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U1401A
Handheld
Multi-Function
Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
Agilent Technologies
Notices
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2009 - 2012
Warranty
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into a foreign language) without prior agreement and written consent from Agilent
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States and international copyright laws.
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in future editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable
law, Agilent disclaims all warranties,
either express or implied, with regard
to this manual and any information
contained herein, including but not
limited to the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent shall not be
liable for errors or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or of any
information contained herein. Should
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written agreement with warranty
terms covering the material in this
document that conflict with these
terms, the warranty terms in the separate agreement shall control.
Manual Part Number
U1401-90001
Edition
Fourth Edition, May 4, 2012
Printed in Malaysia
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
3501 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95052 USA
Technology Licenses
The hardware and/or software described in
this document are furnished under a license
and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.
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Safety Notices
CAUTION
A CAUTION notice denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or the like
that, if not correctly performed or
adhered to, could result in damage
to the product or loss of important
data. Do not proceed beyond a
CAUTION notice until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and
met.
WA R N I N G
A WARNING notice denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to an
operating procedure, practice, or
the like that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result
in personal injury or death. Do not
proceed beyond a WARNING
notice until the indicated conditions are fully understood and
met.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Safety Symbols
The following symbols on the instrument and in the documentation
indicate precautions which must be taken to maintain safe
operation of the instrument.
Direct current (DC)
Off (supply)
Alternating current (AC)
On (supply)
Both direct and alternating current
Caution, risk of electric shock
Three-phase alternating current
Caution, risk of danger (refer to this manual
for specific Warning or Caution information)
Earth (ground) terminal
Caution, hot surface
Protective conductor terminal
Out position of a bistable push control
Frame or chassis terminal
In position of a bistable push control
Equipotentiality
CAT II
150 V
Category II 150 V overvoltage protection
Equipment protected throughout by
double insulation or reinforced
insulation
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
III
General Safety Information
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this
manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended
use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies assumes no liability for the
customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
WA R N I N G
IV
• When working above DC 60 V, AC 30 Vrms or AC 42.4 Vpeak, exercise caution
– these ranges pose a shock hazard.
• Do not measure more than the rated voltage (as marked on the instrument)
between terminals, or between terminal and earth ground.
• Double-check the instrument operation by measuring a known voltage.
• This instrument is designed for measurement under CAT II 150 V. Avoid
measuring power mains with voltage exceeding 150 V.
• For current measurement, turn off circuit power before connecting the
instrument to the circuit. Always place the instrument in series with the
circuit.
• When connecting probes, always connect the common test probe first. When
disconnecting probes, always disconnect the live test probe first.
• Detach test probes from the instrument before you open the battery cover.
• Do not use the instrument with the battery cover or part of the cover removed
or loose.
• Recharge or replace the battery as soon as the low battery indicator
flashes on screen. This is to avoid false readings, which may lead to possible
electric shock or personal injury.
• Do not use the instrument if it is damaged. Before you use the instrument,
inspect the casing. Look for cracks or missing plastic. Do not operate the
instrument around explosive gas, vapor, or dust.
• Inspect the test probes for damaged insulation or exposed metal, and check
for continuity. Do not use the test probe if it is damaged.
• Do not use any other AC charger adapter apart from the one certified by
Agilent with this product.
• Do not use repaired fuses or short-circuited fuse-holders. For continued
protection against fire, replace the line fuses only with fuses of the same
voltage and current rating and recommended type.
• Do not service or perform adjustments alone. Under certain condition,
hazardous voltages may exist, even with the equipment switched off. To avoid
dangerous electric shock, service personnel must not attempt internal service
or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering resuscitation or
first aid, is present.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
WA R N I N G
CAUTION
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
• Do not substitute parts or modify equipment to avoid the danger of introducing
additional hazards. Return the product to the nearest Agilent Technologies
Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure the safety features
are maintained
• Do not operate damaged equipment as the safety protection features built into
this product may have been impaired, either through physical damage,
excessive moisture, or any other reason. Remove power and do not use the
product until safe operation can be verified by service-trained personnel. If
necessary, return the product to the nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and
Service Office for service and repair to ensure the safety features are
maintained.
•
Turn off circuit power and discharge all high-voltage capacitors in the
circuit before you perform resistance and capacitance measurements
or continuity and diode tests.
•
Use the correct terminals, function, and range for your measurements.
•
Do not measure voltage when current measurement is selected.
•
Use only the recommended rechargeable battery. Ensure proper
insertion of battery in the instrument, and follow the correct polarity.
•
Disconnect test leads from all the terminals during battery charging.
V
Environmental Conditions
This instrument is designed for indoor use and in an area with low
condensation. The table below shows the general environmental
requirements for this instrument.
CAUTION
Environmental conditions
Requirements
Operating temperature
Full accuracy from 0 °C to 40 °C
Operating humidity
Full accuracy up to 80% R.H. (relative
humidity) for temperature up to 31 °C,
decreasing linearly to 50% R.H. at 40 °C
Storage temperature
–20 °C to 60 °C (with battery removed)
Storage humidity
5% to 80% R.H. non-condensing
Altitude
Up to 2000 m
Pollution degree
Pollution Degree 2
The Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter complies with the
following safety and EMC requirements.
•
•
•
•
IEC 61010-1:2001/EN61010-1:2001 (2nd Edition)
Canada: CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1-04
USA: ANSI/UL 61010-1:2004
IEC61326-2-1:2005/EN61326-2-1:2006
• Canada: ICES-001:2004
• Australia/New Zealand: AS/NZS CISPR11:2004
CAUTION
VI
Degradation of some product specifications can occur in the presence of
ambient electromagnetic (EM) fields and noise that are coupled to the
power line or I/O cables of the instrument. The instrument will self-recover
and operate to all specifications when the source of ambient EM field and
noise are removed or when the instrument is protected from the ambient
EM field or when the instrument cabling is shielded from the ambient EM
noise.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Regulatory Markings
mark shows that the product complies
The C-tick mark is a registered
trademark of the Spectrum
Management Agency of Australia. This
signifies compliance with
with all the relevant European Legal
the Australia EMC Framework
Directives.
regulations under the terms of the
Radio Communication Act of 1992.
ICES/NMB-001 indicates that this ISM
device complies with the Canadian
ICES-001.
This instrument complies with the
WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC) marking
requirement. This affixed product label
indicates that you must not discard this
electrical or electronic product in
domestic household waste.
The CE mark is a registered trademark
of the European Community. This CE
Cet appareil ISM est confomre a la
norme NMB-001 du Canada.
The CSA mark is a registered
trademark of the Canadian Standards
Association.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
VII
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive
2002/96/EC
This instrument complies with the WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC)
marking requirement. This affixed product label indicates that you
must not discard this electrical or electronic product in domestic
household waste.
Product Category:
With reference to the equipment types in the WEEE directive Annex
1, this instrument is classified as a “Monitoring and Control
Instrument” product.
The affixed product label is as shown below.
Do not dispose in domestic household waste
To return this unwanted instrument, contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies, or visit:
www.agilent.com/environment/product
for more information.
Agilent Technologies, through Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), offers free and
convenient battery recycling options in the U.S. and Canada. Contact RBRC at 877-2-RECYCLE
(877.273.2925) or online at: http://www.call2recycle.org/ for the nearest recycling location.
VIII
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
In This Guide...
1 Getting Started
This chapter contains a brief description of the U1401A Handheld
Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter front panel, rotary switch, keypad,
display, terminals, and rear panel.
2 Calibrator Output Operations
This chapters contains detailed information on how to generate
signals using the U1401A.
3 Making Measurements
This chapter contains the detailed information on how measurements
are taken using the U1401A.
4 Changing the Default Settings
This chapter describes how to change the default settings of the
U1401A.
5 Application Examples
This chapter describes some application examples for the U1401A.
6 Maintenance
This chapter will help you troubleshoot the U1401A for faults.
7 Performance Tests and Calibration
This chapter contains the performance test procedures and
adjustment procedures to help you ensure that the U1401A is
operating within its published specifications.
8 Specifications
This chapter details the specifications of the U1401A.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
IX
Declaration of Conformity (DoC)
The Declaration of Conformity (DoC) for this instrument is available on the
Web site. You can search the DoC by its product model or description.
http://regulations.corporate.agilent.com/DoC/search.htm
NOTE
X
If you are unable to search for the respective DoC, please contact your
local Agilent representative.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Contents
Contents
1
Getting Started
Introducing the U1401A Handheld Multi-Function
Calibrator/Meter 2
Standard Purchase Items
List of Accessories
Product Overview
3
4
5
Slide switch 5
The front panel at a glance 7
The rotary switch at a glance 8
The keypad at a glance 9
The display at a glance 13
The terminals at a glance 17
The rear panel at a glance 19
Display selection with the Hz key 20
Display selection with the DUAL key 22
Remote Communication
2
23
Calibrator Output Operations
Enabling and Disabling the Output
3
Constant Voltage Operation
29
Constant Current Operation
30
Memory Generation
31
Autoscan output
Autoramp output
31
36
Square Wave Output
41
Making Measurements
Measuring Voltage
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
28
46
XI
Contents
Measuring DC voltage
Measuring AC voltage
Measuring Current
46
48
49
DC mA measurement 49
Percentage scale of DC mA measurement
Measuring Temperature
50
51
Measuring Resistance and Testing Continuity
Alerts and Warning During Measurement
Overload alert for voltage measurement
Math Operations
54
56
56
57
Dynamic recording 57
Relative (zero) 60
Triggering Operations
61
Data hold (manual trigger)
Refresh hold (auto trigger)
1 ms peak hold 63
4
61
62
Changing the Default Settings
Entering the Setup Mode
66
Available Setting Options
68
Setting the data hold/refresh hold mode 69
Setting the temperature unit 71
Setting the beeper frequency 73
Setting the minimum measurable frequency 74
Setting the percentage scale readout 75
Setting the print mode 76
Setting the echo mode 77
Setting the data bit 78
Setting the parity check 79
Setting the baud rate 80
XII
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Contents
Setting the display backlight timer 81
Setting the power saving mode 82
5
Application Examples
Source Mode for mA Output
86
Simulation Mode for mA Output
88
Simulating a 2-wire transmitter on a current loop
Measuring a Pressure Transducer
Zener Diode Test
Diode Test
90
92
94
96
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Test
Determining transistor hfe
98
102
Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) Switch Test
Operational Amplifier Verification
104
108
Current-to-voltage converter 108
Voltage-to-current converter 110
Integrator: square wave to triangle wave conversion
2-Wire Transmitter Verification
113
Frequency Transmitter Verification
6
111
115
Maintenance
Maintenance
118
General maintenance 118
Battery replacement 119
Recharging the batteries 121
Fuse replacement 122
Troubleshooting 124
7
Performance Tests and Calibration
Calibration Overview
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
128
XIII
Contents
Closed-case electronic calibration 129
Agilent Technologies’ calibration services 129
Calibration interval 129
Other recommendations for calibration 130
Environmental conditions 130
Warm up 130
Recommended Test Equipment
131
Performance Verification Tests
132
Self-verification 132
Input performance verification 133
Output performance verification 137
Adjustment Considerations
Adjustment Procedures
138
139
Input calibration 139
Output calibration 140
8
Specifications
General Specifications
144
Measurement Category
146
Measurement category definitions
Input Specifications
146
147
DC specifications 147
AC specifications 148
AC+DC specifications 149
Temperature specifications 150
Frequency specifications 151
1 ms peak hold specifications 153
Resistance specifications 153
Diode check and audible continuity specifications
Output Specifications
XIV
154
155
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Contents
Constant voltage and constant current outputs
Square wave output 156
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
155
XV
Contents
XVI
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Tables
Tables
Table 1-1. List of accessories 4
Table 1-2. Slide switch functions 5
Table 1-3. Rotary switch positions and their corresponding
functions 8
Table 1-4. Keypad functions 10
Table 1-5. Instructions involving shifted functions 12
Table 1-6. Description of display annunciators 14
Table 1-7. Description of terminals 17
Table 1-8. Overload protection for the input terminals 18
Table 1-9. Measurement functions and corresponding display
selection with the Hz key 20
Table 1-10. Measurement functions and corresponding display
selection with the DUAL key 22
Table 2-1. Default settings for the autoscan output 33
Table 2-2. Default settings for the autoramp output 37
Table 2-3. Available frequencies 41
Table 3-1. Measurement ranges for audible continuity 54
Table 4-1. Setup options and default settings 68
Table 5-1. Typical pressure range and maximum output voltages of
millivolt output pressure transducers 92
Table 5-2. Base terminal according to probe test 99
Table 5-3. Polarity and terminals if Pin 3 is the base 99
Table 5-4. Polarities and terminals if Pin 2 is the base 100
Table 5-5. Polarities and terminals if Pin 1 is the base 100
Table 5-6. Polarity and terminals if Pin 2 is the base 101
Table 5-7. Gate terminal according to probe test 105
Table 6-1. Fuse specifications 123
Table 6-2. Troubleshooting 125
Table 7-1. Recommended test equipment 131
Table 7-2. Functions that can be self-verified 132
Table 7-3. Input performance verification tests 133
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
XVII
Tables
Table 7-4. Output performance verification tests 137
Table 7-5. Output voltage calibration steps 141
Table 7-6. Output current calibration steps 142
Table 8-1. DC mV/voltage specifications 147
Table 8-2. DC current specifications 148
Table 8-3. AC mV/voltage specifications 148
Table 8-4. AC current specifications 149
Table 8-5. AC+DC mV/voltage specifications 149
Table 8-6. AC+DC current specifications 150
Table 8-7. Temperature specifications 150
Table 8-8. Frequency specifications 151
Table 8-9. Frequency sensitivity and trigger level specifications for
voltage measurement 151
Table 8-10. Duty cycle specifications 152
Table 8-11. Pulse width specifications 152
Table 8-12. Frequency sensitivity specifications for current
measurement 152
Table 8-13. Peak hold specifications 153
Table 8-14. Resistance specifications 153
Table 8-15. Diode check specifications 154
Table 8-16. Constant voltage (CV) output specifications 155
Table 8-17. Constant current (CC) output specifications 155
Table 8-18. Square wave output specifications 156
XVIII
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Figures
Figures
Figure 1-1. The slide switch 5
Figure 1-2. The front panel 7
Figure 1-3. The rotary switch 8
Figure 1-4. Keypad functions 9
Figure 1-5. Keypad shifted functions 10
Figure 1-6. Full display 13
Figure 1-7. Terminals 17
Figure 1-8. The rear panel 19
Figure 1-9. IR-USB cable 24
Figure 1-10. IR-USB cable connection 25
Figure 1-11. IR-USB cable 25
Figure 2-1. Selecting autoscan output mode 34
Figure 2-2. Example of a typical autoscan output 34
Figure 2-3. Defining the autoscan output 36
Figure 2-4. Selecting autoramp output mode 38
Figure 2-5. Ramp output 38
Figure 2-6. Defining the autoramp output 40
Figure 2-7. Parameter selection for square wave output 43
Figure 3-1. DC voltage measurement 47
Figure 3-2. AC voltage measurement 48
Figure 3-3. DC current (mA) measurement 49
Figure 3-4. Surface temperature measurement 53
Figure 3-5. Resistance measurement 55
Figure 3-6. Enabling and disabling the continuity test 55
Figure 3-7. Dynamic recording mode 59
Figure 3-8. Relative (zero) mode 60
Figure 3-9. Data hold mode 61
Figure 3-10. 1 ms peak hold mode 64
Figure 4-1. Entering the setup mode 66
Figure 4-2. Setting the data hold or refresh hold mode 70
Figure 4-3. Setting the temperature unit 72
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
XIX
Figures
Figure 4-4. Setting the beeper frequency 73
Figure 4-5. Setting the minimum frequency 74
Figure 4-6. Setting the percentage scale readout 75
Figure 4-7. Setting the print mode for remote control 76
Figure 4-8. Setting the echo mode for remote control 77
Figure 4-9. Setting the data bit for remote control 78
Figure 4-10. Setting the parity check for remote control 79
Figure 4-11. Setting the baud rate for remote control 80
Figure 4-12. Setting the display backlight timer 81
Figure 4-13. Setting the auto power-off mode 83
Figure 5-1. Testing a 4 mA to 20 mA current loop with the source
mode 87
Figure 5-2. mA output simulation 89
Figure 5-3. Use the yellow test lead to perform the 2-wire
transmitter simulation 91
Figure 5-4. Pressure transducer measurement 93
Figure 5-5. Zener diode test 95
Figure 5-6. Diode test 97
Figure 5-7. TO-92 Transistor 98
Figure 5-8. TO-3 Transistor 101
Figure 5-9. Determining transistor hfe 103
Figure 5-10. TO-92 JFET 104
Figure 5-11. N- Channel JFET 106
Figure 5-12. P- Channel JFET 107
Figure 5-13. Current-to-voltage converter 109
Figure 5-14. Voltage-to-current converter 111
Figure 5-15. Square wave to triangular wave conversion 112
Figure 5-16. Verifying a two-wire transmitter 114
Figure 5-17. Verifying a frequency transmitter 116
Figure 6-1. Battery replacement 120
Figure 6-2. Recharging the batteries 122
Figure 6-3. Fuse replacement 124
XX
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
1
Getting Started
Introducing the U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter 2
Standard Purchase Items 3
List of Accessories 4
Product Overview 5
Slide switch 5
The front panel at a glance 7
The rotary switch at a glance 8
The keypad at a glance 9
The display at a glance 13
The terminals at a glance 17
The rear panel at a glance 19
Display selection with the Hz key 20
Display selection with the DUAL key 22
Remote Communication 23
This chapter contains a brief description of the U1401A
Handheld Multi- Function Calibrator/Meter front panel,
rotary switch, keypad, display, terminals, and rear panel.
Agilent Technologies
1
1
Getting Started
Introducing the U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
The key features of the U1401A are:
• Simultaneous signal generation and measurement.
• DC, AC, and AC+DC voltage and current measurements.
• DC voltage, DC current, and square wave outputs.
• Intelligent output and standby control.
• Rechargeable Ni- MH battery with built- in charging
capability.
• Smart charger design without battery removal.
• Bright Electroluminescence (EL) backlight with 5- digit
LCD display.
• Percentage scale readout for 4- 20 mA or 0- 20 mA
measurement.
• Load driving capability up to 1200 Ω for 20 mA
simulation with yellow test lead.
• Adjustable steps and time interval for Autoscan.
• Adjustable resolutions and start for linear Ramp output.
• 1 ms peak hold to catch inrush voltage and current easily.
• Temperature measurement with selectable 0 °C
compensation.
• Frequency, duty cycle, and pulse width measurements.
• Dynamic recording for minimum, maximum and average
readings.
• Data hold with manual or autotrigger and relative mode.
• Diode and audible continuity tests.
• Bidirectional optic computer interface with SCPI
commands.
• Resistance measurement up to 50 MΩ.
• Safe, precise and fast closed case calibration.
• 50,000 count precision true- rms digital meter, designed to
meet IEC 61010- 1 CAT II 150V standard.
2
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Standard Purchase Items
Verify that you have received the following items with your
U1401A Handheld Multi- Function Calibrator/Meter:
• Carrying case
• Protective holster
• Rechargeable battery pack (1.2 V NiMH AA × 8)
• Power cord and AC power adapter
• Silicone test leads
• 19 mm probes
• Alligator clips
• Yellow test lead for mA simulation
• Certificate of calibration
• Printed Quick Start Guide
If anything is missing, contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies Sales and Service Office.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
3
1
Getting Started
List of Accessories
Table 1-1 List of accessories
Type
Agilent part number
Standard
Description
Protective holster
Rechargeable battery pack (1.2V NiMH AA x 8)
AC Power Adapter for Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
Power cord (according to country)
Carrying case
Calibrator and meter standard test lead kit
Yellow test lead for mA simulation
Certificate of calibration
Product reference CD
Printed Quick Start Guide: one English + one local language
Optional
4
U1186A
K-type thermocouple input adapter and probe bundle
U1184A
K-type thermocouple input adapter
U1181A
K-type immersion probe
U1182A
Industrial surface probe
U1183A
Air probe
U1160A
Standard test lead kit
U1161A
Extended test lead kit
U1162A
Alligator clips
U5481A
IR-to-USB cable
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Product Overview
Slide switch
The slide switch has the following positions:
• Charge: Select this position to charge the batteries. Use the
AC adapter provided to charge this instrument.
• M: Select this position to enable only the measurement
functions.
• M/S: Select this position to enable both the measurement
and source functions.
2
3
1
4
5
6
Figure 1-1 The slide switch
Table 1-2 Slide switch functions
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
No.
Description
Function
1
External AC
adapter jack
Allows an external AC adapter to be connected to
provide power or charge the batteries.
2
CHARGE
Charges the batteries with an external AC adapter.
3
M
Enables only the measurement functions.
4
M/S
Enables both measurement and source functions.
5
1
Getting Started
Table 1-2 Slide switch functions (continued)
No.
Description
Function
5
Slide Switch
—
6
Charging
indication
Indicates the charging process.
GREEN: Fully charged
YELLOW: Charging
6
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
The front panel at a glance
Display
Keypad
Rotary switch
Terminals
Figure 1-2 The front panel
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
7
1
Getting Started
The rotary switch at a glance
Before powering on the U1401A, set the slide switch to M or
M/S position. To switch on the U1401A, turn the rotary
switch to the desired function. The input and output
functions are selected together. The outer circle indicates the
output (source) function while the inner circle indicates the
input (meter) function.
3
4
5
2
6
1
Figure 1-3 The rotary switch
Table 1-3 Rotary switch positions and their corresponding functions
Description/Function
No.
8
Input (white)
Output (yellow)
1
OFF
—
2
DC, AC, or AC+DC voltage
measurements
• Square wave output
• Constant current: ±25 mA
• Constant voltage: ±1.5 V, ±15 V
3
DC, AC, or AC+DC mV
measurements or temperature
measurement
Constant voltage: ±1.5 V, ±15 V
4
Resistance measurement and
continuity test
Constant voltage: ±1.5 V, ±15 V
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Table 1-3 Rotary switch positions and their corresponding functions
Description/Function
No.
Input (white)
Output (yellow)
5
Diode and continuity tests
Constant current: ±25 mA
6
DC, AC, or AC+DC mA
measurements: 50 mA or 500 mA
• Constant voltage: ±1.5 V, ±15 V
• Constant current: ±25 mA
• Square wave output
The keypad at a glance
The operation of each key is shown below. A related
annunciator appears on the display and the instrument
beeps when a key is pressed. Turning the rotary switch to
another position resets the present operation of the key.
3
2
4
1
5
7
6
Figure 1-4 Keypad functions
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
9
1
Getting Started
9
8
11
7
Figure 1-5 Keypad shifted functions
Table 1-4 Keypad functions
No.
Key
Function when pressed for less than one
second
Function when pressed for more than one
second
1
AC/DC
Selects DC, AC, or AC+DC
Toggles between peak hold ON or OFF for V
and mA measurement
2
HOLD
If the data hold mode is enabled:
Exits data hold mode[1]
Freezes the present measured value. Press
again to trigger the next measured value.
If the refresh hold mode is enabled:
–
Enters or exits the refresh hold mode
10
MAX MIN[2]
Cycles through MAX, MIN, AVG, and present
(MAX AVG MIN) readings in dynamic
recording mode
Enters or exits the dynamic recording mode[1]
3
REL
Saves the displayed value as a reference to be
subtracted from subsequent measurements
Toggles between mV and temperature tests
4
RANGE
Changes measurement range
Sets to autorange
5
DUAL
Cycles through different combinations of
primary and secondary displays
–
6
Hz
Selects frequency (Hz), duty cycle (%), or pulse
width (ms) on the primary display
Exits selection
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Table 1-4 Keypad functions (continued)
No.
Key
Function when pressed for less than one
second
Function when pressed for more than one
second
7
SHIFT
Enables and disables the shifted functions of
the other keys
Toggles backlight ON/OFF
8 [3]
MODE
Selects output modes for constant
voltage/constant current, autoscan and
autoramp.
Selects frequency (Hz), duty cycle (%), pulse
width (ms), and level adjustments for square
wave output.
Enters the adjustment mode (for autoscan and
autoramp outputs).
34
Selects a digit or the polarity to be adjusted.
—
56
Adjusts a digit or the polarity.
Press to adjust the selected digit or toggle the
output polarity.
—
OUTPUT
Toggles the output state on and off.
indicates that the signal is being generated
and
indicates that the output has been
disabled.
—
9 [3]
10 [3]
11 [3]
The selected digit/polarity will be flashing on
the secondary display.
[1]
When the HOLD key is pressed for more then one second, its function depends on the present state of the instrument. If the
instrument is presently in the data hold mode, pressing this key for more than one second will exit the data hold mode; if the
instrument is not in the data hold mode, pressing this key for more than one second will enter or exit the dynamic recording
mode.
[2]
Only applicable when the instrument is in the dynamic recording mode.
[3]
Shifted functions.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
11
1
Getting Started
Shifted functions
Every key (except the SHIFT key itself) has a shifted function.
To access these shifted functions, you must first press SHIFT.
After pressing SHIFT, the shifted functions will remain
enabled (the LCD display will indicate
) until the
SHIFT key is pressed again.
Throughout this manual, instructions that involve shifted
functions will be given without explicit mention of the SHIFT
key. Refer to Table 1- 5 on page 12 for a list of such
instructions and what you will need to do.
Table 1-5 Instructions involving shifted functions
Instruction
Press MODE
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
3
Press 4
Press 5
Press 6
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
Press OUTPUT
Press SHIFT [1], then press
.
Press
[1]
12
Required actions
If the shifted functions are not already enabled.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
The display at a glance
To view the full display (with all segments illuminated),
press
while turning the rotary switch from OFF to any
non- OFF position. After you are done viewing the full
display, press any key to resume the normal function,
depending on the rotary switch position.
The instrument will then enter power save mode if the auto
power- off (
) feature is enabled. To wake the
instrument up, perform the following steps:
1 Turn the rotary switch (knob) to the OFF position;
2 Then turn the rotary switch to any position other than
square wave output and press any key.
Figure 1-6 Full display
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
13
1
Getting Started
Table 1-6 Description of display annunciators
LCD display annunciator
Description
Remote control
Scan output
Ramp output
Shifted functions enabled
AUTO
Autorange
Relative mode
Low battery indication
Auto power-off enabled
Square wave output
Frequency (Hz), duty cycle (%), pulse width (ms), and level for square wave output
Constant current output
Constant voltage output
14
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Table 1-6 Description of display annunciators (continued)
LCD display annunciator
Description
Thermocouple type for temperature test. The U1401A supports K-type thermocouple only.
Output enabled and
output disabled
Secondary display for output and input
Output or input units for secondary display
Diode or audible continuity
Audible continuity for resistance
DH
Trigger (manual) hold
MAXAVGMIN
Dynamic recording mode: Present value on primary display
MAX
Dynamic recording mode: Maximum value on primary display
AVG
Dynamic recording mode: Average value on primary display
MIN
Dynamic recording mode: Minimum value on primary display
ACDC
Alternating/direct current
Primary display for input
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
15
1
Getting Started
Table 1-6 Description of display annunciators (continued)
LCD display annunciator
Description
Input units for primary display
Square wave output. Positive
or negative
trigger slope
Positive slope for pulse width (ms) and duty cycle (%) measurement
Negative slope for pulse width (ms) and duty cycle (%) measurement
Percentage scale for 0 to 20 mA and 4 to 20 mA current measurement
Without ambient temperature compensation
16
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
The terminals at a glance
WA R N I N G
To avoid damaging this instrument, do not exceed the rated input
limit.
1
2
Figure 1-7 Terminals
Table 1-7 Description of terminals
No.
Description
Function
1
OUTPUT (Yellow)
For constant voltage, constant
current, and square wave output
functions
2
INPUT (Grey-white)
For voltage, current, and
resistance measurements, and
diode and audible continuity tests
This instrument has four terminals. The two terminals for
input functions are protected against overloads for the limits
specified in Table 1- 8. The other two terminals are for
output functions, with DC 30 V overload protection.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
17
1
Getting Started
Table 1-8 Overload protection for the input terminals
Rotary switch position
Input terminal
Overload protection
AC/DC voltage range:
5 V to 250 V
+ and –
250 Vrms
AC/DC voltage range:
50 mV to 500 mV
Ohm (Ω)
Diode (
)
Temperature
AC/DC current range:
50 mA to 500 mA
18
250 V/ 630 mA,
fast-acting fuse
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
The rear panel at a glance
Figure 1-8 The rear panel
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
19
1
Getting Started
Display selection with the Hz key
The frequency measurement function is able to detect the
presence of harmonic currents in neutral conductors and
determines, whether these neutral currents are the result of
unbalanced phases or non- linear loads. Press
to enter
the frequency measurement mode for current or voltage
measurements. The voltage or current values will be
displayed on the secondary display and the frequency values
on the primary display. Press this key again to step through
frequency (Hz), duty cycle (%), or pulse width (ms). This
allows simultaneous monitoring of real- time voltage or
current with frequency, duty cycle, or pulse width.
After you press and hold
for more than one second,
the primary display will revert to voltage or current
measurement values.
Table 1-9 Measurement functions and corresponding display selection with the Hz key
Measurement function
Primary display
Secondary display
AC voltage
Frequency (Hz)
AC voltage
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
DC voltage
Frequency (Hz)
DC voltage
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
AC+DC voltage
Frequency (Hz)
AC+DC voltage
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
AC current
Frequency (Hz)
AC current
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
20
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Table 1-9 Measurement functions and corresponding display selection with the Hz key (continued)
Measurement function
Primary display
Secondary display
DC current
Frequency (Hz)
DC current
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
AC+DC current
Frequency (Hz)
AC+DC current
Duty cycle (%)
Pulse width (ms)
Current in percentage scale
(0 mA to 20 mA or 4 mA to 20 mA)
Frequency (Hz)
Duty cycle (%)
Current in percentage scale
(0 mA to 20 mA or 4 mA to 20 mA)
Pulse width (ms)
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
21
1
Getting Started
Display selection with the DUAL key
Press
to enable the dual display function, in which
two separate parameters of the measured signal is displayed
simultaneously on the primary and secondary displays. The
dual display function is not available in dynamic recording
or trigger mode. Refer to Table 1- 10.
Table 1-10 Measurement functions and corresponding display selection with the DUAL key
22
Measurement function
Primary display
Secondary display
AC voltage
AC voltage
Hz (AC coupling)
DC voltage
DC voltage
Hz (DC coupling)
AC+DC voltage
AC+DC voltage
Hz (AC coupling)
DC current
DC current
Hz (DC coupling)
AC current
AC current
Hz (AC coupling)
AC+DC current
AC+DC current
Hz (AC coupling)
Current in percentage scale
(0 mA to 20 mA or 4 mA to 20 mA)
Current in percentage scale
(0 mA to 20 mA or 4 mA to 20 mA)
Hz (DC coupling)
Temperature
Celsius (°C)
Fahrenheit (°F)
Fahrenheit (°F)
Celsius (°C)
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Remote Communication
The U1401A has a bidirectional (full duplex) communication
capability that makes it very easy to transfer data from the
instrument to a PC.
The required accessory for this feature is an optional
IR- USB cable and the application software in the
accompanying CD.
To communicate with the personal computer through remote
communication:
1 Set up the communication parameters of the instrument
and the personal computer you are using. The default
values for baud rate, parity, data bits, and stop bit for the
instrument are 9600, n, 8, and 1 respectively.
2 Make sure that the USB driver and the Agilent data logger
software has been installed on your computer.
NOTE
You will need to download the Agilent data logger software from Agilent’s
website in order to use this feature. Please go to:
http://www.agilent.com/find/hhTechLib to download the software.
3 Attach the optic side of the cable to the communication
port on the instrument. Make sure that the text side is
facing upwards. See Figure 1- 10 on page 25.
4 Plug the other end of the USB cable terminal into the
USB port of your personal computer.
5 Use the data transfer software to retrieve the data that
you need.
6 Press the flaps to remove the cable from the
communication port of the instrument. See Figure 1- 11 on
page 25.
7 It is not recommended to remove the connector cover of
the IR- USB cable. But sometime, while pressing the flap
to unplug the cable, the connector cover may come off
accidentally as shown in Figure 1- 11 on page 25. To
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
23
1
Getting Started
reattach the cover, simply slip the cover over the
connector. Make sure that the text on the cover is on the
same side as the text on the top case of the connector.
You will hear a click when the cover snaps properly into
its place.
Figure 1-9 IR-USB cable
24
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Getting Started
1
Text side facing
upward
IR-USB cable
Figure 1-10 IR-USB cable connection
Disconnect
Connect
Press this flap while moving
in the direction indicated by
the arrows to connect or
disconnect the IR-USB cable
Figure 1-11 IR-USB cable
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
25
1
26
Getting Started
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Enabling and Disabling the Output 28
Constant Voltage Operation 29
Constant Current Operation 30
Memory Generation 31
Autoscan output 31
Autoramp output 36
Square Wave Output 41
This chapters contains detailed information on how to
generate signals using the U1401A.
Agilent Technologies
27
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Enabling and Disabling the Output
The U1401A can generate and measure signals
simultaneously. Pressing the OUTPUT key disables the
U1401A output by placing it in the standby mode. Pressing
this key again toggles the output on.
When the output is in the standby mode, the
annunciator disappears and the
annunciator is
displayed instead. This means the calibrator has stopped
generating its output.
The standby mode will also be activated automatically if:
• you accidentally feed an external signal into the output
terminals while the output function is enabled.
• the noise from an external power system or output
terminals causes an error signal to the output. For
example, when ESD is performed with a voltage of
8000 V, this instrument will go into standby mode.
• an overload condition has been detected when generating
constant voltage or square wave outputs.
• the weak or low battery condition occurs. This ensures
output quality and serves as another alert to let the user
know that the energy level of the batteries is low.
• you put the slide switch into the M (input only) position
(you should do this to conserve battery power if you do
not intend to use any of the output functions).
28
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
2
Constant Voltage Operation
The U1401A can generate a constant voltage output in two
different ranges, namely ±1.5 V and ±15 V.
To select the constant voltage output function:
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
voltage output) positions.
(constant
2 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
3 Press MODE to cycle through ±1.5 V, ±15 V,
±1.5 V,
±15 V,
±1.5 V, and
±15 V output
modes. Select either ±1.5 V or ±15 V for constant output
(or steady output, as opposed to autoscan or autoramp
outputs, which will be discussed under “Memory
Generation” on page 31), depending on the voltage range
you require.
• Unlike the autoscan and autoramp modes, there is no
special annunciator on the display to indicate constant
voltage (CV) operation.
4 With the instrument in standby mode (you should see the
annunciator on the display; if not, press OUTPUT), you
can adjust the amplitude of the output by pressing 3
and 4 to select the digit to be adjusted, and then
pressing 5 and 6 to adjust the value of the selected
digit.
5 Press OUTPUT to start the source output. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
29
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Constant Current Operation
The U1401A can generate a constant current output in the
range of ±25 mA.
To select the constant voltage output function:
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
current output) positions.
(constant
2 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
3 Press MODE to cycle through ±25 mA,
±25 mA, and
±25 mA output modes. Select the ±25 mA output
mode for constant output (or steady output, as opposed to
autoscan or autoramp outputs, which will be discussed
under “Memory Generation” on page 31).
• Unlike the autoscan and autoramp modes, there is no
special annunciator on the display to indicate constant
current (CC) operation.
4 With the instrument in standby mode (you should see the
annunciator on the display; if not, press OUTPUT), you
can adjust the amplitude of the output by pressing 3
and 4 to select the digit to be adjusted, and then
pressing 5 and 6 to adjust the value of the selected
digit.
5 Press OUTPUT to start the source output. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
30
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
2
Memory Generation
For constant voltage and current outputs, the U1401A offers
two additional useful functions. One is an autoscan output
that is able to generate up to 16 different steps of constant
voltage or current each with its own user- defined amplitude
and time interval. The other one is an autoramp output
with user- defined dual slopes and number of steps for linear
simulation.
Autoscan output
To set the autoscan output:
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
(constant
current output) or
(constant voltage output)
positions.
2 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
3 Follow one of the instructions below:
• For voltage output, press MODE to cycle through ±1.5 V,
±15 V,
±1.5 V,
±15 V,
±1.5 V, and
±15 V output modes. Select one of the two
output modes, depending on the voltage range
you require.
• For current output, press MODE to cycle through
±25 mA,
±25 mA, and
±25 mA output
modes. Select the
output mode.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
31
2
Calibrator Output Operations
4 After selecting the required
function, press 3 or
to
select
one
of
three
modes:
Continuous,
Cycle, or
4
Step. The secondary display will indicate Cont, CyCLE, or
StEP respectively (Figure 2- 1 on page 34).
• Continuous mode (Cont): This mode will output a signal
according to the amplitudes and time intervals defined
in the memory, starting from step 1 until the step
where the time interval is “00” second, then it will
start again from step 1. For instance, according to the
default settings (Table 2- 1 on page 33), the output
signal will follow step 1 through step 11, and then
return to step 1 because the time interval of step 12 is
“00” second.
• Cycle mode (CyCLE): This is similar to the Continuous
mode, but it steps the output through only one cycle.
The output will vary according to the amplitudes and
time intervals defined in the memory, starting from
step 1 until the step where the time interval is “00”
second. The output level will then be maintained at the
amplitude of the last step before the zero- interval step.
For instance, according to the default settings, the
output signal will follow step 1 through step 11, and
then remain at step 11.
• Step mode (StEP): This is a step- by- step output mode.
You can manually select which step of the user- defined
signals you want to output. After selecting this mode,
press
5 or 6 to select which step to output. The
output amplitude will be maintained until you select
another step as the output.
5 Press OUTPUT to start the source output. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
Continuous and Cycle outputs always start from step 1. If
the time interval of step 1 is “00” second, the output level
will be set to the amplitude of step 1 and the output status
will be set to
. If you stop the signal output in the
continuous or cycle mode, the next output step will start
from step 1.
32
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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2
Table 2-1 Default settings for the autoscan output
Mode
±1.5000 V
±15.000 V
±25.000 mA
Step
Amplitude
Time interval
Amplitude
Time interval
Amplitude
Time interval
1
+1.5000 V
02 sec
+15.000 V
02 sec
+00.000 mA
02 sec
2
+1.2000 V
02 sec
+12.000 V
02 sec
+04.000 mA
02 sec
3
+0.9000 V
02 sec
+09.000 V
02 sec
+08.000 mA
02 sec
4
+0.6000 V
02 sec
+06.000 V
02 sec
+12.000 mA
02 sec
5
+0.3000 V
02 sec
+03.000 V
02 sec
+16.000 mA
02 sec
6
+0.0000 V
02 sec
+00.000 V
02 sec
+20.000 mA
02 sec
7
–0.3000 V
02 sec
–03.000 V
02 sec
+16.000 mA
02 sec
8
–0.6000 V
02 sec
–06.000 V
02 sec
+12.000 mA
02 sec
9
–0.9000 V
02 sec
–09.000 V
02 sec
+08.000 mA
02 sec
10
–1.2000 V
02 sec
–12.000 V
02 sec
+04.000 mA
02 sec
11
–1.5000 V
02 sec
–15.000 V
02 sec
+00.000 mA
02 sec
12
+0.0000 V
00 sec
+00.000 V
00 sec
+04.000 mA
00 sec
13
+0.0000 V
00 sec
+00.000 V
00 sec
+08.000 mA
00 sec
14
+0.0000 V
00 sec
+00.000 V
00 sec
+12.000 mA
00 sec
15
–1.5000 V
00 sec
–15.000 V
00 sec
+16.000 mA
00 sec
16
+0.0000 V
00 sec
+00.000 V
00 sec
+20.000 mA
00 sec
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
33
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Press
Press
or
or
Press
or
Figure 2-1 Selecting autoscan output mode
Figure 2-2 Example of a typical autoscan output
34
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
2
Defining the autoscan parameters in the memory
Press and hold MODE for more than one second to enter the
autoscan adjustment mode. A total of 16 steps with
individually definable time interval and amplitude are
available.
When the instrument is in the autoscan adjustment mode,
the secondary display shows the amplitude. The first two
digits of the primary display are used to indicate which step
is being adjusted. The last two digits of the primary display
are used to indicate time interval.
1 Press MODE to cycle through step, time interval, and
amplitude adjustments. The digit to be adjusted will flash
on the display.
• For amplitude adjustment, press 3 and 4 to select
the digit to be adjusted, then press 5 and 6 to
adjust the value of the selected digit. The amplitude
can be set to any value within the selected output
range (±1.5 V or ±15 V for constant voltage output, ±25
mA for constant current output).
• For time interval adjustment, press 3 and 4 to
select the digit to be adjusted, then press 5 and 6
to adjust the value of the selected digit. The time
interval can be set within the range of 0 to 99 seconds.
• Press 4 for more than one second to directly reset
the time interval and amplitude of the present step to
zero.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
35
2
Calibrator Output Operations
2 Press OUTPUT to save the settings.
Output amplitude
0 to 99 sec
time
interval
16 memory
locations
Figure 2-3 Defining the autoscan output
Autoramp output
To set the autoramp output:
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
positions.
or
2 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
3 Follow one of the instructions below:
• For voltage output, press MODE to cycle through ±1.5 V,
±15 V,
±1.5 V,
±15 V,
±1.5 V, and
±15 V output modes. Select either of the two
(autoramp) output modes, depending on the
voltage range you require.
• For current output, press MODE to cycle through
±25 mA,
±25 mA, and
±25 mA output
modes. Select the
output mode.
36
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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2
Table 2-2 Default settings for the autoramp output
Mode
±1.5000 V
±15.000 V
±25.000 mA
Position
Amplitude
Resolution
Amplitude
Resolution
Amplitude
Resolution
Start
–1.5000 V
015 steps
–15.000 V
015 steps
–25.000 mA
025 steps
End
+1.5000 V
015 steps
+15.000 V
015 steps
+25.000 mA
025 steps
4 After selecting the required
function, press 3 or
to
select
one
of
two
modes:
Continuous
or Cycle. The
4
secondary display will indicate Cont or CyCLE, respectively
(Figure 2- 4 on page 38).
• Continuous mode (Cont): In this mode, the ramp signal is
repeated continuously. The signal will be generated
according to the amplitudes and number of steps
defined in the memory, with each step taking
approximately 0.33 seconds. For instance, according to
the default settings (Table 2- 2), the step size of the
positive slope is (end amplitude – start
amplitude)/number of steps. Therefore, the step size is
(1.5 V – (–1.5 V))/15 steps = 0.2 V for
±1.5000 V.
The step size of the negative slope is (start amplitude –
end amplitude)/number of steps. Therefore, the step
size is (–1.5 V – 1.5 V)/15 steps = –0.2 V for
±1.5000 V.
• Cycle mode (CyCLE): In this mode, only one cycle of the
ramp signal is generated. The signal will be generated
according to the amplitudes and number of steps
defined in the memory, with each step taking
approximately 0.33 seconds, and then the output
amplitude will be maintained at the final value of the
ramp signal.
5 Press OUTPUT to start the source output. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
37
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Press
or
Press
or
Figure 2-4 Selecting autoramp output mode
End position
Size of each step
= (end amplitude
– start amplitude)
/resolution
Size of each step
= (start amplitude
– end amplitude)
/resolution
Start
position
Figure 2-5 Ramp output
Defining the autoramp parameters in the memory
Press and hold MODE for more than one second to enter the
autoramp adjustment mode. The ramp function is a dual
slope output. You may adjust the number of steps between
the start and end positions or the end and start positions,
and the amplitudes of the start and end positions.
When the U1401A is in the autoramp adjustment mode, the
secondary display shows the amplitude of the start or end
position. The first digit on the left of the primary display is
38
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
2
used to indicate the start or end position. The last three
digits of the primary display are used to indicate the
number of steps (the number of steps from start to end).
1 Press MODE to cycle through position (start or end),
number of steps, and amplitude adjustment. The digit to
be adjusted will flash on the display.
• For adjusting the amplitude, press 3 and 4 to select
the digit to be adjusted, then press 5 and 6 to
adjust the value of the selected digit. The amplitude
can be set to any value within the selected output
range (±1.5 V or ±15 V for constant voltage output, ±25
mA for constant current output).
• For adjusting the number of steps, press 3 and 4 to
select the digit to be adjusted, then press 5 and 6
to adjust the value of the selected digit. The number of
steps can be set within the range of 0 to 999 steps.
• Press
4 for more than one second to directly reset
the time interval and amplitude of the present step to
zero.
2 Press OUTPUT to save the settings.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
39
2
Calibrator Output Operations
Start amplitude
End amplitude
Press
MODE
Press
MODE
Start position
1 ~ 999 steps
1 to 99 steps
End position
Figure 2-6 Defining the autoramp output
40
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
2
Square Wave Output
The square wave output can be used to generate a PWM
(pulse width modulation) output or provide a synchronous
clock source (baud rate generator). You can also use it to
check and calibrate flow- meter displays, counters,
tachometers, oscilloscopes, frequency converters, frequency
transmitters, and other frequency input devices.
The frequency, amplitude, duty cycle, and pulse width of the
square wave output are all adjustable.
To select the square wave output function:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
position.
2 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
• The default settings for the parameters are 150 Hz
(frequency), 50.00% (duty cycle), 3.3333 ms (pulse
width), and +5 V (amplitude). See Figure 2- 7.
3 Press OUTPUT to output the square wave signal.
Table 2-3 Available frequencies
Frequency (Hz)
0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 80, 100, 120, 150, 200, 240, 300, 400,
480, 600, 800, 1200, 1600, 2400, 4800
There are 28 frequencies to choose from (See Table 2- 3). To
change the frequency:
1 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
2 Press MODE to select frequency adjustment. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
3 Select the frequency by pressing
5 or 6 .
4 Press OUTPUT to output the signal.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
41
2
Calibrator Output Operations
The duty cycle can be stepped through 256 equal steps, with
each step equivalent to 0.390625%, and you can set its value
from 1 to 255 steps (0.390625% to 99.609375%). However, the
display can only indicate this to the nearest 0.01%.
To adjust the duty cycle:
1 Press MODE to select duty cycle adjustment. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
2 Press
5 or 6 to adjust the duty cycle.
The pulse width can be stepped through 256 equal steps,
with each step being equal to 1/(256 × frequency). You can
set its value from 1 to 255 steps.
To adjust the pulse width:
1 Press MODE to select pulse width adjustment. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
2 Press
5 or 6 to adjust the pulse width.
The amplitude can be set as +5 V, ±5 V, +12 V, or ±12 V.
To adjust the amplitude:
1 Press MODE to select amplitude adjustment. The Level
annunciator will appear on the display.
2 Press
42
5 or 6 to select the amplitude.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Calibrator Output Operations
Press
2
MODE
Press
Press
MODE
Press
MODE
MODE
Figure 2-7 Parameter selection for square wave output
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
43
2
44
Calibrator Output Operations
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
3
Making Measurements
Measuring Voltage 46
Measuring DC voltage 46
Measuring AC voltage 48
Measuring Current 49
DC mA measurement 49
Percentage scale of DC mA measurement 50
Measuring Temperature 51
Measuring Resistance and Testing Continuity 54
Alerts and Warning During Measurement 56
Overload alert for voltage measurement 56
Math Operations 57
Dynamic recording 57
Relative (zero) 60
Triggering Operations 61
Data hold (manual trigger) 61
Refresh hold (auto trigger) 62
1 ms peak hold 63
This chapter contains the detailed information on how
measurements are taken using the U1401A.
Agilent Technologies
45
3
Making Measurements
Measuring Voltage
The U1401A performs true- rms AC measurements that are
accurate for square waves without any DC offset.
WA R N I N G
Make sure that the terminal connections are correct for a particular
measurement before making the measurement. To avoid damaging the
U1401A, do not exceed the rated input limit.
Measuring DC voltage
1 Turn the rotary switch to
2 Press
.
to select DC voltage measurement.
3 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively (Figure 3- 1 on
page 47).
4 Probe the test points and read the display.
46
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Making Measurements
3
Figure 3-1 DC voltage measurement
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
47
3
Making Measurements
Measuring AC voltage
1 Turn the rotary switch to
2 Press
.
to select AC voltage measurement.
3 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively (Figure 3- 2).
4 Probe the test points and read the display.
Figure 3-2 AC voltage measurement
48
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3
Measuring Current
DC mA measurement
1 Turn the rotary switch to
2 Press
.
to select DC current measurement.
3 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
4 Probe the test points in series with the circuit and read
the display (see Figure 3- 3).
Figure 3-3 DC current (mA) measurement
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3
Making Measurements
Percentage scale of DC mA measurement
The percentage scale for 4 mA to 20 mA or 0 mA to 20 mA
is calculated based on the measured DC mA value.
1 Select the required range (4 mA to 20 mA or 0 mA to
20 mA) in the Setup mode (refer to Chapter 4, “Setting
the percentage scale readout”).
2 Turn the rotary switch to
.
3 Press
to select percentage scale display for DC mA
measurement.
4 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
5 Probe the test points in series with the circuit and read
the display. The inset display in Figure 3- 3 shows the
percentage scale reading representing 20 mA in the range
of 4 mA to 20 mA.
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Making Measurements
3
Measuring Temperature
CAUTION
Do not bend the thermocouple leads at sharp angles. Repeated bending
over a period of time may break the leads.
The bead type thermocouple probe is suitable for measuring
temperature from –40 °C to 204 °C in PTFE compatible
environments. Above this temperature range, probes may
emit toxic gas. Do not immerse the thermocouple probe in
any liquid. For best results, use a thermocouple probe
designed for each specific application — an immersion probe
for liquid or gel, and an air probe for air measurements.
Observe the following measurement techniques:
• Clean the surface to be measured and make sure that the
probe is securely touching the surface. Remember to
disable the applied power.
• When measuring above the ambient temperature, move the
thermocouple along the surface until you get the highest
temperature reading.
• When measuring below the ambient temperature, move the
thermocouple along the surface until you get the lowest
temperature reading.
• Always set the slide switch to the M position (meter
operation only). Place the instrument in the operating
environment for at least one hour as the instrument is
using a non- compensation transfer adapter with miniature
thermal probe. If you are using the type of thermocouple
probe where the thermal wires penetrate into the banana
or lantern terminals, you only need to place the
instrument in the operating environment for at least 15
minutes.
• For quick measurements, use the 0 °C compensation to
observe the temperature variation of the thermocouple
sensor. The 0 °C compensation makes it possible for you
to measure the relative temperature immediately.
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3
Making Measurements
To measure temperature, follow these steps:
1 Set the slide switch to the M position to disable the
output.
2 Turn the rotary switch to the
position.
3 Press and hold
for more than 1 second to select
temperature measurement.
4 Plug the thermocouple adapter (with the thermocouple
probe connected to it) into the positive and negative input
terminals (Figure 3- 4 on page 53).
5 Touch the surface to be measured with the thermocouple
probe.
6 Read the display.
If you are working in a constantly varying environment,
where the ambient temperature is not constant, follow these
steps:
1 Press
to select 0 °C compensation. This allows a
quick measurement of the relative temperature.
2 Avoid contact between the thermocouple probe and the
surface to be measured.
3 After a constant reading is obtained, press
to set
the reading as the relative reference temperature.
4 Touch the surface to be measured with the thermocouple
probe.
5 Read the display for the relative temperature.
52
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Making Measurements
3
Figure 3-4 Surface temperature measurement
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
53
3
Making Measurements
Measuring Resistance and Testing Continuity
CAUTION
Disconnect circuit power and discharge all high-voltage capacitors before
measuring resistance to prevent possible damage to the instrument or the
device under test.
To measure resistance, follow these steps:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the Ω position.
2 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
3 Probe the resistor (or shunt) leads and read the display.
To perform continuity test, press
continuity function ON or OFF.
to toggle the audible
For the 500 Ω range, the instrument will beep if the
resistance value falls below 10 Ω. For other ranges, the
instrument will beep if the resistance falls below the typical
values indicated in the table below.
Table 3-1 Measurement ranges for audible continuity
54
Measurement range
Resistance threshold
500.00 Ω
10 Ω
5.0000 kΩ
100 Ω
50.000 kΩ
1 kΩ
500.00 kΩ
10 kΩ
5.0000 MΩ
100 kΩ
50.000 MΩ
1 MΩ
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Making Measurements
3
Figure 3-5 Resistance measurement
Press
Figure 3-6 Enabling and disabling the continuity test
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
55
3
Making Measurements
Alerts and Warning During Measurement
Overload alert for voltage measurement
WA R N I N G
For your own safety, please do not ignore the overload alert. When the
instrument gives you an overload alert, immediately remove the test
leads from the source being measured.
This instrument provides an overload alert for voltage
measurement in both auto and manual range modes. The
instrument starts to beep periodically once the measured
voltage exceeds 251 V. Immediately remove the test leads
from the source being measured.
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3
Math Operations
Dynamic recording
The dynamic recording mode can be used to detect
intermittent turn- on or turn- off voltage or current surges,
and to verify measurement performance without your
supervision. While the readings are being recorded, you may
perform other tasks.
The average reading is useful for smoothing out unstable
inputs, estimating the percentage of time a circuit is
operated, and verifying circuit performance.
The operating procedure is described below:
1 Press MAX • MIN for more than 1 second to enter the
dynamic recording mode. The instrument is now in
continuous mode (non- data hold mode), and the
instrument will display the MAX AVG MIN annunciator and
the present (instantaneous) reading.
• The instrument will constantly calculate and update the
average measured value in the memory.
• Whenever a new maximum or minimum value is
recorded, the instrument will beep once.
2 Press MAX • MIN to cycle through the maximum, minimum,
average and present readings. The MAX, MIN, AVG, or MAX
AVG MIN annunciator will appear to indicate which value
is being displayed. See Figure 3- 7 on page 59.
• While you are viewing the recorded maximum,
minimum, or average readings, the instrument will
continue to measure or calculate and update these
values.
3 Press MAX • MIN for more than 1 second to exit the
dynamic recording mode.
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57
3
Making Measurements
NOTE
• If an overload condition occurs, the averaging function will stop. The
recorded average value becomes OL (overload).
• In dynamic recording, the auto power off feature will be disabled. This
is indicated by the absence of the
annunciator on the display.
• When performing dynamic recording in autorange, the maximum,
minimum, and average readings may be recorded in different ranges.
• The recording interval in manual range is approximately 0.067 seconds.
• The average value is the true average of all measured values taken
since the recording mode was activated.
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U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Making Measurements
3
Press
1s
Press
Press
1s
Press
1s
Press
Press
Press
1s
Press
Figure 3-7 Dynamic recording mode
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
59
3
Making Measurements
Relative (zero)
The relative function subtracts a stored value from the
present measured value and displays the difference.
1 Press
to store the currently displayed reading as the
reference value to be subtracted from subsequent
measurements. The
annunciator will be displayed.
2 The relative mode can be activated in both auto and
manual ranges, but it cannot be set if the present reading
is overload (OL).
3 Press
to exit the relative mode.
There are two possible applications:
• For a resistance measurement, the display will read a
non- zero value even when no measurement is being taken,
due to the resistance of the test leads. You can use the
relative function to zero- adjust the reading.
• For a DC voltage measurement, the thermal effect will
influence the accuracy. Use the relative function to offset
the thermal effect. Short the test leads and press
when the displayed value has settled down to a stable
state.
Press
Figure 3-8 Relative (zero) mode
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U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Making Measurements
3
Triggering Operations
Data hold (manual trigger)
The data hold mode allows you to hold the displayed value.
1 Press
to freeze the currently displayed value and
enter the manual trigger mode. The DH annunciator will
appear on the display.
2 Press the key again to trigger another new measured
value and update the display. The DH annunciator will
flash momentarily before the new update.
3 Press
for more than one second to exit this mode.
Press
Figure 3-9 Data hold mode
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3
Making Measurements
Refresh hold (auto trigger)
The refresh hold mode freezes the displayed value until the
reading variation exceeds the specified number of counts.
This function will autotrigger and update the held value with
a new measured value. When a new value is updated, the
instrument will beep once as a notification. The keypad
operation is similar to the operation of data hold mode.
1 Make sure the refresh hold mode is enabled in the setup
mode.
2 Press
to enter the refresh hold mode.
• The present value will be held and the DH annunciator
will appear on the display.
• It will be ready to hold the new measured value once
the variation of the instantaneous reading exceeds the
preset variation count (defined in setup mode); while it
waits for a stable new reading, the DH annunciator will
flash.
• The DH annunciator will stop flashing once a stable
new reading is available, and then the new value will
be updated to the display. The instrument will beep
once as a notification.
3 Press
to exit this mode.
For voltage and current measurements, the held value will
not be updated if the variation of the reading is below 500
counts. For resistance and diode measurements, the held
value will not be updated if the reading is OL or open. For
all measurements, the held value will not be updated if the
reading cannot reach a stable state.
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U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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3
1 ms peak hold
This function allows the measurement of peak voltage for
analysis of components such as power distribution
transformers and power factor correction capacitors. The
peak voltage obtained can be used to determine the crest
factor.
Crest factor = Peak value/True- rms value
To measure the half- cycle peak voltage:
1 Press
for more than one second to toggle 1 ms peak
hold mode on or off.
2 Press
to show the peak+ or peak– value after
activating the peak mode. The DH MAX annunciator
indicates the peak+ value while the DH MIN annunciator
indicates the peak– value. See Figure 3- 10 on page 64.
3 If the reading is OL, press
to change the
measurement range and restart the peak value
measurement.
4 While the peak hold mode is on, you can press
any time to restart the peak value measurement.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
at
63
3
Making Measurements
Press
1s
Press
to restart
Press
Press
Press
to change
range
1s
Figure 3-10 1 ms peak hold mode
64
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
4
Changing the Default Settings
Entering the Setup Mode 66
Available Setting Options 68
Setting the data hold/refresh hold mode 69
Setting the temperature unit 71
Setting the beeper frequency 73
Setting the minimum measurable frequency 74
Setting the percentage scale readout 75
Setting the print mode 76
Setting the echo mode 77
Setting the data bit 78
Setting the parity check 79
Setting the baud rate 80
Setting the display backlight timer 81
Setting the power saving mode 82
This chapter describes how to change the default settings of
the U1401A.
Agilent Technologies
65
4
Changing the Default Settings
Entering the Setup Mode
To enter the setup mode, perform the following steps:
1 Turn the instrument off.
2 From the OFF position, turn the rotary switch to any
non- OFF position while pressing and holding
.
Press and hold
Turn on
Figure 4-1 Entering the setup mode
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Changing the Default Settings
4
3 To configure a menu item in the setup mode, perform the
following steps:
i Press
3 or 4 to scroll through the available menu
items.
ii Press 5 or 6 to change or select the setting. See
Table 4- 1 on page 68 for details on the available
options.
iii Press
to save the changes. These parameters will
remain in the non- volatile memory.
4 Press SHIFT for more than one second to exit the setup
mode.
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Available Setting Options
Table 4-1 Setup options and default settings
Menu item
Available setting options
Default factory
setting
Display
Description
Display
Description
rhoLd
Data Hold/
Refresh Hold
OFF
Enables data hold (manual trigger)
100–1000
Sets the variation count for refresh hold (auto
trigger)
tEMP
Temperature [1]
OFF
d-C
Selects the temperature unit
Four combinations can be selected:
•
•
•
•
bEEP
Beep
d-C
d-CF
d-F
d-FC
4800 Hz,
2400 Hz,
1200 Hz,
• °C only
• °C/ °F
• °F only
• °F/ °C
Sets the beeper frequency
4800 Hz
600 Hz
OFF
Disables the beeper
FrEq
Minimum
frequency
measurement
0.5 Hz, 1 Hz,
2 Hz
Sets the minimum frequency that can be
measured
0.5 Hz
PECnt
Percentage scale
4–20mA
Selects which percent scale readout is used
4-20 mA
0–20mA
Print
Print
On or OFF
ON: Enables automatic and continuous
transmission of data to PC
OFF
Echo
Echo
On or OFF
ON: Enables the return of characters to PC in
remote communication
OFF
dAtAb
Data bit
8bit or 7bit
(Stop bit is
always 1bit)
Sets the data bit length for remote
communication with a PC (remote control)
8bit
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4
Table 4-1 Setup options and default settings (continued)
Menu item
Available setting options
Default factory
setting
Display
Description
Display
Description
PArtY
Parity
En, odd, or
nonE
Sets even, odd, or no parity check for remote
communication with a PC (remote control)
nonE
bAud
Baud rate
2400 Hz,
4800 Hz,
9600 Hz,
19200 Hz
Sets baud rate for remote communication with
a PC (remote control)
9600 Hz
bLit
Display backlight
timer
1 to 99 s
Sets the timer for automatically turning off the
LCD display backlight
30 sec
OFF
Disables the LCD display backlight from
automatically turning off
1 to 99 min
Sets the timer for auto power off
OFF
Disables auto power off
AoFF
[1]
Auto power off
15 min
The temperature menu item will only be visible and selectable if the shifted mode is on. Press SHIFT for more than one second to enable the temperature options.
Setting the data hold/refresh hold mode
• To enable the data hold mode (manual trigger), set this
parameter as “OFF”.
• To enable the refresh hold mode (automatic trigger), set
the variation count within the range of 100 to 1000. Once
the variation of the measured value exceeds this preset
variation count, the refresh hold mode will be ready to
trigger and update a new value.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-2 Setting the data hold or refresh hold mode
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Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the temperature unit
Four combinations of temperature unit display are available:
• Celsius only (°C on the primary display)
• Celsius (°C) on the primary display and Fahrenheit (°F)
on the secondary display (for dual display setting).
• Fahrenheit only (°F on the primary display)
• Fahrenheit (°F) on the primary display and Celsius (°C)
on the secondary display (for dual display setting).
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Press
Press SHIFT for
more than one
second to enable
temperature unit
menu item
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-3 Setting the temperature unit
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Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the beeper frequency
The beeper frequency can be set to 4800 Hz, 2400 Hz, 1200
Hz, or 600 Hz. “OFF” means the beeper is disabled.
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-4 Setting the beeper frequency
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Setting the minimum measurable frequency
This setting will influence the measurement rates for
frequency, duty cycle, and pulse width. The typical
measurement rate as defined in the general specifications is
based on a minimum frequency of 1 Hz.
Press
Press
Press
5
5
6
6
6
Press
5
Figure 4-5 Setting the minimum frequency
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Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the percentage scale readout
This function converts the DC current measurement display
to a percentage scale readout from 0% to 100% based on a
range of
4 mA to 20 mA or 0 mA to 20 mA. For example, a 25%
readout represents DC 8 mA for the 4 mA to 20 mA range,
or DC 5 mA for the 0 mA to 20 mA range.
You may choose between the two available ranges.
Press
Press
5
6
Press
Figure 4-6
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
6
5
Setting the percentage scale readout
75
4
Changing the Default Settings
Setting the print mode
Setting this feature on enables the printing of measured data
to a PC (connected to the instrument for remote
communication) when a measurement cycle is completed.
In this mode, the instrument automatically and continuously
sends the latest data to the host, but does not accept any
commands from the host. The
annunciator flashes
during the Print operation.
Press
Press
5
6
6
Press
5
Figure 4-7 Setting the print mode for remote control
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U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the echo mode
Setting this feature on enables the return of characters to a
PC in remote communication, which is useful when
developing PC programs with SCPI commands.
NOTE
• This mode is for internal use by Agilent Technologies only.
• During normal operation, it is recommended that you disable this
function.
Press
Press
5
6
6
Press
5
Figure 4-8 Setting the echo mode for remote control
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Setting the data bit
The number of data bits (data width) for remote
communication with a PC can be set to either 8 bits or 7
bits. There is only one stop bit, which cannot be changed.
Press
Press
5
6
6
Press
5
Figure 4-9 Setting the data bit for remote control
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Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the parity check
The parity check for remote communication with a PC can
be set to either none, even, or odd.
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-10 Setting the parity check for remote control
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Setting the baud rate
The baud rate used in the remote communication with a PC
can be set as 2400 Hz, 4800 Hz, 9600 Hz, or 19200 Hz.
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-11 Setting the baud rate for remote control
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Changing the Default Settings
4
Setting the display backlight timer
The display backlight timer can be set from 1 to 99 seconds.
The backlight turns off automatically after the set period.
“OFF” means the backlight will not turn off automatically.
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
6
5
Figure 4-12 Setting the display backlight timer
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4
Changing the Default Settings
Setting the power saving mode
To enable auto power- off, set this timer to any value from 1
to 99 minutes.
This feature is incorporated for power saving. The
instrument will automatically turn off after the specified
period of time, if none of the following happens within that
period:
• A key on the keypad is pressed
• A measurement function is changed
• The dynamic recording mode is activated
• The 1 ms peak hold mode is activated
• The auto power- off feature has been disabled in the setup
mode
• The output has been enabled (the
displayed)
annunciator is
To reactivate the instrument after auto power- off, turn the
rotary switch to the OFF position and then turn it on again.
If the instrument is to be used for a long period of time, you
may want to disable the auto power- off feature. When the
auto power- off feature is disabled, the
annunciator
will not be shown on the display. The instrument will
remain on until you manually turn the rotary switch to the
OFF position, or until the batteries run flat.
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Changing the Default Settings
Press
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
5
6
Press
4
6
5
Figure 4-13 Setting the auto power-off mode
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4
84
Changing the Default Settings
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
5
Application Examples
Source Mode for mA Output 86
Simulation Mode for mA Output 88
Simulating a 2-wire transmitter on a current loop 90
Measuring a Pressure Transducer 92
Zener Diode Test 94
Diode Test 96
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Test 98
Determining transistor hfe 102
Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) Switch Test 104
Operational Amplifier Verification 108
Current-to-voltage converter 108
Voltage-to-current converter 110
Integrator: square wave to triangle wave conversion 111
2-Wire Transmitter Verification 113
Frequency Transmitter Verification 115
This chapter describes some application examples for the
U1401A.
Agilent Technologies
85
5
Application Examples
Source Mode for mA Output
This instrument provides steady, stepped, and ramped
current output for testing 0 mA to 20 mA and 4 mA to
20 mA current loops.
The source mode can be used to supply current to a passive
circuit such as a current loop without loop supply.
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Plug the red and black banana plugs of the alligator leads
into the positive (+) and negative (–) output terminals
respectively.
3 Connect the red and black alligator clips to the current
loop. Make sure that the polarity is correct.
4 Press SHIFT to access the shifted operations of the keypad.
The
annunciator will appear on the display.
5 Set the output level at +08.000 mA to get a 25% scale
readout for 4 mA to 20 mA.
6 Press OUTPUT to start the source output. The
annunciator will appear on the display.
You can use autoscan to test the loop with varying levels of
current output. Refer to Chapter 2, “Autoscan output,” on
page 31 for more information on the memory default values.
86
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Application Examples
Red
5
Black
Figure 5-1 Testing a 4 mA to 20 mA current loop with the source mode
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
87
5
Application Examples
Simulation Mode for mA Output
CAUTION
Always use the supplied special yellow test lead to perform mA
simulation.
Disconnect the test lead from the current loop before turning the rotary
switch to change function or to power-off this instrument. Failure to do
so will result in a current of at least 16 mA in the 250 Ω load connected
loop.
In simulation mode, the instrument simulates a current loop
transmitter. Use this simulation mode when an external DC
24 V or 12 V supply is in series with the current loop being
tested. Always use the special yellow test lead. Follow the
procedure below when performing mA output simulation.
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
or
/
positions.
/
2 Connect the special yellow test lead between the positive
output terminal of the instrument and the positive
terminal of the measurement device on the current loop.
Refer to Figure 5- 2 on page 89.
3 Connect the black alligator lead between the COM terminal
of the loop source and the negative terminal of the
measurement device on the current loop.
4 Connect the red alligator lead between the negative output
terminal of the instrument and the positive terminal of
the current loop source. Make sure the polarity is correct.
5 Set the current level of the calibrator between 0 mA and
20 mA. Do not set a negative current output value.
6 Press OUTPUT to output the test current.
This connection can be used for any loop voltage from 12 V
to 30 V.
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CAUTION
5
Do not apply an external voltage exceeding 30 V across the output
terminals of the instrument.
Red
Yellow
Black
Figure 5-2 mA output simulation
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5
Application Examples
Simulating a 2-wire transmitter on a current loop
The special yellow test lead supplied with the U1401A can
also be used for simulating a 2- wire transmitter. This lead is
used in place of the red lead (which is used in most other
applications). It protects the instrument from high loop
voltages, and it also has the advantage of using the same
two output terminals for all applications.
1 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the
or
/
positions.
/
2 Connect the special yellow test lead between the positive
output terminal of the instrument and the input terminal
of the measurement device on the current loop. Refer to
Figure 5- 3 on page 91.
3 Connect the black alligator lead between the negative
output terminal of the instrument and the current loop
excitation source. Make sure the polarity is correct.
4 Set the current level between 0 mA and 20 mA. Do not
set a negative current output value.
5 Press OUTPUT to output the test current.
This connection can be used for any loop voltage from 12 V
to 30 V.
CAUTION
90
Do not apply an external voltage exceeding 30 V across the output
terminals of the instrument.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Application Examples
5
Input
Excitation
source
Yellow
Black
Always use yellow
test lead to perform
mA simulation
Figure 5-3 Use the yellow test lead to perform the 2-wire transmitter
simulation
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5
Application Examples
Measuring a Pressure Transducer
To measure a pressure transducer, follow these steps:
1 Turn the rotary switch to
.
2 Connect the red and black probe leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
3 Probe the test points (Figure 5- 4 on page 93) and read
the display.
Table 5-1 Typical pressure range and maximum output voltages of
millivolt output pressure transducers
92
Pressure range
Maximum output voltage
0 PSIG to 5 PSIG
50 mV
0 PSIG to 15 PSIG
100 mV
0 PSIG to 30 PSIG
80 mV
0 PSIG to 60 PSIG
60 mV
0 PSIG to 100 PSIG
100 mV
0 PSIG to 150 PSIG
60 mV
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Application Examples
5
White
Green
Lead wires
1 - Red V+
2 - White Out+
3 - Black V–
4 - Green Out–
Figure 5-4 Pressure transducer measurement
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5
Application Examples
Zener Diode Test
CAUTION
To avoid damaging the instrument, disconnect the circuit power and
discharge all high-voltage capacitors before testing the diodes.
To perform zener diode test:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Connect the red alligator lead between the positive output
terminal and the positive (anode) side of the zener diode.
See Figure 5- 5 on page 95.
3 Connect the black alligator lead between the negative
output terminal and the negative (cathode) side of the
zener diode.
4 Connect the red and black probe leads to the input
terminals.
5 Output a constant current of +1 mA, then measure the
forward voltage of the zener diode.
6 Output a constant current of –1 mA, then measure the
breakdown voltage of the zener diode.
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5
Figure 5-5 Zener diode test
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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5
Application Examples
Diode Test
A good diode allows current to flow in one direction only.
To test a diode, turn the circuit power off, remove the diode
from the circuit, and proceed as follows:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Connect the red and black probe leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
3 Probe the positive (anode) side of the diode with the red
lead, and the negative (cathode) side with the black lead.
NOTE
The cathode of a diode is the side indicated with band(s).
4 Reverse the probe leads and measure the voltage across
the diode again.
5 If the diode is:
• Good: In step 3, a forward voltage drop typically from
0.3 V to 0.8 V is indicated (the instrument can display
diode voltage drops up to approximately 2.1 V)
accompanied by a beep. In step 4, OL is indicated.
• Shorted: A voltage drop of nearly 0 V is indicated in
both directions, and the instrument will beep
continuously.
• Open: OL is indicated in both directions.
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Forward bias
Red
Black
5
Reverse bias
Red
Black
Figure 5-6 Diode test
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5
Application Examples
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Test
A BJT typically has three terminals, namely emitter (E), base
(B), and collector (C). There are two types of BJT depending
on polarity: PNP type and NPN type. It is recommended that
you obtain the specific data sheet from the manufacturers.
You can also use the U1401A to identify the polarity and
terminals of a BJT by following the procedure below:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
position.
2 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively. The positive
terminal will provide a positive test voltage.
3 In this example, we will use a BJT with TO- 92 package as
shown in Figure 5- 7.
Most TO-92
transistors will
have pin 1 as the
emitter.
Figure 5-7 TO-92 Transistor
4 Probe pin 1 with the red test lead, and pin 2 with the
black test lead. If the measured value is OL, reverse the
probes. If the measured value is still OL, you can assume
that these two pins are the emitter and collector
terminals. The remaining pin 3 is the base terminal.
Always find out first which pin is the Base terminal.
Refer to Table 5- 2.
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5
Table 5-2 Base terminal according to probe test
Probe
Pin
Red/Black
Black/Red
Base
1-2
OL
OL
3
1-3
OL
OL
2
2-3
OL
OL
1
5 Probe the base terminal with the red test lead, and the
other two pins (in turn) with the black test lead. Record
the readings.
6 Repeat step 5, but reverse the red and black test leads.
Record the readings.
7 The polarities (NPN or PNP) and terminals can be
identified by referring to Table 5- 3, Table 5- 4 and
Table 5- 5. Vbe is always greater than Vbc. Most TO- 92
transistors will have pin 1 as the emitter. It is
recommended that you check and verify with the specific
data sheet from the manufacturer.
Table 5-3 Polarity and terminals if Pin 3 is the base
Pins
Test leads
3-1
3-2
Terminals
(Vbe>Vbc)
Type
Red/Black
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
ECB
NPN
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
CEB
NPN
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
ECB
PNP
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
CEB
PNP
Black/Red
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5
Application Examples
Table 5-4 Polarities and terminals if Pin 2 is the base
Pins
Test leads
2-1
2-3
Terminals
(Vbe>Vbc)
Type
Red/Black
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
EBC
NPN
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
CBE
NPN
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
EBC
PNP
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
CBE
PNP
Black/Red
Table 5-5 Polarities and terminals if Pin 1 is the base
Pins
Test leads
1-2
1-3
Terminals
(Vbe>Vbc)
Type
Red/Black
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
BEC
NPN
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
BCE
NPN
0.6749 V
0.6723 V
BEC
PNP
0.6723 V
0.6749 V
BCE
PNP
Black/Red
Another common type of transistor is the TO- 3 package as
shown in Figure 5- 8 on page 101.
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Application Examples
5
3
Normally, the
case is the
collector
terminal.
Figure 5-8 TO-3 Transistor
A silicon NPN high power transistor (2N3055) is used as an
example to demonstrate how the polarity and terminals are
identified.
According to the previous procedure, pin 2 is the base.
Table 5-6 Polarity and terminals if Pin 2 is the base
Test leads
Red/Black
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Pins
2-1
2-3
0.5702 V
0.5663 V
Terminals
(Vbe>Vbc)
Type
EBC
NPN
101
5
Application Examples
Determining transistor hfe
NOTE
If you wish to obtain the correct results, please adjust the values of VDD
and IB according to the conditions specified by the transistor
manufacturer.
For NPN-type BJT
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Connect the base to the positive output terminal.
3 Connect the emitter to the negative output terminal and
the negative terminal of a DC power supply (which
supplies the required VDD).
4 Connect the collector to the negative input terminal.
5 Connect the positive terminal of the DC power supply to
the positive input terminal through a resistor.
6 Output a constant current of +1.000 mA (this is IB).
7 Read the measured current value (this is IC).
For PNP-type BJT
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Connect the base to the positive output terminal.
3 Connect the collector to the negative output terminal and
the positive terminal of a DC power supply (which
supplies the required VDD).
4 Connect the emitter to the negative input terminal.
5 Connect the negative terminal of the DC power supply to
the positive input terminal through a resistor.
6 Output a constant current of - 0.500 mA (this is IB).
7 Read the measured current value (this is IC).
The transistor hfe is calculated as the ratio of IC over IB.
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Application Examples
hfe = IC/IB = 152
hfe = IC/IB = 300
IB = Current source
IC = Meter reading
5
Figure 5-9 Determining transistor hfe
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5
Application Examples
Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) Switch Test
A JFET typically has three terminals, namely drain (D), gate
(G), and source (S). There are two types of JFET depending
on the channel type: p- channel and n- channel. It is
recommended that you obtain the specific data sheet from
the manufacturers. You can also use the U1401A to identify
a JFET by following the procedure below:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the Ω position.
2 Connect the red and black test leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively. The positive
terminal will provide a positive test voltage.
3 In this example, we will use a JFET with TO- 92 package
as shown in Figure 5- 10.
Most TO-92 JFET
will have pin 1 as
the drain.
Figure 5-10 TO-92 JFET
4 Probe pin 1 with the red test lead, and pin 2 with the
black test lead. Then reverse the test leads and obtain the
reading. If both readings are <1 kΩ, you can assume that
these pins are the drain and source terminals. The
remaining pin 3 is the gate terminal. Always find out first
which pin is the gate terminal. Refer to Table 5- 7 on
page 105.
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5
Table 5-7 Gate terminal according to probe test
Pins
Test leads
Gate
Red/Black
Black/Red
1-2
<1 kΩ
<1 kΩ
3
1-3
<1 kΩ
<1 kΩ
2
2-3
<1 kΩ
<1 kΩ
1
You can identify the channel type of a JFET by measuring
its drain- source resistance (RDS) when it is biased with a
constant voltage source. Usually, both channel types will
switch on under a gate- source voltage (VGS) of 0 V.
5 Connect the red input probe lead to the drain.
6 Connect the black input probe lead to the source.
7 Connect the red output alligator lead to the gate terminal
through a 100 kΩ resistor, and connect the black output
alligator lead to the black input probe lead.
If RDS increases when VGS is a negative value, then it is an
n- channel JFET. On the other hand, if RDS increases when
VGS is a positive value, then it is a p- channel JFET.
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5
Application Examples
The cutoff voltage of an n-channel JFET
To determine the cutoff voltage of an n- channel JFET:
1 Connect the red input probe lead to the drain.
2 Connect the black input probe lead to the source.
3 Connect the red output alligator lead to the gate terminal
through a 100 kΩ resistor, and connect the black output
alligator lead to the black input probe lead.
4 Gradually decrease the voltage output from +00.000 V to
–15.000 V. The RDS value will increase correspondingly
(Figure 5- 11 on page 106).
5 Observe at what point the resistance reading becomes OL;
the voltage bias level at that point would be the cutoff
voltage for the n- channel JFET.
Figure 5-11 N- Channel JFET
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5
The cutoff voltage of a p-channel JFET
To determine the cutoff voltage of a p- channel JFET:
1 Connect the red input probe lead to the drain.
2 Connect the black input probe lead to the source.
3 Connect the red output alligator lead to the gate terminal
through a 100 kΩ resistor, and connect the black output
alligator lead to the black input probe lead.
4 Gradually decrease the voltage output from +00.000 V to
+15.000 V. The RDS value will increase correspondingly
(Figure 5- 12 on page 107).
5 Observe at what point the resistance reading becomes OL;
the voltage bias level at that point would be the cutoff
voltage for the p- channel JFET.
Figure 5-12 P- Channel JFET
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5
Application Examples
Operational Amplifier Verification
The ideal amplifier is assumed to have the following
characteristics:
• Infinite gain
• Infinite input impedance
• Infinite bandwidth (a bandwidth extending from zero to
infinity)
• Zero output impedance
• Zero voltage and current offset
There are two basic ways of applying feedback to a
differential operational amplifier. One is by configuring the
operational amplifier as an inverting current- to- voltage
converter, and the other by configuring the operational
amplifier as a non- inverting voltage- to- current converter.
Current-to-voltage converter
An ideal operational amplifier can act as a
current- to- voltage converter. In Figure 5- 13, the ideal
operational amplifier maintains its inverting input terminal
at earth potential and forces any input current to flow
through the feedback resistor. Thus Iin= If and Vo= –If x Rf.
Notice that the circuit provides the basis for an ideal current
measurement; it introduces zero voltage drop into the
measurement circuit and the effective input impedance of
the circuit as measured directly at the inverting input
terminal is zero.
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Manually select the DC 50 V range for the voltage
measurement.
3 Connect the red and black probe leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
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5
4 Connect the red and black alligator leads to the positive
and negative output terminals respectively.
5 Connect the operational amplifier as shown in
Figure 5- 13.
6 Use a DC power supply with +15 V and –15 V outputs to
power the operational amplifier.
7 Feed a constant current of +00.000 mA into the
operational amplifier and measure the offset voltage, Vo.
8 Gradually increase the U1401A output current from
+00.000 mA to +12.000 mA while monitoring the output
voltage of the operational amplifier. The Vo value will
increase correspondingly from around 00.000 V to around
–12.000 V. The actual Vo is influenced by the tolerance of
the feedback resistor and the offset of the operational
amplifier.
Constant current output
DC voltage measurement
Vo = –If × Rf
Figure 5-13 Current-to-voltage converter
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Application Examples
Voltage-to-current converter
In maintaining its differential input voltage at zero, the
operational amplifier shown in Figure 5- 14 forces a current
I = Vin/R1 to flow through the R2 load in the feedback path.
This current is independent of the load.
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Manually select the DC 50 V range for the voltage
measurement.
3 Connect the red and black probe leads to the positive and
negative input terminals respectively.
4 Connect the red and black alligator leads to the positive
and negative output terminals respectively.
5 Connect the operational amplifier as shown in
Figure 5- 14.
6 Use a DC power supply with +15 V and –15 V outputs to
power the operational amplifier.
7 Gradually increase the U1401A output voltage from
+00.000 mV to +06.000 V while measuring the output
voltage of the operational amplifier. You will find the
output voltage increasing correspondingly from around
+00.000 V to around +12.000 V. You can then verify the
characteristic of the voltage- to- current converter by
performing the necessary calculations.
8 As an alternative, you can set the rotary switch to the
/
position and connect the input probe leads
in place of the meter A as shown in Figure 5- 14. You will
find that the measured current is proportional to the
voltage input into the operational amplifier.
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5
Figure 5-14 Voltage-to-current converter
Integrator: square wave to triangle wave conversion
The integrating circuit in Figure 5- 15 on page 112 produces
an output voltage that is proportional to the integral of the
input voltage.
One of the many uses of this integrator is to convert a
square wave into a triangle wave.
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Connect the red and black alligator leads to the positive
and negative output terminals respectively.
3 Connect the operational amplifier as shown in
Figure 5- 15 on page 112.
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5
Application Examples
4 Use a DC power supply with +15 V and –15 V outputs to
power the operational amplifier.
5 Use an oscilloscope to monitor the output waveform.
6 Set the square wave duty cycle to 50.00% and its
amplitude to 5 V.
7 Output the square wave.
8 Select a different frequency and vary the duty cycle to
further understand the characteristics of the integrator.
Figure 5-15 Square wave to triangular wave conversion
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5
2-Wire Transmitter Verification
You can use the following method to verify the operation of
a 2- wire transmitter. The method takes advantage of the
ability of this instrument to simultaneously source voltage
and measure current.
1 Turn the rotary switch to
/
position.
2 Connect the red alligator lead between the positive output
terminal of the instrument and the positive output
terminal of the two- wire transmitter. Refer to Figure 5- 16
on page 114.
3 Connect a shorting plug between the negative output
terminal and negative input terminal of the instrument.
4 Connect the black alligator lead between the positive
input terminal of the instrument and the negative output
terminal of the two- wire transmitter.
5 The supply can be set to any voltage up to +15 V.
6 Press OUTPUT to output the excitation voltage.
7 The instrument display will indicate a transmitter output
current if an input signal is present.
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5
Application Examples
Red
Black
Figure 5-16 Verifying a two-wire transmitter
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5
Frequency Transmitter Verification
For some frequency transmitters, you can use the square
wave output as a source simulator and measure the current
from the transmitter output.
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Press MODE to cycle through duty cycle, pulse width,
output level, and frequency adjustments.
3 Set the output frequency to 150 Hz and duty cycle to 50%.
4 Connect the probe leads between the input terminals of
the U1401A and the output terminals of the transducer.
5 Connect the alligator leads between the output terminals
of the U1401A and the input terminals of the transducer.
Make sure the polarity is correct.
6 Press OUTPUT to output the signal.
7 Read the display. Check the measured current to
determine whether the frequency is consistent with the
transducer specifications.
8 Change the square wave frequency and monitor the
measured current on the display.
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5
Application Examples
Figure 5-17 Verifying a frequency transmitter
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U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
6
Maintenance
Maintenance 118
General maintenance 118
Battery replacement 119
Recharging the batteries 121
Fuse replacement 122
Troubleshooting 124
This chapter will help you troubleshoot the U1401A for
faults.
Agilent Technologies
117
6
Maintenance
Maintenance
CAUTION
Repairs or services which are not covered in this manual should only
be performed by qualified personnel.
General maintenance
WA R N I N G
Make sure that the terminal connections are correct for a particular
measurement before making any measurement. To avoid damaging the
instrument, do not exceed the rated input limit.
Besides the hazards mentioned above, dirt or moisture in
the terminals can also distort the readings. The cleaning
procedure is outlined below:
WA R N I N G
To avoid electrical shock or damage to the instrument, prevent water
from getting inside the case.
1 Turn the instrument off and remove the test leads.
2 Turn the instrument over and shake out any dirt that may
have accumulated in the terminals.
3 Wipe the case with a damp cloth and mild detergent — do
not use abrasives or solvents containing benzine, benzene,
toluene, xylene, acetone or similar chemicals. Also, do not
spray cleaner liquid directly onto the instrument, because
it may seep into the case and cause damage. Wipe the
contacts in each terminal with a clean swab moistened in
alcohol.
4 Make sure the instrument has dried completely before
using it.
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Maintenance
6
Battery replacement
WA R N I N G
The batteries contain nickel-metal hydride and must be recycled or
disposed off properly.
Remove all test leads and external adapter before opening the case.
CAUTION
To avoid instruments being damage from battery leakage, always
remove dead batteries immediately.
The instrument is powered by four sets of rechargeable
batteries. To ensure that the instrument performs within its
specifications, it is recommended that you replace the
batteries immediately when the low battery annunciator
starts flashing. Below are the procedures for battery
replacement:
1 Loosen the screw of the battery cover on the rear panel.
2 Slide the cover to the left, pull it up, and remove it. See
Figure 6- 1.
3 It is recommended that you replace all the batteries.
4 To close the battery cover, reverse the procedures above.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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6
Maintenance
Loosen the screw
Replace all
batteries
Slide the cover to
the left side
Figure 6-1 Battery replacement
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Maintenance
6
Recharging the batteries
WA R N I N G
Do not discharge a battery by shorting it or subjecting it to reverse polarity.
Do not mix different types of battery. Make sure a battery is rechargeable
before charging it.
NOTE
• A new rechargeable battery comes in a discharged condition and must
be charged before use. Upon initial use (or after a prolonged storage
period) the rechargeable battery may require three to four
charge/discharge cycles before achieving maximum capacity. To
discharge, simply run the multimeter using the rechargeable battery’s
power until it shuts down or until the low battery warning appears.
• In some instances, the multimeter may indicate that the charging is
complete after ten minutes or so when charging a new rechargeable
battery. This is a normal phenomenon with rechargeable batteries.
Remove the rechargeable battery from the device, re-insert it and
repeat the charging procedure.
This instrument is powered by four sets of rechargeable batteries. Charge the batteries immediately when the low battery annunciator starts flashing. It is strongly recommended
that you use only the specified type of 24 V AC adapter to
charge these rechargeable batteries. Do not turn the rotary
switch while the instrument is being recharged because a DC
24 V supply is applied to the charging terminal.
Follow the procedures below to recharge the batteries:
1 Power down the instrument and disconnect all the test
leads from the terminals.
2 Plug the AC adapter into the jack on the side panel.
3 Set the slide switch at the CHARGE position.
4 The red light indicates that the batteries are being
recharged.
5 When the batteries have been fully recharged, the green
light turns on. Remove the AC adapter and set the slide
switch at the M or M/S position.
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6
Maintenance
Set slide switch
at the CHARGE
position
External AC
adapter jack
Charging indication
Green: Fully charged
Yellow: Charging
Figure 6-2 Recharging the batteries
Fuse replacement
NOTE
This manual provides only the fuse replacement procedures, but not the
fuse replacement markings.
Replace any blown fuse in the instrument according to the
following procedures:
1 Power down the instrument and disconnect all the test
leads. Make sure that the charging adapter is also
removed.
2 Remove the battery cover and the batteries.
3 Loosen the three screws found on the bottom of the case
and remove the bottom cover.
4 Take out the circuit board as shown in Figure 6- 3.
5 Gently remove the defective fuse by prying one end of the
fuse loose and sliding it out of the fuse bracket.
6 Replace it with a new fuse of the same size and rating.
Make sure the new fuse is centered in the fuse holder.
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Maintenance
6
7 Throughout the fuse replacement procedures, make sure
that the knob of the rotary switch on the top case and
the rotary switch itself on the circuit board remain at the
OFF position.
8 After replacing the fuse, re- fasten the circuit board and
the bottom cover.
9 Refer to Table 6- 1 for the part number, rating, and size of
the fuses.
Table 6-1 Fuse specifications
Fuse
Agilent part number
Rating
Size
Type
1
2110-1464
630 mA/ 250 V
5 mm x 20 mm
Fast-blow ceramic-type
2
2110-1463
63 mA/ 250 V
5 mm x 20 mm
Slow-blow UL/VDE
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Maintenance
Fuse 2
Fuse 1
Figure 6-3 Fuse replacement
Troubleshooting
WA R N I N G
To avoid electrical shock, do not perform any servicing unless you are
qualified to do so.
If the instrument fails to operate, check the batteries and
test leads. Replace them if necessary. After that, if the
instrument still does not function, check to ensure that you
have followed the operating procedures given in this
instruction manual, before considering servicing the
instrument.
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6
When servicing the instrument, use only the specified
replacement parts.
Table 6- 2 will assist you in identifying some of the basic
problems.
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting
Malfunction
Identification of the problem
No LCD display after switching
ON
• Check the position of the slide switch. Set it to the M or M/S position
• Check the batteries. Recharge or replace the batteries if necessary
No beeper tone
Check the setup mode to see if the beeper has been disabled (“OFF”). Select the
desired driving frequency
Failed to measure current
Check fuse 1
No output signal when:
•
•
•
•
• the
annunciator is
displayed.
• the OUTPUT key is pressed
and the
annunciator
only appeared for a short
while before being replaced by
the
annunciator.
The batteries are low
Check the position of the slide switch. Set it to the M/S position
Check the external load to see whether the rated limit is exceeded.
Check whether the loop has a 24 V power. If yes, use the special yellow test lead for
mA simulation (see Chapter 5, “Simulation Mode for mA Output”)
• Check fuse 2
No charging indication
• Set the slide switch to the CHARGE position
• Check the external adapter to see whether the output is 24 VDC and whether it is
properly plugged in to the charging terminal
• Check the line power voltage (100 VAC to 250 VAC 47 Hz/63 Hz) and the power cord
Remote control failure
• Make sure that the optical side of cable is connected to the instrument and the text
side of the connector cover should be facing up
• Check the baud rate, parity, data bit, and stop bit (default settings: 9600, n, 8, 1)
• Install the driver for USB-RS232 on your PC
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126
Maintenance
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
7
Performance Tests and Calibration
Calibration Overview 128
Closed-case electronic calibration 129
Agilent Technologies’ calibration services 129
Calibration interval 129
Other recommendations for calibration 130
Environmental conditions 130
Warm up 130
Recommended Test Equipment 131
Performance Verification Tests 132
Self-verification 132
Input performance verification 133
Output performance verification 137
Adjustment Considerations 138
Adjustment Procedures 139
Input calibration 139
Output calibration 140
This chapter contains the performance test procedures and
adjustment procedures.
Agilent Technologies
127
7
Performance Tests and Calibration
Calibration Overview
CAUTION
TThis instrument should only be calibrated by qualified personnel with
the appropriate equipment. For detailed information about the
calibration procedures, please contact your nearest Agilent
technologies representative or authorized distributor
This manual contains procedures for verifying the
instrument performance, as well as procedures for making
adjustments where necessary.
The performance test procedure verifies that the Handheld
Multi- Function Calibrator/Meter is operating within its
published specifications. The adjustment procedure ensures
that the multimeter remains within its specifications until
the next calibration.
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7
Closed-case electronic calibration
This instrument features closed- case electronic calibration.
In other words, no internal electro- mechanical adjustment
is required. This instrument calculates correction factors
based on the input reference signals you feed into it during
the calibration process. The new correction factors are
stored in non- volatile EEPROM memory until the next
calibration (adjustment) is performed. The contents of the
non- volatile EEPROM memory will not change even when
the power is switched off.
Agilent Technologies’ calibration services
When your instrument is due for calibration, contact your
local Agilent Service Center to inquire about recalibration
services.
Calibration interval
A one- year calibration interval is adequate for most
applications. Accuracy specifications are warranted only if
calibration is performed at regular intervals. Accuracy
specifications are not warranted beyond the one- year
calibration interval. Agilent does not recommend extending
calibration intervals beyond 2 years for any application.
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Performance Tests and Calibration
Other recommendations for calibration
Specifications are only guaranteed within the specified
period from the last calibration. Agilent recommends that
readjustment should be performed during the calibration
process for best performance. This will ensure that the
Handheld Multi- Function Calibrator/Meter remains within its
specifications. This calibration criterion provides the best
long- term stability.
During performance verification tests, only the performance
data is collected; these tests do not guarantee that the
instrument will remain within the specified limits. The tests
are only for identifying the functions which need adjustment.
Environmental conditions
Calibration or verification tests should be performed under
laboratory conditions where the ambient temperature or
relative humidity can be controlled.
Warm up
Allow at least 20 minutes for the intrument to warm- up
before performing calibration. After being exposed or stored
in a high humidity (condensing) environment, a relatively
longer recovery period is required.
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Performance Tests and Calibration
7
Recommended Test Equipment
The test equipment recommended for the performance
verification and adjustment procedures are listed below. If
the exact instrument is not available, substitute with another
calibration standard of equivalent accuracy.
Table 7-1 Recommended test equipment
Application
Recommended equipment
Recommended accuracy
requirements
DC Voltage
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
DC Current
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
Resistance
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
AC Voltage
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
AC Current
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
Frequency
Agilent 33250A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
Temperature
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
Duty Cycle
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
Diode
Fluke 5520A
<1/5 instrument 1 year spec
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Performance Tests and Calibration
Performance Verification Tests
Self-verification
To perform a self- verification on the output voltage level of
the instrument:
1 Turn the rotary switch to the
/
position.
2 Short the input test leads for voltage measurement, then
press
momentarily to zero the residual of thermal
effect until the measurement value is stable.
3 Connect the positive ends of input and output together.
4 Connect the negative ends of input and output together.
5 Set output value to +4.5000 V.
6 Observe the measurement value in the primary display.
Refer to Table 7- 2 for functions that can be self- verified.
Table 7-2
Functions that can be self-verified
Rotary switch position
/
/
/
Output value
Measuring value (input)
+4.5000 V
DC 4.5000 V
+25.0000 mA
DC 25.0000 mA
100 Hz
100.00 Hz
0.39~99.60%
0.3~99.6%
±5 V
AC 4.9586 V
±12 V
AC 11.959 V
Table 7- 2 is for reference only. Refer to Chapter 8,
“Specifications,” on page 143 for the detailed specifications.
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7
Input performance verification
To verify the input functions of the Handheld Multi- Function
Calibrator/Meter, perform the verifications tests listed in
Table 7- 3. Refer to Table 7- 1 on page 131 for the
recommended test equipment for verifying each function.
Table 7-3
Input performance verification tests
Step
Test Function
Connection to 5520A
Range
5520A output
Error from
nominal 1
year
1
Turn the rotary switch to mV.
to select DC.
Press
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals of
the calibrator to the
U1401A input terminals.
50 mV
0.05 V
±75 µV
–0.05 V
±75 µV
0.5 V
±0.2 mV
–0.5 V
±0.2 mV
5V
±2 mV
–5 V
±2 mV
50 V
±20 mV
–50 V
±20 mV
250 V
±0.125 V
–250 V
±0.125 V
50 mVrms
@ 45 Hz
±0.39 mVrms
50 mVrms
@ 5 kHz
±0.39 mVrms
50 mVrms
@20 kHz
±0.79 mVrms
Turn the rotary switch to
. Press
to select
DC.
500 mV
5V
50 V
250 V
2
Turn the rotary switch to mV.
Press
to select AC.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals of
the calibrator to the
U1401A input terminals.
50 mV
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7
Performance Tests and Calibration
Table 7-3
Input performance verification tests (continued)
Error from
nominal 1
year
Step
Test Function
Connection to 5520A
Range
5520A output
2
Turn the rotary switch to
. Press
to select
AC.
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals of
the calibrator to the
U1401A input terminals.
500 mV
500 mVrms
@ 45 Hz
±3.7 mVrms
500 mVrms
@ 5 kHz
±3.7 mVrms
500 mVrms
@ 20 kHz
±7.7 mVrms
5 Vrms
@ 45 Hz
±37 mVrms
5 Vrms
@ 5 kHz
±37 mVrms
5 Vrms
@ 20 kHz
±77 mVrms
50 Vrms
@ 45 Hz
±0.37 Vrms
50 Vrms
@ 5 kHz
±0.37 Vrms
50 Vrms
@ 20 kHz
±0.77 Vrms
250 Vrms
@ 45 Hz
±1.95 Vrms
250 Vrms
@ 5 kHz
±1.95 Vrms
250 Vrms
@ 20 kHz
±3.95 Vrms
(cont)
5V
50 V
250 V
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Table 7-3
Input performance verification tests (continued)
Error from
nominal 1
year
Step
Test Function
Connection to 5520A
Range
5520A output
3
Turn the rotary switch to
. Press
to select
frequency.
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals of
the calibrator to the
U1401A input terminals.
100 Hz
10 Hz
@ 16 mV
±5 mHz
100 kHz
20 kHz
@ 16V
±7 Hz
200 kHz
200 kHz
@ 24 mV
±30 kHz
0.1% to 99%
50% @ 50 Hz
@ 5 Vac
0.3%
50% @ 800 Hz
@ 5 Vac
0.3%
500 Ω
500 Ω
±0.83 W
5 kΩ
5 kΩ
±8 W
50 kΩ
50 kΩ
±80 W
500 kΩ
500 kΩ
±800 W
5 MΩ
5 MΩ
±8 kW
50 MΩ
50 MΩ
±508 kW
4
5
6
7
7
Turn the rotary switch to
to select
. Press
duty cycle.
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals of
the calibrator to the
U1401A input terminals.
Turn the rotary switch to Ω.
Connect the Normal
Hi-Low output terminals
and the AUX Hi-Low
output terminals of the
calibrator (with a
two-cable stacked
configuration) to the
U1401A input terminals.
Turn the rotary switch to
to
. Press
select DC.
Connect the AUX Hi-Low
output terminals of the
calibrator to the U1401A
input terminals.
0.05 A
0.045 A
±18.5 µA
0.5 A
0.45 A
±0.185 mA
Turn the rotary switch to
to
. Press
select AC.
Connect the AUX Hi-Low
output terminals of the
calibrator to the U1401A
input terminals.
0.05 A
0.005 A
@ 1 kHz
±50 µA
0.045 A
@ 1 kHz
±0.29 mA
0.05 A
@ 50 Hz
±0.5 mA
0.45 A
@ 60 Hz
±2.9 mA
0.5 A
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Performance Tests and Calibration
Table 7-3
Step
Input performance verification tests (continued)
Test Function
Connection to 5520A
Range
5520A output
Error from
nominal 1
year
2V
1.9 V
±1.45 mV
–40 °C to
1372 °C
0 °C
±3 °C
–40 °F to
2502 °F
32 °F
±6.096 °F
8
Turn the rotary switch to
.
Connect a diode to the
U1401A input terminals in
forward bias position.
9
Turn the rotary switch to mV.
Press and hold
for
more than 1 second.
Connect K-type
thermocouple to the
U1401A input terminals.
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7
Output performance verification
To verify the output functions of the Handheld
Multi- Function Calibrator/Meter, perform the verifications
tests listed in Table 7- 4. Refer to Table 7- 1 on page 131 for
the recommended test equipment for verifying each function.
Table 7-4
Step
1
Output performance verification tests
Function
Turn the rotary switch to
any one of the
positions.
Recommended test
equipment and connection
Connect the U1401A output
terminals to the 34405A
Multimeter.
Range or
parameter
U1401A
output
Error from
nominal 1
year
±1.5000 V
–1.5 V
±0.75 mV
0V
±0.3 mV
+1.5 V
±0.75 mV
–15 V
±7.5 mV
0V
±3 mV
+15 V
±7.5 mV
–25 mA
±0.125 µA
+25 mA
±0.125 µA
±15.000 V
2
3
Turn the rotary switch to
any one of the
positions.
Connect the U1401A output
terminals to the 34405A
Multimeter.
±25.000 mA
Turn the rotary switch to
any one of the
positions.
Connect the U1401A output
terminals to the 53131A
Universal Counter.
Frequency
(10 kHz)
4.8 kHz
±0.25 Hz
Frequency
(1 kHz)
600 Hz
±0.04 Hz
Duty cycle
(0.39% to
99.60%)
5 V, 25%
@150 Hz
±0.203%
5 V, 75%@
150 Hz
±0.208%
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Performance Tests and Calibration
Adjustment Considerations
To adjust (calibrate) the instrument, you will need a set of
test input cables and connectors for receiving the reference
signals. You will also need a shorting plug.
Adjustments for each function should be performed with the
following considerations (where applicable):
• Allow the instrument to warm up and stabilize for five
minutes before performing the adjustments.
• Make sure that the batteries will not run low during the
adjustments. Replace or recharge the batteries before
making adjustments to avoid false reading.
• Consider the thermal effects as you connect the test leads
between the calibrator and this instrument. It is
recommended that you wait for one minute after
connecting the test leads before you begin the calibration.
• During ambient temperature adjustment, ensure that the
instrument has been turned on for at least one hour with
a K- type thermocouple connected between the instrument
and the calibration source.
CAUTION
138
Do not turn off the instrument during calibration. This may delete the
calibration memory for the present function.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Performance Tests and Calibration
7
Adjustment Procedures
Input calibration
1 Set the slide switch to the M/S position.
2 Allow the instrument to warm up for 20 minutes before
performing calibration.
3 To enter the calibration mode, press
and
for
more than one second. The primary display will indicate
"CHEEP".
4 Press
to enter the input calibration mode.
Temperature calibration
1 In calibration mode, turn the rotary switch to the mV
position.
2 Press
for more than one second to enter
temperature calibration.
3 Plug a K- type thermocouple into the input terminal. Feed
in the reference input signal that represents 0 oC and
wait for 10 minutes.
4 Press
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
to finish the temperature calibration.
139
7
Performance Tests and Calibration
Output calibration
1 Set the slide switch to the M/S position.
2 Allow the instrument to warm up for 10 minutes before
performing calibration.
3 To enter the calibration mode, press
and
for
more than one second. The primary display will indicate
“CHEEP”.
4 Press
to enter the input calibration mode.
5 Turn the rotary switch to any one of the “Current
Input/Voltage Output” positions, and press SHIFT for more
than one second to enter the output calibration mode.
CAL-0 & CAL-1
In the output calibration mode, the primary and secondary
display will show “CAL- 0” and “- rdy- ” respectively.
Connect the output terminals to a multimeter (refer to
Table 7- 1 on page 131 for the recommended test
equipment).
• CAL-0:
1 Press OUTPUT. The primary and secondary displays
show “CAL- 0” and “00000” respectively.
2 Wait until the instrument reading becomes stable, then
record the value.
• CAL-1:
1 Press MODE. The primary and secondary displays show
“CAL- 1” and “- rdy” respectively.
2 Press OUTPUT. The primary and secondary displays
show “CAL- 1” and “00000” respectively.
3 Press
5 or 6 to adjust the output voltage until the
reading on the meter is the same as the CAL-0 value
recorded above.
4 Press MODE to finish the CAL-0 and CAL-1 calibration.
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After finishing the CAL-0 and CAL-1 calibration procedures,
the instrument will automatically enter the 1.5 V output
calibration mode.
Output voltage calibration
Follow the steps below to perform calibration for the output
voltage ranges and values listed in Table 7- 5:
1 As you enter each calibration step, the primary and
secondary displays show the output voltage value and
“- rdy- ” respectively.
2 Press OUTPUT. The primary and secondary displays show
the output voltage value and “00000” respectively, which
means the present output level is as shown on the
primary display.
3 Press 5 or 6 to adjust the output voltage until the
multimeter reading is the same as the value shown on the
primary display.
4 Press MODE to enter the next calibration step.
Table 7-5 Output voltage calibration steps
Voltage range
1.5 V
15 V
Calibration
step
Output voltage value
1
+0.0000 V
2
+1.1000 V
3
–1.1000 V
4
+00.000 V
5
+11.000 V
6
–11.000 V
At the end of the last calibration step, the primary display
will show “PASS” after the MODE button is pressed.
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Performance Tests and Calibration
Output current calibration
1 Without exiting the calibration mode, turn the rotary
switch to any one of the “Current Input/Voltage Output”
positions.
2 Connect the output terminals to a recommended
multimeter (refer to Table 7- 1 on page 131 for the
recommended test equipment).
Follow the steps below to perform calibration for the output
voltage ranges and values listed in Table 7- 6:
1 As you enter each calibration step, the primary and
secondary displays show the output current value and
“- rdy- ” respectively.
2 Press OUTPUT. The primary and secondary displays show
the output current value and “00000” respectively, which
means the present output level is as shown on the
primary display.
3 Press 5 or 6 to adjust the output current until the
multimeter reading is the same as the value shown on the
primary display.
4 Press MODE to enter the next calibration step.
Table 7-6 Output current calibration steps
Current range
25 mA
Calibration
step
Output current value
1
+00.000 mA
2
+11.000 mA
3
–11.000 mA
At the end of the last calibration step, the primary display
will show “PASS” after the MODE button is pressed.
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U1401A Handheld Multi-Function Calibrator/Meter
User’s and Service Guide
8
Specifications
General Specifications 144
Measurement Category 146
Measurement category definitions 146
Input Specifications 147
DC specifications 147
AC specifications 148
AC+DC specifications 149
Temperature specifications 150
Frequency specifications 151
1 ms peak hold specifications 153
Resistance specifications 153
Diode check and audible continuity specifications 154
Output Specifications 155
Constant voltage and constant current outputs 155
Square wave output 156
This chapter details the specifications of the U1401A.
Agilent Technologies
143
8
Specifications
General Specifications
Display
• Both primary and secondary displays are 5-digit liquid crystal display (LCD)
with a maximum reading of 51,000 counts and automatic polarity indication.
Power Consumption
• Charging battery: 9.3 VA typical
• DC constant current at 25 mA, maximum load: 5.5 VA typical (on 24 V DC adapter) or
2.4 VA typical (on 9.6 V batteries)
• Meter only: 1.8 VA typical (on 24 V DC adapter) or 0.6 VA typical (on 9.6 V batteries)
Power Supply
• Rechargeable batteries — 1.2 V × 8 pieces (Ni-MH), no cadmium, lead or mercury.
• External switching adapter, AC 100 V to 240V, 50/60 Hz input and DC 24 V/2.5 A output.
Operating Environment
• Full accuracy at 0 °C to 40 °C (32 °F to 104 °F)
• Full accuracy up to 80% Relative Humidity (RH) for temperature up to 31 °C, decreasing
linearly to 50% RH at 40 °C
Storage Compliance
• –20 °C to 60 °C (–4 °F to 140 °F) with batteries removed.
Safety Compliance
• IEC 61010-1:2001/EN61010-1:2001 (2nd Edition)
• Canada: CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1-04
• USA: ANSI/UL 61010-1:2004
Measurement Category
• CAT-II 150V, Pollution Degree 2 Environment.
EMC Compliance
• IEC61326-2-1:2005/EN61326-2-1:2006
• Canada: ICES-001:2004
• Australia/New Zealand: AS/NZS CISPR11:2004
Measurement
• 3 times per second (AC+DC: 1 time per second)
• 1 time per second for frequency or duty cycle measurement. (>1 Hz)
• 0.25 to 1 time per second for Pulse Width measurements. (>1 Hz)
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
• > 90 dB at DC, 50/60 Hz ± 0.1% (1 kΩ unbalanced)
Normal Mode Rejection Ratio (NMRR)
• > 60 dB at DC, 50/60 Hz ± 0.1%
Temperature Coefficient
• Input: 0.15 * (specified accuracy)/ °C (from 0 °C to 18 °C or 28 °C to 40 °C)
• Output: ± (50ppm output + 0.5dgt)/ °C
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8
Dimensions
• H = 192 mm
• W = 90 mm
• D = 54 mm
Weight
• 0.98 kg with holster and batteries
Battery Life
• Approximately 20 hours for meter functions only, four hours for meter/source.
(Assuming fully charged Ni-MH 1300 mA batteries are used.)
• Low battery indicator (
) appears when the series battery voltage drops below 9V
(approximate).
Charging Time
• Approximately three hours, in an environment of 10 °C to 30 °C. (If the battery has been
fully discharged, a prolonged charging time is required to bring the battery back to full
capacity.)
Warranty
• Please refer to http://www.agilent.com/go/warranty_terms
• Three years for the product
• Three months for the standard accessories, unless otherwise specified
• Please note that for the product, the warranty does not cover:
• Damage from contamination
• Normal wear and tear of mechanical components
• Manuals, fuses, and standard disposable batteries
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Specifications
Measurement Category
The U1401A is intended to be used for measurement under
Measurement Category II, 150 V for altitude up to 2000 m.
Measurement category definitions
Measurement CAT I
Measurements performed on circuits that are not directly
connected to MAINS.
For example, measurements on circuits that are not
derived from MAINS, and specifically protected (internal)
mains- derived circuits.
Measurement CAT II
Measurements performed on circuits that are directly
connected to the low voltage installation.
For example, measurements on household appliances,
portable tools, and similar equipment.
Measurement CAT III
Measurements performed in fixed building installation.
For example, measurements on distribution boards, circuit
breakers, wiring (including cables), bus bars, junction
boxes, switches, socket outlets in fixed installation,
equipment for industrial use, and stationary motors with
permanent connections to fixed installation.
Measurement CAT IV
Measurements performed at the source of the low voltage
installation.
For example, electricity meters, measurements on primary
overcurrent protection devices, and ripple control units.
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Specifications
8
Input Specifications
The accuracy is given as ± (% of reading + counts of least
significant digit) at 23 °C ± 5 °C, with relative humidity less
than 80% R.H., and warmed up for at least five minutes.
Without warming up, an additional five counts of LSD will
have to be added to the accuracy.
DC specifications
Table 8-1 DC mV/voltage specifications
Function
DC mV/voltage [1]
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Overload protection
50 mV
1 μV
0.05% + 50 [2]
250 Vrms
500 mV
10 μV
0.03% + 5
5V
0.1 mV
50 V
1 mV
250 V
10 mV
[1]
Input impedance: 10 MΩ (nominal) for the range of 5 V and above, and 1 GΩ (nominal) for the 50/500 mV range.
[2]
The accuracy could be improved to 0.05% + 5. Always use the relative function to offset the thermal effect (short the test
leads) before measuring the signal.
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Specifications
Table 8-2 DC current specifications
Function
DC current
Range
50 mA
[1]
500 mA [1]
[1]
Resolution
Accuracy
Burden voltage/shunt
Overload protection
1 μA
0.03% + 5
0.06 V (1 Ω)
250 V, 630 mA
0.6 V (1 Ω)
Quick acting fuse
10 μA
Always use the relative function to offset the thermal effect before measuring the signal. If this function is not used, the
accuracy will be 0.03% + 25. The thermal effect could be present in the following conditions:
• Constant current, constant voltage, or square wave output.
• Wrong operation — where the resistance, diode, or mV measurement function is used to measure high voltage signals
exceeding 250 V.
• After battery charging has completed.
• After measuring a current greater than 50 mA.
AC specifications
Table 8-3 AC mV/voltage specifications
Accuracy
Function
Range
Resolution
45 Hz to 5 kHz
5 kHz to 20 kHz
Overload protection
AC mV/voltage [1]
50 mV
1 μV
0.7% + 40
1.5% + 40
250 Vrms
(True-rms: From 5%
to 100% of range)
500 mV
10 μV
0.7% + 20
1.5% + 20
5V
0.1 mV
50 V
1 mV
250 V
10 mV
[1]
Input impedance: 1.1 MΩ in parallel with <100 pF (nominal) for the range of 5 V and above, and 1 GΩ (nominal) for the
50/500 mV range. Crest factor: ≤ 3.
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Table 8-4 AC current specifications
Function
AC current
[1]
(True-rms: From
5% to 100% of
range)
[1]
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
45 Hz to 5 kHz
Burden voltage/shunt
Overload protection
50 mA
1 μA
0.6% + 20
0.06 V (1 Ω)
250 V, 630 mA
500 mA
10 μA
0.6 V (1 Ω)
Quick acting fuse
Crest factor: ≤ 3
AC+DC specifications
Table 8-5 AC+DC mV/voltage specifications
Accuracy
Function
Range
Resolution
45 Hz to 5 kHz
5 kHz to 20 kHz
Overload protection
AC+DC mV/
voltage [1]
50 mV
1 μV
0.8% + 70
1.6% + 70
250 Vrms
500 mV
10 μV
0.8% + 25
1.6% + 25
5V
0.1 mV
50 V
1 mV
250 V
10 mV
(True-rms: From 5%
to 100% of range)
[1]
Input impedance: 1.1 MΩ in parallel with <100 pF (nominal) for the range of 5 V and above, and 1 GΩ (nominal) for the
50/500 mV range. Crest factor: ≤ 3
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Specifications
Table 8-6 AC+DC current specifications
Function
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
45 Hz to 5 kHz
Burden voltage/shunt
Overload protection
AC+DC
current[1]
50 mA
1 μA
0.7% + 25
0.06 V (1 Ω)
250 V, 630 mA
500 mA
10 μA
0.6 V (1 Ω)
Quick acting fuse
(True-rms: From
5% to 100% of
range)
[1]
Crest factor: ≤ 3
Temperature specifications
Table 8-7 Temperature specifications
Function
Thermocouple
type
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Overload
protection
Temperature [1]
K
–40 °C to 1372 °C
0.1 °C
0.3% + 3 °C
250 Vrms
–40 °F to 2502 °F
0.1 °F
0.3% + 6 °F
[1]
The accuracy is defined for meter operation only and excludes the tolerance of thermocouple probe. The instrument should
be placed in the operating area for at least one hour with the slide switch set at the M position for meter operation only.
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Frequency specifications
Table 8-8 Frequency specifications
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Minimum input
frequency
Overload protection
100 Hz
0.001 Hz
0.02% + 3
1 Hz
250 Vrms
1 kHz
0.01 Hz
10 kHz
0.1 Hz
100 kHz
1 Hz
200 kHz
10 kHz
Frequency sensitivity and trigger level for voltage measurement
For the maximum input voltage- frequency product (V- Hz)
and input impedance, refer to AC voltage measurement.
Table 8-9 Frequency sensitivity and trigger level specifications for voltage measurement
Minimum sensitivity
(rms sine wave)
Input range
(Maximum input for specified
accuracy = 10 × range or 250 V)
1 Hz to 100 kHz
>100 kHz
<20 kHz
20 kHz to 200 kHz
50 mV
15 mV
25 mV
20 mV
30 mV
500 mV
35 mV
50 mV
60 mV
80 mV
5V
0.3 V
0.5 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
50 V
3V
5V
6V
8V
250 V
30 V
—
60 V
—
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Trigger level for DC coupling
151
8
Specifications
Duty cycle [1]
Table 8-10 Duty cycle specifications
Mode
Range
Accuracy at full scale
DC coupling
0.1% to 99.9%
0.3% per kHz + 0.3%
AC coupling
5% to 95%
Pulse width [1, 2]
Table 8-11 Pulse width specifications
Range
Accuracy at full scale
0.01 ms to 1999.9 ms
0.2% + 3
[1]
The accuracy for duty cycle and pulse width is based on a 5 V square wave input
to the DC 5 V range.
[2]
Pulse width must be greater than 10 µs and its range and resolution are
determined by the frequency of the signal. Refer to Table 8-8 for details.
Frequency sensitivity for current measurement
For maximum input, refer to AC voltage measurement.
Table 8-12 Frequency sensitivity specifications for current measurement
152
Input range
Minimum sensitivity (rms sine wave)
30 Hz to 20 kHz
50 mA
2.5 mA
500 mA
25 mA
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Specifications
8
1 ms peak hold specifications
Table 8-13 Peak hold specifications
Signal width
Accuracy for DC mV/voltage/current
Single event >1 ms
2% + 400 for all ranges
Resistance specifications
The following resistance specifications are valid if the
maximum open voltage is less than +4.8 V. For continuity
test, the instrument will beep when the resistance is less
than 10.00 Ω.
Table 8-14 Resistance specifications
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Minimum input
current
Overload protection
500 Ω [1]
0.01 Ω
0.15% + 8
0.45 mA
250 V rms
5 kΩ [1]
0.1 Ω
0.15% + 5
0.45 mA
50 kΩ
1Ω
45 μA
500 kΩ
10 Ω
4.5 μA
5 MΩ
0.1 kΩ
450 nA
50 MΩ [2]
1 kΩ
1% + 8
45 nA
[1]
The accuracy of 500 Ω and 5 kΩ is specified after applying the relative function, which is used to offset the test lead
resistance and the thermal effect.
[2]
For the 50 MΩ range, the R.H. is specified for <60%.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
153
8
Specifications
Diode check and audible continuity specifications
The overload protection is 250 Vrms and the instrument will
beep when the reading is below 50 mV (approximate).
Table 8-15 Diode check specifications
154
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Test current
Open voltage
Diode
0.1 mV
0.05% + 5
Approximately 0.45 mA
< +4.8 VDC
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
Specifications
8
Output Specifications
Accuracy is given as ± (% of output + counts of least
significant digit) at 23 °C ± 5 °C, with relative humidity less
than 80% R.H., and warmed up for at least five minutes.
Constant voltage and constant current outputs
Table 8-16 Constant voltage (CV) output specifications
Function
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Maximum output
current [2]
Constant
± 1.500 V
0.1 mV
0.03% + 3
25 mA or below
voltage (CV) [1]
± 15.000 V
1 mV
[1]
The maximum input voltage protection is 30 VDC.
[2]
Loading coefficient: 0.012 mV/mA for 1.5 V output.
Table 8-17 Constant current (CC) output specifications
Function
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Maximum output
voltage [2]
Constant
± 25.000 mA
1 μA
0.03% + 5
12 V or below [3]
current (CC) [1]
[1]
The maximum input voltage protection is 30 VDC.
[2]
Loading coefficient: 1 μA/ V, the minimum output voltage is based on 20 mA into a 600 Ω load.
[3]
If the current loop has a 24 V power, a minimum output voltage of 24 V is achievable with a 20 mA current in a 1200 Ω load.
This is only applicable for the simulation mode for mA output, refer to “Simulation Mode for mA Output” on page 88 for more
information.
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
155
8
Specifications
Square wave output
The maximum input voltage protection is 30 VDC.
Table 8-18 Square wave output specifications
Output
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Frequency (Hz)
0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75,
80, 100, 120, 150, 200, 240, 300, 400, 480,
600, 800, 1200, 1600, 2400, 4800
0.01
0.005% + 1
Duty Cycle (%) [1]
0.39% to 99.60%
0.390625%
0.01% + 0.2% [2]
Pulse Width (ms) [1]
1/ Frequency
Range/256
0.01% + 0.3 ms
Amplitude (V)
5 V, 12 V
0.1 V
2% + 0.2 V
±5 V, ±12 V
2% + 0.4 V
[1]
The positive or negative pulse width must be greater than 50 μs for adjusting the duty cycle or pulse width under different
frequency. Else, the accuracy and range will be different from the definition.
[2]
For signal frequencies greater than 1 kHz, an addition of 0.1% per kHz is added to the accuracy.
156
U1401A User’s and Service Guide
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To obtain service, warranty or technical
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Or visit Agilent World Wide Web at:
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Product specifications and descriptions in
this document are subject to change
without notice. Always refer to Agilent
Web site for the latest revision.
© Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2009 - 2012
Fourth Edition, May 4, 2012
U1401-90001
Agilent Technologies
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