JF - Part 8 - cd3wd408.zip - Offline - IITA - Conservation Farming for Small Farmers in the Humid Tropics

JF - Part 8 - cd3wd408.zip - Offline - IITA - Conservation Farming for Small Farmers in the Humid Tropics
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REFERE
LIBRARY
A projwt
of Volunteers in Asia
by: Ray Wijewardene
s..
Published
by:
International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture/Sri
Lanka Program
Dharmapala Mawatha
Colombo
Sri Lanka
133
7
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Lanka Program
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of the International
Institute
of Tropical
Agriculture,
Sri Lanka
Program.
Reproduction
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form is subject
to the same restrictions
of the original
document.
in any
as those
a. Background
b. Conserving Soil, Fertility,
Time
c. How it is done
2
Water, Energy and
a. Crops which may be grown ‘no-till’
b. Soils suitable for ‘no-till’
c. Techniques on rpllrelldrained soils
Contact herbicide application
Injection planting
Pre-emergence herbicide application
Contact-plus-preenlergent
herbicides
Fertilizer application
Hand weeding
Post emergence herbicides
d. Techniques on imperfectly drained soils
e. Precautions
Timeliness
Soils
Mulch
Stubble
Herbicide Applicators
Using the MICRON-HERB1
Using the CP-15
Mixing the Chemicals
Do’s and dont’s for handling agrochemicals
No-Till Planters
I ITA ‘Punch’ planter
I ITA’Rolling
Injection Planter’ (RIP)
IITA Fertilizer Applicator
Herbicide Suggestions
ROUNDUP
PARAQUAT
PRIMEXTRA
GALEX & LASSO
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
G
7
7
a
9
10
11
11
12
14
15
15
15
15
15
16
Live-Mulch Systems
Avenue Cropping Systems
17
18
lbckground
No-till farming is as old as agriculture.
It was practisad by
primitive farmers who felled and burned a patch of forest,
and pressed their seed into the ash-mulched soil. Any weeds
were dessicated by the burn before seeding.
Subsequent crops, however, were smothered byweeds blowing
in from around the patch. With inadequate forest material
to burn these weeds the farmer resorted to tillage - turning
the soil - to bury the weeds competing with his crops.
Later man evolved the plough to trcrn the soil more quickly
when harnessed to a draught animal.
Conserving Soil
But wind and rain then eroded the bare, tilled soil. Thiswas
by storms of
parti,. arly acute in “ 3 trci)ics character&d
high intensity and surls slo tn regenerate their eroded
through
fertility.
LaP showed in r\l,,?~ Edthat losses
erosion could be as high as 1 toat per hectare per month on
tilled soils of just a gently ten-percent slope even when
under a crop of maize. This erosion could be reduced by
about 98% through leaving the soil untilled (i.e. ‘no-till’).
1.7
1976 Lal’s research also showed that retaining of a cover cir
‘mulch’ over the surface of the soil (not buried as with
Effect of wwthev
on tilled soil
ploughing) on that ten-percent
slope, reduced erosion losses
from over 200 tonnes per hectare per year to a bare 0.2
tonnes. Water run-off was likewise reduced from 42% of the
rainfall falling on bare soil to less than 2.5% on mulched
soils - thus showing a remarkable
increase in the ability of
the soil to absorb rainfall.
Conserving Fertility
To cope with erosion the small-farmer
in the tropics,
evolved the practice of shifting his plot, thus allowing it to
regain fertility
under forest fallow, usually for a period of
five to fifteen years. While this practice wasacceptable
in
earlier times, pressures of population
on limited land
resources now makes shifting cultivation
inappropriate
as
cleared and burned patches are given less and less time to
regenerate. There is now an acute need for a practical and
viable alternative
to shifting cultiv?tinn.
cnq which will
enable a sustained -nd permanent
3qrjcLlt Ire.
Conserving Water
It takes, on average, 20 tonnes of water to grow one kilogram of rice, but only about one quarter rf this is used by
the plant. Most of the water is used to soften the soil for
tillage and for submersion of weeds. Using minute quantities
Effect of weather on
no- tilled soil
‘1
-43
/
-
of herbicide instead of laborious tillage for weed controi has
enabled qell over 50% saving in the water used for growing
rice.
With upland crops, such as maire, beans, etc. No-till and
mulching techniques increase the capacity of the soil ta
absorb and retain water, (thus) greatly diminishing the
effect of drought.
selective herbicide often lasts several weeks and ideally until
the crcp has a good start in growth over the weeds.
Special seeders (planters) have been designed to inject the
seed through the herbicide-dessicated mulch and into the soil
at a correct depth for good germination.
Consewing Energy and Time.
It is not often realised that tillage of a hectare of land just
ten centimetres deep involves the physicai movement of
1300 tonnes of soil with each pass. . . a massive earth moving task involving great drudgery. No-till techniques have
shown a remarkab)e reduction in this effort to less than one
tenth the energy and time’used for conventional farming
both in temperate agriculture’ as well as in tropical smallholder farming!
These dramatic savings enable at least a five times increase in
productivity of the farmer without having to use tractorpower; whilst almost eliminating the drudgery and low productivity which have hitherto been the small farmers’ lot in
the developing world. A simple package of tools and
techniqies has been evolved which enables the small farmer
in the tropics to increase his productivity substantially. By
minimising losses of soil, fertility and water, a sustained
agriculture is achieved.
How it is done
The ‘no-till’ technique eliminates the need for tillage by controlling weeds with minute quantities of herbicide.
Generally two herbicides are used; one, a total weedicide acts
- like a plough - to kill all surface weed growth. But unlike
the plough, it leaves all the dead organic matter as a mulch
on the surface of the undisturbed soil, very much as in the
forest situation. The other is a selective herbicide which is
applied after the crop is sown to inhibit the emergence and
growth of weed seeds still within the soil whilst selectively
having no effect on the seeded crop. The activity of the
Weed seeds inhibited by postemergent
allowing crop to develop unhindered
As with conventional tillage, farming experience and skill
can be developed in the selection of herbicides (as with
.tools) and in the timeliness of operations which are usually
conducted much earlier in the season thzn with tillaga
systems. Tools for ‘no-till’ farming are generally much lower
in cost than tools for tillage farming over the same area and
cover the area’in very much less time - usually taking Oria
tenth as long!
herbicide spray, .
‘Role of Mulching Techniques
in Tropical Soil &
Water Management.
IITA Technical
Bulletin
1 May 1975
‘Soil Erosion Problems on an Alfisol in Western
Nigeria and their Control’
II’TA monograph
No. 1
1970
3. @tathews. J.
4. Wijewardene,
‘Energy Consumption
in Agricultural
Work’SPAN
18, 1, (25-26)
1975
Field Work
R. ‘Energy Conserving
Farming Systems for the
Humid Tropics’
(47-53)
AMA Spring 1980
3
Preparingfor ‘No-til
a. Crops whichmay
be grown by ‘no-till’
TheoretIcally,
most (If noi all) arable crops can productively
be grown by ‘no-till’.
Tropical plantation
agriculture
(oilpalm, rubber, coconut, cocoa etc.) has used both the ‘no-till’
as well as the ‘Ilve-mulch’
technique
(growing
crops through a living mulch, which
i: iisually a leguminous cover-crop)
for decades with substantial
longterm Improvements
to the soil and
ts water-hqldlng
capacity.
chniques for alternatlve
weed con.
trol have so far only been fully investigated
for.
1. Maize
2. Grain-legumes
3. Rice (upland)
(soya, cowpea,
ground-nut,
Tropical (arable) crops currently
for the ‘no-till’ method inciude
ke
etc.)
be,ng researched
1. Rice (lowland)
2. Sorghums
3. Peppers, chilli and capsicum
4. Roots and Tubers (cassava, yarns, etc.)
b. Soils suitable for ‘no-till’
Generally, crops grown in well-drained
soils (reddish-brown-earths,
etc 1 respond
best to ‘no-till’ techniques
Crops grown
in Imperfectly-drained
soils which are
lower in the soil-slope catena, do not
always respond as well as when they
are grown on laboriously
raised-beds or on puddled,
levelled Tnd drained fields. If, however, these preparations
have alreao; been carrred out for an earlier crop, it is then
quite simple to ,nove towards ‘no-till’ techniques.
The importance
of mulch cannot be over-emphasised
for
successful ‘no-till’
farming. On bare or totally grazed soils as in many semi-arid regions - ‘no-till’ techniques do nqt
perform well.
c. No-till techniques
on well-drained
soils
Contact-herbicide
application
The procedure for ‘no-till’ follows traditional
practices. Instead of laboriously
ploughing and harrowing
to control
weeds, the field is initially given an overall application
of a
contact (total) herbicide (ideally one with systemic* action)
which kills all the surface weed-growth,
and leaves it as a
dessicated mulch over the surface of the soil. Weed seeds are
not turned under to revive when next the soil is inverted by
a plough or cultivating
implement.
Nor is soil left bare to
bake and crust as with conventional
tillage, with the inevitable need for subsequent tillage to Jreak up the clods and redevelop ‘tilth’.
LJ
‘Systemic’ action relates to the ability of some agro-chemicals
to
baabsorbad
and translocated
thrJ.lgh a plant frcmpoint
of contact, thus being very much more effective
in the11 dction.
4
Injection Planting
The seed to be sown IS then ‘Injectjon
planted’ through the mulch and Into the
soil Special injection planters have been
developed for this, to leave the surface
mulch undtsturbcd
except for the area
over the injected seed, and through which
the seed emerges Two types of Inlection
planters have been developed.
(11
The ‘Punch’ planter sultablc for
6
use on small farms of less than half a
hectare (2) The rolling-injectionplanter (RIP) which was developed for
larger farms In single or multi-row
models
The injection planter is designed to pierce
the nlulch and open a narrow slot in the
soil into which the seed is deposited and
subsequently
firmed over Depth of
planting is also regulated
Pre-emergence
herbicide
application
Still In the soil, however, are weed seeds which would
emerge with or shortly after the crop and need to be eliminated (in conventional
practice) by subsequent hoeing. Such
weed seeds can also germinate and develop between the
time
of the first
(contact)
seeding or planting
herbicide
of the cultured
application
and
crop. Therefore,
till’ farming,
a selective,
pre-emergent,
herbicide
weed seed v..hile selectively
to kill germinatmg
the
in ‘nois applied
permitting
the
seed of the cultured crop to emerge. The activity of the pre
emergent herbicide usually persists for several weeks to enable
the cultured crop to achieve a substantial start over any weeds
which may subsequently
emerge, and then shade them into
submission.
It’s usually not a good practice to give so
strong an application
of selective pre-emergent
herbicide as
to selectively sterilize the soil. This
‘,
could lead to problems with the
’ ‘.:
growing of subseqclent crops of other
’j
species due to residual activity.
In any
‘!
case, 75 to 80 percent weed control is
usually LII that is necessary, as the achievement of a higher standard - say 95% control
- is usually at such high additional
cost as
to be uneconomic.
In some
expedient
CirClJfTXtanCeS
i
to apply a
paraquat/
GRAMOXONE)
mixed with the pre-emergent
herbicide.
The contact herbicide kills any weeds which may have
emerged since the preceeding application
of, say, a total
contact herbicide (such as glyphosate/ROUNDUP)
as the
Typical calunn of tha humid tropics
wolldtaidaw- usviliy Ra;c
:2tm &SE)
h
\
f
latter takas some ten to fourteen days to be fully effective.
The preemergent selective herbicide component, meanwhile,
moves into the soil to constrain the emergence of any
remaining weed seeds while the crop develops selectively
unimpeded.
Fertiliw
while the seed itself is on the surface of the field, in contact with the air. Once the root system has developed (i.e.
when the seedling is about 5 cm. tall,) then the seed and
root zone can safely be submerged.
Application
‘No-till’ systems are NOT - repeat NOT - to be considwed
a: alternatives to the applick:tion of chemical fKtilisK where
.\lch is recommerded for high yields. Most modern crop
val ieties have been bred for response of high inputs of fertiliser. No-till techniques do however ensure that ftrtiliser
when applied is not washed away by rainfall and is generally
found to greatly improve the effectiveness of the applied
fertiiisers, which are usually very expensive.
A special fertiliser band applicator has bean developed to
enable the basal fertiliser to be applied as a bard just along
side the row of emerging seedlings, and also, for a later
application of the top dressing (usually urea).
Hand Weeding
The need for hand-weeding is greatly reduced by the use of
contact and pre-emergent herbicides, which are primarily
intended to help the cultured crop get off to a good start
ahead of the weeds. Research has shown that the first three
to four weeks of a crop’s growth are the most critice:
period. Subsequent, occasional rogueing of weeds by hand is
beneficial to the crops which follow as it,prevents the
reseeding of weeds. (“One year’s weeds, seven year’s seed!“Old English saying).
Post emergent
herbicides
Sometimes (as with rice) it is expedient to apply the selective herbicide shortly after the cultured crop has emerged,
and with it some weeds too. The post-emergent herbicide is
then intended to kill the emerging weed selectively by contact as well as any weed-seeds still in the soil (if it also has
pm-emergent activity).
d. Techniques on imperfectly drained soils
Rice being one of the few crops which grow
h-riperfectly drained swampy conditions, still needs to germinate
in association with air (i.e. under aerobic conditions) and
until its roots have developed. (Rice, though adapted to
marshy, anaerobic, soil conditions, is not an aquatic plant).
Thus, either the rice seedling is laboriously transplanted into
a paddy field after its roots have developed (thus providing
it a head start of some three weeks over any weeds which
might subsequently emerge) or else rice seed is broadcast onto the surface of a levelled and drained but saturated field.
The emerging radicle then works its way into the moist soil,
under
Poor emergence of the rice seed if seeded in*s saturated
soils is believed to be due to the lack of adequate oxygen in
the water of warm tropical rice fields. Apparently the
irrigation water is cooler, tempwate countries has much
higher oxygen content and germination is not a problem if
the rice seed is submerged when sown. This background
knowledge is Important when sowing rice into imperfectly
drained soils (low-humic-gleys or LHGs), as injection is not
recommended under these conditions.
When dealing with LHG soils, it is best to ensure that i)
All stubble and surface weed-growth are either grazed
or harvested short.
At least two weeks is allowed after harvesting or
grazing for the weeds (or ratoon rice) to emerge and
be growing actively, before spraying the first contact,
systemic (total) herbicide such as ROUNDUP. This
will then ensure good contact of the herbicide with
the actively growing weeds to achieve a good kill.
This first herbicide appliration should take place
about two weeks before the planned date for seeding.
Two days before seeding, the field should be given a
second herbicide application of a quick acting contact
herbicide such as Paraquat to finally kill any weeds
which may still have emerged. The field itself will be
quite moist and level after the preceeding rice crop SO
there is no need to level it again. Perhaps some of the
surface drains could be revived whilst the bunds are
being repaired. Pre-germinated seed is then broadcast
onto the moist and weed-free field at the standard
rate of about 60 to 90 kg/ha, and ten to fourteen days
later an application is made of selective post-emergent
herbicide to eradicate any weed seedlings which may
have emerged simultaneous!y with the rice.
While the procedures for ‘no-till’ farming of rice on
5
imperfectly drained soils may appear somewhat
complicated, they are, in fact, qur:e easily mastered
and enable very gocd crops to be grown with less than
one-tenth the labaur and time involvement of conventional tiilage systems.
8. Precautions
Timeliness.
Timing is usually critical (‘the right operation at the right
time’ is the axiom of good farming the worid over). Generally, the seeding of no-till crops occ-rrs earlier in the season
than with tilled crops delayed by the time and effort of tillage. So plan: for seeding generally need to be advanced
several weeks - usually be?veen twe and four weeks.
such as rice or sorghum the ratoon crop emerging from a
short stubble is easily controlled with an application of contact (ideally systemic) herbicide on the actively g-owing
green portions of the ratoon. However. if applied on the
dead vegetation or on brown stems, no chemical action
takes place, and the herbicide is wasted. Always try to spray
contact herbicide only onto actively growing, green material!
Grass cover provides excellent mulch as long as the grass is
short (and growing actrvely) when sprayed. Otherwise tot
much herbicide is required to obtain coverage. A field of
grass closely-mown or short-grazed to ahout 3 to 5 centimetres and then left to grow for two or three weeks provides an ideal mulch which is easily controlled by herbicide
and is not too dense for the crop to emerge tt,rough.
Soils
Seeding (planting) needs to be undertaken into moist soils;
not wet or sticky soils, Attempts to plant into wet soils will
usually be frustrated by the blockages of the seeding points
of the planter; and poor germination, in any case! Injection
planting is best timed for when soils are just moist enough
for germination, and when continued rainfall is ensured.
(Otherwise should there be a lull in the weather after the
first rains, the farmer may be caugnt out!) It is always preferable to seed (plant) into soils covered by a mulch as this
also keeps the jaws or points of the planter clean and enables
rapid, trouble-free planting.
Mulch
“How much mulch?” This differs with the crop. Usually a
mulch cover which shows hardly any exposed soil is excellent. A thicker mulch will help smother weeds, but will also
impede the emergence of the crop being seeded.
When using a thick mulch of rice or wheat straw on wet
fields the acids of decomposition could also impede crop
emergence and growth. Therefore short stubble is preferred
as a mulch on rice fields. If the stubble or straw in the field
is long, a light burn is usually beneficial as erosion is neglible
on levelled and bunded fields.
Stubble
Allied to mulch is stubble and the question is often
“how long should the stubble be?” Ideally, stubble
be as short as possible, and if long should bsgrazed
burned before herbicide application. With ratooning
6
asked
should
or
crops
Stubble too long
a. Herbicide Applicators
The problem with conventional spraying systems - knap
sack or tractor-mounted - is the high volume of liquid
required; usual!y about 400 to 500 litres per hectare (40 to
50 gallons per acre). It is logistically impossible for the small
farmrtr to carry this volume on his back, and cover half a
hectare of land thoroughly (even if such a quantity of water
is available near at hand).
It was necessary therefore to look for alternative spraying
systems which would drastically reduce the volume of iiquid
carried by :’ .a farmer and still provide effective coverage.
Two very appropriate herbicide applicators have emerged
which reduce the volume of liquid required to about 1/lOth
of that needed by conventional sprayers.
1. The Micron ‘HERBI’ manufactured by:
Micron Sprayers Ltd.,
Bromyard.
Herefordshire,
England HR7 4HU
/%
/ ‘5
III.
and
2. The ‘CP-15’ knapsack sprayer with VLV-50
manufactured by:
Cooper Pegler Ltd.,
Burgess Hill,
Sussex,
England RH15 9LA
Both these differ from conventional sprayers in that they
produce an even swathe of herbicide, about 1 m in width
composed of droplets within a limited size range of about
200 microns. It is the evenness of droplet size and droplet
dist, ibution across the swathe that is believed to account for
the ehcctiveness of the applied herbicide at the greatly reduced dilutions referred to above.
In the case of the ‘HERBI’ the droplets are produced by
centrifugal action when herbicide is dripped steadily on to a
spinning disc.
With the ‘CP-15’ sprayer a similar effect is achieved by
supplying the herbicide through a specially calibrated nozzle
at a regulated pressure.
Uwing ths Micron
-
24 woeplastrt,
bdtle
\
HERBI
Three nozzles siLes are provided r,,) the MICRON applicator,
the smallest IS blue, the medium yellow and the largest is
red. For practical purposes when spraying herbicide the
yellow nozzle is usA and this provides a flow of 125 ml/
minute, which at l/2 meter/seco.,; walking speed (i.e.
125 ml over 30 square meters) ,,rovides an applied volume
of about 40 litres per hectare.* This is reasonable and
adequate for comprehensive coverage of the ground.
*i.e.
The Micron ‘Herbi’ Herbicide applicator
nozzle
125
1,000
x
,= 41.6
Application of herbicide
using the Micron ‘Herbi’
speed over a 30 metre distance, which should be covered in
exactly 1 minute. On harder surfaces, one tmds to walk
faster and on softer (e.g. in wet paddy fields) one often
walks very much slower. So learn to gauge the correct speed.
The effective swathe width is 1 metre, so lay out ropes
1 metre apart in the field to be sprayed and walk with the
head of the applicator
at the correct 20 cm height over this
rope. After the first ‘no-till’
crop is established - which will
be at plant-spacings
of even ,ractions of a metre, we use the
line of stubble as the spraying lint. For example, with rice
seeded 6 rows to a metre (1.e. at 15 cm between rows) one
would need to walk down every 6th row to achieve the
i metre swathe width.
Detail of the spray action of the Micron Herbi atomizer
During jprav’hg the head containing
the spinning disc
should be held horizontally
about 20 centimetres
(see illustration) abov: the crop or mulch so that the spray falls even
ly over the surface as one walks over%.
vilalking speed is critical, so time yourself to achieve the
required l/2 meter/second
speed, by gauging your walking
Lid
.I'
~-c.'.,~//'/:ijjjjii'i,ij,~~~j)),),l I ' .'!. j ..
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Using the Cooper-pegler
“CP-15”
The CP-15 sprayer is one of the few knapsack sprayers
which is fitted with a pressure regulator to regulate the pressure to 1 bar (about 14lbs per square inch) in the ‘L’ or lowpressure setting and about 3 bars (40 Ibs per square inch) in
The CP- 15 Knapsack Sprayer
the ‘H’ or hrgh-pressure setting. The ‘L’ low-pressure,
setting
is used for herbicide spraying and in conjunction
with the
VLV-50
(Floodjet-type)
nozzle provides a flow rate of
250 ml/minute
over an effective swathe width of 1 metre. fur
a coverage of about 40 litres per hectare,* when walking at
! metre per second. Guide ropes 1 rn apart should be layed
out on the field in the same way as with the ‘Kerbi’. (The
‘H’ setting which produces a much finer droplet sizr, beino
used effectively
for insecticide spraying).
10000
-L
-41.6
The flat swathe of the spray is clearly visible, and the correct
width is obtatned by holding the nozzle at 50 cm over the
field or vegetation to be covered. A chain or werghted cord
50 cm long, is :Jften
huiTg from lust behind the nozzle so
that it tOuCheS
the field stubble, thus ensuring the correct
heigh? is n(aintained.
As the CP--15 knapsack sprayer is fitted with a pressklre
regulator,
the uperation
of the regulatrng valve can be heard,
and it is only necessary to pump the handle occasionally
say, once In 4 to 6 paces aii3 verv . gently - to keep up this
pressure. There is thus very little effort required to operate
this very precise sprayer.
Mixing of the chemical (product’)
in the correct
ratio with water for even coverage
Let US sav, for instance that the required product applrcation rate is 2.5 litres per hectare. Then srnce the total volume of liquid applied by both the Herbi and CP-15 is
40 litres per hectare, 37.5 litres of water must be mixed
with 2.5 litres of product?
to achieve the required dilution
for spraying one hectare of iand (i.e. a dilution of 15 1)
Sirnilarly
if the recommended
product application
rate IS
5 litres per hectare then 35 litres of water must be added
(i.e. 7 1) and so on.
The spray pa t-fern of the CP- 15
Herbicide spraying with the CP- 15
Knapsack Sprayer
Hovtever, since the Herbi is supplied with a bottle of
2.5 litrrs capacity and the “CP-15”
with a tank of 15 litres
capacity, marked in 5 litre graduations
(i.e. 5, 10 and 15
litre marks) it is necessary to mix only enough herbicideas
is require0 at any one time. The table below shows the
amount of product that must be measured out into the
container of the sprayer, and then diluted to the mark with
water, at various recommended
product application
rates
and for different
contamer volumes.
~~;~~~I, 5 ,o--,5
/’ pp!icati;r Container Volume-litres
‘CP-15’
1
60 mls
125 mls
250 mls
375 mls
1.25
1.50
75 mls
150 mls
300 mls
450 mls
90 mls
155 mls
370 mls
2
125 mls
250 mls
600 mls
555 mls
-750 mls
2.25
150 mls
300 mls
600 mls
900 mls
3
190 mls
375 mls
250 mls
750 mls
1000 mls
1125mls
500 mls
~---.
300 mls
600 mls
1200 mls
1600 mls
4
-
5
L
Top Container
Measured Product Volume
Droplet pattern (life size) of Micron Herbi sprayer
;-*.. “) . * - 6,
.-#I #’
. . j ;*.
. . *.
-..
. . ’ .*I i ‘, I..
q).’
‘.‘.
. ’ ,:-,
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..
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a;
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E
2
8
i
i
.
mls A
.
..I
:,
l
* .*.* k.*..‘*m
9.
_
Precautions
All pesticides including
care and respect.
DO
:
DO
:
DO
:
DO
:
DO
:
DON’T
:
DON’T
:
for handling pesticides
herbicides should be treated
.
,*.
.i'
.-.
,
‘,.
with
Wash your hands and any other contaminated
parts of your body with soap and water after
using pesticides.
Wash out your herbicide applicator
carefully
with clean water and soap after use.
Mix only the amount of herbicide that is
required for Immediate use.
Only store pesticides in the clearly marked container supplied by manufacturer,
out of reach of
children and farm animals.
Keep pesticide away from contact with food or
drinking water supplies.
Pour excess pesticide into streams, ponds, rivers
or other water.
Use empty pesticide containers for other purposes until they are thoroughly
washed. several
times, with soap and water and no further smell
remains.
Droplet pattern (life size) of CP- 15 sprayer
:
.
500 mls
up to mark with clean water!
Fcr example, if one is Jsilrg the CP- 15 spra$i;ar and wishes
!o spray a quarter of a hectare, then the to.dl volume of
fiq)Jid to be applied would be 40 x l/4 litre = 10 litres. If
the recommended
product application
rate is 3 litres per
hectare, then to find the correct amount of product that
has to be measured out read down the lefthand
side of the
table to find the volume row corresponding
to 3 litres of
product*
per hectare i.e. the sixth row down. Vow read
across the row to find the column corresponding
to an
applicator container volume of 10 litres, i.e. the third
column in the square where the row and column meet is a
figure of 750 mls. Thic then is the amount of product that
must be measured into the “CP-15”.
tank and which
should then be topped up to the 10 litre mark with clear8
water.
.
Y
E
No-Till Planters
The IITA automat&feed
‘Punch’ p!anter
Specially designed fcr very low-cost Construction,
Yet capable of accuratedeeding,
the ‘Punch’ pIante+ was developed
from the early Anerican
design (circa 1900) of hand-fed
‘Jab’ planter. Working Drawings are available. See inside
back cover.
.
The IITA automatic-feed
‘Punch ‘planter
The correct ‘slide’ must be selected for the seed being
planted The slide with the 15 mm diameter hole is used lor
large seeds, such as maize (corn), while the slide with the
10 mm diameter hole is preferred for smaller seeds such as
race and cowpea. With maize, one seed per ‘hill’ isusual,
while cowpea and rice are often seeded using two and 5 to 8
seeds per hill, respectively.
The compactor pad, attached to the swivelling ‘jaw-arm’
about 25 cm from the jaws. This is intended to provide
accurate spacing of 25 cm between ‘hills’.
is
Fill the hopper half-full with seed. Then lift the planter off
the ;,.nl+nd to check its operation. On raising the compactor
pad, the jaw arm should open smoothly to drop the seed,
while the slide moves In to the hopper simultaneously
to
collect a metered quantity of seed. When the pad is reieased
no ingress
the laws shotrId close very sxurely, (permitting
ot ~011)while the s++de is simultaneously
extracted from the
hot,per to expos,’ the n.atered seed in the hole, which then
fall Into the closed jaws, ready for the next operation.
Ii1 use It IS best the first season to lay a ropealong
the lines
to be planted. This WIII not be required thereafter as the
lines of stubble WIII be clearly visible and enable one to
maintatn accllrately spaced rows.
The operator walks backwards with the line to hisright.
This is curiously enough, easier than planting while walhing
forwards, and ?;,preciably
faster!
The ‘punch-planting’
operation is in three stages - all three
blended into one smooth cycle.
Stage 1 The operator has his back to tne line to be planted
and punches the point of the planter into the soil,
through the mulch, at an angle of about 20 degrees
to the vertical, and as far as the depth - plate will
permit (the depth of seedingcan thus be regulated).
The seed IS already within the I~WS.
Stage 2 The planter is levered forward, the law still in the
.
soil, so that the compactor now presses onto the
soil or mulch and causes the jaws to open and
deposit the seed in the soil. The jaws open no further than is permitted by the stopper block.
Stage 3 Further levering of the planter forward hinges the
planter about the compactor-pad
and the laws are
thus extracted in the open position. Raising one
arm further releases the tension on the spring which
closes the jaws after the planter comes out of the
soil. If the jaws close while in the soil, they invariably pinch a large chunk of soil which clogs the
planter
Stage 1 but also taking a short step backwards and aiming
repeat the compactor-pad at the preceding, open, hole
with seed The laws then Insert Into the so11approximately 25 cm from the ares e~!~rlg hole, bvhlle the
compartor
r)ad presses down. when ine :~lanrcr ‘s
levered forward, over and to ( ornpac t so!1 over .Yo
seed.
.
A little practice enables one to do this in a smooth circular
movement of the arm, at the rate of about one ‘punch’ per
second or an average of 3600 ‘hills’ per hour. Planting maize
at a stand of 30,000 to 40,000 ‘hills’ per hectare, takes about
P
10 hours.
Always listen for the sound of the seed dropping Into the
jaws as the planter comes out of the soil. Should you not
hear this, then check the metering slide which may be
blocked.
The IITA ‘Rolling-injection-Planter’
- RIP
This was designed to achieve an appreciably
higher rate of
injection planting, than the one hill-per-second
rate achi
abie with the ‘Punch’ planter, and is better suited to
farmer with more than l/2 a hectare of land.
The IITA ‘Rolling-Inject/on-Planter’
Single row model
- RIP
This three-row planter may also be used as a two-row
planter - either the centre planter is removed or left without seed in its hopper. The plant spacing will then be 15 cm
x 30 cm as required for soya or cowpea, and to provide an
overall plant-population
of 220,000 ‘hills’ per hectare. This
tion is sometimes also recommended
for highllering varieties of rice.
The single-row model can conveniently
be
transported to the field with its compactor-wheel
swivelled forward, and pushed, wheel-barrow
style.
The multi-row planter, being heavier for penetration,
equipped with a pair of wheels for transport only.
are removed when reaching the field.
The RIP is available as a single-row model for planting of
crops such as maize. cow peas, etc. at relatively wide interrow spacings, and achieves a sustained planting speed of 3
‘hills’ per second or over 10,060 hills per hour. Maize can
therefore be planted in about 3% hours per hectare (that is
about 35,000 hills).
The RIP is also available as a multi-row
model (ideally three
rows planted simultaneously)
but which can also be converted, quickly for planting onerow or two-rows. The three
planter-units
are ‘ganged’ 15 cm apart to expedite the close
row planting of small-grain-cereals
such as rice, wheat, oats,
etc. As the in-row spacing for which the planter is designed
is 15 cm, this provides an overall planting distance of 15 cm
x 15 cm for a population
of 440,000 hills per hectare such
as is now recommended
for rice.
Place foot 011
i
press wheel and
lower the plan?ing f
disc
(
Transporting the single
row model to the field
The single-row planter is conveniently
pushed forward along
the planting row, while the multi-row
planter is drawn, backwards, as pulling requires less effort. Both, the single-row
and multi (3) row, planters were originally designed for an
in-row spacing of 25 cm but more recent research suggested
better overall weed control with the closer spacing of 15 cm.
Seed metering
The planters are provided with a seed-metering
any of four sizes of seed.
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
15 mm diameter, 4 mm
long-gramed rice
10 mm diameter, 4 mm
length rice and cowpea
7.5 mm diameter, 4 mm
cow pea
5.0 mm diameter, 3 mm
reel suited to
deep, for maize and
deep, for medium
deep-for
grain
mung-bean,
deep, for smaller seed.
Select the end of the metering reel which has the metering
hole required, and ensure this is located in the hopper
The single row
planter in planting
Then one row of holes or another is covereo by the band to
blank off the size of hole within the hopper which is not
required.
After the planter is assembled, adjust the setting of the rubber flaps so as just to touch the metering reel. This ensures
that any surplus seed is gently brushed off by the flaps within the hopper so that only the metered seed passes under
The II TA ‘Rolling-Injection-Planter’
For
the
the
ing
tail of the RIP
nting mechanism
Planting
Half fill each hopper wrth seed.
roughly the same quantity. This
a few rowsof planting, whether
the hoppers is equal. If not, the
adjustment.
All hoppers
will enable
the seeding
rubber flaps
- RIP Multjow
madd
the return run, position the planter on the other side of
rope, also 7 to 8 ems from it. This ensures continuity
of
15 cm between-row
spacing; 2 runs (i.e. 6 rows) covera planting width of one metre.
Speed of planting should be between l/2 and 1’ metre per
second, too fast a speed sometimes results in seed being
thrown out of the planter
should have
you to see after
rate through all
may need
Line up the planter alongside the planting row (ropes should
preferably have been laid first, at 1 metre spacings) and push
the single-row-planter
- or pull the multi-row-planter.
Yeeping the nearest planting disc about 7 to 8 ems from the rope.
.d-,y*- - ,&a3
t..
.$ 15d
i. 1
j
.
.
.
.
.
1 .
.
.
suhbtpanhng~
fwm
Precautions
1. DO NOT use the planter to inject seed into wet soils!
Not only will germination
be very poor, but the seeds
will tend to stick around the jaws, and work their way
in, thus causing blockages.
2 DO watch the flow of seed coming under the rubber
flapsand trickling through the funnel into the jaws. Stop
and check if the flow in any planter stops. Ideally the
soil should be just moist after the first rains.
Exhu+esWdJ/etikm
when Yurnmng+ha R/P
Planting with the Multi-Row planter
tD prave& so501
I I)om bkkmg
+he. ..-.._
pfawtl~g .~dws
. . . . . . ..--.
. . . . . . . . . . . -.
.
- . . . . . . _ . _ . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ---
l. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . . .
. . . - . .
.
. I .
.
. I
lm&
betwt?n
rvlx.s
.
3. DO Try to ensure that you are slanting through
Fertilizer Applicator
This tool has been developed to, very quickly, dibble an
accurately metered band of fertilizer
beside a row of seedlings or plants.
4. DO Watch the jaws as they rotate to ensure they are
clean and not clogged.
The basal application
can be banded a few days after
emergence, and so has to be deposited, on the mulch, about
5 cm away from the line of plants. The operator should
walk with the line of plants to his left. Likewise when applying a top-dressing of urea.
at least
2 ems of mulch. This helps wipa the injector-jaws
as they
go in and out of the soil and er,sure that no lumps of soil
work their way into the jaws.
5. DO Check depth of planting, as rice prefers very shallow
planting (no more than 1 cm deep). Maize can cope with
deeper planting. even to 5 ems depth, as their seedlings
are much stronger than the delicate rice seedling. It may
be necessary to remove the compactor wheels when
planting rice, to ensure better emergence of the seedling.
On harder soils it may be necessary to weight the planter
with a heavy sack laid on the weight tray.
6. DO ROT ii;:9 the planter with the injector jaws in the
soil. Raise the handle to lift the planters out of the soil
and with their weight carried by the compactor wheels
before turning. This is much easier. If one turns the
planter with the jaws in the soil. soil is collected which
clogs the jaws.
As the metering of flow is related to the number of revolutions made by the wheel, it is not very sensitive to speed.
Fertilizer can thus be applied, very quickly and accurately,
at a brisk walking pace.
Fertilizers vary in consistency. Thus the applicator should
be calibrated before use. A cup is suspended below the outlet spout and the quantity of fertilizer flowing into it when
the applicator
is propelled over, 10 metres can be measured
and the metering slide adjusted until the required rate is
obtained.
The following
The Weight Tray has Two Functions
I. As a load carrier when transporting
the planter to the
field. Sprayer, chemicals, fertilizer, seed can all be carrid
to the field on the tray as the planter is pulled (or pushed)
to the field.
2. For extra weight when injecting
seed into heavy soils.
formula
and examples
will help calculate
this:
When:
rate required in kilograms per
Q = Application
hectare (kll/ha)
s = Inter-row piant spacing in metros
Rate of flow required in grammes per metre
R=
(g/m)
Then:
R=
QxlOOOxSorQxS
10600
Example:
50 kg/ha
if
Q=
s = 0.75 m
R=
50 x 0.75
10
10
= 3.75 gm/metre
When calibrating,
propel the applicator
for 10 metres. The
quantity of fertilizer flowing into the cup should be adjusted
on the metering plate to be as near as possible to 37.5 grammes
In the field this rate of application
will be maintained as
lony as the consistency of the fertilizer does not vary.
Precaution3
ALWAYS wash the applicator,
throughly,
and immediately
after use.
ALWAYS apply some oil on theaxle.
helical coil to prevent
bearings, and onto the
these parts rusting.
7he planter with weight tray loaded
Basal appliw tion of fertiliz
Sliding i/d
-------- ---
4
Technigues
for HerbicideUsage
Herbicide Suggestions
include these in future
These suggestions are provisional and represent some of the
herbicides, in sequence and in combination,
which have
been tested in the field and found to work satisfactorily.
There are several variations
above, and with experience
duce the herbicide required
the magnitude of his weed
is managing it. It also helps
these herbicides.
There are many other excellent herbicides which we have
not yet got around to evaluating. When we do, we will
supplements.
from the basic recommendations
these will enable farmers to reconsiderably.
Much depends on
problem and how effectively
he
to understand the action of
Herbicide suggestions for use with three crops (Rice, Maize, Grain-legumes)
Pre-planting
operation
Early PrelPost
pianting
Evapeac
I
MAIZE
ROUNDUP
@ 3 I/ha
applied 8 - 12 days
before seeding
ROUNDUP
@ 3I/ha
applied 8 - 12 days
before seeding
ROUNDUP
@ 3 I/ha
applied 8 - 12 days
before seeding
followed
followed
followed
by
PARAQUAT
@ 2 I/ha
applied 1 - 2 days
before seeding
followed
Late Postplanting
GRAIN-LEGUMES
RICE
by -
.
by -.-
PARAQUAT
@ 2 I/ha
mixed with either
PRIMEXTRA
@ 3I/ha
or GALEX
@ 2-3 I/ha
6 2-3 I/ha
or LASSO
applied 1 to 2 days
after seeding
PARAQUAT
@ 2 I/ha
mixed with either
8 2-3 I/ha
GALEX
@ 2-3 I/ha
or LASSO
applied immediately
or 1 day
after seeding
Not necessary
Not necessary
by either
RILOFF-H
@ 1.0 I/ha
applied 10 days after seeding
or MACHETE @ 1.5 I/ha
applied 5 days after seeding
or
PROPANI L-M @ 5 I/ha
applied 20 days after
seeding
ROUNDUP is a contact, systemic herbicide which ne& to
beapplird
to actively growing foliage so that it is absorbed
and translocated through the plant. Nearly all plants are
killed by ROUNDUP, action first being visible in about
7 days and taking up to 15 days for total kill. In higher
doses of 5 - 8 I/ha it is also effective in translocating
through, and achieving a permanent kill on ‘Imperata’ and
similar rhizomatous,
perennial grasses. Weeds must not
be cut back or disturbed for at least 7 days after spraying.
Do not mix any other chemicals with ROUNDUP.
This soon
destroys its effectiveness.
ROUNDUP is thus best applied by
itself and is usually recommended for use at high rates of
5 to 8 litres per hectare in 400 to 500 litres of water per
hectare. Applied CDA or VLV,and
at low dilutions with,
say, 40 litres per hectare of water, trials have shown that
applicaticln rates of ROUNDUP can be halved; hence the
suggestion in this brochure to use only 3 litres per hectare
of this rather expensive herbicide.
However, as there is always some weed seed which emerges
during the two-weeks or so in which the ROUNDUP is
taking effect, it is always advisable to also apply a quick
acting contact herbicide such as PARAQUAT
at a low-rate
of 2 litres per hectare within a day or two of the planting.
PARAQUAT
is also a contact herbicide but not very
systemic. It dessicates nearly all weeds very promptly
(within a day or two) and especially quickly in bright
sunlight.
As it is not very systemic
in action it has little
reserves in
points such as the grasses.
kding effect on a plant which has substantial
it’s roots and protected
growing
If one crop is to be planted very quickly after another and
there are negligible perennial weeds, (only very little
weed growth after harvest), it is often possible to
dispense with the pre-plant-application
of ROUNDUP and
instead apply only the preemergent
herbicide (GALEX,
PR IMEXTRA,
etc.) mixed with PARAQUA I_ at higher
rates, say, 3 to 4 litres per hectare. The PARAQUAT
kills
the light surface weeds by contact action while the preemergent herbicide goes into the upper layers of the soil to
prevent the emergence of weed seeds.
PRIMEXTRA
is a pre-emergent herbicide containing
atrazine - the latter being a very effective selective herbicide
when growing maize.
LASSO and GALEX are also preemergent
herbicides which
spread into the upper layers of the soil to prevent the
emergence of weed seeds other than the grain-legumes which
they do not effect. LASSO, GALEX and PRIMEXTRA
can
all be mixed with PARAQUAT
in the spray tank before
application,
and can thus be applied,together
- each to
serve it specific functions - so saving the necessity for duplicating the spraying operation.
Some herbicide formulations
can be mixed; c$hers can not as they are incompatible.
An
example of the latter is ROUNDUP.
15
l!Icmomicsof No-till
8
COSTS FOR WEED CONTROL
Apart from the better wead control achieved by the ‘notill’
techniques, they are also very cost effective, even when
compared with buffalo-tillage
or tractor-tillage.
The following table presents contract rates for tractor and
buffalo tillage in Sri-Lanka during early 1980 compared
with costs for ‘no-till’ operations. The differences were
more marked by the end of 1966 as both animal-tillage
as
weli as tractor-tilrsge
rates had escalated alarmingly1
.
5
Similar cost comparisons
tropical countries.
could be expected
IN SRI-LANKA
(1979/80 Season)
Cultivation VBTSM~
‘zero-tillage’ 0sts
tractors buffalo
A
Pre-plantinal
Seeding w&l
‘no-till’
control
262
206
165
132
65
65
-
-
-
53
151
-
151
-
75
40
SL. Rs.643
554
544
165
-
First ploughing
Spray ‘Roundup’
(3 I/ha)
Second ploughing
Levelling
Spray ‘Paraquat’ (2 I/ha)
(usually with preemergent)
Bunds cleaning and plastering
CDAIVLV
Spraying charges*
in other
in SL Wacre)
Sub-total
376
-
8
Post-planting weed control
Apart from its apparent cost effectiveness,
research trials
over the past several years have established the amount of
energy and ?ime conserved through adoption of the ‘no-till’
techniques.
Hand-weedincr (manual)
Spray RI tiF-H
or MACHETE
(1.5 I/ha)
or 3-4 DPA + MCPA
(4 I/ha)
(1 I/ha)
For example, the traditional
manual (slash, burn and till)
methods of ‘cultivating’
an upland plot of maize and cowpea, seeding and weeding it, takes on average some 500
man-hours per hectare to raise the crops to maturity.
Farmed ‘no-till’ the man-hours are reduced to between 30
and 50 per hectare - less than onetenth
- without recourse
to ‘tractorisation’.
Yields are also higher, with better weed
control, particularly
when the crops are young and sensitive.
Total costs
-
A.
C.
D.
Seeding (maize and cowpea)
a. Manual planting (low population)
b. Planting; - RIP (Rotary Injection Planter)
(25 x 75 = 53,000 stand/ha)
Pest control
a. Manual weeding, - once 2
b. CDA spray (preemergent-herbicide)
c. CDA spray (cowpea) insecticide, -thrice
Fertilizer application:
a. Manual dibbling along rows
b. Using IITA fertilizer band applicator 3
Totals:
16
SL. Rs. 898
-
or
719
71
637
costs @ 4m-hr/ac
+ costs for sprayer and batteris
Conv.
No-till
4
4
Second Season
Man-hrslha
No-till
Conv.
Notes
Field Preparation:
a. Burning
b. Clearing, slashing
c. Manual tillage 81 ridging
d. CDA Spray, (contact-herbicide)
8.
-
93
and Conventionally
tilled
Only. Fashola, Nigeria (1978)
First Season
Man-h&ha
Field Operation
-
Note: To the costs for tractor and buffalo tillage on irrigated lards
must be added the real cost for irrigation at betwwn SL Rs. 300 to
500 par acre-foot of water. The cost of irrigation water for weed control,
apart from that required for crop-growth,
is in the order of a furtha
Rs, 1000 per acre.
’ Spraying
Comparison of Man-power Requirements for “No-Till”
Fields Over Two Succassive Seasons Using Hand-Tools
165
76
85
132
127
-t--F- a
6
L
35
131
25
25
a
-I
a
a. Man-hrs per hectare
33
b. Yields maitelcowpea
1 1121
1 820
kg/ha’
1. Two additional men ware
employed to lay ropes for lining up the piarting rows during
the first seasor’ only. The line
of stubble provided ample lining for the second and subsequent saasons planting.
2. Occasional manual spot
weeding was ijndertaken on
no-till plots to eradicate re
sistant waeds.
3. The fer:iliser-bandapplicator was used for basal
application
on both maize and
cowpaa, and for topdressing,
also on maim.
4. Yields ohtainsd by the
farmer from conventionally
tilled plots had to be approximated.
5. Crops grown were maize and
cowpaa, planted on sepsrate
fields.
whit h tiei ,,r,i~s <, ,/dl,iai,lr:
the non.~ rr~t,l,~ny season
To c onserve soll, wd?f!r
and fertlllty
is ( If??rty ftindarrlc!ntal
But to strive further
towards
r~ yr.llny and reyeneratlny
natural
Two
ierrritir
;y::c.ns
such systems,
rrlr~st
I)resently
be
belny
the next
by ~~rr,rj~ir I of the sv514rr1 rJ .r r ‘2
goal
researt.hed.
already
show
prornlse
Live-Mulch Systems
The lrnportance
of growing
leyllrntnous
c.over r.rops in the
~011s under plantation
r-ro;rs
~oionut,
rilbber.
011 :Jalrn
IS well established
The extension
of this prar.tlce
Into arable
tarrnlng IS r~~lrreritiy
t,elng lnvesttydteu
drld already
shoba
great potent lal
~ri5i~.d~~y,
the Interilion
IS LO rebldce
d COmpiexlty
ot weeds
Wllh onf!
d t‘jst yrowiny.
eas~iy (ontrolled
perennldl
I,Y~,I~IW tihc h will CJIJI~C ly smother
other wtqds whlie
‘qirr:dciIry
rdC;idly !J::‘I the surfai e Thdt s(jch cover i.rops
c,rlstltlrtt:
;I YWV rat,, 1 ri’>tordtlve
for eroded,
and depleted
of c OulitrWS
VIII) IS ~~lre~r~ly well e,.tdhlished
!rl a nrirriber
I ‘118y ,+rf: i~l~~~ +,C~s~l~ urltrolled
sith herbrc:des
such as
fiOUNOilP,
PARAOUAT,
or 2.4-D
However,
the concept
hds [~ri~yr655r!ii
to tF#e retenrton
of this perennial
cover crop
ds a yt~ rncirld fer?tl,ty
regenerator
and so11 cover. while
~1111defray $t ds a I~I~IIC h for arable crops, by spraying
It
llyhtly wlrh d plant-growth
regulator
(PGA!
This olits It
Into dorrrlanc-y
for about two or three months
whllc arable
crops (3Jc.h as rrldlJe, Okra,
sorghurrl,
etc 1 dre 13~0 tlon~
planted through
the mulch to grow In the humus-rli
h SOII.
without
appreciable
iompetitlon
front the cover r:rops for
ferti!,ty
or mols:ure
After
the crops have been harvested
the leguminous
!-over crops shake oft their dorrriancy
,and
continue
to develop
normally
with their so11 regenerating
function
Among
the Izover
c raps
Investtgated
PUERARIA
CEN TROSEMA
ARACHIS
STYLOSANTHLJS
PSOPHOCARPUS
PsophoLarpus
high-protein
has ihe addrt;onal
bean (wrnged-&an)
in this role
Leguminous cover plant (winged bean) recovers from PGR
and climbs harvested crop (maize)
so fdr dre
1avanii.a
pribescens
prostrata
humIlls
palustr
1s & tetraganalnhIJs
advantage
ot producing
for human consumption.
a
Injection
pbhtihg
through
live mulch
Research continues towards identifying
varieties
cover crops which best fulfil the range of criteria
in such covers, which are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7.
of such
desirable
Perennial (for year round growth)
Non-photo sensitive (for year round productivity)
Drought resistant
Weed suppressing (by their aggressive spread)
Food crop providing (e.g. the winged-bean)
Soil regenerative and protective
PGR-regulated
in dormahcy when required
Research is likewise current into a range of suitable PGRs
which will exterrd the need for simple hand tools for ‘ne
till’ farming.
Avmua Cropping !Systems
The technique of ‘avenuecropping’
was developed from
traditional
forest regenerating practices and begins with the
planting of rows of quick-growing
leguminous trees (such as
Leucaena leucocephela and Gliricidia Sp.) spaced about
0.5 metres apart within rows and about 2.0 metres apart
between rows.
At the beginning of the rains and the arable cropping season,
the rows of trees are lopped at about half-metre above
ground level and all the light twigs and leafy material laid as
a mulch in the avenues. The more woody material is stacked
separately as valuable firewood.
The crops to be grown are then injection-planted
through
the mulch m the avenues - sometimes preceded by a light
spray of mixed contact and selective herbicide
if weeds are
abundant, (usually they are not, as the dense shade under
the profusely growing leguminous trees during the ‘off’ or
dry season successfully smothers nearly all weed growth).
The crops grow vigorously throuyh the mulch-covered
soil
and so do the rows of tree crops, the latter causing I ittle (if
any) interference
to the arable crops growing alongside.
These are then harvested while the leguminous trees cow
tinue to develop. raising fertility from the sub-soil regions
Zm ---
F’- .#9,’ (1 i2G-Y
I
I---- zm---r
Avenue of Leucaena - before lopping and planting crop,
notice denseMade which i;estricrs weed growth
into which their roots have penetrated,
with the next cropping season.
again
Tf’iese new fertility-regenerating
farming systems and the
si npte tools used with them are potentially
the most
exciting innovation in tropical agriculture of recent years.
They have particular application
for the small farmer who,
otherwise faces the spectre of reduced productivity
with the
escalation in prices, of inorganic chemical fertilisers, and the
logistics (200 to 300 kilogams
per hectare) of using them.
\
The Avenues prior ro injection planting
18
to be recycled
Leafy urraimaal
lad 6% MLdLh
bktwt%w &mutes
height
Avenue cropping
with maize and
Leuceana
Dedicated
to: Ernest Abeyratne and Rattan-La1 who
pioneered the importance of minimum
tillage and of mulch in tropical farming.
Written by:
Designed & illustrated by:
Editorial advice from:
Typed by:
Working Drawingr by:
Ray Wijewardene
Andrew Crane
Tony Moody
Victor Perera
Navasero, Wickramasinghe and Rajapakse
Compiled by:
I.I.T.A. - Sri-Lanka Program, Colombo
Supported by:
Ludwig Ebner and Gustav Muller of
CIBA-GEIGY
AG, Basel.
V.I.T.A. (Volunteers for International
Technical Assistance) Washington.
G.A.T.E. (German Agency for Technical
Assistance) and G.T.Z., Eschborn.
Sri-Lanka Ministry of Agriculture
Many small farmers in West-Africa and
Sri-Lanka who now farm ‘no-till’.
Additional copies priced at S’L-Rs. 25
or U.S. S 1 or St. fO.50 plus postage.
Dra [email protected] of planters and fertiliserapplicator. per set; S’L-Rs. 50 or
U.S. S2or St f l.OOplus postage
(printing costs only).
IITA - Sri-Lanka Program,
133, Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 7,
Sri-Lanka.
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