This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved. 394 23 Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: K Explain the steps in the transmission of a television signal. K Discuss the scanning process. K Identify circuits in both black-and-white and color television receivers and explain their functions. K Identify the size and makeup of a television channel. K Discuss a variety of television innovations including video cassette recorders, remote control, and satellite television. K List the benefits of HDTV as compared to analog television. K Explain the difference between multicasting and datacasting. K Discuss the compression technique of MPEG2. K Discuss the various flat-panel technologies. Television and Video Display Units pixel polarized light progressive scanning raster resolution scanning shadow mask picture tube synchronization (sync) pulse thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) tuner ultra high frequency (UHF) very high frequency (VHF) video detector video head Television is a giant in the field of communications. Through television, entertainment, education, information, and advertising are available to millions of people. And through satellite links, television can instantaneously bring the entire world into our home or office. This text will not address the detailed electronic circuits involved in the production, transmission, and reception of television signals. However, it is important for all persons interested in the science of electronics to have a basic knowledge of television and related information. Key Words and Terms The following words and terms will become important pieces of your electricity and electronics vocabulary. Look for them as you read this chapter. active-matrix Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) aspect ratio brightness control charged coupled device (CCD) datacasting deflection yoke electro-luminescence enhanced definition television (EDTV) feedhorn fine-tuning focal point frame frame rate geostationary orbit high definition television (HDTV) liquid crystal display (LCD) MPEG2 multicasting National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) passive-matrix picture element 23.1 TELEVISION SIGNALS Taking a picture from one location and reproducing it in your home is a combination of several processes. First, a television camera must record the images to be transferred. Next, those images must be turned into radio waves and sent out into the air, or turned into electrical signals and transmitted through cables. Finally, the signals must be received and translated back into pictures. Electronic Communication and Data Systems As a television camera views a studio scene, it “sees” the scene as a combination of these picture elements. The scene is focused on a photosensitive mosaic in the camera that consists of many photoelectric cells. Each cell responds to the scene by producing a voltage that is in balance with the strength of the light. These voltages are amplified and used for modulation of the AM carrier wave. This wave is transmitted to the home receiver. A line drawing of a camera tube called an image orthicon is shown in Figure 23-1. The scene in front of the camera focuses on the photo cathode through a standard camera lens system. The varying degrees of light cause electrons to be emitted on the target side of the cathode. These form an electronic image of the scene. The target plate operates at a high positive potential. The electrons from the cathode are attracted to the target. The target is made of low-resistance glass and has a transparency effect. The electron image appears on both sides of the target plate. At the right in Figure 23-1 is an electron gun, which produces a stream of electrons. The speed of the stream is increased by the grids (at the top and bottom in the figure). The beam scans left to right and top to bottom and is controlled by the magnetic deflection coils around the tube. The moving electron beam strikes the target plate and the electrons return to the electron multiplier section. The strength of the electron stream returning to the multiplier is balanced with the electron image. It provides the desired signal current for electronic picture reproduction. The scanning system used in the United States is the interlace system. It consists of 525 scanning lines. The beam starts at the top left-hand corner of the picture. It scans the odd numbered lines of the scanning pattern (lines 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.) from left to right. At the completion of 262 1/2 lines, the electron beam is returned to the starting point by vertical deflection coils. The beam then scans the even numbered lines. One scan of 262 1/2 lines represents a field. One set of the odd and even numbered fields represents a frame. A representation of the interlace scanning pattern is shown in Figure 23-2. The frame frequency has been set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) at 30 hertz. This means your TV receives 30 complete frames per second, or 60 picture fields of alternate odd and even lines per second. To the human eye, this appears as a constant, nonflickering picture. A device called a horizontal deflection oscillator causes the beam to move from left to right. To produce 525 lines per frame at a frame frequency of 30 Hz, the horizontal deflection oscillator must work at a frequency of 15,750 Hz (525 × 30). Scanning Scanning is the point-to-point examination of a picture. In the camera, the electron beam scans the electron image. It responds to the point-to-point brilliance of the picture. Figure 23-2. This is a portion of the interlace scanning system used in television. There are actually 525 lines. Target Deflection coil Lens Television Cameras Electron beam What looks like a solid picture is really an extremely large number of dots. In a black-and-white picture, these dots are varying degrees of black and white. They are called picture elements. Look closely at a photo in a daily newspaper and you will see that these picture elements are clearly visible. 393 Electron gun Grids Photocathode Focus coil Electron multiplier Figure 23-1. This sketch shows the interior arrangement of the image orthicon tube used in television cameras. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units The vertical deflection oscillator causes the beam to move from top to bottom. The vertical deflection oscillator must have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. This is a field frequency. Closer study of the scanning process reveals that the beam scans as it moves from left to right. After it has read one line, it quickly retraces to the left and starts reading the next line in the same way we read a book. The retrace time is very rapid, but still shows a line in the picture. Therefore, the picture must be black during this retrace time. Also, when the beam reaches the bottom of the picture, the beam must be returned to the top to scan again. The picture must also be black during vertical retrace, or trace lines would be visible. The oscillators that make the scanning and retrace voltages for both the horizontal and vertical sweep must produce a waveform as shown in Figure 23-3. This is a sawtooth waveform. Notice the gradual increase in voltage during the sweep and the rapid decrease during retrace. These voltages are applied to coils that surround the picture tube. These coils are called the deflection yoke. An increase in the strength of the magnetic fields in the coils causes the electron beam to move. See Figure 23-4. Trace Trace Retrace 395 Scanning at the studio and scanning on a television must be in step. For this to occur, a pulse generator triggers the horizontal and vertical oscillators at the studio. This same pulse is also sent over the air and received by the television set. This pulse, known as the synchronization pulse, or sync pulse, triggers the oscillators in the receiver and keeps them at exactly the same frequency. Older televisions have horizontal hold and vertical hold controls. These controls are used to make slight adjustments so that the oscillators can lock in with the sync pulses. Newer televisions make the adjustments automatically. Composite Video Signals All video signals are formed in the same way so that a television can be used in any geographic area. These standards are set by the FCC and are used by all TV broadcasting stations. The television signals received by TVs contain picture (video) and sound (aural) information. The video information is an AM signal. The audio information is an FM signal. The amplitude of the modulation is divided into two parts. The first 75 percent is used to transmit video information. The remaining 25 percent is for the sync pulses, Figure 23-5. Also, a system of negative transmission has been adopted. This means that the higher amplitudes of video information produce darker areas in the picture. At 75 percent, the picture is completely black. Look at Figure 23-5 again, the percentage is shown on the left. 396 Electronic Communication and Data Systems As the beam scans each black bar, a similar action takes place. At the end of the line, the screen is driven back to the pedestal, or blanking level. During this blanking pulse, beam flyback occurs and a sync pulse is sent in the blacker-than-black, or infrablack, region (upper 25 percent) for oscillator synchronization. A second line to be scanned would be an exact copy of the first unless the picture is changed. At the bottom of the picture, a series of pulses trigger the vertical oscillator and keep it synchronized. Figure 23-6 shows a composite (complete) video signal. The video information for one line between the blanking pulses is varying degrees of black and white. Compare the two video signals in Figure 23-7. Signal A is made up mostly of bright objects. The average overall brightness of the scene is another form of the information sent to a TV receiver from the transmitter. It can be detected from the composite video signal. Grid Nº 5 Deflected electron beam Getter Electron beam Cathode Conductive coating Grid Nº 1 Grid Nº 2 Centering magnet Glass envelope Grid Nº 4 The cathode ray tube (CRT) is used to produce images in television sets. The control grid determines the flow of electrons through the tube. In the CRT this is also true, Figure 23-8. At zero bias the CRT is at maximum current; therefore, the screen is bright or white. At cutoff bias, the current is zero and the screen is black. The tube Figure 23-8. Study this sketch of a CRT. (RCA) Sync pulse Blanking level Video information Figure 23-6. The composite video signal of one line scanned by the television camera. 25% Base Basic Cathode Ray Tube Controls Retrace Black level Deflecting yoke Glass neck section Grid Nº 3 Figure 23-3. The waveform of the voltages required for scanning and retrace. It is called a sawtooth waveform. Deflection yoke Reference line Sync pulse A Average dc 75% White level operates at a selected bias on the control grid. This bias can be controlled by the knob on the TV or a button on the TV remote called the brightness control. When no picture is being received on the TV, the scanning electron beam can be seen in the form of lines on the TV screen. This is called the raster. Turn a TV to a vacant channel and observe this raster. Now adjust the brightness control from black to bright. The incoming, detected video signal is applied to the grid of the CRT (sometimes to the cathode, depending on polarity of signal). The video signal adds to, or subtracts from, the bias on the tube. This action results in a modulated electron stream that conforms to the picture information in the video signal. The picture is produced on the fluorescent screen. The sharpness or focus of the electron beam can be adjusted by changing the voltages of the focusing grids. From time to time, they may require adjustments. Refer again to Figure 23-8. Find the centering magnet. Slight adjustments on this magnet will correct a picture that is off center. Review Questions for Section 23.1 B Figure 23-5. The voltages developed as the camera scans one line across a checkerboard. The sync pulses are transmitted at the end of each line. Figure 23-4. A deflection yoke fits around the neck of the television picture tube. (Triad) Figure 23-7. A comparison of a dark and a light picture as they appear in the video signal. A–Light signal. B–Dark signal. 1. Briefly explain how an orthicon television camera works. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units 2. __________ is the point-to-point examination of a picture. 3. One scan of 262 1/2 lines represents a(n) __________. 4. What is a deflection yoke and what is its purpose? 5. The _________ triggers the oscillators in the receiver and keeps them at exactly the same frequency. 6. What is a raster? 23.2 TELEVISION RECEIVERS The television receiver is a fairly complex electronic device. As you work through the block diagram of the receiver shown in Figure 23-9, take note of the similarities between your television set and the radio receivers you just studied in Chapter 22. Black-and-White Television Receiver Figure 23-9 shows the parts of the television receiver. This block diagram shows the links between the parts of the television. Trace the signal path through the stages. The purpose of each group of components will be apparent. The name of each block reflects its purpose in the circuit. The following text takes you stage by stage through a television receiver. The RF amplifier serves a function similar to that in the superheterodyne radio. The incoming television signal is chosen by switching fixed inductors into the tuning circuit. These tuned circuits provide constant gain and selectivity for each television channel. In this stage, the video signal, with all its information, is amplified and fed to the mixer. In the mixer stage, the incoming video signal is mixed with the signal from a local oscillator to produce an intermediate frequency. The commonly used IF is 45.75 megahertz. When a channel is chosen with the channel selector, the tuning circuit is changed. The frequency of the oscillator is also changed so that it is always producing the IF of the correct frequency. A fine-tuning changes the frequency of the oscillator slightly in order to provide the best response. The RF amp, mixer, and oscillator are combined in one unit. The unit is called the tuner or front end of a television. These units are usually put together in the factory. Adjustments should not be made on these units unless you have the correct instruments and thorough knowledge of procedures. The PIX-IF amplifiers amplify the output of the mixer stage. This includes the 45.75 megahertz intermediate frequency, the video, and the aural information. To provide maximum frequency response for each stage up to 45.75 MHz, each stage must amplify a broad band of frequencies. The voltage gain of each stage is reduced. More stages of IF amplification are required. In this system, the Sound IF amplifier FM detector AF amplifier Speaker PIX-IF amplifier Video detector Video amplifier CRT Antenna RF amplifier Mixer PIX-IF amplifier Local oscillator PIX-IF amplifier Sync amplifier DC restoration 60 Hz Sync separator Low voltage power supply Integration network Vertical oscillator Vertical amplifier Horizontal AFC Horizontal oscillator Horizontal output High voltage rectifier Damper Figure 23-9. Block diagram of a TV receiver. 397 398 Electronic Communication and Data Systems sound is passed through the IF amplifier with the video signal. It is called the intercarrier system. The output from the last IF stage is fed to the video detector or demodulator. The detection process is the same as in the radio. The video signal used to amplitude modulate the transmitted carrier wave is separated and fed to the next stage. In the video amplifier stages, the demodulated video signal is amplified and fed to the grid (sometimes cathode) of the CRT. This signal modulates or varies the strength of the electron beam and produces the picture on the screen. The FM sound signal is amplified in the sound IF amplifier. Later in this chapter, you will learn that the FM sound of the television program is separated from the video carrier wave by 4.5 megahertz. This produces a 4.5 MHz FM signal at the output of the video detector, which is coupled to the sound IF amplifiers. The FM audio detector detects the frequency variations in the modulated signal and converts them to an audio signal. AF amplifiers are the same as those used in the conventional radio or audio system discussed in the previous chapter. The audio signal is amplified enough to drive the power amplifier and the speaker. The output of the video amplifier is fed to the sync separator. This circuit removes the horizontal and vertical sync pulses that were transmitted as part of the composite video signal. These sync pulses trigger the horizontal and vertical oscillators and keep them in step with the television camera. The sync amplifier is a voltage amplifier stage that increases the sync pulses. In the horizontal AFC, the horizontal oscillator frequency is compared to the sync pulse frequency. If they are not the same, voltages are developed that change the horizontal oscillator to the same frequency. The horizontal oscillator operates on a frequency of 15,750 Hz. It provides the sawtooth waveform needed for horizontal scanning. The horizontal output stage correctly shapes the sawtooth waveform for the horizontal deflection coils. It also drives the horizontal deflection coils and provides power for the high voltage rectifier. The output of the horizontal oscillator shocks the horizontal output transformer (HOT). The high ac voltage developed by this autotransformer is rectified by the high voltage rectifier and is filtered for the anode in the CRT. See Figure 23-10. The damper stage dampens out oscillations in the deflection yoke after retrace. The output of the sync amplifier is fed through a vertical integration network to the vertical oscillator. The Figure 23-10. Horizontal output transformer (HOT). (Triad) integrator is an RC circuit designed with a time constant. The integrator builds up a voltage when a series or groups of closely spaced sync pulses occur. The transmitted vertical pulse is a wide pulse. It occurs at a frequency of 60 Hz. The vertical oscillator is triggered by this pulse and, therefore, keeps on frequency. The output of the vertical oscillator provides the sawtooth voltage to the deflection coils. The deflection coils move the beam from the top to the bottom of the screen and the flyback from bottom to top, at the end of each field. The vertical output amplifier is used by the output of the oscillator to provide the proper currents in the deflection yoke for vertical scanning. Special purpose circuits The basic television circuit has been improved in many ways. Automatic controls have been designed for many functions that would be tiresome for the TV viewer to manage. Two of these improvements are dc restoration and automatic gain control. DC restoration. The average darkness or brightness of a TV picture is transmitted as the average value of the dc component of the video signal. If the video amplifiers are RC coupled, the dc value of the signal is lost. In this case, the average value of the video signal is taken from the detector and used to set the bias on the CRT. Automatic gain control. The AGC serves the same function as it did in the radio receiver. Its purpose is to Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units provide a fairly constant output from the detector by varying the gain of the amplifiers in previous stages. This is done by rectifying the video signal to produce a negative voltage. This voltage is applied to the bias of the previous amplifiers to change their gain. Color Television Receiver Color television was developed in the late 1940s. The system currently used in the United States was pioneered by RCA Laboratories. In March, 1950, a color television demonstration was given in Washington, DC to FCC personnel, reporters, and other interested people. As a result of this demonstration, color television development was launched. An invention that made color television possible was the shadow mask picture tube, Figure 23-11. The three basic colors used in color television are red, blue, and green, Figure 23-12. By combining these colors, any color can be produced on the screen. 399 The first color picture tube produced for retail sale was the delta-type tube. It was invented in 1950, and was basically the same tube used in the color television demonstrations given by RCA Laboratories in Washington, DC. The delta-type tube uses three electron guns placed in the neck assembly of the picture tube. The electrons are emitted by the three guns toward the screen. The screen is filled with hundreds of thousands of dots containing the colors red, blue, and green. In between the electron gun and the color-producing screen, the three electron beams are focused through an aperture or shadow mask, Figure 23-13. This shadow mask ensures that the electron beams strike the dots properly. A line is made by one complete scan (from left to right) of all three electron beams hitting all the dots across the screen. If all electron beams are adjusted properly, the result will be a white line. A color line is made by mixing the electron beams. 400 Electronic Communication and Data Systems Red filter Yellow (red/green) Blue filter Red Magenta (red/blue) Green filter White center (all 3 colors) Cyan (blue/green) Blue Green Screen Figure 23-12. Red, blue, and green are the basic colors used in television. Delta-type electron gun Circular aperture mask Phosphor screen Figure 23-13. A delta-type gun, shadow mask, and tridot screen arrangement. (Sylvania-GTE) In-line gun assemblies were invented after the shadow mask tube. Figure 23-14 shows four in-line gun assemblies with different aperture grill and screen patterns. A color television receiver is a very complex instrument. It has to be able to produce both color and black-and-white pictures. But not all televisions are color televisions, so the incoming signal must also work with black-and-white sets. Figure 23-15 shows a block diagram of a color television receiver. Television Channel Figure 23-11. Study this color picture tube. (Sylvania-GTE) Light sources The FCC has assigned a portion of the radio frequency spectrum for each television channel. There are two types of television channels: very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF). Each channel is 6 MHz wide. The VHF channels, 2 to 13, are listed in Figure 23-16 along with frequency bands and carrier frequencies. Examine channel 4 in Figure 23-17. The basic video carrier frequency is 67.25 MHz. Recall that when an RF carrier wave is amplitude modulated, sideband frequencies appear. These stand for the sum and difference between the carrier frequency and the modulating frequencies. To send a very clear, sharp picture, frequencies of at least 4 MHz are needed for modulation. These frequencies combine in channel 4 for a band occupancy of 63.25 MHz (67.25 – 4 MHz) to 71.25 MHz (67.25 + 4 MHz). It is a total channel width of 8 MHz. However, the FCC allows only 6 MHz, therefore, a compromise must be made. In commercial TV broadcasting the upper sideband is transmitted without attenuation. The lower sideband is partly removed by a vestigial-sideband filter at the transmitter. The curve in Figure 23-17 shows the basic response traits of the TV transmitter. The sound is transmitted as a frequency-modulated signal at a center frequency 4.5 MHz above the video carrier. In channel 4, the sound is at 71.75 MHz. The ultra high frequency (UHF) television band covers from channel 14 to 83. As in VHF, the bandwidth of each channel is 6 MHz. The same frequency bandwidths are used for the picture carrier as VHF. The UHF channels used for commercial TV are set by the FCC. See Figure 23-18. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units 401 3 guns 3 lenses 3 guns 3 lenses Frequency band (MHz) Video carrier frequency Aural carrier frequency Single large lens 2 3 4 54–60 60–66 66–72 55.25 61.25 67.25 59.75 65.75 71.75 Electron prism 5 6 7 76–82 82–88 174–180 77.25 83.25 175.25 81.75 87.75 179.75 8 9 10 180–186 186–192 192–198 181.25 187.25 193.25 185.75 191.75 197.75 11 12 13 198–204 204–210 210–216 199.25 205.25 211.25 203.75 209.75 215.75 3 lenses Cathode Cathode Cathode Cathode Slot Circular aperture Rectangular slot Dot pattern (spherical screen) Continuous slit (aperture grille) Brick-like pattern (spherical screen) A B Stripe pattern (spherical screen) Stripe pattern (cylindrical screen) C Electronic Communication and Data Systems Channel number Single gun Unitized gun 402 Figure 23-16. VHF frequency assignments. D Figure 23-14. In-line color tubes. A–Three guns with circular aperture. B–Three guns with rectangular aperture. C–Unitized gun with slot aperture. D–Sony Trinitron with one gun and grille aperture. 0.75 MHz Lower SB 6 MHz 4.5 MHz 4 MHz 67.25 MHz 72 MHz 71.75 MHz Sound carrier Figure 23-17. Shown are the locations of the picture carrier and sound for channel 4, VHF. The channel is 6 MHz wide. Figure 23-15. The RCA CTC-40 color receiver. (RCA) Review Questions for Section 23.2 1. What is the purpose of an RF amplifier in a television receiver? 2. The output of the mixer stage is amplified by the: a. PIX-IF amplifier. b. video amplifier. c. AF amplifier. d. None of the above. 23.3 TELEVISION INNOVATIONS In addition to the electronics of television itself, there are a number of other electronic innovations that have been created to work with television. A few of these innovations are detailed here. Video Cassette Recorders Upper Sideband 66 MHz Picture carrier 3. The __________ __________ stage correctly shapes the sawtooth waveform for the horizontal deflection coils. 4. What is the purpose of a shadow mask? 5. A Sony Trinitron color tube uses a(n) __________ aperture. 6. Each TV channel bandwidth is: a. 6 Hz. b. 60 MHz. c. 6 MHz. d. None of the above. Channel number Frequency band (MHz) 14 15 16 17 18 19 • • • • 83 470–476 476–482 482–488 488–494 494–500 500–506 884–890 Figure 23-18. Examples of some ultra high frequency (UHF) channels and where they are located in the frequency band. Video cassette recorders (VCRs) can be used to play videotapes. They also can be used to record and play back television broadcasts. Most VCRs have four heads. A video head is a tiny electromagnet that reads information from the recorded tape during playback. It writes information onto the tape during recording. VCRs can have extra heads that provide better sound and picture quality. Look at Figure 23-19. Recording information on a magnetic tape is simple. The tape is plastic with a thin coating of iron oxide on one side. The iron oxide is a Electrical signal input Coil winding Alternating magnetic field Recording head Iron oxide coating on plastic tape Magnetized patterns on tape represent electrical signals Figure 23-19. Magnetic tape recording is simply impressions of a magnetic pattern on an oxide tape. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units magnetic material. The voice or picture message is converted to electrical impulses. These electrical impulses are applied to the coil winding on the recording head. The fluctuations of the electrical impulses make the magnetic recording head fluctuate at the same rate as the electrical impulses. The magnetic head induces a magnetic pattern on the metal-oxide tape. The magnetic patterns uniquely match the original voice or picture patterns. The videotape not only records voice and video but also speed information, end of tape location, copyright, and anticopy coding. 403 Remote Control A remote control is an application of infrared light and digital techniques. When a button on the remote control is pushed, a digital code is sent out of the remote control to an infrared sensor on the TV. The sensor on the TV amplifies and decodes the signal. See Figure 23-21. Electronic Communication and Data Systems Satellite TV Remote control Infrared transmitter Infrared coded beam Digital decoder Infrared receiver Figure 23-21. A television remote control sends digital information to the infrared receiver mounted on the TV. Digital Video Recorder A digital video recorder (DVR) combines computer and television components to form a television receiver. A DVR receives a television signal and can record the television program as well. A hard disk drive is used for the recording medium rather than magnetic tape as found in a VCR system. A hard disk drive is capable of recording and storing hundreds of hours of television programming. See Figure 23-20. 404 Large-Screen Projection TV Most large-screen projection TVs use a special electron gun assembly that projects three separate images onto a screen. Early projection TVs had screens with a significant curvature. As these televisions became more popular and more advanced, engineers were able to develop a flat screen projection. Figure 23-22 shows how the electron gun is assembled. The main performance problem with large-screen or projection TVs is the loss of clarity of the video image. Remember there are only 525 lines per frame of display. As the picture is increased in size, the lines become a distraction. The image does not magnify; it simply gets larger. Some large projection TVs offer a slight improvement in video image by scanning the same lines twice for a total of 1050 lines across each frame. These sets do have a sharper, more appealing video image to the human eye, but no real magnification has taken place. Arthur C. Clarke first introduced the idea of launching satellites to improve communications. He did this in an article in the fall, 1945 issue of Wireless World magazine. He stated that if satellites could be launched high enough (35,880 kilometers or 22,300 miles) above the equator, they would be in geostationary orbit. Geostationary orbit means an object rotates with the earth. The first communications satellite, Telestar I, was launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1962. It was a small, experimental satellite that only operated a few hours each day. This satellite made communication between the United States and Europe possible. In April, 1965, NASA launched the first commercial satellite, Early Bird. This satellite was owned by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a group created in 1964. Now there are many satellites in orbit allowing for television, telephone, radio, data, and other communications messages. Rockets and space shuttles place satellites into space. There they are deployed and the circuits are activated, Figure 23-23. Figure 23-24 shows an SBS communications satellite now in orbit. This satellite was designed to provide voice, video teleconferencing, data, and electronic mail services to U.S. businesses. From its geostationary, or synchronous, orbit 22,300 miles above the equator, AUSSAT, Australia’s first national communication satellite, links that entire country and Papua, New Guinea, through an advanced telecommunications system. See Figure 23-25. When the satellite is in orbit, the antennas point south, making the spacecraft look upside down if viewed from earth. Refer to Figure 23-26. It shows the inside of a satellite. A traveling wave tube amplifier increases the strength of the communication signal for its broadcast back to earth. It is being adjusted by an engineer. The amplifier is onboard a communication satellite. This satellite is built to carry both standard traveling wave tubes and solid-state power amplifiers. This type of satellite is reliable and has a long life. The diagram of the parts of a satellite are shown in Figure 23-27. Figure 23-28 shows satellites in orbit over North America. Image projected to 4 1/4 ⫻ 5 2/3 feet screen Phosphor-coated internal screen (red, blue, or green) Electron beam Corrector lens Electron gun Figure 23-20. A digital video recorder (DVR) with its case removed. The hard disk drive is located in the center of the device under the metal support. To identify the hard disk drive, look at the thicker red cable. Spherical projection mirror Figure 23-22. Projection tube for a large-screen television. Figure 23-23. The launching of the Hughes communication Leasat 4 satellite. (Hughes Communications, Inc.) Figure 23-24. A Satellite Business Systems (SBS) satellite being prepared for launch. (Hughes Communications, Inc.) Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units 405 Telemetry and command bicone antenna 406 Electronic Communication and Data Systems Earth transmitter to satellite Earth Satellite Equator Dual polarized reflector Fixed forward solar panel Receiving antenna From studio to satellite (antenna) Solid-state power amplifier Thermal radiator TWTA Propellant tanks Extendable aft solar panel From satellite to receiver dish Antenna feed assembly Transmitting antenna Homes, industries, and offices receiving signals Figure 23-29. Study the operation of a satellite. Battery pack Figure 23-25. A communications satellite used for communication in Australia. (Hughes Communications, Inc.) Figure 23-31 shows four dish designs. Motors are often used to move dishes. This way, signal from more than one communication satellite can be received or the dish can be lined up with a particular satellite. A satellite receiver is shown in Figure 23-32. This receiver can be programmed with infrared remote control. Complex circuitry allows the user to store satellite positions, polarity, frequencies, and tuning voltages into memory. The programmed information can then be recalled from the unit’s front panel or the remote control unit. Other remote control functions include volume control with mute, direct or scan channel selection, and video fine tuning. Apogee kick motor Figure 23-27. Parts of the Telstar III satellite. (Hughes Communications, Inc.) Coaxial cable The signal that is supplied by the local cable television company or through a satellite dish system typically connects to the initial receiver in the home from a single coaxial cable. Coaxial cable is designed to carry high frequency signals. The coaxial cable is designed to limit the radio waves generated from the center core conductor to the area between the core conductor and the shield. The shield will absorb the radio signal emanating from the core conductor when the high frequency passes through. See Figure 23-33. The shield also protects the inner core The signal transmitted by the satellite is picked up on earth by a receiving dish or parabolic antenna. The dish focuses the received signals into a small area called the focal point. The feedhorn, which acts as a receiver, is located here, Figure 23-30. Located near the feedhorn is a low noise amplifier (LNA) that amplifies the received signal. The signal is then fed through a piece of electrical coaxial cable to the TV receiver. A coaxial cable has a conductor inside another conductor. The two conductors are insulated from each other. Equator Satellite les als ed sign Transmitt 0 ,30 mi 22 Low noise amplifier Figure 23-28. Geostationary communication satellites in orbit over North America. Dish reflects transmitted signals into small focal point area sign als Feedhorn Figure 23-26. Looking inside a communications satellite. (Hughes Communications, Inc.) Cable to receiver Figure 23-30. A parabolic, or dish, antenna. Study the parts. Tra n Once a signal is made by a communication station on earth, it is beamed up to the satellite. The satellite picks up the signal on its receiving antenna, amplifies the signal, and then sends it back down to earth. See Figure 23-29. The signal sent up from the studio to the satellite is a narrow, targeted signal. The signal sent back down from the satellite is a wide signal designed to cover a large area of the earth. smi tted Satellite transmission Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units 407 18" Metal mesh dish Solid metal dish Fiberglass dish Digital satellite system Figure 23-31. Common dish designs. F-type connector Mesh shield Foil shield Figure 23-32. A satellite receiver. (Regency Electronics) Dielectric 408 Electronic Communication and Data Systems The FCC’s approval in 1996 of a digital television standard was the first step toward an improved and a higher quality picture. Although the switch to digital has progressed slowly, with more and more television stations switching to digital broadcasts and many digital television formats emerging, high definition television (HDTV) has become the dominant digital television technology. HDTV allows for higher resolutions and a wider display screen than an analog display system. HDTV uses digital broadcasting techniques, allowing more information-rich data to be transmitted by airwaves than by analog broadcasts. Digital broadcasting can broadcast multiple channels in the same bandwidth as that used for one analog channel. Broadcasting multiple channels is referred to as multicasting. Multicasting allows not only for the image to be broadcast, but also for two to four channels to be broadcast in the same single-channel bandwidth. The additional channels can be used to transmit additional images, resulting in “picture-in-picture” and information such as stock prices, weather reports, sports scores, or background information about the actors in the movie being viewed. Any information found on the Internet can be incorporated into the display screen. When additional information is transmitted along with the video image, it is referred to as datacasting. You will soon likely be able to integrate a digital camera into the system so that you can see the baby sleeping in the next room while watching your favorite television show. To be considered a complete HDTV system, three major system components are required, Figure 23-34: • A digital camera to record the images at the higher resolution. • A digital receiver (HDTV tuner) to convert received broadcasts into image and sound. • A display unit capable of producing images at the high definition TV resolution. If any of the three major parts are missing, the HDTV system is incomplete and will not produce an HDTV picture. There are many television variations that Figure 23-34. Major components required for a complete HDTV system. Copper core conductor from outside radio interference. The shield of the coaxial cable is grounded in most applications. FAKRA SMB connector A FAKRA SMB connector is a very small connector especially designed for small diameter coaxial cable known as micro-coaxial cable. Micro-coaxial cable is used for automotive satellite radio and antenna connections. It is the smallest connector used at this time. Review Questions for Section 23.3 1. A(n) __________ pattern is left on a recording tape. 2. A remote control sends a(n) __________ __________ to the TV. 3. How is an image projected onto a large-screen TV? 4. Why is the resolution limited for a typical largescreen TV? 5. Who first proposed the concept of communication satellites? 6. How does a receiving dish work? 7. Which part of a coaxial cable is normally grounded? Figure 23-33. A coaxial cable consists of two shields: a mesh or braid and foil. At the top is an F-type connector commonly used with coaxial cables. Photo sensor Storage device CCD Array 23.4 HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION (HDTV) The analog television display system had remained the same for over fifty years without any major improvements to the quality of the transmitted image. This condition may have continued if not for the development of the computer monitor. The computer monitor had a greater image resolution than the analog television. By merging the analog television system with the digital system, many features that were not possible with the traditional analog system could be added. When converting to the digital system, there was greater ability to manipulate screen images. For example, since there is greater colordepth control in a digital system, images could be easily reapportioned as the image horizontal-to-vertical ratio changed between digital and analog television reception. Captured light from an image Level of electrical charge Memory Analog Analog-to-digital converter Figure 23-35. A CCD as it captures an image. Digital Broadcast Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units use HDTV terminology but do not produce the desired HDTV effect. For example, a television system may be capable of receiving a transmitted HDTV broadcast, but incapable of displaying the higher resolution HDTV image. Digital Camera Technology Traditional analog television uses vacuum tube imaging to capture images, while HDTV uses the charged coupled device (CCD). The CCD is an integrated circuit consisting of an array of photo sensors that convert light from a camera's focused image to electrical energy, Figure 23-35. The level of electrical energy is directly proportional to the level of light captured by the photo sensors. The CCD converts the individual packets of electrical charge into a series of analog signals representing the level of light amplitude at each photo sensor location. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) converts the series of analog signals to digital signals. The digital pattern can then be sent to a block of computer memory to be stored as a still image, recorded to CD or DVD, transmitted across a computer network, or broadcast using the existing assigned television bands. For full-color images and higher resolutions, three sets of CCD sensors are used. A beam splitter inside the camera separates the incoming light into three colors: blue, red, and green, Figure 23-36. Each color is sent to a corresponding CCD. The three images are then CCD Array CCD Array Beam splitter Captured light from image Figure 23-36. A three-CCD system. 409 410 Electronic Communication and Data Systems overlaid, producing a picture rich in color. Since the full array of each CCD is used for each color, the three-CCD camera is capable of higher HDTV resolutions. Odd Rows Even Rows HDTV Picture Quality The most impressive attribute of HDTV is the picture's visual quality. To compare the HDTV image to the analog television image, we must first convert the typical analog image to an equal digital resolution. The National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) formulated the standards for analog television and video in the United States. The NTSC standard calls for 525 scan lines at a 60 Hz refresh-rate based on the interlace technique. NTSC is not compatible with most computer video systems and must be converted before it can be displayed. The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) was established in 1983. The committee spent years developing standards that were eventually adopted by the FCC for digital television broadcasting and receivers. These standards have been designed to eventually replace the NTSC standards. There are 18 scanning formats described in the ATSC standards. Variations in the standards are derived from concerns about interlace scanning and progressive scanning, frame rates, and aspect ratio. Earlier, in the section about the analog television system, you learned about interlacing. Interlace scanning is a two-step process of transmitting the odd lines of the scan and then going back over the image, filling in the even lines to make a complete image, Figure 23-37. Progressive scanning is the capture and transmission of the entire image at one time. Each line is placed on the screen progressively in one sweep. Frame rate is how often the image is updated on the screen. Currently, three frame rates (in frames per second) exist: 60, 30, and 24. Aspect ratio is the relationship of the horizontal to vertical screen presentation measurements. Aspect ratio standards can be either 4:3 or 16:9. The 16:9 is a wide-screen aspect ratio similar to common movie theaters. The 4:3 aspect ratio is a standard television rectangle. The various factors of aspect ratio, frame rates, and scanning method combine to form the 18 different screen standards. Figure 23-38 lists the 18 ATSC digital TV compression formats. HDTV has a vertical scanning rate equal to 720p (progressive) and 1080i (interlaced) vertical lines. The actual display may have a higher vertical scan rate than the 1080i standard. This is especially important as the size of the display area increases. To compare the quality of analog television to HDTV, you must convert scan lines to maximum number 240 lines 30 × /sec A 240 lines 30 × /sec All lines scanned at once 480 lines 60 × /sec B Figure 23-37. Interlaced and progressive scanning. A—Interlaced scanning captures and transmits the odd lines first, and then the even lines. B—Progressive scanning captures and transmits the whole image at once. of pixels. A pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a graphic display. It can be thought of as a single dot in the entire image. Analog television approximates a screen composed of 480 × 440 pixels, producing 211,200 total pixels. HDTV approximates a screen composed of 1920 × 1080 pixels, producing 2,073,600 total pixels and by far a greater detailed image than the analog system. The Moving Picture Experts Group developed the MPEG2 image compression standard to increase the amount of video data transmitted in an HDTV system. By compressing the broadcast video data, more information could be broadcast in the same amount of bandwidth. The MPEG2 compression technique can reduce the image information by as much as 97 percent, but an average of 50 percent is typical. The compression technique is based on the fact that the majority of the video images on a television screen do not change from frame to frame. For example, a news broadcast has a persistent image, such as a background, with very little movement requiring new data. Parts of the image that are persistent do not need to Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units Horizontal pixels 1920 1920 1920 1280 1280 1280 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 640 640 640 640 Vertical pixels Aspect ratio Picture rate 1080 1080 1080 720 720 720 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 60i 30p 24p 60p 30p 24p 60p 60i 30p 24p 60p 60i 30p 24p 60p 60i 30p 24p Figure 23-38. ATSC digital TV compression formats. Those listed in bold are HDTV formats. be broadcast in each frame. This reduces the total amount of image information that has to be transmitted. The same technique is used for DVD, CD-RW, and still cameras. Because more information can be transmitted using a completely digital system, sound quality has also greatly improved. HDTV incorporates the 5.1 channel surround sound system into its standard. The 5.1 system is composed of a left, right, center, left surround, right surround, and a subwoofer signal. This is the same quality audio used in the best stereo systems available. There are some misleading terms used when describing advanced television systems. The fast evolution of these systems and the terminology used by advertisers can often lead to disappointed consumers. Enhanced definition television (EDTV) is a system that receives digital transmissions and displays images at 480p or higher. The fact that it can receive high definition television transmissions and decode them makes it an enhanced system. However, actual HDTV displays images at 720p or 1080i. You may have an HDTV receiver connected to a display unit that cannot produce the higher display quality, thus defeating the purpose of HDTV. Some systems simply take the existing NTSC system and double the number of scanning lines, but this does not provide any new image information. This is like using a photocopier to double the size of an original image. Since no new image information has been added, picture quality cannot be enhanced. 411 412 Electronic Communication and Data Systems Digital Light Projection Television One of the latest developments in television is digital light projection (DLP) developed by Texas Instruments based on their digital mirror device (DMD). The DMD is a precision light switch consisting of a rectangular array of microscopic mirrors. Look at Figure 23-39. Each mirror is controlled separately. The entire array of mirrors span across one chip. A DMD can contain an array of over 1.3 million mirrors. The DMD technology is combined with a light source and lens to create a DLP system. Each individual mirror corresponds to a digital signal that represents a single pixel in the image to be created on the television screen. The array of mirrors can be switched on and off over one thousand times per second. The length of time each mirror is switched on and off is used to produce an array of light and dark spots on the target screen. Varying the amount of time each mirror changes from light to dark will produce a specific shade of gray on the screen. For a full-color image to be produced, the DLP uses a color filter. The reflected light passes through the color wheel at the exact moment the required specific color is needed to produce the desired image onto a screen. The transparent lens on the filter can create over 16 million different colors. A DLP television typically consists of a single DMD chip, lamp, color wheel, and a projection lens. See Figure 23-40. You can see the light source shining through the spinning color wheel. The light passes through the color wheel filter and then strikes the DMD and is reflected through the lens which projects the image on the television screen. Figure 23-40. A DMD device in a television application. (Courtesy of Texas Instruments) Figure 23-41. The flat-panel ViewSonic VPW 425″ plasma TV is capable of both television and computer applications. Flat-Panel Displays Flat-panel displays have been associated with portable computer systems for some years now. As electronic display technology evolves, display units for computers, televisions, and other forms of communication are merging. Many televisions now use flat-panel technologies instead of picture tube technologies. Flat-panel displays are lightweight, thin, and have more applications than the bulky CRT, Figure 23-41. Display electrode Mg0 layer Rear plate glass While a CRT uses a mask to isolate the individual pixels on a screen display, the flat-panel display does not. The flat-panel display controls the individual pixels electrically. Flat-panel displays typically sandwich a thin film of phosphorescent material or liquid crystal between two thin surfaces, Figure 23-42. One surface is covered with vertical conductors and the other with horizontal conductors, Backlight Transparent electrode (horizontal) Liquid crystal Dielectric layer Color filter Glass substrate Address electrode Xenon and neon gas Figure 23-39. An ant leg rests on the surface of an array of DMD mirrors. (Courtesy of Texas Instruments) Polarizing filter Polarizing filter Front plate glass Phosphor coating A Transparent electrode (vertical) Glass substrate Alignment layer B Figure 23-42. A—Simplified side view of a gas-plasma display. B—Simplified side view of a passive-matrix LCD display. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units forming a grid. At each point on the grid is a pixel. Each pixel can produce a dot of light on the display unit. Gas-plasma displays Gas-plasma displays operate on the principle of electro-luminescence. Electro-luminescence is the display of light created when a high frequency passes through a gas to a layer of phosphor, resulting in the release of photons. The electrical energy from releasing photons is better known as producing light. A gas-plasma display consists of millions of tiny cells sandwiched between two glass plates. See Figure 23-43. Each cell contains an inert gas and is coated with a phosphorous material of red, blue, or green. Transparent electrodes run horizontally behind the front panel on top of the cells, and address electrodes run vertically along the rear glass panel beneath the cells. When the address electrode and its corresponding transparent electrode are energized, the gas, in an excited plasma state, releases an ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet light strikes the phosphorus coating inside the cell, causing the cell to release a light corresponding to its color. By varying the pulses of current, the entire light spectrum can be duplicated. 413 surface. There are two categories of LCD: active and passive. Passive displays are more affordable than active displays because they require fewer transistors and are less complex. Active-matrix displays are costly because they use one or more transistors at every pixel. Both active and passive displays are made up of groups of individual screen areas referred to as pixel areas. Each pixel area is made up of three color dots or pixels: red, green, and blue. The combined effect of the three pixels produces pixel areas representing different colors. Varying the intensity of each pixel can produce millions of colors. Combined with the surrounding areas, the pixels form an image on the display screen. How color liquid crystal displays work To understand how LCD technology works, follow along with Figure 23-44. The typical LCD panel is simple in construction. A backlight is required to generate Electronic Communication and Data Systems light. The light passing through the first filter results in polarized light. Polarized light consists of light waves all the same shape and of a single frequency rather than the entire spectrum of light frequencies generated by the backlight. The light passing through the first filter consists only of vertical waves. A liquid crystal sits between the two filters. When a voltage is applied to the liquid crystal, the molecules in the crystal rotate from the vertical position. When the vertical light passes through the energized liquid crystal, it too rotates, changing into a horizontal light wave that is blocked by the second filter. The second filter allows only vertical waves to pass through. The amount of voltage applied to the crystal determines the amount of rotation from the vertical position to a horizontal position. The more voltage applied, the less light that will pass through the second filter. Passive-matrix display Backlight Voltage applied to crystals Light is blocked Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels The most common flat-panel display is the liquid crystal display (LCD). The liquid crystal display (LCD) operates on the principle of polarized light passing through tiny crystals of liquid. Light is composed of many different light waves. Each light wave travels at different angles. A voltage applied to the crystal causes the crystal to warp and, in turn, determine the amount of polarized light passing through to the display screen. The LCD is classified according to the electronic circuitry and method used to apply light to the display's 414 Light passes There are two types of electrical circuitry used to energize the crystal area, active and passive, Figure 23-45. In a passive-matrix display, a grid of semitransparent conductors run to each crystal used as part of the individual pixel area. The grid is divided into two major circuits, columns and rows. Transistors running along the top and the side of the display unit head the columns and rows. A ground applied to a row and a charge applied to a column activates a pixel area. The voltage is applied briefly and must rely on screen persistence and a fast refresh rate. Because current must travel along the row and column until it arrives at the designated pixel, response time is slow. Active-matrix display In an active-matrix display, each individual pixel in the grid has its own individual transistor. The activematrix provides a better image than the passive-matrix. The active-matrix image is brighter because each cell can have a constant supply of voltage. The most common active-matrix display is the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). Often, this type of display is referred to simply as a TFT display. The TFT display consists of a matrix of thin film transistors spread across the entire screen. Each transistor controls a single pixel on the display. There are over one million transistors in a display, three transistors at each pixel area, and one transistor for each color pixel, Figure 23-46. The liquid crystals in the TFT display are energized in a pattern representing the data to be displayed. The conventional television has used the CRT to display images because the original LCD design had limitations that could not compete with larger display units. As the size of the display unit grew to over 18 inches, problems developed with the brightness of the display and in converting the analog television signal to a digital signal and to a wide-angle viewing area without image distortions. These problems were solved with the introduction of thin film transistor LCD technology. Transistor First polarizing filter Second polarizing filter Figure 23-44. A typical LCD panel is based on the principles of polarized light waves. Activated cells Transparent electrode Discharge region Front panel glass Screen area grids Phosphor cell row Passive-Matrix Address electrode Figure 23-43. Gas-plasma technology. Rear glass substrate Active-Matrix Pixels are activated at intersections Figure 23-45. In an active-matrix display, each individual cell in the grid has its own individual transistor. The activematrix provides a better image than does the passive. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units 415 416 Electronic Communication and Data Systems unit designed to accept input from many different sources. It allows a display to be used with television systems and PC systems as well. You will notice horizontal and vertical sweep controls typical in a CRT imaging system are absent in this unit. Since the image is digital, there is no need for such circuitry. There are several items in the display controller that are more commonly associated with a computer system. Philips SXGA Triple-Input Display Controller Standards Organizations To illustrate how one display system can be used in multiple applications, let's look at the Philips SXGA triple-input TFT display system controller, Figure 23-48. The triple input display system controller accepts input from analog, digital, and parallel sources. The analog input accepts the traditional UHF and VHF frequencies. The digital input accepts HDTV broadcasts over cable, as well as from personal computer systems. The parallel interface accepts input from other sources such as USB connection devices like a camera or a recorder. The block diagram for the SXGA triple input is different from traditional television. This system requires a microprocessor and special modules to process digital information. At the opposite end there is just one output, the panel port. Repeating display pattern TFT transistor One complete pixel with three transistors Figure 23-46. Each pixel area on the TFT display consists of three transistor-controlled color fields. The three color fields—red, green, and blue—are combined to form various shades and hues of color. Advantages of LCD displays over CRT displays: • LCDs can be constructed much smaller and are lighter in weight than CRT displays. • LCDs are more economical to run because they require less power. • LCDs generate less heat. • LCDs create images that are more detailed. • LCDs produce less electromagnetic interference (EMI). Disadvantages of LCD displays as compared to CRT displays: • Lack of an industry-wide standard. • Higher cost for a comparable size. • Complexity of scaling images without distortion. Display Resolution Resolution is a measurement of an image's quality. The higher the resolution, the higher the quality or more detailed the image, Figure 23-47. The term resolution can also be used to describe the detail produced by printers, digital cameras, and any similar type of graphic equipment and is measured in dots per inch. Display resolution is the amount of detail a monitor is capable of displaying and is measured in pixels. A display unit with a maximum resolution of 1920 × 1080 has 1920 pixels There are several organizations that are presently creating standards for LCD type panel displays. They are as follows: Video Electronics Standards Organization (VESA), Digital Flat Panel (DFP), and Digital Visual Interface (DVI). The variance has caused much confusion concerning video display standards, not only for screen display resolution, but also for standard connector construction. Look at the table in Figure 23-49 for a brief summary of the three major standards groups involved in the development of a standard for their individual interest. The VESA workgroup is headed by the VESA standards organization. The DFP is led by Compaq, and the DVI is led by Intel. Each group consists of members from across the television and computer industry. PC port Figure 23-47. Shown are two different resolutions of the same image. The top picture is low resolution. The bottom picture is a higher resolution. Parallel video port GLOBAL CONTROL REGISTER FILES CONTENT PROTECTION DVI port along the horizontal axis and 1080 along the vertical axis. A display unit capable of a high resolution can display at lower resolutions, but, since the display uses fewer pixels per area at lower resolutions, the image loses its sharpness. A display unit designed to operate at one frequency and resolution is much simpler in design than a display for multiple frequencies and resolutions. Typically, the electronic system controlling a multiple resolution and frequency display uses microprocessor technology similar to that found in a computer system. In fact, the modern digital television system resembles a computer more than the earlier analog television systems. Display manufacturers design displays to be used by multiple applications. This means that a single display can be used for analog and digital television systems, as well as computer systems. This is achieved by integrating a controller board capable of handling various inputs. The Philips SXGA triple input display controller is one such PARALLEL VIDEO INTERFACE VIDEO INPUT DLL Analog video port 3x ADC & SYNC INPUT SELECT COLOR LUT DITHER MEMORY TESTER AUTO ADJUST TMDS RECEIVER & DLL PC SLAVE COLOR MATRIX HORZ DOWN SCALER COLOR MATRIX HORZ DOWN SCALER TEST IMAGE GENERATOR JTAG DYN. NOISE RED. COLOR MATRIX VERT DOWN SCALER DEINTERLACER STREAM CONTROLLER AND ARBITER VERT DOWN SCALER POWER MANAGER PANEL/ MEMORY DLL PREPANNING UP SCALER DDR SCRAM CONTROLLER Memory port VESA DFP DVI Max resolution SXGA 1280 × 1024 SXGA 1280 × 1024 HDTV 1920 × 1080 Connection signal Analog, USB, IEEE 1394 Digital only Analog and VESA Figure 23-49. Various standards for LCD type panel displays. OSD PANNING AND OVERLAY Figure 23-48. Block diagram of the Philips SAA6714 SXGA triple-input TFT-display controller. Standards for TFT OUTPUT TIMING CONTROLLER Panel port Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units Home Theater Connector Types There are many different connector types developed for HDTV and various other displays. The display connectors are designed either for digital or analog transmissions, or for a combination of both digital and analog. Some manufacturers have tried to cut production costs by designing connectors to work with both television and computer systems. While making multiple-application connections is reasonable, it has caused some physical and electrical incompatibility between designs due to a lack of one general standard for all manufacturers. As long as different standards exist, compatibility issues will arise between the devices from different manufacturers. Look at the various connection designs in Figure 23-50. A home theater center can consist of many different electronic devices connected together. The equipment that comprises a complete home theater may involve a wide variety of cable connections. Audio cable does not require shielding from interference or cause interference the way video signals do. The speaker wiring has a low 417 DVI-I Digital only DVI Connector DVI-D Analog only Connector DVI-A Digital Single Link DVI-D Digital Dual Link DVI-D Figure 23-50. Various connection designs. Electronic Communication and Data Systems frequency and does not use a carrier wave because it transmits the sound pattern as an analog signal. Video cables must be shielded to protect the video signal from interference and, in turn, so the video cable does not broadcast radio wave interference to surrounding devices. You need to be able to identify each type of connection and understand its capabilities. RF and F-type RF and F-type connections support the poorest quality video images and are found on the oldest technologies. The RF and F-type cables use standard coaxial cable made of a solid or stranded copper core conductor. The core conductor is surrounded by a thick insulator material. The insulator material is completely wrapped around by a conductive mesh or foil referred to as the shield. The shield protects the core conductor from outside electromagnetic interference. RF and F-type cables provide the poorest signal quality transfer between support home entertainment devices. Refer to Figure 23-33. Composite video Digital and Analog Combination DVI Connector 418 Composite video cables use only one cable for the video signal and two or more for stereo sound. See Figure 23-51. The composite video will provide a better signal than RF or F-type cable connections but worse than S-video or component video. S-video S-video is a four-pin connector that delivers separate signals for video signal chrominance (color) and luminance (brightness). It is a very simple way to connect components together because there is no way to misconnect the audio and video cables. There is a nine-pin version that is used for video-in and video-out (VIVO) configurations. The nine-pin connector allows for video to be streamed in both directions. The four-pin connector is used for applications that only require video in one direction. See Figure 23-51B. A B C Figure 23-51. Various home theater cables. A—Composite Video. B—S-Video. C—Component Video. High Definition Multimedia Interface High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is used to supply video and audio in an uncompressed alldigital signal format. See Figure 23-52. HDMI supports high definition television and Dolby 5.1 using a single cable. The digital audio is as high as 192 kHz and the digital video is as high as 350 MHz and 10.2 Gbps of signal data. At the time of this writing, HDMI provides the best picture and sound quality available. The HDMI uses the new xvYCC standard which is an enhanced color standard that exceeds the HDTV standard. The xvYCC is short for Extended YCC Colorimetry for Video Applications. The term “colorimetry” means identification of colors using three sets of numbers representing red, green and blue. This new standard was designed to enhance the viewing experience and can support 1.8 times as many colors as existing HDTV signals. The new standard is also designed to support blu-ray technologies for digital movie disc and newest video game technology. ToskLink The ToskLink optical connector, Figure 23-52B, is a proprietary connection developed jointly by Sony and Phillips. The ToskLink cable is limited to audio at this time and used to support audio signals between home theater equipment. The ToskLink provides a connection for fiber optic cable. Fiber optic cable is immune to interference because it utilizes light to transfer the signal, not radio waves. A light signal is not susceptible to interference emitting from other cables and radio signal sources. Display systems, still evolving, have yet to designate one universal standard. This evolution is similar to when the video tape recording systems introduced the Beta and VHS taping systems. While the Beta system was technically Component video The component video is found on high-performance devices and produces better quality pictures than S-video or composite video. The cables used are constructed from flexible coaxial cable. Each individual cable consists of a single conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a shield to protect it from receiving or generating interference. See Figure 23-51C. Component video does not carry the audio signal. Audio signals are typically supplied through two separate ports. A B Figure 23-52. HDMI and ToskLink connectors. A—The HDMI connector closely resembles the standard USB connector found on PCs. B—The ToskLink connector is protected from damage by plastic end pieces. The connectors are susceptible to damage from scratches or even dust collected on the ends. Chapter 23 Television and Video Display Units superior to the VHS system, the VHS system became the designated standard because of its convenience. Review Questions for Section 23.4 1. What three things are needed to have a complete high definition television system? 2. What is multicasting? 3. What is datacasting? 4. What does the acronym ATSC represent? 5. What does the acronym NTSC represent? 6. What do the lowercase letters i and p represent in association with frame rates? 7. What are the two common display formats for HDTV? 8. What does the 5.1 channel surround sound system consist of? 9. How many pixels are required for each color display’s pixel area? 10. What are the two classifications of LCD displays based upon the number of transistors in relation to the number of points in the image? 11. What does the acronym DMD represent? Summary 1. A television picture is produced by scanning an image captured from a television camera onto a cathode ray tube. 2. Scanning is the point-to-point examination of a picture. 3. The scanning system used in the United States is the interlace system. It consists of 525 scanning lines. Scanning starts at the top left-hand corner of the picture. It scans from left to right on the odd numbered lines and then scans the even numbered lines. All of this takes place 30 times per second. 4. Black-and-white signals are made by a single color picture tube. Color signals are made by a three color (red, blue, and green) picture tube. 5. The bandwidth of a TV signal is 6 megahertz. The VHF band covers channels 2 through 13. The UHF band covers channels 14 through 83. 6. Video cassette recorders are used for recording and playback of magnetic tapes. 7. The image on a large-screen TV is made by projecting three color images onto a screen. 8. Satellite TV is used for communication worldwide through the use of satellites that orbit the earth in a geostationary (synchronous) position. 419 9. Traditional analog television uses vacuum tube imaging to capture images, while HDTV uses CCD cameras to capture images and convert them to digital information. 10. A digital camera uses a charged coupled device (CCD) to capture an image and convert it into digital signals that can be stored or transmitted. 11. A pixel is a single color element of a color pixel area. 12. HDTV is associated with display formats 720p and 1080i. 13. MPEG2 is the most commonly used video compression standard for HDTV. 14. Dolby surround sound consists of 5.1 channels. 15. The most popular LCD technology for high-quality color images is the TFT-LCD. Test Your Knowledge Please do not write in the text. Place your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. The dots that make up a picture are called __________ __________. 2. Briefly explain the interlace scanning system. 3. What causes an electron beam to move from left to right? 4. The speed of an electron stream from an electron gun is increased by: a. grids. b. target plates. c. scanning. d. None of the above. 5. A composite video signal contains the: a. video information. b. sound information. c. Both of the above. d. None of the above. 6. The __________ __________ __________ is used to produce images in most televisions. 7. What are the three colors used to produce a color TV image? 8. What is the purpose of having more than two heads on a VCR? 9. _____ allows for two to four channels to be broadcast in the same single-channel bandwidth. 10. To be considered a complete HDTV system, three main components are required: a digital _____, digital _____, and a _____ _____ capable of producing images at the high definition TV resolution. 11. The _____ _____ _____ _____ developed standards for digital television broadcasting and receivers. 420 Electronic Communication and Data Systems 12. _____ is a wide-screen aspect ratio similar to that found in common movie theaters. 13. The Moving Picture Experts Group developed the _____ image compression standard to increase the amount of video data transmitted in an HDTV system. 14. _____ percent of a typical transmitted picture does not change from picture frame to picture frame. 15. The most common active-matrix display is the _____ - _____. Matching Questions Match the following terms with their correct definitions. a. Sync separator. b. Sync amplifier. c. Mixer. d. Vertical oscillator. e. Video amplifier. f. Horizontal AFC. 16. The output of this device provides the sawtooth voltage to the deflection coils. 17. Removes the horizontal and vertical sync pulses transmitted as part of the composite video signal. 18. Compares the frequencies of the horizontal oscillator and sync pulse. 19. Amplifies the demodulated picture signal and feeds it to the grid of the CRT. 20. Combines the incoming video signal with a local oscillator signal. 21. A voltage amplifier stage in which the sync pulse is increased. For Discussion 1. Discuss the function of each of the following controls found in a TV receiver. State the circuit that is regulated by each control. a. Horizontal hold. b. Brightness. c. Vertical hold. d. Fine-tuning. e. Channel selector. f. Vertical linearity. g. Horizontal linearity. h. Height control. i. Contrast. j. Width control. 2. Explain the process of negative transmission used in television in the United States. 3. How does the vertical integration network separate the vertical sync pulse? 4. If dc amplifiers were used in the video section, would dc restoration be necessary? 5. Why are both UHF and VHF channels needed for television? 6. Research and discuss the various types of video display. 7. Discuss what you think television will be like in the year 2020. 8. How did development of the shadow mask picture tube promote the reality of color TV? 9. Why would a digital television image be sharper than a conventional television image?