Read5_MNL

Read5_MNL
Teacher Manual
Fast ForWord to Reading 5
®
| Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | Copyright
1996 through 2007 Scientific Learning Corporation. All rights reserved. This document is supplied subject to the terms of the Scientific Learning Corporation license
agreement. Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Names, data, and other information used in examples and exercises herein are
fictitious.
Trademarks
Fast ForWord® is a registered trademark of Scientific Learning Corporation.
Scientific Learning
300 Frank H. Ogawa Plaza
Suite 600
Oakland, CA 94612-2040
Phone: 888-665-9707
Fax: 510-444-3580
Web: www.scientificlearning.com
Technical Support/Customer Service
Phone: 888-358-0212 (US & Canada)
Phone: 701-298-6376 (International)
Web: www.scientificlearning.com/support
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
| Fast ForWord to Reading 5
preface
T
his Fast ForWord® to Reading 5 manual is for teachers and lab coaches to
support their teaching of the award-winning Fast ForWord products in the
classroom and computer lab environments.
Detailed instructional information for each exercise is provided including sample
exercise content. Also provided are sample Intervention and Motivations activities,
extended learning activities, skills matrices, reading curriculum standards for each
exercise, and reference material in the appendices.
A DVD that accompanies this manual provides teacher tools for use with individual
or small group instruction. Student activities are targeted to English Language
Learners, Special Education students, and struggling readers. A reading skills
matrix, appearing on the inside cover of this manual, is also available in the DVD
for teachers to print out and use for planning purposes. Web resources are listed
that provide additional information and materials.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
contents
Fast ForWord to Reading Skills Matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Cover
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 Exercises
Toad Loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Wood Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
How Students Work in Toad Loader 26
How Students Progress through Toad Loader26
How Students Advance in Toad Loader27
Toad Loader Content29
Assessing Student Progress31
Motivation and Intervention 32
How Students Work in Wood Works34
How Students Progress through Wood Works34
How Students Advance in Wood Works35
Wood Works Content37
Assessing Student Progress41
Motivation and Intervention 42
Gator Jam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
How Students Work in Gator Jam44
How Students Progress through Gator Jam45
How Students Advance in Gator Jam46
Gator Jam Content48
Assessing Student Progress 51
Motivation and Intervention 52
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | Lana’s Lanes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
How Students Work in Lana’s Lanes 54
How Students Progress through Lana’s Lanes 56
How Students Advance in Lana’s Lanes 56
Lana’s Lanes Content 58
Assessing Student Progress63
Motivation and Intervention 64
Quack Splash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
How Students Work in Quick Splash 66
How Students Progress through Quick Splash66
How Students Advance in Quick Splash67
Quick Splash Content69
Assessing Student Progress73
Motivation and Intervention 74
Appendix A: The Science Behind the Fast ForWord Products. . . . . . . . . 75
Appendix B: Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
| Fast ForWord to Reading 5
introduction
T
he Fast ForWord to Reading series, which includes Fast ForWord to Reading Prep, Fast ForWord to
Reading 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, is based on more than 30 years of research on how the brain learns and
brain plasticity including the connection between reading and language. The products use established
neuroscience principles to facilitate student learning. Extensive efficacy research has demonstrated the
results that can be achieved through the use of Fast ForWord products.
These products strengthen the neuro-cognitive skills required to read and learn, and teach significant
reading skills within the context of cognitive skill development. Effective reading and learning require
a variety of foundational cognitive skills, all functioning in unison.
These cognitive and reading/language arts foundational skills are developed through the application
of four basic neuroscience principles found in Scientific Learning’s patented technology, the FAST
Power Learning™ Formula. The positive brain changes that occur are fast, effective, and enduring.
These innovative products also develop the Learning MAPS skills of memory, attention, processing and sequencing, which are critically important prerequisites for successful reading and learning.
When Learning MAPS are stronger, students are better able to benefit from classroom instruction.
Fast ForWord systematic reading instruction
The Fast ForWord product’s systematic instruction develops prerequisite skills that enable successful
reading and complement reading instruction. Students work with scaffolding activities within the
Fast ForWord reading exercises, such as sounding out the letters in unfamiliar words, working with
a graphic organizer, and discussing major parts of a text prior to reading. Also, the Fast ForWord to
Reading 1 and 2 exercises scaffold to the later Fast ForWord to Reading 3, 4 and 5 exercises by developing and honing the basic skills that are the foundation necessary for moving on to more difficult
words and more complex sentences.
This Fast ForWord to Reading 5 Teachers Manual provides teachers additional support and resource
materials for their work with the Fast ForWord to Reading products. This manual presents the reading skills matrices, teacher-directed intervention and motivation activities, and extended learning
activities for targeted populations such as struggling readers, English Language Learners, and Special
Education students.
Fast ForWord Professional Development is readily available through Scientific Learning’s Customer
Connect website (www.scilearning.com) and consultation with implementation specialists. Onsite
professional development led by certified training personnel is key to successful implementations.
Teachers can depend upon the online instruction and offline activities and materials aligned to reading curriculum standards.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | Fast ForWord® to Reading 5
Research-validated Reading
Intervention
This product supports the National Reading Panel’s focus on the
five components of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, reading
fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.
Deliverd by Scientific Learning Corporation
F.A.S.T. Power Learning ™ Formula
Frequency and intensity — Brain plasticity research demonstrates that completing a
set of learning tasks in a frequent, intense timeframe accelerates learning.
Adaptivity — Interactive exercises automatically adapt to individual skill levels and responses,
adjusting the learner’s content exposure and targeting correct responses approximately 80%
of the time, which maintains challenge and motivates success.
Simultaneous Development — Each exercise focuses on a specific set of reading or
language tasks and simultaneously develops underlying cognitive processes such as memory,
attention, and processing.
Timely Motivation — For the brain to learn, students must be active, attentive, and engaged.
Tiered rewards are designed to maximize motivation.
The Fast ForWord to Reading 5 product is one of six award-winning Fast ForWord to Reading
intervention products that apply neuroscience principles to build learning capacity. The computer based products strengthen the neuro-cognitive skills required to read. These foundational
skills are developed through the application of four basic neuroscience principles found in
our patented technology, the FAST Power Learning™ formula. The positive brain changes
that occur are fast, effective and enduring.
10 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
overview
T
he Fast ForWord to Reading 5 exercises are designed for those students of any age who have
completed Fast ForWord to Reading 4, or for those who are reading at Grade 4–Grade 6 reading
level. The goal of Fast ForWord to Reading 5 is to help students build and/or strengthen fundamental cognitive skills
(MAPS), foundational reading skills and specific academic
Learning MAPs
skills that students in Grade 5 are expected to master. Fast
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 follows Fast
ForWord to Reading 5 presents instruction in:
ForWord to Reading 4 as it continues to
develop within the context of reading skills
> Metacognitive understanding
the essential cognitive skills of memory, atten> Critical thinking
tion, processing and sequencing, or Learning
> Comprehension strategies
MAPS, which are critically important prereq> Writing skill development along with
uisites for successful reading.
reading comprehension
> Building vocabulary skills with analogies
> Building skills with figurative language and
Examples in Fast ForWord to
literary devices
Reading 5 include:
> Academic vocabulary from multiple content areas
Memory: Long-term & working memory
Motivation and Intervention
Attention: Selective attention
The Fast ForWord to Reading exercises challenge students to
Processing: Auditory and visual processremain focused on completing the exercises to obtain the
ing; developing fluent access to the multiple
maximum benefit from the product. To motivate readers of
relationships among words
all ages, Fast ForWord to Reading exercises include points
and on-screen rewards that can be combined with motivaSequencinG: Manipulating word order
tional activities. These rewards and activities are effective
to build a variety of grammatical sentences,
ways to provide students with positive reinforcement.
alphabetical order, temporal order, or logical
Rewarding students for their hard work encourages them to
order
maintain sustained and focused attention. Motivation is a
critical factor in whether students achieve the high levels
of participation and completion necessary for success (80%
or higher). Lab coaches, teachers, administrators and parents can work together to create an effective
program. Motivational ideas are listed in the accompanying DVD and on www.scilearn.com/support.
Timely intervention is key to supporting students’ effective performance on the exercises. Teachers
can use the Success Viewer, Fast ForWord Progress Tracker report. Teacher-led intervention strategies
and activities with detailed instructions are provided in the accompanying DVD. Additional strategies
and activities can be obtained on www.scilearn.com/support. When students appear to struggle with
an exercise, work with that student individually to identify the problem. Listening with headphones
to what the student is hearing, asking the student to identify what the problem seems to be and
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 11
applying intervention teacher-directed instruction for the student can often help students move
forward in the exercise.
Student Performance Assessments
Teachers can use both informal and formal assessment tools with students. Informal assessments
include teacher observation of student performance, listening to students’ comments and questions
during the sessions, and conducting teacher, student, and parent surveys (forms are available on
www.scilearn.com/support) to uncover any obstacles standing in the way of the student successfully
completing the exercises.
Formal performance assessment includes monitoring the student’s performance on each exercise
through the Success Viewer and in Fast ForWord Progress Tracker. Immediate feedback is available and
can be used in a timely manner to intervene with a struggling student to provide individual or small
group instruction. Timely intervention and motivation enable the teacher and student to resolve the
problem standing in the way of the student correctly
completing the exercise and encourage the student to
continue working towards completion of the exercise.
Effective Reporting
Student performance reports are generated by the
Success Viewer and Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
At the end of each session, the product calculates the
results for that participant and displays those results
in the Success Viewer. This provides the participant
with an immediate review of his or her performance,
as a reward and a motivation to continue working on
the exercises.
When the Success Viewer appears, it displays the
Points screen. The Points screen shows the points
earned on the last participation day (the current day if
the participant has just finished working), and the total
points earned for each exercise. The Points screen also
displays the last day’s total points and the grand total
points for all exercises. The Points screen also includes
the icons awarded by each exercise as the participant
masters the exercise content. The icons encourage the
participant to continue working on an exercise. When
an exercise is completely mastered, all of the icons are
displayed.
12 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Success Viewer — Points Screen
Success Viewer (shows completed content & current
content in exercise)
At the end of each session, the product calculates the results for that student and displays those results
in the Success Viewer. This provides the student with an immediate review of his or her performance,
as a reward and a motivation to continue working on the exercises. For each exercise, goal and task
information appear at the top of the screen. Below that, the screens for each exercise provide an overview
of a student’s performance by displaying the levels a student has completed with a check mark and the
levels are currently being worked on with a half-filled box.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker
Progress Tracker, the online data analysis and reporting tool (gateway.scilearn.com) provides clear,
action oriented information on individual, class, school, or district performance. It is also an excellent
source for demographic information and progress monitoring that will better assist schools in meeting
their Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals. The information is secure and accessible district-wide
using the Internet. Automatic analysis including diagnostic and prescriptive information is displayed
in graphs and tables. Timely and specific intervention strategies provide educators with recommendations to maximize the effectiveness of the Fast ForWord products.
Teachers can monitor detailed student progress in Fast ForWord exercises from any computer with
an internet connection, whether or not the students are currently working on exercises. Both group
and individual reports are available. Below are samples of Progress Tracker reports for Fast ForWord to
Reading 5 exercises. Teachers can access individual student reports by clicking on either the product
name in an Overview Report or the student name in a Condensed Report. (Within Progress Tracker,
the Help menu provides detailed descriptions of the reports. Additional information is available at
www.scilearn.com/support.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 13
> Overview Report (group report) — provides overall averages for participation, attendance,
and content completion, the number of days a student has worked on the exercises, and any status
flags. Teachers should monitor these reports daily for indicators in the Completion Status column.
When an Intervention flag is present, the student is struggling and should receive assistance from
the teacher. A Switch or Complete flag indicates that the student is ready to move to the next
product. Refer to the Customer Connect web site at www.scilearn.com for more information on
interventions.
14 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
> Condensed Report (group report) — provides information similar to the Overview Report,
but also breaks down the overall content completion into specific exercises. Intervention flags will
appear next to percentages of specific exercises in which a student is struggling.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 15
> Progress History Report (individual report) — provides detailed day-to-day progress on
each exercise in both a line graph and in detailed textual feedback. Teachers should monitor this
report at least weekly, noting patterns of difficulty which include flat-lining and/or zigzagging.
For additional information on the exercise, scroll down to the Completion Report section.
This section provides detail regarding completion status in specific skills within the exercise and
powerful information to assist in delivering focused intervention. This student is doing well with
the exercise. Despite some repetition, the student is mastering content and moving forward.
For explanation of report symbols, see the Complete Symbols explanations within the turquoise box.
For additional information on exercise skills, progression, goals, and instructions, click the info button
next to Toad Loader.
16 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
> Error Reports (individual reports) — provide detailed analyses regarding specific skills within
each exercise. For the exercise Toad Loader, select Sentence Comprehension Errors from the Report
drop down menu. Broken down by specific items, this report is a powerful tool for identifying
a student’s unique difficulties. Refer to the Customer Connect web site at www.scilearn.com for
more information on interventions.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 17
Fast ForWord Protocols
Neuroscience research confirms the importance of frequency and intensity of activity to build and
strengthen new skills. Each Fast ForWord product includes research-based protocols that ensure students
receive frequent and intense practice, while providing teachers with the flexibility to meet their
instructional programs’ structure and objectives. Each protocol specifies how much time students
should spend with the product each day and for how many weeks students should expect to use the
product. Close adherence to an approved protocol correlates highly with good outcomes. Schedules
for Fast ForWord to Reading can be divided into multiple sessions. Students can take breaks between
exercises, but not during an exercise. Allow sufficient time in the school schedule for starting up and
finishing the exercises and taking breaks. Samples of schedules can be referenced on www.scilearn.
com/support. The table below lists the recommended protocols for Fast ForWord to Reading 5:
PROTOCOLS
50 min. (Five 10-minute exercises)
90 min. (Five 18-minute exercises)
18 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
5 days/week
5 days/week
8 – 12 weeks
4 – 8 weeks
Scope and Sequence
Task/Theme
Contents
Cognitive Skills
Toad Loader — Sentence Comprehension
Select the correct words or
phrases to build a sentence that
best describes a picture.
460 sentences, each targeting one of the following grammatical
structures: attributive/stative, simple negation, infinitival complements
to verbs, passive voice, articles, appositives, prepositional phrases,
pronouns, subject and object relativization, simple modifiers, compound
and complex sentences, and commonly misused verbs.
Vocabulary range from easy (4th grade level terms or lower) to hard
(6th grade level and academic terms).
Sentences range in length from 4 to 24 words and from low to
high complexity.
Memory — long-term recall for spelling (working
memory to remember target word)
Attention — selectively attending to grammatical
features of words and phrases
Processing — using language processing skills
to identify written words and phrases and to
construct and analyze possible sentences
Sequencing — manipulating word order to build a
variety of grammatical sentences
Wood Works — Spelling and Decoding
Read a word, and then sort it by
one of the sounds it contains.
Later, listen to a word, and then
sort it by the spelling pattern
needed to correctly spell it.
Easy level vocabulary: 725 unique words, consisting primarily of 4th and
5th grade terms All words are one or two syllables in length.
Memory — long-term recall for spelling; working
memory to remember target word
Hard level vocabulary: 778 unique words, consisting primarily of 5th and
6th grade terms and elementary/middle school level academic terms. There are 256 academic words among the hard level items, consisting of
100 science terms, 57 math & geometry terms, and 99 social studies &
geography terms. All words are two or more syllables in length.
Attention - selective attention
Includes 95 key vocabulary words (along with over 1900 context words),
each of which is presented in 3 to 6 different analogies.
Memory — exercising long-term memory
for vocabulary and working memory for
comparing words
Processing — auditory and visual
Gator Jam — Vocabulary
Select an analogy type to work
on and complete an analogy by
identifying the missing word or
words. Later, read a completed
analogy, and then sort it by the
type of analogical relationship it
demonstrates. The analogies are
presented by alligators serenading
outside a “spooky” house.
The key vocabulary words cover 27 Latin and Greek morphemes (prefixes, roots, or suffixes) widely used in English (able, auto, cred, dis, en,
form, graph, in, inter, ist, ive, ment, meter, mis, phon, port, pre, re, scope,
sign, spect, sphere, tele, trans, y, ion, al).
Includes twelve analogy types: Synonyms, Antonyms, Weaker and Stronger, Categories, Part to Whole, Grammatical Forms, Features, Locations,
Cause and Effect, Creator and Creation, Functions, and Tools.
Attention — using selective attention for making selections along various linguistic dimensions
Processing — developing fluent access to the
multiple relationships among words
Sequencing — recognizing directionality of
word relationships
Lana’s Lanes — Comprehension Strategies
Independently read fiction and
nonfiction passages and answer
comprehension-check questions
by clicking on the correct answer;
then complete a strategy task,
choosing or completing graphic
organizers or summaries. Finally,
answer additional comprehension
questions using the completed
strategy.
38 fiction & nonfiction passages
Memory — using working memory for sentence
comprehension and building text-level representations in long-term memory
Attention — selectively attending to critical information and sustaining attention across longer
passages and question sets
Processing — developing fluency in extracting and
integrating meaning from longer text passages
Sequencing — recognizing causal and temporal
event sequences in text
Quack Splash — Passage Comprehension
Build multiple-paragraph passages
and demonstrate comprehension
of the passages by:
20 passages: 8 fiction and 12 nonfiction. The passages within a level
are related as though chapters in a story (fiction) or sections of an
article (nonfiction).
Memory — using working memory to hold words
and sentences in memory while completing or
reorganizing paragraphs.
• Selecting the missing sentence or
word(s) to complete a paragraph
Passages vary in size: ranging from 135 – 945 words in length.
Attention — sustaining attention across multiple
steps to accurately complete a longer passage.
• Re-ordering sentences to
build a paragraph
Each passage includes some figurative language and questions that
relate to figurative language.
• Re-ordering paragraphs to build
a passage.
Vocabulary difficulty: Easy words = 5th grade terms & below from
Mogilner. Hard words = 6th grade terms from Mogilner and Academic
terms approp. for Elementary – Middle school.
• Answering comprehension
questions about the passage
Type of comprehension questions: literal facts & details, figurative
language, sequential, inferential/integrative
Processing — using language skills to selectively
process and allocate attentional resources to
process grammar and meaning
Sequencing — recognizing and correcting
the serial order of scrambled sentences and
paragraphs.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 19
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 Exercises
Toad Loader
Toad Loader helps develop accuracy and fluency in recognizing
sentence structures and constructing sentences by manipulating
grammatical forms and inflections.
The student helps the toad load his packages by recognizing and
constructing sentences that correctly describe pictures.
Wood Works
Wood Works uses categorization to help build accuracy and fluency
in spelling, decoding, and phonemic analysis. Students help the wood
worker build the dam by sorting the written or pronounced words
into the appropriate phonemic or spelling-based categories.
Gator Jam
Gator Jam uses analogies to help build vocabulary, and to help improve critical thinking and abstract reasoning. The student helps the hippo serenade his sweetheart by completing, and then categorizing, the
various types of analogies presented in the exercise. These two tasks alternate throughout Gator Jam:
• Complete an Analogy
• Categorize an Analogy
If the student needs assistance identifying the correct response, the student can click the Help button
on the bat’s book to see one or more words from the analogy or the responses
Complete an Analogy
20 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Complete an Analogy
Word Help
Lana’s Lanes
Lana’s Lanes helps develop reading comprehension strategies as the
student works with fiction and nonfiction passages that include a
wide range of literary structures and devices. After reading a passage,
the student learns to graphically or textually organize information
from the passage using a range of different comprehension strategies.
These strategies are reinforced as the student answers comprehension
questions about the organized information.
Quack Splash
Quack Splash helps develop skills in constructing and organizing
fiction and nonfiction passages, and in understanding and using
figurative language. The student helps the diving duck build paragraphs by identifying missing words, phrases, and sentences, and by
sequencing sentences into paragraphs. The student then sequences
the paragraphs into a passage. After a passage is constructed, the
student answers comprehension questions about that passage.
Quack Splash includes five stories and essays, which increase in
complexity and length.
Paragraph completion
• Snake Escape
• The Anasazi
• Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones
• Foods that Bite Back
• How Language Changes
Each story/essay includes four passages, or chapters. Each chapter
includes the following tasks, detailed below:
Sentence ordering
Paragraph completion — Select the correct text to
complete paragraphs.
Sentence ordering — Select sentences in the correct order
to build paragraphs.
Paragraph ordering — Select paragraphs in the correct order
to build the pages of a chapter.
Passage comprehension — Answer comprehension
questions about the chapter
Paragraph ordering
Passage comprehension
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 21
Fast ForWord® to Reading 5
Suggested Pacing Chart for Implementation
week 1
Day 1
Day 2
• Introduce the science behind the Fast ForWord products.
• For older students, consider showing the DVD from Anchorage School District.
Contact Scientific Learning Support for more information: 888-358-0212
• Discuss protocol and the importance of being at school for Fast ForWord classes.
• Administer a student survey.
Resources are available at www.scilearn.com/support.
Demonstrate the following exercises to students:
• Wood Works
• Lana’s Lanes
• Toad Loader
Discuss exercise objectives, encourage choral response and questions, and introduce
resources students may use in helping them progress through the exercises such as:
• Built-in help features
• Dictionaries and thesauruses
• Paper and pencil location
• How to ask for the lab coach’s assistance
• Story map templates
Day 3
Demonstrate the following exercises to students:
• Quack Splash
• Gator Jam
Discuss exercise objectives, encourage choral response and questions, and introduce
resources students may use in helping them progress through the exercises such as:
• Built-in help features
• Dictionaries and thesauruses
• Paper and pencil location
• How to ask for the lab coach’s assistance
• Story map templates
Day 4
Allow students to work on the exercises in demo mode. Circulate, answering questions,
giving clarifying directions, making corrections and suggesting resources when appropriate.
Day 5
• Introduce your incentive system, explaining how progress will be monitored recorded and rewarded. Also explain how attendance and participation will be rewarded.
• Post student charts for percent complete. (Possibly allow students to personalize
their charts.) Charts are available on the Customer Connect web site under Quick
Downloads. Locate the section for Reading 5.
• Revisit the importance of protocol.
Resources are available at www.scilearn.com/support.
22 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Fast ForWord® to Reading 5
Suggested Pacing Chart for Implementation, cont.
Weeks
Daily
2 And
Beyond
Weekly
• Review Fast ForWord Progress Tracker Overview or Condensed Report for
status flags before students come to lab. Note those students requiring intervention and on which exercises. Make arrangements to attend to all of those
students during the upcoming Fast ForWord session. (Visit the Customer
Connect web site for additional tools to assist you in organizing your time for
interventions: www.scilearn.com/support.)
• Review Fast ForWord Progress Tracker Overview or Condensed Report for
status flags before students come to lab. Note students who are nearing
completion and begin making other arrangements for these students. It may
be appropriate for these students to return to regular class or, if available,
continue with the next product in the Fast ForWord® to Reading series.
• Students work on Fast ForWord® to Reading 5 exercises.
• Reward attendance and participation. (Look for the participation bonus points
on the student’s Success Viewer screen to verify that protocol for minutes
worked has been met.)
• Encourage, motivate and cheerlead! Celebrate small successes daily such as
attainment of new levels, appropriate use of resources, etc.
• Either the lab coach or the students should update the Incentive Charts
created during Week 1.
• Review Fast ForWord Progress Tracker Progress History and/or Error Reports
for detailed information on student progress. Based on the information, make
arrangements to provide more intensive intervention for those students showing greatest difficulty. (Visit the Customer Connect web site for additional
tools to assist you in organizing your time for interventions:www.scilearn.
com/support.)
• Conference with each student regarding progress. Use the Fast ForWord
Progress Tracker Progress History Report, and the Weekly Achievement Report
as well as the Incentive Charts created during Week 1 to analyze progress,
discuss difficulties and set goals for the following week.
• According to your established incentive system, administer appropriate
awards.
• Celebrate the week’s achievements.
• Prepare printed copies of the Fast ForWord Progress Tracker Weekly Achievement Report to go home to parents and/or guardians. Place a personal note on
the report so parents and/or guardians and classroom teachers know what to
celebrate with their child and/or what to emphasize for the upcoming week.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 23
24 | Fast ForWord to Reading 4
TOAD
LOADER
GOAL
> Build accuracy and fluency in recognizing and constructing sentences by
manipulating grammatical forms and inflections
SKILLS
Cognitive Skills
>M
emory — using working memory to keep track of available words and
phrases while constructing possible sentences
> Attention — selectively attending to grammatical features of words and phrases
>P
rocessing — using language processing skills to identify written words and
phrases and to construct and analyze possible sentences
>S
equencing — manipulating word order to build a variety of grammatical
sentences
Fast ForWord to Reading
5 consists of five exercises
presenting reading skill
instruction that correlates to Grade 5 reading
standards.
Reading/Language Arts Skills
>C
onstruct multiple sentences to describe each illustration, developing the
grammatical skills and flexibility to put ideas into words using a variety of
sentence structures
>U
se different sentences to express similar ideas, working with multiple sentences about an illustration
>W
ork with 15 grammatical structures, including passive voice, appositive
phrases, and compound sentences, as well as pronouns and articles commonly confused by English Language Learners
>A
ttend to semantic, morphological, and syntactic aspects of the words or
word groups they are putting together
TASK
Select the correct words or phrases to build a sentence that best
describes a picture.
Fast ForWord to Reading 4 | 25
Toad loader
Fifth Grade Reading Standards
> Identify and correctly use prepositional phrases, appositives, and independent and
dependent clauses; use transitions and conjunctions to connect ideas.
> Identify and correctly use verbs that are often misused (e.g., lie/lay), modifiers,
and pronouns.
How Students Work on Toad Loader
In Toad Loader, the student helps the toad load the boxes by building a sentence that describes a picture. Toad Loader displays a picture and a set of 4 possible sentence segments (words or phrases). The
student is instructed to build a sentence that describes the picture by clicking the word or words that
go next in the sentence. After each
response, the correct word or words
are moved into position in the
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
sentence. This continues until the
Button
Keyboard Shortcut
sentence is completed. Each picture
Paw
Space bar
is described by 5 different sentences
that target multiple grammatiNumber keys 1 through 4
Responses, top to bottom
cal structures. Once all sentences
for a picture have been presented,
another picture displays.
How Students Progress through Toad Loader
Toad Loader progresses through 5 levels of difficulty as follows:
>L
evel 1: The student must complete short sentences that use easy and hard grammatical structures and easy vocabulary. In this level only, the first part of the sentence is displayed, and the
student completes the sentence. This level introduces the student to all 15 grammatical structures
presented in the exercise.
>L
evel 2: The student must construct short sentences that use easy grammatical structures
and vocabulary.
26 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Toad loader
>L
evel 3: The student must construct short sentences that use easy grammatical structures and
hard vocabulary.
>L
evel 4: The student must construct long sentences that use hard grammatical structures and
easy vocabulary.
>L
evel 5: The student must construct long sentences that use hard grammatical structures and
hard vocabulary
Easy vocabulary items will use 4th grade level terms or lower. Hard vocabulary items will also include
5th & 6th grade level terms and academic terms. The following 15 grammatical structures are targeted:
• Attributive/Stative
• Simple negation
• Infinitival complement to verb
• Passive voice
• Articles: definite & indefinite
• Appositive phrases
• Prepositional phrases: modifying
subject, verb, or object
• Prepositional phrases: modifying sentence
• Pronouns (case & person/order)
• Commonly misused verbs
• Simple modifiers
• Subject relativization
• Object relativization
• Complex sentences
• Compound sentences
How Students Advance in Toad Loader
In Toad Loader, advancement is based on the number of trials of the same structure type that are
answered correctly. A trial is considered to be the complete sentence. Each response for each sentence
segment is evaluated and points are awarded after each correct response. However, the entire trial is
not evaluated as correct unless all segments of the sentence are selected correctly.
At the end of a level, Toad Loader evaluates whether the student has met the advancement criteria
for each structure type. If the student met the criteria for all structure types, the student advances to
the next level. If the student has not met the criteria, all trials for those structure types not passed are
presented again.
In Level 1, the student must correctly complete 100% (4 of 4) of the sentences for each structure. For
subsequent levels, the student must correctly construct 89% or 90% (either 8 of 9, or 9 of 10) of the
sentences for each structure.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 27
Toad loader
Mastery
If after 3 attempts, the student has not met the criteria for all the structures within a level, Toad
Loader transitions the student to the next level. At the end of the exercise, those structures which
were not passed are repeated, using the same progression and rules of advancement as when they were
originally presented. The student will continue to work on these structures until mastery is achieved.
Points Awarded in Toad Loader
Toad Loader awards points to the student based on the following conditions:
> Correct answers: The student earns 3 points for each correct response. 5 additional points
are awarded when the entire sentence is completed correctly.
> Bonus points: After the student completes 4 trials correctly, Toad Loader rewards the student’s
performance with 10 bonus points
28 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Toad loader
Toad Loader Content Samples
Below is a sample of the content students work on in Toad Loader:
Sentence Grammar Structure Summary
Level 1: Easy vocabulary, short to moderate sentence length, all sentence types
Level 2: Easy vocabulary, short sentence length, low to moderate sentence omplexity
Level 3: Hard vocabulary, short sentence length, low to moderate sentence complexity
Level 4: Easy vocabulary, longer sentence length, moderate to high sentence complexity
Level 5: Hard vocabulary, longer sentence length, moderate to high
Grammatical structure
Attributive/Stative
Simple negation
Infinitival complement to verb
Passive voice
Articles: definite & indefinite
Appositive phrase
Prepositional phrase: modifying subject, verb, or object
Prepositional phrase: modifying sentence
Pronoun (case & person/order)
Commonly misused verbs
Simple modifier
Subject relativization
Object relativization
Complex sentence
Compound sentence
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 29
Toad loader
Individual grammar structure
Attributive/Stative: A stork, looking over the fence, is shocked.
Simple negation: The two worried mice do not enjoy the ride.
Infinitival complement to verb: The raccoon heading toward the business district is not
riding a bike.
Articles: definite & indefinite: A handsome fox, carrying a violin, plays to her from below.
Passive voice: The newspaper is being read by the raccoon on the streetcar.
Appositive phrase: The rhinoceros, an avid kite flyer, was tied up in knots.
Prepositional phrase: modifying subject, verb, or object: At a biology convention, several scientists
enjoy themselves.
Prepositional phrase: modifying sentence: The kangaroos are so excited that they do not see him;
consequently, they keep jumping on the bed.
Pronoun (case & person/order): She and the zebra point at the police car racing down the street.
Commonly misused verbs: A young rabbit has hung some of her paintings on the wall for
the new exhibit.
Simple modifier: The tailor will try to express his opinion tactfully, but the son may be disappointed
nevertheless.
Subject relativization: The woman that clutches her purse listens to the bird and watches the raccoon
get ready to start his chainsaw.
Object relativization: A giraffe befriended two mice that were at the concert.
Complex sentence: The horse coaches as the girl cleans her glove.
Compound sentence: The gardener enjoys his work; however, the other animals in the park might wish
he completed his tasks some other time.
30 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Toad loader
Assessing Student Progress
Student progress can be monitored through a variety of tools that include the Success Viewer as well
as a variety of reports presented by Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
The Success Viewer allows students to view the number of points he or she has earned, and to get a
quick overview of his or her current level in each exercise. The Success Viewer rewards the student with
immediate feedback on his or her performance and helps motivate the student to continue working on
the exercises. This screen is displayed automatically after a student completes the exercises scheduled
for that day.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker:
Key Progress Tracker Reports
In addition to the Success Viewer, Progress Tracker enables teachers to monitor and analyze student
progress. (Detailed explanations of the reports and additional resources are presented in Fast ForWord
to Reading 5 Overview.)
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 31
Toad loader
Motivation & Intervention
Fast ForWord to Reading products require students to maintain consistent focus while working on
the exercises. Some students may find this challenging, so to encourage them, the use of motivational activities is strongly recommended. Additional motivational ideas and activities are listed in the
accompanying DVD and on www.scilearn.com/support.
The following sample activity encourages student to stay on task:
Stamps: Toad Loader encourages the student to continue working on the exercise by display-
ing stamps on the screen as the student masters the content within the exercise. The student will
continue to work on the exercise until the skills in the exercise are mastered.
Intervention
Sample Motivation Activity
Below is a sample intervention activity for teachers to use when students
are struggling with recognizing and
constructing sentences. Additional intervention activities are available on the Fast
ForWord to Reading 5 DVD, by clicking
on Fast ForWord Progress Tracker and on
www.scientificlearning.com.
Toad Loader
Snail Mail
Skill: Recognizing and constructing sentences
Materials: “Fun” sentences printed or
written on strips of paper and cut into
segments (between words.)
Grade Level: Middle & High School
Activity: Model putting the sentence segments
in order, reading the sentence aloud as it is built.
Think aloud as you model, making a few mistakes and
self-correcting. The student then practices what was
modeled and explains why some orders work and some
do not. Variation: Using comic strips, participants
sequence pictures that tell a story.
32 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Wood
WORKS
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 consists of
five exercises presenting reading skill
instruction that correlates to Grade 5
reading standards.
GOAL
> Build accuracy and fluency in
phonemic analysis, decoding, and
spelling by working with multiple
spelling patterns for 36 English
phonemes
SKILLS
Cognitive Skills
> Memory — using long-term recall for spelling and using working memory to remember the
target word
> Attention — selective attention
> Processing — auditory and visual
Reading/Language Arts Skills
> Develop advanced phonics and spelling skills through categorization of words with
complex spelling patterns by sound
> Identify the correct spelling patterns for words that use different spellings for the
same sounds (e.g., delightful, hydrogen) (The most common spelling patterns for 24
phonemes are covered, along with 19 sound-spelling relationships that are commonly
confused by English Language Learners.)
> Work with multiple words that illustrate each targeted spelling pattern, including
examples of the pattern in initial, medial, and final position, whenever appropriate
(e.g., query, equator, unique)
> Work with over 1500 spelling words are presented, including 55 terms from math
and geometry, 98 terms from social studies and geography, and 100 terms from the
sciences
TASK
Read a word, then sort the written word by one of the sounds it contains into sound
bins labeled with phonetic (dictionary) symbols. Later, listen to a word, and then sort
it by the spelling pattern needed to correctly spell it.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 33
Wood WOrks
FifTH Grade Reading Standards
> Spell roots, suffixes, prefixes, contractions, and syllable constructions correctly
How Students Work on Wood Works
In Wood Works, the student helps the wood worker on the barge sort words (on pieces of wood) into
phoneme-based and spelling-based categories. As the words are correctly sorted, the wood worker uses
a variety of tools to move the wood into the bins.
Sort by Phoneme: A set of 4 category bins display; each bin is labeled with a phonetic symbol that
represents a target phoneme. Each phoneme is aurally presented as the bin is introduced; for example,
“Has a sound like the ‘c’ in ‘car’ or the ‘ck’ in ‘jacket’.” (The student can click a speaker next to a bin
at any time to repeat the definition for the bin, but fewer points will be awarded and the trial will not
count as correct for advancement.) The student sees the text of a word. The student sorts the word by
clicking the bin with the phonetic symbol for a phoneme that is contained in the word.
Sort by Spelling: A set of 4 bins
is displayed; each bin is labeled with
a spelling pattern. The student hears
a word pronounced. The student
sorts the word by clicking the bin
with the spelling pattern that is
contained in the word.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Button
Keyboard Shortcut
Paw
Category bins, top to bottom
Space bar
Number keys 1 through 4
How Students Progress through Wood Works
Wood Works progresses through 4 levels based on the difficulty level of the vocabulary and the task type:
> Level 1: Easy Vocabulary, Sort by Phoneme
> Level 2: Easy Vocabulary, Sort by Spelling
> Level 3: Hard Vocabulary, Sort by Phoneme
> Level 4: Hard Vocabulary, Sort by Spelling
34 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Wood WOrks
Easy Vocabulary includes one and two-syllable words at the 4th or 5th grade level. Hard vocabulary
includes 5th/6th grade level words, as well as elementary/middle school level academic terms. Hard
vocabulary terms range from two to five syllables in length.
Within each task type, the student progresses through multiple sets of phonemes or spelling patterns
for each of the groups below:
Sort by Phoneme
> Consonant sounds with few spellings (e.g., [/z/ /s/ /th/])
> Consonant sounds with many spellings (e.g., [/zh/ /j/ /ng/])
> Vowel sounds with many spellings (e.g., [/a/ /e/ /i/])
Sort by Spelling
> Common errors for English Language Learners (e.g.,[ll, y] for /y/)
> Simple consonant patterns (e.g., [d, dd, ed] for /d/)
> Complex consonant patterns (e.g., [s, c, ss, sc] for /s/)
> Short vowels (e.g., [i, y, e] for /i/)
> Long vowels (e.g., [o, o_e, ow, oa] for /long-o/) )
> Special vowels (e.g., [u, u_e, ew, ue] for /yoo/)
How Students Advance in Wood Works
For each set of categories (phonemes or spelling patterns), Wood Works will randomly select 20
words for sorting. After all 20 words in the set have been sorted, that group of trials is evaluated.
If at least 90% of the trials (18 out of 20) are sorted correctly, the student advances to the next
set. If the student does not sort 90% of the trials correctly, the set is repeated, with 20 words again
randomly selected from the same set of categories. The set will repeat until the student has either
achieved mastery at 90% correct or has attempted the set 3 times.(The first time the student enters
a task type, Wood Works familiarizes the student with the task by presenting a set of phonemes
or spelling patterns that are easily contrasted. This set will continue to repeat until the student has
achieved mastery at 90% correct.)
Each time the student passes 2 sets, the student will advance to a Fluency Round. The Fluency Round
presents 20 randomly selected words from the same set of categories just passed. However, each word
must now be sorted within the time limit. Wood Works tracks these responses, but the trials will not
affect the student’s advancement in Wood Works.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 35
Wood WOrks
The Fluency Round works as follows:
When the paw turns into a timer, the fluency round (or speed round) begins. The student must work
on the exercise as before, but faster. The student only has a few seconds to sort each word. The student should sort each word as quickly as possible, without making mistakes, to earn the most points.
In the Fluency Round, bonus points are not displayed until the Fluency Round ends. The Fluency
Round ends when the timer runs out. The Fluency Round provides an opportunity for the student to
review the material at a faster pace and earn extra points.
Mastery
If after 3 attempts, the student has not met the 90% criteria for passing a set, Wood Works transitions
the student to the next set. At the end of the exercise, those sets which were not passed are repeated,
using the same progression and rules of advancement as when they were originally presented. The
student will continue to work on these sets until mastery is achieved.
36 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Wood WOrks
Points Awarded in Wood Works
Wood Works awards points to the student based on the following conditions:
> Correct answers: The student earns 3 points for each trial that is completed correctly. If the
student clicks the speaker to hear the category definition before answering the trial correctly, only
2 points are awarded.
> Bonus points: After the student completes 10 trials correctly, Wood Works rewards the student’s performance with 10 bonus points. If the speaker was clicked before the trial was answered,
it is not counted towards bonus points.
Wood Works Content
Below is a sample of the content presented to students while they are working through the exercise:
Phonetic Symbols and Key Words
cherry, picture
jam, fudge
cat, bake
lamp, doll
nut, funny
monkey, king
road, wrong
snow, place
/sh/ /th/
/w/ /z/ /zh/
/a/ /ā/ /e/ shark, nation
thumb, path
water, once
zebra, cheese
division, rouge
apple, cat
day, greatest
egg, bed
/ē/ /i/
/ī/
/ō/ /oi/
/ou/
/ /
e
/ch/ /j/
k/
/l/ /n/ /ng/ /r/ /s/ me, lucky
inch, pig
ice, fly
go, oak
oil, toy
outside, allow
upon, zebra
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 37
Wood WOrks
Sort by Phoneme
Consonant sounds with few spellings:
/z/, /s/, /th/, none
bronze brace
depth
mansion
bruise chess
myth
foothold
exaggerate fluorescent theorem illusion
/l/, /r/, /w/, none
skull wreck
once
bellow carriage someone
calamity monarchy twanging
viewpoint
genius
sinew
Consonant sounds with many spellings:
/zh/, /j/, /ng/, none
leisure
junior
wrinkle eager
beige
reject
zinc
unglue
camouflage archaeology instinct ancestor
/ch/, /sh/, /k/, none
vacuum
achieve glacier
unknown
quote
fortune portion
cement
merchandise replenish mechanism dishearten
Vowel sounds with many spellings
/ /, /o– /, /oi/, /ou/
adapt
pillow moist
growl
pirate
dough coil
greenhouse
adaptation plateau gargoyle discount
e
/a– /, /e– /, /i– /, none
convey eve
grind
curtain
ache conceal triumph plaque
respiration meteor projectile bureaucrat
38 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
/a/, /e/, /i/, none
vacuum
treasure
fraction
ahead
translucent enzyme
guilty
bruise
rhythm bleat
organism prescribe
Wood WOrks
Sort by Spelling
Common errors for English Language Learners
b, p, v, f
cube
blizzard
abdomen
j, h, g, y
justice
adjust
conjunction
adapt
rapid
diplomat
virtue
lava
evidence
howl
glitter
uphill
ignore
hibernate diagram
x, ks, ck, sk
vex
bookstore tackle
mixture
peaks
package
maximum irksome
mackerel
foreign
grateful
reflex
es, ex, s, sh
escape extinctscratch
escort extreme stalwart
shortage
yonder
yawn
yeoman
ll, y, w, e
lull yucca
width frequent
gallop yardstick
warp female
pollination flamboyant wizard eclipse
shepherd
exploit
sketch
risk
skeleton
Simple consonant patterns
d, dd, ed, none
blizzard saddle
decay
ladder
legend
adder
rugged
bloomed
isolated
m, mm, lm, none
esteem trimmings
ample
immense
muzzle accommodate
r, rr, wr, none
rigid
quarrel
surgeon
porridge
Hysteria
arroyo
blanket
kettle
jovial
salmon
palm
balmy
written
wrist
wretched
nibble
banner
initiative
t, tt, ed, none
partridge shatterpublished
countless nettlecloaked
tranquil plattercramped
n, nn, kn, none
zone
inner
quaint
funnel
cylinder tyranny
knuckle
knitted
kneecap
breeches
horrid
reproach
theme
medium
gypsum
fable
fiction
zealous
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 39
Wood WOrks
Complex consonant patterns
s, c, ss, sc
genius
excite
gossip
discern
gesture
celery
profess
ascend
amorphous cerebellum ambassador discipline
c, cc, k, qu
lecture occur
canine
accuse
calamity impeccable
larkspur
rebuke
provoke
s, z, zz, none
resume
gazelle blizzard
treason
breeze jazz
translucent ozone quizzical
g, j, dg, none
quaint
gesture jersey
request
algae jaw
unqualified foliage judiciary
ch, t, tch, none
mischief sculpture
butcher pizza
Orchard lecture
itch bashful
beseech combustion blotchy magician
hedge
lodge
cartridge
exempt
exchange
exaggerate
vision
spinach
windshield
ti, sh, ch, ci
notion sheriff
chagrin precious
spatial mushroom quiche species
Short vowels
u, o, ou, none
umble monkenough warrant
upward compasstouch alert
i, y, e, none
whiff onyxemerge mutton
blimp crystalcomet odd
o, a, au, aw
stocking yachttaunt hawk
college dramaaustere flaw
oo, u, ou, none
redwood sugarcould barrel
wool pullshould abide
Long vowels
a, a_e, ai, ay
gravy behave major ape obtain prevail stray
mayor
i_e, I, y, igh
exile vibrantoutcry frighten
unite pilotcycle alight
oo, u_e, o_e, ou
groove dunewhose
zoo induceapprove
40 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
youth
wound
e, ea, ee, ie
maybe eastcareer priest
scenic eatingkeen frontier
o, o_e, ow, oa
soldier frozesorrow loaf
hero thronesmeadow boast
Wood WOrks
Special vowels
u, u_e, ew, ue
humor commute
music perfume
few
nephew
rescue
fuel
eer, ear, ere, none
steer beardhereby cashier
reindeerclearsincere hero
are, air, ar, none
glare
repair
welfare wheelchair
wary
garish
er, ir, ur, none
perch
virtuesurvey
shimmer birchturquoise
somewhere
theirs
acre
tailor
Assessing Student Progress
Student progress can be monitored through a variety of tools that include the Success Viewer as well
as a variety of reports presented by Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
The Success Viewer allows students to view the number of points he or she has earned, and to get a
quick overview of his or her current level in each exercise. The Success Viewer rewards the student with
immediate feedback on his or her performance and helps motivate the student to continue working
on the exercises. This screen is displayed automatically after a student completes the exercises scheduled
for that day.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker:
Key Progress Tracker Reports
In addition to the Success Viewer, Progress Tracker enables teachers to monitor and analyze student
progress. (Detailed explanations of the reports and additional resources are presented in Fast ForWord
to Reading 5 Overview.)
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 41
Wood WOrks
Motivation & Intervention
Fast ForWord to Reading products require students to maintain consistent focus while working on
the exercises. Some students may find this challenging, so to encourage them, the use of motivational
activities is strongly recommended. Additional motivational ideas and activities are listed in the
accompanying DVD and on www.scilearn.com/support.
The following tools are helpful to keep students motivated:
Stars: Wood Works encourages the student to continue working by displaying stars on the
screen as the student masters the content within the exercise. The student will continue to work
on the exercise until the skills in the exercise are mastered.
Points
The Wood Works Points screen includes the
icons awarded by each exercise as the student
masters the exercise content. The icons encourage the student to continue working on an
exercise. When an exercise is completely mastered, all of the icons are displayed.
Intervention
On the right is a sample intervention activity
for teachers to use when students are struggling
with decoding multi-syllabic words. Additional
intervention activities are available on the
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 DVD, by clicking
on Fast ForWord Progress Tracker and on
www.scientificlearning.com/support
Sample Intervention Activity
Wood Works —
Syllables
and
Sounds
Skill: Decoding multi-syllabic words
Materials: List of two, three and four-syllable words,
Paper, pen
Grade Level: Middle & High School
Activity: For students struggling with the sound-sort
portion of Wood Works, especially at the advanced level,
the problem may be decoding long words accurately.
Provide a mini-lesson in using syllabication to facilitate
decoding. Say a few multi- syllabic words (use vocabulary
from the Word Works exercise) slowly several times. Then
clap the syllables. Write the syllables on paper. Model
how to find and mark syllable boundaries in unfamiliar
words and have students practice this skill.
42 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Gator
Jam
GOAL
>B
uild vocabulary skills and improve accuracy and
fluency in critical thinking and abstract reasoning
by completing analogies and sorting them based
on the type of analogical relationship illustrated
SKILLS
Cognitive Skills
>M
emory — exercising long-term memory for
vocabulary and working memory for comparing
words
>A
ttention — selectively attending to various linguistic dimensions
>P
rocessing — developing fluent access to the
multiple relationships among words
>S
equencing — recognizing directionality of word
relationships
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 consists of five exercises presenting
reading skill instruction that
correlates to Grade 5 reading
standards.
Reading/Language Arts Skills
> Work with analogies in two ways: learning targeted vocabulary in the
context of analogies, and learning to analyze analogies and identify
the semantic relationships they convey
> Learn different aspects of word meaning while working in 95 key
vocabulary words (along with over 1900 context words), each of which
is presented in 3 to 6 different analogies
> Recognize and learn 27 high-utility Latin and Greek morphemes, each
of them appearing in 2 to 7 of the key vocabulary words
> Work with a built-in glossary provides dictionary-like definitions of
the key words and other difficult terms in each item for Students who
need extra vocabulary support
TASK
Complete an analogy by identifying the missing word or words. Later,
read a completed analogy, and then sort it by the type of analogical
relationship it demonstrates.
Fast ForWord to Reading 4 | 43
Gator Jam
FifTH Grade Reading Standards
> Know abstract, derived roots and affixes from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to
analyze the meaning of complex words.
> Understand and explain frequently used synonyms and antonyms.
How Students Work on Gator Jam
In Gator Jam, the student helps the hippo and the alligator musicians with their serenade by filling
in the missing words to complete analogies, and by sorting the analogies into categories that describe
their analogical relationship.
Complete the Analogy: The
student is presented with 4 analogy
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
types and selects one to work on.
Button
Keyboard Shortcut
Gator Jam presents an analogy of
Paw
Space bar
that type with one of the terms in
Responses, top to bottom, left to right Number keys 1 through 4
the analogy missing. The student
must click the term that correctly
completes the analogy. After completing 5 analogies for the selected analogy type, The student selects another analogy type to work on.
This continues until The student completes all analogies for the 4 analogy types.
Categorize the Analogy: Gator Jam presents a completed analogy. The student clicks the
correct analogy type. This continues until the student has categorized all 20 analogies previously
completed. Help is available for students who need assistance with vocabulary or with understanding analogical relationships.
> When completing analogies, brief definitions will be available for one or more vocabulary words.
A student clicks the question mark on the dictionary, and a list of the words defined for that trial
will appear. The student clicks the question mark next to a word to see its definition.
> When categorizing analogies, a student clicks the question mark on the alligator’s hat next to an
analogy type to see a definition of that type.
> Clicking the help button will result in fewer points being awarded for correct answers, but does
not affect the student’s advancement in the exercise.
44 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Gator Jam
How Students Progress through Gator Jam
Gator Jam progresses through 4 levels based on the difficulty level of the key vocabulary:
> Level 1: 80 different analogies using 20 key vocabulary terms (4th grade level). The analogical
relationship is explicitly stated in the analogy. For example: Oxygen is a kind of gas, like the Earth
is a kind of _____. (planet, moon, soil, liquid)
> Level 2: 80 analogies repeated from Level 1 with the analogical relationship implied, not stated.
For example, Oxygen is to gas, as Earth is to _____. (planet, moon, soil, liquid)
> Level 3: 240 analogies using 55 key vocabulary terms (5th–7th grade level). The analogical relationship is implied.
> Level 4: 80 analogies using 20 key vocabulary terms (middle school level and academic terms).
The analogical relationship is implied.
The following 12 analogy types are presented. Some types will be presented in multiple sets within
each level.
• Synonyms
• Antonyms
• Weaker and Stronger
• Categories
• Part to Whole
• Grammatical Forms
• Features
• Locations
• Cause and Effect
• Creator and Creation
• Functions
• Tools
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 45
Gator Jam
How Students Advance in Gator Jam
For each of the 4 analogy types available for selection on a screen, Gator Jam presents 5 trials. In
order to advance, the student must answer 18 out of these 20 trials correctly (90%). Additionally, the
student must answer at least 4 out of 5 trials for each analogy type correctly. In Level 1, the student
advances to the next selection screen which will present another set of 4 analogy types. If the student
is in a later level, the student advances to the categorization task. If the student does not meet these
criteria, the student returns to the selection screen for the current set, with all analogy types again
available for selection. The student will be given a total of 3 attempts to complete the set.
During the categorization task, the student is presented with 20 trials. These trials are not evaluated
for advancement in the exercise; however they do present to the student an opportunity to earn
more points.
46 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Gator Jam
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 47
Gator Jam
Mastery
If after 3 attempts, the student has not met the 90% criteria for passing a set, Gator Jam transitions
the student to the next set. At the end of the exercise, those sets which were not passed are repeated,
using the same progression and rules of advancement as when they were originally presented. The
student will continue to work on these sets until mastery is achieved.
Points Awarded in Gator Jam
Gator Jam awards points to the student based on the following conditions:
> Correct answers: The student earns 5 points for each trial that is completed correctly.
> Bonus points: After the student completes 12 trials correctly, Gator Jam rewards the student’s
performance with 10 bonus points.
Gator Jam Content Samples
1. Analogy type: morpheme and key word
By analogy type
By morpheme and key word
Analogy Type
Morpheme
Key Word
Synonyms
Antonyms
Weaker/Stronger
Categories
Part to Whole
Grammatical Forms
Features (thing / characteristic of thing)
Locations
Cause & Effect
Creator / Creation
Functions
Tools ( tool / person who uses tool)
auto
autobiography
autograph
automation autonomy
inter
interference
international
interpret
intersection
interval
sphere
atmosphere
hemisphere
stratosphere
48 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Gator Jam
2. Analogies with relationship explicit in
sentence (Sample)
Level 1
Antonyms
Synonyms
Hasty is the opposite of careful, like upset is the
opposite of ________.
Involved is another word for engaged, like
exposed is another word for ____.
calm uncovered unlimited downstairs careless bothered
positioned hidden
Weaker / Stronger
Categories
A stronger word for similarity is uniformity, like a
stronger word for tired is exhausted.
A cartoonist is a kind of artist, like a __________is a
kind of musician.
opposite strange guitarist united same
piano bicyclist song
Part to Whole
Grammatical Forms
Your relative is a part of your family, like your
elbow is a part of your ______.
Sadness is a noun while sad is an adjective; likewise, ______ is a noun while angry is an adjective.
arm anger cousin hand knee
angrily angered annoyed
Features
Locations
Reruns are shown on ________, like coded messages
are sent by telegraph.
A microscope can be found in a ___________, like a pillow can be found on a bed.
television telescope lab telephone atmosphere
view cells
bedroom
Cause and Effect
Creator/Creation
Pushing an object causes movement, like burning
wood causes __________.
A sculptor creates a form, like a chef creates a
_________.
smoke meal fireplace motion pulling
fort model cookbook
Functions
Tools
A detective works at ________, like a carpenter works
at building.
A ________ is used by an artist, like a rake is used by a
gardener.
investigating instructing home hammering
brush studio soda can painting
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 49
Gator Jam
3. Analogies with inferred relationship (Sample)
Level 4
Antonyms
Synonyms
Navigable is to obstructed, as mild is to _________.
Dissent is to disagree, as surrender is to _________.
severe yield constructed placid mildew
survey gain surrogate
Weaker / Stronger
Categories
Translucent is to transparent, as similar is to
__________.
Stratospheric is to _______, as gigantic is to size.
identical different simultaneous indented
height sphere distance tall
Part to Whole
Grammatical Forms
Variable is to algebra, as note is to ________.
Precedent is to _______, as meaning is to meaningful.
music preceding spherical notorious noteworthy musician
atmosphere lofty
Features
Locations
Intrusive is to _______, as limber is to acrobat.
Preamble is to ________, as basement is to below.
thief beginning walkway intern interrupt juggler
beside westward
Cause and Effect
Creator / Creation
Meddling is to interference, as joking is to _______.
Diplomat is to disarmament, as choir leader is to
__________.
laughter joker humor anger
harmony harmful Functions
Automation is to productivity, as advice is to ________.
assistance suggestion advisor 50 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
creativity
songs singers
Gator Jam
Assessing Student Progress
Student progress can be monitored through a variety of tools that include the Success Viewer as well
as a variety of reports presented by Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
The Success Viewer allows students to view the number of points he or she has earned, and to get a
quick overview of his or her current level in each exercise. The Success Viewer rewards the student
with immediate feedback on his or her performance and helps motivate the student to continue
working on the exercises. This screen is displayed automatically after a student completes the exercises
scheduled for that day.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker:
Key Progress Tracker Reports
In addition to the Success Viewer, Progress Tracker enables teachers to monitor and analyze student
progress. (Detailed explanations of the reports and additional resources are presented in Fast ForWord
to Reading 5 Overview.)
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 51
Gator Jam
Motivation and Intervention
Fast ForWord to Reading products require students to maintain consistent focus while working on the
exercises. Some students may find this challenging, so to encourage them, the use of motivational
activities is strongly recommended. Additional motivational ideas and activities are listed in the
accompanying DVD and on www.scilearn.com/support. The following sample activity can be easily
introduced into a classroom to encourage students to reach 80% completion in an exercise.
Completion Ribbons: Make an award ribbon for each student, putting the name of the stu-
dent on the ribbon. Display the ribbons on a bulletin board. Using the Fast ForWord character for
each Fast ForWord to Reading 5 exercise, make pugs. As each student reaches 80% completion in
the exercise, the pug with that exercise character is put on their ribbon.
Intervention
Below is a sample intervention
activity for teachers to use when
students need additional assistance
to build vocabulary skills in word
relationships. Additional intervention activities are available on
the Fast ForWord to Reading 5
DVD, by clicking on Fast ForWord
Progress Tracker and on
www.scientificlearning.
com/support.
Sample Intervention Activity
Gator Jam
Vocabulary
Detective
Skill: Building vocabulary skills in word relationships
Grade Level: Middle & High School
Type of Activity: Individual
Materials: Information from each student’s Progress Tracker Error
Report Writing material
Activity: Identify words that the students are struggling with.
Provide each word in the context of a sentence. Then ask students to
define that word. Explain how the context sentence helped them get
the meaning.
Variation: Each student looks up their own error word in a dictionary, writes down at least 3 things they know about each word (e.g.,
part of speech, synonym, what it is used for or made of, meaning of
root words.)
52 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Lana’s
Lanes
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 consists of five exercises
presenting reading skill instruction that correlates to
Grade 5 reading standards.
GOAL
> Build skills in accurate text comprehension and the use of comprehension strategies, when
reading fiction and non-fiction texts that include literary structures and devices
SKILLS
Cognitive Skills
>M
emory — using working memory for sentence comprehension and building
text-level representations in long-term memory
> Attention — selectively attending to critical information and sustaining attention
>P
rocessing — developing fluency in extracting and integrating meaning form
longer text passages
> Sequencing — recognizing causal and temporal event sequences in texts >
Reading/Language Arts Skills
> Build skills in accurate text comprehension
>B
uild comprehension strategies by reading fiction or nonfiction passages,
Complete a graphic organizer or summary of each passage
>A
nswering comprehension questions with and without the aid of the graphic
organizers/summaries
>W
ork with 4 of the 7 critical comprehension strategies as identified by the National
Reading Panel: graphic/semantic organizers, summarization, question answering,
and using multiple strategies
>W
ork with new strategies that are introduced with highly scaffolded tasks, but as students
progress this scaffolding is reduced and students must work more independently with
the strategy
>W
ork with comprehension questions initially focus on literal facts, but as students
progress, they increasingly emphasize inferential processes (e.g., main idea)
>A
nalyze the structural features of diagrams, tables, concept webs, flowcharts, timelines,
and summaries, and think about how these devices can organize information from a text
TASK
Read a short fiction or non-fiction passage, complete a graphic organizer or summary of
the passage, and answer comprehension questions.
Fast ForWord to Reading 4 | 53
LANA’s LAnes
FifiTH Grade Reading Standards
> Gaining information from text: Discern main ideas & evidence that supports those ideas;
draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations.
> Structural analysis of text: Understand text features (e.g., format, graphics, diagrams,
illustrations, charts, maps); analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order
How Students Work on Lana’s Lanes
In Lana’s Lanes the student works with each passage in 3 stages:
> Stage 1: Read the passage:
The student reads the passage and
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
answers comprehension questions
Button
about the passage. The student
Paw
clicks the response that best answers
Done Reading
the question. If the student answers
incorrectly, the passage and question
Responses, left to right, top to bottom
are presented again, with previously
selected answers no longer available
and fewer points are awarded for a correct response.
Keyboard Shortcut
Space bar
Space bar
Number keys 1 through 4
> S tage 2: Perform a comprehension strategy task: The student works on one of the
following tasks designed to reinforce strategies for improved text comprehension:
Choose a diagram: The student clicks the
response with the number of the circle diagram
that illustrates an idea from the passage.
Lana’s Lanes — Choose a Diagram
54 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
LANA’s Lanes
Fill in a graphic organizer: The student
works on the following graphic organizers in
Lana’s Lanes, in this order:
> Diagrams
> Tables
> Concept Webs
> Flowcharts and Timelines
Choose a summary: The student clicks the
best summary of the passage.
Build a summary: The student is presented
with 4 sentences and clicks the sentence that
begins a summary of the passage. The sentence
moves into place in the summary and the
student is presented with 4 more sentences.
The student clicks the next sentence and it also
moves into place in the summary. This continues until the summary is completed.
Lana’s Lanes — Fill in a Diagram
If the student gives an incorrect response during
these tasks, the student is immediately presented
with the passage for rereading. The trial is
presented again with previously selected answers
no longer available and fewer points are awarded
for a correct response.
> S tage 3: Answer comprehension
strategy questions: The graphic organizer
or summary worked on in the earlier stages is
displayed on the screen. The student uses the
information presented to answer comprehension questions about the passage by clicking the
response that best answers the question.
Lana’s Lanes — Choose a Summary
Lana’s Lanes — Build a Summary
Fast ForWord to Reading 45 | 55
LANA’s LAnes
How Students Progress through Lana’s Lanes
Lana’s Lanes progresses through 7 levels, based on the type of strategy task being worked on:
> Level 1: Choose a diagram
> Level 2: Fill in a diagram
> Level 3: Fill in a table
> Level 4: Fill in a concept web
> Level 5: Fill in a flowchart or timeline
> Level 6: Choose a summary
> Level 7: Build a summary
Within each level, as the students progress, they move from shorter texts (75-200 words) to longer
texts (240-480 words), and the difficulty level of the passages increases from 3rd-5th grade level to
6th-7th grade level. The difficulty of the comprehension questions also increases.
How Students Advance in Lana’s Lanes
In Lana’s Lanes, only the strategy comprehension questions in Stage 3 are evaluated for advancement.
For each passage within a level, the student must answer 4 out of 5 questions correctly (or 3/3 if only
3 questions are available). At the end of the level, any passages for which the criteria were not met are
repeated. If the student meets the criteria for all passages within the level, the student advances to the
next level.
Mastery
If after 3 attempts, the student has not met the criteria for passing a level, Lana’s Lanes transitions
the student to the next level. At the end of the exercise, those passages which were not passed are
repeated. The student will continue to work on these passages until mastery is achieved.
56 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
LANA’s Lanes
Reentering Lana’s Lanes
If exiting before the end of Stage 1, the student is returned to the beginning of Stage 1 upon re-entry.
If exiting before the end of Stage 2, the student is presented with the passage, and after clicking Done
Reading through all pages of the current passage, is returned to the beginning of Stage 2. If exiting
after Stage 2, student is returned to the next unanswered question in Stage 3.
Points Awarded in Lana’s Lanes
Lana’s Lanes awards points to the student based on the following conditions:
> Correct answers: The student earns 8 points for each correct response.
> Bonus points: After the student completes 8 trials correctly, Lana’s Lanes rewards the student’s
performance with 20 bonus points.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 57
LANA’s LAnes
Lana’s Lanes Content Samples
Below is listed content samples students work with in Lana’s Lanes.
Comprehension strategy tasks:
> Graphic Organizer: Choose a diagram
> Graphic Organizer: Fill in a diagram
> Graphic Organizer: Fill in a table
> Graphic Organizer: Fill in a concept web
> Graphic Organizer: Fill in flow chart / diagram
> Summarization: Choose a summary
> Summarization: Build a summary
Comprehension strategy questions:
> Graphic Organizer: Circle diagrams
> Graphic Organizer: Tables (Easy, Hard)
> Graphic Organizer: Concept webs (Easy, Hard)
> Graphic Organizer: Flow charts / timelines (Easy, Hard)
> Summarization (Easy, Hard)
(Easy: literal questions that can be answered with reference to the completed graphic organizer or
summary. Hard: questions requiring integration of multiple pieces of information, inference, or
understanding of how the strategy task enables a more thorough comprehension of the passage.)
58 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
LANA’s Lanes
Passage comprehension
Level 1 Passage: Green Ziplings
The people of planet Zip are known as Ziplings. Like Earthlings, Ziplings have smooth skin covering
their bodies. However, all Ziplings have a greenish tint to their skin. This is because, like many plants
on Earth, they utilize photosynthesis. Chemicals in their skin convert solar energy into nutrients.
When a Zipling feels hungry, a little time outdoors in the sunlight makes a perfectly good snack.
However, they can also eat what we would consider food. They must eat extra food during the
winter, when there are less hours of sunlight. Indeed, some Ziplings waste away during the winter
because they fail to eat enough food.
Q: According to the story, how are Ziplings like plants?
A: They use photosynthesis to make nutrients.
They convert solar energy in their leaves.
They cannot grow without enough sunlight.
They have smooth greenish skin covering their bodies.
Comprehension strategy tasks
Graphic organizers: choose a diagram
Level 1 Passage: Zip Solar Culture
Since sunlight is an important form of food for Ziplings, the sun plays a big role in their culture.
Throughout their history, Zipling artists and musicians have been inspired by the sun. Pictures of the
sun have been found on some ancient Zipling ruins. A picture of the sun even appears on Zipling
money.
All of the popular holidays on zip are held in the spring and summer. Everyone’s favorite is an early
spring holiday, called “Triumph of the Sun.” It celebrates the lengthening hours of daylight and sunny
seasons ahead. The sun influences daily life, too. For example, traditional Zip homes have windows
facing all directions.
Q: According to the story, which of these statements
is true?
A: No popular Zipling holidays are winter or fall events
All popular Zipling holidays are summer or fall events.
All Zipling holidays are spring or summer events.
No Zipling holidays are winter or spring events.
Q: Select the diagram that illustrates the
statement, “No popular Zipling holidays are winter or fall events.”
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 59
LANA’s LAnes
Graphic organizers: fill in a diagram
Level 2 Passage: Zipling Architecture
All Ziplings prefer homes that are lit with direct sunlight. However, some must settle for less sunny
homes. This is most often a problem for city dwellers. City apartments might only have windows on
two or three sides! Still, the demand for sun-filled rooms has shaped Zipling skylines.
On Earth, most buildings are shaped like boxes. Not so on Zip! Their buildings come in wildly different shapes. Furthermore, city blocks are designed around waterways, courtyards, and greens.
Then the buildings are carefully positioned for the best light. Zipling architects strive to design large
buildings with a high “quality of light” for residents. The buildings that win their architectural prizes
always meet this ideal.
Q: Select the missing text to illustrate the following statement: All prize winning buildings are sunny.
A: Sunny buildings
Prize winners
Winning architects
Sun-filled rooms
Graphic organizers: fill in a table, concept web, or flowchart/timeline
Level 4 passage: Onions
No matter how you feel about the taste of onions you will probably agree that they are a pain to
deal with when you are trying to prepare them for cooking. Onions contain sulfur, which makes our
eyes hurt and tear up.
There is a trick that can make slicing an onion less painful. Try slicing it under cold water. This will
prevent the sulfur from reaching your eyes and making you cry.
Not all onions have such a sharp taste. Some have a mildly sweet taste. However, these onions are
harder to find and more expensive than other varieties.
No matter how you slice them, onions are good for you. They contain lots of potassium, magnesium,
and calcium.
If you love onions, you are not alone. The ancient Egyptians worshiped onions. To them, onions
symbolized eternal life.
The onions we eat today may have first come from Central Asia, where they still grow wild. Raw or
cooked, onions are now a popular food all over the world.
And if you just can’t stomach the idea of eating raw onions, try plugging your nose and closing your
eyes while biting into one. It will taste almost like an apple.
Q: Select the missing text for (x)
A: Makes you cry
Nutritious
Contains calcium
Slice under water
60 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
LANA’s Lanes
Summarization: Choose a summary
Level 6 passage: A Well Broken Horse
When I was four years old, Squire Gordon came to look at me. He examined my eyes, my mouth, and
my legs; he felt them all down, and then I had to walk and trot and gallop before him; he seemed to
like me, and said, “When he has been well broken in he will do very well.” My master said he would
break me in himself, and he lost no time about it, for the next day he began.
Every one may not know what breading in is, therefore I will describe it. It means to teach a horse
to wear a saddle and bridle, and to carry on his back a man, woman, or child; to go just the way they
wish, and to go quietly. Besides this, he has to learn to wear a collar, and a breeching, and to stand
still while they are put on; then to have a cart or a buggy fixed behind, so that he cannot walk or trot
without dragging it after him; and he must go fast or slow, just as his driver wishes. He must never
start at what he sees, nor speak to other horses, nor bite, nor kick, nor have any will of his own, but
always do his master’s will, even though he may be very tired or hungry; but the worst of all is, when
his harness is once on, he may neither jump for joy nor lie down for weariness. So you see this breaking in is a great thing.
Q: Select the best summary of the passage.
Squire Gordon examines his four-year-old horse. He decides it is time to break in the horse.
“Breaking in” a horse means teaching it to carry a passenger quietly, to stand still when being harnessed to a car, and to follow a driver’s commands. A well broken in horse will never misbehave.
When I was four, Squire Gordon came and examined my eyes, mouth, and legs. He made me walk,
trot, and gallop. A broken in horse cannot walk or trot without dragging a cart behind. He said he
would break me in himself. Not everyone knows what breaking in is, but it is a great thing.
Sometimes horses wear a saddle and bridle. Other times they wear a collar and breeching, and
then pull a cart or buggy behind them. When he is wearing these things, a horse should not speak
to other horses, because he is at work. He may also have to carry a passenger on his back.
Horses are often broken in when they are about four years old. Squire Gordon owned such a horse.
His horse was taught to carry men, women, and children on its back. If it were to bite or kick, it
would surely get in trouble. Some horses develop a bad habit of biting their passengers.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 61
LANA’s LAnes
Summarization: Build a summary
Level 7 Passage: The Sun
Our Sun is a star in our solar system. It is the brightest object in the sky, during the day. In fact, it
is so bright that you should never look directly at it without using a special kind of eye protection.
Regular sunglasses are not enough to protect our sensitive eyes from its blinding brightness.
The Sun is so bright that people used to think it was on fire all of the time. We now know that the
Sun is not a huge fireball. Actually, it is glowing so brightly because of nuclear fusion reactions that
are happening at its center.
The center of the Sun is called the core, and this is where nuclear fusion turns hydrogen into
helium. Converting one element into another through nuclear fusion requires certain conditions. An
element like hydrogen must be present in extremely high density at an extremely high temperature.
When these conditions are met, like they are in the core of the Sun, atoms get so close together
that their nuclei will fuse.
When the centers of the atoms join in this way, a new atom is created. The new atom will be almost
as heavy as the combined mass of the original atoms…but not quite. What happens to the little bit
of mass that is left over? This mass is converted into energy in the fusion process. The Sun glows
because it is constantly releasing this energy.
Much of the energy released by the Sun is in the form of light and heat. Thus, the Sun is too hot
to ever visit. It is so hot that a modern spacecraft couldn’t even get close it. The outer surface of
the Sun is about 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit. To give you an idea of just how hot that is, a hot day
on Earth can be about 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the hottest temperature most kitchen ovens
reach is 500 degrees Fahrenheit!
In addition to being extremely hot, the Sun is also very large. It contains over ninety percent of all
the mass in our solar system. In fact, if the Sun were hollow, approximately a million planets the size
of Earth could fit inside of it! Although it is so much larger than the Earth, our Sun is categorized as
a yellow dwarf star. This is only medium-sized compared to other stars in our galaxy.
Q: Select the next sentence to build the summary.
A: The Sun is a star in our solar system
A yellow dwarf is a relatively small star for our solar system.
Viewing the Sun requires sunglasses because it is so bright.
The Sun is a huge, burning fireball.
62 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
LANA’s Lanes
Comprehension strategy questions
Graphic organizers: circle diagrams
Graphic organizers: concept webs
Green Ziplings
Onions
Q: According to this diagram about the story:
Q: Which of these is NOT found in onions,
according to the graphic organizer?
A: All Ziplings have green skin
All beings with green skin are Ziplings.
There are no green-skinned beings.
No Ziplings have green skin.
A: selenium
magnesium
sulfur
calcium
Summarization
The Sun
Q: According to the summary, which of these statements is true about the Sun?
A: Its glow is caused by nuclear fusion.
It is not a very bright star.
The Earth’s core is extremely hot.
It is so bright because of chemical reactions.
Assessing Student Progress
Student progress can be monitored through a variety of tools that include the Success Viewer as well
as a variety of reports presented by Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
The Success Viewer allows students to view the number of points he or she has earned, and to get a
quick overview of his or her current level in each exercise. The Success Viewer rewards the student
with immediate feedback on his or her performance and helps motivate the student to continue
working on the exercises. This screen is displayed automatically after a student completes the exercises
scheduled for that day. with a check mark and the levels are currently being worked on with a halffilled box.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker:
Key Progress Tracker Reports
In addition to Success Viewer, Progress Tracker enables teachers to monitor and analyze student
progress. (Detailed explanations of the reports and additional resources are presented in Fast ForWord
to Reading 5 Overview.)
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 63
LANA’s LAnes
Motivation and Intervention
Fast ForWord to Reading products require students to maintain consistent focus while working on the
exercises. Some students may find this challenging, so to encourage them, the use of motivational
activities is strongly recommended. Additional motivational ideas and activities are listed in the
accompanying DVD and on www.scilearn.com/support. The following sample activity can be easily
introduced into a classroom to encourage students to stay on task:
Bowling pins Lana’s Lanes encourages the student to continue working on the exercise by
displaying bowling pins on the screen as the student masters the content within the exercise. The
student will continue to work on the exercise until the skills in the exercise are mastered.
Intervention
Below is a sample intervention activity for teachers to use when students are struggling with building
paragraphs. Additional intervention activities are available on the Fast ForWord to Reading 5 DVD, by
clicking on Fast ForWord Progress Tracker and on www.scientificlearning.com/support.
Sample Intervention Activity
Lana’s Lanes
Brainstorm
with Lana
Skill: Building paragraphs
Type of Activity: Individual, small group
Materials: Chalkboard
Grade Level: Middle & High School
Activity: List several different topics on the board.
Students select one of interest. Students discuss information they know about the topic. List the information
on the board. Translate the information into a sample
concept web.
Variation: Students create one or two paragraphs from
the concept web.
64 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Quack
splash
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 consists of five exercises presenting reading skill
instruction that correlates to Grade 5 reading standards.
GOAL
> Build skills in constructing and organizing
multiple-paragraph stories and expository passages
> Understanding and using figurative language
> Identify missing words, phrases, or sentences
> Answer comprehension questions about the
completed passages
SKILLS
Cognitive Skills
> Memory — using working memory to hold words and
sentences in memory while completing or reorganizing paragraphs
>A
ttention — sustaining attention across multiple steps to accurately
complete a longer passage
> Processing — using language skills to process grammar and meaning
>S
equencing — recognizing and correcting the serial order of scrambled
sentences and paragraphs
Reading/Language Arts Skills
>B
uild each passage focusing on different aspects of constructing well-written text, including
selecting relevant and informative content, ordering sentences within a paragraph to maximize clarity, and organizing paragraphs to create a logical flow of ideas
>B
uild awareness and understanding of transitional expressions through working with the passages and sequencing tasks, including terms that introduce examples, mark sequences, add
intensity, show comparison and contrast, or indicate cause and effect
>R
ead long passages (approximately 600-4000 words) throughout the exercise, and integrate
information across multiple sections while performing several tasks on those sections
>E
ngage with a lesson on the historical processes of language change, guiding students to think
meta-cognitively about the meanings of words and figures of speech
TASK
Read a “scrambled” fiction or non-fiction passage, complete it by selecting missing sentences and
correctly ordering the sentences and paragraphs, and then answer comprehension questions.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 65
quack splash
FifTH Grade Reading Standards
> Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions.
> Establish a topic, important ideas, or events in sequence or chronological order.
> Provide details and transitional expressions that link one paragraph to another in a
clear line of thought.
> Understand and explain the figurative and metaphorical use of words in context.
> Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that
supports those ideas.
> Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.
How Students Work on Quack Splash
In Quack Splash, each passage is divided into 4 chapters which the student works with in 3 stages:
> Stage 1 - Build the Paragraphs: The student builds the paragraphs of each page of a chapter by:
• Selecting missing text to complete a paragraph
• Correctly re-ordering the sentences of a scrambled paragraph
> Stage 2 - Build the Page: The
student builds each page of the chapter
by correctly reordering the paragraphs
of a scrambled page.
> Stage 3 - Answer Questions:
The student is presented with the entire
chapter for review and then answers comprehension questions about the chapter.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Button
Keyboard Shortcut
Paw
Done Reading
Responses, left to right, top to bottom
Space bar
Space bar
Number keys 1 through 4
How Students Progress through Quack Splash
Quack Splash progresses through 5 levels of difficulty. In each level, the student progresses through
4 chapters that make up a single story or expository passage. Each chapter is 1 to 3 pages in length.
As the student progresses, the passages and sentences become longer and the topics and vocabulary
become more difficult.
66 | Fast ForWord to Reading 4
5
quack splash
How Students Advance in Quack Splash
In order to progress to the next level, the student must meet the criteria for advancement for all
stages in each chapter within the level. At the end of the level, Quack Splash repeats all chapters for
which the criteria were not met. Note that for sequencing tasks (re-ordering sentences or paragraphs),
the student must correctly order ALL the items in the paragraph or page for a trial to be counted as
correct.
Advancement Criteria: # correct trials out of #trials attempted
Level
1
2
3
4
5
Story/Essay
Snake Escape
The Anasazi
Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones
Foods that Bite Back
How Language Changes
Stage 1:
Build the
Paragraphs
3 of 3
4 of 5
9 of 10
9 of 10
13 of 15
Stage 2:
Build the
Paragraphs
1 of 1
1 of 1
2 of 2
2 of 2
3 of 3
Stage 3:
Build the
Paragraphs
4 of 5
4 of 5
5 of 7
6 of 7
9 of 10
Fast ForWord to Reading 45 | 67
quack splash
Mastery
If after 3 attempts, the student has not met the criteria for passing a level, Quack Splash transitions
the student to the next level. At the end of the exercise, those chapters which were not passed are
repeated. The student will continue to work on these chapters until mastery is achieved.
Re-entering Quack Splash
In Stages 1 and 2, upon re-entry the student is returned to the point from which they exited. In Stage
3, upon re-entry the student is presented with the chapter for review. Upon completing the re-read of
the chapter, the student will begin at the first previously unanswered question.
Points Awarded in Quack Splash
Quack Splash awards points to the student based on the following conditions:
> Correct answers: The student earns 6 points for each correct response. 10 additional points
are awarded for sequencing trials when the entire paragraph or page is completed correctly.
> Bonus points: After the student completes 5 trials correctly, Quack Splash rewards the student’s performance with 10 bonus points.
68 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
quack splash
Quack Splash Content Samples
1. Summary
Levels 1 – 5 contain
> Paragraph completion
> Sentence ordering
> Paragraph ordering
> Passage comprehension by question types: (Samples from Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones).
• Figurative language Sample:
Q: When Uncle William says, “You kids seem pretty rattled,” what does the word “rattled” mean?
A: nervous and upset
• Inferential Sample:
Q: What is Tamara’s mood, or tone, when she says “Nice going, Bigfoot!” to her brother?
A: sarcastic
• Literal Sample:
Q: What relationship are Elizabeth and William to each other?
A: wife and husband
• Sequential Sample:
Q: When does Tamara first realize that a cabin has been broken into?
A: when she realizes that Martin did not make the mess in their bathroom
• Vocabulary Sample:
Q: In the sentence, “The twins and Uncle William stood transfixed, gazing down the store’s main
aisle,” what does the word “transfixed” mean?
A: motionless with amazement
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 69
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2. Sample exercise content for each task and
organized by level.
Paragraph completion Sample:
Level 3 Passage: Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones
Tamara and Martin always looked forward to summer, __________________, when they got to spend the
entire month at their aunt and uncle’s resort in the mountains. It wasn’t much of a resort, really
— just a dozen cabins, a small store, and all that open space.
and they especially loved July
and they particularly liked going to the beach every August
and their favorite month was November
and they particularly liked the first week of September
___________________ ”Auntie Elizabeth! Uncle William!” Tamara and Martin yelled as they ran from the car to
the porch, for the traditional exchange of hellos and hugs.
Their aunt and uncle were waiting for them on the porch of the main building.
They didn’t recognize the two strangers standing on the porch.
Tamara and Martin’s aunt and uncle were nowhere to be found.
They were annoyed to see their aunt and uncle standing on the porch of the main building.
Sentence ordering Sample:
Level 3 Passage: Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones
1. “Tammy! Marty! Let me take a look at you!” their aunt exclaimed, as the twins ran to her outstretched arms.
2. The twins thought they were much too old to be called Tammy and Marty anymore.
3. But somehow they didn’t mind when their aunt and uncle used their “baby” names.
4. “Time certainly flies. How long has it been?” Auntie Elizabeth asked between hugs.
5. They all knew, of course, that it had been almost a year.
70 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
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Paragraph ordering
Level 4 Passage: Foods that Bite Back
1. Some foods can make your eyes water, your nose run, or even burn your lips and tongue. The plants
that such foods come from developed these weapons to keep animals from eating them. But somehow, we came to enjoy eating many of them anyway. Perhaps we enjoy spicy foods because they are
like roller coasters: exciting, even scary, but not really dangerous. Whatever the reason, some of the
world’s popular foods are the ones that bite back.
2. By far the most popular food that bites back is black pepper. Black pepper’s pungency, or bite,
comes from an oil called piperine, which also gives pepper its odor. If you eat a little pepper, the
piperine will increase your flow of saliva and stomach juices and thus improve your appetite. If you
eat more pepper, the piperine will make you sweat and cool you off. This is why pepper is especially
popular in very hot climates.
3. Black pepper belongs to the genus {Piper,} as do all true peppers. Other true peppers also contain
piperine and include white, long, and Ashanti peppers. Black and white peppercorns are the dried
fruit of a tropical vine native to southern India. Long pepper grows in India and Malaysia and is even
sharper and more flavorful than black pepper. The milder Ashanti pepper is grown and used mostly in
West Africa.
4. Although black pepper grows mainly I tropical regions, it quickly became popular all over the world.
Over 4000 years ago. Pepper was being traded from India to the Middle East. Eventually, traders
brought it all the way to Europe. But, even by sea, it took as long as two years to get pepper there.
This lengthy trip made pepper very expensive for Europeans.
5. Europeans once consumed pepper in much larger quantities than they do today, and this was
another reason pepper cost so much. In addition to seasoning their meals with it, they used pepper
to preserve foods. They also believed it aided digestion and cured all sorts of illnesses. It took a lot
of pepper to accomplish all of these ends.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 71
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3. Passage comprehension by question types
Figurative Language Question
Inferential Question:
Level 1 Passage: Snake Escape
Level 3 Passage: Mystery of the Missing Pine Cones
Q: Why does the author describe Andrew’s heart
as “beating like a bass drum in a marching
band”?
A: to show how hard and fast Andrew’s heart is
beating.
A: excited sleepy to show that Andrew enjoys music
Q. Which of these adjectives best describes how
Tamara and Martin felt at the beginning of this
chapter, when they were packing and traveling
to the ranch?
rushed traditional
to show that Andrew is excited about seeing
his snake
to show that Andrew has calmed down
Literal Question:
Sequential Question:
Level 4 Passage: Foods that Bite Back Level 4 Passage: Foods that Bite Back
Q: According to the passage, the piperine oil in
black pepper can improve a person’s ……
Q: When did pepper become affordable in
Europe?
A: appetite. A;the seventeenth century
4000 years ago
when Columbus introduced chile peppers
Medieval times
popularity.
vision. bite.
Vocabulary Question:
Level 4 Passage: Foods that Bite Back
Q: What is the meaning of the word “cultivating,”
as it is used in this passage?
A: farming education 72 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
consuming gathering
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Assessing Student Progress
Student progress can be monitored through a variety of tools that include the Success Viewer as well
as a variety of reports presented by Fast ForWord Progress Tracker.
Success Viewer
The Success Viewer allows students to view the number of points he or she has earned, and to get a
quick overview of his or her current level in each exercise. The Success Viewer rewards the student
with immediate feedback on his or her performance and helps motivate the student to continue
working on the exercises. This screen is displayed automatically after a student completes the exercises
scheduled for that day.
Fast ForWord Progress Tracker:
Key Progress Tracker Reports
In addition to Success Viewer, Progress Tracker enables teachers to monitor and analyze student
progress. (Detailed explanations of the reports and additional resources are presented in Fast ForWord
to Reading 5 Overview.)
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 73
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Motivation and Intervention
Fast ForWord to Reading products require students to maintain consistent focus while working on the
exercises. Some students may find this challenging, so to encourage them, the use of motivational
activities is strongly recommended. Motivational ideas and activities are listed in the Fast ForWord to
Reading 5 DVD and on www.scilearn.com. Teachers can customize the tasks and themes of each
exercise. Enlisting student ideas and contributions in creating motivation activities encourages student
ownership in the challenge. A sample motivation activity that is a favorite of many students:
Attendance Raffle: Each day of the week, each student writes his or her name on a slip of
paper as they enter the Fast ForWord lab. The paper slips are folded and put into a thematicallydecorated box. On Friday the student with the highest score for the day is allowed to draw a name.
The student whose name is drawn is rewarded with the opportunity to choose a DVD or some
other age-appropriate prize for attending class. Variations: Choose several names from the box
and encourage students to
choose prizes such as paperback
Sample Intervention Activity
books, coupons for lunch with
special teachers, or free tickets
to sporting events at school.
quack splash
Intervention
On the right is a sample intervention activity for teachers to use when
students need help with sequencing events. Additional intervention
activities are available on the Fast
ForWord to Reading 5 DVD, by
clicking on Fast ForWord Progress
Tracker and on www.scientificlearning.com/support.
the orderly
duck Skill: Sequencing events
Type of Activity: Individual, Small Group
Materials: Short stories, Writing materials
Grade Level: Middle & High School
Activity: For those students who experience difficulty
with putting events in their correct order of occurrence,
an activity such as this one may be helpful in identifying
the order of certain occurrences. Students describe their
morning routines, the order of events and how important
sequence is to accomplishing tasks. Choose a short story,
read through and list the order of events. Discuss the
effect of proper sequencing of events. Place some of the
events in a different order an discuss the impact of the
change.
74 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Appendix A
The Science Behind the
Fast ForWord to Reading Products
Extensive research in neuroscience demonstrates that the brain is not rigid and
unchanging; it continues to grow and adapt through out life. This ability to
change is plasticity. Fast ForWord to Reading products use principles of brain
plasticity to help the brain improve the cognitive skills of memory, attention,
processing, and sequencing which are critical for improving reading and language skills.
These products are based on unique, patented skill-development methods
developed by neuroscientists at the University of California, San Francisco,
and Rutgers University. Using computer-based technologies such as digitally
enhanced speech, repetition, and neuroscience-based learning incentives, the
Fast ForWord products help the brain learn to process reading and language
information better and faster.
By working on Fast ForWord to Reading exercises, students can develop prerequisite skills that enable successful reading, and also complement reading
instruction. The patented technology helps students develop and strengthen
critical thinking, listening, and reading skills that are essential for academic
success. This technology features the FAST Power Learning ™ formula of
Frequency and intensity, Adaptivity, Simultaneous development and Timely
motivation — proven learning techniques based on decades of brain, reading,
and language research.
Fast ForWord products also develop memory, attention, processing, and
sequencing (Learning MAPS), the underlying cognitive processes required for
reading and learning. This development of the cognitive processes occurs in the
context of reading skills development. Supplementary and assessment materials support the science behind the products and can be used for intervention,
motivation, supplemental and direct instruction.
Fast ForWord products enable students to reach higher academic achievement
levels. Used in an intensive, adaptive way and following the prescribed process,
called product protocol, these products enable participants to develop a wide
range of critical cognitive and reading skills that include phonemic awareness,
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 75
sequencing, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, syntax, working
memory, and processing.
The Fast ForWord Progress Tracker, provides consistent and timely assessment and
analysis of each student’s performance in the Fast ForWord products. A Webenabled tool that integrates data from the entire Fast ForWord family of products,
it allows educators to track individual, class, or group performance.
In addition, Fast ForWord Progress Tracker provides individualized progress
and intervention reports. This tool also enables administrative level reporting
at the school and district level by providing summaries of use, content, completion, and progress within critical skill across key demographic categories.
76 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
Appendix B
Glossary
A
adaptivity
With every mouse click, exercises in the Fast
ForWord® product exercises adapt (or adjust) to
the individual skill level of each participant to
ensure participants are appropriately challenged.
helps word recognition become more automatic,
rapid, and effortless. Automaticity refers only to
accurate, speedy word recognition, not to reading with expression.
B
basic skills
affix
Prefixes and suffixes; One or more sounds or letters attached to the beginning or end of a word
or base to modify meaning or part of speech.
attention
The ability to focus on information and tasks,
and ignore distractions.
The building blocks for language and reading
development: visual attention, auditory discrimination, and sustained auditory attention.
Fast ForWord® products provide exercises that
improve sound sequencing skills, fine motor
skills, hand-eye coordination, pattern recognition and color/shape identification.
brain plasticity
auditory discrimination
The ability to detect differences in sounds; may
be gross ability, such as detecting the differences
between the noises made by a cat and dog, or
fine ability, such as detecting the differences
made by the sounds of letters “m” and “n.”
auditory memory
The ability to retain information which has been
presented orally; may be short term memory,
such as recalling information presented several
seconds before; long term memory, such as
recalling information presented more than a
minute before; or sequential memory, such as
recalling a series of information in proper order.
automaticity
Automatic word recognition; the fast, effortless
word recognition that comes with a great deal
of reading practice (emerging and developing
readers may be accurate, but slow and inefficient
at word recognition. Continued reading practice
The ability of the brain to change through experience or learning.
C
cause and effect
The connection or relationship between a precipitating event or reason, and its effects or results.
character traits
Various aspects of the character in a passage or
story; authors develop characterization by
providing these.
cognitive ability
Intellectual ability; thinking and reasoning skills.
cognitive skills
Memory, attention, perception and language skills,
as used in phonological memory, phonological
processing and memory, sentence memory and
word discrimination, and sequencing.
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 77
comprehension
The ability to derive the message or meaning
from text; the reason for reading.
ciples used by Fast ForWord® products to enable
student learning.
FAST Formula: Frequency/Intensity
context clues
Information from the surrounding words, illustrations, or sentences that helps give meaning to
a specific word or phrase.
critical thinking
The process of conceptualizing, applying,
analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating
information gathered from, or generated by,
observation, experience, reflection, reasoning,
or communication.
D
decode
To use the alphabetic principle (that each letter
represents a speech sound) to sound out a
word; decoding starts when the reader recovers
the phonemes that the letters of a word ‘stand
for’ and then blend those phonemes in a
recognizable word.
Occurring or repeating at short intervals. In the
context of Fast ForWord® products, frequency and
intensity refers to the recommended protocol
of daily participation and concentrated activity.
FAST Formula: Simultaneous
development
Exercising multiple skills at the same time. Each
Fast ForWord® exercise focuses on a specific set
of reading tasks and simultaneously develops
underlying cognitive processes such as memory,
attention, processing, and sequencing.
FAST Formula: Timely Motivation
The Fast ForWord® exercises provide immediate rewards for correct responses. In addition,
patented technologies give students only one
opportunity per question to respond correctly,
which reduces guessing and encourages students
to maintain high levels of attention and effort.
FAST Formula: Adaptivity
digitally-enhanced speech sounds
The use of computers to slow down and enhance
the sounds that convey phonemes so that they
can be differentiated.
With every mouse click, exercises in the Fast
ForWord® product exercises adapt (or adjust) to
the individual skill level of each participant to
ensure participants are appropriately challenged.
directionality
figurative language
The ability to accurately perceive the spatial
orientation of print (e.g., the print concept of
reading from left to right and top to bottom.
Language which makes use of certain literary
devices or literary techniques such as metaphor
in which something other than the literal
meaning is implied.
draw conclusions
To use facts and inferences to make a judgment
or decision.
F
fine motor development
The achievement of precise and accurate movement and use of hands and upper extremities,
making possible accurate reaching, grasping, and
manipulation of objects.
FAST Power Learning™ Formula
An acronym for Frequency and Intensity,
Adaptivity, Simultaneous development, and
Timely motivation; neuroscience-based prin78 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
fluency
The ability to read a text accurately and quickly.
Fluent readers can decode and recognize words
automatically and understand their meaning at
the same time.
G
grapheme
The smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. A
grapheme may be one letter, such as d, l, and p;
or several letters, such as ch, sh, and th.
Learning MAPs™: Memory
The ability to store information and ideas, which
is essential for word recognition, comprehension of complex sentences, and remembering
instructions. Includes both working memory and
long-term memory.
Learning MAPs™: Processing
graphic organizer
The ability to accurately perceive and manipulate
information. In the context of reading, processing refers to the ability to distinguish speech
sounds and identify letter and word forms.
A visual device for organizing information
around a concept, theme, or topic.
Learning MAPs™: Sequencing
H
high-frequency words
Common words that appear very often in written or spoken language (e.g., the, of, and, a, to,
in, is, you).
I
infer
Draw meaning form a combination of clues in
the text without explicit reference to something
that was stated in the text.
intervention strategies
Approaches to promote positive classroom
behaviors and foster effective learning.
L
language structures
Grammatical elements found in every language
(e.g., nouns, verbs, consonants, vowels).
Learning MAPs™
An acronym for Memory, Attention, Processing,
and Sequencing; foundational cognitive skills
required for effective reading and targeted by
Fast ForWord® products.
Placing the detail of information in its accustomed order (e.g., days of the week, the
alphabet). In the context of reading, sequencing
is the ability to determine the order of letters
within words or words within sentences.
Learning MAPs™:Attention
The ability to focus on information and tasks,
and ignore distractions.
letter-sound correspondence
The principle that each letter represents a unit of
sound (a phoneme).
M
memory
The ability to store information and ideas, which
is essential for word recognition, comprehension
of complex sentences, and remembering instructions. Includes both temporary or ‘working’
memory and long-term memory.
morphological awareness
The ability to understand and correctly use
the base words, small words, letters, and letter
combinations that modify the meaning of a
word (e.g., re/view) or its part of speech (e.g.,
sad/ness).
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 79
N
neuroscience
Study of the brain and its functions, especially
their relation to behavior and learning.
P
phonemes
The smallest units of sound in spoken language
that make a difference in the meaning of words.
When added together, phonemes create syllables,
which allow the creation of words; English
contains 44 phonemes and these bear a complicated relation to the 26 letters of the alphabet.
Sometimes one letter represents one phoneme,
but sometimes two letters represent a phoneme
or one letter represents two phonemes. For
instance, “ox” is made up of three phonemes:
/aa/, /k/, and /s/, “she” is made up of two phonemes: /sh/ and /e/.
student who is not progressing in one area to
continue to advance in other areas. To accomplish this goal, some exercises use plateau-based
transitions to allow the student to train on different material when the student becomes stuck
on an aspect of the focus skill and is not able to
progress immediately. Fast ForWord then returns
the student to this material before allowing the
student to complete the exercise.
post-reading strategies
Strategies that take place after reading to help
the reader consolidate, reflect and integrate
new information and concepts with previously
learned understandings.
pre-reading strategies
Activities that take place before reading to help
the reader access relevant prior knowledge,
preview the text, and attempt to predict the text’s
topic or main idea and thereby set a goal and a
purpose for reading.
phonemic awareness
The ability to hear, but also explicitly identify,
and manipulate the sounds of spoken language.
phonetic spelling
Spelling a word as it sounds: ‘bag’ has a phonetic
spelling but ‘yacht’ does not.
processing
The ability to accurately perceive and manipulate
information. In the context of reading, processing refers to the ability to distinguish speech
sounds and identify letter and word forms and
how these embody the relation between printed
words and the spoken words they represent.
phonics
The favored method of instruction in reading.
It is based on the alphabetic principle that there
is a predictable relationship between phonemes
(sounds in spoken language) and graphemes
(letter that represent the sounds) that can be
used to decode and read words.
plasticity
The ability of a neural network to be reconfigured or rewired; changing connections within a
neural network.
protocol
Specific product process (e.g., Fast ForWord to
Reading 1: 48 minutes per day (six 8-minute
sessions, 5 days/week, 8-12 weeks).
Progress Tracker
An online data-analysis and reporting tool that
enables educators to monitor individual, class, or
group performance on Fast ForWord® products.
R
plateau-based transitions
Read–alouds
Fast ForWord is designed to cross-train multiple
skills within each exercise, but also to allow a
Prose or poetry that is read aloud with students
(Read-aloud texts are generally at a higher read-
80 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
ing level than the listener would be able to read
and comprehend independently.)
summarize
Make a brief statement about the essential ideas
in a text.
reading rate
The speed at which a selection is read, the reading rate depends on the level of the text as well
as the manner in which it is read, and on the
purpose for reading.
sustained auditory attention
rhyme
The structure of a language that concerns the
formation of sentences. It is a set of rules which
specify how grammatical markers and words are
combined to make meaningful sentences. The
rules of syntax make reference to words as ‘parts
of speech’ (for instance, noun or adverb) and
determine how these can be ordered, combined
and moved about in the sentence.
A property of the sounds of words in which
words share key phonemes. The most common
form of rhyme involves a match between the
vowel and final consonants (e.g, perfect or exact
rhyme: differing consonant sounds followed by
identical vowel and word ending, as in “run, fun”;
rhyme is important to beginning readers because
it helps draw their attention to the systematic
relation between print and phonemes. It is
also an important literary device because of its
aesthetic appeal and because it can serve as an
aid to memory.
rhythm
A sound device characterized by the musical quality created by a pattern of stressed and
unstressed syllables. Rhythm helps to draw attention to the syllables in words and ultimately to
the vowels.
S
sound sequencing skills
The ability to recognize, analyze, and/or produce
a number of sounds combined in sequence.
sight words
Words a child can recognize on sight without
applying phonics or other word-attack skills.
These tend to be the high frequency words,
many of which do not use phonetic spellings.
story elements
Basic parts of a story: setting, characters, plot,
conflict, point of view, and theme.
The ability to concentrate on what is heard
continuously over the course of many stimuli.
syntax
T
timely motivation
The Fast ForWord® exercises provide immediate rewards for correct responses. In addition,
patented technologies give students only one
opportunity per question to respond correctly,
which reduces guessing and encourages students
to maintain high levels of attention and effort.
V
visual attention
One of the basic skills necessary for language and
reading development; it involves being able to
focus on what the eyes are seeing.
visual discrimination
The ability to detect similarities and/or differences in materials which are presented visually,
e.g., ability to discriminate ‘h’ from ‘n’, ‘o’ from
‘c’, ‘b’ from ‘d’, etc.
visual memory
The ability to retain a mental picture of information which is presented visually; may be short
term memory, such as recalling information presented several seconds before; long term memory,
Fast ForWord to Reading 5 | 81
such as recalling information presented more
than a minute before; or sequential memory, such
as recalling a series of information in proper order.
vocabulary
Includes knowing the meaning of single words
that represent objects and groups of objects,
actions, and relationships and qualities of space
and time and knowing how these words function
as parts of speech (e.g, nouns, verbs, etc.).
W
word recognition
The ability to read or pronounce a word; usually
implies that the word is recognized immediately
by sight and that the child does not need to
apply word analysis skills. Does not imply understanding of the word.
working memory
The short-duration, limited-capacity memory
system that simultaneously stores and manipulates information in order to accomplish a task.
Working memory specifically refers to a system
that uses internal speech to store and manipulate information — as a series of letters, a list of
words, a set of sentences. An analogous system
called the ‘visual spatial scratchpad’ stores visual
or graphic information.
82 | Fast ForWord to Reading 5
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