ADC | 2 | MAX110/MAX111 Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs

19-0283; Rev 5; 11/98
KIT
ATION
EVALU
LE
B
A
IL
A
AV
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
The MAX110/MAX111 analog-to-digital converters
(ADCs) use an internal auto-calibration technique to
achieve 14-bit resolution plus overrange, with no external components. Operating supply current is only
550µA (MAX110) and reduces to 4µA in power-down
mode, making these ADCs ideal for high-resolution battery-powered or remote-sensing applications. A fast
serial interface simplifies signal routing and opto-isolation, saves microcontroller pins, and offers compatibility
with SPI™, QSPI™, and MICROWIRE™. The MAX110
operates with ±5V supplies, and converts differential
analog signals in the -3V to +3V range. The MAX111
operates with a single +5V supply and converts differential analog signals in the ±1.5V range, or singleended signals in the 0V to +1.5V range.
Internal calibration allows for both offset and gain-error
correction under microprocessor (µP) control. Both
devices are available in space-saving 16-pin DIP and
SO packages, as well as an even smaller 20-pin SSOP
package.
________________________Applications
Process Control
Weigh Scales
Panel Meters
Data-Acquisition Systems
Temperature Measurement
____________________________Features
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Single +5V Supply (MAX111)
Two Differential Input Channels
14-Bit Resolution Plus Sign and Overrange
0.03% Linearity (MAX110)
0.05% Linearity (MAX111)
Low Power Consumption:
550µA (MAX110)
640µA (MAX111)
4µA Shutdown Current
Up to 50 Conversions/sec
50Hz/60Hz Rejection
Auto-Calibration Mode
No External Components Required
16-Pin DIP/SO, 20-Pin SSOP
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP. RANGE
MAX110ACPE
0°C to +70°C
RCSEL
Pin Configurations
IN1+
1
REF-
2
MAX110
MAX111
16
IN1-
15
IN2+
14
IN2-
REF+
3
VDD
4
13
VSS (AGND)
IN2-
RCSEL
5
12
GND
REF+
XCLK
6
11
DIN
SCLK
7
10
DOUT
BUSY
8
9
CS
IN1- MAX110
MAX111
IN2+
REFCS
SCLK
DIN
VSS
(AGND) DOUT
( ) ARE FOR MAX111
±0.03
TOP VIEW
VDD
IN1+
16 Plastic DIP
MAX110BCPE
0°C to +70°C
16 Plastic DIP
±0.05
MAX110ACWE
0°C to +70°C
16 Wide SO
±0.03
MAX110BCWE
0°C to +70°C
16 Wide SO
±0.05
MAX110ACAP
0°C to +70°C
20 SSOP
±0.03
MAX110BCAP
0°C to +70°C
20 SSOP
±0.05
MAX110BC/D
0°C to +70°C
Dice*
±0.05
Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet.
* Contact factory for dice specifications.
Typical Operating Circuit
+5V
PIN-PACKAGE INL(%)
-5V (0V)
FROM µC
( ) ARE FOR MAX111
DIP/SO
Pin Configurations continued at end of data sheet.
SPI and QSPI are trademarks of Motorola, Inc. MICROWIRE is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corp.
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
1
For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800.
For small orders, phone 1-800-835-8769.
MAX110/MAX111
General Description
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
VDD to GND ...........................................................................+6V
VSS to GND (MAX110)..............................................+0.3V to -6V
AGND to DGND.....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
VIN1+, VIN1- ......................................(VDD + 0.3V) to (VSS - 0.3V)
VIN2+, VIN2- ......................................(VDD + 0.3V) to (VSS - 0.3V)
VREF+, VREF- ....................................(VDD + 0.3V) to (VSS - 0.3V)
Digital Inputs and Outputs .........................(VDD + 0.3V) to -0.3V
Continuous Power Dissipation
16-Pin Plastic DIP (derate 10.53mW/°C above +70°C).....842mW
16-Pin Wide SO (derate 9.52mW/°C above +70°C) ......762mW
20-Pin SSOP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) ...........640mW
16-Pin CERDIP (derate 10.00mW/°C above +70°C)......800mW
Operating Temperature Ranges
MAX11_ _C_ _......................................................0°C to +70°C
MAX11_ _E_ _ ...................................................-40°C to +85°C
MAX11_BMJE .................................................-55°C to +125°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +160°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) .............................+300°C
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—MAX110
(VDD = 5V ±5%, VSS = -5V ±5%, fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1), 81,920 CLK cycles/conv, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = -1.5V,
TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
ACCURACY (Note 1)
Resolution
RES
(Note 2)
Differential Nonlinearity
DNL
(Notes 3, 4)
No-Missing-Codes
Resolution
INL
MAX110BC/E
MAX110BM
Offset Error
Common-Mode Rejection
Ratio
13 + POL
+ OFL
CMRR
±0.03
-0.83 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.83 x VREF
±0.015 ±0.03
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.04
-0.83 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.83 x VREF
±0.018
%FSR
±0.1
-0.83 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.83 x VREF
±0.05
±4
Uncalibrated
µV/°C
6
ppm/V
±0.1
-8
Full-Scale Error
Temperature Drift
0
8
Power-Supply Rejection
mV
0.003
0.02
After gain calibration (Note 5)
Full-Scale Error
±0.06
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
-2.5V ≤ (VIN+ = VIN-) ≤ 2.5V
LSB
Bits
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
VIN+ = VIN- = 0V
After offset null
Uncalibrated
Offset Error
Temperature Drift
Bits
±2
(Note 3)
MAX110AC/E
Relative Accuracy
(Notes 3, 5–7)
14 + POL
+ OFL
VSS = -5V, VDD = 4.75V to 5.25V
15
VDD = 5V, VSS = -4.75V to -5.25V
30
%
ppm/°C
ppm
ANALOG INPUTS
Differential Input Voltage
Range
Absolute Input Voltage
Range
Input Bias Current
Input Capacitance
2
VIN
(Note 6)
VIN+,
VIN-
-VREF
+VREF
VSS +
2.25
VDD 2.25
500
nA
10
pF
IIN+, IIN(Note 3)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
V
V
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
(VDD = 5V ±5%, VSS = -5V ±5%, fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1), 81,920 CLK cycles/conv, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = -1.5V,
TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
REFERENCE INPUTS
Differential Reference
Input Voltage Range
VREF
0
3.0
V
Absolute Reference Input
Voltage Range
VREF+,
VREF-
VSS +
2.25
VDD 2.25
V
Reference Input Current
IREF+,
IREF-
VREF+ = 2.5V, VREF- = 0V
500
nA
(Note 3)
10
pF
Reference Input
Capacitance
CONVERSION TIME
Synchronous Conversion
Time (Note 7)
Oversampling Clock
Frequency
tCONV
fOSC
10,240 clock-cycles/conversion
20.48
102,400 clock-cycles/conversion
204.80
(Note 8)
0.25
ms
1.25
MHz
DIGITAL INPUTS (CS, SCLK, DIN, and XCLK when RCSEL = 0V)
Input High Voltage
VIH
Input Low Voltage
VIL
Input Capacitance
Input Leakage Current
ILKG
2.4
V
0.8
V
(Note 3)
10
pF
Digital inputs at 0V or 5V
±1
µA
DIGITAL OUTPUTS (DOUT, BUSY, and XCLK when RCSEL = VDD)
Output Low Voltage
VOL
Output High Voltage
VOH
Leakage Current
ILKG
Output Capacitance
DOUT, BUSY, ISINK = 1.6mA
0.4
XCLK, ISINK = 200µA
0.4
DOUT, BUSY, VDD = 4.75V, ISOURCE = 1.0mA
VDD - 0.5
XCLK, VDD = 4.75V, ISOURCE = 200µA
VDD - 0.5
V
V
VOUT = 5V or 0V
(Note 3)
±10
µA
10
pF
POWER REQUIREMENTS (all digital inputs at 0V or 5V)
Positive Supply Voltage
VDD
Performance guaranteed by supply rejection test
4.75
5.25
V
Negative Supply Voltage
VSS
Performance guaranteed by supply rejection test
-4.75
-5.25
V
Positive Supply Current
Negative Supply Current
Power-Down Current
IDD
ISS
IDD
ISS
VDD = 5.25V,
VSS = -5.25V
VDD = 5.25V,
VSS = -5.25V
fXCLK = 500kHz,
continuous-conversion mode
XCLK unloaded,
continuous-conversion mode, RC
oscillator operational (Note 9)
fXCLK = 500kHz,
continuous-conversion mode
VDD = 5.25V, VSS = -5.25V, VXCLK = 0V, PD = 1
550
950
µA
780
320
650
4
10
0.05
2
µA
µA
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
MAX110/MAX111
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—MAX110 (continued)
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—MAX111
(VDD = 5V ±5%, fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1), 81,920 CLK cycles/conv, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = 0V, TA = TMIN to TMAX,
unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
ACCURACY (Note 1)
Resolution
RES
(Note 2)
Differential Nonlinearity
DNL
(Notes 3, 4)
No-Missing-Codes
Resolution
INL
MAX111BC/E
MAX111BM
MAX111AC/E
Relative Accuracy,
Single-Ended Input
(IN- = GND)
INL
MAX111BC/E
MAX111BM
Offset Error
Common-Mode Rejection
Ratio
Bits
±2
13 + POL
+ OFL
(Note 3)
MAX111AC/E
Relative Accuracy,
Differential Input
(Notes 3, 5–7)
14 + POL
+ OFL
Bits
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.05
±0.10
-0.667 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.03
±0.05
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.18
-0.667 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.10
-VREF ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.25
-0.667 x VREF ≤ VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.20
0V ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.1
VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.06
0V ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.18
VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.10
0V ≤ VIN ≤ VREF
±0.25
VIN ≤ 0.667 x VREF
±0.15
VIN+ = VIN- = 0V
CMRR
6
After gain calibration (Note 5)
Full-Scale Error
Uncalibrated
Full-Scale Error
Temperature Drift
Power-Supply Rejection
VDD = 4.75V to 5.25V
mV
ppm/V
±0.2
-8
%FSR
%FSR
±4
10mV ≤ (VIN+ = VIN-) ≤ 2.0V
LSB
0
%
8
ppm/°C
15
ppm
ANALOG INPUTS
Differential Input Voltage
Range
Absolute Input Voltage
Range
Input Bias Current
Input Capacitance
4
VIN
(Note 6)
VIN+,
VIN-
-VREF
+VREF
V
0
VDD - 3.2
V
500
nA
10
pF
IIN+, IIN(Note 3)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
(VDD = 5V ±5%, fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1), 81,920 CLK cycles/conv, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = 0V, TA = TMIN to TMAX,
unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
REFERENCE INPUTS
Differential Reference
Input Voltage Range
VREF
0
1.5
V
Absolute Reference Input
Voltage Range
VREF+,
VREF-
0
VDD - 3.2
V
Reference Input Current
IREF+,
IREF-
VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = 0V
500
nA
(Note 3)
10
pF
Reference Input
Capacitance
CONVERSION TIME
Synchronous Conversion
Time (Note 7)
Oversampling Clock
Frequency
tCONV
fOSC
10,240 clock-cycles/conversion
20.48
102,400 clock-cycles/conversion
204.80
(Note 8)
0.25
ms
1.25
MHz
DIGITAL INPUTS (CS, SCLK, DIN, and XCLK when RCSEL = 0V)
Input High Voltage
VIH
Input Low Voltage
VIL
Input Capacitance
Input Leakage Current
ILKG
2.4
V
0.8
V
(Note 3)
10
pF
Digital inputs at 0V or 5V
±1
µA
DIGITAL OUTPUTS (DOUT, BUSY, and XCLK when RCSEL = VDD)
Output Low Voltage
VOL
Output High Voltage
VOH
Leakage Current
ILKG
Output Capacitance
DOUT, BUSY, ISINK = 1.6mA
0.4
XCLK, ISINK = 200µA
0.4
DOUT, BUSY, VDD = 4.75V, ISOURCE = 1.0mA
VDD - 0.5
XCLK, VDD = 4.75V, ISOURCE = 200µA
VDD - 0.5
V
V
VOUT = 5V or 0V
±1
µA
(Note 3)
10
pF
5.25
V
POWER REQUIREMENTS (all digital inputs at 0V or 5V)
Positive Supply Voltage
Supply Current
VDD
IDD
Power-Down Current
IDD
Performance guaranteed by supply rejection test
fXCLK = 500kHz,
continuous-conversion mode
VDD = 5.25V
XCLK unloaded,
continuous-conversion mode, RC
oscillator operational (Note 9)
VDD = 5.25V, VXCLK = 0V, PD = 1
4.75
640
1200
µA
960
4
10
µA
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
MAX110/MAX111
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS—MAX111 (continued)
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
Note 1: These specifications apply after auto-null and gain calibration. Performance at power-supply tolerance limits is guaranteed
by power-supply rejection tests. Tests are performed at VDD = 5V and VSS = -5V (MAX110).
Note 2: 32,768 LSBs cover an input voltage range of ±VREF (15 bits). An additional bit (OFL) is set for VIN > VREF.
Note 3: Guaranteed by design. Not subject to production testing.
Note 4: DNL is less than ±2 counts (LSBs) out of 215 counts (±14 bits). The major source of DNL is noise, and this can be further
improved by averaging.
Note 5: See 3-Step Calibration section in text.
Note 6: VREF = (VREF+ - VREF-), VIN = (VIN1+ - VIN1-) or (VIN2+ - VIN2-). The voltage is interpreted as negative when the voltage at
the negative input terminal exceeds the voltage at the positive input terminal.
Note 7: Conversion time is set by control bits CONV1–CONV4.
Note 8: Tested at clock frequency of 1MHz with the divide-by-2 mode (i.e. oversampling clock of 500kHz). See Typical Operating
Characteristics section for the effect of other clock frequencies. Also read the Clock Frequency section.
Note 9: This current depends strongly on CXCLK (see Applications Information section).
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (see Figure 6)
(VDD = 5V, VSS = -5V (MAX110), TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
CS to SCLK Setup Time
(Note 10)
CS to SCLK Hold Time
(Note 10)
DIN to SCLK Setup Time
(Note 10)
SYMBOL
tCSS
CONDITIONS
60
MAX11_ _C/E
80
MAX11_ BM
100
tCSH
DIN to SCLK Hold Time
(Note 10)
tDH
SCLK, XCLK Pulse Width
(Note 10)
tCK
SCLK to DOUT Valid
Delay (Note 10)
Bus Relinquish Time
(Note 10)
tDA
tDO
tDH
80
MAX11_ BM
100
TA = +25°C
100
MAX11_ _C/E
120
CLOAD = 50pF
CLOAD = 50pF
ns
ns
ns
ns
160
TA = +25°C
0
MAX11_ _C/E
0
MAX11_ BM
0
TA = +25°C
0
MAX11_ _C/E
0
MAX11_ BM
0
TA = +25°C
35
80
100
ns
120
60
100
120
ns
140
35
MAX11_ _C/E/M
80
120
ns
2.0
MAX11_ _C/E
1.3
2.8
MAX11_ BM
1.1
3.0
Note 10: Timing specifications are guaranteed by design. All input control signals are specified with tr = tf = 5ns
(10% to 90% of +5V) and timed from a +1.6V voltage level.
6
UNITS
ns
0
TA = +25°C
RC Oscillator Frequency
MAX
60
MAX11_ _C/E
MAX11_ BM
Data Access Time
(Note 10)
TYP
0
TA = +25°C
tDS
MIN
TA = +25°C
_______________________________________________________________________________________
MHz
, ,
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
0.05
0.04
0
MAX110 toc02
-0.10
-2
0
2
-4
4
-2
0
2
4
VIN (V)
VIN (V)
MAX110 RELATIVE ACCURACY vs.
OVERSAMPLING FREQUENCY (fOSC)
MAX110 RELATIVE ACCURACY
vs. TEMPERATURE
VDD = 4.75V
VSS = -4.75V
TA = +85°C
0.10
÷1 MODE
0.03
÷2 MODE
0.02
0.01
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
÷ 4 MODE
0
0
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
-50
fOSC (MHz)
-25
0
25
50
75
100
TEMPERATURE (°C)
MAX110 POWER DISSIPATION vs.
OVERSAMPLING FREQUENCY (fOSC)
8
MAX110-TOC05
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
0.06
0.05
-0.05
-4
0.07
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
RANGE OF INL VALUES
(200 PIECE SAMPLE SIZE)
MAX110-TOC04
-0.10
RELATIVE ACCURANCY (%FSR)
-0.05
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
0
0.10
MAX110-TOC03
0.05
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
RANGE OF INL VALUES
(200 PIECE SAMPLE SIZE)
POWER DISSIPATION (mW)
RELATIVE ACCURANCY (%FSR)
0.10
MAX110 toc01
MAX110 RELATIVE ACCURACY
(-VREF < VIN < VREF)
MAX110 RELATIVE ACCURACY
(-0.83 VREF < VIN < 0.83 VREF)
VDD = 5.25V
VIN = 0V
TA = -40°C
7
÷ 4 MODE
6
5
÷ 2 MODE
÷ 1 MODE
4
3
2
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
fOSC (MHz)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
MAX110/MAX111
__________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics
(MAX110, VDD = 5V, VSS = -5V, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = -1.5V, differential input (VIN+ = -VIN-), fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1),
81,920 clocks/conv, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(MAX111, VDD = 5V, VREF+ = 1.5V, VREF- = 0V, differential input (VIN+ = -VIN-), fXCLK = 1MHz, ÷ 2 mode (DV2 = 1),
81,920 clocks/conv, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
MAX111 RELATIVE ACCURACY
(-VREF < VIN < VREF)
MAX111 RELATIVE ACCURACY
(-0.667VREF < VIN < 0.667VREF)
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
0.05
0
-0.05
MAX110-TOC7
0.10
MAX110-TOC6
0.10
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.10
-0.10
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0
VIN (V)
0.5
1.0
1.5
-2.0
2.0
-1.5
0.1
÷ 1 MODE
0.06
÷2 MODE
÷4 MODE
0.04
0
VIN (V)
0.5
0.02
1.5
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
0
0.25
0.50
1.00
0.75
-50
fOSC (MHz)
-25
0
25
50
TEMPERATURE (°C)
MAX111 POWER DISSIPATION vs.
OVERSAMPLING FREQUENCY (fOSC)
VDD = 5.25V
VIN = 0V
TA = -40°C
6
POWER DISSIPATION (mW)
MAX110-TOC10
7
5
÷ 4 MODE
4
3
÷ 2 MODE
2
÷ 1 MODE
1
0
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
fOSC (MHz)
8
1.0
MAX110-TOC09
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
VDD = 4.75V
TA = +85°C
0.08
-0.5
0.10
MAX110-TOC08
0.14
0.12
-1.0
MAX111 RELATIVE ACCURACY
vs. TEMPERATURE
MAX111 RELATIVE ACCURACY vs.
OVERSAMPLING FREQUENCY (fOSC)
RELATIVE ACCURACY (%FSR)
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
_______________________________________________________________________________________
75
100
2.0
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
PIN
NAME
DIP/SO
SSOP
1
1
2
3
FUNCTION
IN1+
Channel 1 Positive Analog Input
2
REF-
Negative Reference Input
3
REF+
Positive Reference Input
4
6
VDD
5
7
RCSEL
6
8
XCLK
Clock Input / RC Oscillator Output. TTL/CMOS-compatible oversampling clock input
when RCSEL = GND. Connects to the internal RC oscillator when RCSEL = VDD. XCLK
must be connected to VDD or GND through a resistor (1MΩ or less) when RC OSC
mode is selected.
Positive Power-Supply Input—connect to +5V
RC Select Input. Connect to GND to select external clock mode. Connect to VDD to
select RC OSC mode. XCLK must be connected to VDD or GND through a resistor
(1MΩ or less) when RC OSC mode is selected.
7
9
SCLK
Serial Clock Input. TTL/CMOS-compatible clock input for serial-interface data I/O.
8
10
BUSY
Busy Output. Goes low at conversion start, and returns high at end of conversion.
9
11
CS
10
12
DOUT
11
13
DIN
Serial Data Input. See Control Register section.
12
16
GND
Digital Ground
VSS
MAX110 Negative Power-Supply Input—connect to -5V
Chip-Select Input. Pull this input low to perform a control-word-write/data-read operation. A conversion begins when CS returns high, provided NO-OP is a 1. See the section Using the MAX110/MAX111 with SPI, QSPI, and MICROWIRE Serial Interfaces.
Serial Data Output. High-impedance when CS is high.
13
17
14
18
IN2-
Channel 2 Negative Analog Input
15
19
IN2+
Channel 2 Positive Analog Input
16
20
IN1-
Channel 1 Negative Analog Input
—
4, 5, 14, 15
N.C.
No Connect—there is no internal connection to this pin
AGND
MAX111 Analog Ground
_______________Detailed Description
The MAX110/MAX111 ADC converts low-frequency
analog signals to a 16-bit serial digital output (14 data
bits, a sign bit, and an overrange bit) using a first-order
sigma-delta loop (Figure 1). The differential input voltage is internally connected to a precision voltage-tocurrent converter. The resulting current is integrated
and applied to a comparator. The comparator output
then drives an up/down counter and a 1-bit DAC. When
the DAC output is fed back to the integrator input, the
sigma-delta loop is completed.
During a conversion, the comparator output is a VREFto VREF+ square wave; its duty cycle is proportional to
the magnitude of the differential input voltage applied
to the ADC. The up/down counter clocks data in from
the comparator at the oversampling clock rate and
averages the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) square
wave to produce the conversion result. A 16-bit static
shift register stores the result at the end of the conversion. Figure 2 shows the ADC waveforms for a differential analog input equal to 1/2 (V REF+ - V REF- ). The
resulting comparator and 1-bit DAC outputs are high
for seven cycles and low for three cycles of the oversampling clock.
Since the analog input signal is integrated over many
clock cycles, much of the signal and quantization noise
is attenuated. The more clock cycles allowed during
each conversion, the greater the noise attenuation (see
Programming Conversion Time).
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
MAX110/MAX111
______________________________________________________________Pin Description
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
DIN
DITHER
GENERATOR
IN1+
IN1IN2+
IN2-
SCLK CS
IN+
INPUT
MUX
IN-
INTEGRATOR
Gm
Σ
∫
REF+
REF-
SERIAL
SHIFT
REGISTER
16 16
UP/DOWN
COUNTER
-
DOUT
CONTROL
REGISTER
16
Gm
16
TIMER + CONTROL
LOGIC + CLOCK GENERATOR
OSC
DIVIDER
NETWORK,
DIVIDE BY
1, 2, OR 4
MAX110
MAX111
BUSY
RCSEL
XCLK
RC
OSCILLATOR
Figure 1. Functional Diagram
Oversampling Clock
XCLK internally connects to a clock-frequency divider
network, whose output is the ADC oversampling clock,
fOSC. This allows the selected clock source (internal RC
oscillator or external clock applied to XCLK) to be
divided by one, two, or four (see Clock Divider-Ratio
Control Bits).
Figure 3 shows the two methods for providing the oversampling clock to the MAX110/MAX111. In externalclock mode (Figure 3a), the internal RC oscillator is
disabled and XCLK accepts a TTL/CMOS-level clock to
provide the oversampling clock to the ADC.
Select external-clock mode (Figure 3a) by connecting
RCSEL to GND and a TTL/CMOS-compatible clock to
XCLK (see Selecting the Oversampling Clock
Frequency).
In RC-oscillator mode (Figure 3b), the internal RC oscillator is active and its output is connected to XCLK
(Figure 1). Select RC-oscillator mode by connecting
RCSEL to VDD. This enables the internal oscillator and
connects it to XCLK for use by the ADC and external
system components. Minimize the capacitive loading on
XCLK when using the internal RC oscillator.
10
VREF+
DC LEVEL AT 1/2 VREF
DIFFERENTIAL
ANALOG
INPUT
VREFVREF+
OUTPUT FROM
1-BIT DAC
VREFOVERSAMPLING
CLOCK
MAX110
MAX111
Figure 2. ADC Waveforms During a Conversion
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
MAX110/MAX111
+5V
+5V
VDD
VDD
RCSEL
RCSEL
MAX110
MAX111
MAX110
MAX111
+5V
GND
TTL/CMOS
GND
1MΩ
XCLK
XCLK
VSS (AGND)
VSS (AGND)
-5V (0V)
-5V (0V)
( ) ARE FOR MAX111.
( ) ARE FOR MAX111.
Figure 3a. Connection for External-Clock Mode
ADC Operation
The output data from the MAX110/MAX111 is arranged
in twos-complement format (Figures 4, 5). The sign bit
(POL) is shifted out first, followed by the overrange bit
(OR), and the 14 data bits (MSB first) (see Figure 6).
The MAX110 operates from ±5V power supplies and
converts low-frequency analog signals in the ±3V
range when using the maximum reference voltage of
VREF = 3V (VREF = VREF+ - VREF-). Within the ±3V input
range, greater accuracy is obtained within ±2.5V (see
Electrical Characteristics for details). Note that a negative input voltage is defined as VIN- > VIN+. For the
MAX110, the absolute voltage at any analog input pin
must remain within the (VSS + 2.25V) to (VDD - 2.25V)
range.
The MAX111 operates from a single +5V supply and
converts low-frequency differential analog signals in the
±1.5V range when using the maximum reference voltage of V REF = 1.5V. As indicated in the Electrical
Characteristics, greater accuracy is achieved within the
±1.2V range. The absolute voltage at any analog input
pin for the MAX111 must remain within 0V to VDD - 3.2V.
When VIN- > VIN+ the input is interpreted as negative.
The overrange bit (OFL) is provided to sense when the
input voltage level has exceeded the reference voltage
level. The converter does not “saturate” until the input
voltage is typically 20% larger. The linearity is not guaranteed in this range. Note that the overrange bit works
Figure 3b. Connection for Internal RC-Oscillator Mode—XCLK
connects to the internal RC oscillator. Note, the pull-up resistor
is not necessary if the internal oscillator is never shut down.
properly if the reference voltage remains within the recommended voltage range (see Reference Inputs). If the
reference voltage exceeds the recommended input
range, the overrange bit may not operate properly.
Digital Interface—Starting a Conversion
Data is transferred into and out of the serial I/O shift
register by pulling CS low and applying a serial clock
at SCLK. This fully static shift register allows SCLK to
range from DC to 2MHz. Output data from the ADC is
clocked out on SCLK’s falling edge and should be read
on SCLK’s rising edge. Input data to the ADC at DIN is
clocked in on SCLK’s rising edge. A new conversion
begins when CS returns high, provided the MSB in the
input control word (NO-OP) is a 1 (see Using the
MAX110/MAX111 with MICROWIRE, SPI, and QSPI
Serial Interfaces). Figure 6 shows the detailed serialinterface timing diagram.
CS must remain high during the conversion (while
BUSY remains low). Bringing CS low during the conversion causes the ADC to stop converting, and may
result in erroneous output data.
Using the MAX110/MAX111 with SPI, QSPI, and
MICROWIRE Serial Interfaces
Figure 7 shows the most common serial-interface connections. The MAX110/MAX111 are compatible with
SPI, QSPI (CPHA = 0, CPOL = 0), and MICROWIRE
serial-interface standards.
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
OUTPUT
CODE
POL OFL D13...D0
1 00 . . .000
+OVERFLOW 0
0
0 11 . . .111
0
0 11 . . .110
0
0 11 . . .101
-OVERFLOW
0
0
11 . . .100
0
0
0
0
00 . . .001
00 . . .001
0
0
00 . . .000
1
1
1
1
11 . . .111
11 . . .110
1
1
1
1
1
1
00 . . .011
00 . . .010
00 . . .001
1
1
00 . . .000
1
0
11 . . .111
+OVERFLOW
TRANSITION
-OVERFLOW
TRANSITION
- VREF
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs)
VREF -1LSB
Figure 4. Differential Transfer Function
OUTPUT
CODE
POL OFL D13...D0
1 00 . . .000
+OVERFLOW 0
0
0 11 . . .111
0
0 11 . . .110
0
0
0
0
11 . . .101
11 . . .100
0
0
0
0
0
0
00 . . .011
00 . . .010
00 . . .001
0
1
0
1
00 . . .000
11 . . .111
0
OVERFLOW
TRANSITION
1
2
3
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs)
VREF -1LSB
Figure 5. Unipolar Transfer Function
12
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
MAX110/MAX111
CS
tCSH
tCK
tCSS
SCLK
tCK
tDH
tDS
DIN
MSB
LSB
tDO
tDH
tDA
DOUT
POL
OFL
MSB
DO
BUSY
END OF
CONVERSION
START OF
CONVERSION
Figure 6. Detailed Serial-Interface Timing
+5V
SS
I/O
SCK
µP
MISO
MOSI
MASKABLE
INTERRUPT
CS
SCLK MAX110
DOUT MAX111
DIN
BUSY
a. SPI/QSPI
I/O
SK
µP
SI
SO
MASKABLE
INTERRUPT or I/O
CS
SCLK MAX110
DOUT MAX111
DIN
BUSY
b. MICROWIRE
The ADC serial interface operates with just SCLK, DIN,
and DOUT (allow sufficient time for the conversion to
complete between read/write operations). Achieve continuous operation by connecting BUSY to an uncommitted µP I/O or interrupt, to signal the processor when the
conversion results are ready. Figures 8a and 8b show
the timing for SPI/MICROWIRE and QSPI operation.
The fully static 16-bit I/O register allows infinite time
between the two 8-bit read/write operations necessary
to obtain the full 16 bits of data with SPI and
MICROWIRE. CS must remain low during the entire
two-byte transfer (Figure 8a). QSPI allows a full 16-bit
data transfer (Figure 8b).
Interfacing to the 80C32 Microcontroller Family
Figure 7c shows the general 80C32 connection to the
MAX110/MAX111 using Port 1. For a more detailed discussion, see the MAX110 evaluation kit manual.
I/O Shift Register
µP
P1.0
P1.1
P1.2
P1.3
P1.4
CS
SCLK MAX110
DIN MAX111
DOUT
BUSY
c. 80C51/80C32
Figure 7. Common Serial-Interface Connections
Serial data transfer is accomplished with a 16-bit fully
static shift register. The 16-bit control word shifted into
this register during a data-transfer operation controls
the ADC’s various functions. The MSB (NO-OP)
enables/disables transfer of the control word within the
ADC. A logic 1 causes the remaining 15 bits in the control word to be transferred from the I/O register into the
control register when CS goes high, updating the
ADC’s configuration and starting a new conversion. If
______________________________________________________________________________________
13
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
1ST BYTE READ/WRITE
MAX110
MAX111
2ND BYTE READ/WRITE
BUSY
CS
SCLK
DOUT
POL
OFL
D13
DIN
NO OP
NU
NU CONV4 CONV3 CONV2 CONV1 DV4
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
DV2
NU
NU
CHS
CAL
NUL
PDX
PD
Figure 8a. SPI/MICROWIRE-Interface Timing
MAX110
MAX111
BUSY
CS
SCLK
DOUT
DIN
POL
OFL
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
NO OP
NU
NU CONV4 CONV3 CONV2 CONV1 DV4
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
DV2
NU
NU
CHS
CAL
NUL
PDX
PD
Figure 8b. QSPI Serial-Interface Timing
14
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
15
14
13
NO-OP
NU
NU
12
11
10
9
CONV4 CONV3 CONV2 CONV1
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DV4
DV2
NU
NU
CHS
CAL
NUL
PDX
PD
↑
First bit clocked in.
BIT
15
NAME
DESCRIPTION
NO-OP
If this bit is a logic high, the remaining 15 LSBs are transferred to the control register and a
new conversion begins when CS returns high. If this bit is set low, the control word is not
passed to the control register, the ADC configuration remains unchanged, and no new conversion begins when CS returns high.
5, 6, 13, 14
NU
9–12
CONV1–CONV4
Used for test purposes only. Set these bits low.
7, 8
DV2, DV4
4
CHS
Input Channel Select. A logic high selects channel 2 (IN2+ and IN2-), while a logic low
selects channel 1 (IN1+ and IN1-). See Tables 2 and 3.
3
CAL
Gain-Calibration Bit. A logic high selects gain-calibration mode. See Table 3.
2
NUL
Internal Offset-Null Bit. A logic high selects offset-null mode. See Table 3.
1
PDX
Oscillator Power-Down. Set this bit high to power down the RC oscillator.
0
PD
Analog Power-Down. Set this bit high to power down the analog section.
Conversion Time Control Bits. See Table 4.
XCLK to Oversampling Cock Ratio Control Bits. See Table 5.
NO-OP is a zero, the control word is not transferred to
the control register, the ADC’s configuration remains
unchanged, and no new conversion is initiated. This
allows specific ADCs in a “daisy chain” arrangement to
be reconfigured while leaving the remaining ADCs
unchanged. Table 1 lists the various ADC control word
functions.
Output data is shifted out of DOUT at the same time the
input control word for the next conversion is shifted in
(Figure 8).
On power-up, all internal registers reset to zero.
Therefore, when writing the first control word to the
ADC, the data simultaneously shifted out will be zeros.
The first conversion begins when CS goes high (NO-OP
= 1). The results are placed in the 16-bit I/O register for
access on the next data-transfer operation.
Power-Down Mode
Bits 0 and 1 control the ADC’s power-down mode. If bit
0 (PD) is a logic high, power is removed from all analog
circuitry except the RC oscillator. A logic high at bit 1
(PDX) removes power from the RC oscillator. If both bits
PD and PDX are a logic high, or if PD is high and
RCSEL is low, the supply currents reduce to 4µA. If an
external XCLK clock continues to run in power-down
mode, the supply current will depend on the clock rate.
When PDX is set high, the internal RC oscillator stops
shortly after CS returns high. If the next control word
written to the device has NO-OP = 1 instructing the
ADC to convert, BUSY will go low, but because the RC
oscillator is stopped, BUSY will remain low and will not
allow a new conversion to begin. To avoid this situation,
write a “dummy” control word with NO-OP = 0 and any
combination of bits 14-0 in the control word following
the control word with PDX = 0. With NO-OP = 0, bits 140 are ignored and the internal state machine resets.
Next, perform a normal 3-step calibration (see Table 3).
Note that XCLK must be connected to V DD or GND
through a resistor (suggested value is 1MΩ) when the
RC oscillator mode is selected (RCSEL = VDD). This
resistor is not necessary if the external oscillator mode
is used, or if the internal oscillator is not shut down.
Selecting the Analog Inputs
Bit 4 (CHS) controls which of the two differential inputs
connect to the internal ADC inputs (see the Functional
Diagram). A logic high selects IN2+ and IN2- while a
logic low selects IN1+ and IN1-. Table 2 shows the
allowable input multiplexer configurations.
______________________________________________________________________________________
15
MAX110/MAX111
Table 1. Input Control-Word Bit Map
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
Table 2. Allowable Input Multiplexer Configurations
CAL NUL CHS
NO-OP
ADC IN+ ADC IN-
DESCRIPTION
0
0
0
1
IN1+
IN1-
Channel 1 connected to ADC inputs. Conversion begins when CS returns high.
0
0
1
1
IN2+
IN2-
Channel 2 connected to ADC inputs. Conversion begins when CS returns high.
0
1
0
1
IN1-
IN1-
IN1- connected to the ADC inputs; offset-null mode selected. Autonull conversion
begins when CS returns high, and the results are stored in the null register.
0
1
1
1
IN2-
IN2-
IN2- connected to the ADC inputs; offset-null mode selected. Autonull conversion
begins when CS returns high, and the results are stored in the null register.
1
1
X
1
REF-
REF-
REF- connected to the ADC inputs; offset-null mode selected. Autonull conversion
begins when CS returns high, and the results are stored in the null register.
1
0
X
1
REF+
REF-
REF+ and REF- connected to the ADC inputs; gain-calibration mode
selected. Autocal conversion begins when CS returns high, and the results are
stored in the 16-bit I/O register.
X
X
X
0
No
Change
No
Change
Input control word is not transferred to the control register. ADC
configuration remains unchanged and no new conversion starts when CS
returns high.
X = Don't Care
Table 3. Procedure to Calibrate the ADC
CONTROL WORD
STEP
DESCRIPTION
1
Sets the new conversion speed (if required)
and performs an offset correction conversion
with the internal ADC inputs shorted to REF-.
The result is stored in the null register.
(This step also selects the speed/resolution
for the ADC.)
1
00
New
Data
XX
00
2
Performs a gain-calibration conversion with
the null register contents as the starting value.
The result is stored in the calibration register.
1
00
No
Change
XX
3
Performs an offset-null conversion with the
internal ADC inputs shorted to the selected
input channel's negative input (IN1- or IN2-).
The next operation performs the first signal
conversion with the new setup.
1
00
No
Change
XX
NO-OP
Not CONV1- DV2 & Not
CHS
Used CONV4 DV4 Used
CAL
NUL
PDX
PD
X
1
1
0
0
00
X
1
0
0
0
00
0
or
1
0
1
0
0
X = Don't Care
16
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
Table 3 describes the three steps required to calibrate
the ADC completely.
Once the ADC is calibrated to the selected channel, set
CAL = 0 and NUL = 0 and leave CHS unchanged in the
next control word to perform a signal conversion on the
selected analog input channel.
Calibrate the ADC after the following operations:
— when power is first applied
— if the reference common-mode voltage changes
—
—
if the common-mode voltage of the selected input
channel varies significantly. The CMRR of the analog
inputs is 0.25LSB/V.
after changing channels (if the common-mode voltages of the two channels are different)
—
after changing conversion speed/resolution.
—
after significant changes in temperature. The offset
drift with temperature is typically 0.003µV/°C.
Automatic gain calibration is not allowed in the
102,400 cycles per conversion mode (see
Programming Conversion Time). In this mode, calibration can be achieved by connecting the reference voltage to one input channel and performing a normal
conversion. Subsequent conversion results can be corrected by software. Do not issue a NO-OP command
directly following the gain calibration, as the calibration data will be lost.
Programming Conversion Time
The MAX110/MAX111 are specified for 12 bits of accuracy and up to ±14 bits of resolution. The ADC’s resolution depends on the number of clock cycles allowed
during each conversion. Control-register bits 9–12
(CONV1–CONV4) determine the conversion time by
controlling the nominal number of oversampling clock
cycles required for each conversion (OSCC/CONV).
Table 4 lists the available conversion times and resulting resolutions.
To program a new conversion time, perform a 3-step
calibration with the appropriate CONV1–CONV4 data
used in Table 3. The ADC is now calibrated at the new
conversion speed/resolution.
Table 4. Available Conversion Times
CONV4 CONV3 CONV2 CONV1
CLOCK CYCLES
PER
CONVERSION
NOMINAL CONVERSION TIME
RCSEL = GND, DV2 = DV4 = 0, XCLK = 500kHz
(ms)
CONVERSION
RESOLUTION
(Bits)
1
0
0
1
10,240
20.48
12 + POL
0
0
1
1
20,480
40.96
13 + POL
0
1
1
0
81,920
163.84
14 + POL
0
0
0
0
102,400*
204.80
14 + POL
* Gain-calibration mode is not available with 102,400 clock cycles/conversion selected.
Table 5. Clock Divider-Ratio Control
DV2
DV4
DESCRIPTION
0
0
XCLK or internal RC oscillator connects directly to the ADC; fOSC = fXCLK.
0
1
XCLK or internal RC oscillator is divided by 4 and connects to the ADC; fOSC = fXCLK ÷ 4.
1
0
XCLK or internal RC oscillator is divided by 2 and connects to the ADC; fOSC = fXCLK ÷ 2.
1
1
Not allowed
Clock duty cycles of 50% ±10% are recommended.
______________________________________________________________________________________
17
MAX110/MAX111
3-Step Calibration
The data sheet electrical specifications apply to the
device after optional calibration of gain error and offset.
Uncalibrated, the gain error is typically 2%.
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
0
-10
GAIN (dB)
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
CONVERSION TIME
LINE CYCLE PERIOD
0.1
SIGNAL FREQUENCY IN Hz 1
FOR 100ms CONVERSION
TIME (see Table 6)
1
2
3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
10
20
30
40 50 60 70 80 90100
Figure 9. MAX110/MAX111 Noise Rejection Follows SIN(X) / X Function
Selecting the Oversampling
Clock Frequency
Choose the oversampling frequency, fOSC, carefully to
achieve the best relative-accuracy performance from the
MAX110/MAX111 (see Typical Operating Characteristics).
Clock Divider-Ratio Control Bits
Bits 7 and 8 (DV2 and DV4) program the clockfrequency divider network. The divider network sets the
frequency ratio between f XCLK (the frequency of the
external TTL/CMOS clock or internal RC oscillator) and
fOSC (the oversampling frequency used by the ADC).
An oversampling clock frequency between 450kHz and
700kHz is optimum for the converter. Best performance over the extended temperature range is
obtained by choosing 1MHz or 1.024MHz with the
divide-by-2 option (DV2 = 1) (see the section Effect
of Dither on INL). To determine the converter’s accuracy at other clock frequencies, see the Typical
Operating Characteristics and Table 5.
Effect of Dither on Relative Accuracy
First-order sigma-delta converters require dither for
randomizing any systematic tone being generated in
the modulator. The frequency of the dither source plays
an important role in linearizing the modulator. The ratio
of the dither generator’s frequency to that of the modulator’s oversampling clock can be changed by setting
the DV2/DV4 bits. The XCLK clock is directly used by
the dither generator while the DV2/DV4 bits reduce the
oversampling clock by a ratio of 2 or 4. Over the commercial temperature range, any ratio (i.e., 1, 2, or 4)
between the dither frequency and the oversampling
18
clock frequency can be used for best performance.
Over the extended and military temperature ranges, the
ratio of 2 or 4 gives the best performance. See the
Typical Operating Characteristics to observe the effect
of the clock divider on the converter’s linearity.
50Hz/60Hz Line Frequency Rejection
High rejection of 50Hz or 60Hz is obtained by using an
oversampling clock frequency and a clock-cycles/conversion setting so the conversion time equals an integral number of line cycles, as in the following equation:
fOSC = fLINE x m / n
where fOSC is the oversampling clock frequency, fLINE
= 50Hz or 60Hz, m is the number of clock cycles per
conversion (see Table 4), and n is the number of line
cycles averaged every conversion.
This noise rejection is inherent in integrating and
sigma-delta ADCs, and follows a SIN(X) / X function
(Figure 9). Notches in this function represent extremely
high rejection, and correspond to frequencies with an
integral number of cycles in the MAX110/MAX111’s
selected conversion time.
The shortest conversion time resulting in maximum
simultaneous rejection of both 60Hz and 50Hz line frequencies is 100ms. When using the MAX111, use a
200ms conversion time for maximum 60Hz and 50Hz
rejection and optimum performance. For either device,
select the appropriate oversampling clock frequency
and either an 81,240 or 102,400 clock cycles per conversion (CCPC) ratio. Table 6 suggests the possible
configurations.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
+5V
-5V
4.7µF
*R = 10Ω
+5V
GND
4.7µF
GND
4.7µF
*R = 10Ω
0.1µF
0.1µF
VDD
GND
MAX110/MAX111
POWER
SUPPLIES
POWER
SUPPLIES
0.1µF
VSS
+5V
VDD
DGND
GND
DIGITAL
CIRCUITRY
MAX110
AGND
+5V
DGND
DIGITAL
CIRCUITRY
MAX111
*OPTIONAL
*OPTIONAL
Figure 10a. MAX110 Power-Supply Grounding Connections
Figure 10b. MAX111 Power-Supply Grounding Connections
A 100ms conversion time cannot be achieved with either
10,240 CCPC or 20,480 CCPC modes because fOSC
would be below the minimum 250kHz requirement.
When the gain calibration is performed, the conversion
times change approximately 1% to compensate for the
modulator’s gain error. This slightly degrades the linefrequency rejection, because the corrected conversion
time is no longer an exact multiple of the line frequency.
Typically, the rejection of 50Hz/60Hz from the converter
is 55dB; i.e., if there is 100mV injection at the reference
or the analog input pin, it will cause an uncertainty of
±0.006%. If the system has large 50Hz/60Hz noise, the
use of internal auto gain calibration is not recommended. Instead, gain calibration should be done off-chip,
using numerical computation methods.
If you wish to use a configuration other than those suggested in Table 6, you can accomplish similar 50Hz
and 60Hz line-frequency rejection off-chip by averaging several conversions.
__________Applications Information
Layout, Grounding, Bypassing
For minimal noise, bypass each supply to GND with a
0.1µF capacitor. A ground plane should also be placed
under the analog circuitry. To minimize the coupling
effects of stray capacitance, keep digital lines as far
from analog components and lines as possible. Figure
10 shows the suggested power-supply and groundplane connections.
Table 6. Suggested XCLK Frequencies to Achieve Maximum Rejection of Both 50Hz/60Hz Line
Frequencies
MAX111 (tCONVERT = 200ms)
MAX110 (tCONVERT = 100ms)
81,240 CCPC
DIVIDER
RATIO
81,240 CCPC
102,400 CCPC
fXCLK
(MHz)
RELATIVE
ACCURACY
(%)
fXCLK
(MHz)
RELATIVE
ACCURACY
(%)
1:1
0.8124
0.025
1.024
0.065
2:1
1.6248
0.018
2.048
0.045
4:1
3.2496
0.016
4.096
0.030
DIVIDER
RATIO
102,400 CCPC
fXCLK
(MHz)
RELATIVE
ACCURACY
(%)
fXCLK
(MHz)
RELATIVE
ACCURACY
(%)
1:1
0.4062
0.030
0.512
0.030
2:1
0.8124
0.025
1.024
0.025
4:1
1.6248
0.022
2.048
0.023
CCPC = Clock Cycles per Conversion
______________________________________________________________________________________
19
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
+5V
0.1µF
+5V
VDD
22k
REF+
1/2 MAX492
+5V
30mV
FULL-SCALE
10k
1k
REF1µF
+5V
MAX111
1k
121k
49.9k
2k
49.9k
121k
1k
IN1+
CS
IN1-
DIN
DOUT
1µF
+5V
SCLK
AGND
GND
1/2 MAX492
Figure 11. Weigh Scale Application
Capacitive Loading Effects of XCLK in
Internal RC-Oscillator Mode
When using the internal RC oscillator, capacitive loading effects on the XCLK pin must be minimized. Stray
capacitance causes the VDD power consumption to
increase by an amount p = 1⁄2CV2f, where C = stray
capacitance, V is the supply voltage, and f is the frequency of the internal RC oscillator.
External Reference
The reference inputs to the ADC are high impedance,
allowing both an external voltage reference and ratiometric applications without loading effects. The fully differential analog signal and reference inputs are
advantageous for performing ratiometric conversions
(Figures 11 and 12). For example, when measuring
load cells, the bridge excitation and the ADC reference
input both share the same voltage source. As the excitation changes with temperature or voltage, the output
of the load cell will change. But since the differential
reference voltage also changes, the conversion results
remain constant, all else remaining equal.
20
Weigh Scale Application
The fully differential analog signal and reference inputs
make the MAX111 easy to interface to transducers with
differential outputs, such as the load cell in Figure 11.
Because the ADC input is differential, the load cell only
requires differential gain, eliminating the need for the
difference amplifier (differential to single-ended converter) of the standard three op-amp instrumentationamplifier realization.
The 30mV full-scale bridge output is amplified to 2V
full-scale and applied to the MAX111 channel-one
input. The reference voltage to the ADC is created by a
voltage divider connected to the +5V rail. The same 5V
provides excitation for the bridge; therefore, as the
excitation voltage varies, the reference voltage to the
ADC also varies, providing an ADC output that does
not depend on the supply voltage.
The two 121kΩ resistors connected to the +5V supplies
shift the common-mode voltage from 2.5V (5V/2) to
1.5V to ensure linearity. Match these two resistors to
avoid introducing differential offset, or trim the resistor
mismatch with a potentiometer. In practice, the scale is
“zeroed” or “tared” by storing the average of several
conversions in a memory location while the scale is
______________________________________________________________________________________
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
MAX110/MAX111
+5V
1/4 MAX479
IN2+
VDD
IN210k
10k
MAX110
1/4 MAX479
1k
+5V
1µF
VIN
243k
TEMP
K-TYPE
MAX874
OUT
IN1+
CS
IN1-
DIN
1k
243k
10k
1k
DOUT
REF+
REF-
SCLK
VSS
1µF
1/4 MAX479
1M
-5V
Figure 12. Thermocouple Circuit with Software Compensation
unloaded, and subtracting this value from actual weight
measurements. The lowpass filtering action of the
MAX111’s sigma-delta converter helps minimize noise.
The resolution of the weigh scale can be further
increased by averaging several conversions.
Thermocouple Circuit with Software
Compensation
A thermocouple is created by the junction of dissimilar
metals, and generates a voltage proportional to temperature (Seebeck voltage), making it useful for temperature-measurement instruments. When a thermocouple
probe is connected to a measurement instrument, other
thermoelectric potentials are created between the alloys
of the probe and the copper connectors of the instrument. These potentials introduce a temperature-dependent error that must be subtracted from the temperature
measurement to obtain an accurate result. According to
the law of intermediate metals, the junction of the thermocouple-probe alloys with the copper of the instrument
junction block can be treated as another thermocouple
of the same type. The voltage measured by the instrument can be expressed as:
V = α(T1 - TREF)
where α is the Seebeck constant for the type of thermocouple, T1 is the temperature being measured, and
TREF is the temperature of the junction block. Although
one method to obtain TREF is to force the junction block
to a known temperature (0°C), a more popular
approach is to measure TREF directly using a thermistor
or PN junction voltage.
The circuit in Figure 12 shows a k-type thermocouple
going through a 54dB gain stage to channel 1 of the
MAX110. A MAX874 voltage reference provides both
the 3V reference voltage and reference junction temperature information to the MAX110. Armed with the
temperature information provided by the MAX874, the
thermocouple voltage created at the junction block can
be subtracted out in software. The TEMP output of the
MAX874 is nominally 690mV at room temperature, and
increases with temperature at about 2.3mV/°C. Place
the MAX874 as close as possible to the terminal block,
and ensure good thermal contact between them. This
circuit employs a common k-type thermocouple and,
with the component values shown, can indicate temperatures in the range of -150°C to +125°C.
______________________________________________________________________________________
21
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
_Ordering Information (continued)
PART
TEMP. RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE INL(%)
MAX110AEPE
-40°C to +85°C
16 Plastic DIP
±0.03
MAX110BEPE
-40°C to +85°C
16 Plastic DIP
±0.05
MAX110AEWE
MAX110BEWE
MAX110AEAP
MAX110BEAP
MAX110BMJE
MAX111ACPE
MAX111BCPE
MAX111ACWE
MAX111BCWE
MAX111ACAP
MAX111BCAP
MAX111BC/D
MAX111AEPE
MAX111BEPE
MAX111AEWE
MAX111BEWE
MAX111AEAP
MAX111BEAP
MAX111BMJE
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-55°C to +125°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-55°C to +125°C
16 Wide SO
16 Wide SO
20 SSOP
20 SSOP
16 CERDIP**
16 Plastic DIP
16 Plastic DIP
16 Wide SO
16 Wide SO
20 SSOP
20 SSOP
Dice*
16 Plastic DIP
16 Plastic DIP
16 Wide SO
16 Wide SO
20 SSOP
20 SSOP
16 CERDIP**
±0.03
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.03
±0.05
±0.05
__________________Chip Topography
REF+ REF- IN1+
V DD
V DD
GND
RCSEL
0.168"
(4.27mm)
SCLK BUSY
CS
DOUT
0.121"
(3.07mm)
____Pin Configurations (continued)
( ) ARE FOR MAX111
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 5849
SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO VDD
TOP VIEW
IN1+
1
20
IN1-
REF-
2
19
IN2+
REF+
3
18
IN2-
N.C.
4
17
VSS (AGND)
N.C.
5
16
GND
VDD
6
15
N.C.
RCSEL
7
14
N.C.
XCLK
8
13
DIN
SCLK
9
12
DOUT
11
CS
MAX110
MAX111
BUSY 10
SSOP
( ) ARE FOR MAX111
22
IN2-
V SS
(AGND)
V SS
(AGND)
GND
XCLK
* Contact factory for dice specifications.
** Contact factory for availability.
IN1- IN2+
______________________________________________________________________________________
DIN
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
PDIPN.EPS
SOICW.EPS
______________________________________________________________________________________
23
MAX110/MAX111
_______________________________________________________Package Information
SSOP.EPS
___________________________________________Package Information (continued)
CDIPS.EPS
MAX110/MAX111
Low-Cost, 2-Channel, ±14-Bit Serial ADCs
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
24 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600
© 1998 Maxim Integrated Products
Printed USA
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
Download PDF