datasheet for PIC16C72 by Microchip Technology Inc.

datasheet for PIC16C72 by Microchip Technology Inc.
M
PIC16C72 SERIES
8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers with A/D Converter
Pin Diagrams
Devices included:
• PIC16C72
SDIP, SOIC, SSOP,
Windowed Side Brazed Ceramic
• PIC16CR72
Microcontroller Core Features:
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
•1
28
RB7
RA0/AN0
2
27
RB6
RA1/AN1
3
26
RB5
MCLR/VPP
• High-performance RISC CPU
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn
• All single cycle instructions except for program
branches which are two cycle
• Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input
DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
• 2K x 14 words of Program Memory,
128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
• Interrupt capability
• Eight level deep hardware stack
• Direct, indirect, and relative addressing modes
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator for reliable operation
• Programmable code-protection
• Power saving SLEEP mode
• Selectable oscillator options
• Low-power, high-speed CMOS technology
• Fully static design
• Wide operating voltage range:
- 2.5V to 6.0V (PIC16C72)
- 2.5V to 5.5V (PIC16CR72)
• High Sink/Source Current 25/25 mA
• Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature
ranges
• Low-power consumption:
- < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz
- 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz
- < 1 µA typical standby current
RA2/AN2
4
25
RB4
RA3/AN3/VREF
5
24
RB3
RA4/T0CKI
6
23
RB2
RA5/SS/AN4
VSS
7
8
22
21
RB1
RB0/INT
OSC1/CLKIN
9
20
VDD
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
19
VSS
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
18
RC7
RC1/T1OSI
12
17
RC6
RC2/CCP1
13
16
RC5/SDO
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
15
RC4/SDI/SDA
PIC16C72
PIC16CR72
Peripheral Features:
• Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler,
can be incremented during sleep via external
crystal/clock
• Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register, prescaler and postscaler
• Capture, Compare, PWM (CCP) module
- Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns
- Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns
- PWM max. resolution is 10-bit
• 8-bit 5-channel analog-to-digital converter
• Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with
SPI and I2C
• Brown-out detection circuitry for
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 1
PIC16C72 Series
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 I/O Ports ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.0 Timer0 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 25
5.0 Timer1 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 27
6.0 Timer2 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 31
7.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Module ..................................................................................................................................... 33
8.0 Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Module ..................................................................................................................................... 39
9.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module.................................................................................................................................. 53
10.0 Special Features of the CPU...................................................................................................................................................... 59
11.0 Instruction Set Summary ............................................................................................................................................................ 73
12.0 Development Support................................................................................................................................................................. 75
13.0 Electrical Characteristics - PIC16C72 Series ............................................................................................................................. 77
14.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables - PIC16C72 ..................................................................................................... 97
15.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables - PIC16CR72 ................................................................................................ 107
16.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 109
Appendix A: What’s New in this Data Sheet .................................................................................................................................. 115
Appendix B: What’s Changed in this Data Sheet........................................................................................................................... 115
Appendix C: Device Differences..................................................................................................................................................... 115
Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 117
On-Line Support................................................................................................................................................................................. 121
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 122
PIC16C72 Series Product Identification System................................................................................................................................ 125
Sales and Support.............................................................................................................................................................................. 125
To Our Valued Customers
We constantly strive to improve the quality of all our products and documentation. We have spent an exceptional
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Key Reference Manual Features
Operating Frequency
Resets
Program Memory - (14-bit words)
Data Memory - RAM (8-bit bytes)
Interrupts
I/O Ports
Timers
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
Serial Communications
8-Bit A/D Converter
Instruction Set (No. of Instructions)
DS39016A-page 2
PIC16C72
PIC16CR72
DC - 20MHz
POR, PWRT, OST, BOR
2K (EPROM)
128
8
PortA, PortB, PortC
Timer0, Timer1, Timer2
1
Basic SSP
5 channels
35
Preliminary
DC - 20MHz
POR, PWRT, OST, BOR
2K (ROM)
128
8
PortA, PortB, PortC
Timer0, Timer1, Timer2
1
SSP
5 channels
35
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
The program memory contains 2K words which translate to 2048 instructions, since each 14-bit program
memory word is the same width as each device instruction. The data memory (RAM) contains 128 bytes.
This document contains device-specific information for
the operation of the PIC16C72 device. Additional information may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range
MCU Reference Manual (DS33023) which may be
downloaded from the Microchip website. The Reference Manual should be considered a complementary
document to this data sheet, and is highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the
device architecture and operation of the peripheral
modules.
There are also 22 I/O pins that are user-configurable on
a pin-to-pin basis. Some pins are multiplexed with other
device functions. These functions include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The PIC16C72 belongs to the Mid-Range family of the
PICmicro devices. A block diagram of the device is
shown in Figure 1-1.
External interrupt
Change on PORTB interrupt
Timer0 clock input
Timer1 clock/oscillator
Capture/Compare/PWM
A/D converter
SPI/I2C
Table 1-1 details the pinout of the device with descriptions and details for each pin.
FIGURE 1-1:
PIC16C72/CR72 BLOCK DIAGRAM
13
Program
Bus
14
PORTA
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
RAM
File
Registers
128 x 8
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
2K x 14
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
EPROM/
ROM
Program
Memory
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
7
Direct Addr
8
RB0/INT
Indirect
Addr
RB7:RB1
FSR reg
STATUS reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
ALU
Power-on
Reset
Timing
Generation
MCLR
W reg
VDD, VSS
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
A/D
Synchronous
Serial Port
CCP1
Note 1:
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6
RC7
8
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
MUX
PORTC
Higher order bits are from the STATUS register.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 3
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 1-1
Pin Name
PIC16C72/CR72 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in crystal
oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs CLKOUT which
has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes the instruction cycle rate.
ST
Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input. This pin is an
active low reset to the device.
OSC1/CLKIN
9
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
O
MCLR/VPP
1
I/P
RA0/AN0
2
I/O
TTL
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
RA0 can also be analog input0.
RA1/AN1
3
I/O
TTL
RA1 can also be analog input1.
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
4
5
I/O
I/O
TTL
TTL
RA2 can also be analog input2.
RA3 can also be analog input3 or analog reference voltage
6
I/O
ST
RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 module. Output is
open drain type.
RA5/SS/AN4
7
I/O
TTL
RB0/INT
RB1
21
22
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(1)
TTL
RB2
RB3
RB4
23
24
25
I/O
I/O
I/O
TTL
TTL
TTL
RB5
26
I/O
TTL
RB6
27
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
RB7
28
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
I/O
ST
RC1/T1OSI
12
I/O
ST
RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input.
RC2/CCP1
13
I/O
ST
RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1
output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
I/O
ST
RC4/SDI/SDA
15
I/O
ST
RC5/SDO
16
I/O
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output for both
SPI and I2C modes.
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or
data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode).
RC6
RC7
17
18
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for the
synchronous serial port.
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port.
RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or Timer1 clock
input.
VSS
VDD
Legend: I = input
8, 19
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
20
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
DS39016A-page 4
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
FIGURE 2-1:
There are two memory blocks in PIC16C72 Series
devices. These are the program memory and the data
memory. Each block has its own bus, so that access to
both blocks can occur during the same oscillator cycle.
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
The data memory can further be broken down into the
general purpose RAM and the Special Function
Registers (SFRs). The operation of the SFRs that
control the “core” are described here. The SFRs used
to control the peripheral modules are described in the
section discussing each individual peripheral module.
13
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 8
Additional information on device memory may be found
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
DS33023.
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
Program Memory Organization
PIC16C72 Series devices have a 13-bit program
counter capable of addressing a 2K x 14 program
memory space. The address range for this program
memory is 0000h - 07FFh. Accessing a location above
the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound.
User Memory
Space
2.1
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
On-chip Program
Memory
07FFh
0800h
1FFFh
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 5
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 2-2:
Data Memory Organization
2.2
The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks
which contain the General Purpose Registers and the
Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 and RP0 are the
bank select bits.
RP1*
RP0
= 00 →
= 01 →
= 10 →
= 11 →
*
File
Address
File
Address
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
(STATUS<6:5>)
Bank0
Bank1
Bank2 (not implemented)
Bank3 (not implemented)
Maintain this bit clear to ensure upward compatibility with future products.
Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower
locations of each bank are reserved for the Special
Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as
static RAM.
All implemented banks contain special function registers. Some “high use” special function registers from
one bank may be mirrored in another bank for code
reduction and quicker access (ex; the STATUS register
is in Bank 0 and Bank 1).
2.2.1
REGISTER FILE MAP
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE
The register file can be accessed either directly or indirectly through the File Select Register FSR
(Section 2.5).
INDF(1)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
INDF(1)
OPTION
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
PCON
ADRES
ADCON0
General
Purpose
Register
7Fh
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
A0h
BFh
C0h
FFh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as '0'.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
DS39016A-page 6
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and Peripheral Modules for controlling the
desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM.
TABLE 2-1
The special function registers can be classified into two
sets (core and peripheral). Those registers associated
with the “core” functions are described in this section,
and those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in the section of that peripheral feature.
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(3)
Bank 0
00h(1)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
0000 0000 0000 0000
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
02h(1)
PCL
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
03h(1)
STATUS
IRP(4)
RP1(4)
RP0
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
04h(1)
FSR
05h
PORTA
06h
PORTB
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
07h
PORTC
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
--0x 0000 --0u 0000
08h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
09h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
0Ah(1,2)
PCLATH
—
0Bh(1)
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
—
0Dh
0Eh
—
—
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
Unimplemented
—
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
0Fh
TMR1H
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
—
—
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
12h
T2CON
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
—
1Eh
ADRES
1Fh
ADCON0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
SSPM2
SSPM1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
SSPOV
—
—
SSPEN
CCP1X
CKP
SSPM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPM0
CCP1Y
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
--00 0000 --00 0000
—
A/D Result Register
ADCS0
0000 0000 0000 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Unimplemented
ADCS1
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
0000 0000 0000 0000
13h
18h-1Dh
T1SYNC
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Timer2 module’s register
—
---0 0000 ---0 0000
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0 0000 00-0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
4: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C72/CR72. Always maintain these bits clear.
5: SSPSTAT<7:6> are not implemented on the PIC16C72, read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 7
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 2-1
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(3)
Bank 1
80h(1)
INDF
81h
OPTION_REG
82h(1)
PCL
83h(1)
STATUS
84h
(1)
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
FSR
IRP(4)
RP1(4)
RP0
TO
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Direction Register
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
--11 1111 --11 1111
88h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
89h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
8Ah(1,2)
PCLATH
—
8Bh(1)
INTCON
8Ch
PIE1
8Dh
8Eh
—
PCON
—
—
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the PC
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
---- --qq ---- --uu
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Unimplemented
—
—
—
—
8Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
90h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
91h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
SMP(5)
CKE(5)
1111 1111 1111 1111
D/A
P
0000 0000 0000 0000
S
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000 0000 0000
95h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
96h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
97h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
98h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
99h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as '0'.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
4: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved on the PIC16C72/CR72. Always maintain these bits clear.
5: SSPSTAT<7:6> are not implemented on the PIC16C72, read as '0'.
DS39016A-page 8
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.1
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
STATUS register because these instructions do not
affect the Z, C or DC bits from the STATUS register. For
other instructions, not affecting any status bits, see the
"Instruction Set Summary."
STATUS REGISTER
The STATUS register, shown in Figure 2-3, contains
the arithmetic status of the ALU, the RESET status and
the bank select bits for data memory.
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended.
Note 1: These devices do not use bits IRP and
RP1 (STATUS<7:6>). Maintain these bits
clear to ensure upward compatibility with
future products.
Note 2: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
FIGURE 2-3:
R/W-0
IRP
bit7
bit 7:
STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h)
R/W-0
RP1
R/W-0
RP0
R-1
TO
R-1
PD
R/W-x
Z
R/W-x
DC
R/W-x
C
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h - 1FFh)
0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h - FFh)
bit 6-5: RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
11 = Bank 3 (180h - 1FFh)
10 = Bank 2 (100h - 17Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h - FFh)
00 = Bank 0 (00h - 7Fh)
Each bank is 128 bytes. For devices with only Bank0 and Bank1, the IRP bit is reserved. Always maintain
this bit clear.
bit 4:
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3:
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2:
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1:
DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for borrow the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0:
C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
Note: For borrow the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the
second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low order bit of
the source register.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 9
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.2
OPTION_REG REGISTER
The OPTION_REG register is a readable and writable
register which contains various control bits to configure
the TMR0 prescaler/WDT postscaler (single assignable register known also as the prescaler), the External
INT Interrupt, TMR0, and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
FIGURE 2-4:
R/W-1
RBPU
bit7
Note:
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to
the Watchdog Timer.
OPTION_REG REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h)
R/W-1
INTEDG
R/W-1
T0CS
R/W-1
T0SE
R/W-1
PSA
R/W-1
PS2
R/W-1
PS1
bit 7:
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6:
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5:
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4:
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3:
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
R/W-1
PS0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
TMR0 Rate
WDT Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
DS39016A-page 10
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.3
INTCON REGISTER
Note:
The INTCON Register is a readable and writable register which contains various enable and flag bits for the
TMR0 register overflow, RB Port change and External
RB0/INT pin interrupts.
FIGURE 2-5:
R/W-0
GIE
bit7
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
INTCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7:
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6:
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5:
T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4:
INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3:
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2:
T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1:
INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0:
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 11
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.4
PIE1 REGISTER
This register contains the individual enable bits for the
peripheral interrupts.
FIGURE 2-6:
U-0
—
Note:
Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Ch)
R/W-0
ADIE
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
SSPIE
R/W-0
CCP1IE
R/W-0
TMR2IE
bit7
R/W-0
TMR1IE
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6:
ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D interrupt
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 3:
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2:
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1:
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0:
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
DS39016A-page 12
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.5
PIR1 REGISTER
Note:
This register contains the individual flag bits for the
Peripheral interrupts.
FIGURE 2-7:
U-0
—
bit7
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
PIR1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Ch)
R/W-0
ADIF
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
SSPIF
R/W-0
CCP1IF
R/W-0
TMR2IF
R/W-0
TMR1IF
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6:
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 3:
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 2:
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1:
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0:
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 13
PIC16C72 Series
2.2.2.6
PCON REGISTER
Note:
The Power Control (PCON) register contains a flag bit
to allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset
(POR) to an external MCLR Reset or WDT Reset.
Those devices with brown-out detection circuitry contain an additional bit to differentiate a Brown-out Reset
condition from a Power-on Reset condition.
FIGURE 2-8:
U-0
—
bit7
BOR is unknown on Power-on Reset. It
must then be set by the user and checked
on subsequent resets to see if BOR is
clear, indicating a brown-out has occurred.
The BOR status bit is a don't care and is
not necessarily predictable if the brown-out
circuit is disabled (by clearing the BODEN
bit in the Configuration word).
PCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh)
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
POR
R/W-q
BOR
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-2: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 1:
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0:
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
DS39016A-page 14
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.3
PCL and PCLATH
The program counter (PC) specifies the address of the
instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 13 bits
wide. The low byte is called the PCL register. This register is readable and writable. The high byte is called
the PCH register. This register contains the PC<12:8>
bits and is not directly readable or writable. All updates
to the PCH register go through the PCLATH register.
FIGURE 2-9:
Figure 2-9 shows the four situations for the loading of
the PC. Example 1 shows how the PC is loaded on a
write to PCL (PCLATH<4:0> → PCH). Example 2
shows how the PC is loaded during a GOTO instruction
(PCLATH<4:3> → PCH). Example 3 shows how the PC
is loaded during a CALL instruction (PCLATH<4:3> →
PCH), with the PC loaded (PUSHed) onto the Top of
Stack. Finally, example 4 shows how the PC is loaded
during one of the return instructions where the PC is
loaded (POPed) from the Top of Stack.
LOADING OF PC IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
Situation 1 - Instruction with PCL as destination
PCH
STACK (13-bits x 8)
Top of STACK
PCL
12
8
7
0
PC
5
8
PCLATH<4:0>
ALU result
PCLATH
STACK (13-bits x 8)
Situation 2 - GOTO Instruction
PCH
12
11 10
Top of STACK
PCL
8
0
7
PC
2
11
PCLATH<4:3>
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
Situation 3 - CALL Instruction
STACK (13-bits x 8)
13
Top of STACK
PCH
12
11 10
PCL
8
7
0
PC
2
11
PCLATH<4:3>
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
Situation 4 - RETURN, RETFIE, or RETLW Instruction
13
STACK (13-bits x 8)
Top of STACK
PCH
12
11 10
PCL
8
7
0
PC
11
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
Note: PCLATH is not updated with the contents of PCH.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 15
PIC16C72 Series
2.3.1
2.4
STACK
The stack allows a combination of up to 8 program calls
and interrupts to occur. The stack contains the return
address from this branch in program execution.
Midrange devices have an 8 level deep x 13-bit wide
hardware stack. The stack space is not part of either
program or data space and the stack pointer is not
readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack
when a CALL instruction is executed or an interrupt
causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the event of a
RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution.
PCLATH is not modified when the stack is PUSHed or
POPed.
After the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on). An example of the overwriting of the stack is
shown in Figure 2-10.
Program Memory Paging
The CALL and GOTO instructions provide 11 bits of
address to allow branching within any 2K program
memory page. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction
the upper 2 bits of the address are provided by
PCLATH<4:3>. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction,
the user must ensure that the page select bits are programmed so that the desired program memory page is
addressed. If a return from a CALL instruction (or interrupt) is executed, the entire 13-bit PC is pushed onto
the
stack. Therefore,
manipulation
of
the
PCLATH<4:3> bits are not required for the return
instructions (which POPs the address from the stack).
Note:
PIC16C72 Series devices ignore paging
bit PCLATH<4>. The use of PCLATH<4>
as a general purpose read/write bit is not
recommended since this may affect
upward compatibility with future products.
FIGURE 2-10: STACK MODIFICATION
STACK
Push1 Push9
Push2 Push10
Push3
Push4
Push5
Push6
Push7
Push8
DS39016A-page 16
Top of STACK
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR
Registers
2.5
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-2.
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing INDF actually addresses the register whose
address is contained in the FSR register (FSR is a
pointer). This is indirect addressing.
EXAMPLE 2-1:
EXAMPLE 2-2:
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
movlw
movwf
clrf
incf
btfss
goto
NEXT
•
•
•
•
Register file 05 contains the value 10h
Register file 06 contains the value 0Ah
Load the value 05 into the FSR register
A read of the INDF register will return the value of
10h
• Increment the value of the FSR register by one
(FSR = 06)
• A read of the INDR register now will return the
value of 0Ah.
HOW TO CLEAR RAM
USING INDIRECT
ADDRESSING
0x20
FSR
INDF
FSR
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
; to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;NO, clear next
CONTINUE
:
;YES, continue
An effective 9-bit address is obtained by concatenating
the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit (STATUS<7>), as
shown in Figure 2-11. However, IRP is not used in the
PIC16C72 Series.
Reading INDF itself indirectly (FSR = 0) will produce
00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly results in a
no-operation (although STATUS bits may be affected).
FIGURE 2-11: DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing
RP1:RP0
6
Indirect Addressing
from opcode
0
IRP
7
FSR register
0
(2)
(2)
bank select
bank select
location select
00
00h
01
80h
10
100h
location select
11
180h
not used
(3)
(3)
Data
Memory(1)
7Fh
Bank 0
FFh
17Fh
Bank 1
1FFh
Bank 2
Bank 3
Note 1: For register file map detail see Figure 2-2.
2: Maintain RP1 and IRP as clear for upward compatibility with future products.
3: Not implemented.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 17
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 18
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
3.0
I/O PORTS
FIGURE 3-1:
Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an
alternate function for the peripheral features on the
device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that
pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the
PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
Data
bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA3:RA0 AND RA5 PINS
D
Q
VDD
WR
Port
Q
CK
P
Data Latch
3.1
PORTA and the TRISA Register
D
PORTA is a 6-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a
TRISA bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISA bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output, i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin.
WR
TRIS
Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs
and analog VREF input. The operation of each pin is
selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the
ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register1).
Note:
TRIS Latch
Q
RD PORT
To A/D Converter
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and
VSS.
FIGURE 3-2:
INITIALIZING PORTA
STATUS, RP0
PORTA
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISA
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
D
EN
The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA
pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs.
The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
BCF
CLRF
TTL
input
buffer
RD TRIS
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as analog inputs and read as '0'.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
I/O pin(1)
VSS
Analog
input
mode
Q
CK
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All
write operations are read-modify-write operations.
Therefore a write to a port implies that the port pins are
read, this value is modified, and then written to the port
data latch.
Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock
input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI
pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open drain output.
All other RA port pins have TTL input levels and full
CMOS output drivers.
N
Q
Data
bus
WR
PORT
D
Q
CK
Q
N
I/O pin(1)
Data Latch
WR
TRIS
Initialize PORTA by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RA<3:0> as inputs
RA<5:4> as outputs
TRISA<7:6> are always
read as '0'.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/
T0CKI PIN
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
TMR0 clock input
Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 19
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 3-1
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
bit0
bit1
bit2
bit3
bit4
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
ST
Function
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input
Input/output or analog input or VREF
Input/output or external clock input for Timer0
Output is open drain type
RA5/SS/AN4
bit5
TTL
Input/output or slave select input for synchronous serial port or analog input
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 3-2
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Address Name
Bit 7 Bit 6
05h
PORTA
—
—
85h
TRISA
—
—
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
PORTA Data Direction Register
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--11 1111
--11 1111
---- -000
---- -000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
DS39016A-page 20
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
3.2
PORTB and the TRISB Register
PORTB is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a
TRISB bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISB bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTB pin an output, i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
BCF
CLRF
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTB
STATUS, RP0
PORTB
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
TRISB
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTB by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RB<3:0> as inputs
RB<5:4> as outputs
RB<7:6> as inputs
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION<7>). The weak
pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is
configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a
Power-on Reset.
FIGURE 3-3:
WR Port
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
b)
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition, and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
The interrupt on change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt on change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt on change feature.
FIGURE 3-4:
Data bus
weak
P pull-up
WR Port
Data Latch
D
Q
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB7:RB4 PINS
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
WR TRIS
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRIS
a)
RBPU(2)
VDD
Data bus
This interrupt can wake the device from SLEEP. The
user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner:
VDD
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB3:RB0 PINS
RBPU(2)
Four of PORTB’s pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt on
change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt on
change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are
compared with the old value latched on the last read of
PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4 are
OR’ed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
RD TRIS
Q
RD TRIS
RD Port
Latch
D
EN
RD Port
Q
EN
Q
D
RD Port
EN
RB0/INT
RD Port
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION<7>).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Q1
Set RBIF
D
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
ST
Buffer
Q3
RB7:RB6 in serial programming mode
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION<7>).
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 21
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 3-3
Name
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Bit#
Buffer
Function
TTL/ST(1)
Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software
programmable weak pull-up.
RB1
bit1
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB2
bit2
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB3
bit3
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB4
bit4
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB5
bit5
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB6
bit6
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
RB7
bit7
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
RB0/INT
bit0
TABLE 3-4
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Address
Name
06h, 106h
PORTB
86h, 186h
TRISB
81h, 181h
OPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS39016A-page 22
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
3.3
PORTC and the TRISC Register
FIGURE 3-5:
PORTC is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a
TRISC bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISC bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTC pin an output, i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin.
PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(Table 3-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input
buffers.
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in
effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as
destination should be avoided. The user should refer to
the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
INITIALIZING PORTC
BCF
CLRF
STATUS, RP0
PORTC
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISC
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Select Bank 0
Initialize PORTC by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RC<3:0> as inputs
RC<5:4> as outputs
RC<7:6> as inputs
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE)
PORT/PERIPHERAL Select(2)
Peripheral Data Out
Data bus
WR
PORT
D
VDD
0
Q
P
1
CK
Q
Data Latch
WR
TRIS
D
CK
I/O
pin(1)
Q
Q
N
TRIS Latch
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
RD TRIS
Peripheral
OE(3)
RD
PORT
Peripheral input
Q
D
EN
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral select signal selects between port
data and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (output enable) is only activated if
peripheral select is active.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 23
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 3-5
PORTC FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer Type
Function
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
bit0
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input
RC1/T1OSI
bit1
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input
RC2/CCP1
bit2
ST
Input/output port pin or Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1
output
RC3/SCK/SCL
bit3
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and I2C
modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
bit4
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
bit5
ST
Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output
RC6
bit6
ST
Input/output port pin
RC7
bit7
ST
Input/output port pin
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 3-6
Address Name
07h
PORTC
87h
TRISC
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTC Data Direction Register
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged.
DS39016A-page 24
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
4.0
TIMER0 MODULE
Additional information on external clock requirements
is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual, DS33023.
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.2
8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
Internal or external clock select
Edge select for external clock
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module, or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer, respectively (Figure 4-2). For simplicity, this
counter is being referred to as “prescaler” throughout
this data sheet. Note that there is only one prescaler
available which is mutually exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. Thus, a
prescaler assignment for the Timer0 module means
that there is no prescaler for the Watchdog Timer, and
vice-versa.
Figure 4-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
4.1
The prescaler is not readable or writable.
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>)
determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
Timer0 Operation
Timer0 can operate as a timer or as a counter.
Clearing bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Timer0
module. When the prescaler is assigned to the Timer0
module, prescale values of 1:2, 1:4, ..., 1:256 are
selectable.
Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In timer mode, the Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the increment is
inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The
user can work around this by writing an adjusted value
to the TMR0 register.
Setting bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Watchdog Timer (WDT). When the prescaler is assigned to
the WDT, prescale values of 1:1, 1:2, ..., 1:128 are
selectable.
Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In counter mode, Timer0 will
increment either on every rising or falling edge of pin
RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by
the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit T0SE
(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are
discussed in below.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF 1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When assigned
to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler
along with the WDT.
Note:
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The requirements ensure
the external clock can be synchronized with the internal
phase clock (TOSC). Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
FIGURE 4-1:
Prescaler
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count, but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data bus
FOSC/4
0
PSout
1
1
Programmable
Prescaler
RA4/T0CKI
pin
0
8
Sync with
Internal
clocks
TMR0
PSout
(2 cycle delay)
T0SE
3
PS2, PS1, PS0
PSA
T0CS
Set interrupt
flag bit T0IF
on overflow
Note 1: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
2: The prescaler is shared with Watchdog Timer (refer to Figure 4-2 for detailed block diagram).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 25
PIC16C72 Series
4.2.1
4.3
SWITCHING PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software control, i.e., it can be changed “on the fly” during program
execution.
Note:
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit
T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by
clearing bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be
cleared in software by the Timer0 module interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The TMR0
interrupt cannot awaken the processor from SLEEP
since the timer is shut off during SLEEP.
To avoid an unintended device RESET, a
specific instruction sequence (shown in the
PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference
Manual, DS3023) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from
Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must be
followed even if the WDT is disabled.
FIGURE 4-2:
Timer0 Interrupt
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
Data Bus
CLKOUT (=Fosc/4)
0
RA4/T0CKI
pin
8
M
U
X
1
M
U
X
0
1
SYNC
2
Cycles
TMR0 reg
T0SE
T0CS
0
1
Watchdog
Timer
Set flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
PSA
8-bit Prescaler
M
U
X
8
8 - to - 1MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
1
0
WDT Enable bit
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
TABLE 4-1
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address
Name
01h,101h
TMR0
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
81h,181h
OPTION_REG
85h
TRISA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Timer0 module’s register
GIE
PEIE
RBPU INTEDG
—
—
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
PORTA Data Direction Register
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 000x
0000 000u
1111 1111
1111 1111
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
DS39016A-page 26
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
5.0
TIMER1 MODULE
5.1
The Timer1 module timer/counter has the following features:
• 16-bit timer/counter
(Two 8-bit registers; TMR1H and TMR1L)
• Readable and writable (Both registers)
• Internal or external clock select
• Interrupt on overflow from FFFFh to 0000h
• Reset from CCP module trigger
Timer1 can operate in one of these modes:
• As a timer
• As a synchronous counter
• As an asynchronous counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
Timer1 has a control register, shown in Figure 5-1.
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Figure 5-2 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer1
module.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
FIGURE 5-1:
Timer1 Operation
In timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction
cycle. In counter mode, it increments on every rising
edge of the external clock input.
When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is
set), the RC1/T1OSI and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI pins
become inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is
ignored.
Timer1 also has an internal “reset input”. This reset can
be generated by the CCP module (Section 7.0).
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h)
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC
bit7
R/W-0
R/W-0
TMR1CS TMR1ON
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5-4: T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3:
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut off
Note: The oscillator inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain
bit 2:
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1:
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0:
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 27
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 5-2:
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
0
TMR1
TMR1H
Synchronized
clock input
TMR1L
1
TMR1ON
on/off
T1SYNC
T1OSC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
1
T1OSCEN FOSC/4
Enable
Internal
Oscillator(1) Clock
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
0
2
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
TMR1CS
SLEEP input
Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off. This eliminates power drain.
DS39016A-page 28
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
Timer1 Oscillator
5.2
5.3
A crystal oscillator circuit is built in between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a low power oscillator rated up to 200 kHz. It will
continue to run during SLEEP. It is primarily intended
for a 32 kHz crystal. Table 5-1 shows the capacitor
selection for the Timer1 oscillator.
The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments
from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The
TMR1 Interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow
which is latched in interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger
Output
5.4
The Timer1 oscillator is identical to the LP oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
TABLE 5-1
Timer1 Interrupt
If the CCP module is configured in compare mode to
generate a “special event trigger" (CCP1M3:CCP1M0
= 1011), this signal will reset Timer1 and start an A/D
conversion (if the A/D module is enabled).
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR THE TIMER1
OSCILLATOR
Note:
Osc Type
Freq
C1
C2
LP
32 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
Timer1 must be configured for either timer or synchronized counter mode to take advantage of this feature. If
Timer1 is running in asynchronous counter mode, this
reset operation may not work.
These values are for design guidance only.
Crystals Tested:
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a special event trigger from CCP1, the write will take precedence.
32.768 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM
100 kHz
Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000 kHz
± 20 PPM
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult the
resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components.
TABLE 5-2
The special event triggers from the CCP1
module will not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L registers pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
—
—
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
Note 1: These bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 29
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 30
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
6.0
TIMER2 MODULE
6.2
The Timer2 module timer has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8-bit timer (TMR2 register)
8-bit period register (PR2)
Readable and writable (Both registers)
Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16)
Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)
Interrupt on TMR2 match of PR2
SSP module optional use of TMR2 output to generate clock shift
Timer2 has a control register, shown in Figure 6-2.
Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>) to minimize power consumption.
Figure 6-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer2
module.
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register PR2.
Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and
then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is
a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is initialized to FFh upon reset.
6.3
Output of TMR2
The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the
Synchronous Serial Port module which optionally uses
it to generate shift clock.
FIGURE 6-1:
Sets flag
bit TMR2IF
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
6.1
Timer2 Interrupt
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
output (1)
Reset
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
EQ
TMR2 reg
Comparator
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
FOSC/4
2
Timer2 Operation
4
PR2 reg
Timer2 can be used as the PWM time-base for PWM
mode of the CCP module.
The TMR2 register is readable and writable, and is
cleared on any device reset.
Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected
by the SSP Module as a baud clock.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1,
1:4
or
1:16,
selected
by
control
bits
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>).
The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive)
to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit
TMR2IF, (PIR1<1>)).
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR reset,
Watchdog Timer reset, or Brown-out Reset)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 31
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 6-2:
U-0
—
T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit7
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6-3:
TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2:
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0:
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
TABLE 6-1
Address
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Bit 0
Value on
all other
resets
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
92h
Legend:
2:
PR2
0000 0000 0000 0000
Timer2 module’s register
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
Timer2 Period Register
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
These bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS39016A-page 32
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
7.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
(CCP) MODULE
Additional information on the CCP module is available
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
The CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) module contains a
16-bit register which can operate as a 16-bit capture
register, as a 16-bit compare register or as a PWM
master/slave Duty Cycle register. Table 7-1 shows the
timer resources of the CCP module modes.
TABLE 7-1
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR1) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and
CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls
the operation of CCP1. All are readable and writable.
FIGURE 7-1:
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
CCP MODE - TIMER
RESOURCE
CCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1
Timer1
Timer2
CCP1CON REGISTER (ADDRESS 17h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3
R/W-0
CCP1M2
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCP1M1 CCP1M0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5-4: CCP1X:CCP1Y: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture Mode: Unused
Compare Mode: Unused
PWM Mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPR1L.
bit 3-0: CCP1M3:CCP1M0: CCP1 Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets CCP1 module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCP1IF bit is set, CCP1 pin is unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCP1IF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1 and starts an A/D
conversion (if A/D module is enabled))
11xx = PWM mode
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 33
PIC16C72 Series
7.1
Capture Mode
7.1.4
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as:
•
•
•
•
every falling edge
every rising edge
every 4th rising edge
every 16th rising edge
An event is selected by control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0
(CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) is set. It must
be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before
the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old captured
value will be lost.
7.1.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
If the RC2/CCP1 is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture
condition.
FIGURE 7-2:
CCP PRESCALER
There are four prescaler settings, specified by bits
CCP1M3:CCP1M0. Whenever the CCP module is
turned off, or the CCP module is not in capture mode,
the prescaler counter is cleared. This means that any
reset will clear the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will
not be cleared, therefore the first capture may be from
a non-zero prescaler. Example 7-1 shows the recommended method for switching between capture prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler counter
and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
EXAMPLE 7-1:
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
CLRF
MOVLW
CCP1CON
NEW_CAPT_PS
MOVWF
CCP1CON
;Turn CCP module off
;Load the W reg with
; the new prescaler
; mode value and CCP ON
;Load CCP1CON with this
; value
CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
RC2/CCP1
Pin
CCPR1H
and
edge detect
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
TMR1L
CCP1CON<3:0>
Q’s
7.1.2
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized
counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture
feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the capture
operation may not work.
7.1.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep bit
CCP1IE (PIE1<2>) clear to avoid false interrupts and
should clear the flag bit CCP1IF following any such
change in operating mode.
DS39016A-page 34
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
7.2
Compare Mode
7.2.1
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is:
• driven High
• driven Low
• remains Unchanged
The user must configure the RC2/CCP1 pin as an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
7.2.2
The action on the pin is based on the value of control
bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). At the
same time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set.
FIGURE 7-3:
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the
compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
compare operation may not work.
7.2.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When generate software interrupt is chosen the CCP1
pin is not affected. Only a CCP interrupt is generated (if
enabled).
Special event trigger will:
reset Timer1, but not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>),
and set bit GO/DONE (ADCON0<2>)
which starts an A/D conversion
7.2.4
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated
which may be used to initiate an action.
Special Event Trigger
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
CCPR1H CCPR1L
Q S Output
Logic
match
RC2/CCP1
R
Pin
TRISC<2>
Output Enable CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to the
default low level. This is not the data latch.
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the
TMR1 register pair. This allows the CCPR1 register to
effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for
Timer1.
The special trigger output of CCP1 resets the TMR1
register pair, and starts an A/D conversion (if the A/D
module is enabled).
Note:
TABLE 7-2
The special event trigger from the CCP1
module will not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
—
—
—
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
all other
resets
Name
—
Bit 3
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Address
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
CCP1X
CCP1Y
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3
CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1.
Note 1: These bits/registers are unimplemented, read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 35
PIC16C72 Series
7.3
PWM Mode
7.3.1
In Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCP1 pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch,
the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data
latch.
Figure 7-4 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP
module in PWM mode.
For a step by step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 7.3.3.
FIGURE 7-4:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula:
PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] ¥ 4 ¥ TOSC ¥
(TMR2 prescale value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1 / [PWM period].
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
CCP1CON<5:4>
Duty cycle registers
CCPR1L
7.3.2
CCPR1H (Slave)
R
Comparator
Q
RC2/CCP1
TMR2
(Note 1)
S
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
Note 1: 8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q clock
or 2 bits of the prescaler to create 10-bit time-base.
A PWM output (Figure 7-5) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The
frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(1/period).
FIGURE 7-5:
PWM OUTPUT
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 6.0) is
not used in the determination of the PWM
frequency. The postscaler could be used to
have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output.
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available: the CCPR1L contains
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
PWM duty cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) ¥
Tosc ¥ (TMR2 prescale value)
TRISC<2>
Comparator
PWM PERIOD
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2
occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode,
CCPR1H is a read-only register.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2 concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of the
TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency:
Period
(
log
=
Duty Cycle
FOSC
FPWM
)
bits
log(2)
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
Note:
TMR2 = PR2
DS39016A-page 36
Preliminary
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
For an example PWM period and duty cycle calculation, see the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference
Manual (DS33023).
7.3.3
SET-UP FOR PWM OPERATION
3.
4.
5.
Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the
TRISC<2> bit.
Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2
by writing to T2CON.
Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation.
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.
Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the
CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
TABLE 7-3
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 20 MHz
PWM Frequency
1.22 kHz 4.88 kHz 19.53 kHz 78.12 kHz 156.3 kHz 208.3 kHz
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 7-4
Address
16
0xFF
10
4
0xFF
10
1
0xFF
10
1
0x3F
8
1
0x1F
7
1
0x17
5.5
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2
Name
Bit 7
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
8Ch
PIE1
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
11h
TMR2
Timer2 module’s register
0000 0000 0000 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 module’s period register
1111 1111 1111 1111
12h
T2CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
—
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
TOUTPS TOUTPS TOUTPS TOUTPS
3
2
1
0
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
TMR2O
N
T2CKPS T2CKPS -000 0000 -000 0000
1
0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2.
Note 1: These bits/registers are unimplemented, read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 37
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 38
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
8.0
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL
PORT (SSP) MODULE
8.1
SSP Module Overview
The Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) module is a serial
interface useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be Serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The SSP module can
operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C)
The SSP module in I2C mode works the same in all
PIC16C72 series devices that have an SSP module.
However the SSP Module in SPI mode has differences
between the PIC16C72 and the PIC16CR72 device.
The register definitions and operational description of
SPI mode has been split into two sections because of
the differences between the PIC16C72 and the
PIC16CR72 device. The default reset values of both
the SPI modules is the same regardless of the device:
8.2
SPI Mode for PIC16C72 .................................. 40
8.3
SPI Mode for PIC16CR72 ............................... 43
8.4
SSP I2C Operation .......................................... 47
For an I2C Overview, refer to the PICmicro™ MidRange MCU Reference Manual (DS33023). Also, refer
to Application Note AN578, “Use of the SSP Module in
the I 2C Multi-Master Environment.”
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 39
PIC16C72 Series
8.2
SPI Mode for PIC16C72
This section contains register definitions and operational characteristics of the SPI module on the
PIC16C72 device only.
FIGURE 8-1:
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
Additional information on SPI operation may be found
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h) (PIC16C72)
R-0
D/A
R-0
P
R-0
S
R-0
R/W
R-0
UA
R-0
BF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5:
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4:
P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3:
S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2:
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is valid from the address
match to the next start bit, stop bit, or ACK bit.
1 = Read
0 = Write
bit 1:
UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0:
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2C modes)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Transmit (I2C mode only)
1 = Transmit in progress, SSPBUF is full
0 = Transmit complete, SSPBUF is empty
DS39016A-page 40
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 8-2:
R/W-0
WCOL
bit7
SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h) (PIC16C72)
R/W-0
SSPOV
R/W-0
SSPEN
R/W-0
CKP
R/W-0
SSPM3
R/W-0
SSPM2
R/W-0
SSPM1
R/W-0
SSPM0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word
(must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6:
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Detect bit
In SPI mode
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow, the data in SSPSR register is lost. Overflow can only occur in slave mode. The user must read the
SSPBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In master operation, the overflow bit is
not set since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
0 = No overflow
In I2C mode
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t
care" in transmit mode. SSPOV must be cleared in software in either mode.
0 = No overflow
bit 5:
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In SPI mode
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SDI as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2C mode
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4:
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level. Transmit happens on falling edge, receive on rising edge.
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level. Transmit happens on rising edge, receive on falling edge.
In I2C mode
SCK release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch) (Used to ensure data setup time)
bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI master operation, clock = Fosc/4
0001 = SPI master operation, clock = Fosc/16
0010 = SPI master operation, clock = Fosc/64
0011 = SPI master operation, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin.
0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address
1011 = I2C firmware controlled master operation (slave idle)
1110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 41
PIC16C72 Series
8.2.1
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set
• SS must have TRISA<5> set (if implemented)
OPERATION OF SSP MODULE IN SPI
MODE - PIC16C72
FIGURE 8-3:
A block diagram of the SSP Module in SPI Mode is
shown in Figure 8-3.
SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)
The SPI mode allows 8-bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. To
accomplish communication, typically three pins are
used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO)
• Serial Data In (SDI)
• Serial Clock (SCK)
Internal
data bus
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC3/SCK/SCL
Read
Write
SSPBUF reg
Additionally a fourth pin may be used when in a slave
mode of operation:
• Slave Select (SS)
RA5/SS/AN4
SSPSR reg
RC4/SDI/SDA
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits in the SSPCON register (SSPCON<5:0>).
These control bits allow the following to be specified:
RC5/SDO
• Master Operation (SCK is the clock output)
• Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input)
• Clock Polarity (Output/Input data on the Rising/
Falling edge of SCK)
• Clock Rate (master operation only)
• Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only)
SS Control
Enable
RA5/SS/AN4
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
To enable the serial port, SSP enable bit SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI
mode, clear enable bit SSPEN, re-initialize SSPCON
register, and then set enable bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI, SDO, SCK, and SS pins as serial port
pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port function,
they must have their data direction bits (in the TRIS register) appropriately programmed. That is:
SSPM3:SSPM0
TMR2 output
2
4
Edge
Select
RC3/SCK/
SCL
Prescaler TCY
4, 16, 64
TRISC<3>
• SDI must have TRISC<4> set
• SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared
• SCK (master operation) must have TRISC<3>
cleared
TABLE 8-1
shift
clock
bit0
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 000x 0000 000u
8Ch
PIE1
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
13h
SSPBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
14h
SSPCON
85h
TRISA
—
—
94h
SSPSTAT
—
—
WCOL
SSPOV SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3 SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
D/A
P
S
R/W
--11 1111 --11 1111
UA
BF
--00 0000 --00 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode.
Note 1: These bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
DS39016A-page 42
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
SPI Mode for PIC16CR72
8.3
This section contains register definitions and operational characteristics of the SPI module on the
PIC16CR72 device only.
FIGURE 8-4:
R/W-0 R/W-0
SMP
CKE
Additional information on SPI operation may be found
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h) (PIC16CR72)
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
SMP: SPI data input sample phase
SPI Master Operation
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave Mode
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in slave mode
bit 6:
CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select
CKP = 0
1 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
CKP = 1
1 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
bit 5:
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4:
P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Start bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3:
S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Stop bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2:
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the
address match to the next start bit, stop bit, or ACK bit.
1 = Read
0 = Write
bit 1:
UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0:
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2C modes)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Transmit (I2C mode only)
1 = Transmit in progress, SSPBUF is full
0 = Transmit complete, SSPBUF is empty
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 43
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 8-5:
SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h) (PIC16CR72)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word
(must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6:
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
In SPI mode
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow, the data in SSPSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in slave mode. The user must read the SSPBUF,
even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In master operation, the overflow bit is not set
since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
0 = No overflow
In I2C mode
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t
care" in transmit mode. SSPOV must be cleared in software in either mode.
0 = No overflow
bit 5:
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In SPI mode
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SDI as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2C mode
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4:
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
In I2C mode
SCK release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch) (Used to ensure data setup time)
bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/4
0001 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/16
0010 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/64
0011 = SPI master operation, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin
0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address
1011 = I2C firmware controlled master operation (slave idle)
1110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
DS39016A-page 44
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
8.3.1
FIGURE 8-6:
OPERATION OF SSP MODULE IN SPI
MODE - PIC16CR72
SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)(PIC16CR72)
Internal
data bus
A block diagram of the SSP Module in SPI Mode is
shown in Figure 8-6.
Read
The SPI mode allows 8-bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. To
accomplish communication, typically three pins are
used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO)
• Serial Data In (SDI)
• Serial Clock (SCK)
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC3/SCK/SCL
SSPBUF reg
SSPSR reg
RC4/SDI/SDA
Additionally a fourth pin may be used when in a slave
mode of operation:
• Slave Select (SS)
Write
shift
clock
bit0
RC5/SDO
RA5/SS/AN4
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits in the SSPCON register (SSPCON<5:0>)
and SSPSTAT<7:6>. These control bits allow the following to be specified:
Master Operation (SCK is the clock output)
Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK)
Clock Edge (Output data on rising/falling edge of
SCK)
• Clock Rate (master operation only)
• Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only)
SS Control
Enable
RA5/SS/AN4
•
•
•
•
To enable the serial port, SSP Enable bit, SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI
mode, clear bit SSPEN, re-initialize the SSPCON register, and then set bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI,
SDO, SCK, and SS pins as serial port pins. For the pins
to behave as the serial port function, they must have
their data direction bits (in the TRISC register) appropriately programmed. That is:
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
SSPM3:SSPM0
4
Edge
Select
RC3/SCK/
SCL
TMR2 output
2
Prescaler TCY
4, 16, 64
TRISC<3>
• SDI must have TRISC<4> set
• SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared
• SCK (master operation) must have TRISC<3>
cleared
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set
• SS must have TRISA<5> set
Note:
When the SPI is in Slave Mode with SS pin
control enabled, (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100)
the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set
to VDD.
Note:
If the SPI is used in Slave Mode with
CKE = '1', then the SS pin control must be
enabled.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 45
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 8-2
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION (PIC16CR72)
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 000x 0000 000u
8Ch
PIE1
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
13h
SSPBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
14h
SSPCON WCOL
85h
TRISA
94h
SSPSTAT
SSPOV SSPEN
—
—
SMP
CKE
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
D/A
P
S
R/W
--11 1111 --11 1111
UA
BF
0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode.
Note 1: Always maintain these bits clear.
DS39016A-page 46
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
8.4
SSP I 2C Operation
The SSP module in I 2C mode fully implements all slave
functions, except general call support, and provides
interrupts on start and stop bits in hardware to facilitate
firmware implementations of the master functions. The
SSP module implements the standard mode specifications as well as 7-bit and 10-bit addressing.
Two pins are used for data transfer. These are the RC3/
SCK/SCL pin, which is the clock (SCL), and the RC4/
SDI/SDA pin, which is the data (SDA). The user must
configure these pins as inputs or outputs through the
TRISC<4:3> bits.
The SSP module functions are enabled by setting SSP
Enable bit SSPEN (SSPCON<5>).
FIGURE 8-7:
SSPBUF reg
When an address is matched or the data transfer after
an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the acknowledge (ACK) pulse, and
then load the SSPBUF register with the received value
currently in the SSPSR register.
SSPSR reg
MSb
LSb
Match detect
Addr Match
SSPADD reg
Start and
Stop bit detect
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPSTAT reg)
SSP Control Register (SSPCON)
SSP Status Register (SSPSTAT)
Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF)
SSP Shift Register (SSPSR) - Not directly accessible
• SSP Address Register (SSPADD)
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
There are certain conditions that will cause the SSP
module not to give this ACK pulse. These are if either
(or both):
a)
The SSP module has five registers for I2C operation.
These are the:
•
•
•
•
SLAVE MODE
In slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> set). The SSP module will
override the input state with the output data when
required (slave-transmitter).
Write
shift
clock
RC4/
SDI/
SDA
Selection of any I 2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set,
forces the SCL and SDA pins to be open drain, provided these pins are programmed to inputs by setting
the appropriate TRISC bits.
8.4.1
Internal
data bus
RC3/SCK/SCL
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Firmware controlled master operation, slave
is idle
Additional information on SSP I2C operation may be
found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference
Manual, DS33023.
SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(I2C MODE)
Read
The SSPCON register allows control of the I 2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON<3:0>) allow
one of the following I 2C modes to be selected:
b)
The buffer full bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) was set
before the transfer was received.
The overflow bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) was set
before the transfer was received.
In this case, the SSPSR register value is not loaded
into the SSPBUF, but bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set.
Table 8-3 shows what happens when a data transfer
byte is received, given the status of bits BF and
SSPOV. The shaded cells show the condition where
user software did not properly clear the overflow condition. Flag bit BF is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register while bit SSPOV is cleared through software.
The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and
low for proper operation. The high and low times of the
I2C specification as well as the requirement of the SSP
module is shown in timing parameter #100 and parameter #101.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 47
PIC16C72 Series
8.4.1.1
ADDRESSING
Once the SSP module has been enabled, it waits for a
START condition to occur. Following the START condition, the 8-bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All
incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the
clock (SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is
compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The
address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth
clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match, and the BF
and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur:
a)
b)
c)
d)
The SSPSR register value is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
The buffer full bit, BF is set.
An ACK pulse is generated.
SSP interrupt flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set
(interrupt is generated if enabled) - on the falling
edge of the ninth SCL pulse.
In 10-bit address mode, two address bytes need to be
received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits
(MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit
address. Bit R/W (SSPSTAT<2>) must specify a write
so the slave device will receive the second address
byte. For a 10-bit address the first byte would equal
TABLE 8-3
‘1111 0 A9 A8 0’, where A9 and A8 are the two MSbs
of the address. The sequence of events for 10-bit
address is as follows, with steps 7- 9 for slave-transmitter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF,
BF, and bit UA (SSPSTAT<1>) are set).
Update the SSPADD register with second (low)
byte of Address (clears bit UA and releases the
SCL line).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive second (low) byte of Address (bits
SSPIF, BF, and UA are set).
Update the SSPADD register with the first (high)
byte of Address, if match releases SCL line, this
will clear bit UA.
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive repeated START condition.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF
and BF are set).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
DATA TRANSFER RECEIVED BYTE ACTIONS
Status Bits as Data
Transfer is Received
Set bit SSPIF
(SSP Interrupt occurs
if enabled)
BF
SSPOV
SSPSR → SSPBUF
Generate ACK
Pulse
0
0
Yes
Yes
Yes
1
0
No
No
Yes
1
1
No
No
Yes
0
1
No
No
Yes
DS39016A-page 48
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
8.4.1.2
When the address byte overflow condition exists, then
no acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) is set
or bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set.
RECEPTION
When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an
address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT
register is cleared. The received address is loaded into
the SSPBUF register.
I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR RECEPTION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
FIGURE 8-8:
Receiving Address
Receiving Data
R/W=0
Receiving Data
ACK
ACK
ACK
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
SDA
SCL
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) must be cleared in software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine the
status of the byte.
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cleared in software
9
P
Bus Master
terminates
transfer
SSPBUF register is read
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
Bit SSPOV is set because the SSPBUF register is still full.
ACK is not sent.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 49
PIC16C72 Series
8.4.1.3
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF must be cleared in software, and
the SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status
of the byte. Flag bit SSPIF is set on the falling edge of
the ninth clock pulse.
TRANSMISSION
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set
and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the
SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is
loaded into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will
be sent on the ninth bit, and pin RC3/SCK/SCL is held
low. The transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register.
Then pin RC3/SCK/SCL should be enabled by setting
bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). The master must monitor the
SCL pin prior to asserting another clock pulse. The
slave devices may be holding off the master by stretching the clock. The eight data bits are shifted out on the
falling edge of the SCL input. This ensures that the SDA
signal is valid during the SCL high time (Figure 8-9).
I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR TRANSMISSION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
FIGURE 8-9:
Receiving Address
SDA
SCL
A7
S
As a slave-transmitter, the ACK pulse from the masterreceiver is latched on the rising edge of the ninth SCL
input pulse. If the SDA line was high (not ACK), then the
data transfer is complete. When the ACK is latched by
the slave, the slave logic is reset (resets SSPSTAT register) and the slave then monitors for another occurrence of the START bit. If the SDA line was low (ACK),
the transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register. Then pin
RC3/SCK/SCL should be enabled by setting bit CKP.
A6
1
2
Data in
sampled
R/W = 1
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ACK
Transmitting Data
ACK
D7
1
SCL held low
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
cleared in software
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPBUF is written in software
From SSP interrupt
service routine
CKP (SSPCON<4>)
Set bit after writing to SSPBUF
(the SSPBUF must be written-to
before the CKP bit can be set)
DS39016A-page 50
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
8.4.2
8.4.3
MASTER OPERATION
In multi-master operation, the interrupt generation on
the detection of the START and STOP conditions
allows the determination of when the bus is free. The
STOP (P) and START (S) bits are cleared from a reset
or when the SSP module is disabled. The STOP (P)
and START (S) bits will toggle based on the START and
STOP conditions. Control of the I 2C bus may be taken
when bit P (SSPSTAT<4>) is set, or the bus is idle and
both the S and P bits clear. When the bus is busy,
enabling the SSP Interrupt will generate the interrupt
when the STOP condition occurs.
Master operation is supported in firmware using interrupt generation on the detection of the START and
STOP conditions. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits
are cleared from a reset or when the SSP module is
disabled. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits will toggle
based on the START and STOP conditions. Control of
the I 2C bus may be taken when the P bit is set, or the
bus is idle and both the S and P bits are clear.
In master operation, the SCL and SDA lines are manipulated in firmware by clearing the corresponding
TRISC<4:3> bit(s). The output level is always low, irrespective of the value(s) in PORTC<4:3>. So when
transmitting data, a '1' data bit must have the
TRISC<4> bit set (input) and a '0' data bit must have
the TRISC<4> bit cleared (output). The same scenario
is true for the SCL line with the TRISC<3> bit.
In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be monitored to see if the signal level is the expected output
level. This check only needs to be done when a high
level is output. If a high level is expected and a low level
is present, the device needs to release the SDA and
SCL lines (set TRISC<4:3>). There are two stages
where this arbitration can be lost, these are:
The following events will cause SSP Interrupt Flag bit,
SSPIF, to be set (SSP Interrupt if enabled):
• Address Transfer
• Data Transfer
• START condition
• STOP condition
• Data transfer byte transmitted/received
When the slave logic is enabled, the slave continues to
receive. If arbitration was lost during the address transfer stage, communication to the device may be in
progress. If addressed an ACK pulse will be generated.
If arbitration was lost during the data transfer stage, the
device will need to re-transfer the data at a later time.
Master operation can be done with either the slave
mode idle (SSPM3:SSPM0 = 1011) or with the slave
active. When both master operation and slave modes
are used, the software needs to differentiate the
source(s) of the interrupt.
For more information on master operation, see AN578
- Use of the SSP Module in the of I2C Multi-Master
Environment.
For more information on master operation, see AN554
- Software Implementation of I2C Bus Master.
TABLE 8-4
MULTI-MASTER OPERATION
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C OPERATION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
0Bh, 8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
(1)
ADIF
(1)
(1)
SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
(1)
ADIE
(1)
(1)
SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
13h
SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
(I2C
93h
SSPADD Synchronous Serial Port
14h
SSPCON
WCOL
SSPOV SSPEN
mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
SMP(2)
CKE(2)
87h
TRISC
D/A
CKP
P
SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0
S
PORTC Data Direction register
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
1111 1111
1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'.
Shaded cells are not used by SSP module in SPI mode.
Note 1: These bits are unimplemented, read as '0'.
2: The SMP and CKE bits are implemented on the PIC16CR72 only. On the PIC16C72, these two bits are unimplemented,
read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 51
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 52
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
9.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE
Additional information on the A/D module is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023.
The analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module has five
inputs for the PIC16C72/R72.
The A/D allows conversion of an analog input signal to
a corresponding 8-bit digital number (refer to Application Note AN546 for use of A/D Converter). The output
of the sample and hold is the input into the converter,
which generates the result via successive approximation. The analog reference voltage is software selectable to either the device’s positive supply voltage (VDD)
or the voltage level on the RA3/AN3/VREF pin.
The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able
to operate while the device is in SLEEP mode. To operate in sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be derived
from the A/D’s internal RC oscillator.
FIGURE 9-1:
The A/D module has three registers. These registers
are:
• A/D Result Register (ADRES)
• A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0)
• A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1)
A device reset forces all registers to their reset state.
This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any
conversion is aborted.
The ADCON0 register, shown in Figure 9-1, controls
the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Figure 9-2, configures the functions of the
port pins. The port pins can be configured as analog
inputs (RA3 can also be a voltage reference) or as digital I/O.
ADCON0 REGISTER (ADDRESS 1Fh)
R/W-0 R/W-0
ADCS1 ADCS0
bit7
R/W-0
CHS2
R/W-0
CHS1
R/W-0
CHS0
R/W-0
GO/DONE
U-0
—
R/W-0
ADON
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
00 = FOSC/2
01 = FOSC/8
10 = FOSC/32
11 = FRC (clock derived from an internal RC oscillator)
bit 5-3: CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits
000 = channel 0, (RA0/AN0)
001 = channel 1, (RA1/AN1)
010 = channel 2, (RA2/AN2)
011 = channel 3, (RA3/AN3)
100 = channel 4, (RA5/AN4)
bit 2:
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
If ADON = 1
1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion)
0 = A/D conversion not in progress (This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete)
bit 1:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 0:
ADON: A/D On bit
1 = A/D converter module is operating
0 = A/D converter module is shutoff and consumes no operating current
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 53
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 9-2:
U-0
—
bit7
ADCON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 9Fh)
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
PCFG2
R/W-0
PCFG1
R/W-0
PCFG0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented
bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-3: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2-0: PCFG2:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits
PCFG2:PCFG0
000
001
010
011
100
101
11x
RA0
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA1
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA2
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA5
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA3
A
VREF
A
VREF
A
VREF
D
VREF
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
GND
A = Analog input
D = Digital I/O
DS39016A-page 54
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
2.
The ADRES register contains the result of the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the
result is loaded into the ADRES register, the GO/DONE
bit (ADCON0<2>) is cleared, and A/D interrupt flag bit
ADIF is set. The block diagram of the A/D module is
shown in Figure 9-3.
3.
4.
The value that is in the ADRES register is not modified
for a Power-on Reset. The ADRES register will contain
unknown data after a Power-on Reset.
5.
After the A/D module has been configured as desired,
the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must
have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an
input. To determine acquisition time, see Section 9.1.
After this acquisition time has elapsed the A/D conversion can be started. The following steps should be followed for doing an A/D conversion:
1.
OR
6.
7.
Configure the A/D module:
• Configure analog pins / voltage reference /
and digital I/O (ADCON1)
• Select A/D input channel (ADCON0)
• Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0)
• Turn on A/D module (ADCON0)
FIGURE 9-3:
Configure A/D interrupt (if desired):
• Clear ADIF bit
• Set ADIE bit
• Set GIE bit
Wait the required acquisition time.
Start conversion:
• Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0)
Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either:
• Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared
• Waiting for the A/D interrupt
Read A/D Result register (ADRES), clear bit
ADIF if required.
For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as
required. The A/D conversion time per bit is
defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2TAD is
required before next acquisition starts.
A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHS2:CHS0
100
VAIN
011
(Input voltage)
RA5/AN4
RA3/AN3/VREF
010
RA2/AN2
A/D
Converter
001
RA1/AN1
VDD
000
RA0/AN0
000 or
010 or
100
VREF
(Reference
voltage)
001 or
011 or
101
PCFG2:PCFG0
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 55
PIC16C72 Series
9.1
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy,
the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed
to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The
analog input model is shown in Figure 9-4. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge
the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS)
impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD). The
source impedance affects the offset voltage at the analog input (due to pin leakage current). The maximum
recommended impedance for analog sources is 10
kΩ. After the analog input channel is selected
(changed) this acquisition must be done before the
conversion can be started.
FIGURE 9-4:
To calculate the minimum acquisition time, TACQ, see
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Reference Manual,
DS33023. This equation calculates the acquisition time
to within 1/2 LSb error (512 steps for the A/D). The 1/2
LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D to
meet its specified accuracy.
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
Rs
ANx
CPIN
5 pF
VA
Sampling
Switch
VT = 0.6V
VT = 0.6V
RIC ≤ 1k
SS RSS
CHOLD
= DAC capacitance
= 51.2 pF
I leakage
± 500 nA
VSS
= input capacitance
Legend CPIN
= threshold voltage
VT
I leakage = leakage current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
SS
CHOLD
DS39016A-page 56
= interconnect resistance
= sampling switch
= sample/hold capacitance (from DAC)
Preliminary
6V
5V
VDD 4V
3V
2V
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Sampling Switch
( kΩ )
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock
9.2
The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The
A/D conversion requires 9.5TAD per 8-bit conversion.
The source of the A/D conversion clock is software
selectable. The four possible options for TAD are:
•
•
•
•
2TOSC
8TOSC
32TOSC
Internal RC oscillator
9.3
Configuring Analog Port Pins
The ADCON1, TRISA, and TRISE registers control the
operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are
desired as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be
converted.
The A/D operation is independent of the state of the
CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits.
For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock
(TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time
of 1.6 µs.
Table 9-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from
the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock
source selected.
Note 1: When reading the port register, all pins
configured as analog input channels will
read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs, will convert an analog input. Analog levels on a digitally
configured input will not affect the conversion accuracy.
Note 2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input (including the AN4:AN0
pins), may cause the input buffer to consume current that is out of the devices
specification.
TABLE 9-1
TAD vs. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES
AD Clock Source (TAD)
Operation
ADCS1:ADCS0
2TOSC
00
8TOSC
01
32TOSC
10
Device Frequency
20 MHz
100
ns(2)
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
5 MHz
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
6.4 µs
333.33 kHz
1.6 µs
6 µs
6.4 µs
24 µs(3)
25.6
µs(3)
96 µs(3)
2-6
2-6
2 - 6 µs(1)
2 - 6 µs
Shaded cells are outside of recommended range.
The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 µs.
These values violate the minimum required TAD time.
For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended.
When device frequency is greater than 1 MHz, the RC A/D conversion clock source is recommended for
sleep operation only.
5: For extended voltage devices (LC), please refer to Electrical Specifications section.
RC(5)
11
(1,4)
µs(1,4)
1.25 MHz
µs(1,4)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 57
PIC16C72 Series
9.4
Note:
9.5
A/D Conversions
GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D conversion,
and the Timer1 counter will be reset to zero. Timer1 is
reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period
with minimal software overhead (moving the ADRES to
the desired location). The appropriate analog input
channel must be selected and the minimum acquisition
done before the “special event trigger” sets the
GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion).
The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in
the same instruction that turns on the A/D.
Use of the CCP Trigger
An A/D conversion can be started by the “special event
trigger” of the CCP1 module. This requires that the
CCP1M3:CCP1M0 bits (CCP1CON<3:0>) be programmed as 1011 and that the A/D module is enabled
(ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the
TABLE 9-2
Address
REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH A/D
Name
Bit 7
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
TMR2IF TMR1IF -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
Value on all
other Resets
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE TMR1IE -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
PIE1
1Fh
ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1
9Fh
ADCON1
—
—
—
05h
PORTA
—
—
RA5
TRISA
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Bit 4
ADRES
Bit 2
Bit 0
Bit 5
1Eh
Bit 3
Bit 1
Bit 6
8Ch
85h
If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared),
then the “special event trigger” will be ignored by the
A/D module, but will still reset the Timer1 counter.
A/D Result Register
—
—
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
---- -000
---- -000
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
PORTA Data Direction Register
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
DS39016A-page 58
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
10.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
ble. The other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which
provides a fixed delay of 72 ms (nominal) on power-up
only, designed to keep the part in reset while the power
supply stabilizes. With these two timers on-chip, most
applications need no external reset circuitry.
The PIC16C72 series has a host of such features
intended to maximize system reliability, minimize cost
through elimination of external components, provide
power saving operating modes and offer code protection. These are:
SLEEP mode is designed to offer a very low current
power-down mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP
through external reset, Watchdog Timer Wake-up, or
through an interrupt. Several oscillator options are also
made available to allow the part to fit the application.
The RC oscillator option saves system cost while the
LP crystal option saves power. A set of configuration
bits are used to select various options.
• Oscillator selection
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• SLEEP
• Code protection
• ID locations
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™
Additional information on special features is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference
Manual, DS33023.
10.1
Configuration Bits
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as '0')
or left unprogrammed (read as '1') to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in program memory location 2007h.
The PIC16CXXX family has a Watchdog Timer which
can be shut off only through configuration bits. It runs
off its own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are
two timers that offer necessary delays on power-up.
One is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to
keep the chip in reset until the crystal oscillator is sta-
The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the
user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the
special test/configuration memory space (2000h 3FFFh), which can be accessed only during programming.
FIGURE 10-1: CONFIGURATION WORD FOR PIC16C72/R72
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
—
BODEN
CP1
CP0
PWRTE
bit13
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
bit0
bit 13-8
5-4:
Register:CONFIG
Address2007h
CP1:CP0: Code Protection bits (2)
11 = Code protection off
10 = Upper half of program memory code protected
01 = Upper 3/4th of program memory code protected
00 = All memory is code protected
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '1'
bit 6:
BODEN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit (1)
1 = BOR enabled
0 = BOR disabled
bit 3:
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit (1)
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 2:
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 1-0:
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = RC oscillator
10 = HS oscillator
01 = XT oscillator
00 = LP oscillator
Note 1:
Enabling Brown-out Reset automatically enables Power-up Timer (PWRT) regardless of the value of bit PWRTE.
Ensure the Power-up Timer is enabled anytime Brown-out Reset is enabled.
2: All of the CP1:CP0 pairs have to be given the same value to enable the code protection scheme listed.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 59
PIC16C72 Series
10.2
Oscillator Configurations
10.2.1
OSCILLATOR TYPES
TABLE 10-1
Ranges Tested:
The PIC16CXXX family can be operated in four different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of these
four modes:
•
•
•
•
LP
XT
HS
RC
Low Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High Speed Crystal/Resonator
Resistor/Capacitor
10.2.2
Mode
XT
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
C2(1)
TABLE 10-2
Osc Type
Note1:
2:
3:
LP
XT
PIC16CXXX
FIGURE 10-3: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
PIC16CXXX
Open
DS39016A-page 60
OSC2
± 0.3%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Crystal
Freq
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
47-68 pF
47-68 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
20 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
See Table 10-1 and Table 10-2 for recommended values of C1 and C2.
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
AT strip cut crystals.
RF varies with the crystal chosen.
Clock from
ext. system
HS
To
internal
logic
SLEEP
RS(2)
Panasonic EFO-A455K04B
Murata Erie CSA2.00MG
Murata Erie CSA4.00MG
Murata Erie CSA8.00MT
Murata Erie CSA16.00MX
All resonators used did not have built-in capacitors.
OSC1
RF(3)
OSC2
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
Resonators Used:
FIGURE 10-2: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC
RESONATOR OPERATION
(HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC2
OSC1
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
In XT, LP or HS modes a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
pins to establish oscillation (Figure 10-2). The
PIC16CXXX family oscillator design requires the use of
a parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may
give a frequency out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in XT, LP or HS modes, the device can
have an external clock source to drive the OSC1/
CLKIN pin (Figure 10-3).
XTAL
Freq
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
HS
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC
RESONATORS
C1(1)
CERAMIC RESONATORS
Crystals Used
32 kHz
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000KHz
± 20 PPM
1 MHz
ECS ECS-10-13-1
± 50 PPM
4 MHz
ECS ECS-40-20-1
± 50 PPM
8 MHz
EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C
± 30 PPM
20 MHz
EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C
± 30 PPM
Note 1: Recommended values of C1 and C2 are
identical to the ranges tested (Table 10-1).
2: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult the
resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components.
4: Rs may be required in HS mode as well as
XT mode to avoid overdriving crystals with
low drive level specification.
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
10.2.3
10.3
RC OSCILLATOR
For timing insensitive applications the “RC” device
option offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values, and the operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal process parameter variation. Furthermore, the difference
in lead frame capacitance between package types will
also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low
CEXT values. The user also needs to take into account
variation due to tolerance of external R and C components used. Figure 10-4 shows how the R/C combination is connected to the PIC16CXXX family.
FIGURE 10-4: RC OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
Rext
OSC1
Cext
Internal
clock
PIC16CXXX
VSS
Fosc/4
Recommended values:
OSC2/CLKOUT
3 kΩ ≤ Rext ≤ 100 kΩ
Cext > 20pF
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Reset
The PIC16CXXX family differentiates between various
kinds of reset:
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR reset during normal operation
MCLR reset during SLEEP
WDT Reset (normal operation)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Some registers are not affected in any reset condition;
their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any
other reset. Most other registers are reset to a “reset
state” on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and
WDT Reset, on MCLR reset during SLEEP, and Brownout Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a WDT
Wake-up, which is viewed as the resumption of normal
operation. The TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different reset situations as indicated in
Table 10-4. These bits are used in software to determine the nature of the reset. See Table 10-6 for a full
description of reset states of all registers.
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip reset circuit is
shown in Figure 10-5.
The PIC16C72/CR72 have a MCLR noise filter in the
MCLR reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small
pulses.
It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive
MCLR pin low.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 61
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 10-5: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR
WDT
Module
SLEEP
WDT
Time-out
Reset
VDD rise
detect
Power-on Reset
VDD
Brown-out
Reset
S
BODEN
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
R
10-bit Ripple counter
Q
OSC1
(1)
On-chip
RC OSC
PWRT
10-bit Ripple counter
Enable PWRT
Enable OST
Note 1:
This is a separate oscillator from the RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin.
DS39016A-page 62
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
10.4
10.5
Power-On Reset (POR)
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when
VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.5V - 2.1V). To
take advantage of the POR, just tie the MCLR pin
directly (or through a resistor) to VDD. This will eliminate
external RC components usually needed to create a
Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for VDD is specified. See Electrical Specifications for details. For a
slow rise time, see Figure 10-6.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage,
frequency, temperature,...) must be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must
be held in reset until the operating conditions are met.
Brown-out Reset may be used to meet the startup conditions.
FIGURE 10-6: EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW
VDD POWER-UP)
D
The Power-up Timer provides a fixed 72 ms nominal
time-out on power-up only, from the POR. The Powerup Timer operates on an internal RC oscillator. The
chip is kept in reset as long as the PWRT is active. The
PWRT’s time delay allows VDD to rise to an acceptable
level. A configuration bit is provided to enable/disable
the PWRT.
The power-up time delay will vary from chip to chip due
to VDD, temperature, and process variation. See DC
parameters for details.
10.6
R
R1
MCLR
C
PIC16CXXX
Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is
required only if VDD power-up slope is too
slow. The diode D helps discharge the
capacitor quickly when VDD powers down.
2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure
that voltage drop across R does not violate
the device’s electrical specification.
3: R1 = 100Ω to 1 kΩ will limit any current
flowing into MCLR from external capacitor
C in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown due to Electrostatic Discharge
(ESD) or Electrical Overstress (EOS).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides 1024
oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the
PWRT delay is over. This ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and stabilized.
The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS
modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from
SLEEP.
10.7
VDD
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
Brown-Out Reset (BOR)
A configuration bit, BODEN, can disable (if clear/programmed) or enable (if set) the Brown-out Reset circuitry. If VDD falls below 4.0V (3.8V - 4.2V range) for
greater than parameter #35, the brown-out situation will
reset the chip. A reset may not occur if VDD falls below
4.0V for less than parameter #35. The chip will remain
in Brown-out Reset until VDD rises above BVDD. The
Power-up Timer will now be invoked and will keep the
chip in RESET an additional 72 ms. If VDD drops below
BVDD while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will
go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up
Timer will be initialized. Once VDD rises above BVDD,
the Power-up Timer will execute a 72 ms time delay.
The Power-up Timer should always be enabled when
Brown-out Reset is enabled.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 63
PIC16C72 Series
10.8
Time-out Sequence
10.9
On power-up the time-out sequence is as follows: First
PWRT time-out is invoked after the POR time delay has
expired. Then OST is activated. The total time-out will
vary based on oscillator configuration and the status of
the PWRT. For example, in RC mode with the PWRT
disabled, there will be no time-out at all. Figure 10-7,
Figure 10-8, Figure 10-9 and Figure 10-10 depict timeout sequences on power-up.
Power Control/Status Register
(PCON)
The Power Control/Status Register, PCON has up to
two bits, depending upon the device.
Bit0 is Brown-out Reset Status bit, BOR. Bit BOR is
unknown on a Power-on Reset. It must then be set by
the user and checked on subsequent resets to see if bit
BOR cleared, indicating a BOR occurred. The BOR bit
is a "Don’t Care" bit and is not necessarily predictable
if the Brown-out Reset circuitry is disabled (by clearing
bit BODEN in the Configuration Word).
Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR
is kept low long enough, the time-outs will expire. Then
bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately
(Figure 10-9). This is useful for testing purposes or to
synchronize more than one PIC16CXXX family device
operating in parallel.
Bit1 is POR (Power-on Reset Status bit). It is cleared
on a Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The
user must set this bit following a Power-on Reset.
Table 10-5 shows the reset conditions for some special
function registers, while Table 10-6 shows the reset
conditions for all the registers.
TABLE 10-3
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS
Oscillator Configuration
Power-up
Brown-out
Wake-up from
SLEEP
1024TOSC
72 ms + 1024TOSC
1024TOSC
—
72 ms
—
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
XT, HS, LP
72 ms +
1024TOSC
RC
72 ms
TABLE 10-4
STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
POR
BOR
TO
PD
0
x
1
1
0
x
0
x
Illegal, TO is set on POR
0
x
x
0
Illegal, PD is set on POR
1
0
x
x
Brown-out Reset
1
1
0
1
WDT Reset
1
1
0
0
WDT Wake-up
1
1
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
1
1
1
0
MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
TABLE 10-5
Power-on Reset
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Condition
Power-on Reset
Program
Counter
STATUS
Register
PCON
Register
000h
0001 1xxx
---- --0x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- --uu
MCLR Reset during SLEEP
000h
0001 0uuu
---- --uu
WDT Reset
WDT Wake-up
Brown-out Reset
Interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
000h
0000 1uuu
---- --uu
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- --uu
000h
0001 1uuu
---- --u0
PC + 1(1)
uuu1 0uuu
---- --uu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit read as '0'.
Note 1:
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h).
DS39016A-page 64
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 10-6
Register
W
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Resets
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
INDF
N/A
N/A
N/A
TMR0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
0000h
0000h
PC + 1(2)
STATUS
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(3)
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--uu uuuu
PORTB
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCLATH
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
PIR1
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu(1)
TMR1L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
TMR2
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T2CON
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
SSPBUF
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSPCON
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
ADRES
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON0
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
uuuu uu-u
OPTION
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
TRISB
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIE1
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu
PCON
---- --0u
---- --uu
---- --uu
PR2
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
SSPADD
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSPSTAT
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
ADCON1
---- -000
---- -000
---- -uuu
PCL
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as '0', q = value depends on condition
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 10-5 for reset value for specific condition.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 65
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 10-7: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD)
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 10-8: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 10-9: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
DS39016A-page 66
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 10-10: SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD)
5V
VDD
1V
0V
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 67
PIC16C72 Series
10.10
Interrupts
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends when the interrupt event occurs. The latency
is the same for one or two cycle instructions. Individual
interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of
their corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit
The PIC16C72/CR72 has 8 sources of interrupt. The
interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual
interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual and
global interrupt enable bits.
Note:
Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit or the GIE bit.
10.10.1 INT INTERRUPT
External interrupt on RB0/INT pin is edge triggered:
either rising if bit INTEDG (OPTION<6>) is set, or falling, if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge
appears on the RB0/INT pin, flag bit INTF
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing enable bit INTE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit INTF
must be cleared in software in the interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The INT interrupt
can wake-up the processor from SLEEP, if bit INTE was
set prior to going into SLEEP. The status of global interrupt enable bit GIE decides whether or not the processor branches to the interrupt vector following wake-up.
See Section 10.13 for details on SLEEP mode.
A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>)
enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if
cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled, and an
interrupt’s flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will
vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. Individual interrupt bits are set
regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is
cleared on reset.
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit, which
re-enables interrupts.
The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register.
10.10.2 TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set
flag bit T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit T0IE
(INTCON<5>). (Section 4.0)
The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers PIR1 and PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special
function registers PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral
interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON.
10.10.3 PORTB INTCON CHANGE
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit RBIE (INTCON<4>).
(Section 3.2)
When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is
cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return
address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded
with 0004h. Once in the interrupt service routine the
source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be
cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to
avoid recursive interrupts.
FIGURE 10-11: INTERRUPT LOGIC
T0IF
T0IE
Wake-up (If in SLEEP mode)
INTF
INTE
ADIF
ADIE
SSPIF
SSPIE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
RBIF
RBIE
Interrupt to CPU
Clear GIE bit
PEIE
GIE
TMR2IF
TMR2IE
DS39016A-page 68
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
10.11
Context Saving During Interrupts
The example:
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key registers during an interrupt, i.e., W register and STATUS
register. This will have to be implemented in software.
Example 10-1 stores and restores the W and STATUS
registers. The register, W_TEMP, must be defined in
each bank and must be defined at the same offset from
the bank base address (i.e., if W_TEMP is defined at
0x20 in bank 0, it must also be defined at 0xA0 in bank
1).
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Stores the W register.
Stores the STATUS register in bank 0.
Executes the ISR code.
Restores the STATUS register (and bank select
bit).
Restores the W register.
EXAMPLE 10-1: SAVING STATUS, W, AND PCLATH REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
W_TEMP
;Copy W to W_TEMP register, could be bank one or zero
SWAPF
STATUS,W
;Swap status to be saved into W
CLRF
STATUS
;bank 0, regardless of current bank, Clears IRP,RP1,RP0
MOVWF
STATUS_TEMP
;Save status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register
:
:Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) - user defined
:
SWAPF
STATUS_TEMP,W
;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W
;(sets bank to original state)
MOVWF
STATUS
;Move W into STATUS register
SWAPF
W_TEMP,F
;Swap W_TEMP
SWAPF
W_TEMP,W
;Swap W_TEMP into W
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 69
PIC16C72 Series
10.12
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
WDT time-out period values may be found in the Electrical Specifications section under parameter #31. Values for the WDT prescaler (actually a postscaler, but
shared with the Timer0 prescaler) may be assigned
using the OPTION_REG register.
The Watchdog Timer is as a free running on-chip RC
oscillator which does not require any external components. This RC oscillator is separate from the RC oscillator of the OSC1/CLKIN pin. That means that the WDT
will run, even if the clock on the OSC1/CLKIN and
OSC2/CLKOUT pins of the device has been stopped,
for example, by execution of a SLEEP instruction.
During normal operation, a WDT time-out generates a
device RESET (Watchdog Timer Reset). If the device is
in SLEEP mode, a WDT time-out causes the device to
wake-up and continue with normal operation (Watchdog Timer Wake-up). The TO bit in the STATUS register
will be cleared upon a Watchdog Timer time-out.
Note:
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear
the WDT and the postscaler, if assigned to
the WDT, and prevent it from timing out
and generating a device RESET condition.
Note:
When a CLRWDT instruction is executed
and the prescaler is assigned to the WDT,
the prescaler count will be cleared, but the
prescaler assignment is not changed.
.
The WDT can be permanently disabled by clearing
configuration bit WDTE (Section 10.1).
FIGURE 10-12: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
(Figure 4-2)
0
WDT Timer
Postscaler
M
U
X
1
8
8 - to - 1 MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
WDT
Enable Bit
To TMR0 (Figure 4-2)
0
1
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: PSA and PS2:PS0 are bits in the OPTION register.
FIGURE 10-13: SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Address
Name
2007h
Config. bits
81h,181h
OPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(1)
BODEN(1)
CP1
CP0
PWRTE(1)
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
Note 1: See Figure 10-1 for operation of these bits.
DS39016A-page 70
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
10.13
Power-down Mode (SLEEP)
Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since during SLEEP, no on-chip clocks are present.
Power-down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP
instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the PD bit (STATUS<3>) is cleared, the
TO (STATUS<4>) bit is set, and the oscillator driver is
turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had,
before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving
high, low, or hi-impedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, place all
I/O pins at either VDD, or VSS, ensure no external circuitry is drawing current from the I/O pin, power-down
the A/D, disable external clocks. Pull all I/O pins, that
are hi-impedance inputs, high or low externally to avoid
switching currents caused by floating inputs. The
T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest
current consumption. The contribution from on-chip
pull-ups on PORTB should be considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC).
10.13.1 WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake up from SLEEP through one of
the following events:
1.
2.
3.
External reset input on MCLR pin.
Watchdog Timer Wake-up (if WDT was
enabled).
Interrupt from INT pin, RB port change, or some
Peripheral Interrupts.
External MCLR Reset will cause a device reset. All
other events are considered a continuation of program
execution and cause a "wake-up". The TO and PD bits
in the STATUS register can be used to determine the
cause of device reset. The PD bit, which is set on
power-up, is cleared when SLEEP is invoked. The TO bit
is cleared if a WDT time-out occurred (and caused
wake-up).
The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device
from SLEEP:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is
regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is
clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after
the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of
the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the
user should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction.
10.13.2 WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
postscaler will not be cleared, the TO bit will not
be set and PD bits will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will immediately wake up from sleep. The SLEEP instruction
will be completely executed before the wake-up.
Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will be
cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will
be cleared.
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction was
executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction.
TMR1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as
an asynchronous counter.
SSP (Start/Stop) bit detect interrupt.
SSP transmit or receive in slave mode (SPI/I2C).
CCP capture mode interrupt.
A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC).
Special event trigger (Timer1 in asynchronous
mode using an external clock).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 71
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 10-14: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3
Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
SLEEP
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst(PC) = SLEEP
Instruction
executed
Inst(PC - 1)
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
10.14
PC+1
PC+2
PC+2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
SLEEP
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024TOSC (drawing not to scale) This delay will not be there for RC osc mode.
GIE = '1' assumed. In this case after wake- up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = '0', execution will continue in-line.
CLKOUT is not available in these osc modes, but shown here for timing reference.
Program Verification/Code Protection
If the code protection bit(s) have not been programmed, the on-chip program memory can be read
out for verification purposes.
Note:
10.15
Microchip does not recommend code protecting windowed devices.
ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h - 2003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code-identification numbers. These locations are
not accessible during normal execution but are readable and writable during program/verify. It is recommended that only the 4 least significant bits of the ID
location are used.
For ROM devices, these values are submitted along
with the ROM code.
10.16
In-Circuit Serial Programming™
PIC16CXXX family microcontrollers can be serially
programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data, and three
other lines for power, ground, and the programming
voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards
with unprogrammed devices, and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product. This
also allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware to be programmed.
For complete details of serial programming, please
refer to the In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™)
Guide, DS30277.
DS39016A-page 72
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
11.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
Each PIC16CXXX family instruction is a 14-bit word
divided into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands which further specify the operation of the instruction. The PIC16CXXX
family instruction set summary in Table 11-2 lists byteoriented, bit-oriented, and literal and control operations. Table 11-1 shows the opcode field descriptions.
For byte-oriented instructions, 'f' represents a file register designator and 'd' represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file
register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If 'd' is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If 'd' is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
Table 11-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM assembler.
Figure 11-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have.
Note:
All examples use the following format to represent a
hexadecimal number:
0xhh
where h signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 11-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
For bit-oriented instructions, 'b' represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while 'f' represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Description
f
W
b
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
Working register (accumulator)
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
x
Literal field, constant data or label
Don't care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the
recommended form of use for compatibility with all
Microchip software tools.
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1
Program Counter
PC
TO
PD
0
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Field
d
0
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
For literal and control operations, 'k' represents an
eight or eleven bit constant or literal value.
TABLE 11-1
To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC16CXXX products, do not use
the OPTION and TRIS instructions.
Literal and control operations
General
13
8
7
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
OPCODE
Time-out bit
Power-down bit
10
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
A description of each instruction is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual,
DS33023.
All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction.
In this case, the execution takes two instruction cycles
with the second cycle executed as a NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for
an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction
execution time is 1 µs. If a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 µs.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 73
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 11-2
Mnemonic,
Operands
PIC16CXXX INSTRUCTION SET
Description
Cycles
14-Bit Opcode
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
C,DC,Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C,DC,Z
Z
1,2
1,2
2
1,2
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
01
01
01
01
1,2
1,2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
C,DC,Z
Z
TO,PD
Z
TO,PD
C,DC,Z
Z
Note 1:
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present
on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is '1' for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external
device, the data will be written back with a '0'.
2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned
to the Timer0 Module.
3: If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is
executed as a NOP.
DS39016A-page 74
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
12.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
12.1
Development Tools
The PICmicrο microcontrollers are supported with a
full range of hardware and software development tools:
• PICMASTER/PICMASTER CE Real-Time
In-Circuit Emulator
• ICEPIC Low-Cost PIC16C5X and PIC16CXXX
In-Circuit Emulator
• PRO MATE II Universal Programmer
• PICSTART Plus Entry-Level Prototype
Programmer
• PICDEM-1 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-2 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-3 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• MPASM Assembler
• MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• MPLAB-C17 (C Compiler)
• Fuzzy Logic Development System
(fuzzyTECH−MP)
A description of each development tool is available in
the Midrange Reference Manual, DS33023.
12.2
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-2 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C62, PIC16C64, PIC16C65,
PIC16C73 and PIC16C74 microcontrollers. All the
necessary hardware and software is included to
run the basic demonstration programs. The user
can program the sample microcontrollers provided
with the PICDEM-2 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART-Plus, and easily test firmware.
The PICMASTER emulator may also be used with the
PICDEM-2 board to test firmware. Additional prototype
area has been provided to the user for adding additional hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include a RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a Serial EEPROM to demonstrate
usage of the I2C bus and separate headers for connection to an LCD module and a keypad.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 75
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 76
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
13.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS - PIC16C72 SERIES
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Parameter
PIC16C72
Ambient temperature under bias
Storage temperature
PIC16CR72
-55 to +125˚C
-55 to +125˚C
-65˚C to +150˚C
-65˚C to +150˚C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR, and RA4) -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS
-0.3 to +7.5V
TBD
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 1)
-0.3 to +14V
TBD
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss
-0.3 to +14V
TBD
Total power dissipation (Note 2)
1.0W
1.0W
300 mA
Maximum current out of VSS pin
300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin
250 mA
250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)
± 20 mA
± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)
± 20 mA
± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin
25 mA
25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin
25 mA
25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA and PORTB (combined)
200 mA
200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA and PORTB (combined)
200 mA
200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC
200 mA
200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC
200 mA
200 mA
1.
2.
Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling this
pin directly to VSS.
Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL).
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a
stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 77
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 13-1
OSC
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS (PIC16C72) FOR OSCILLATOR
CONFIGURATIONS AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16C72-04
PIC16C72-10
PIC16C72-20
PIC16LC72-04
JW Devices
RC
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
XT
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
IDD: 10 mA max. at 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
HS
LP
VDD: 4.0V to 6.0V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ. at
32 kHz, 4.0V
IPD: 0.9 µA typ. at 4.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
Not recommended for use
in HS mode
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 6.0V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
TABLE 13-2
OSC
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS (PIC16CR72) FOR OSCILLATOR
CONFIGURATIONS AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
PIC16CR72-04
PIC16CR72-10
PIC16CR72-20
PIC16LCR72-04
JW Devices
RC
VDD: 4.0V to 5.5V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 5.5V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
XT
VDD: 4.0V to 5.5V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 2.7 mA typ. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 3.8 mA max. at 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.0V to 5.5V
IDD: 5 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 16 µA max. at 4V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 13.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
IDD: 10 mA max. at 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
Freq: 4 MHz max.
Freq: 10 MHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
HS
LP
VDD: 4.0V to 5.5V
IDD: 52.5 µA typ. at
32 kHz, 4.0V
IPD: 0.9 µA typ. at 4.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
Not recommended for use
in LP mode
VDD: 4.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 20 mA max. at 5.5V
Not recommended for use
in HS mode
IPD: 1.5 µA typ. at 4.5V
VDD: 2.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
VDD: 2.5V to 5.5V
IDD: 48 µA max. at
32 kHz, 3.0V
IPD: 5.0 µA max. at 3.0V
Freq: 200 kHz max.
Freq: 20 MHz max.
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications.
It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
DS39016A-page 78
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
13.1
DC Characteristics:
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
PIC16C72/CR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Sym
PIC16C72
PIC16CR72
Min
Typ†
Max
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
D001
D001A
Supply Voltage
VDD
4.0
4.5
-
6.0
5.5
4.0
4.5
-
5.5
5.5
V
V
XT, RC and LP osc
HS osc
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Poweron Reset Signal
VPOR
-
VSS
-
-
VSS
-
V
See section on Poweron Reset for details
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on
Reset Signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
0.05
-
-
V/ms
See section on Poweron Reset for details
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
Bvdd
3.7
4.0
4.3
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
D010
Supply Current
(Note 2,5)
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
3.7
4.0
4.4
3.7
4.0
4.4
V
-
2.7
5.0
-
2.7
5.0
mA
XT, RC osc
FOSC = 4 MHz,
VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
10
20
-
10
20
mA
HS osc
FOSC = 20 MHz,
VDD = 5.5V
∆Ibor
-
350
425
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled,
VDD = 5.0V
IPD
-
10.5
42
-
10.5
42
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT
enabled, -40°C to +85°C
D021
-
1.5
16
-
1.5
16
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C
D021A
-
1.5
19
-
1.5
19
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
D021B
-
2.5
19
-
2.5
19
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +125°C
-
350
425
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD =
5.0V
IDD
D013
D015
Brown-out Reset
Current (Note 6)
D020
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
D023
*
†
Note 1:
Note 2:
Note 3:
Note 4:
Note 5:
Note 6:
Brown-out Reset
Current (Note 6)
∆Ibor
Extended Only
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin loading and
switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the
formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and
is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be added to the
base IDD or IPD measurement.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 79
PIC16C72 Series
13.2
DC Characteristics:
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
PIC16LC72/LCR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Sym
PIC16C72
Min
PIC16CR72
Typ†
Max
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
LP, XT, RC (DC - 4 MHz)
D001
Supply Voltage
VDD
2.5
-
6.0
2.5
-
5.5
V
D002*
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDR
-
1.5
-
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VDD start voltage to
ensure internal Poweron Reset signal
VPOR
-
VSS
-
-
VSS
-
V
See section on Poweron Reset for details
D004*
VDD rise rate to ensure
internal Power-on
Reset signal
SVDD
0.05
-
-
0.05
-
-
V/ms
See section on Poweron Reset for details
D005
Brown-out Reset Voltage
Bvdd
3.7
4.0
4.3
3.7
4.0
4.3
V
BODEN bit in configuration word enabled
D010
Supply Current
(Note 2,5)
IDD
-
2.0
3.8
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc configuration
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD =
3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
-
22.5
48
µA
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD =
3.0V, WDT disabled
∆Ibor
-
350
425
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD =
5.0V
IPD
-
7.5
30
-
7.5
30
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT
enabled, -40°C to +85°C
D021
-
0.9
5
-
0.9
5
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
D021A
-
0.9
5
-
0.9
5
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
-
350
425
-
350
425
µA
BOR enabled VDD =
5.0V
D010A
D015*
Brown-out Reset
Current (Note 6)
D020
Power-down Current
(Note 3,5)
D023*
*
†
Note 1:
Note 2:
Note 3:
Note 4:
Note 5:
Note 6:
Brown-out Reset
Current (Note 6)
∆Ibor
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin loading and
switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the
formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and
is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be added to the
base IDD or IPD measurement.
DS39016A-page 80
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
13.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C72/CR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC72/LCR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 13.1 and
Section 13.2.
Sym
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
VIL
D030
D030A
with TTL buffer
VSS
Vss
-
0.15VDD
0.8V
V
V
For entire VDD range
4.5 ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
D031
D032
D033
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP)
Input High Voltage
VSS
VSS
VSS
-
0.2VDD
0.2VDD
0.3VDD
V
V
V
Note1
-
VDD
VDD
V
V
4.5 ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
For entire VDD range
D040
D040A
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
VIH
2.0
0.25VDD +
0.8V
D041
D042
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR
0.8VDD
0.8VDD
-
VDD
VDD
V
V
For entire VDD range
D042A
D043
D070
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
PORTB weak pull-up current
250
Vdd
VDD
†400
V
V
µA
Note1
IPURB
0.7VDD
0.9VDD
50
D060
Input Leakage Current (Notes 2, 3)
I/O ports
IIL
-
-
±1
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hiimpedance
D061
D063
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
-
-
±5
±5
µA
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP
osc configuration
D080
I/O ports
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
-
-
0.6
V
-
-
0.6
V
VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
Output Low Voltage
D080A
D083
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D083A
*
†
Note 1:
Note 2:
Note 3:
VOL
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16C7X be
driven with external clock in RC mode.
The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 81
PIC16C72 Series
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for extended,
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial and
0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 13.1 and
Section 13.2.
Sym
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
VOH
VDD - 0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
VDD - 0.7
-
-
V
VDD - 0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
VDD - 0.7
-
-
V
Vod
-
-
14
TBD
V
V
COSC2
-
-
15
pF
CIO
Cb
-
-
50
400
pF
pF
Output High Voltage
D090
I/O ports (Note 3)
D090A
D092
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config)
D092A
D150*
Open-Drain High Voltage
D100
Capacitive Loading Specs on Output
Pins
OSC2 pin
D101
D102
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC mode)
SCL, SDA in I2C mode
*
†
Note 1:
Note 2:
Note 3:
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
RA4 pin, PIC16C72/LC72
RA4 pin, PIC16CR72/LCR72
In XT, HS and LP modes when
external clock is used to drive
OSC1.
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16C7X be
driven with external clock in RC mode.
The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS39016A-page 82
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
13.4
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
Time
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
osc
OSC1
ck
CLKOUT
rd
RD
cs
CS
rw
RD or WR
di
SDI
sc
SCK
do
SDO
ss
SS
dt
Data in
t0
T0CKI
io
I/O port
t1
T1CKI
mc
MCLR
wr
WR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
P
Period
H
High
R
Rise
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
V
Valid
L
Low
Z
Hi-impedance
I2C only
AA
output access
High
High
BUF
Bus free
Low
Low
Hold
SU
Setup
DAT
DATA input hold
STO
STOP condition
STA
START condition
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
ST
FIGURE 13-1: LOAD CONDITIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
CL
Pin
VSS
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
for all pins except OSC2
for OSC2 output
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 83
PIC16C72 Series
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
13.5
FIGURE 13-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
4
3
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 13-3
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Fosc
Characteristic
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
Oscillator Frequency
(Note 1)
1
Tosc
External CLKIN Period
(Note 1)
Oscillator Period
(Note 1)
2
3
TCY
TosL,
TosH
Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
External Clock in (OSC1) High or
Low Time
4
TosR,
TosF
External Clock in (OSC1) Rise or
Fall Time
†
Note 1:
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
DC
DC
—
—
4
4
MHz
MHz
XT and RC osc mode
HS osc mode (-04)
DC
DC
—
—
10
20
MHz
MHz
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
DC
DC
0.1
—
—
—
200
4
4
kHz
MHz
MHz
LP osc mode
RC osc mode
XT osc mode
4
5
250
—
—
—
20
200
—
MHz
kHz
ns
HS osc mode
LP osc mode
XT and RC osc mode
250
100
50
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
5
250
—
—
—
—
µs
ns
LP osc mode
RC osc mode
250
250
100
50
—
—
—
—
10,000
250
250
250
ns
ns
ns
ns
XT osc mode
HS osc mode (-04)
HS osc mode (-10)
HS osc mode (-20)
5
200
100
2.5
—
—
—
—
—
DC
—
—
µs
ns
ns
µs
LP osc mode
TCY = 4/FOSC
XT oscillator
LP oscillator
15
—
—
—
—
25
ns
ns
HS oscillator
XT oscillator
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing
code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current
consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
DS39016A-page 84
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-3: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
19
14
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-4
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
10*
TosH2ckL
Characteristic
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH
Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
TOSC + 200
—
—
ns
Note 1
16*
TckH2ioI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
0
—
—
ns
Note 1
17*
TosH2ioV
OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid
18*
TosH2ioI
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid (I/O in
hold time)
—
50
150
ns
PIC16C72/CR72
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LC72/LCR72
200
—
—
ns
19*
TioV2osH
Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
Port output rise time
PIC16C72/CR72
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LC72/LCR72
—
—
80
ns
21*
TioF
Port output fall time
PIC16C72/CR72
—
10
40
ns
—
—
80
ns
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
PIC16LC72/LCR72
*
†
††
Note 1:
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 85
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-4: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 13-5: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
BVDD
VDD
35
TABLE 13-5
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
30
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
µs
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
31*
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
32
Tost
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
33*
Tpwrt
Power-up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40˚C to +125˚C
34
TIOZ
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.1
µs
TBOR
Brown-out Reset pulse width
100
—
—
µs
35
*
†
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER,
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
VDD ≤ BVDD (D005)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS39016A-page 86
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-6: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-6
Param
No.
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
40*
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
41*
Tt0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
42*
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
45*
46*
47*
Tt1H
Tt1L
Tt1P
Min
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Synchronous, PIC16C7X/CR72
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X/CR72
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
T1CKI Low Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Synchronous, PIC16C7X/CR72
Prescaler =
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
2,4,8
Asynchronous PIC16C7X/CR72
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
T1CKI input
Synchronous PIC16C7X/CR72
period
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
48
*
†
0.5TCY + 20
10
0.5TCY + 20
10
TCY + 40
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
0.5TCY + 20
15
25
30
50
0.5TCY + 20
15
25
30
50
Greater of:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
Greater of:
50 OR TCY + 40
N
60
100
DC
Typ† Max Units
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
Conditions
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
Asynchronous PIC16C7X/CR72
—
—
ns
PIC16LC7X/LCR72
—
—
ns
Ft1
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
—
200 kHz
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
2Tosc
— 7Tosc —
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 87
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-7: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1)
RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-7
Param
No.
50*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1)
Sym
TccL
Characteristic
CCP1 input low time
Min
No Prescaler
With Prescaler PIC16C72/CR72
PIC16LC72/LCR72
51*
TccH CCP1 input high time No Prescaler
With Prescaler PIC16C72/CR72
PIC16LC72/LCR72
52*
TccP
53*
TccR CCP1 output rise time
54*
*
†
TccF
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
ns
20
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
PIC16C72/CR72
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC72/LCR72
—
25
45
ns
PIC16C72/CR72
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LC72/LCR72
—
25
45
ns
CCP1 input period
CCP1 output fall time
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1,4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS39016A-page 88
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-8: SPI MASTER OPERATION TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
BIT6 - - - - - -1
MSB
SDO
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
73
Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 13-9: SPI MASTER OPERATION TIMING (CKE = 1)
SS
81
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
79
73
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
78
SDO
BIT6 - - - - - -1
MSB
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 89
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-10: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
83
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSB
SDO
LSB
BIT6 - - - - - -1
77
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
73
Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
FIGURE 13-11: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
82
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0)
70
83
71
72
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
SDO
MSB
BIT6 - - - - - -1
LSB
75, 76
SDI
MSB IN
77
BIT6 - - - -1
LSB IN
74
Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions.
DS39016A-page 90
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 13-8
Param
No.
SPI SLAVE MODE REQUIREMENTS (CKE=0) - PIC16C72
Sym
Characteristic
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
TCY
—
—
ns
71
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
TscH
SCK input high time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
72
TscL
SCK input low time (slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
73
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK edge
50
—
—
ns
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
50
—
—
ns
75
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
TdoR
SDO data output rise time
—
10
25
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
79
TscF
SCK output fall time (master mode)
—
10
25
ns
70
74
80
†
TscH2doV, SDO data output valid after SCK edge
—
—
50
ns
TscL2doV
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
TABLE 13-9
Parameter
No.
70*
71*
72*
73*
SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS - PIC16CR72
Sym
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
TscH
TscL
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
TCY
—
—
ns
TCY + 20
TCY + 20
100
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
100
—
—
ns
—
10
25
ns
—
10
10
—
25
50
ns
ns
—
—
—
10
10
—
25
25
50
ns
ns
ns
TCY
—
—
ns
—
—
50
ns
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
75*
TdoR
SCK input high time (slave mode)
SCK input low time (slave mode)
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
SDO data output rise time
76*
77*
78*
79*
80*
TdoF
TssH2doZ
TscR
TscF
TscH2doV,
TscL2doV
SDO data output fall time
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
SCK output rise time (master mode)
SCK output fall time (master mode)
SDO data output valid after SCK
edge
81*
TdoV2scH,
TdoV2scL
TssL2doV
SDO data output setup to SCK
edge
SDO data output valid after SS↓
edge
SS ↑ after SCK edge
74*
82*
83*
*
†
Conditions
TscH2ssH,
TscL2ssH
Conditions
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 91
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-12: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
93
91
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions
I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 13-10
Parameter
No.
90
91
92
93
Sym
TSU:STA
THD:STA
TSU:STO
THD:STO
DS39016A-page 92
Characteristic
Min
Typ Max
START condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
—
Setup time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
START condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
STOP condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
—
Setup time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
STOP condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Preliminary
Units
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated START
condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-13: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 13-1 for load conditions
TABLE 13-11
Parameter
No.
100
I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Sym
THIGH
Characteristic
Clock high time
Min
Max
Units
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
1.5TCY
—
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
SSP Module
101
TLOW
Clock low time
SSP Module
102
103
TR
TF
SDA and SCL rise
time
1.5TCY
—
100 kHz mode
—
1000
ns
400 kHz mode
20 + 0.1Cb
300
ns
SDA and SCL fall time 100 kHz mode
400 kHz mode
90
91
106
107
92
109
110
TSU:STA
THD:STA
THD:DAT
TSU:DAT
TSU:STO
TAA
TBUF
Cb
Note 1:
Note 2:
—
300
ns
20 + 0.1Cb
300
ns
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
START condition hold 100 kHz mode
time
400 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
0.6
—
µs
START condition
setup time
Data input hold time
100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
µs
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
STOP condition setup 100 kHz mode
time
400 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
0.6
—
µs
Output valid from
clock
100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
—
ns
Data input setup time
Bus free time
Bus capacitive loading
Cb is specified to be from
10 to 400 pF
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
—
400
pF
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission can
start
As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of
the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz)S I2C-bus system, but the requirement
tsu;DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the
SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line
TR max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 93
PIC16C72 Series
TABLE 13-12
Param
No.
A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C72/CR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-10 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C72/CR72-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC72/LCR72-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
A01
NR
Resolution
—
—
8 bits
bit
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A02
EABS
Total Absolute error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
Integral linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A04
EDL
Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS
Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF
Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed
—
—
A20
VREF
Reference voltage
2.5V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
A25
VAIN
Analog input voltage
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
A30
ZAIN
Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
—
—
10.0
kΩ
A40
IAD
A/D conversion
current (VDD)
PIC16C72/CR72
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LC72/LCR72
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of
VHOLD to VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see Section 9.1.
—
—
10
µA
During A/D Conversion
cycle
A50
*
†
Note 1:
Note 2:
IREF
VREF input current (Note 2)
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
Average current consumption when A/D is
on. (Note 1)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
DS39016A-page 94
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 13-14: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
1 TCY
(TOSC/2) (1)
134
131
Q4
130
A/D CLK
132
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
0
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1:
If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 13-13
Param
No.
Sym
TAD
130
A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Characteristic
Conditions
—
—
µs
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16C72/LCR72
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LC72/LCR72
2.5
6.0
9.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
—
9.5
—
TAD
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the amplifier
settling time. This may be used if
the "new" input voltage has not
changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e.,
20.0 mV @ 5.12V) from the last
sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is selected
as RC, a time of TCY is added
before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed.
1.5 §
—
—
TAD
132
TACQ
Acquisition time
§
Note 1:
Note 2:
Units
2.0
Conversion time
(not including S/H time) (Note 1)
*
†
Max
1.6
TCNV
135
Typ†
PIC16LC72/LCR72
A/D clock period PIC16C72/LCR72
131
134
Min
Tgo
Q4 to A/D clock start
Tswc
Switching from convert → sample time
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 2.5V
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
This specification ensured by design.
ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
See Section 9.1 for min conditions.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 95
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 96
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72
14.0
PIC16C72 Series
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES - PIC16C72
The graphs and tables provided in this section are for design guidance and are not tested or guaranteed.
In some graphs or tables, the data presented are outside specified operating range (i.e., outside specified VDD
range). This is for information only and devices are guaranteed to operate properly only within the specified range.
The data presented in this section is a statistical summary of data collected on units from different lots over a period
of time and matrix samples. 'Typical' represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C, while 'max' or 'min' represents
(mean + 3σ) and (mean - 3σ) respectively, where σ is standard deviation.
FIGURE 14-1: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD (WDT DISABLED, RC MODE)
35
30
IPD (nA)
25
20
15
10
5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
FIGURE 14-2: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD (WDT DISABLED, RC MODE)
10.000
85°C
70°C
IPD (µA)
1.000
25°C
0.100
0°C
-40°C
0.010
0.001
2.5
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
Preliminary
5.0
5.5
6.0
DS39016A-page 97
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-3: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD @ 25°C
(WDT ENABLED, RC MODE)
FIGURE 14-5: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
Cext = 22 pF, T = 25°C
6.0
25
5.5
5.0
4.5
Fosc (MHz)
IPD (µA)
20
15
10
R = 5k
4.0
3.5
3.0
R = 10k
2.5
2.0
5
1.5
1.0
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
R = 100k
0.5
6.0
0.0
2.5
VDD (Volts)
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
Shaded area is beyond recommended range.
FIGURE 14-4: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD (WDT
ENABLED, RC MODE)
35
FIGURE 14-6: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
-40°C
30
0°C
Cext = 100 pF, T = 25°C
2.4
2.2
25
R = 3.3k
1.8
70°C
Fosc (MHz)
IPD (µA)
2.0
20
15
85°C
10
5
1.6
R = 5k
1.4
1.2
1.0
R = 10k
0.8
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
0.4
6.0
R = 100k
0.2
VDD (Volts)
0.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD (Volts)
FIGURE 14-7: TYPICAL RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCY vs. VDD
Cext = 300 pF, T = 25°C
1000
900
800
Fosc (kHz)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
0.6
R = 3.3k
700
600
R = 5k
500
400
R = 10k
300
200
R = 100k
100
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD (Volts)
DS39016A-page 98
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-8: TYPICAL IPD vs. VDD BROWNOUT DETECT ENABLED (RC
MODE)
FIGURE 14-10: TYPICAL IPD vs. TIMER1
ENABLED (32 kHz, RC0/RC1 =
33 pF/33 pF, RC MODE)
1400
1200
30
25
Device NOT in
Brown-out Reset
800
20
600
400
200
0
2.5
IPD (µA)
IPD (µA)
1000
Device in
Brown-out
Reset
15
10
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
5
6.0
0
2.5
The shaded region represents the built-in hysteresis of the
brown-out reset circuitry.
FIGURE 14-9: MAXIMUM IPD vs. VDD
BROWN-OUT DETECT
ENABLED
(85°C TO -40°C, RC MODE)
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
FIGURE 14-11: MAXIMUM IPD vs. TIMER1
ENABLED
(32 kHz, RC0/RC1 = 33 pF/33
pF, 85°C TO -40°C, RC MODE)
1600
1400
45
40
1000
Device NOT in
Brown-out Reset
800
35
30
400
Device in
Brown-out
Reset
200
4.3
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
25
20
15
10
5.0
5.5
6.0
The shaded region represents the built-in hysteresis of the
brown-out reset circuitry.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
DS39016A-page 99
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
600
IPD (µA)
IPD (µA)
1200
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-12: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 22 pF, 25°C)
2000
6.0V
1800
5.5V
5.0V
1600
4.5V
IDD (µA)
1400
4.0V
1200
3.5V
1000
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Frequency (MHz)
3.5
4.0
4.5
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
FIGURE 14-13: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 22 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
2000
6.0V
1800
5.5V
5.0V
1600
4.5V
IDD (µA)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
1400
4.0V
1200
3.5V
1000
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Frequency (MHz)
DS39016A-page 100
Preliminary
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72
PIC16C72 Series
FIGURE 14-14: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 100 pF, 25°C)
1600
6.0V
1400
5.5V
5.0V
1200
4.5V
4.0V
1000
IDD (µA)
3.5V
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0
200
400
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Frequency (kHz)
FIGURE 14-15: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 100 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
1600
6.0V
1400
5.5V
4.5V
4.0V
1000
IDD (µA)
3.5V
3.0V
800
2.5V
600
400
200
0
0
200
400
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Frequency (kHz)
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 101
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
5.0V
1200
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-16: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 300 pF, 25°C)
1200
6.0V
5.5V
1000
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
800
3.5V
IDD (µA)
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Frequency (kHz)
FIGURE 14-17: MAXIMUM IDD vs. FREQUENCY (RC MODE @ 300 pF, -40°C TO 85°C)
1200
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
800
3.5V
IDD (µA)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
1000
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Frequency (kHz)
DS39016A-page 102
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-19: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF HS OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
FIGURE 14-18: TYPICAL IDD vs.
CAPACITANCE @ 500 kHz
(RC MODE)
4.0
Max -40°C
600
3.5
5.0V
500
3.0
3.0V
300
200
0.0
3.0
100 pF
300 pF
Capacitance (pF)
RC OSCILLATOR
FREQUENCIES
300 pF
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
FIGURE 14-20: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF LP OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
110
Rext
100
Fosc @ 5V, 25°C
Max -40°C
90
5k
4.12 MHz
± 1.4%
80
10k
2.35 MHz
± 1.4%
70
100k
268 kHz
± 1.1%
3.3k
1.80 MHz
± 1.0%
5k
1.27 MHz
± 1.0%
10k
688 kHz
± 1.2%
100k
77.2 kHz
± 1.0%
3.3k
707 kHz
± 1.4%
± 1.2%
5k
501 kHz
10k
269 kHz
± 1.6%
100k
28.3 kHz
± 1.1%
The percentage variation indicated here is part to
part variation due to normal process distribution. The
variation indicated is ±3 standard deviation from
average value for VDD = 5V.
gm (µA/V)
100 pF
3.5
VDD (Volts)
Shaded area is
beyond recommended range
Average
22 pF
Min 85°C
1.5
0.5
0
20 pF
Cext
Typ 25°C
2.0
1.0
100
TABLE 14-1
2.5
60
Typ 25°C
50
40
30
20
Min 85°C
10
0
2.0
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
7.0
VDD (Volts)
Shaded areas are
beyond recommended range
FIGURE 14-21: TRANSCONDUCTANCE(gm)
OF XT OSCILLATOR vs. VDD
1000
900
Max -40°C
800
gm (µA/V)
700
600
Typ 25°C
500
400
300
Min 85°C
200
100
0
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
7.0
VDD (Volts)
Shaded areas are
beyond recommended range
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 103
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
IDD (µA)
gm (mA/V)
4.0V
400
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-22: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (LP MODE, 25°C)
FIGURE 14-24: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (XT MODE, 25°C)
3.5
70
3.0
50
Startup Time (ms)
Startup Time (Seconds)
60
2.5
2.0
32 kHz, 33 pF/33 pF
1.5
1.0
40
200 kHz, 68 pF/68 pF
30
200 kHz, 47 pF/47 pF
20
1 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
10
0.5
4 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
200 kHz, 15 pF/15 pF
0.0
2.5
0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
3.0
3.5
6.0
4.0
4.5
VDD (Volts)
5.0
5.5
6.0
VDD (Volts)
TABLE 14-2
Startup Time (ms)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
FIGURE 14-23: TYPICAL XTAL STARTUP
TIME vs. VDD (HS MODE,
25°C)
7
Osc Type
6
LP
20 MHz, 33 pF/33 pF
5
XT
4
8 MHz, 33 pF/33 pF
3
2
1
4.0
HS
20 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
8 MHz, 15 pF/15 pF
4.5
DS39016A-page 104
5.0
VDD(Volts)
5.5
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CRYSTAL
OSCILLATORS
Crystal
Freq
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
47-68 pF
47-68 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
20 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
6.0
Crystals
Used
32 kHz
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000KHz
± 20 PPM
1 MHz
ECS ECS-10-13-1
± 50 PPM
4 MHz
ECS ECS-40-20-1
± 50 PPM
8 MHz
EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C
± 30 PPM
20 MHz
EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C
± 30 PPM
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-25: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(LP MODE, 25°C)
FIGURE 14-27: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(XT MODE, 25°C)
1800
1600
6.0V
1400
5.5V
120
100
5.0V
1200
4.5V
1000
4.0V
60
40
20
0
0
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
IDD (µA)
IDD (µA)
80
3.5V
800
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
50
100
150
200
200
Frequency (kHz)
0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
Frequency (MHz)
FIGURE 14-26: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(LP MODE, 85°C TO -40°C)
FIGURE 14-28: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(XT MODE, -40°C TO 85°C)
1800
6.0V
1600
120
1400
100
1200
80
1000
4.0V
800
3.5V
40
20
0
0
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
3.0V
600
2.5V
400
200
50
100
150
200
0
0.0
Frequency (kHz)
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
Frequency (MHz)
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 105
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
60
IDD (µA)
IDD (µA)
140
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72
FIGURE 14-29: TYPICAL IDD vs. FREQUENCY
(HS MODE, 25°C)
7.0
FIGURE 14-30: MAXIMUM IDD vs.
FREQUENCY
(HS MODE, -40°C TO 85°C)
7.0
6.0
6.0
5.0
IDD (mA)
IDD(mA)
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
1 2
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
0.0
1 2
6.0V
5.5V
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Frequency (MHz)
TABLE 14-3
TYPICAL EPROM ERASE TIME RECOMMENDATIONS
Process
Technology
Wavelength
(Angstroms)
Intensity (µW/
cm2)
Distance from UV lamp
(inches)
Data based on matrix samples. See first page of this section for details.
57K
2537
12,000
77K
2537
12,000
90K
2537
12,000
120K
2537
12,000
Note 1: If these criteria are not met, the erase times will be different.
Note:
1
1
1
1
Typical Time (1)
(minutes)
15 - 20
20
40
60
Fluorescent lights and sunlight both emit ultraviolet light at the erasure wavelength. Leaving a UV erasable
device’s window uncovered could cause, over time, the devices memory cells to become erased. The erasure time for a fluorescent light is about three years. While sunlight requires only about one week. To prevent the memory cells from losing data an opaque label should be placed over the erasure window.
DS39016A-page 106
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16CR72
15.0
PIC16C72 Series
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES - PIC16CR72
NO GRAPHS OR TABLES AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 107
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16CR72
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 108
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
16.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
16.1
Package Marking Information
28-Lead Side Brazed Skinny Windowed
Example
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
28-Lead PDIP (Skinny DIP)
PIC16C72/JW
9517CAT
Example
MMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
PIC16C72-04/SP
AABBCDE
Example
28-Lead SOIC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
28-Lead SSOP
PIC16C72-04/SO
945/CAA
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
PIC16C72
20I/SS025
AABBCAE
9517SBP
Legend: MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D
E
Note:
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured
O = Outside Vendor
C = 5” Line
S = 6” Line
H = 8” Line
Mask revision number
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one
line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of
available characters for customer specific information.
* Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code,
facility code, mask revision number, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond
this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office.
For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 109
PIC16C72 Series
16.2
28-Lead Ceramic Side Brazed Dual In-Line with Window (300 mil)(JW)
E
D
W2
2
n
1
W1
E1
A
R
A1
L
c
eB
Units
Dimension Limits
PCB Row Spacing
Number of Pins
Pitch
Lower Lead Width
Upper Lead Width
Shoulder Radius
Lead Thickness
Top to Seating Plane
Top of Lead to Seating Plane
Base to Seating Plane
Tip to Seating Plane
Package Length
Package Width
Radius to Radius Width
Overall Row Spacing
Window Width
Window Length
B1
B
A2
MIN
n
p
B
B1
R
c
A
A1
A2
L
D
E
E1
eB
W1
W2
0.098
0.016
0.050
0.010
0.008
0.170
0.107
0.015
0.135
1.430
0.285
0.255
0.345
0.130
0.290
INCHES*
NOM
0.300
28
0.100
0.019
0.058
0.013
0.010
0.183
0.125
0.023
0.140
1.458
0.290
0.270
0.385
0.140
0.300
MAX
0.102
0.021
0.065
0.015
0.012
0.195
0.143
0.030
0.145
1.485
0.295
0.285
0.425
0.150
0.310
p
MILLIMETERS
NOM
MAX
7.62
28
2.59
2.54
2.49
0.47
0.53
0.41
1.46
1.65
1.27
0.32
0.38
0.25
0.25
0.30
0.20
4.32
4.64
4.95
3.63
3.18
2.72
0.57
0.76
0.00
3.56
3.68
3.43
37.02
37.72
36.32
7.37
7.49
7.24
7.24
6.86
6.48
10.80
9.78
8.76
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.31
0.3
0.29
MIN
* Controlling Parameter.
DS39016A-page 110
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
16.3
28-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (300 mil) (SP)
E
D
2
n
α
1
E1
A1
A
R
L
c
β
B1
A2
eB
Units
Dimension Limits
PCB Row Spacing
Number of Pins
Pitch
Lower Lead Width
Upper Lead Width
Shoulder Radius
Lead Thickness
Top to Seating Plane
Top of Lead to Seating Plane
Base to Seating Plane
Tip to Seating Plane
Package Length
Molded Package Width
Radius to Radius Width
Overall Row Spacing
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
p
B
INCHES*
NOM
0.300
28
0.100
0.019
0.016
0.053
0.040
0.005
0.000
0.010
0.008
0.150
0.140
0.090
0.070
0.020
0.015
0.130
0.125
1.365
1.345
0.288
0.280
0.270
0.283
0.320
0.350
10
5
5
10
MIN
n
p
B
B1†
R
c
A
A1
A2
L
D‡
E‡
E1
eB
α
β
MAX
0.022
0.065
0.010
0.012
0.160
0.110
0.025
0.135
1.385
0.295
0.295
0.380
15
15
MILLIMETERS
NOM
MAX
7.62
28
2.54
0.48
0.41
0.56
1.33
1.02
1.65
0.13
0.00
0.25
0.25
0.20
0.30
3.81
3.56
4.06
2.29
1.78
2.79
0.51
0.38
0.64
3.30
3.18
3.43
34.67
34.16
35.18
7.11
7.30
7.49
7.49
6.86
7.18
8.13
9.65
8.89
5
10
15
10
15
5
MIN
* Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B1” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B1.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 111
PIC16C72 Series
16.4
28-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (SOIC - Wide, 300 mil Body) (SO)
E1
E
p
D
B
2
1
n
X
α
45 °
L
R2
c
A
β
Units
Dimension Limits
Pitch
Number of Pins
Overall Pack. Height
Shoulder Height
Standoff
Molded Package Length
Molded Package Width
Outside Dimension
Chamfer Distance
Shoulder Radius
Gull Wing Radius
Foot Length
Foot Angle
Radius Centerline
Lead Thickness
Lower Lead Width
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
A1
φ
R1
L1
A2
INCHES*
NOM
0.050
28
0.099
0.093
0.058
0.048
0.008
0.004
0.706
0.700
0.296
0.292
0.407
0.394
0.020
0.010
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.016
0.011
0
4
0.015
0.010
0.011
0.009
0.014
0.017
0
12
12
0
MIN
p
n
A
A1
A2
D‡
E‡
E1
X
R1
R2
L
φ
L1
c
B†
α
β
MAX
0.104
0.068
0.011
0.712
0.299
0.419
0.029
0.010
0.010
0.021
8
0.020
0.012
0.019
15
15
MILLIMETERS
NOM
MAX
1.27
28
2.36
2.64
2.50
1.22
1.73
1.47
0.10
0.28
0.19
17.93
17.78
18.08
7.42
7.59
7.51
10.01
10.33
10.64
0.25
0.50
0.74
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.28
0.53
0.41
8
0
4
0.25
0.38
0.51
0.23
0.27
0.30
0.36
0.42
0.48
0
12
15
0
12
15
MIN
*
Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
DS39016A-page 112
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
16.5
28-Lead Plastic Surface Mount (SSOP - 209 mil Body 5.30 mm) (SS)
E1
E
p
D
B
2
1
n
α
L
A
R2
c
A1
R1
φ
A2
L1
β
Units
Dimension Limits
Pitch
Number of Pins
Overall Pack. Height
Shoulder Height
Standoff
Molded Package Length
Molded Package Width
Outside Dimension
Shoulder Radius
Gull Wing Radius
Foot Length
Foot Angle
Radius Centerline
Lead Thickness
Lower Lead Width
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
INCHES
NOM
0.026
28
0.073
0.068
0.036
0.026
0.005
0.002
0.402
0.396
0.208
0.205
0.306
0.301
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.020
0.015
0
4
0.005
0.000
0.007
0.005
0.010
0.012
0
5
5
0
MIN
p
n
A
A1
A2
D‡
E‡
E1
R1
R2
L
φ
L1
c
B†
α
β
MAX
0.078
0.046
0.008
0.407
0.212
0.311
0.010
0.010
0.025
8
0.010
0.009
0.015
10
10
MILLIMETERS*
NOM
MAX
0.65
28
1.99
1.73
1.86
1.17
0.66
0.91
0.21
0.05
0.13
10.33
10.07
10.20
5.38
5.20
5.29
7.90
7.65
7.78
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.64
0.38
0.51
0
4
8
0.25
0.00
0.13
0.22
0.13
0.18
0.38
0.25
0.32
10
5
0
10
0
5
MIN
*
Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 113
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 114
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
APPENDIX A: WHAT’S NEW IN THIS
DATA SHEET
This is a new data sheet. However, information on the
PIC16C72 device was previously found in the
PIC16C7X Data Sheet, DS30390. Information on the
PIC16CR72 device is new.
APPENDIX C: DEVICE DIFFERENCES
A table of the differences between the devices
described in this document is found below.
Difference
PIC16C72
PIC16CR72
SSP module in
SPI mode
Basic SSP
SSP
APPENDIX B: WHAT’S CHANGED IN
THIS DATA SHEET
New data sheet.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 115
PIC16C72 Series
NOTES:
DS39016A-page 116
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
INDEX
A
A/D
ADCON0 Register ...................................................... 53
ADCON1 Register ...................................................... 54
ADIF bit ...................................................................... 55
Analog Input Model Block Diagram ............................ 56
Analog-to-Digital Converter ........................................ 53
Block Diagram ............................................................ 55
Configuring Analog Port Pins ..................................... 57
Configuring the Interrupt ............................................ 55
Configuring the Module .............................................. 55
Conversion Clock ....................................................... 57
Conversions ............................................................... 58
Converter Characteristics .......................................... 94
GO/DONE bit ............................................................. 55
Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedance ............... 56
Sampling Requirements ............................................. 56
Source Impedance ..................................................... 56
Using the CCP Trigger ............................................... 58
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................... 77
ACK .............................................................................. 47, 49
ADIE bit .............................................................................. 12
ADIF bit .............................................................................. 13
ADRES Register ...................................................... 7, 53, 55
Application Notes
AN546 (Using the Analog-to-Digital Converter) ......... 53
AN578 (Use of the SSP Module in the I2C
Multi-Master Environment) ......................................... 39
B
BF .......................................................................... 40, 43, 47
Block Diagrams
A/D ............................................................................. 55
Analog Input Model .................................................... 56
Capture ...................................................................... 34
Compare .................................................................... 35
I2C Mode .................................................................... 47
On-Chip Reset Circuit ................................................ 62
PIC16C72 .................................................................... 3
PIC16CR72 .................................................................. 3
PORTC ...................................................................... 23
PWM .......................................................................... 36
RA3:RA0 and RA5 Port Pins ..................................... 19
RA4/T0CKI Pin ........................................................... 19
RB3:RB0 Port Pins .................................................... 21
RB7:RB4 Port Pins .................................................... 21
SSP in I2C Mode ........................................................ 47
SSP in SPI Mode ................................................. 42, 45
Timer0 ........................................................................ 25
Timer0/WDT Prescaler .............................................. 26
Timer2 ........................................................................ 31
Watchdog Timer ......................................................... 70
BOR bit ........................................................................ 14, 64
Buffer Full Status bit, BF .............................................. 40, 43
Mode ................................................................. 34
Prescaler ........................................................... 34
CCP Timer Resources ............................................... 33
Compare
Block Diagram ................................................... 35
Mode ................................................................. 35
Software Interrupt Mode .................................... 35
Special Event Trigger ........................................ 35
Special Trigger Output of CCP1 ........................ 35
Special Trigger Output of CCP2 ........................ 35
Section ....................................................................... 33
Special Event Trigger and A/D Conversions ............. 35
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)
PWM Block Diagram ................................................. 36
PWM Mode ................................................................ 36
PWM, Example Frequencies/Resolutions ................. 37
CCP1IE bit ......................................................................... 12
CCP1IF bit ......................................................................... 13
CCPR1H Register ............................................................. 33
CCPR1L Register .............................................................. 33
CCPxM0 bit ....................................................................... 33
CCPxM1 bit ....................................................................... 33
CCPxM2 bit ....................................................................... 33
CCPxM3 bit ....................................................................... 33
CCPxX bit .......................................................................... 33
CCPxY bit .......................................................................... 33
CKE ................................................................................... 43
CKP ............................................................................. 41, 44
Clock Polarity Select bit, CKP ..................................... 41, 44
Code Examples
Changing Between Capture Prescalers .................... 34
Initializing PORTA ..................................................... 19
Initializing PORTB ..................................................... 21
Initializing PORTC ..................................................... 23
Code Protection ........................................................... 59, 72
Configuration Bits .............................................................. 59
D
D/A ............................................................................... 40, 43
Data/Address bit, D/A .................................................. 40, 43
DC bit ....................................................................................9
DC Characteristics
PIC16C72 .................................................................. 79
Development Support ........................................................ 75
Development Tools ............................................................ 75
Direct Addressing .............................................................. 17
E
Electrical Characteristics
PIC16C72 .................................................................. 77
External Power-on Reset Circuit ....................................... 63
F
FSR Register ............................................................. 7, 8, 17
Fuzzy Logic Dev. System (fuzzyTECH-MP) ................... 75
G
C
GIE bit ................................................................................ 68
C bit ...................................................................................... 9
Capture/Compare/PWM
Capture
Block Diagram ................................................... 34
CCP1CON Register ........................................... 33
CCP1IF .............................................................. 34
CCPR1 ............................................................... 34
CCPR1H:CCPR1L ............................................. 34
I
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
I/O Ports
PORTA ...................................................................... 19
PORTB ...................................................................... 21
PORTC ...................................................................... 23
Section ....................................................................... 19
I2C
Addressing ................................................................. 48
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 117
PIC16C72 Series
Block Diagram ............................................................ 47
I2C Operation ............................................................. 47
Master Mode .............................................................. 51
Mode .......................................................................... 47
Mode Selection .......................................................... 47
Multi-Master Mode ..................................................... 51
Reception ................................................................... 49
Reception Timing Diagram ........................................ 49
SCL and SDA pins ..................................................... 47
Slave Mode ................................................................ 47
Transmission .............................................................. 50
In-Circuit Serial Programming ...................................... 59, 72
INDF Register ................................................................ 8, 17
Indirect Addressing ............................................................ 17
Initialization Condition for all Register ................................ 65
Instruction Format .............................................................. 73
Instruction Set
Section ....................................................................... 73
Summary Table .......................................................... 74
INT Interrupt ....................................................................... 68
INTCON Register ............................................................... 11
INTEDG bit ................................................................... 10, 68
Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedance ....................... 56
Interrupts ............................................................................ 59
PortB Change ............................................................ 68
RB7:RB4 Port Change ............................................... 21
Section ....................................................................... 68
TMR0 ......................................................................... 68
IRP bit .................................................................................. 9
L
Loading of PC .................................................................... 15
M
MCLR ........................................................................... 61, 64
Memory
Data Memory ............................................................... 6
Program Memory ......................................................... 5
Program Memory Maps
PIC16C72 ............................................................ 5
PIC16CR72 .......................................................... 5
Register File Maps
PIC16C72 ............................................................ 6
PIC16CR72 .......................................................... 6
MPASM Assembler ............................................................ 75
MPSIM Software Simulator ................................................ 75
O
OPCODE ............................................................................ 73
OPTION Register ............................................................... 10
OSC selection .................................................................... 59
Oscillator
HS ........................................................................ 60, 64
LP ......................................................................... 60, 64
RC .............................................................................. 60
XT ........................................................................ 60, 64
Oscillator Configurations .................................................... 60
Output of TMR2 .................................................................. 31
P
P ................................................................................... 40, 43
Packaging
28-Lead Ceramic w/Window .................................... 110
28-Lead PDIP .......................................................... 111
28-Lead SOIC .......................................................... 112
28-Lead SSOP ......................................................... 113
Paging, Program Memory .................................................. 16
DS39016A-page 118
PCFG0 bit .......................................................................... 54
PCFG1 bit .......................................................................... 54
PCFG2 bit .......................................................................... 54
PCL Register ............................................................. 7, 8, 15
PCLATH ............................................................................. 65
PCLATH Register ...................................................... 7, 8, 15
PCON Register ............................................................ 14, 64
PD bit ............................................................................. 9, 61
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PIC16/17 Demo Board .................... 75
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demo Board .................. 75
PICMASTER RT In-Circuit Emulator .............................. 75
PICSTART Low-Cost Development System ................... 75
PIE1 Register ..................................................................... 12
Pin Functions
MCLR/Vpp ................................................................... 4
OSC1/CLKIN ............................................................... 4
OSC2/CLKOUT ........................................................... 4
RA0/AN0 ...................................................................... 4
RA1/AN1 ...................................................................... 4
RA2/AN2 ...................................................................... 4
RA3/AN3/Vref .............................................................. 4
RA4/T0CKI .................................................................. 4
RA5/AN4/SS ................................................................ 4
RB0/INT ....................................................................... 4
RB1 .............................................................................. 4
RB2 .............................................................................. 4
RB3 .............................................................................. 4
RB4 .............................................................................. 4
RB5 .............................................................................. 4
RB6 .............................................................................. 4
RB7 .............................................................................. 4
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI ..................................................... 4
RC1/T1OSI .................................................................. 4
RC2/CCP1 ................................................................... 4
RC3/SCK/SCL ............................................................. 4
RC4/SDI/SDA .............................................................. 4
RC5/SDO ..................................................................... 4
RC6 ............................................................................. 4
RC7 ............................................................................. 4
SCK ..................................................................... 42–??
SDI ....................................................................... 42–??
SDO ..................................................................... 42–??
SS ........................................................................ 42–??
Vdd .............................................................................. 4
Vss ............................................................................... 4
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16C72 .................................................................... 4
PIC16CR72 ................................................................. 4
PIR1 Register .................................................................... 13
POR ............................................................................. 63, 64
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ........................... 59, 63
Power Control Register (PCON) ................................ 64
Power-on Reset (POR) ........................................ 59, 65
Power-up Timer (PWRT) ........................................... 59
Power-Up-Timer (PWRT) .......................................... 63
Time-out Sequence ................................................... 64
TO .............................................................................. 61
POR bit ........................................................................ 14, 64
Port RB Interrupt ................................................................ 68
PORTA .............................................................................. 65
PORTA Register ............................................................ 7, 19
PORTB .............................................................................. 65
PORTB Register ............................................................ 7, 21
PORTC .............................................................................. 65
PORTC Register ............................................................ 7, 23
Power-down Mode (SLEEP) .............................................. 71
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
PR2 Register ...................................................................... 31
Prescaler, Switching Between Timer0 and WDT ............... 26
PRO MATE Universal Programmer ................................ 75
Program Memory
Paging ........................................................................ 16
Program Memory Maps
PIC16C72 .................................................................... 5
PIC16CR72 .................................................................. 5
Program Verification .......................................................... 72
PS0 bit ............................................................................... 10
PS1 bit ............................................................................... 10
PS2 bit ............................................................................... 10
PSA bit ............................................................................... 10
R
R/W .............................................................................. 40, 43
R/W bit ................................................................... 48, 49, 50
RBIF bit ........................................................................ 21, 68
RBPU bit ............................................................................ 10
RC Oscillator ................................................................ 61, 64
Read/Write bit Information, R/W .................................. 40, 43
Receive Overflow Detect bit, SSPOV ................................ 41
Receive Overflow Indicator bit, SSPOV ............................. 44
Register File ......................................................................... 6
Registers
Initialization Conditions .............................................. 65
Maps
PIC16C72 ............................................................ 6
PIC16CR72 .......................................................... 6
Reset Conditions ........................................................ 64
SSPCON
Diagram ............................................................. 41
SSPSTAT ................................................................... 43
Diagram ............................................................. 40
Section ............................................................... 40
Reset ............................................................................ 59, 61
Reset Conditions for Special Registers ............................. 64
RP0 bit ............................................................................. 6, 9
RP1 bit ................................................................................. 9
S
S ................................................................................... 40, 43
SCK .................................................................................... 42
SCL .................................................................................... 47
SDI ..................................................................................... 42
SDO ................................................................................... 42
Slave Mode
SCL ............................................................................ 47
SDA ............................................................................ 47
SLEEP ......................................................................... 59, 61
SMP ................................................................................... 43
Special Event Trigger ......................................................... 58
Special Features of the CPU ............................................. 59
Special Function Registers
PIC16C72 .................................................................... 7
PIC16CR72 .................................................................. 7
Special Function Registers, Section .................................... 7
SPI
Block Diagram ...................................................... 42, 45
Mode .......................................................................... 42
Serial Clock ................................................................ 45
Serial Data In ............................................................. 45
Serial Data Out .......................................................... 45
Slave Select ............................................................... 45
SPI Mode ................................................................... 45
SSPCON .................................................................... 44
SSPSTAT ................................................................... 43
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
SPI Clock Edge Select bit, CKE ........................................ 43
SPI Data Input Sample Phase Select bit, SMP ................. 43
SPI Mode ........................................................................... 42
SS ...................................................................................... 42
SSP
Module Overview ....................................................... 39
Section ....................................................................... 39
SSPCON ................................................................... 44
SSPSTAT .................................................................. 43
SSPADD Register ................................................................8
SSPCON ..................................................................... 41, 44
SSPEN ........................................................................ 41, 44
SSPIE bit ........................................................................... 12
SSPIF bit ........................................................................... 13
SSPM3:SSPM0 ........................................................... 41, 44
SSPOV .................................................................. 41, 44, 47
SSPSTAT .......................................................................... 40
SSPSTAT Register ........................................................ 8, 43
Stack .................................................................................. 16
Start bit, S .................................................................... 40, 43
STATUS Register .................................................................9
Stop bit, P .................................................................... 40, 43
Synchronous Serial Port (SSP)
Block Diagram, SPI Mode ......................................... 42
SPI Mode ................................................................... 42
Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit, SSPEN ............... 41, 44
Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits,
SSPM3:SSPM0 ........................................................... 41, 44
Synchronous Serial Port Module ....................................... 39
Synchronous Serial Port Status Register .......................... 43
T
T0CS bit ............................................................................. 10
T1CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 27
T1CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 27
T1CON Register ................................................................ 27
T1OSCEN bit ..................................................................... 27
T1SYNC bit ........................................................................ 27
T2CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 32
T2CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 32
T2CON Register ................................................................ 32
TAD .................................................................................... 57
Timer0
RTCC ......................................................................... 65
Timers
Timer0
Block Diagram ................................................... 25
Interrupt ............................................................. 26
Prescaler ........................................................... 25
Prescaler Block Diagram ................................... 26
Section .............................................................. 25
Switching Prescaler Assignment ....................... 26
T0IF ................................................................... 68
TMR0 Interrupt .................................................. 68
Timer1
Capacitor Selection ........................................... 29
Oscillator ........................................................... 29
Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger Output .. 29
T1CON .............................................................. 27
Timer2
Block Diagram ................................................... 31
Postscaler .......................................................... 31
Prescaler ........................................................... 31
T2CON .............................................................. 32
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 119
PIC16C72 Series
Timing Diagrams
A/D Conversion .......................................................... 95
Brown-out Reset ........................................................ 86
Capture/Compare/PWM ............................................. 88
CLKOUT and I/O ........................................................ 85
External Clock Timing ................................................ 84
I2C Bus Data .............................................................. 93
I2C Bus Start/Stop bits ............................................... 92
I2C Reception (7-bit Address) .................................... 49
Power-up Timer ......................................................... 86
Reset .......................................................................... 86
Start-up Timer ............................................................ 86
Timer0 ........................................................................ 87
Timer1 ........................................................................ 87
Wake-up from Sleep via Interrupt .............................. 72
Watchdog Timer ......................................................... 86
TMR1CS bit ........................................................................ 27
TMR1H Register .................................................................. 7
TMR1IE bit ......................................................................... 12
TMR1IF bit ......................................................................... 13
TMR1L Register ................................................................... 7
TMR1ON bit ....................................................................... 27
TMR2 Register ..................................................................... 7
TMR2IE bit ......................................................................... 12
TMR2IF bit ......................................................................... 13
TMR2ON bit ....................................................................... 32
TO bit ................................................................................... 9
TOUTPS0 bit ...................................................................... 32
TOUTPS1 bit ...................................................................... 32
TOUTPS2 bit ...................................................................... 32
TOUTPS3 bit ...................................................................... 32
TRISA Register .............................................................. 8, 19
TRISB Register .............................................................. 8, 21
TRISC Register .............................................................. 8, 23
U
UA ................................................................................ 40, 43
Update Address bit, UA ................................................ 40, 43
W
Wake-up from SLEEP ........................................................ 71
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ................................... 59, 61, 64, 70
WCOL .......................................................................... 41, 44
WDT ................................................................................... 64
Block Diagram ............................................................ 70
Timeout ...................................................................... 65
Write Collision Detect bit, WCOL ................................. 41, 44
Z
Z bit ...................................................................................... 9
DS39016A-page 120
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
ON-LINE SUPPORT
Microchip provides on-line support on the Microchip
World Wide Web (WWW) site.
The web site is used by Microchip as a means to make
files and information easily available to customers. To
view the site, the user must have access to the Internet
and a web browser, such as Netscape or Microsoft
Explorer. Files are also available for FTP download
from our FTP site.
Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site
Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line
The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides
system users a listing of the latest versions of all of
Microchip's development systems software products.
Plus, this line provides information on how customers
can receive any currently available upgrade kits.The
Hot Line Numbers are:
1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and
1-602-786-7302 for the rest of the world.
980106
The Microchip web site is available by using your
favorite Internet browser to attach to:
www.microchip.com
The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to:
ftp://ftp.futureone.com/pub/microchip
The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of
services. Users may download files for the latest
Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes,
User's Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also
available, including listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives. Other data
available for consideration is:
• Latest Microchip Press Releases
• Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked
Questions
• Design Tips
• Device Errata
• Job Postings
• Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing
• Links to other useful web sites related to
Microchip Products
• Conferences for products, Development Systems,
technical information and more
• Listing of seminars and events
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Trademarks: The Microchip name, logo, PIC, PICSTART,
PICMASTER and PRO MATE are registered trademarks
of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and
other countries. PICmicro, FlexROM, MPLAB and fuzzyLAB are trademarks and SQTP is a service mark of Microchip in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of
their respective companies.
DS39016A-page 121
PIC16C72 Series
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation
can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (602) 786-7578.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this Data Sheet.
To:
Technical Publications Manager
RE:
Reader Response
Total Pages Sent
From: Name
Company
Address
City / State / ZIP / Country
Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
FAX: (______) _________ - _________
Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Device: PIC16C72 Series
Y
N
Literature Number: DS39016A
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this data sheet easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the data sheet do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the data sheet could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
8. How would you improve our software, systems, and silicon products?
DS39016A-page 122
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C72 Series
PIC16C72 SERIES PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
Device
X
-XX
Frequency Temperature
Range
Range
/XX
XXX
Package
Pattern
Examples:
f)
g)
Device
PIC16C72(1), PIC16C72T(2)
PIC16LC72(1), PIC16LC72T(2)
PIC16CR72(1), PIC16CR72T(2)
PIC16LCR72(1), PIC16LCR72T(2)
Frequency Range
02
04
10
20
= 2 MHz
= 4 MHz
= 10 MHz
= 20 MHz
Temperature Range
b(3)
I
E
=
0°C to
70°C
= -40°C to +85°C
= -40°C to +125°C
Package
JW
SO
SP
SS
= Ceramic Dual In-Line Package with Window
= Small Outline - 300 mil
= Skinny PDIP
= Shrink Samll Outline Package - 209 mil
Pattern
3-digit Pattern Code for QTP, ROM (blank otherwise)
h)
PIC16C72 -04/P 301 = Commercial temp.,
PDIP package, 4 MHz, normal VDD limits, QTP
pattern #301.
PIC16LC72 - 04I/SO = Industrial temp., SOIC
package, 200 kHz, Extended VDD limits.
PIC16CR72 - 10I/P = ROM program memory,
Industrial temp., PDIP package, 10MHz, normal VDD limits.
Note 1:
2:
(Commercial)
(Industrial)
(Extended)
3:
C= CMOS
CR= CMOS ROM
LC= Low Power CMOS
LCR= ROM Version, Extended Vdd range
T = in tape and reel - SOIC, SSOP packages only.
b = blank
* JW Devices are UV erasable and can be programmed to any device configuration. JW Devices meet the electrical requirement of
each oscillator type (including LC devices).
SALES AND SUPPORT
Data Sheets
Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following:
1. Your local Microchip sales office (see last page)
2. The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (602) 786-7277
3. The Microchip’s Bulletin Board, via your local CompuServe number (CompuServe membership NOT required).
Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using.
Development Tools
For the latest version information and upgrade kits for Microchip Development Tools, please call 1-800-755-2345 or 1-602-786-7302.
The latest version of Development Tools software can be downloaded from either our Bulletin Board or Worldwide Web Site. (Information on how to connect to our BBS or WWW site can be found in the On-Line Support section of this data sheet.)
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS39016A-page 123
Note the following details of the code protection feature on PICmicro® MCUs.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The PICmicro family meets the specifications contained in the Microchip Data Sheet.
Microchip believes that its family of PICmicro microcontrollers is one of the most secure products of its kind on the market today,
when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions.
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the PICmicro microcontroller in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in the data sheet.
The person doing so may be engaged in theft of intellectual property.
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable”.
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of
our product.
If you have any further questions about this matter, please contact the local sales office nearest to you.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is intended through suggestion only
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
No representation or warranty is given and no liability is
assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect
to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of
patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such
use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with
express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property
rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, FilterLab,
KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICMASTER,
PICSTART, PRO MATE, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
dsPIC, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB,
In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort,
Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM,
MXDEV, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode
and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark
of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received QS-9000 quality system
certification for its worldwide headquarters,
design and wafer fabrication facilities in
Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999. The
Company’s quality system processes and
procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its
PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs and microperipheral
products. In addition, Microchip’s quality
system for the design and manufacture of
development systems is ISO 9001 certified.
 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.
M
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
Japan
Corporate Office
Australia
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7200 Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support: 480-792-7627
Web Address: http://www.microchip.com
Microchip Technology Australia Pty Ltd
Suite 22, 41 Rawson Street
Epping 2121, NSW
Australia
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733 Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
Microchip Technology Japan K.K.
Benex S-1 6F
3-18-20, Shinyokohama
Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi
Kanagawa, 222-0033, Japan
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122
Rocky Mountain
China - Beijing
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7966 Fax: 480-792-7456
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Beijing Liaison Office
Unit 915
Bei Hai Wan Tai Bldg.
No. 6 Chaoyangmen Beidajie
Beijing, 100027, No. China
Tel: 86-10-85282100 Fax: 86-10-85282104
Atlanta
500 Sugar Mill Road, Suite 200B
Atlanta, GA 30350
Tel: 770-640-0034 Fax: 770-640-0307
Boston
2 Lan Drive, Suite 120
Westford, MA 01886
Tel: 978-692-3848 Fax: 978-692-3821
Chicago
333 Pierce Road, Suite 180
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Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075
Dallas
4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160
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Detroit
Tri-Atria Office Building
32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190
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Kokomo
2767 S. Albright Road
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Los Angeles
18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090
Irvine, CA 92612
Tel: 949-263-1888 Fax: 949-263-1338
China - Chengdu
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Chengdu Liaison Office
Rm. 2401, 24th Floor,
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Chengdu 610016, China
Tel: 86-28-6766200 Fax: 86-28-6766599
China - Fuzhou
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Fuzhou Liaison Office
Unit 28F, World Trade Plaza
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Fuzhou 350001, China
Tel: 86-591-7503506 Fax: 86-591-7503521
China - Shanghai
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd.
Room 701, Bldg. B
Far East International Plaza
No. 317 Xian Xia Road
Shanghai, 200051
Tel: 86-21-6275-5700 Fax: 86-21-6275-5060
China - Shenzhen
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Tel: 631-273-5305 Fax: 631-273-5335
Microchip Technology Consulting (Shanghai)
Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Liaison Office
Rm. 1315, 13/F, Shenzhen Kerry Centre,
Renminnan Lu
Shenzhen 518001, China
Tel: 86-755-2350361 Fax: 86-755-2366086
San Jose
Hong Kong
Microchip Technology Inc.
2107 North First Street, Suite 590
San Jose, CA 95131
Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955
Microchip Technology Hongkong Ltd.
Unit 901-6, Tower 2, Metroplaza
223 Hing Fong Road
Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2401-1200 Fax: 852-2401-3431
New York
Toronto
6285 Northam Drive, Suite 108
Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1X5, Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699 Fax: 905-673-6509
India
Microchip Technology Inc.
India Liaison Office
Divyasree Chambers
1 Floor, Wing A (A3/A4)
No. 11, O’Shaugnessey Road
Bangalore, 560 025, India
Tel: 91-80-2290061 Fax: 91-80-2290062
Korea
Microchip Technology Korea
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Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku
Seoul, Korea 135-882
Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5934
Singapore
Microchip Technology Singapore Pte Ltd.
200 Middle Road
#07-02 Prime Centre
Singapore, 188980
Tel: 65-334-8870 Fax: 65-334-8850
Taiwan
Microchip Technology Taiwan
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Tung Hua North Road
Taipei, 105, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139
EUROPE
Denmark
Microchip Technology Nordic ApS
Regus Business Centre
Lautrup hoj 1-3
Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark
Tel: 45 4420 9895 Fax: 45 4420 9910
France
Microchip Technology SARL
Parc d’Activite du Moulin de Massy
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Batiment A - ler Etage
91300 Massy, France
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Germany
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D-81739 Munich, Germany
Tel: 49-89-627-144 0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Italy
Microchip Technology SRL
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Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883
United Kingdom
Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd.
505 Eskdale Road
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Berkshire, England RG41 5TU
Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820
01/18/02
 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.
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