsolutePath/MyIncludeFile.ininc
Default value: None
The <Filepath> is either absolute (expressed starting relative to the
TFTP root directory) or relative (to the directory where the mPXELdr boot program resides).
A leading '/' or '\' in the <Filepath> indicates an absolute path
which will be passed “as is” to the TFTP server, while anything else
indicates a relative path which will be prepended to whatever is set
in the data part of the Include parameter.
Therefore, using examples 1 to 4 above and assuming mPXELdr.bin
is located in subdirectory LdrPath of the TFTP root directory (i.e.
the TFTP path of mPXELdr is LdrPath\mPXELdr.bin:
1 will resolve to: LdrPath/MyIncludeFile.ininc
2 will resolve to: /MyIncludeFile.ininc
3 will resolve to: LdrPath/SomeRelativePath/MyIncludeFile.ininc
4 will resolve to: /SomeAbsolutePath/MyIncludeFile.ininc
As the TFTP OS can be hosted in either a Windows, Linux or UNIX
server, mPXELdr will get the default .ini file path from the mPXELdr file path (that comes from the DHCP information), and use the
path separators ('/' or '\') that it finds there. mPXELdr will also use
the path separators that it finds in the .ini file, whatever they are,
and never alters them either. In other words, mPXELdr never inserts
or removes any path separators. It merely uses those that it collects
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Keywords
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from the PXE TFTP file path and the .ini file. This is important
because mPXELdr has no idea whether the TFPT server is talking to
a Windows, Linux or UNIX server. Even if the TFTP specification
allowed such information to be known, the PXE specification is not
designed to relay such information to mPXELdr.
It is the user’s responsibility to use the correct separator in the
DHCP parameters and .ini file. However, some TFTP server
implementations are also path separator indifferent. This is how it
should be because the TFTP client OS might be Windows, Linux or
UNIX, and the TFTP client typically doesn't know either what OS
and path separator convention the TFTP server is running.
Finally, it should be noted that the above rules are applied to generate a filepath (which must be no more than the PXE specification
limitation of 127 bytes), and in the end that filepath is sent to the
TFTP server. The result of the operation may then depend on the
behavior of the TFTP server. This should not be overlooked, especially in the following areas:
• Absolute path definitions:
If an include path definition starts with a path separator, the
TFTP server might interpret the path separator as relative to the
TFTP root directory OR to the host OS directory. For security
reasons, the TFTP software and/or launching script should
implement the former, but this should be checked with the TFTP
server administrator.
• Use of ‘.’ and ‘..’ in paths.
TFTP server may or may not accept or require the use of ‘.’ to
indicate the current directory and/or ‘..’ to indicate a previous
(higher) directory in the directory tree.
When mPXELdr processes an Include directive, it attempts to open
the file passed as a parameter. If the attempt succeeds, the contents
of the Include file is processed exactly as if it had been found in the
.ini file being processed, at the point the Include directive was
found.
Keywords
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The mPXELdr Configuration File
An Include file may include other files. This is one of the ways to
build structured configurations. Include files can only be nested
four levels deep.
The NVDServers
Keyword
Syntax:
NVDServers = <server list>
Examples:
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111;
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111!
Default value: NVDServers = ;
The use of this keyword can replace the need of a customized DHCP
Option 132, making it easier to deploy Image Manager in existing
networks where DHCP servers are already installed (and sometimes
not managed by the same group/department as the desktops).
The NVDServers keyword is used to define the list of servers that
mPXELdr will try to connect to. Each server is defined by its ‘dotted
decimal’ IP address, optionally followed by the port that the NVD
server uses. If the port is not specified, the default port (2184) is
used.
A server element is defined as follows:
<IP1.IP2.IP3.IP4>[:<port>]
Where IP1..IP4 represent IP bytes in decimal format (value
0..255).
The NVDServers value is a list of server elements, separated by ‘,’,
and terminated by either a standard value terminator (cf. supra) or by
an ‘!’.
Example of valid server lists:
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111;
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111
NVDServers = 192.168.0.209,192.168.0.161:2300,111.111.111.111:111!
If the terminating character is a standard value terminator or a ‘;’, the
PXE boot loader will add the TFTP server that delivered the PXE
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Keywords
The mPXELdr Configuration File
boot file (and its .ini file) to the list of potential NVD servers. This
is the default option.
If the terminating character is a ‘!’, the PXE boot loader will not add
the TFTP server to the list of NVD servers.
If multiple NVDServers keywords are found by mPXELdr during
.ini processing, the various NVDServers will be processed and
added to the list, and merged to build the server list according to the
following rules:
The NVDServers enumeration will be processed in the order they are
encountered and will be merged to create the boot server list, with
server elements appearing in the order they were processed (i.e. left
to right, in the order in which they will be encountered). If the TFTP
server was added, it will appear at the point were it was first required
(e.g. at the end of the .ini server list if the .ini list didn’t end with
a ‘!’). At boot time, the servers of the merged server list will be
searched until one accepts the boot connection.
No duplicate will appear in the merged list (i.e. if a server appears
twice in the list(s), only the first occurrence will be added to the
merged list at the place it was found first). This applies also to the
TFTP Server that could end up added twice if neither the .ini nor
the Opt132 list ended with a ‘!’, or even more if its IP address had
been explicitely added to one or several NVDServers list.
Note: Two servers are not considered identical if they have the same
IP address, but use a different port. Thus, it is possible to include the
same IP address multiple times, as long as each occurrence uses a
different port.
If the server lists are defined (or not defined) in such a way that the
merged list is empty, mPXELdr will add the TFTP server to the
merged list anyway and attempt to connect to an NVD server on the
TFTP server at the default NVD UDP port. This makes possible the
use of Neoware Image Manager server running on the same server
as the TFTP server without the use of an .ini file or DHCP Opt132.
The use of multiple NVDServers lists is specifically useful when
making full use of the hierarchy of .ini files together with the
Keywords
259
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Include directive documented in this chapter. This capability allows
the administrator to create a few number of NVDServers sublists as
independent files, and assemble them in different configuration files
through the use of Includes in the various .ini files. This way, the
whole hierarchy of server lists can be modified for large number of
stations or groups of stations by simply changing a few Include
files.
Yet another NVD server list can be configured in the DHCP server,
as DHCP Option 132 (Opt132). The syntax of the Opt132 server list
is the same as the aforementioned value for NVDServers. The
Opt132 value must NOT include the NVDServers keyword nor the
’=’ character (Option 132 itself is the functional equivalent of the
NVDServers = keyword).
If both NVDServers list(s) – in .ini files - and an Opt132 list – in
the DHCP server - are defined, they will be processed in that order,
and both lists will be merged using the aforementioned rules.
The BootMode
Keyword
Syntax:
BootMode = <A || S || I >
Examples:
BootMode
BootMode
BootMode
BootMode
=
=
=
=
Automatic
Semi-automatic
Interactive
A
Note: mPXELdr only scans the first non-whitespace
character that follows the ‘=’ sign. Thus Atomitoc,
even though meaningless, will be accepted and processed just the same as Automatic.
Default value: BootMode = S
The BootMode keyword defines the behavior of the mPXELdr at
boot time. It can take one of three values:
A
for Automatic, S for Semi-automatic, or I for Interactive.
Automatic Mode
mPXELdr will boot off the first server it finds that:
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Keywords
The mPXELdr Configuration File
• Answers its connection request
• Has a bootable volume this station can see and reach. The first
bootable volume on the server that the station can see will be
used for booting. The order of volumes on the server are defined
by the server configuration.
Servers are searched in the order defined by the NVDServers keyword(s) (as well as Option 132), in the order specified. If the list is
exhausted without a successful connection, the search will be
restarted from the first server in the list, then the second, etc.
Semi-Automatic Mode
(This is the default mode if the BootMode parameter is not specified.)
Semi-Automatic mode is the same as Automatic mode with one
exception. If the station mPXELdr is loading detects there are several volumes available for boot on the selected server, mPXELdr
will switch to the Boot Volume Selection screen to allow the user to
select the volume to boot from.
Keywords
261
The mPXELdr Configuration File
The selection is achieved using the Up and Down arrow keys then
pressing the Enter key.
Pressing the F1 key from this screen will change the display to the
log screen which shows messages printed by mPXELdr as it runs.
Pressing the F2 key will return you to the Boot Volume Selection
screen.
The following illustration shows a typical log screen display immediately before a volume is booted. Note that this can normally only
be seen if the PreBootPause keyword is specified and set to Y.
It is possible to specify a time-out value for the interactive volume
selection phase, using the VolSelectionTO keyword (described later
in this chapter). If the time-out expires without any human action on
the keyboard, the first (selected) volume on the menu will be used –
basically what Automatic mode would have done.
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Keywords
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Interactive Mode
In this mode, the whole process of server and volume selection is
done by the user through interactive menus.
mPXELdr first displays a Boot Volume Selection screen containing
the server list build using the NVDServers keywords and the
Option132 servers, with one entry per server found.
Server selection is achieved using the Up and Down arrow keys then
pressing the Enter key. Note that even if there is only one server
available for selection, the user still has to press Enter to continue.
Once a server has been selected, mPXELdr will attempt to connect
to that server and display its volume list.
Keywords
263
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Volume selection is achieved using the Up and Down arrow keys
then pressing the Enter key. Note that even if there is only one
volume available for selection, the user still has to press Enter to
continue. Once the user has selected and validated a volume,
mPXELdr will attempt to boot that volume.
You can return to the server selection screen by pressing the Escape
key.
Note: The VolSelectionTO parameters described later in this
chapter have NO EFFECT in interactive mode. This is by design.
Interactive mode is definitely interactive, and assumes human
interaction is required.
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Keywords
The mPXELdr Configuration File
Pressing the F1 key from the Boot Volume Selection screen will
change the display to the log screen which shows messages printed
by mPXELdr as it runs.
Pressing the F2 key will return you to the Boot Volume Selection
screen.
The following illustration shows a typical log screen display immediately before a volume is booted. Note that this can normally only
be seen if the PreBootPause keyword is specified and set to Y.
The VolSelectionTO
Keyword
Syntax:
VolSelectionTO = <0..60 >
Examples:
VolSelectionTO = 30
VolSelectionTO = 0
Default value: VolSelectionTO = 10
This keyword is only meaningful when associated with the BootMode = S option (see above). If the BootMode is set to any other
value, the VolSelectionTO is ignored.
defines the number of seconds that the mPXELdr
will wait to allow the user to make a selection from the list of vol-
VolSelectionTO
Keywords
265
The mPXELdr Configuration File
umes available on the server. If the user does not touch the keyboard
during this time period, mPXELdr will automatically select the first
volume in the list and attempt to boot.
Valid values are 1 to 60 seconds. Values larger than 60 seconds are
reduced to 60 seconds. A value of 0 effectively disables the time out,
and will let mPXELdr wait infinitely for user interaction.
The default value is 10 (10 seconds timeout).
The PreBootPause
Keyword
Syntax:
PreBootPause = <Y>
Examples:
PreBootPause = Y
PreBootPause = no
Default value: PreBootPause = N
Note: mPXELdr only scans the first non-whitespace character that
follows the ‘=’ sign. Thus Y, y and yes will be considered identical.
This keyword accepts two values, Y and N. “N” is the default.
If set to N, boot will immediately be attempted after a volume is
selected by whatever method.
If set to Y, a “press any key to continue” message will prompt the
user immediately between the execution of the boot sector from the
selected image.
Pressing any key will start the boot process from the selected server
/ volume.
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Keywords
The mPXELdr Configuration File
The ReQueryDHCPOptions Keyword
Syntax:
ReQueryDHCPOptions = <D || N || I>
Examples:
ReQueryDHCPOptions = Discover
ReQueryDHCPOptions = None
ReQueryDHCPOptions = Inform
Default value: ReQueryDHCPOptions = I
Warning: This option implements a work around for a few and
limited number of technical issues related to very specific DHCP
implementations. It should only be used when such a case has been
clearly and unambiguously identified.
Before booting from the image, mPXELoader has to re-issue a query
to the DHCP server in order to ensure it gets all the DHCP options
that have been set (in the DHCP configuration) for the booting
station. The reason this is required is because the PXE firmware only
queries a limited set of DHCP options, and a few options that
Windows needs do not belong to this set.
The regular way of accomplishing this is through the use of a
DHCPINFORM DHCP request, and this is what mPXELoader uses.
But it appears that certain versions/revisions of some DHCP servers
do not process the DHCPINFORM request in a conformant way,
resulting under certain circumstances in incorrect, empty or missing
DHCP values in the client.
This keyword accepts three values, D, N and I. "I" is the default.
If set to D, mPXELoader will use an alternate method, DHCPDISCOVER, to request the option parameters from the DHCP server.
This use of the DHCPDISCOVER slightly streches the interpretation of the DHCP specifications, but usually works and can be tried
as an alternative method to the regular DHCPINFORM method.
Note that versions of mPXELdr prior to the one shipped with Image
Manager v4.6.0 (and all versions of PXEOSLDR.bin) were using
DHCPDISCOVER.
If set to N, mPXELoader will not do any kind of DHCP requery and
will simply pass to the booting OS the options subset that the DHCP
Keywords
267
The mPXELdr Configuration File
server returned to the station in its DHCPACK reply to the DHCP
request emitted by the PXE boot prom.
If set to I, the regular DHCPINFORM method is used. This is the
default.
The NICRxTxQs
Keyword
Syntax:
NICRxTxQs = <n1/n2>
Examples:
NICRxTxQs = 8/4
NICRxTxQs = 1/1
Default value: None
Warning: This option implements a work around for a few and
limited number of technical issues related to very specific PXE
implementations. It should only be used when such a case has been
clearly and unambiguously identified.
Both n1 and n2 must be in the range 1..127.
The PXE firmware internally use buffer queues for packet transmission and reception. Those queues allow the unattended transmission
and reception of data packets at times when the CPU is busy doing
some other work. Upon initialization, mPXELoader queries the PXE
firmware for the size of the transmit and receive queue for the PXE
NIC. During the boot sequence, PXE never requests from the server
more packets than the Tx queue can handle. Conversely, it never
attempts to send in a row more packets than the transmit queue can
handle.
Unfortunately, some PXE implementations return invalid values to
mPXELoader. When those values are very obviously invalid, mPXELoader detects this and assumes valid and safe (and somehow
slow) values. But if those values are both invalid and plausible,
mPXELoader takes them for granted and uses them. This can result
in mPXELoader requesting more packets from the server than the
NIC can handle and buffer, and data packet drops, timeouts, retries,
etc. The result is a failing (or extremely slow) first boot phase. This
has been specifically reported in the case when mPXELoader was
running in a Microsoft Virtual Server or Microsoft Virtual PC virtual machine, using the MS simulated PXE NIC.
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Keywords
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The NICRxTxQs parameters overrides the values that mPXELoader
got from the PXE firmware with the values supplied.
On a general basis, without specific knowledge about the NIC
implementation, values above 48/1 are unsafe and should probably
not be used.
Keywords
269
The mPXELdr Configuration File
270
Keywords
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 20
Neoware Active
Cloner
This chapter describes how to use Neoware Active Cloner to clone
the current system partition to another partition.
Introduction
Neoware Active Cloner is a partition duplicator that works on a file
by file basis and enables differential cloning and duplication of the
current system partition to another partition while Windows is running. The Active Cloner enables very easy back-up operations and
allows for optimized image update processes when used with
Neoware UbiBoot.
When you run Neoware Active Cloner the following steps occur by
default, but you can disable any of these steps:
1
Any files or directories on the target partition that are not on
the source partition are deleted.
2
Each file on the source partition is copied to the target partition, unless the file already exists on the target partition and has
the same time stamp and file size.
3
Registry files are created on the target partition.
4
By default, Neoware Image Manager Client components are
disabled on the target partition so that when the target partition
is used to boot Windows on a PC, Windows does not try to
mount any Neoware Virtual Drive. However, when cloning to
a partition in a Neoware Virtual Drive, the user can choose to
keep Neoware Image Manager Client components activated on
271
Neoware Active Cloner
the target partition so that it stays bootable from an Image
Manager server.
5
The Master Boot Record (MBR) of the source partition is
duplicated to the target partition.
Cloning a Partition
Neoware Active Cloner can be run using command line options
(described later in this chapter) or through a graphical user interface
called NimClonerGUI.exe. The following procedure describes the
basic user interface operation. Examples of the procedures used for
different requirements are described in the next section.
1
272
Cloning a Partition
To run Neoware Active Cloner from the Start menu, select
Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > Neoware
Active Cloner.
Neoware Active Cloner
2
The Source Drive is the partition to be cloned and is, by default,
the partition running the operating system currently being used.
3
The Target Drive must be specified as a drive letter. It can be a
hard disk partition attached to the Neoware Image Manager
client, another Neoware Image Manager virtual hard disk, a
bootable partition on a drive shared on the network, etc.
The additional options in this dialog are accessed by clicking the
Expert button. Refer to the section “Expert Options” on
page 276 for details.
4
Click the Clone button to start the cloning process.
The default settings will copy the current system partition to the
specified target partition and make it a bootable hard disk that
contains an exact copy of the current system partition.
Any errors that occur during cloning will be recorded in a log file
that will be displayed in a window at the end of the process.
You can interrupt the cloning procedure by clicking the Stop Cloning button. A confimation dialog will be displayed. If you confirm
that cloning is to be stopped, there is a high probability that the target drive will not be bootable or will not have the complete set of
features that the source drive had.
Example Cloning Procedures
Cloning Directly to
an Attached Hard
Disk
To clone the current system drive to a hard disk attached to the computer that will be running Neoware Active Cloner so that you can
boot off the attached hard disk, you must perform the following
steps:
1
Make sure the attached drive has been partitioned and formatted
under Windows NT (3.51, 4), Windows 2000, Windows XP or
Windows 2003 OS using Windows disk management tools.
Example Cloning Procedures
273
Neoware Active Cloner
Cloning to a
Network Shared
Hard Disk
274
2
Make sure the partition you want to make bootable on the
attached hard disk is activated and is the first partition on the
hard disk.
3
If the source hard disk is the system drive that will run Neoware
Active Cloner, close as many applications and services as possible. Do not launch any applications on this computer while
Neoware Active Cloner is running.
4
Start Neoware Active Cloner.
5
Specify the Target Drive in the Neoware Active Cloner as the
drive letter associated with the first partition on the attached
hard disk.
6
Click the Clone button.
To clone the current system drive to a hard disk currently shared on
the network, you must perform the following steps:
1
Make sure the shared drive has been partitioned and formatted
under Windows NT (3.51, 4), Windows 2000, Windows XP or
Windows 2003 OS using Windows disk management tools.
2
Make sure the partition you want to make bootable on the shared
hard disk is activated and is the first partition on the hard disk.
3
Make sure the shared hard disk root directory is shared on the
network.
4
Connect a network drive from your current Neoware Image
Manager client to the shared hard disk. Make sure that you use
connection credentials that give you full control permissions on
the shared hard disk.
5
If the source hard disk is the system drive that will run Neoware
Active Cloner, close as many applications and services as possible. Do not launch any applications on this computer while
Neoware Active Cloner is running.
6
Start Neoware Active Cloner.
Example Cloning Procedures
Neoware Active Cloner
7
Specify the Target Drive in the Neoware Active Cloner as the
drive letter associated with the shared hard disk.
8
Click the Clone button.
When the target drive is a network share, Neoware Active Cloner
does not have physical access to the target hard drive and then it cannot check that the partition is activated nor can it dump the MBR of
the source drive to the MBR of the target drive. Neoware Active
Cloner may display messages about this, but as long as the MBR is
correct and the partition has been activated, your target drive should
boot correctly.
Cloning to Another
Image Manager
Virtual Hard Disk
To clone the current system drive to a virtual hard disk housed on
the Neoware Image Manager server, and you want to be able to boot
off that virtual hard disk later, you must perform the following steps:
1
Make sure the target drive was previously bootable and could be
used by Windows as a boot drive.
2
Configure the NVDD server module so that it shares the target
virtual drive to the client that will run Active Cloner, as a NONBOOTABLE drive. This target drive will then be mounted as an
extra drive (D:, E:...).
3
If the source hard disk is the system drive that will run Neoware
Active Cloner, close as many applications and services as possible. Do not launch any applications on this computer while
Neoware Active Cloner is running.
4
Start Neoware Active Cloner.
5
Specify the Target Drive in the Neoware Active Cloner as the
drive letter associated with the target virtual hard disk.
6
Click the Expert button to enable the additional options in the
dialog box.
7
Select NIM Bootable as the Target Type.
8
Click the Clone button.
Example Cloning Procedures
275
Neoware Active Cloner
Expert Options
Clicking the Expert button will enable you to access the additional
options in the dialog.
Disable Options
The Disable options enable you to modify the cloning process so that
certain steps are not included.
Selecting Disable Files Cloning will prevent file processing.
To prevent any files or directories on the target partition that are not
on the source partition from being deleted, select Disable Files
Cleaning. This option will have no effect if Disable Files Cloning is
selected.
If you select Disable Registry Cloning, the full set of registry files
will not be created on the target drive.
To prevent the duplication of the source partition Master Boot
Record (MBR) to the target partition, select Disable MBR Cloning.
276
Expert Options
Neoware Active Cloner
Boot Options
The Target Type option can be set to HDD Bootable (default) or NIM
(Neoware Image Manager) Bootable.
Selecting HDD Bootable will modify the Windows settings on the
target partition so that it will not include Image Manager client specific settings that makes a Neoware Virtual Drive bootable with
Neoware Image Manager.
Selecting NIM Bootable when the source partition is already a
Neoware Virtual Drive will have no effect on the Windows configuration cloned to the target partition. The cloned installation will
remain Image Manager bootable.
Command Line Options
A command line engine called NimCloner.exe can be used to execute cloning operations from the command line instead of using the
graphical user interface. This is useful for automated scripts (for
example, for automatic provisioning of actual hard disk drives from
virtual drives).
The command line syntax is as follows:
NIMCloner.exe <Destination Drive> [/Source:<Drive Letter>] [/NoFiles] [/NoCleanFiles] [/NoReg] [/NoHDDBoot]
[/NoMBR] [/NoWaitOnExit]
The first parameter is always the target (destination) drive. The other
parameters are optional.
The two files NRDmpSvc and VVSAToolsDLL.DLL must be in the
directory from which NimCloner.exe is invoked.
The command line options are as follows:
/Source:
This specifies the source drive used as the master for cloning. It must
always be followed by a drive letter. By default, the source drive is
the system drive running the current instance of Windows.
Command Line Options
277
Neoware Active Cloner
/NoFiles
Using this option will prevent file processing.
/NoCleanFiles
This option will prevent any files or directories on the target partition that are not on the source partition from being deleted. It will
have no effect if /NoFiles is specified.
/NoReg
This option will prevent the full set of registry files from being created on the target drive.
/NoHDDBoot
If you do not use this option NimCloner.exe will modify Windows
settings on the target drive so that it will not include Image Manager
client specific settings that make a Neoware Virtual Drive bootable
with Neoware Image Manager. Note that is possible that Windowsspecific settings used to boot with Neoware Image Manager would
be incompatible with HDD bootability.
If you use this option and your source drive is a Neoware Virtual
Drive, no change is made to the Windows configuration on the target
drive, so this target drive houses a Windows installation that remains
bootable by Neoware Image Manager.
/NoMBR
Using this option will prevent the duplication of the source partition
Master Boot Record (MBR) to the target partition.
/NoWaitOnExit
Using this option will stop NimCloner.exe prompting you to press
Enter to exit when it finishes. It will just exit silently. This is useful
if NimCloner.exe is used in automated scripts.
278
Command Line Options
Neoware Active Cloner
Error Messages
Could Not Copy a
File
If the message Could not copy a file is displayed, try manually
copying the file from the source drive to the target drive. Some files
(such as log files, temporary files) may not actually be needed for
the Windows operating system on the target drive in order to boot
off the target drive. If the file cannot be copied, check if the file is
actually required. You may need to run disk checking/repairing tools
if some files are corrupted.
Client-Specific Settings on the Target System
When you clone a Neoware Image Manager drive to a target drive,
the current client-specific details are copied to the target system. In
particular, the target system will use the Computer Name, IP address
and Domain Credentials that were used by the Neoware Image Manager client when Active Cloner was run. This makes automatic provisioning of HDD very efficient as you do not have to change these
settings after the cloning has occurred, nor do you have to run anything after the cloning process has completed. The clients can boot
immediately off the cloned HDD.
Error Messages
279
Neoware Active Cloner
280
Client-Specific Settings on the Target System
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
CHAPTER 21
Virtualized
Environments
This chapter describes how to use Neoware Image Manager with
virtual machines, which can run Image Manager clients or server.
VMWare Environment
Introduction
Neoware Image Manager integrates perfectly well in VMWare
environments. It can be used to stream OS and applications
(actually disks) to Virtual Machines, making it very useful in VDI
(Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) environments. Neoware Image
Manager Server can also run as an application or service in a
Virtual Machine.
Streaming Disk
Images to Virtual
Machines
Creating the Disk Image
In order to create a disk image for streaming to virtual machines,
you will usually follow the standard procedures described in this
manual. In particular, you will have to start from an existing
installation of Windows XP or Windows 2000 guest, booted off a
regular VMWare disk drive.
However, before you create your image, you should make sure that
you have correctly installed the latest versions of VMWare tools
for your client Guest OS. This means that the VMWare tools must
be installed before you run Image Manager ClientBuilder in order
to capture your disk image.
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In particular, you should make sure that the latest VMWare Network
Interface Card driver (VmxNet driver) is actually installed and
working. Using this driver will actually improve performance and
failing to use it may result in creating an image that will not be bootable by Image Manager Clients.
Adding VM Support to Existing Images
You can modify an existing Image Manager virtual drive so that it
can be used to boot VMs. This virtual drive would usually be used to
boot physical machines prior to enhancing it to support network
booting VMs.
The easiest way to achieve this is to use UbiBoot Extractor to extract
the required data from an existing VMWare guest running Windows,
then use UbiBoot Inserter to insert the previously extracted data in
your existing image. Refer to “Adding Network Boot Devices to an
Image” on page 87 for information about using UbiBoot Extractor
and Inserter.
Once your existing image has been enhanced to support VMware
guest network card as a boot device, you will have to boot a VM off
this image in order to install the rest of the drivers for the VM. You
would usually do this operation in Admin mode (or in CVolWrite/
Normal mode and then use CVolMerge to update the image).
In order to boot your VM off a Neoware Image Manager virtual
disk, you must enable the VM to boot from the network using PXE
(see below).
Note that it is sometimes not possible to boot a VM image without it
having a VMWare virtual disk drive (.vmdk file) attached to it, even
if that disk drive is not used. Therefore, you can attach the smallest
possible disk drive to your VM and never partition or format it.
Also, use a dynamic non-persistent disk.
When your VM can boot off the Neoware Image Manager virtual
disk, it will detect some new hardware. In order to provide the complete set of drivers, you would use VMWare tools.
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Virtualized Environments
When the drivers are completely installed in the image, that image
can be used to boot all the machines it previously supported, including the Physical machines, and also the VMWare VMs.
Having such an image may be very convenient as you can boot it in
any VMware VM and then be able to reproduce what users experimence on their machines, even if you do not have to hand any client
machine compatible with the image.
Enabling PXE Boot in Your VMs
In order for your VM to be able to boot of a Neoware Image Manager virtual drive, you have to enable PXE boot. This is usually done
by modifying the BIOS setting of the guest VM:
Disabling the Embedded DHCP Server
If the network interface cards in your VMs are using NAT, we
recommend that you disable the VMWare embedded DHCP server,
for it is not easily able to set PXE data and sometimes interferes with
the actual PXE/DHCP Server.
VMWare Environment
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Virtualized Environments
If you are using VMWare Workstation or VMWare server, this is
achieved by using the menu Edit > Virtual Network Settings then
selecting the tab DHCP Server and stopping the service. You must
also make sure that the DHCP Service is not running by default. For
instance, under Windows, you should open the “Services”
management console.
Provisioning VMs
with Image
Manager
Neoware Image Manager is a perfect tool for provisioning Virtual
Machines that are supposed to have the same set of applications and
the same usage (in VDI environments for example).
With Neoware Image Manager, as long as your VMs boot off the
network, you can easily provision and manage a single virtual disk
that is actually used by several servers at the same time. Actually,
the operations are exactly the same as with physical machines.
Running Image
Manager Server in
a VM
You can run Image Manager Server in a VM. Just install your server
OS (Windows or Linux) in the VM as you would do normally.
Install the Neoware Image Manager the standard way. That’s all!
Note: FreeBSD has never been validated in VMWare environments.
Using Private
Networks
If your server and clients run in VMs on the same host, you can set a
private network used only by your client VMs and your server VM.
This private network would not be linked to any physical adapter in
the host. All the network traffic between your Image Manager server
and clients will be confined to the host. The Guest that runs Image
Manager server would then also usually be a DHCP server and
TFTP Server.
Using Public &
Private Networks
You can configure your Image Manager server’s VMs to have two
virtual network interface cards, one bound to a private network, the
other bound to a public network. The servers can then serve Image
Manager virtual disks to VMs connected to the private network and
at the same time to machines (physical or virtual) that have access to
the public network.
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Virtualized Environments
Setting a routing service or a NAT service on the guest that runs
Image Manager server would then enable it to be the gateway
between the private network and public network, and machines in
the private network would potentially have access to all the network
resources available to the public network (internet access, network
file servers etc).
Here is an example of such a private + public network configuration
on a VMWare ESX server:
In the example above, the two machines named saruman and rapetou are servers that run Neoware Image Manager server module.
Both have two NICs, one connected to Private Network (172.16.0.0/
16), the other connected to the public network (VM Network,
192.168.1.0/24).
VMWare Environment
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Virtualized Environments
The server named saruman runs the DHCP service for Private Network. It is also configured to route IP packets between the private
and public network.
When setting such a dual network configuration, administrators
should be careful to configure their DHCP service so that it does not
interfere with the public network if this is not desired. Usually, an
administrator would create a DHCP scope or subnet that would only
server the IP addresses in the private network. In the example above,
the only active DHCP subnet on the server saruman is 172.16.0.0.
Performance &
Storage
Optimization
Performance in VMware environments is usually consistent with
VMware usage. You will not be able to run more VMs (or less VMs)
on a single host when they boot off a Neoware Image Manager virtual disk than when they boot off their own private VMware .vmdk
disk. Yet, because you can use the very same Neoware Image Manager virtual drive to provision several VMs, you need less storage,
providing that you have several VMs that use the same image.
Image
Consolidation
Using a common Image Manager virtual disk makes it easier to
patch your VMs, install and deploy new applications etc., in the
same way it makes it easier to manage physical machines. The VMs
are also stateless and providing a new VM is just a matter of creating
the VM. When it is created, boot it off the network. No deployment
or cloning is required.
Limitations
As the VMs provisioned by Image Manager are not actually using
any .vmdk files (VMware virtual disk files), all the operations that
require such files are not available when the VMs are booted off
Image Manager virtual disk. This includes VMotion, snapshots,
pause and resume… However, there is no obvious technical reason
for these operations to require the need of a .vmdk file, so it is very
likely that these limitations will be lifted in the next future.
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Virtualized Environments
Microsoft VirtualPC Virtual Server Environments
Most of what is mentioned in the previous section for VMware
environments is also true in Microsoft VirtualPC/Virtual server
environments. Refer to the VMware section earlier for more details
about general operations with virtual machines. In this section we
will focus on Microsoft VirtualPC/VirtualServer specifics.
Enabling Network
Boot
To enable network boot, boot the VM, press the Del key to enter
BIOS, go to the BOOT menu then enable network boot. For
example:
Note: The PXE code in some implementations of Microsoft VirtualPC and Virtual server VM reports an incorrect size for receive/
transmit queues. This can prevent the VM from actually booting off
Image Manager server. In order to correct this issue if you encounter it, please use the NICRxTxQs parameter in mPXELdr’s .ini file.
The correct value for use with MS VirtualPC/VirtualServer VMs is
NICRxTxQs = 8/1. Please refer to “The mPXELdr Configuration
File” on page 251 for more details about mPXELdr.bin initialization files.
Microsoft VirtualPC Virtual Server Environments
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Virtualized Environments
Other Virtualized Environments
There are other virtualized environments than VMWare and
Microsoft VirtualPC/Virtual Server: Xen, Virtual Iron, VirtualBox,
kvm etc. The VMs in these environments can usually be used to run
Neoware Image Manager server module. However, all the “other
virtualized environments” we could test implemented only partially
the PXE standard and thus were not able to successfully PXE-boot
off Neoware Image Manager.
Things are moving fast in the Virtualization world, so it is very
likely that the “other virtualized environments” will catch up on
standard compliance.
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Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX A
Upgrading Image
Manager
This appendix describes how to upgrade from earlier versions of
Neoware Image Manager.
Important
The components in a specific release of Neoware Image Manager
must not be mixed with components from other releases.
Components in a specific release of Neoware Image Manager are
designed to work together and may not work if used with
components that are not part of the same release.
Upgrading from Previous Versions of Neoware Image Manager 4
Order of Upgrading
Operations
1
Backup your hard disk image.
2
Boot one client with the older version of Neoware Image
Manager.
3
Configure nvdd so that the virtual volume (virtual HD) is
mounted in Admin mode by this client.
4
Using this client, run Client Builder from the newer version of
Image Manager (launched from the CLIENT folder that
contains the newer components). It detects that it is actually
performing an upgrade.
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Upgrading Image Manager
If there are WiFi adapters in the list of supported Network cards,
check the Expert option and make sure that no WiFi adapter is
selected.
5
Shutdown the client.
6
Stop nvdd server.
7
Replace the server modules (nvdd.exe, mPXELdr.bin) and the
server tools (CVolMerge, CVolCompactor, NvddPasswd, NvddAdmin) on the server side. You can perform a Server installation after having uninstalled the previous version, or you can use
Decompress installation to get the files you need.
8
Launch the console shipped with v4.6.
9
Open the configuration file previously used with v4.x.x.
10 Optional: If you were previously running Image Manager v4.0
or v4.1, in Tools > Generic Options > Directories set the path for
the certificate to the certificate shipped with Image Manager 4.6
(nimcert.pem, in the Server directory. Usually, you would just
need to enter nimcert.pem in the field).
11 Optional: If you were previously running Image Manager v4.0
or v4.1, enter a password in the Password field (this field is not
currently used but must be filled!). Optionally change the other
directories/path parameters (the default values should work correctly, so you may just leave them as the console sets them, that
is ‘./’ (meaning the folder where nvdd.exe is located)).
12 Change the volume write mode so that it is not in Admin mode.
We recommend using CVolWrite/Volatile mode at this point.
13 Backup the older nvdd server binary (nvdd.exe or nvdd). Copy
the new v4.6 nvdd server binary in the folder that contains the
older nvdd server binary. Launch the new v4.6 nvdd server so
that it serves the virtual volume image you have just modified.
(In order to do so, you would usually use the configuration file
modified previously.)
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Upgrading from Previous Versions of Neoware Image Manager 4
Upgrading Image Manager
14 Boot-up one client. It should boot with the new mPXELdr.bin
and the new drivers from the updated image.
15 If new hardware is detected on the client (e.g. because of some
changes in Neoware Image Manager client drivers), you may
want to reboot the client in Admin mode so that the new hardware is detected once for all and does not have to be redetected
every time a client boots up. Then change the Neoware Image
Manager server configuration so that the virtual volume is not
mounted in Admin mode any more.
Troubleshooting
Another way to upgrade is to dump the image to be upgraded onto a
physical HDD (using Neoware Active Cloner) and perform the
standard install process, run the new nvdd.exe so that it shares
smalldisk, run Client Builder and build your image.
Upgrading from Previous Versions of Neoware Image Manager 4
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Upgrading Image Manager
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Upgrading from Previous Versions of Neoware Image Manager 4
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX B
The TFTPD
Installer
This appendix describes how to use the TFTPD Installer to configure
Windows 2000/2003/XP TFTP Server for Image Manager clients.
Introduction
The TFTPD Installer is a tool for helping you to install the TFTP
server (TFTPD) that is shipped with Microsoft Windows 2000/
2003 Server, so that it can be used with Neoware Image Manager
clients.
Note that the Microsoft TFTP Server is designed to be used only on
the Windows 2000/2003 and XP operating systems, if you have the
valid licenses. For Windows NT you can use 3Com® freeware
TFTP Server that can be downloaded from the following link:
ftp://ftp.3com.com/pub/utilbin/win32/3CTftpSvc.zip
The freeware TFTPD32 (http://www.jounin.net) can also be used
as TFTP server (not running as a service) and as a simple DHCP
server (also not running as a service).
To install Microsoft TFTP Server, you will require Windows 2000/
2003 Server installation media (usually a CD-ROM).
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The TFTPD Installer
Using the TFTPD Installer
The following procedure assumes that the Microsoft TFTPD service
is not yet installed. If the service is already installed, the TFTPD
Installer will behave slightly differently to what is described here.
However, the messages and hints displayed by the TFTPD Installer
should still enable you to use it easily.
1
Run the TFTPD Installer, either from the Start menu by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools > MS-TFTP
Server Helper, or by navigating the file system:
<decompressed archive root directory>/Image_Manager_
4.6/Server/Windows/TFTPDInstall.exe.
2
In the Path to Windows 2000/2003 Server files field, specify
the path to the directory containing Windows 2000/2003 Server
installation files (usually a subdirectory called I386).
The TFTPD Installer will search this directory for a file named
TFTPD.EX_ or TFTPD.EXE.
3
294
In the Path to TFTP Served files root folder field, specify the
location of the directory that will contain the files to be served
by the TFTP Server. This can either be a directory that is already
defined, or you can enter a new directory name and check the
Create folder box to create it automatically when you click the
Apply button later.
Using the TFTPD Installer
The TFTPD Installer
4
It is recommended that you check the Run TFTPD Service at
boot time box so that TFTP Server will be launched automatically when the server boots.
5
If you want the TFTPD Service to be run when the TFTPD
Installer is exited or when you click the Apply button, check the
Run TFTPD Service now box.
6
Click the Apply button.
7
Click OK to exit the TFTPD Installer.
8
Make sure that the file mPXELdr.bin (or
mPXELdr.<ServerMACAddress>.bin) is present in the directory
you specified in the Path to Windows 2000/2003 Server files
field. You may need to copy the file from the Neoware Image
Manager Server directory.
9
If the following information message is displayed, restart the
server to run TFTPD.
Managing the TFTPD Service
Once Microsoft TFTP Server is installed, you can manage the
TFTPD service using the standard tools for managing services. For
example, if you want to change the way TFTP Server is launched at
boot time, you can right-click on My Computer, select Manage >
Services > TFTPD Service to enable you to change the setting.
Managing the TFTPD Service
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The TFTPD Installer
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Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX C
Configuring the
DHCP Server
This appendix describes how to configure the Windows 2000/2003
DHCP server.
Introduction
This appendix describes how to install and configure Microsoft
DHCP Server, supplied with Windows 2000/2003 Server, for use
with Neoware Image Manager.
Before Installing
DHCP Server
IMPORTANT: The system on which DHCP server is to be
installed must use a static (i.e. manually assigned) IP address:
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Configuring the DHCP Server
Configuring the Server
Like with all other Server related components, you can start the
setup of the DHCP server by selecting Configure Your Server
from the Start/Programs/Administrative Tools menu.
298
1
From the Start menu, select Programs > Administrative Tools >
Configure Your Server to display the following dialog:
2
In the left-hand panel, click on Networking, select DHCP, and
then start the Windows Component Wizard. (This wizard can
also be started from the Control Panel by selecting Add/Remove
Programs, then Add/Remove Windows Components.)
Configuring the Server
Configuring the DHCP Server
3
Click on the line Networking Services and then click the
Details... button.
4
Locate the line Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in
the list box and check the check box next to it. Click the OK
button to continue.
Configuring the Server
299
Configuring the DHCP Server
5
Click Next in the Windows Components dialog.
A progress bar will be displayed while the system configures the
network components.
6
300
When the Windows Components Wizard has successfully completed, click the Finish button.
Configuring the Server
Configuring the DHCP Server
Configuring DHCP
The DHCP server must be configured before it can be used.
1
From the Start menu, display the Administrative Tools menu
and select DHCP.
Configuring DHCP
301
Configuring the DHCP Server
In the left pane of the DHCP window you will see the name and
IP address of the DHCP server.
After installation, a DHCP server is not authorized. Do not forget this later!
2
You need to define the range of IP addresses to be assigned (i.e.
distributed) by the DHCP server. A definition of a range of IP
addresses (with or without additional options) is called a scope.
Select your DHCP server and then either with a right-click or
from the Action menu, select to define a New Scope.
This will open the New Scope Wizard.
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Configuring DHCP
Configuring the DHCP Server
3
Click Next to continue.
4
Enter a name and description for the scope you are about to
create, then click Next.
Configuring DHCP
303
Configuring the DHCP Server
5
Specify the range of IP addresses and the subnet mask. The
range must not include the IP address of the DHCP server itself,
or any other device with a manually assigned IP address (e.g.
network printers).
Although you could exclude them in the next step, usually a
range is reserved for manually assigned addresses and then the
rest (in this case 100 - 199) is given to the DHCP server for
automatic distribution.
6
304
Configuring DHCP
Click Next to continue.
Configuring the DHCP Server
7
If you could not define separate ranges for manually-assigned
and DHCP-assigned IP addresses, then you can define the
addresses to be excluded and not to be used by the DHCP server
in this Add Exclusions dialog.
Click Next to continue.
8
Typically, an IP address is assigned (i.e. leased) for a limited
period of time. This avoids the situation where you run out of
available addresses when visitors connect to the network and gat
an IP address assigned. Without a time limit these IP addresses
could not be re-used. Usually 8 days is a good choice and will
ensure that workstations on the network will continue to use the
same IP addresses assigned to them every day, since their systems will in time extend the lease.
9
Click Next to continue.
Configuring DHCP
305
Configuring the DHCP Server
10 Additional DHCP options must be set when serving IP addresses
to Neoware Image Manager clients in order for the system to
work correctly. Select the option Yes, I want to configure these
options now, then click Next.
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Configuring DHCP
Configuring the DHCP Server
11 Is your Neoware Image Manager clients network part of a Wide
Area Network? Do you want Neoware Image Manager clients to
access the internet? If the answer is yes, you will need to configure the client computers with the IP address of the Gateway (or
Router) to be able to communicate with systems on the WAN.
Enter the IP address then click Add to enter the address to the list
of Gateways.
12 Click Next to continue.
13 Are you using a WAN and need to help your clients to locate the
IP addresses of servers (e.g. WebServers) on the WAN? Or do
you intend to have clients connected to the Windows 2000
server via the new Active Directory methd? If the answer is yes
you must configure the clients to use a DNS server.
Enter the name of the DNS server and its IP address then click
Add to add the entry to the list.
Configuring DHCP
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Configuring the DHCP Server
14 Click Next to continue.
15 The WINS Servers dialog enables you to enter WINS server IP
addresses that computers can use to convert NetBIOS computer
names to IP addresses. Click Next to continue.
16 You now need to activate scope by selecting the option Yes, I
want to activate this scope now
then clicking Next.
(You can Activate/Deactivate the scope later with a right-click
on the scope and selecting Activate or Deactivate.)
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Configuring DHCP
Configuring the DHCP Server
The following dialog will be displayed when the New Scope
Wizard has successfully completed.
17 You now have to authorize the DHCP server. In the DHCP win-
dow, select the DHCP server and either right-click or from the
Action menu select Authorize.
18 You may now have to close the DHCP window then open it
again to see that the DHCP server is now running.
Configuring DHCP
309
Configuring the DHCP Server
19 Open the Scope Options dialog by selecting the Scope Options
folder in the tree-view pane of the DHCP window (or display the
menu) and selecting Configure Options.
Action
20 Scroll through the list box and check the option 066 Boot Server
Host Name check box. Enter your server’s
String Value field. Do not click OK yet!
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Configuring DHCP
IP address in the
Configuring the DHCP Server
21 Scroll through the list and check the option 067 Bootfile Name
check box. Enter mPXELdr.bin in the String value field.
22 Click OK to accept the settings.
IMPORTANT: Make sure that option 060 Class ID is not
present, or not checked, in Scope Options and in Server
Options. Option 060 Class ID is not present by default, but may
be set if you previously installed a third-party PXE Server (Intel
PXE PDK for example) on your server.
If option 60 exists and it is set to "PXEClient", you will need to
configure a PXE Server for it to serve your clients with the boot
file named mPXELdr.bin. Note that some PXE servers do not
allow per-client configuration. In this case you may want to set
option 60 to an empty string for the MAC addresses corresponding to Neoware Image Manager clients. You would then use
DHCP Reservations (see next section).
Configuring DHCP
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Configuring the DHCP Server
DHCP Reservations
Even though DHCP assigns IP addresses dynamically on a first
come, first served basis, using DHCP Reservations allows an IP
address to be reserved for a specific client. An IP address can be
matched with a MAC address to create a reservation. This allows
DHCP to assign a "static" IP address. Furthermore, this allows each
client to have a DHCP-provided specific host name.
1
312
DHCP Reservations
Display the New Reservation dialog either by right-clicking on
the Reservations folder in the tree-view pane of the DHCP
Console and selecting New Reservation..., or by selecting
Reservation, displaying the Action menu and selecting New
Reservation.
Configuring the DHCP Server
2
Enter a name for the reservation (just a “nickname”), the IP
address you want to be assigned to the client, the client’s MAC
address, and an optional description.
3
Keep the Supported types set to Both and click OK.
The newly created reservation will then appear under Reservain the tree-view pane.
tions
If you want to add a specific option to a reservation, for example
a host name, you need to configure the options for that reservation. Right-click on the reservation you want to configure and
select Configure Options.
DHCP Reservations
313
Configuring the DHCP Server
4
Scroll down to the particular option you want to set. To set the
host name, select option 012.
Enter the desired value (TEST02-IP103 in the example above)
then click OK.
The option specific to that reservation will appear in the right
pane when the reservation is selected in the tree-view pane.
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DHCP Reservations
Configuring the DHCP Server
Related Resources
Documents relating to MS Windows® DHCP server can be found at
the following address:
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/
servermanager/dhcpserver.mspx
You can also refer to the following RFCs related to DHCP. RFCs can
be browsed on the RFC web site: http://www.rfc-editor.org.
RFC 2131 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(protocol DHCP, obsoletes RFC 1541)
RFC 2132 DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions
The following RFCs can help you understand how DHCP works
with other services on your network:
RFC 951
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
RFC 1534 Interoperability between DHCP and BOOTP
RFC 1542 Clarifications and extensions for Bootstrap
protocol (BOOTP)
RFC 2136 Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System
(DNS UPDATE)
RFC 2241 DHCP Options for Novell Directory Services.
RFC 2242 Netware/IP Domain Name and Information.
Related Resources
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Configuring the DHCP Server
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Related Resources
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX D
DHCP Reference
This appendix describes how clients locate the Neoware Image
Manager server, and the DHCP options used.
How Clients Locate the Image Manager Server
At boot time, the Client station executes the mPXELdr code to
locate an Image Manager Server to boot from. There are two ways
to configure the server(s) that mPXELdr will attempt to contact.
One is using the mPXELdr configuration file (described in the
chapter “The mPXELdr Configuration File” on page 251). The
other method involves a specific configuration option in the DHCP
server, which is described in this appendix. Both methods are very
similar and are designed to complement each other. To provide
maximum configuration flexibility, refer also to the chapter “The
mPXELdr Configuration File” on page 251.
The Neoware Image Manager server IP address and port number
can be sent to a client by the DHCP server using DHCP option
#132. This option must contain a comma-separated character string
of IP addresses of servers to contact - optionally followed by a
semicolon and a port number. If no port number is specified, the
default NVDD port UDP 2184 will be used. It should be noted that
the syntax of this option is strictly identical to that of the NVDServers option in the mPXELdr configuration file.
If an IP address that the client tries to contact is not running a
Neoware Image Manager Server module on a corresponding port,
or if the server running on that address and port cannot serve any
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DHCP Reference
virtual disk to the client, the client tries to locate a running Neoware
Image Manager server module by scanning the next IP address and
port in the list sent in DHCP option #132. If the last server in the list
does not answer (or if this list is empty), the client tries to connect to
the IP address that is sent in next-server DHCP option #66 (field
siaddrr of DHCP answer), using the default NVDD port UDP 2184.
The next-server option is used by PXE to identify the TFTP server
that should send the network boot program mPXELdr.bin to the
client.
Note: If you do not want the client to boot off Neoware Image Manager virtual HDs served by the server that runs TFTP service, you
have to end the value of DHCP option #132 with an exclamation
mark (!). Refer to the chapter “The mPXELdr Configuration File”
on page 251 and to the DHCP Options section for details.
The DHCP option #60 should NOT be set in the DHCP replies. If
you do set this option, please make sure that your PXE server will be
able to serve the mPXELdr.bin file to your clients efficiently. If you
do so, you may need to rename this file to mPXELdr.0 (for example),
depending on your PXE server.
dhcpd.conf File
Example
The following is an example dhcpd.conf file for a TFTP server that
has the IP address: 192.168.0.23, and NVDD servers that have the
addresses: 192.168.0.4,192.168.0.9. (192.168.0.4 is tried first on
port 10000 for client e100-01, then 192.168.0.9 is tried on port 2184,
then 192.168.0.23 (TFTP server) is tried on port 2184).
option domain-name "neoware.com";
option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.12 ;
option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
option routers 192.168.0.1;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
use-host-decl-names on;
# option 132 is used to store a comma separated list of
# IP addresses that the clients will scan to find
# a running nvdd server module
option option-132 code 132 = text;
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DHCP Reference
default-lease-time -1;
max-lease-time 43200;
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
host e100-01
{
next-server 192.168.0.23;
hardware ethernet 00:00:39:3C:10:AB;
fixed-address 192.168.0.75;
filename "mPXELdr.bin";
option option-132
"192.168.0.4:10000,192.168.0.9;" ;
}
host e100-02
{
next-server 192.168.0.23;
hardware ethernet 00:00:39:18:01:AB;
fixed-address 192.168.0.70;
filename "mPXELdr.bin";
option option-132 "192.168.0.4,192.168.0.9
:10000" ;
}
Native DHCP Options
Image Manager takes into account the following DHCP options.
This is especially useful when Microsoft Windows DHCP client has
not been initialized yet. Also, if Microsoft Windows DHCP client is
disabled (refer to the Windows DHCP Client section below), the following options will be used by Image Manager to set the correct
TCP/IP configuration at boot time.
The following DHCP options are read in DHCP answers and automatically set in Neoware Image Manager Clients’ Windows TCP/IP
configuration at boot time:
Client IP Address: Assigned by DHCP.
Option #1:
Client subnet mask.
Option #3:
Default gateway.
Native DHCP Options
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DHCP Reference
Option #6:
Domain Name Server (DNS).
Option #12: Computer host name. This value is used by Neoware
Image Manager as the TCP/IP host name and also as
the NetBIOS computer name (Windows computer
name).
Option #44: WINS Server.
Option #132: Used by mPXELdr to get a list of server IP addresses
(optionally followed by a colon (:) and a port number.
If no colon and port number is specified, standard
NVD port UDP 2184 is used) that can respond to
NVDD requests. mPXELdr will try each of the IP
addresses listed in this option, in the order in which
they appear, until it finds a server that answers and
that actually serves at least one bootable virtual drive
to the client. This IP address (and optionally this port)
is used afterwards as the IP address for the Neoware
Image Manager server for this client. If this DHCP
option is not specified or is empty, or if none of the
server IP addresses sent by this option answers to
mPXELdr requests, mPXELdr then tries to use the IP
address of the TFTP server that sent mPXELdr to the
client, as the NVDD server, unless the list ends with
an exclamation mark (!) character (in which case it
will then loop to the first server in the list). The actual
list of server IP addresses that mPXELdr tries to contact is in the following order:
<IP addresses in DHCP Option#132>, nextserver (DHCP Option #66)
If you do not end the list in DHCP option #132 with
an exclamation mark (!), remember that mPXELdr
will try to mount virtual drives hosted on the server
that provided TFTP service.
By default, the BDRUPD.sys driver reads the DHCP options and tries
to identify them. If the option is a known one, it is processed (i.e. the
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Native DHCP Options
DHCP Reference
corresponding information is set in Windows TCP/IP settings). In
order for the BDRUPD.sys driver to handle new options, a registry
key exists under BDRUPD as follows:
HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\DHCPTags
Note: NVDDTags (options sent by the NVDD server) are also processed by BDRUPD. These option definitions are found under the
key:
HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\NVDDTags
The NVDDTags options will be handled by BDRUPD with exactly
the same process as for the DHCPTags options. You can then use
the following description for NVDDTags option settings as well as
for DHCPTags option settings.
Note that if a DHCPTag option and a NVDDTag option have the
same target, the NVDDTag will have the highest priority and will
overwrite the DHCPTag function.
Under this key, a new subkey is created for each option that
BDRUPD.sys can process. The subkey name must be the decimal
option number. Each option subkey must contain the following
values:
Type :
REG_DWORD. Indicates the type of data transmitted
by DHCP. It can have one of the following values:
0 the source data is an IP address or list of IP addresses.
1 the source data is a string.
2 the source data is an integer.
3 the source data is a time value.
4 the target data must be set to 0 (DWORD) or
"empty string" (REG_SZ, REG_MULTI_SZ,
REG_EXPAND_SZ). The source data is ignored.
RegType : Indicates the type of the value to set in the registry. This,
combined with Type gives BDRUPD the conversion to
Native DHCP Options
321
DHCP Reference
perform before continuing the process. The actual value
is useless, BDRUPD uses the type of the RegType
value as the type of the value(s) it will write to the keys.
Target :
REG_MULTI_SZ. Contains couples of path + value to
modify. The data given by the DHCP option value will
be set at each path / value set in this list. The Target
value must contain an even number of strings. The first
string is a path to a key in the registry. The second string
is the name of the value to modify in the key whose path
is stored in the first string. The third string is a path to a
key in the registry. The fourth string is the name of the
value to modify in the key whose path is stored in the
third string, etc. For example, if the first string contains
\Registry\Machine\SOFTWARE\Neoware and the second string contains Test, BDRUPD will update the
value named Test in the key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Neoware.
The process is as follows. BDRUPD gets a DHCP option value (or
an NVDDTag option value). It searches the corresponding subkey in
its registry parameters. If it exists, it reads the Type and RegType to
perform a conversion (if required). Then it reads the targets and
inserts the converted data to each location.
Optional Subkeys &
Values
If an option needs multiple to be set at multiple places in the registry, it is possible to add a new subkey to the option key. Subkeys are
numeric (starting at 1 and incrementing). BDRUPD will try to locate
these keys in order until it fails to find one. Each subkey has the
same structure as the main option key, except that it cannot have a
subkey. BDRUPD will process its content as described above.
When an option must be set only if a condition is validated, the user
can use the "If" and "IfNot" values, at the same level as the RegType, Type and Target values.
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DHCP Reference
If
REG_SZ. Contains a registry path to a DWORD value. This
value is read by BDRUPD. If it is not zero the option is processed: the Target is written with the value of the option or
emptied if Type=4. Otherwise this key is ignored.
IfNot REG_SZ. Contains a registry path to a DWORD value. This
value is read by BDRUPD. If it is zero the option is processed: the Target is written with the value of the option or
emptied if Type=4. Otherwise this key is ignored.
Note that if a key is ignored, BDRUPD will not abandon this option.
It will continue searching for applicable conversions in the subkeys,
if any.
As it may be difficult to write full paths for Target, and some locations may not be known (hardware dependent IDs, etc), the following keywords have been set to help create coherent targets:
This keyword replaces the internal identification
number of a network card. BDRUPD, when finding this keyword,
will replace it with the ID of the network card it has been assigned to
use at installation time. If multiple NICs have been defined,
BDRUPD will update the settings for all of them.
%INTERFACE_ID%
%ACTIVE_NIC%
means the information will be set at two locations:
%SERVICES%\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\%INTERFACE_ID%
%SERVICES%\%INTERFACE_ID%\Parameters\Tcpip
%SERVICES%
means the following location:
\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services
%CONTROL%
means the following location:
\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Control
Native DHCP Options
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DHCP Reference
Examples
The DHCP option 1 provides the client’s subnet mask. This information must be set in the active network card’s TCP/IP configuration,
under the "SubnetMask" value. Also, if MS DHCP client is enabled
by BDRUPD, this option must also be set as "DhcpSubnetMask".
The following illustrates how BDRUPD is configured to process this
correctly:
HKLM/System/CurrentControlSet/Services
BDRUPD (key)
DHCPTags (key)
1 (key)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 0
RegType (REG_MULTI_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%ActiveNIC% SubnetMask"
1 (subkey)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 0
RegType (REG_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%ActiveNIC% DhcpSubnetMask"
If (REG_SZ) : "\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\SetDHCP"
This way, the option value is written to the proper value (SubnetMask) and optionally to the second one (DhcpSubnetMask) only if
MS DHCP client is activated by BDRUPD (through the BDRUPD
flag "SetDHCP").
Changing the Client’s Name with NVDD Tags
HKLM/System/CurrentControlSet/Services
BDRUPD (key)
NVDDTags (key)
1 (key)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 1
RegType (REG_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) :"%CONTROL%\ComputerName\ComputerName"
"ComputerName"
"%SERVICES%\TcpIp\Parameters"
"HostName"
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Native DHCP Options
DHCP Reference
Removing a Value
The DHCP option 6 is used to set the DNS list. These data must be
set in the registry value "NameServer" if Microsoft Windows DHCP
client is NOT activated. If it is activated, the "NameServer" entry
must be set to an empty string, and the data must be set to the DhcpNameServer value instead. Here is how BDRUPD is configured to
achieve this:
HKLM/System/CurrentControlSet/Services
BDRUPD (key)
DHCPTags (key)
6 (key)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 4
RegType (REG_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%ACTIVE_NIC% NameServer"
If (REG_SZ) : "\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\SetDHCP"
1 (subkey)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 0
RegType (REG_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%ACTIVE_NIC% DhcpNameServer"
If (REG_SZ) : "\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\SetDHCP"
2 (subkey)
Type (REG_DWORD) : 0
RegType (REG_SZ) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%ACTIVE_NIC% NameServer"
If (REG_SZ) : "\Registry\Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\BDRUPD\SetDHCP"
Setting a Timeout Value
The following example uses a custom DHCP option (129) to set a
timeout value:
HKLM/System/CurrentControlSet/Services
BDRUPD
DHCPTags
129
Type (REG_DWORD) : 2
RegType (REG_DWORD) : ""
Target (REG_MULTI_SZ) : "%SERVICES%\MyService\Parameters"
"Timeout"
Native DHCP Options
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DHCP Reference
NetBIOS Name for Clients
The NetBIOS name of a Neoware Image Manager client is set to
Client Host Name, as set by NVD name (see the Client Naming section), or by DHCP replies. This section deals only with the case
when the client name is set only by DHCP option #12.
The host name can be set with DHCP option #12, also known as
or Host Name.
Client Host Name
Setting a host name for a specific client usually implies that there is
a one-to-one relationship between a host name and the corresponding MAC address for a client.
If you use Windows NT/2000 DHCP Server, you may refer to the
section “DHCP Reservations” on page 312.
If you use a different DHCP server, refer to your DHCP server documentation, in particular check if use-host-decl-names can be set to
on.
The NetBIOS name cannot be set directly by DHCP. Neoware
Image Manager client uses Internet Host Name (DHCP option #12)
as the client NetBIOS name. Setting DHCP server to include the
option Client Host Name in its answers usually implies that the
DHCP server uses static entries (also known as DHCP Reservations). When a DHCP server uses static entries, a unique IP address
is assigned to a unique MAC address and a Client Host Name can
also be set.
If the NVDD server does not provide a client name and the DHCP
option Client Host Name (DHCP option #12) is not set in DHCP
replies, Neoware Image Manager client initializes the client NetBIOS name to a string formed with H<ClientMacAddress>. For
example, a client with the MAC address 001122334455 will have
H001122334455 as its NetBIOS name if DHCP replies do not
include option #12 for this client and Image Manager does not have
a specific entry for this particular client.
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NetBIOS Name for Clients
DHCP Reference
Windows DHCP Client
In previous versions of Neoware Image Manager, the client’s IP settings were set as "statically assigned address" (even if the address
was provided by the DHCP server), and set by the Neoware Image
Manager integrated DHCP client. This behaviour could lead to
issues with some DHCP servers where the lease was not regularly
renewed.
To prevent this situation from occurring, the Windows DHCP client
is now used by default. This means that clients will be set automatically to retrieve their IP addresses from the DHCP server, and will
renew their leases automatically.
This configuration performs better in existing networks and is more
compliant with the DHCP requirements. However, if you want to
disable Windows DHCP and revert to the previous behaviour (to use
the Neoware Image Manager integrated DHCP client instead), you
can edit the following registry key:
Key:
HKLM/System/CurrentControlSet/Services/BDRUPD
Value:
SetDHCP (DWORD)
Set it to "0" to disable DHCP, or "1" to enable it.
Windows DHCP Client
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DHCP Reference
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Windows DHCP Client
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX E
Configuring NVDD as
a Windows Service
This appendix describes how to configure the Image Manager
server as a Windows service.
Introduction
The Neoware Service Loader is a utility that enables execution of
the Image Manager server as a service on Windows NT/2000/XP/
2003 boxes that run the Image Manager server module nvdd.
Installation Procedure
1
In order to install Neoware Image Manager Server as a service,
you have to run the "Neoware Image Manager Server Service"
utility. Usually you can do this from the Start menu by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools >
Neoware Image Manager Server Service.
If necessary (for instance if you did not perform a Server or
Server + Console installation type on your server machine),
copy the file SrvcLoader.exe and SrvcLoaderSetup.exe into
the directory where the NVDD server module nvdd.exe is
located. These files are usually found in the Server/Windows
directory of the Neoware Image Manager software distribution
package.
2
Launch Neoware Image Manager Server Service (SrvcLoaderSetup.exe). The following dialog will be displayed.
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Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
3
In the Executable file field, enter the directory path and filename
of the Neoware Image Manager server module (usually
nvdd.exe). You can click the ... button to browse for the file.
4
The Command line field enables you to specify arguments that
are to be sent to the Image Manager server module. These are
usually in the form:
-c nvdd.<image filename>.conf -n
For example:
-c nvdd.disk.bin.conf -n
-n is usually specified when nvdd is run as a service, as it allows
the service to be launched even if there is a .lock file (which
can exist after a power failure, for example).
Refer to the appendix “NVDD Reference” on page 337 for
information on the arguments that can be used.
5
330
You can check the Redirect to event log box so that Image
Manager server messages are redirected to the standard
Windows event log.
Installation Procedure
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
The following illustration shows the typical entries for configuring the Image Manager server to be run as a Windows service.
6
If you want Image Manager server messages to be stored in
different log files, uncheck the Redirect to event log box and
specify valid paths for the Standard output file (stdout) and
Standard error file (stderr). Be aware that these files may use
up a lot of disk space on the server’s hard disk. You will not be
able to open these files until the nvdd server module is stopped.
If no file names are specified then the NVDD messages will not
be stored anywhere. Note that these files are not needed for the
execution of Image Manager server.
If no path is specified for these log files, they will be created in
the SYSTEM32 directory under the Windows directory (usually
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32 or C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32). It is highly
recommended that you specify a complete (absolute) path for
these files.
The following illustration shows typical entries for redirecting
server messages to log files.
Installation Procedure
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Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
7
When all the required settings have been specified, click the
Install button.
Neoware Service Loader will install and configure nvdd to work
as a service. You can then Start and Stop the service using the
Neoware Service Loader Setup dialog SrvcLoaderSetup.exe or
the Windows Services applet in Administrative Tools.
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Installation Procedure
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
Using NVDD as a Service
When nvdd is installed as a service, Neoware Service Loader Setup
allows you to start or stop it.
1
Run Neoware Service Loader Setup, either from the Start menu
by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools >
Neoware Image Manager Server Service, or by navigating the
file system:
Program Files/Neoware/Image_Manager_4.6/Server/Windows/SrvcLoaderSetup.exe.
2
Click the Start button to start the service.
The current status of the service is displayed above the Start button.
Clicking Refresh will update the service status if it has changed.
You can Quit Neoware Service Loader Setup while the service is
running; it will not stop the service itself. You can relaunch it whenever you need to control the NVDD service. The service can also be
stopped using Neoware Service Loader Setup; the Start button
becomes a Stop button when the service is running.
Configuring NVDD
Service Options
The newly installed service is configured to be run manually. This
means you can start or stop it using the Services interface of Windows NT/2000/XP/2003. You can also configure it to be launched
automatically at server startup by using this interface.
1
In the Windows Control Panel, select Administrative Tools then
Services.
Using NVDD as a Service
333
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
2
Double-click on the Neoware Image Manager Server entry to
display the service properties.
This dialog allows you to control the behaviour of the service.
Usually you will select Automatic as the Startup type, so that
the NVDD service runs automatically when the server box is
switched on, even if no user actually launched the nvdd server
module.
You can also configure the Recovery options for the service. For
example, if you want the service to restart automatically in case
of failure, you would use the following configuration:
334
Using NVDD as a Service
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
Uninstalling the
Service
To uninstall the NVDD service, just click the Uninstall button in the
Neoware Service Loader Setup dialog. This will stop the service if it
is running, and uninstall it from the system.
Changing Service
Settings
To change the settings for the NVDD service:
1
Run Neoware Service Loader Setup, either from the Start menu
by selecting Programs > Neoware > Image Manager > Tools >
Neoware Image Manager Server Service, or by navigating the
file system:
Program Files/Neoware/Image_Manager_4.6/Server/Windows/SrvcLoaderSetup.exe.
2
If the Stop button is displayed, click it.
3
Change the settings in the dialog.
4
Click the Start button.
Using NVDD as a Service
335
Configuring NVDD as a Windows Service
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Using NVDD as a Service
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX F
NVDD Reference
This appendix describes the command line options that can be used
when launching the nvdd server module.
Introduction
The Neoware Image Manager server module nvdd is the main
Network Virtual Disk (nvd) daemon. It reads a configuration file
then shares hard disk images and virtual volumes among specified
clients on the network using the nvd protocol. There are several
command line options that can be used when launching the nvdd
server module. These are described below.
Command Syntax
The syntax for the nvdd server module command is as follows:
nvdd [-v <loglevel>][-p <port_number>][-c <config_file>]
[-l <log_file>][-n]
Verbose Mode
-v all¦proto¦io¦conf¦timo
This command line option enables you to display various messages
about nvdd operation.
all
Print all messages.
proto
Print messages relating to the code that has been executed
in nvdd.
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NVDD Reference
io
Print messages relating to network and disk inputs/outputs.
conf
Print messages relating to initialization and configuration
file parsing.
timo
Print messages relating to timeouts.
Note that if all or timo is specified, nvdd will display all time-out
messages, including those indicating that nvdd is waiting for communication. The message checking for idle clients will be displayed frequently. This is not an error message, it is the normal
behaviour of nvdd when no client is communicating with it.
Port Number
-p <port_number>
This command line option enables you to specify a different port
number for nvdd to use, overriding the one specified in the configuration file. This option should be used for tests only. If NVD port in
the configuration file is different from the command line parameter
specified with the -p option, the port number specified in the configuration file will be used again after that file has been reloaded by
Neoware Image manager Console or the NVDDAdmin tool.
Configuration File
-c <config_file>
This command line option will make nvdd read the specified configuration file. When this is not specified, nvdd will look for a file
named nvdd.conf in the current directory.
Log File
-l <log_file>
This command line option will make the server write all screen messages into the specified file as well as to the console, enabling you to
keep a record of server activity.
No Lock File Check
-n
This command line option will prevent the server from checking for
the presence of the .LOCK file before trying to create it. This option
has been added to improve support of power failures and startup
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Command Syntax
NVDD Reference
scripts or processes. In the case of a server having a power failure,
nvdd will not be shutdown cleanly and the .LOCK file will remain,
preventing nvdd from being launched automatically, at least while
the .LOCK file has not been removed.
Users should use this option only in startup scripts (i.e. scripts that
are launched when the server computer is starting). Users that use
Linux/FreeBSD servers are encouraged not to use this option but set
scripts that would remove the .LOCK file only if the startup script is
launched by the startup process of the server OS.
For more details about .LOCK files, refer to the section “The
nvdd.conf.LOCK File” on page 348.
Command Syntax
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NVDD Reference
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Command Syntax
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX G
NVD.SYS Reference
This appendix describes the parameters that can be set in the registry entry for the NVD.SYS driver.
Introduction
At the client side, NVD.SYS is the Neoware Image Manager driver
in charge of communications with the Image Manager server. This
appendix describes the parameters that can be set in the registry
entry for the driver, which is located in:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SYSTEM/CurrentControlSet/Services/Nvd
Parameters
IP Address
ip_address
This DWORD value specifies the address of the Neoware Image
Manager server used in this session. The value is set at boot time.
Changing this setting in the image will not change client behaviour.
Port Number
Port
This DWORD value specifies the number of the communication
port to use with NVD protocol. This must be the same as the one
used by the server. Changing this setting in the image will not
change client behaviour.
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NVD.SYS Reference
Sectors Per Request
sector_per_request
This DWORD value defines the maximum number of sectors asked
at one time by the client in each read/write operation. The allowed
values are: 32, 64 or 128 (default).
This value can be set to less than 128 to fine tune the flow of data
transmission between client and server. This has been proven to be
useful (rarely) with some GigaEthernet/100BaseT switches for
which the buffers dedicated to GigaEthernet packets were too small.
When the Neoware Image Manager server was connected to one of
the GigaEthernet ports, some packets were overwritten before having been dispatched to the Ethernet 100 ports, resulting in a significant decrease in performance.
Shutdown Timeout
shutdown_timeout
This DWORD value specifies the time, in seconds, during which
disk requests can be transmitted to Neoware Image Manager virtual
disk drives after the shutdown order has been received by the drivers
of the virtual disks. In other words, this controls the delay between
the shutdown order being received and the moment the virtual disks
are actually shut down. If you experience problems at shutdown,
especially if Windows hangs, you may need to increase this value.
Boot Volume
boot_vol
This DWORD value specifies the internal ID of the volume to use as
the boot volume. The value is set at boot time. Changing this setting
in the image will not change client behaviour.
Cache Size
cachesize
This DWORD value specifies the size, in sectors, of the memory to
use as cache (not currently used).
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Parameters
NVD.SYS Reference
Network Interfaces
Binding
nic_list
This REG_MULTI_SZ value contains indexes of network cards that
are used by Image Manager as Virtual Drive controllers. The index
numbers are set by Client Builder when the user selects the interfaces to be used as Virtual Disk controllers, or when UbiBoot
Inserter adds the support for a network card into the image.
Users should never edit this field manually as it could result in
images becoming non-bootable.
Domain Credentials
Handling
domain_membership
Default: 0
This DWORD value specifies whether the domain credentials have
to be transferred from the NVDD server at boot time and to the
NVDD server at shutdown time. A value of 1 enables domain credential transfer from and to the NVDD server. A 0 value disables it.
Parameters
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NVD.SYS Reference
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Parameters
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX H
File Transfer
This appendix describes issues relating to the file transfer capabilities of Image Manager.
Introduction
Image Manager uses two file transfer protocols:
• The file transfer protocol NVDFTP is integrated in the NVD
protocol (the HDD emulation protocol), and is used in particular
to transfer the Domain Credentials at boot and shutdown time.
• A file transfer protocol is integrated in the NVDAdmin protocol
(used to remote control NVDD servers), and is used in particular to get a remote nvdd.conf file or to deploy CVol files to a
remote server.
Root Folder for File Transfers
Both file transfer protocols can transfer files only from and into the
folder specified by the client_files_dir parameter in the nvdd
configuration file. This parameter can also be set in the Image
Manager Console, on the Directories tab of the Generic Properties
dialog.
By default, the root folder for file transfer files is the folder where
the NVDD server module resides. We recommend that you change
this setting for security reasons. If you do not change this setting,
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File Transfer
anyone who knows how to transfer files using NVDFTP or NVDAdmin could copy or replace the files in this folder, in particular your
license file, your configuration files, your images etc.
In order to add some security to NVDAdmin protocol, we recommend that you set a password on the server side (using the NvddPasswd tool - refer to the section “Password for Remote
Administration” on page 210 for details). Then, any file transfers
using the NVDadmin protocol will require the user to enter a password before files can be transferred.
The root folder has been set for security considerations. This has
some implications. In particular, files created by NVDAdmin, such
as the image files that client builder creates, will be created in this
root folder. You may need to tune the configuration file in order to
reflect this situation.
Note that the configuration file currently in use is copied to a file
named current.<configuration file name> in the file transfer
root folder. All standard NVDAdmin operations on the current configuration file are actually performed on the current.<configuration file name> file. When nvdd shuts down (or when the
configuration file is reloaded), the configuration file is copied back
to where it was loaded from. Users should never edit or modify the
file current.<configuration file name> in the file transfer root
folder while Image Manager server is up and running, as this could
cause unpredictable behaviour.
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Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX I
NVDD Temporary
Files
This appendix describes issues relating to temporary files created
by the nvdd process.
The NVDD Configuration File
When nvdd is launched it creates a temporary copy of the configuration file in the directory specified by the client_files_dir
parameter in the nvdd configuration file, and uses this copy to work
with. The temporary configuration file copy has the same name as
the original configuration file but has the prefix current.
For example, if nvdd is launched with the following parameters:
nvdd –c nvdd.disk0.vol.conf
it will create the file named
current.nvdd.disk0.vol.conf
In what follows, we will assume that nvdd was launched to use the
nvdd.conf configuration, and that the current configuration file is
named current.nvdd.conf.
Any changes made to the configuration, using the remote Console
for example, will be applied to the current.nvdd.conf file. When
nvdd is shut down, the changes stored in current.nvdd.conf will
be merged into the original configuration file and (assuming the
merge was successful) the current.nvdd.conf file will be
deleted.
347
NVDD Temporary Files
If the NVDD server crashes, due to a power failure for example, the
temporary file current.nvdd.conf will still remain in the directory
specified by client_files_dir. The next time nvdd is launched it
will copy any files prefixed with current. into a subdirectory of the
client_files_dir called restoredfiles, and add a timestamp to
the end of each filename. This makes it possible for an administrator
to recover configuration files that include changes that have not yet
been applied.
The nvdd.conf.LOCK File
In order to prevent conflicts, a configuration file can only be opened
by one nvdd process at a time. When nvdd is launched it creates a
file with the same name as the configuration file but appended by
.LOCK. This file will be placed in the same directory as the configuration file.
When nvdd is launched again, it checks that there is no .LOCK file
that corresponds to the configuration file it is attempting to use. If
there is a .LOCK file then nvdd will refuse to launch.
If the NVDD server crashes, due to a power failure for example, the
.LOCK file will still remain. You must manually delete or rename the
.LOCK file in order to be able to launch nvdd.
CAUTION: Before you actually delete the .LOCK file and launch
nvdd with the related configuration file, ensure that no other nvdd
process is actually using the locked configuration file, otherwise you
may corrupt your configuration file as well as your server execution.
USER_REP Files
Client names set by the NVD protocol are stored in the configuration
file. In certain conditions these names can be changed from the client side. In order to preserve the integrity of the configuration file
and to allow two clients to change their names at the same time, the
data relating to changed client names are temporarily stored in a file
348
The nvdd.conf.LOCK File
NVDD Temporary Files
named USER_REP.<configuration file name>. This file is located
in the directory where the NVDD server resides. You can also specify the directory in the Neoware Image Manager Console using the
Client files folder option (select Generic options in the Tools menu,
then click the Directories tab).
When nvdd is stopped or restarted, or when the configuration file is
reloaded (through the console or NVDDAdmin for instance), the
USER_REP.<configuration file name> file is merged into the
original configuration file and then deleted.
If the NVDD server crashes, due to a power failure for example, the
USER_REP.<configuration file name> file will still remain. The
next time nvdd is launched it will copy the file into a subdirectory of
the client_files_dir called restoredfiles, and add a timestamp
to the end of each filename. This makes it possible for an administrator to recover USER_REP* files and process them.
As the restoredfiles folder also contains the restored configuration files, with the same timestamp, it is easy for the administrator to
know which USER_REP file corresponds to which configuration file.
How to Retrieve Restored Files
If the NVDD server crashes, the next time it is launched it will save
found temporary files in a directory called restoredfiles, a subdirectory of client_files_dir.
Files found in the directory restoredfiles are the currently used
configuration file and, optionally, the corresponding USER_REP file.
Both will have the same timestamp to ensure they are not confused
with other versions.
To restore the configuration file and integrate the USER_REP information into it, you must:
• use the restored configuration file when launching the server
(possibly by copying/renaming it in the NVDD server folder)
How to Retrieve Restored Files
349
NVDD Temporary Files
• place (copy) the USER_REP file and give it the name
USER_REP.<configuration file name>.
When you close or restart the server, or reload the configuration file
using the appropriate Console button, the data inside the USER_REP
file will be processed as usual, and the USER_REP file will be deleted.
The configuration will then contain the updated information.
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How to Retrieve Restored Files
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX J
Boot Process
Comparison
This appendix provides a side-by-side comparison between a
HDD-based boot process and the Neoware Image Manager based
boot process.
The following illustrations contain a side-by-side comparison
between a HDD-based boot process and the Neoware Image
Manager-based boot process.
351
Boot Process Comparison
352
Boot Process Comparison
353
Boot Process Comparison
354
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX K
Troubleshooting
This appendix provides help on how to overcome problems when
using Neoware Image Manager with various systems.
Technical Support
You can view our on-line support pages at the following Internet
address:
http://www.neoware.com/support.php
Neoware offers various Technical Support programs. Check with
your Neoware representative.
Check Versions
In case of a problem with Neoware Image Manager, especially if
the product seems to work in some way (start booting but not finishing, boots completely but has “strange” behaviour), the first
thing to do is to check that you are not mixing Neoware Image
Manager components that come from different versions of
Neoware Image Manager. In particular, mPXELdr.bin, nvdd,
BDruPD.SYS, NVD.SYS, DSKIMG.SYS, NDomMGR.sys and DomCred.sys are made to work together and will not work correctly
when used with components that come from another version of
Neoware Image Manager.
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Troubleshooting
In order to check versions, you can refer to the Release Notes document, or you can perform a “decompress” installation of Neoware
Image Manager and check that the files you are using are actually
the same as the ones in the “decompressed” folder.
File version information may be embedded in files made for Windows (.EXE, .SYS, .DLL etc.) or may be displayed on screen when
they are run.
You can also refer to file dates and size, and you can use any file
comparison tool.
PXE
PXE
Implementations
Neoware Image Manager system works with all standard PXE 2.x
compliant boot ROM code. Some PXE code implementations do not
implement the complete PXE features.
So far, Neoware Image Manager has been used successfully with the
following PXE codes:
• Intel Boot agent version 4.0.13 and after (Intel PRO/100 and
PRO/1000 NICs).
• 3Com/Lanworks MBA version 4.00 and after.
• Realtek 8139 PXE (with Intel PXE Base code 082 and after).
• VIA Rhine II – VT6102/VT6103 (PXE NIC driver v2.07 and
above).
• Broadcom NetXtreme Ethernet Boot Agent v 3.1.30 (also
shipped as HP Boot Agent).
• Marvell Yukon PXE.
• SiS PXE.
• Bootix PXE Prom for Intel PRO/100 found in various Fujitsu/
Siemens PCs.
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PXE
Troubleshooting
If your adapter or PXE implementation is not listed here, it does not
mean that it will not work with Neoware Image Manager.
In case it does not work as expected at the very beginning of the
Windows 2K/XP boot process (e.g. you cannot see the first black
and white character mode boot progress bar or Windows coloured
splash screens, or the boot process is very slow), ask for an upgraded
PXE code from the manufacturer of your NIC, motherboard or PXE
code provider. The PXE implementation must correctly implement
the complete set of UNDI functions. Some third party vendors provide PXE code for a large set of network cards.
Etherboot
Etherboot does not implement the complete set of PXE functions, so
it cannot be used as the Pre-OS loading component to work with
Image Manager. In particular, all the virtualization products that
depend on Etherboot for their "PXE" (Xen and its variants - Virtual
Iron, VirtualBox-, kvm...) will not be able to PXE-boot off Image
Manager Server.
PXE Error File Not
Found
This error is not actually related to Neoware Image Manager as it
would also happen with any PXE related product. We provide this
article for your information.
If you are using MS DHCP server on the server (and possibly other
DHCP servers) and Intel Boot Agent v4.0.19 on the diskless client,
please read the following.
Issues
Running Neoware Image Manager software while using Intel Boot
Agent ver 4.0.19, the client aborts on downloading mPXELdr.bin.
The error message is one of the following:
PXE-T01:
PXE-T02:
PXE-E3B:
PXE-E3C:
File not found,
Access violation,
TFTP Error - File not Found,
TFTP Error - Access violation
PXE
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Troubleshooting
Cause
Certain types of DHCP servers, especially MS DHCP Server, may
supply boot file names that are not terminated in a null character.
Intel Architecture Labs PXE 2.1 addresses the null terminated boot
file names, but fails to work correctly if the DHCP boot file size
option is not present when using Intel Boot Agent 4.0.19.
Solution
This issue has been corrected in Intel Boot Agent 4.0.22. Update
Intel Boot Agent to version 4.0.22 or above.
Customers using IBA 4.0.19 and running into this issue can also
work around it by setting DHCP boot file size (DHCP option 13,
DHCP tag 13) as a non-zero value (ideally the size of the boot file,
but any value is usually working).
Network Adapters
VIA Rhine Family
If the client computers use VIA Rhine family network adapters (or a
compatible network adapter), then the Network Adapter driver may
need to be updated. VIA Rhine family drivers shipped with Windows 2000/XP are not always compatible with the Neoware Image
Manager system. If an incompatible driver was used, the error could
result in one of the following:
• you could see messages similar to the following on the server:
vol #-1062729016 doesn't exist
• client freezing just as Windows coloured splash screen is dis-
played.
• client not being able to boot (Windows coloured splash screen
displayed constantly).
Once the clients use the latest drivers (version 3.68.0.453 or later)
for VIA Rhine Network Adapter, the problem should disappear.
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Network Adapters
Troubleshooting
Servers with
Several Network
Adapters
If the server response to the client is unexpectedly slow and the
server has several network card adapters, the Neoware Image
Manager server module should be configured so that it is using only
one of the server assigned IP addresses. Use the parameter address
in the nvdd configuration file or use the Neoware Image Manager
Console (Tools > Generic Options > Network) to specify which NIC
to use.
Servers with multiple NICs using a teamed virtual network adapter
should work correctly as long as the address parameter is set to the
IP address of the virtual adapter (teamed adapter).
You may, from time to time, see messages related to errors 10054
(connection reset by peer) and 10065 (no route to host) in the server
log on multi-homed server. When these messages appear, the server
can usually go on working correctly. If not, you should set the
address parameter in the server configuration to a specific IP address
instead of 0.0.0.0.
Volumes
Multi-Volume
Windows 2000
Clients
When Neoware Image Manager Clients running MS Windows 2000
are booted with several Virtual Volumes, it may be necessary to scan
for hardware changes in order for Windows 2000 to detect the extra
volumes.
The procedure is as follows:
1
From the Start menu select Settings > Control Panel > System
> Hardware.
2
Right-click on the computer name and select Scan for Hardware
Changes.
A new device (Neoware Image Manager Emulated Hard Drive)
will be detected.
3
It may be necessary to provide the dskimg.sys driver to the new
hardware wizard. Dskimg.sys is located in:
Volumes
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Troubleshooting
<Windows System Root>\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS
(usually C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS
or C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS).
ACPI
Stand By &
Hibernation
Stand By and Hibernation are currently not supported on Windows
systems that run with Neoware Image Manager. NVD.SYS driver version 1.0.0.5 and after implements a mechanism that prevents Stand
By or Hibernation to occur in most cases. If the system emits a
request to enter into Stand By or Hibernation mode, NVD.SYS will
refuse the request and Windows will display a message stating that
Neoware Image Manager emulated Disk Drive device prevented the system from entering into Stand By or Hibernation mode.
Shutdown & Reboot
NVD.SYS Shutdown
Delay
In order for disk read and write requests to be processed in a short
period of time after Neoware Image Manager virtual disk drivers
have received shutdown notification, a parameter in NVD.SYS can be
tuned.
This parameter is a registry value. By default, it has the value 3,
which means that disks requests can be treated during 3 seconds
after Neoware Image Manager virtual disks have received the system shutdown request to power off or re-start the Client.
This grace delay may be needed by some system components, especially some network card drivers.
You can tune this parameter according to experience. If some problems at shutdown occur, such as the client PC not being actually
shutdown, with black screen or still with the mouse pointer being
displayed, you can increase the shutdown_timeout parameter. A
360
ACPI
Troubleshooting
value of 10 (10 seconds) is usually enough to let all the system component that still need to access the virtual disks. On the other hand, if
the shutdown time seems too long, you can reduce this parameter
value.
Please refer to the appendix “NVD.SYS Reference” on page 341 for
more details about this parameter.
Windows 2000
Without the Latest
Service Pack
When remote booting a Windows 2000 OS that has not had the latest
service pack applied, the clients may not be able to shutdown or
reboot, or may take up to half an hour to complete the reboot process. To solve this problem, apply the latest Windows 2000 service
pack to the client OS. Windows service packs can be applied on virtual volumes when mounted in Admin mode (if there is enough free
disk space on the client computer).
Startup
Clients Using Intel
i810 Chipset Under
Windows 2000
Clients using Intel i810 chipset under Windows 2000 may have
problems at startup such as system freezing, blue screens or unexpected reboots.
Users are advised to update the Intel Display Driver to the latest version available on the Intel Support Web Site and to apply the latest
Intel Inf Update utility to the HD-Based Windows installation before
building the HD image with Neoware Image Manager ClientBuilder.
This usually resolves the startup problems with Neoware Image
Manager Clients based on i810 chipset and running Windows 2000.
Inaccessible Boot
Device
If you get an Inaccessible Boot Device (STOP:0x0000007B)
blue screen when starting a Neoware Image Manager client, you
should investigate client network drivers issues.
This problem is usually related to Neoware Image Manager client
drivers failing to initialize the Virtual HD properly in the Windows
Plug’n’Play stack.
Startup
361
Troubleshooting
Boot Process Stuck
This problem is usually related to the Neoware Image Manager
Client component not being able to communicate with the Neoware
Image Manager server module. This can happen, for example, if the
server module is not actually running or if client drivers are using
NVD protocol v1 when the server module is using NVD protocol v2.
Make sure that the mPXELdr.BIN file that your TFTP servers are
sending out comes from the same software package as your NVDD
server software.
This problem can also occur if the server is using a Gigabit Ethernet
adapter connected to a Gigabit Ethernet switch and the clients are
using 100MB/s Ethernet adapters. In order to correct this issue the
user should enable flow control on each Ethernet adapter and on the
switches as well (if available).
Global Performances
Single Client
Running Slowly
Depending on hardware and drivers, it has been reported that sometimes, the server and client NICs have problems talking together at
the speed rate required by Neoware Image Manager system, resulting in a lot of packets being lost.
To try to solve this problem you can decrease the maximum number
of sectors that a Neoware Image Manager client can request to read
or write in a single request. This is described in the next section.
Number of Sectors
Per Read/Write
Request
The maximum number of sectors per read or write request is set
using an NVD.SYS client driver parameter. By default, the maximum
number is 128. When reducing this parameter, the performances
may get better.
This parameter is handled by the following registry value in the client registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\NVD\sector_per_request
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Global Performances
Troubleshooting
This parameter is a DWORD and can have a value in the range 2 to
128.
If the client is acting slowly when remote booted, it is recommended
that you try setting this parameter to 32. If this gives better result, try
64 afterwards, and keep tuning until you have worse results. Values
under 32 are usually not better.
Tip: Test these setting changes within CVolwrite/Normal mode.
Once you are happy with the setting, use Admin mode to make the
final change.
Refer to the appendix “NVD.SYS Reference” on page 341 for more
information.
Network Facilities
Global Connectivity
Neoware Image Manager uses essentially UDP protocol on port
2184 (this port can be modified). It is therefore necessary that the
corresponding packets are not filtered by the network devices that
stand between Neoware Image Manager clients and servers. If you
use manageable network devices, you must configure them so that
Neoware Image Manager packets can be sent and received by all the
Neoware Image Manager clients and servers fast enough.
Clients should be able to communicate with their server with at least
70Mb/s of theoretical baud rate. Use of uplinked switches is thus not
recommended.
1000BT/100BT
Ethernet Switches
It has been reported that with some Ethernet switches that have
1000BT (GigaEthernet) ports connected to the server NIC and
100BT Ethernet ports connected to the clients, the clients may act
very slowly.
This problem usually comes from the buffers assigned to the
1000BT ports in the switch not being large enough and the switch
cannot use flow control to stop the server NIC from emitting pack-
Network Facilities
363
Troubleshooting
ets. This results in lots of packets sent by the server being overwritten before they are dispatched to the 100BT ports.
You should also enable flow control on the client and server NICs,
and on the Ethernet switches if available.
Please also refer to the section “Number of Sectors Per Read/Write
Request” on page 362 for information on reducing the number of
sectors in a single Neoware Image Manager request.
Operations on Virtual Volumes
Delayed Write
Failed or Disk Full
Error in Client OS
The error Delayed Write Failed may be raised by Windows when
write operations on virtual volumes were not able to complete successfully.
There are three major reasons for this error to appear:
• Not enough free space in the client partition where the write
operations are to be performed.
Resolution: Free some space in the client partition or build a
larger HD image.
• Not enough free space in the server partition where the server-
based write cache (CVol) files are stored.
Resolution: Free or add some space in the server partition.
• The server-based write cache (CVol) file is filled to its
maximum. The server then displays a corresponding error
message in its logs.
Resolution: Edit the current nvdd configuration file for Neoware
Image Manager server and increase the parameter
sectors_map_size (the default value or, if it exists, the value
associated with the actual volume with the filled CVol file.
Changing the maximum size of CVol data files just for the
affected volume is the best solution). Restart the Neoware Image
Manager server module or reload the configuration file. Note that
364
Operations on Virtual Volumes
Troubleshooting
you can also use the Neoware Image Manager Console to set this
parameter (Tools > Generic Options, or the CVol tab in Volume
Properties).
Note that using any variant of CVolWrite mode with clients that
are never restarted or that are up and running for long periods of
time is very likely to lead to a "CVol file full" error. If you cannot
restart your clients (for example, schedule an automatic reboot at
night), you should then increase the CVol size, potentially up to
the Image File size (but not above, as this would be useless).
There is also a minor reason for this error to occur:
• Not enough client licenses for Neoware Image Manager server. If
the Delayed Write Failed error occurs and Neoware Image
Manager server displays the message Clients Count Exceeded
(in its log, Console messages or in Events Viewer), you need to
obtain some more client licenses or to use fewer clients attached
to your Neoware Image Manager server. You can also increase
the parameter max_idle_time in the current nvdd configuration
file so that connections between clients and server are not closed
too early. Restart the Neoware Image Manager server module
after having changed this parameter.
Delayed Write
Failed Warnings
warnings appear when a logical volume is
filled up. Windows 2K/XP can use FAT, FAT32 and NTFS filesystems that are made so that, statistically, all the sectors will be written
some day, even if the logical volume has more than 90% of free
space.
Delayed write failed
In order for logical volumes not to get filled up too quickly, you can
use CVolwrite/Volatile mode. The nvdd configuration file settings
are:
<VolumeName>.write_mode=cvol_write
<VolumeName>.cvol_mode=volatile
The number of sectors written in a CVol file will then be only the
ones that are written during a session (between reboots of the client).
Operations on Virtual Volumes
365
Troubleshooting
This will also make sure the logical volume is always clean at boot
time.
When CVolwrite/Volatile mode is not acceptable, you may schedule
deletions of the CVol files on an acceptable basis (every night, every
3 days, every weekend etc…). A deletion batch file should:
1
CD to the directory where the CVol files are stored.
2
Shutdown all the clients that may have mounted a virtual drive
off that server.
3
Stop the Neoware Image Manager server module.
4
Delete all the CVol files.
5
Re-start the Neoware Image Manager server module.
If your client OS is Windows XPe (Windows XP Embedded), you
can enable Enhanced Write Cache. Then the clients will not actually
write any data in the CVol data files.
To reduce the number of different sectors that are written during a
user session, you should preferably use NTFS file system for the
client volumes. If this is not possible, use FAT32 file systems and,
as the last choice, use FAT file system.
Using compressed NTFS as the file system for the client volume is
also a way to reduce the number of sectors that are written during a
user session. To be efficient, the whole volume should be compressed. This compression should be done on the reference client
hard disk, before Neoware Image Manager Client Builder is run.
To reduce the number of different sectors that are written during a
user session, you should set the virtual memory of the clients to use
a local hard disk, if any. If no local hard disks are present or available to store the Windows swap file, you should set the virtual memory size to a reasonable size. The minimum and maximum size for
virtual memory should be set to the same values. The size of the virtual memory file (also known as a "page file" or "swap file") should
not exceed the maximum number of sectors in a CVol file divided
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Operations on Virtual Volumes
Troubleshooting
by 8 (or the maximum CVol data size expressed in Kilobytes
divided by 4).
For example, if the maximum number of sectors in a CVol is
1048576 (the maximum size of a CVol is then 512MB), the maximum size of Virtual Memory file should be 128MB.
To reduce the number of different sectors that are written during a
user session, you should make sure that the auto-defragmentation
feature in Windows XP is disabled (it is disabled by default by
Neoware Image Manager Client Builder when it builds the HD
image).
You can also set the maximum size of the CVol files to be the exact
size of the image. In such a situation, it is possible that all the sectors
originally present in the Image file are modified and are actually
located in the CVol file. Note that having a lot of large CVols actually in use on a server will decrease performance. There is a simple
reason for this. When several clients request a sector, there is a high
probability that this sector is in fact in the Image file itself, and then
the server reads it only once and keeps it in its disk cache. If each
client uses its own copy of this sector, the server actually reads it
several times (it actually reads several different sectors in each CVol
data file) and will be unlikely to keep anything useful in its disk
cache.
To reduce the number of different sectors that are written during a
user session, you should make sure that the virtual volume is defragmented. This can be done before the virtual volume is created by
Neoware Image Manager Client Builder, or afterwards, with the
volume mounted in Admin mode.
Operations on Virtual Volumes
367
Troubleshooting
Large File Support on Linux 2.2
Error When
Opening a Large
Volume
On some Linux servers you may encounter a File Too Large error
when NVDD starts and tries to open a volume file that is larger than
2GB. This is caused by the lack of Large File Support in some Linux
systems.
Without Large File Support, Linux cannot handle file sizes bigger
than 2GB.
Resolution:
1
Make sure your Linux can handle files bigger than 2GB. If not,
you may need to build a new kernel with Large File Support.
2
Make sure you use NVDD version 1.0.0.15 or later. All the versions of NVDD after 1.0.0.15 have complete Large File Support.
Computer SIDs
Neoware Image Manager clients that boot from the same HD image
will all have the same machine SID. This is usually not a problem,
especially when the clients are members of a domain and the local
users accounts are not used to authenticate users. Yet, if having a
different SID for each client is required, you can use Neoware Image
Manager’s Persistent Client Mode, or Normal Client Mode, in conjunction with any of the SID changer tools, for instance NewSID,
from sysinternals, which you can find here:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/Security/
NewSid.mspx
You can also use Microsoft’s sysprep and even configure your
image so that sysprep is run automatically to reseal the Windows
installation the first time it boots a client (in CVolWrite/Normal
mode). Then the changes will be done in the CVol space and will be
kept until next time when the image is modified. At that time, the
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Large File Support on Linux 2.2
Troubleshooting
CVol spaces will be discarded and your image should then run
sysprep automatically.
It is recommended that you completely understand what the potential problems of duplicated SIDs could be before you configure
Neoware Image Manager clients booting from the same disk image
to have different SIDs. Usually, there are absolutely no problems
with Neoware Image Manager clients having duplicated SIDs, especially when the clients are member of a domain or when the mounting mode of the system Virtual HD is CVolwrite/Volatile.
Refer to the following for more information regarding this matter:
http://www.appdeploy.com/articles/sids.shtml
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/Security/
NewSid.mspx
Limitations
Data Transfer
During Single Client
Boot-up
Our measurements revealed that a single diskless Neoware Image
Manager client that boots Windows XP using the default Neoware
Image Manager configuration involves the transfer of approximately
80 MB of data on the LAN. Depending on each configuration, this
amount of data may vary, usually between 60 MB and 100 MB.
Maximum Clients
Attached to a Single
Server
There is no theoretical limitation to the maximum number of clients
that can be attached to a single Neoware Image Manager server. As
long as there are enough bandwidth and hard disk resources on the
server and network to serve all the client requests in an acceptable
time (3 minutes to boot-up in the following example), you can use as
many clients on a single server as required.
The following considerations are provided to help you design your
Neoware Image Manager architecture properly. This section is
merely theoretical and stands only as recommendation, nothing here
is guaranteed.
Limitations
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Troubleshooting
A large number of stations on one single server MAY be supported,
with no warranty, with a configuration in which the following recommendations are met:
1
The server should have at least 2 Ethernet 1000 NICs teamed as
a single network adapter so that the server theoretical bandwidth
is 2Gb/s or more.
2
The Ethernet switches should have 1000-100Mb/s capabilities
and should be able to handle correctly large amounts of buffered
packets, WITHOUT DROPPING THEM. (You may need to
enable flow control on the switches and on the clients and server
NICs.)
3
The Ethernet switches must NOT be uplinked. Stacked switches
with a "back pane BUS" supporting at least 3GB/s may be used,
so that each Ethernet port on which the clients are connected can
have a large amount of private bandwidth.
Each client should be able to get 100MB from the server in 3
minutes, even when all the clients are accessing the server at the
same time.
This means that for 150 clients, the needed theoretical bandwidth is:
100*1024*1024*8*150/(3*60) = 666.66 Mb/s
4
The server should have several very fast local hard disks. The
directory where the disk image is stored should be on one physical hard disk. The directory where CVol files are stored should
be on one other physical hard disk. The server hard disk and HD
controllers should have large buffers and cache.
If your server has a RAID controller, it is recommended that you
use RAID1 instead of RAID5.
5
370
Limitations
The server should not be running ANY additional application
that consumes CPU power, memory, disk access or network
bandwidth.
Troubleshooting
6
The clients should have enough memory for the Page File (swap
file) to be disabled or reduced to its minimum (around 20MB).
7
The clients should only run useful applications, not any Network/HardDisk consuming application such as video streaming,
games... etc..
When designing a fleet of Neoware Image Manager stations, you
should keep in mind that each client needs to have enough of the
global bandwidth, and server disk access should be designed in
consequence.
Such a project may require some field tests with the expected
number of clients and server in order to design the system correctly.
Clients Booting
Same Images on
Several Servers
You can use Clustered servers, using any of the various Clustering
systems available, for the OSes that can run Neoware Image Manager server module with a unique IP address assigned to the cluster
of servers.
Maximum Number
of Applications Run
from an Image
The number of software applications that can be run at the same time
on the same diskless client is related more to the client specification
than to Neoware Image Manager. In particular it depends on client
CPU power and client available memory. Neoware Image Manager
has a side effect on memory because of the recommended limited
virtual memory file (swap file). It depends also if the programs are
using the virtual hard disk intensively or not. If they are using the
virtual HD intensively, performances may decrease when a lot of
programs and/or clients are using these programs at the same time.
Limitations
371
Troubleshooting
Recommended Network Configuration
The following network configuration recommendations should help
you to achieve better performances and avoid congestion.
• Never use uplinked Ethernet switches.
• Use good quality Ethernet controllers on the server and the
clients.
• You can use teamed network adapters on the server to increase
server network bandwidth.
• Use fast HDs on the server. The fastest the server HDs, the better
performances.
• If your server disk controller is a RAID controller, it is recom-
mended that you use RAID1 instead of RAID5.
• Use HDs with large internal disk cache (buffers) on the server.
• Use a large amount of RAM on the server and maximize disk
caching on the server.
• Use good quality Ethernet switches that can be configured to
support flow control and that have enough buffers to hold large
amount of data between 1000BT and 100BT networks.
• Have enough RAM in the client (256MB or more).
• Limit the client virtual memory size or disable virtual memory on
the clients.
• Use CVolwrite/Volatile mode for virtual HDs.
• Configure Windows on the client PCs to limit writes on the sys-
tem drive (C:) as much as possible. A RamDisk can be useful for
such purposes. Write Filters on Windows XP Embedded may be
used.
• Limit the writes on Virtual HDs (use My Documents folder redi-
rection, store the users e-mail folders on another server etc. and
limit the user profiles sizes).
372
Recommended Network Configuration
Troubleshooting
• If local Hard Drives are available to the clients, configure Win-
dows so that its swap file is stored only on local HDs. Temporary
folders can also be stored on local HDs.
• Check that each client will have enough network bandwidth to
transfer data from and to each server.
Recommended Network Configuration
373
Troubleshooting
374
Recommended Network Configuration
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
APPENDIX L
Copyright Notices
& License Terms
This appendix provides the copyright notices and license terms for
software embedded in Neoware Image Manager components.
Patents
Neoware Image Manager software suite is protected by a number
of patents: EP1808763, EP1728164, WO2007006960,
WO0193016.
Patents pending.
Third Parties Copyrights
Neoware Image Manager embeds software codes that are copyrighted by third parties.
Here are the corresponding copyright notices and license terms.
Software
Copyrighted by
Aladdin Enterprises
Author: L. Peter Deutsch
E-mail: ghost@aladdin.com
Copyright (C) 1999, 2002 Aladdin Enterprises. All rights reserved.
This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software.
375
Copyright Notices & License Terms
Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
freely, subject to the following restrictions:
1
The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you
must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use
this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product
documentation would be appreciated but is not required.
2
Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and
must not be misrepresented as being the original software.
3
This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.
Software
Copyrighted by
Paul Kocher
Author: Paul Kocher
E-mail: pck@netcom.com
Date: 1997
Software
Copyrighted by
Brian Gladman
Copyright (c) 1998, Dr Brian Gladman, Worcester, UK. All rights
reserved.
LICENSE TERMS
The free distribution and use of this software in both source and
binary form is allowed (with or without changes) provided that:
1
Distributions of this source code include the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer;
2
Distributions in binary form include the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other associated materials;
3
The copyright holder's name is not used to endorse products
built using this software without specific written permission.
DISCLAIMER
This software is provided 'as is' with no explicit or implied warranties in respect of its properties, including, but not limited to, correctness and/or fitness for purpose.
376
Third Parties Copyrights
Copyright Notices & License Terms
Software
Copyrighted by
Lukas Gebauer
Project: Delphree - Synapse 003.006.004
Content: HTTP client
Copyright (c)1999-2003, Lukas Gebauer. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
3
Neither the name of Lukas Gebauer nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permison.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Third Parties Copyrights
377
Copyright Notices & License Terms
The Initial Developer of the Original Code is Lukas Gebauer (Czech
Republic).
Portions created by Lukas Gebauer are Copyright (c) 1999-2003.
All Rights Reserved.
Contributor(s): History: see HISTORY.HTM from distribution
package (Found at URL: http://www.ararat.cz/synapse/)
_________________________________________________
Project: Delphree - Synapse 002.002.003
Content: SNTP client
Copyright (c)1999-2003, Lukas Gebauer. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
distribution.
3
Neither the name of Lukas Gebauer nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permision.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
378
Third Parties Copyrights
Copyright Notices & License Terms
OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The Initial Developer of the Original Code is Lukas Gebauer (Czech
Republic).
Portions created by Lukas Gebauer are Copyright (c)2000-2003. All
Rights Reserved.
Patrick Chevalley
History: See HISTORY.HTM from distribution package (Found at
URL: http://www.ararat.cz/synapse/).
Software
Copyrighted by
Jordan Russell
Copyright (C) 1997-2003 Jordan Russell. All rights reserved.
This software is provided "as-is," without any express or implied
warranty. In no event shall the author be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software.
http://www.jrsoftware.org/
Third Parties Copyrights
379
Copyright Notices & License Terms
380
Third Parties Copyrights
Neoware Image Manager User Manual
Index
A
access
client images 59
ACPI
considerations 115
troubleshooting 360
activating Windows products 118, 127
Active Cloner 271
clone directly to attached HD 273
clone to another Image Manager virtual
HD 275
clone to network shared HD 274
command line options 277
error messages 279
Expert options 276
NimCloner.exe 277
NimClonerGUI.exe 272
restore volume to actual HD 144
adding
network boot device to an image 87
new application 83
new client 11, 135
new hardware 11
new software 136
new volume 70
volume from another configuration file 209
Admin IP address 205, 217
Admin write mode 83, 136, 227
assigning volumes to clients 65
automatic updates
disable 56
B
binaries
directory for 219
boot process 9
bootable virtual drives 10
booting 68, 191, 235
adding net boot device to image 87
clients using same images on several
servers 371
mPXELdr.bin 59
multiboot 68, 191, 235
primary bootstrap loader file 59
troubleshooting 360
volume to boot from 191
buffer size 199, 223
building a client image 39
testing 54
building a hard disk 103
basic procedure 106
C
certificate file 202
certificate file for SSL 221
changing client name 234
ChkDsk 55
client
381
Index
accessing images 59
activating Windows products 127
adding new 135
adding to Windows domain 147
assigning volumes to 65, 69
boot volume 68, 191, 235
changing name 234
configuring for images 62
display shared volumes 197
image
creation 39
testing 54
installation requirements 19
license file 16
local HD access 123
locating Image Manager server 317
MAC address 224
maximum attached to server 369
mPXELdr.bin 62
multiboot selection 68, 191, 235
naming 233
primary bootstrap loader file 62
renaming 348
server crash recovery 348
requirements 19
using Client Builder 40
volume use 79
writing modes 12
Client Builder 39
advanced options 55
executable file 40
introduction 39
NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe 40
running 40
undo changes 38
client files location 202
client volume overlay files 80
cloning
directly to attached HD 273
to another Image Manager virtual HD 275
to network shared HD 274
cloning current partition 271
command line options
Active Cloner 277
382
CVolCompactor 178
CVolMerge 178
nvdd 337
computer name change 222, 225
configuration file
adding volumes from another config file 73
allowed volume users 231
buffer size 223
copied to root file transfer folder 346
current 347
CVol file
location 218, 230
max size 221
description 213
editing 79
editing using Image Manager Console 181
example 238
group definitions 231
IP addresses 217
lock file 348
merging contents from another 209
modifying while running 75
nvdd 213
nvdd to read 338
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf 214
port number 217
processing units 223
server crash recovery 347
settings 217
temporary file 347
timing 218
user definitions 223
volume
cache size 230
definitions 225
geometry 226
ID 225
name 225
write mode 227
controlling use of volumes 79
copyright notices 375
creating
client image 39
Index
introduction 39
using Client Builder 40
volume 193
current configuration file 347
CVol files
description 80
location 81, 196, 201, 218, 230
maximum size 81, 196, 199, 221
merging with image file 137, 177
reducing size before merging 177
size of 32
storage requirements 32
CVolCompactor 177
CVolMerge 137, 177
CVolwrite mode 83, 227
domain
adding clients to 147, 159, 168, 174
client IP addresses 168
client names 159, 174
credentials 148
management 147
roaming profiles 131
storing credentials in server directory 151
storing credentials in system partition 170
storing credentials on non-volatile drive 162
user profiles 131
Domain Management wizard 147
drivers
updating for off-line devices 112
D
evaluation version 17
expiry date
UbiBoot 119
daylight saving 56
Defrag 57
detecting new hardware 110, 111
DHCP
disable Windows DHCP client 327
example dhcpd.conf file 318
how clients locate server 317
integrated DHCP client 327
options 319
reference 317
reservations 312
resources 315
server configuration 59, 297
Windows DHCP client 327
dhcpd.conf file 318
directory
for binaries 219
for file transfer 219
disable
autocheck on startup 55
automatic updates 56
ChkDsk 55
daylight saving 56
Defrag 57
memory dumps 57
system restore 58
disk storage required on server 32
E
F
file location
CVol files 81, 196
Image Manager server 32
license file 33
nvdd server module 32
file transfer 345
directory for 219
root folder for files 345
file transfer files location 202
G
global performances 362
group definitions 231
group properties 191
H
HAL
multicore computers 115
selection 115
unicore computers 115
HAL considerations 113
hard disk
building 103
383
Index
building procedure 106
cloning 271
for booting any PC 103
local client access 123
partition size 19
use unknown hardware 110
using when UbiBoot-enabled 110
hard drive
SATA 104
SCSI 104
hardware upgrade without re-installing
software 113
I
IEEE 1394 interface (FireWire) 360
image
adding network boot device 87
Image Manager
evaluation version 17
how it works 8
installing 19
licenses 15
limitations 369
overview 7
uninstalling 35
upgrading 289
Image Manager components
Active Cloner 271
Client Builder 39
CVolCompactor 177
CVolMerge 137, 177
Domain Management wizard 147
Image Manager Console 181
Local HD Manager 123
LocalHDManager.exe 123
mPXELdr.bin 59
MS-TFTP Server Helper 294
NeoDomain.exe 147
NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe 40
NimCloner.exe 277
NimClonerGUI.exe 272
nvd.sys 341
nvdd server module 33, 40
nvdd.exe 33, 337
384
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf 214
NvddPasswd.exe 210
Service Loader Setup 329
smalldisk.vol 213
SrvcLoader.exe 329
SrvcLoaderSetup.exe 329
TFTPD Installer 293
TFTPDInstall.exe 293
UBExtract.exe 87
UbiBoot 103
UbiBoot Extractor 87
UbiBoot Inserter 87
UBInsert.exe 87
Image Manager Console 65
adding a new computer 67
adding a new group 68
assigning a volume to a group 69
certificates file 202
client files location 202
controlling image usage 79
controlling volume usage 79
creating a new volume 70
creating volumes 193
CVol files
location 201
maximum size 199
description 181
Edit menu 184
File menu 184
Generic Options 199
Authorized Subnets 206
Directories 201
General 199
Network 205
Help menu 186
Merge Information 209
Nvdd Manager 207
password for remote administration 210
properties of items 186
running 65, 181
toolbar 181, 183
Tools menu 185
View menu 186
Index
Volume Properties
Allowed Computers 198
Computers 197
CVol 196
General 193
Parameters 195
Image Manager Service Loader Setup 329
images
accessing 59
adding new software 136
configuration file 65, 79
controlling use of 79
creating 39
CVol files 80
managing multiple remote servers 141
master HD for building 110
modifying configuration 136
nvdd configuration file 213
size 19
testing 54
troubleshooting 63
updating multiple remote servers 141
using Client Builder 40
installing Image Manager 19
InstallShield wizard 24
procedure 23
server configuration 32
system requirements 19
uninstalling 35
installing UbiBoot 104
InstallShield wizard 24
introduction
about this manual 2
adding new desktop 11
boot process 9
Client Builder 39
client writing modes 12
creating a client image 39
how Image Manager works 8
Image Manager components 7
Image Manager overview 7
server setup in organisation 8
UbiBoot 103
user manual overview 3
IP addresses 205, 217
L
lanpccltnn.lic 16
lanpcsrv.lic 16
license file 15
client package 16
example 16
location 33
server 16
license terms 375
load balancing 14
local HD access 123
Local HD Manager 123
local roaming profiles 132
LocalHDManager.exe 123
locating Image Manager server 317
lock file 348
log nvdd server activity 338
M
MAC address 224
master HD for building images 110
memory
dumps 57
virtual 57
merging
configuration files 209
image & CVol files 137, 177
Microsoft Sysprep 118
Microsoft VirtualPC 287
mPXELdr 59, 235
mPXELdr configuration file 251
contents & syntax 253
example 255
introduction 251
keywords 256
BootMode 260
Include 256
NICRxTxQs 268
NVDServers 258
PreBootPause 266
ReQueryDHCPOptions 267
385
Index
VolSelectionTO 265
mPXELdr.bin 9, 59, 295, 311, 318, 320, 357
MS-TFTP Server Helper 294
multiboot selection 68, 191, 235
multicore computers 115
multi-CPU computers 115
N
NeoDomain.exe 147
Neoware Virtual Disk 9
Neoware Virtual Disk Daemon 9
NeowareIMClientBuilder.exe 40
NetBIOS name 326
network
adapters 358
adding boot device to an image 87
configuring for image access 59
installation requirements 19, 22
recommended configuration 372
requirements 22
troubleshooting 358, 363
new hardware 111
detecting 110
NimCloner.exe 144, 277
NimClonerGUI.exe 272
Normal CVolwrite mode 83, 228
NTLDR 10
NVD 9
NVD protocol 13
NVD.SYS 360
nvd.sys
drive shutdown delay 360
parameters 341
NVDAdmin
file transfer 345
nvdd 9
nvdd configuration file 65, 79
allowed volume users 231
binary files
location 219
buffer size 223
certificate file 221
client naming 233
computer name change 222, 225
386
CVol file
location 218, 230
max size 221
description 213
editing using Image Manager Console 181
example 238
file transfer files
location 219
group definitions 231
IP addresses 217
MAC address 224
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf 214
port number 217
processing units 223
settings 217
timing 218
user definitions 223
volume
cache size 230
definitions 225
geometry 226
ID 225
name 225
write mode 227
Nvdd Manager 207
nvdd server administration 241
nvdd server module
command line options 337
display messages 337
lock file check 338
log file 338
port number 338
read configuration file 338
running 34, 40, 337
running as a Windows service 329
stopping 34
verbose mode 337
nvdd service
changing settings 333
configuring 329
installing 329
starting & stopping 333
NVDD temporary files 347
Index
nvdd.current.conf 346
nvdd.exe 33
nvdd.smalldisk.vol.conf 214
NVDDAdmin 242
command examples 243
command syntax 242
commands 243
NvddPasswd.exe 210
NVDTFP 345
O
overview 345
Image Manager 7
software suite components 7
user manual 3
P
partition cloning 271
partition size 19
password for remote NVDD server 210
performance of network 362
Persistent CVolwrite mode 84, 228
port number 205, 217
port number override 338
primary bootstrap loader file 59
processing units 223
product activation
Windows 118
properties
client 187
group 191
volumes 192
PXE 8, 62, 318, 356, 357
R
recommended network configuration 372
remote Image Manager server
managing 141
updating images 141
replacing server 13
restoredfiles directory
configuration files 348
user_rep files 349
roaming profiles
domain 131
folders redirection 134
local 132
S
SATA hard drive support 104
save computer name change 222, 225
script
updating image on remote servers 141
SCSI hard drive support 104
server
cluster of 14
DHCP 297
DHCP configuration 59
Image Manager
configuration 32
disk storage required 32
file locations 32
how clients find 317
maximum attached clients 369
installation requirements 19, 20
license file 16
list of to contact 14
replacing 13
requirements 20
setup in organisation 8
TFTP configuration 59
SIDs 368
size of partition 19
smalldisk.vol 213, 214
software
activating Windows products 127
adding to image 136
third party 375
software suite components 7
SrvcLoader.exe 329
SrvcLoaderSetup.exe 329
SSL certificate file 202, 221
startup
troubleshooting 361
storage requirements on server 32
Sysprep 118
system requirements
387
Index
installation 19
system restore 58
system virtual volume
restoring to actual HD 144
T
technical support 355
temporary NVDD files 347
testing
client images 54
TFTP server configuration 59
TFTPD
managing 295
TFTPD Installer 293
TFTPDInstall.exe 293
third party software 375
timing 199, 218
troubleshooting 355
ACPI 360
booting 360
client accessing images 63
computer SIDs 368
global performances 362
IEEE 1394 interface (FireWire) 360
image access 63
NVDD server crash recovery 347
NVDD server temporary files 347
PXE 356
shutdown 360
startup 361
technical support 355
UbiBoot 119
volumes 359
U
UBExtract.exe 87
UbiBoot 103
ACPI considerations 115
additional uses 113
detecting new hardware 110, 111
expiry date 119
HAL considerations 113
installing 104
introduction 103
388
master HD for building images 110
running 106
troubleshooting 119
unknown hardware 110
updating drivers for off-line devices 112
using UbiBoot-enabled HD 110
UbiBoot Extractor 87
UbiBoot Inserter 87
UBInsert.exe 87
unicore computers 115
uninstalling Image Manager 35
unknown hardware
UbiBoot 110
upgrading
hardware 11
Image Manager 289
upgrading hardware without re-installing
software 113
user definitions 223
user profiles 131
folders redirection 134
user_rep files 348
V
VIA Rhine network adapters 358
virtual memory settings 57
virtual volume
restoring to actual HD 144
virtualized environments 281
adding VM support to existing images 282
Microsoft VirtualPC 287
other 288
VMWare 281
VMWare environment 281
adding VM support to existing images 282
private networks 284
public & private networks 284
running Image Manager in a VM 284
streaming disk images 281
Volatile CVolwrite mode 84, 228
volume to boot from 68, 191, 235
volumes
access 198, 231
adding from another config file 73, 209
Index
allowed clients 231
allowed users 198
assigning to clients 65, 69
boot from 191
cache size 230
changing write mode 75
creating 193
creating new 70
CVol files 80
defining 193, 225
directory for 193, 218, 230
display clients sharing 197
geometry 226
ID 195, 225
naming 193, 225
nvdd configuration file 213
properties 192, 193
restoring to actual HD 144
size of 194
smalldisk.vol 213, 214
storage 32
troubleshooting 359, 363, 364
use of 79
write mode 75, 195, 227
Admin 83, 227
CVolwrite 83, 228
description 82, 227
introduction 12
Normal CVolwrite 83, 228
Persistent CVolwrite 84, 228
Volatile CVolwrite 84, 228
W
Windows
domains
adding clients to 147
prefetcher 58
product activation 118, 127
user profiles 131
Windows service 329
write mode
Admin 83, 227
changing 75
CVolwrite 83, 227
description 82
introduction 12
Normal CVolwrite 83, 228
nvdd configuration file 227
Persistent CVolwrite 84, 228
setting for volume 82
specifying using console 195
Volatile CVolwrite 84, 228
389
Index
390
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