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United States Patent [191'
[11]
Patent Number:
Dalebout et al.
[45]
Date of Patent:
[54] TREADMHJL WITH UPPER BODY SYSTEM
8201138
Watterson, both of Logan, Utah
Copy of brochure entitled “Technology for Total Fitness
The term of this patent shall not extend
beyond the expiration date of Pat. No.
5,282,776.
gle—page ad slick, Coypright 1992.
[211 Appl. No.: 189,582
Jan. 31, 1994
[22] Filed:
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Related US. Application Data
Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 13,637, Feb. 4, 1993, Pat.
No. 5,282,776, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No.
954,299, Sep. 30, 1992, abandoned.
[58]
WIPO .
Genesis” 1000-1985 —6 pages.
Copy of brochure entitled “Technology for Total Fitness
Genesis” 2000 —1985—6 pages.
Copy of brouchure entitled “Technology for Total Fitness
Genesis” 3000-1985-7 pages.
Weslo Ascent II Dual stepper, Model No. WL20082, sin
Utah
[511 Int. Cl.6
[52] US. Cl.
4/1982
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
[73] Assignee: ICON Health & Fitness, Inc., Logan,
[63]
*Jan. 21, 1997
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
[75] Inventors: William T. Dalebout; Scott R.
[*1 Notice:
5,595,556
.. ...................... .. A63B 22/02; A63B 21/015
.......................... .. 482/54; 482/118; 482/51;
owner’s manual, May 1993.
'
482/70
Weslo Glide MDX Plus skier, two—page brochure, copyright
Field of Search ................................ .. 482/54, 51, 52,
l991—l992.
Weslo Glide MDX plus, Model No. WL611520, l2-page
Owner’s manual, copyright 1992.
482/53, 70, 139, 114, 115, 118
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[56]
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[57]
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ABSTRACT
A treadmill including an upper body system for manipula
Traver .
Jones .
tion by the upper extremities of a user walking or jogging on
Ringman .
the treadmill belt. The upper body system includes pivotally
mounted lever arms having substantially constant but adjust
able resistance to rotational reciprocation by the user, such
Swanda et a1. .
Robinson .
Smith .
Armstrong .............................. .. 482/70
as a frictional resistance. The pivot points of the lever arms
Weiss .
may be adjustable as to both height and longitudinal position
Kulkens .
on the treadmill, to accommodate different sized users and
Quinton .
di?erent exercises.
Townsend
............................... .. 482/54
(List continued on next page.)
5 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets
16
25
I I H H. 1
1
fly 148A
38
36
5,595,556
Page 2
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'
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93_
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.
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.
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US. Patent
Jan. 21, 1997
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Jan. 21, 1997
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Jan. 21, 1997
Sheet 3 of 4
5,595,556
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U.S. Patent
Jan. 21, 1997
Sheet 4 of 4
02
303
5,595,556
5,595,556
1
2
The treadmill of the present invention affords the user the
TREADMILL WITH UPPER BODY SYSTEM
opportunity for lower body exercise only, upper body exer
cise only, or combined upper and lower body exercise for a
simultaneous total body workout. That is to say, the upper
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent
application Ser. No. 08/013,637 ?led Feb. 4, 1993, now US.
Pat. No. 5,282,776, issued Feb. 1, 1994, which is a continu~
and lower body exercise mechanisms are completely inde
pendent of each other, and the user may stand on the
treadmill belt while it is motionless and position and repo
sition himself or herself to perform various upper body
exercises. Alternatively, the user may merely stride on the
ation-in-part of US. patent application Ser. No. 07/954,299
?led Sep. 30, 1992, abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
moving treadmill belt and forego upper body work. Finally,
1. Field of the Invention
the user may stride on the moving treadmill belt while
manipulating the upper body system.
The present invention relates generally to treadmills, and
more speci?cally to treadmills incorporating apparatus for
exercising the upper body of the user, alone or in association
The present invention also contemplates an upper body
exercise system adaptable to existing treadmills, and which
with movement on the treadmill.
may be provided as an add-on feature to treadmills designed
2. State of the Art
In recent years, motorized treadmills become increasingly
popular as a means for obtaining bene?cial aerobic exercise.
for attachment of the upper body system subsequent to
purchase of the treadmill. The upper body exercise system of
the present invention is also of a design and con?guration to
permit folding or collapsing thereof with the column or
pedestal of the treadmill to a position overlying the treadmill
belt for easier shipping and storage. In turn, the unit may be
shipped completely assembled and ready for use or nearly
Many improvements to treadmills have been introduced to
enhance their utility and broaden their appeal, including
inclination and speed adjustments, programmed and pro
grammable exercise routines, shock absorption, pulse moni
toring and “dead man” shutoff switches for safety.
When exercising on a typical motorized treadmill, the
user normally employs muscle groups in the lower body.
Such machines have speci?cally not addressed the needs of
the user to exercise the upper body. Recently issued US Pat.
No. 5,110,117, (Fisher et al.), discloses a treadmill with
so.
25
The present invention comprises ?rst and second lever
arms pivotally mounted to the treadmill frame and restrained
against free pivotal movement by resistance means which
provide a substantially constant resistance to pivotal move
moveable handles to be grasped by the user for exercising
the upper body of the user while walking on the treadmill
belt. The device of the ’ 1 17 patent, which also is exempli?ed
ment in both forward and rearward directions. In a preferred
embodiment, the resistance is adjustable and comprises a
frictional resistance, such as resistance pads sliding across a
surface as the lever arms are pivotally reciprocated by the
by the STRIDER treadmill line offered by Fitness Trend/
user. An alternative resistance means, such as hydraulic or
pneumatic cylinders, may be employed but such devices are
Systems, Inc. of Independence, Mo., employs spring-loaded
handles pivotally mounted on each side of the treadmill belt 35 presently less preferred (except for certain applications
disclosed hereafter).
in the middle of the treadmill. The handles also extend
One preferred mounting location for the lever arms is at
upwardly through the side surfaces or chassis adjacent the
the front of the treadmill and above the frame. The lever
treadmill belt. The handles are biased against pivotal move—
arms may be mounted at a common point, such as at or to
ment in both forward and backward directions toward a
central, neutral position.
40
The device of the ’117 patent, while an advance in the
treadmill art, falls short of an ideal treadmill with upper
body exerciser. For example, the force to be applied to the
the base of a pedestal or column which typically supports a
console with controls for treadmill incline and speed and
readouts of monitored bodily functions of the user, such as
pulse. In this location, the arms as well as the pedestal or
column may be released to fold over the treadmill belt, thus
handles by the user is difficult to adjust, as it requires the
user to lift up the treadmill from the ?oor and adjust set 45 providing a low pro?le for easy shipping and storage. Each
lever arm may also be secured at a ?xed position, along the
screws or nuts from the inside of the longitudinal treadmill
‘side
rails. The lever arms may also be longitudinally relo
side frame elements or side surfaces.
catable so that the user may adjust the lever arm pivot
Further, the handles, of the treadmill shown in the ’117
patent extend upwardly through the side surfaces or chassis
at the middle of the treadmill and thereby inhibit the user
from easily stepping from the tread onto the side surfaces to
dismount from a moving tread. Similarly, the handles pre
vent the user from straddling the tread or stepping on the
side surface in the process of mounting the treadmill and
positions to individual preference, or change their location
50
to perform different arm movements and exercises. If
desired, the lever arms may be made adjustable in length so
as to more closely adapt to the height and reach of a wide
variety of potential users, and handles at the free ends of the
lever arms may be movable to different positions for differ
ent exercises.
especially a treadmill with a moving tread. That is, the user 55
typically prefers to step onto the moving tread at or forward
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
of the midpoint so that the user has time to begin walking or
jogging before reaching the tail roller or pulley.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A treadmill incorporates an upper body exercise system
which is simple, inexpensive to produce and assemble. It
also provides a substantially even or constant resistance to
The present invention will be more fully understood by
one of ordinary skill in the art through a review of the
60
following detailed description of the preferred embodiments
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a top, partially cutaway elevation of a treadmill
incorporating an upper body system in accordance with the
movement of the user’s arms which is also easily and readily 65 present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side sectional elevation of the treadmill
adjustable by the user without manipulation of the treadmill
from its normal resting position on the ?oor.
depicted in FIG. 1;
5,595,556
3
4
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, partial sectional frontal elevation of
tance mechanisms employed for a preferred embodiment of
adjustment knob 128. The head 130 of carriage bolt 124
abuts but preferably does not contact L-bracket 110, while
square/cross-sectioned and tapered head base 132 extends
the upper body system of the present invention;
through arm mates with a square aperture 134 in L-bracket
the treadmill of FIG. 1, depicting the mounting and resis
110, securing carriage bolt 124 against rotation. The end of
carriage bolt 124 opposite head 130 is threaded at 136, and
engages the internally threaded metal sleeve 138 which has
been molded into the plastic material of adjustment knob
FIG. 4 is a schematic of a longitudinally-adjustable upper
body system for a treadmill in accordance with the present
invention and depicts alternative lever arm locations and an
alternative resistance means for the upper body system; and
FIG. 5 is a partial perspective of the machine of FIG. 4.
128. For cosmetic purposes, caps 140 and 142 are secured to
(such as by double-sided adhesive tape) and over L-brackets
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings, treadmill 10
includes a generally U-shaped frame 12 having longitudi
110 and 112, and include apertures in their centers large
enough to accommodate bolt head 130 and threaded portion
of carriage bolt 136 without interference.
To adjust the frictional resistance to rotation afforded by
the movement of frictional resistance surfaces 114 and 116
nally-extending side rails 14 and 16 which extend into
against friction pads 118, adjustment knob 128 is merely
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
PREFERRED EMBODHVIENTS
rotated to increase or decrease the degree to which the
transverse front base 18 of frame 10. An electric motor 20
friction pads 118 on bases 106 and 108 of lever arms 102 and
is provided to drive endless treadmill belt 22 which extends
104 are pressed against frictional resistance surfaces 120 and
longitudinally between front roller 24 and rear roller 26 over
treadmill deck 28. Front roller 24 is driven by motor 20 via 20 122. Since a single bolt passes through both bases, the same
force is applied to both when knob 128 is tightened, the
drive belt 30, which extends frown motor drive pulley 32 to
system thus being self-adjusting in the sense that both lever
enlarged driven pulley 34 interconnected to one end of the
front roller 24. The pulley 34 and pulley 32 reduce motor
speed and increase the torque to drive front roller 24. Rear
roller 26 is freewheeling, and extends between roller brack
arms 102 and 104 are simultaneously set to the same
25
ets 36 and 38 to act as a rear portion of frame 12.
resistance.
As best seen in FIG. 1, lever arms 102 and 104 are topped
by handles 146 and 148 for grasping by the user and pivotal
At the front end of treadmill 10, an inclination mechanism
reciprocation in the performance of upper body exercises. If
(shown in FIG. 2 in both retracted and extended positions)
generally designated as 40 provides the treadmill user with
desired, lever arms 102 and 104 may extend substantially
straight back from standard 62 as shown, with laterally
outwardly extending handles. Altemately, the arms 102 and
104 may ?are outwardly as depicted by broken lines at 102'
the ability to raise and lower the front end of treadmill 10 to
vary the difficulty of walking or jogging on the treadmill belt
30
22. Inclination mechanism 40 as shown includes a subframe
and 104‘ to a transverse separation distance greater than the
42 pivoted at 44 and having wheels 46 on its lower, outer end
45. Gas cylinder 48 is pivotally mounted at its upper end to
crossmember 50 of frame 10, and at its lower end to
width of treadmill belt 22 and employ laterally inwardly
35
extending handles. In addition, lever arms 102 and 104 may
each comprise telescoping assemblies 102A and 102B and
crossmember 52 of subframe 42. The user can shift his or her
weight on the treadmill 10 while opening a valve in gas
104A and 104B so that the lengths 105 of lever arms 102 and
cylinder 48 to raise or lower the inclination of treadmill 10,
subsequently closing the valve to ?x the inclination.
short and tall users and for those with above and below
average reach. Finally, handles 146 and 148 may be rotatable
or otherwise moveable from a horizontal position 146A and
148A to different positions such as vertical position 146B
104 are easily adjustable with pins 101 and 103 for both
The motor 20 and other belt-drive components, as well as
the inclination mechanism 40, are covered by hood 60. The
hood 60 extends from the forward portion of treadmill belt
22 up to and around the standard 62. The pedestal or column
64 is secured to the standard 62 by bracket 66 and bolt 68,
which includes enlarged head 70 for rotation and tightening
and 148B, as depicted in broken lines (see FIG. 1).
It should be noted that pedestal or column 64 as well as
lever
arms 102 and 104 are pivotally mounted on standard
45
62 about carriage bolt 124. Thus, when bolt 68 is released
from standard 62, lever arms 102 and 104 and pedestal or
column 64 may rotationally fold over the treadmill hood 60
and treadmill belt 22 toward the rear of treadmill 10. This
by the hand of the user. Pedestal or column 64 supports a
control console (not shown) at its upper end.
Referring to FIGS. 1—3 and particularly to FIG. 3, upper
body system 100 in accordance with the present invention
includes ?rst and second lever arms 102 and 104 extending
upwardly frown their respective bases 106 and 108, one on
each side of standard 62. L-shaped brackets 110 and 112
extend laterally from standard 62, to which they are affixed,
as by welding. The upper portion of each side of standard 62
single point pivot and single point release feature greatly
facilitates shipping of treadmill 10 in a compact container
while promoting easy user set-up, and can also be used to
diminish the bulk of treadmill 10 for storage.
It should also be noted that lever arms 102 and 104 may
55
be selectively locked to pedestal or column 64 by suitable
means such as a pin 80 which may be inserted through
comprises frictional resistance surfaces 114 and 116, against
which bear a plurality (typically four) friction pads 118
laterally alignable apertures 82 and 84 in lever arms 102 and
adhesively affixed to the inner faces 120 and 122 of lever
arm bases 106 and 108. Frictional resistance surfaces 114
and 116 are devoid of paint or other coatings which would
abrade off of the metal and of standard 62 and ?ll the pores
102 and 104 may be selectively locked to provide a sub
stantially rigid support structure for the user to grasp when
striding or jogging on the treadmill belt 22, or released so
104 and aperture 86 in column 64. In such a manner arms
that the user may move lever arms 102 and 104 for upper
of friction pads 118. If desired, frictional resistance surfaces
114 and 116 may comprise discs of bare metal a??xed to the
exterior of standard 62. To hold bases 106 and 108 against
standard 62 and to provide a pivot point for lower arms 102
and 104, carriage bolt 124 extends through L-bracket 110,
base 106, standard 62, base 108 and L-bracket 112 and into
body exercise.
65
Operation of treadmill 10 can, as previously noted, pro
vide lower body exercise, upper body exercise or combined
upper and lower body exercise for a simultaneous total body
workout. For upper body exercise in particular, several
5,595,556
5
6
options are available. For solely exercising the upper body,
for the longitudinal relocation forwardly 305 or rearwardly
307 as desired. Alternately, the carriage 304 of each lever
arm 102 and 104 may be locked in place by a spring-loaded
pin and plurality of cooperating apertures or by frictional
the user may stand on treadmill belt 22 while it is unpow
cred, and manipulate lever arms 102 and 104 while facing
either forward or backward. Thus, presses, curls and other
pushing and pulling exercises are easily achievable, unlike
engagement or by other means known in the art.
FIG. 4 also depicts an alternative embodiment of the
the treadmills of the prior art, and even the treadmill
disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 5,110,117
(Fisher et al.) In fact, the treadmill of the present invention
also affords the user the ability to perform squats while
standing on the motionless treadmill belt 22, and shoulder
presses and bench presses while sitting or lying on the
motionless belt.
invention wherein a treadmill 10 is designed and initially
sold without the upper body system 100 of the present
10
invention, but includes one or more threaded apertures in
column 64 or standard 62 by which a box beam or other
structure 400 carrying upper body system 100 may be bolted
to treadmill 10. In such a manner, a more or less standard
It is worthwhile at this juncture to compare the treadmill
of the present invention to nordic or cross-country ski
exercisers of the prior art, in that most of same purport to
afford the user both upper and lower body exercise. Many of
these devices link the hand and arm movements to forcibly
coordinate or synchronize the same. Of those skiers which
offer independent upper and lower body movement, most of
these only provide the user with the ability to pull, and not
treadmill may be upgraded by an aftermarket purchase and
installation of the upper body system of the present inven~
tion when the user desires to pursue upper body develop
ment, or merely wishes to add variety to the somewhat
tedious activity of walking or jogging on the treadmill belt.
A lever arm locking mechanism such as has been previously
disclosed may be employed with this after-market upper
body system.
push, with the upper body extremities. Of the skiers that do
offer a push/pull lever type resistance to the arms, the feet of
the user are still constrained by the need to stand on
moveable trolleys, skis or blocks, which are not ?xable and
are otherwise synchronized. In some instances, the user’s
feet in skier exercise machines are further constrained by 25
stirrups to prevent lifting of the feet and disconnection of the
user from the lower body resistance mechanism. Even in
those skiers which do not laterally or vertically constrain the
With reference to the arms 102 and 104 in FIG. 4, it may
be noted that each may be mounted to the treadmill to not
interfere with mounting or dismounting by the user. In FIG.
4, the arms 102 and 104 are mounted forward of the
midpoint or center area 303 of the treadmill side surfaces
308. The arms 102 and 104 may also be mounted to the
outside 312 of the side rail 14 (or chassis) of the treadmill.
The arms 102 and 104 may also be located forward 304 or
under the treadmill frame 12. Thus the user may easily step
user’s feet, the user still has no other location to place his or
30 sideways onto the surface 308 from a moving belt 22 to
her feet on the device for varying position for more com
dismount. Similarly, the user can more readily mount the
fortable or different upper body exercises. In contrast, the
user of the treadmill of the present invention may position
himself or herself anywhere on the treadmill belt, with feet
in any position and orientated in any direction, support being
provided by treadmill deck 28.
treadmill at a center or middle point to commence use.
More speci?cally, a user typically moves on the tread 22
at a rate to center his or her body at or very near the mid area
35
The lower arm resistance employed in the present inven
tion also presents advantages over the device of the ’ll7
patent in that the resistance is regarded to be substantially
constant or even over the entire range of motion in com
parison to the spring resistance of the device of the ’l17
patent which resistance increases with the movement of the
user then moves the other foot such as the right foot on the
moving belt 22 and immediately cornrnences exercise to
40
in a minimum leverage position.
Referring now to FIG. 4 of the drawings, lever arms 102
and 104 are shown mounted in outboard positions on each
side of treadmill belt 22 on the tops of treadmill frame side
rails 14 and 16. In the embodiment of FIG. 5, lever arms 102
and 104 are independently adjustable in terms of resistance
and may employ a single-arm version of the tandem fric
tional resistance adjustment mechanism previously
described. Alternatively, an adjustable hydraulic or pneu
avoid being projected over the tail pulley 26.
Alternately, a user may place the left foot at the left
middle point of the side surface 15 and the right foot at the
lever arms away from a central, or neutral point in the center
of the rotation range. Thus, a user may be faced with a
situation in which maximum load is placed on an extremity
21 of the tread 22 (FIG. 1). If the user desires to mount a
moving belt 22, the user may position one foot such as the
left on the chassis or side surface 15 at a midpoint 23. The
right middle point 25 of the side surface 17. In effect, the
45
user straddles the belt 22. The user may then place one foot
and then the other on the belt 22 to commence exercise.
To dismount from a moving belt 22, the user may put one 8
foot on either the left or right center points 23 and 25 of side
surface 15 and 17 and unweight the other, similar to dis
mounting from a bicycle or horse. Alternately, the user may
move both feet outwardly to straddle the belt 22. In all cases,
the arms 102 and 104 are secured to the treadmill at a
location to leave clear and open for use the area that is the
left middle point 23 and right middle point 25 of the side
matic resistance 300 known in the art may be employed as 55 surfaces 15 and 17.
shown. Thus, the resistance of both sides may be set to a
With the belt stopped, the user may also stand on the belt
speci?ed setting, rather than to similar “feel” as would be the
and manipulate lever arms 102 and 104. The user may also
case when using separate frictional resistances.
kneel, sit and lay prone in a variety of orientations to
manipulate lever arms 102 and 104 with his or her arms and
In any event, the mounting points of lever arms 102 and
legs to perform alternate exercises.
104 are longitudinally relocatable in a track 302 forward 305
and rearward 307 as shown in FIG. 5. The mechanism for
Lever arms 102 and 104, described above, may be
effecting such longitudinal relocation is shown to include
mounted to the outside of the side rails 14 and 16 outwardly
mounting each lever arm 102 and 104 to a carriage 304
from the side surfaces as well as forward on the side rails or
riding on a slotted rail 302 on top of the frame side rail 14
side surface. Also, the arms 102 and 104 may be connected
or 16 or on the side surface 308. The carriage 304 is secured 65 by a cable, rope or the like through a resistance mechanism.
with a bolt 310 having a nut with a washer inside the
Other con?guration of arms or their equivalent may include
T-shaped rail 302. The bolt thus can be loosened to provide
cables or ropes extending rearwardly from a resistance
5,595,556
7
8
structure positioned forward of the tread 22. The resistance
by the user separately or alternately against a resistance such
locking means associated with said treadmill to selec
tively inhibit rearward movement of said left lever arm
and said right lever arm.
as friction applied to a pulley or even weights.
3. A treadmill comprising:
may be con?gured to allow the cable or ropes to be moved
While the present invention has been described in terms
a frame having a front cross member and right and left
of certain exemplary embodiments, it will be readily under
stood and appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art that
a front roller connected between said left and right sides;
sides;
it is not so limited, and that many additions, deletions and
modi?cations to the preferred embodiments may be made
10
within the scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
What is claimed is:
rearward of said front roller;
a deck secured to and between said left and right sides;
1. A treadmill having structure operable for exercising the
upper body of a user, said treadmill comprising:
a frame having a front end, a rear end, and laterally spaced
right and left sides;
a front section forward of said front roller, said front
section including said front cross member;
upwardly therefrom;
an upright member associated with said bracket to extend
upwardly therefrom, said upright member being mov
able between a first position in which said upright
member extends upwardly from said bracket and a
and each being pivotally mounted proximate said front
end for back and forth movement about a common axis,
locking means for selectively locking said ?rst and second
rigid lever arms in a non—moving position.
2. A treadmill having structure operable for exercising the
25
right and left sides;
30
35
sized to extend upwardly therefrom for grasping and
for back and forth movement by an upright user posi
tioned on said endless belt;
a right rigid handle rotatably attached to said bracket and
sized to extend upwardly therefrom for grasping and
for back and forth movement by an upright user posi
tioned on said endless belt;
a resistance structure connected to resist back and forth
movement of said left rigid handle and said right rigid
handle; and
rearward of said front end and between said right and
left sides, said endless belt being formed to support a
a locking structure that selectively inhibits movement of
user thereon;
said left rigid handle and said right rigid handle.
4. The treadmill of claim 3, wherein said left rigid handle
and said right rigid handle are each rotatably secured either
to said bracket or said upright member by second securing
?rst and second rigid lever arms each having an upper end
and each being pivotally mounted proximate said front
end for back and forth movement about a common axis,
said common axis being located proximate and above
said front end and below said upper end;
resistance means positioned and connected to frictionally
resist back and forth pivotal movement of said ?rst and
second rigid lever arms; and
second position in which said upright member is dis
placed from said ?rst position toward said endless belt;
?rst securing means associated with said upright member
for securing said upright member to said front section
in said ?rst position;
a left rigid handle rotatably attached to said bracket and
upper body of a user, said treadmill comprising:
a frame having a front end, a rear end, and laterally spaced
a movable endless belt rotatably mounted to said frame
an endless belt trained about said rear roller and said front
roller and over said deck to be movable over said deck;
a bracket connected to said front section to extend
a movable endless belt rotatably mounted to said frame
rearward of said front end and between said right and
left sides, said endless belt being formed to support a
user thereon;
?rst and second rigid lever arms each having an upper end
said common axis being located proximate and above
said front end and below said upper end;
resistance means positioned and connected to frictionally
resist back and forth pivotal movement of said ?rst and
second rigid lever arms; and
a rear roller connected between said left and right sides
means.
5. The treadmill of claim 4, wherein said second securing
45
means is a common axle.
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