WLAN card Linux compatibility

Wireless LAN Hardware
here are two basic methods of
implementing wireless networks
based on IEEE 802.11: Ad hoc
mode means that the computers will
communicate directly, but they must be
able to talk to each other constantly to
avoid disruptions. You can connect a
maximum of 16 computers in this way.
The hardware requirements are also
quite simple – in fact you only need a
WLAN card in each computer.
In access point mode (AP mode), also
referred to as a managed infrastructure,
one or more access points are used as
hubs: The wireless computers transmit
data to the access point which in turn
will relay the data to the intended
recipient. This means that the computers
only need to connect to the next access
point to log on to the wireless LAN. The
access point assumes a role similar to
that of an Ethernet switch. Only a couple
of years ago access points really could
not do anything more fancy that moving
data from one WLAN card to another,
but now there are devices with
integrated network ports, Ethernet
switches, or even DSL routers.
Stepping Up to a Wireless LAN
A LAN Solution
for Major Tom
It is so practical to be able to use laptops all over the house without a tangle of
cables, or simply not needing to wire up your childrens’ bedroom to get them
on the net. If you want to know what the requirements for a wireless LAN are,
You will need to invest a lot more money
in hardware to implement an AP
network in comparison to an ad hoc
network. Of course, each wireless host
will still need a WLAN card, but you
have the added expense of an access
point or access router. For large houses,
or houses that are well screened, you
may even require multiple access points.
The farther two WLAN computers are
apart and the more walls or buildings
there are in the way, the poorer and
slower the connection will be – until it
finally collapses. Even the temperature,
humidity, and the weather can affect the
connection quality. And so any
statement on possible distances would
be inconclusive, and this led to our
decision to avoid this area. As a basic
guideline, access points should be
mounted in a high and unobstructed
position in the middle of the area you
intend them to service.
Illusions of Security
Basically anybody in the proximity of
your premises can sniff your wireless
LAN, and even log on to your network.
www.linux-magazine.com November 2002
Wireless LAN Hardware
The WEP (Wireless Equivalent Privacy)
encryption standard was thus introduced
to prevent misuse. Originally, a 40 bit
key (WEP-40) was used, although
today’s devices nearly all use 128 bit
(WEP-128) keys. However, WEP-128
uses 24 bits for the so-called
initialization vector (IV), which is simply
incremented for each packet, and that
leaves only 104 bits for the secret key.
That does not mean you should
disable WEP-128 – at least it will keep
the script kiddies at bay. Choose your
key carefully – the sequence should be
randomly generated, if possible. You will
need 13 bytes (104 bits) for WEP-128.
You will definitely want to avoid using a
password for a Windows client as your
WEP key. The password is not used
directly but truncated to 24 bits in the
case of WEP-40, which corresponds to a
mere 16.8 million combinations.
Considering the fact that a laptop with a
1 GHz CPU can try out about 170,000
keys per second, you do not need to be a
genius to work out that your network
will be compromized in a matter of
minutes. It is preferable to generate the
40 or 104 bits randomly. The following
call will provide you with 14 bytes in
hexadecimal notation. Now all you need
to do is choose 13 of them and use them
as your WEP-148 key:
dd if=/dev/urandom bs=14 U
count=1 | hexdump | cut -c 9-
Control Mechanisms
If you want to set up another hurdle for
the attacker to take, you can
implemement an access conrol list (ACL)
on your access point – in our test, the
only box offering this feature was the
Tellus TWL-R410. This would
mean that instead of any
card being allowed access,
only the hardware addresses
(MAC addresses) in the list
are allowed to log on to the
access point.
Unfortunately, this mechanism is also relatively simple
to sidestep, as some card drivers (albeit only via patches
in some cases) allow you to
edit the MAC address of the
card. The attacker only
November 2002
needs to sniff the
address of a card with
access privileges and
spoof that card’s
MAC address.
selection of today’s
products. You can
refer to the article
“Driver Safari” on page 19 for a
description of installing the drivers
and details on the configuration of the
cards in our test.
Actiontec Wireless USB
Adapter 802UI3
The Wireless USB Adapter by Actiontec
is particularly useful for desktops or
servers. It saves you sacrificing a
valuable PCI slot for the adapter you
would otherwise require to run laptop
cards on your desktop, and even then
the position of the wireless LAN card –
i.e. under your desk or somewhere in the
corner – would not be ideal.
You can use a USB extension lead to
attach Actiontec’s USB adapter at a
distance of up to six meters from the last
USB hub and even wall-mount the
adapter using the brackets supplied. If
you do not feel like drilling holes in the
wall, you can always use the sticky pads
that complete the package.
The USB adapter is the same size as a
standard PC extension card, about one
centimeter high and is attached to the
USB port by means of a special lead. The
device speaks IEEE 802.11b, uses 128 bit
encryption and requires the prism2_usb
module from the “Next-Generation”
driver package (see page 19).
There is one issue with the USB
adapter: If you remove the
prism2_usb module without
removing usbcore, and then
detach the USB adapter, you
can expect your kernel to
crash. You should also avoid
unloading the prism2_usb
module and reloading it
without reloading usbcore.
Practically speaking this
means first detaching the
device itself, and then
removing the drivers –
although this is the opposite
of what you would normally do.
This driver quirk is no big deal in a
static environment as you will not be
detaching the USB adapter regularly. The
“Driver Safari” on page 19 describes how
to add the Actiontec Wireless Adapter to
your boot scripts without risking any
kernel lockups.
At around £71 the Actiontec wireless
USB adapter is cheaper than the price of
most other laptop WLAN cards with a
PCI adapter, but it is far more flexible for
both desktop or server use, because of
the USB connectivity. That is why this
product gets the Editor’s choice award.
D-Link DWL-500 PCI Adapter
(Elito-Epox EWL-PCA)
If you want to use a WLAN laptop card
in a normal PC, you need a PC card
adapter for the PCI bus. The answer is to
add a typical laptop CardBus controller –
in the case of the DWL-500 by D-Link
(around £115) that means the Ricoh
RL5c475. Running this device on Linux
is simple, as the PCMCIA Card Services
support almost all the known chipsets of
the WLAN cards.
If you have not already installed the
pcmcia package, you will need to do so.
There are no further configuration steps,
as any cards inserted (wireless LAN, or a
compact flash module on an adapter
card) are recognized and configured by
your laptop.
However, do not be surprised when
you install your next Linux distribution –
Linux will assume that your computer is
a notebook, if a CardBus controller is
detected, and this can cause SuSE to
install a modified KDE desktop with a
battery display.
Wireless LAN Hardware
3Com X-Jack Wireless
LAN Card
The 3Com 3CRWE62092A Wireless LAN
Card with X-Jack antenna is the smallest
competitor in our test. The retractable
antenna is this card’s strong point. This
makes the 3Com X-Jack, as the card is
normally referred to despite the complex
model code, just the same size
as a standard Type II
The X-Jack
supports IEEE 802.11b
with 128 bit encryption, just like
the other candidates in our test.
The advantage is self-evident: You do
not need to remove the card while
transporting your laptop in a bag or case
– on the contrary, the card will still work
with the antenna retracted, although
reception may be poor in this position.
Take care not to bend the antenna
when retracting it – only the outside
edges of the card lid have been
smoothed, the inside edges are razorsharp and shave the plastic coating off
the antenna. You can plainly see the
plastic shavings and cuts in Figure 1.
The 3Com card uses the Poldhu
chipset – the driver installation is
detailed on page 19. The WLAN card
costs somewhere in the region of £100,
depending on your dealer, so do your
homework before you buy – but that still
makes it 20 percent more expensive than
its competitors. The extremely practical
(and patented) antenna makes this card
stand out from the field and is a must for
notebooks in daily use. And that’s why
the 3Com product also gets the Editor’s
choice award.
Linksys WPC11
The Linksys WPC11 card is based on the
Prism 3 chipset, which requires the
“Next Generation” driver package.
Installing the card was no problem. The
Linksys was also the only card in the test
with two LEDs on top, one for the
transmit and a second LED for the link
status. If you are working in access point
mode, the LED flashes on and off to
indicate that the access point is out of
range. The Linksys is a solid workhorse
and the price, £70, is reasonable.
ZcoMax AirRunner XL325H
The AirRunner from ZcoMax is based on
the Intersil Prism 2.5 chipset and as such
requires the use of “Next-Generation”
drivers. With the option for an additional
antenna. We found this a good quality
build product. The transmit power
was a respectful 100mW although the
XL325HP is reported to be 200mW. The
external anntena connected via one of
the reverse MMCX sockets. Again with
two LEDs for power and transmit.
Cost: £90.
external modem. The TWL-R410’s
network ports allow you to attach
up to four computers or network
printers, and depending on the
configuration, the access router can be
used for seamless access from the
wireless to the wired LAN – or it can be
used to masquarade easily between the
two environments.
The TWL-R410 is easy to configure via
the Web frontend provided (Figure 2).
One interesting feature is the fact that
you can attach a serial modem, besides
DSL or network access, thus permitting
Internet access if the DSL link fails.
The access router can be secured via a
list of permitted or denied hardware
addresses and by means of 128 bit
Of course hardware addresses can
always be spoofed, but at least it is an
additional hurdle for the attacker to
The Tellus TWL-R410 seems to be
an extremely well-engineered product.
We particularly liked the idea of using
an external modem as a backup line
for a DSL connection – without the
administrator needing to get involved,
of course.
Tellus TWL-R410 Wireless
AP SOHO Router. (ElitoEpox EWL-R410)
Figure 1: Cigar cutter included: The upper and
lower halves of the lid are so sharp that they strip
the plastic coating off the antenna – you can
plainly see the plastic shavings and cuts
The TWL-R410 by Tellus is a
combined DSL router, 4 port
switch, wireless access point
and modem interface. The
device, which costs over
£200, to attach a laptop with
a wireless card to the internet via DSL and / or
www.linux-magazine.com November 2002
Wireless LAN Hardware
Figure 2: The Web frontend for Tellus’ TWL-R410 provides access to a
Figure 3: The Web frontend for the NAS-101RW is well-structured. If configured
wide range of settings, without being too cluttered
correctly, this allrounder can completely replace a server
IEI NAS-101RW Wireless NAS
Access Router
Shortly before this issue went to print, a
brand-new product arrived at our offices,
IEI Electronics’ NAS-101RW. This device
can do more or less everything apart
from making the coffee and sandwiches:
It is at the same time a 4 port switch, a
wireless access point, a DSL router, a
network bridge, and a network storage
device, and has a small footprint to boot.
In other words, the NAS-101RW
can assume the role of a
server in small network.
A Web frontend (Figure 3)
is supplied for configuration
tasks, just like the Elito-Epox
EWL-R410. You can either
answer ten questions, or take
a more modular approach via
a complex menu. The front
panel contains a display and various
buttons that allow you to query the
device’s status and perform simple
network configuration tasks.
The network drive can be assigned
to various user groups, Windows clients,
Macs, Novell and of course Linux clients
via NFS, HTTP, and FTP.
The NAS-101RW even provides a complete user management module – by the
way a look inside the router revealed an
Embedded Linux system.
Unfortunately, the NAS-101RW’s only
protection against attackers is 128 bit
encryption – a list of permitted hardware
addresses is sadly lacking. However,
access to the Web frontend is not as
permissive as the R410 router by ElitoEpox – you need a password for more or
less everything.
We appreciated the ease of configuration and the intuitive frontend
provided by the NAS-101RW. The price
(over £650) and the two fans were less to
our liking. But still, the NAS-101RW is
a viable alternative to providing
support for a traditional server in
small network environments.
Today’s wireless LANs come
in all shapes and sizes.
Purchasing prices range
from £150, for two simple
WLAN cards, to £1000 for an
access point with network
November 2002
drives and a handfull of WLAN cards.
You can take an easy entry approach to
wireless networking – start off with two
WLAN cards, one in your desktop and
the other in your notebook, and then add
access points or access routers as your
budget allows, until all your computers
are on the wireless LAN.
By standardizing on using the IEEE
802.11b protocol it should ensure that
wireless LAN devices will have no
problem talking to one another now or in
the future.
Howtos and drivers:
Jean_ Tourrilhes/Linux
Actiontec cards:
D-Link PCI Adapter:
3Com XJack card:
Linksys card:
ZcoMax card:
Tellus Router:
NAS router: