Closed-Circuit Television in Public Places

Closed-Circuit Television in Public Places
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines
for the Establishment and Implementation of
CLOSED CIRCUIT
TELEVISION (CCTV)
IN PUBLIC PLACES
A NSW Government Initiative
These Guidelines were prepared by an Inter-departmental Committee on Closed Circuit
Television (CCTV) established under the auspices of the Premier’s Council on Crime
Prevention.
Any enquiries can be directed to:
Crime Prevention Division
NSW Attorney General’s Department
Level 19, Goodsell Building
8-12 Chifley Square
SYDNEY NSW 2000
Tel: (02) 9228 8307
Fax: (02) 9228 8559
The Guidelines are also available on the Internet at www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/cpd
© NSW Attorney General’s Department, 2000
ISBN 0 7347 6702 1
Contents
INTRODUCTION
1
DEFINITIONS
2
POLICY STATEMENT
3
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
3
STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED IN PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A
CCTV SURVEILLANCE SCHEME
5
GUIDELINES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF
CCTV IN PUBLIC PLACES
6
1.
ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED BEFORE ESTABLISHING A CCTV SCHEME
6
1.1 Identifying the problem
6
1.2 Establishing a Community Safety Committee
6
1.3 Representation on the Community Safety/CCTV Committee
7
1.4 Crime Assessment
8
1.5 Develop a local crime prevention plan.
8
PRIVACY AND PERSONAL INFORMATION PROTECTION ACT 1998
& WORKPLACE VIDEO SURVEILLANCE ACT 1998
9
2.
3.
SETTING OBJECTIVES FOR THE CCTV PROGRAM
10
4.
COMMUNITY CONSULTATION
10
4.1 Stages of consultation
10
4.2 Monitoring private residences
11
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF KEY AGENCIES
12
5.1 Local council responsibility
12
5.2 NSW Police Service responsibilities
13
6.
OPTIONS FOR POLICE ACCESS TO CCTV MONITORING EQUIPMENT
13
7.
CONSULTANTS’/PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT
14
8.
INSTALL AND TRIAL A CCTV SYSTEM
15
9.
LOCATION OF CAMERAS
15
9.1 Environmental Assessment
16
9.2 Commercial Assessment
16
10.
LIABILITY ISSUES
17
11.
STAFFING OF THE CONTROL CENTRE
17
11.1 Control Centre staff training
17
5.
12.
CONTROL AND OPERATION OF CAMERAS
18
13.
COMMUNITY INFORMATION STRATEGY
18
14.
ERECTION OF SIGNS
19
15.
COMPLAINTS
20
16.
COMPLAINTS HANDLING BY LOCAL COUNCILS
20
17.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION
21
17.1 Collection of data
22
17.2 Publication of evaluation results
22
17.3 Alterations to the scheme
22
AUDITING
23
18.1 Incident reporting and analysis system
23
19.
CODE OF PRACTICE, PROTOCOLS AND STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
23
20.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – SOME ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION
(SEE ALSO APPENDIX 3)
24
18.
LIST OF RESOURCE INFORMATION
25
APPENDIX 1
Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998
26
26
APPENDIX 2
Example of Standard Operating Procedures
29
29
APPENDIX 3
Guide to Technical Aspects - some issues for consideration
33
33
APPENDIX 4
Sample Incident Report
Sample forms for access to photographs and videotapes
37
37
38
Introduction
In recent years a combination of perceptions and fears of increased street crime and advances in
technology has seen an upsurge in the use of closed circuit television (CCTV) as a tool in tackling
crime in public places. Many private companies and a number of local government authorities have
initiated trials in the use of CCTV, and the technology is also being used in a number of ways in the
public transport system.
Because CCTV is relatively new, it is still not clear how effective it is in deterring or reducing crime.
Research evidence so far suggests that it can be an effective strategy in situational crime prevention
at a local level, but only as one of a range of crime prevention strategies. It appears from the
research that CCTV may be effective in addressing property crime and some types of assault and
robbery. Evidence also suggests that the benefits of CCTV surveillance fade after a period of time,
and that displacement may occur, that is, the crime may simply move to other areas away from the
CCTV surveillance, or there may be a shift to different sorts of crime which are less susceptible to
CCTV surveillance.
For these reasons, CCTV on its own can do little to address long term crime prevention. CCTV
should only be considered as one part of an integrated crime prevention strategy and should be
installed on a trial basis subject to rigorous evaluation as to its effectiveness.
These Guidelines have been developed by the NSW Government to provide a policy framework and
a set of underlying principles to assist agencies considering CCTV as a possible response to local
community safety concerns.
The Guidelines are principally aimed at local councils as the most appropriate owners of CCTV
schemes in public places. Local councils are democratically organised, are close and accountable to
local communities, and generally have the capacity to co-ordinate local activities in crime prevention
and the promotion of community safety. It must be recognised that ownership brings with it
accountability, responsibility for securing funding, responsibility to consult with and inform the
community as interested parties, and responsibility for design, management, running costs, evaluation
and audit activities.
The Guidelines will also be relevant to transport authorities, given that the definition of public places
that is adopted includes railway stations, trains, buses, taxis, transport interchanges and transportrelated car parks (see page 2). While several parts of the Guidelines which apply to local councils
will not be as relevant to transport authorities, the policy and principles underpinning the Guidelines
are essential in all settings. For this reason, the Guidelines will also be useful for private
organisations which operate, or are considering operating, CCTV schemes in privately-owned spaces
with high public usage, such as shopping malls or cinema complexes, and those public spaces which
are not included in the definition adopted, such as university and college campuses.
The Guidelines acknowledge that the application of CCTV in different settings may vary according to
the particular circumstances applying to that setting. However, agencies introducing CCTV schemes
should comply with the basic principles and steps outlined below, or demonstrate clearly and openly
their reasons for non-compliance.
The Guidelines specifically emphasise the importance of community consultation and involvement in
the planning and implementation of CCTV schemes. The Guidelines suggest that this consultation
should take both a structured form, through the establishment and support of a Community Safety
Committee with wide representation, and a continuing program of consultations and information to
ensure general community support for the scheme.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
1
The Guidelines have been prepared on behalf of the Premier’s Council on Crime Prevention. An
Inter-Departmental Committee on CCTV was established under the auspices of the Council, with
representation from the Departments of Local Government, Transport, Urban Affairs and Planning,
the NSW Attorney General’s Department, the NSW Police Service and Ministry, and the
participation in an observer capacity of the NSW Law Reform Commission and Privacy NSW.
The Guidelines provide:
n
a clear statement of the NSW Government’s policy on the appropriate establishment and use of
CCTV schemes
n
a set of nine principles underpinning the policy which sets out the values and conditions which
should apply to the operation of CCTV schemes. These principles have been adapted from the
paper The Police and Public Area CCTV: Issues, Principles, Policy and Practice prepared by the NSW
Police Service on behalf of the Police Commissioners’ Policy Advisory Group (PCPAG) and
endorsed by the National Police Commissioners’ Conference in 1999
n
the steps which local councils, transport authorities and other organisations should take when
considering establishing and implementing a CCTV scheme
n
the issues relating to privacy and liability which need to be considered
n
a list of other sources of information or assistance which can supplement the Guidelines
n
some information on the technical factors which will need to be considered in establishing a
CCTV scheme
n
some information on Code of Practice, Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures which
should apply to operating schemes.
The Guidelines will be reviewed and evaluated twelve months after their release. This will be carried
out under a similar arrangement to the Inter-departmental Committee which developed them.
Definitions
The following definitions apply to terms used in these Guidelines:
Public place is defined from the Local Government Act 1993 and refers to public reserves, public
bathing reserves, public baths or swimming pools, public roads, public bridges, public wharfs or public
road-ferries with the addition of public transport and car parks.
Closed circuit television is defined as a television system that transmits images on a ‘closed loop’
basis, where images are only available to those directly connected to the transmission system. The
transmission of closed circuit television images may involve the use of coaxial cable, fibre-optic cable,
telephone lines, infra-red and radio transmission systems.
A hand held or fixed video cassette recorder is not included in this definition unless it is connected
to a transmission system.
Video surveillance is defined as surveillance by a closed circuit television system for direct visual
monitoring and/or recording of activities on premises or in a place.
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
Policy Statement
CCTV can be effective in reducing or preventing crime if it is part of a broader crime prevention and
community safety strategy. CCTV should not be implemented as the only means of addressing crime
in public places.
CCTV can bring benefits to the community through a reduction in crime which can lead to
enhanced perceptions of safety in a particular area. On the other hand, CCTV may involve a degree
of cost to the community, for example in terms of the allocation of resources or in implications for
personal privacy.
Accordingly, it is essential that the community be fully consulted in any planning for the introduction
of CCTV to ensure that the community is willing to pay the costs in return for the potential
benefits.
CCTV schemes should always be operated with respect for people’s privacy and their right to
conduct or engage in lawful activities. Care should be taken to ensure that schemes are not used to
prevent access to the area covered by CCTV of those who have no criminal intent, but whose
presence might offend against some ‘norm’ of behaviour or dress.
Continuing community support for the operation of CCTV schemes will depend upon the
confidence people have that the scheme is providing the anticipated benefits. It is therefore essential
that:
n
the recording and retention of images should be undertaken fairly and lawfully;
n
the purpose for which the information is being obtained is known;
n
the information not be used for any other purpose than that proclaimed;
n
people be aware that they may be subject to CCTV surveillance;
n
the CCTV surveillance should only be used to identify crimes occurring within the CCTV area;
n
the CCTV surveillance should never be used to monitor or track individuals who have not
obviously been involved in a crime;
n
the CCTV surveillance should not be used for general intelligence gathering; and
n
the owners of the scheme are known and accountable for its operation.
The NSW Government encourages all agencies considering the development of CCTV schemes to
use as a basis the NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and
Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places.
Guiding Principles
The nine principles outlined below address issues relating to privacy, fairness, public confidence and
support, managerial efficiency and effectiveness, and police involvement in public area CCTV. All of
the principles are linked to the common elements which should constitute public policy on public
area CCTV schemes.
These principles and policy elements should not inhibit the design of schemes to meet local needs
and circumstances. Indeed, they actively encourage adaptation to particular neighbourhoods and
communities. However, they do suppose that there are certain values that require universal
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
3
consideration. Whenever any of these are not complied with, then public justification for such
exceptions should be made.
1.1
The Ownership of Schemes and Its Accompanying Responsibilities
Principle: The ownership of public area CCTV schemes must be clear and publicly known
and ensure appropriate public accountability.
1.2
Community Consultation
Principle: When considering setting up or significantly expanding a public area CCTV
scheme, the relevant concerns of all parties potentially affected by the scheme should be
taken into account through an effective community consultation strategy. Consultation will
help to ensure that schemes meet local needs and circumstances, and that the operation of
the scheme has the support of those affected by it.
1.3
Setting Clear Objectives
Principle: Clear scheme objectives should be set to guide the design, implementation,
management and outcomes of public area CCTV. A clear statement of objectives will provide
a basis for effective monitoring and evaluation of the scheme, and help to ensure that the use
of CCTV is consistent with overall crime prevention objectives.
1.4
Integrated Approaches to Crime Prevention
Principle: The implementation of CCTV should be part of an integrated, multi-agency
approach to crime control and community safety.
1.5
Police Involvement in Public Area CCTV Schemes
Principle: While the NSW Police Service should not fund or operate public area CCTV
schemes, it should be closely involved in the assessment and planning phase, including risk
analysis and evaluation. The Standard Operating Procedures for the scheme should
incorporate protocols covering communication and liaison between the scheme operators
and the police.
1.6
Managing and Operating Schemes
Principle: Schemes should be open and accountable and operate with due regard for the
privacy and civil rights of individuals and the community.
1.7
Evaluation
Principle: Effective evaluation of schemes is essential in order to identify whether their
formal objectives are being achieved. Evaluation frameworks should be developed at the
planning stage of the scheme.
1.8
Complaints
Principle: Publicly accountable, impartial and fair schemes should have procedures for dealing
with complaints.
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
1.9
Monitoring and Auditing
Principle: Audit is needed to provide an account of the operation of a scheme, by testing its
compliance against relevant policy, legislation and procedures, and to be used as the basis of
recommendations for improved practice.
Steps To Be Followed in Planning and Implementing a CCTV
Surveillance Scheme
The Guidelines set out the following steps which should be followed by any authority considering
the introduction of CCTV surveillance in a public space. Further information about each step is
contained in the body of the Guidelines, or in the Appendices. The following steps are more or less
in chronological order, however, it is acknowledged that some steps will be undertaken concurrently.
1.
Identify that there is a crime problem which may be addressed by the introduction of CCTV.
2.
Establish a Community Safety Committee (note that at a later stage of the process it may be
appropriate to establish a sub-committee specifically to deal with the introduction and
operation of CCTV).
3.
Conduct a Crime Assessment to identify more accurately what crime problems are occurring,
where and when.
4.
Consult with the community, including local businesses and other specific groups, especially on
matters relating to privacy.
5.
Develop a Crime Prevention or Community Safety Plan which includes the operation of a
CCTV scheme.
6.
Set objectives for the CCTV scheme and develop evaluation mechanisms.
7.
Determine the roles and responsibilities of the key players, especially the local authority and
the police.
8.
Develop a Code of Practice to set the standards for and guide the operation of the scheme.
9.
Develop and implement Standard Operating Procedures.
10.
Develop and implement ongoing monitoring and auditing mechanisms for the scheme.
11.
Determine the technical requirements of the scheme.
12.
Develop and implement a complaints mechanism.
13.
Develop information strategies to inform the public about the operation of the scheme.
14.
Install and trial the CCTV scheme.
15.
Conduct an evaluation of the trial and its outcomes and disseminate the results to relevant
parties.
16.
Review the trial and its evaluation to determine the need for the CCTV scheme to be
continued.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
5
Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of CCTV in
Public Places
The following is an outline of the steps which should be taken when considering implementing public
area CCTV as part of an integrated crime prevention strategy.
1. Issues to be Considered Before Establishing a CCTV Scheme
1.1
Identifying the problem
In general, the issue of whether or not to consider implementing a CCTV scheme is likely to
arise in response to a perception or awareness that there is a crime problem in a particular
public place. This may be indicated by media coverage, by complaints to the council or other
authorities or through police contact with the council.
Before embarking upon the following steps, a local council should try to establish the extent
and nature of the problem. A night of street disturbance following an annual sporting event,
for example, is unlikely to signify a continuing community safety problem requiring the
expense of installing a CCTV system. Similarly, the perception of a crime or community
problem may not be supported by crime statistics. Therefore, the costs of installing a CCTV
system where an actual problem is not indicated is likely to outweigh any benefits expected of
the system.
1.2
Establishing a Community Safety Committee
Once a local council identifies that there is a problem, it should form a Community Safety
Committee. It is the role of the Community Safety Committee to consider a broad range of
crime prevention and community safety issues and assess various options for dealing with
them, in order to provide advice to the local authority in developing a Local Community
Safety or Crime Prevention Plan. A Community Safety Committee should include
representatives of the local council, the police, local businesses, community members and
particular community groups, such as young people, indigenous or non-English speaking
background communities.
Where local Community Safety Committees already exist, these should be used or re-focused
to provide the mechanisms for consultation and community participation as specified above.
Existing Community Safety Committees have generally been initiated by the NSW Police
Service (under the New South Wales Police Service Safer Communities Action Plan) or Local
Government.
Local councils should convene the committee and appoint the members. Similarly, the
committee should ultimately report back to the local council. Local councils should consider
whether an existing body (for example, a town centre committee) can take on the functions
of a Community Safety Committee, to avoid duplication. More details about how to establish
a Community Safety Committee can be found in the Crime Prevention Resource Manual listed in
the section on useful resources below.
For agencies or organisations other than local councils, the formation of a representative
Community Safety Committee may not be appropriate. However, in order to ensure that any
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
proposed CCTV scheme forms part of an effective overall strategy to address crime and
safety, other organisations should ensure that their planning and operational structures can
deliver the appropriate range of information and perspectives.
Installing and trialling a CCTV scheme will involve decisions about technical, financial and
operational matters which may be beyond the expertise of a Community Safety Committee.
The establishment of a specialised CCTV Committee may be the appropriate way of ensuring
sound management of the scheme. However, there should be structural links between the
two Committees to ensure that the work of each is complementary and directed towards
the achievement of the same goals. Alternatively, a program co-ordinator with experience in
developing community safety initiatives could be appointed by the local authority or agency to
manage the development of the CCTV program and to offer expert advice to the Community
Safety Committee.
1.3
Representation on the Community Safety/CCTV Committee
In general, a Community Safety Committee should include:
n
Local council representative (Chairperson)
n
Program co-ordinator or local council staff responsible for overseeing the CCTV program
n
Police Local Area Command representative
n
local community members, including representatives of significant or special interest
community groups
n
local Chamber of Commerce representative and/or representatives of businesses in the
area
n
other government agency representatives, as appropriate.
The CCTV Committee, if separate from the Community Safety Committee, should also allow
for balanced representation from the various community and business elements. The make-up
of the Committee should include representation of those groups that are most likely to be
directly affected by the presence of CCTV and/or have an interest in the scheme’s operation
and outcomes. This might include representatives of local youth organisations or a young
person, provided this person feels comfortable expressing his or her views as part of such a
committee. Alternatively, the views of young people might be sought by other means and
conveyed to the Committee.
It may also be appropriate to have a representative of any firm involved in the running of the
CCTV scheme on the Community Safety Committee.
It must be clearly noted that final responsibility and accountability for the management and
operation of a CCTV program lie with the local council. The program manager appointed by
the local council will have day-to-day management responsibility for the operation of the
CCTV scheme. A Community Safety or specific CCTV Committee should assist the program
manager in this role.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
7
1.4
Crime Assessment
The local council, in conjunction with the Community Safety Committee, must carry out a
crime assessment of the area where problems have been identified. The analysis should be
conducted in consultation with local police, and as appropriate, representatives of the local
community. Other organisations such as the Crime Prevention Division of the NSW
Attorney General’s Department and the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research may
also be of assistance.
Consideration should be given to:
n
the nature, type and volume of criminal activities occurring within the area under
consideration
n
the legitimate ways in which various members of the community use the area, including
differences across weekdays, time of day, and seasons
n
the situational and environmental factors which appear to contribute to the criminal
activities
n
the possibility of displacement (that is, merely shifting the crimes), both in terms of crime
type and geographic location.
While undertaking the analysis, consideration should also be given to a range of crime
prevention initiatives which could address the identified problems. The possibility should
always be borne in mind that CCTV may not be the best response to a place’s particular
problems, or that the costs of the scheme might outweigh the benefits.
1.5
Develop a local crime prevention plan
Once the crime assessment provides a clear picture of the nature of the criminal activities
(including type, frequency, timing, associated causal factors, likely inhibiting factors, and so on),
the groundwork has been laid for the development of a Crime Prevention Plan.
The development of Local Crime Prevention Plans is not covered in these Guidelines as this
is covered in the Crime Prevention Resource Manual already distributed to local councils.
Once the Plan is developed, the Community Safety Committee will submit the draft Local
Crime Prevention Plan for endorsement and adoption by the local council. The Committee
should present to local councils, community safety options (e.g. crime prevention through
environmental design, CCTV, etc) which suit the context of the local environment. After
adopting the Plan, the local council should proceed to negotiate its implementation with all
relevant organisations. The co-operation and involvement of the police and the community
will be crucial to the long-term effectiveness of the Plan.
If the Committee believes that one of the strategies to address the problems identified in the
crime assessment is the establishment of a CCTV program, it is essential that the Local Crime
Prevention Plan outline how this strategy is integrated with the broad plan objectives and why
CCTV is considered an appropriate option.
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
2. Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 and Workplace
Video Surveillance Act 1998
The Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 was passed on 25 November 1998. The Act
covers local government authorities as public sector agencies and as such will need to be considered
by local councils when considering the establishment and implementation of CCTV.
The Act defines personal information as ‘information or an opinion (including information or an
opinion forming part of a database and whether or not recorded in material form) about an
individual whose identity is apparent or can reasonably be ascertained from the information or
opinion’. This definition would include the video record made by local councils, as people filmed
would in many cases be people whose identity is apparent or could be reasonably ascertained, e.g.
people who work in the area and are filmed on a regular basis.
The Act spells out twelve information protection principles to be complied with by agencies
collecting information which falls under the definition outlined above. These are provided at
Appendix 1.
In particular, the Act (under section 8) lays out a requirement that a public sector agency must not
collect personal information unless the collection of the information is reasonably necessary in
relation to a function of that agency. This provides a legislative requirement that a local council make
a formal consideration of the necessity for CCTV before installing it. The local council should be
able to demonstrate that filming all people in a certain area is reasonably necessary to prevent crime
and that prevention of crime is a key function of the local council.
Section 18 of the Act places limits on the disclosure of personal information and requires an agency
which holds personal information not to disclose it for a purpose other than that for which it was
collected. This would prevent local councils releasing CCTV footage to the media other than where
the use is ‘necessary to prevent or lessen a serious and imminent threat to the life or health’ of an
individual.
Local councils should be aware that there are a number of exemptions to the privacy principles.
These exemptions, together with the principles, are discussed in some detail in a publication available
from Privacy NSW titled A Guide to the Information Protection Principles. Alternatively, councils may
wish to seek legal advice regarding the application of the principles and the exemptions. Local
councils need to be particularly mindful of the potential consequences of breaching the Privacy and
Personal Information Protection Act 1998 should an exemption be used incorrectly.
There will also be many cases where local council employees e.g. street cleaners, garbage collectors
etc., will be filmed by the CCTV system in a ‘place’ where they work. In such cases, the Workplace
Video Surveillance Act 1998 will apply. That surveillance will be considered ‘covert’ unless the
employee has been notified, in writing, 14 days in advance of the intended video surveillance (this
notification can also be given via the union, or to the worker before commencing work with the
employer, if this is less than 14 days before the commencement of the surveillance). Covert
surveillance is illegal, unless an authority is given, but this can only be given for the purpose of
establishing whether or not the employee is involved in any unlawful activity in the workplace.
Normally, the surveillance will be for other reasons, and therefore no authority can be given under
the Act. Councils must therefore ensure that they satisfy the requirements of the Workplace Video
Surveillance Act 1998 in relation to these employees.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
9
3. Setting Objectives for the CCTV Program
Public area CCTV schemes can be used for a range of purposes. The intended purpose of any
scheme should be clearly identified prior to establishing the scheme, as this will shape the model of
implementation. Schemes should only be used in accordance with their established objectives and
not for any other purposes. Clear objectives will also assist authorities by establishing outcome
measures which form the basis for monitoring and evaluation.
Setting the objectives of the scheme should be determined from a full analysis of the problems to be
addressed, community concerns and available resources. Along with the precise objectives of the
scheme, performance indicators and the processes by which it will be evaluated should be built into
the planning at the earliest stage possible. It will be important for goals to be set which are
reasonable and achievable.
The decision to implement CCTV in a public area should be based on the considered potential of
the CCTV program to realise some or all of the following objectives:
n
to provide an effective means by which to prevent and reduce crime in the monitored area,
(particularly street crime, e.g. vandalism and graffiti) via an increased fear of detection and
apprehension on the part of offenders
n
to improve the public's general feeling of safety and security in regard to the area being
monitored
n
to provide accurate identification of offenders and events.
4. Community Consultation
Community consultation will help ensure that schemes are designed to meet local needs. It will also
facilitate strong and continuing public support, if and when, a scheme is implemented. Publicity and
high quality information provide an opportunity for the community to voice any concerns which may
be held about the proposed scheme.
A community consultation strategy will be distinct from a community information strategy, although
elements of both will overlap. While consultation should occur for the draft Crime Prevention Plan
generally, these Guidelines focus on consultation specifically around proposals for CCTV.
4.1
Stages of consultation
The first stage of consultation should occur when the community is informed of the
intention to investigate the use of CCTV for a nominated area. All groups likely to be
affected by the proposal for CCTV should be consulted. This will include residents, users of
the nominated area, businesses in the area and any other specific groups such as young
people, relevant ethnic communities and the elderly.
Different consultation techniques may be required to reach different sections of the
community, e.g. public meetings, attending existing forums, questionnaires, mail outs, meeting
with key representative groups of community members.
While the objective behind installing CCTV is to benefit the community through a reduction
in the incidence of crime and/or an increase in the community's perceived safety, the
community should be made aware of the possible costs involved, such as paying for the
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
scheme through additional charges or rates and loss of privacy. Therefore, the community
must be consulted as to whether it is willing to bear this cost in order to reap any potential
benefit of CCTV.
The second stage of the consultation would occur once the investigation of the proposal is
completed and the details of the proposal are presented for community endorsement.
As a guide, the community should be consulted about the following:
n
the proposed area to be monitored
n
the current incidence of crime
n
community concerns about the area
n
the objectives of the program (it is important that the community be provided with a
realistic appraisal of what the program might achieve, i.e. what types of
offences/behaviours are/are not likely to be deterred. CCTV should not be promoted as a
cure for all of an area’s crime problems)
n
the planned duration of the program, including the period after which it will be evaluated
n
the proposed communication method between the scheme operators and police
n
the cost and funding arrangements of the program. This includes both the installation and
the ongoing costs of operating the system
n
any environmental alterations required for the functioning of the program (i.e. removal or
alterations to trees, vegetation or structures)
n
the avenue by which complaints about the operation of the program may be lodged.
Thirdly, the community should be consulted on any changes to the original CCTV strategy
which are implemented during the trial period. They should be informed about evaluation
results at the end of the trial period and subsequent evaluations, and provided with the
opportunity to comment on these results.
4.2
Monitoring private residences
Section 11of the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 requires that the
collection of information does not intrude to an unreasonable extent on the personal affairs
of an individual. For this reason, all efforts should be taken to avoid including private
residences within the camera view of the monitored area. However, this may be difficult in all
instances, e.g. when residences are located above commercial premises in the areas to be
monitored. Weight should be given to the opinion of such residents, and local councils should
seek their general consent. In such cases, local councils should write to residents involved,
give them the opportunity to voice concerns, and act on those concerns, or provide
information to residents about why their concerns cannot be addressed.
Anyone who, without lawful excuse or consent, affects a person’s amenity in his or her
property is likely to be legally liable in nuisance. In the case of Raciti v Hughes (unreported,
Supreme Court of NSW Equity Division, No. 3667 of 1995), the Court found that it may be a
nuisance at common law to continuously film a property. In this case, the complainant was
granted an injunction to have the camera moved. Nuisance attaches to any right in property
and would presumably cover a lease.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
11
5. Roles and Responsibilities of Key Agencies
In developing the scheme, a Code of Practice and Protocols must be established which define the
nature and level of involvement of each agency in the management and operation of the scheme.
The discrete roles and responsibilities of owner/managers and the police must be made explicit. The
responsibilities of each would include the following:
5.1
Local council responsibility
Local councils are responsible for the following key functions:
12
n
establishing and chairing a Community Safety Committee (and CCTV Committee, if
appropriate)
n
developing a Local Crime Prevention Plan which incorporates CCTV strategies
n
appointing a program manager to manage the implementation and operation of CCTV
n
implementing a comprehensive consultative program with business groups, individuals,
government instrumentalities and organisations, and cultural/community groups affected by
the program
n
implementing a community information program
n
financing the implementation and ongoing costs of CCTV. This includes an independent
evaluation of its effectiveness
n
appointing a security consultant or engineer to assist the local council in the design of an
appropriate CCTV monitoring system (if appropriate)
n
calling for tenders for the provision of CCTV equipment
n
developing, implementing and monitoring the auditing procedures for the implementation
of CCTV as a crime prevention strategy
n
developing and implementing an effective complaints handling mechanism
n
arranging for an outcomes evaluation to be undertaken. An independent evaluation should
be conducted by a consultant with program evaluation expertise
n
monitoring the effectiveness of CCTV as part of a crime prevention strategy
n
developing, in consultation with other key stakeholders and the CCTV Committee, a Code
of Practice, Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures with other agencies in relation
to their roles in the CCTV program
n
selecting appropriately qualified personnel to install and operate CCTV
n
providing training to staff involved in operating and working with the CCTV program
n
ensuring that all relevant parties comply with the Code of Practice, Protocols and
Standard Operating Procedures
n
finalising specifications and Standard Operating Procedures in conjunction with personnel
selected to install and operate CCTV.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
5.2
NSW Police Service responsibilities
The NSW Police Service is not responsible for funding or for the operation of CCTV. NSW
Police Service involvement will only be to the level that its resources and priorities allow and
will be determined by the Local Area Commander for that area. However, the NSW Police
Service should be consulted and involved in all phases of the process leading to the
installation and operation of a scheme, including participation on Community Safety
Committees and participation on or acting in an advisory capacity to CCTV Committees,
conducting a crime assessment and determining evaluation procedures. In many cases the
NSW Police Service will be responsible for chairing existing Community Safety Committees
under the NSW Police Service Safer Communities Action Plan.
The Standard Operating Procedures should set out clearly the guidelines and protocols for
communication with the police by scheme owner/managers and the provisions in place for an
adequate and appropriate police response to reported incidents. This would include the early
identification of emerging incidents to facilitate the timely initiation of police response.
The NSW Police Service will be responsible for:
n
providing information for and advice on the crime assessment
n
participating in the Community Safety and/or CCTV Committee
n
working with the local council to develop Codes of Practice with other agencies in
relation to the conduct of the CCTV program
n
developing, in consultation with the local council, Protocols and Standard Operating
Procedures between police and the local council in relation to their respective roles in the
program
n
training local police in their responsibilities in relation to the CCTV program as set out in
the Code of Practice, Protocols and NSW Police Service Standard Operating Procedures
n
ensuring compliance with the Code of Practice, Protocols and NSW Police Service
Standard Operating Procedures
n
participating in the evaluation and monitoring processes for the CCTV program
n
determining the appropriate level and priority of responses required to incidents identified
by the CCTV cameras, according to available resources and existing priorities.
6. Options For Police Access to CCTV Monitoring Equipment
One of the premises behind the use of CCTV as a crime prevention strategy is that police can be
alerted to incidents as they emerge or occur. This allows for early response by police. CCTV is also
used for detection and conviction of offenders. It is noted that for a crime prevention strategy to
have any deterrence value, potential offenders must perceive a real threat of detection and
apprehension.
The functioning of a CCTV scheme therefore requires a communication method by which police can
be alerted to incidents noted on the monitoring screens.
However, there have been instances where police personnel have been co-located at the scheme’s
Control Centre. In such cases, it is essential that there should not be any inappropriate sharing or
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
13
exchange of information (under section 62(1) of the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act
1998, it is an offence to informally exchange personal information collected in an official capacity).
Strict procedures should therefore be established to ensure that this is enforced.
The preferred option for the NSW Police Service is for a linked monitor to be installed at the local
Police Station. Direct telephone facilities and monitoring equipment can be provided at a nominated
location (e.g. local police station) to ensure instant communication and monitoring of identified
events. In this option, control of the monitoring equipment resides with the local council’s monitor
operator, even though police are able to access images as required. Police would not be required to
monitor the equipment on an ongoing basis.
The benefit of having police access to a monitor is that police may more easily assess the incident
that is being reported and define the appropriate response. This also relieves the pressure on civilian
operators to make operational assessments on behalf of the police.
Some systems are designed to allow the Control Centre operator to transfer operational control of
the monitor to police. Such transfer of control should only occur in clearly defined and emergency
situations. Clear instructions regarding the circumstances under which transfer of control should
occur, and procedures for the transfer of control, should be included in Protocols and Standard
Operating Procedures.
Another option is for monitor operators to report identified incidents to local police via normal
telephone facilities.
The most appropriate option will depend on local circumstances, the parameters of the scheme and
negotiations between the scheme owners and police. The option chosen by police will require
endorsement by the owner and the relevant NSW Police Service Region Commander.
In each option outlined, when operators identify an incident on screen they report the incident to
the arranged police contact. These police officers then assess what level of police response is
required to the incident and organise the response accordingly.
7.
Consultants’/Private Sector Involvement
There is a role for private sector organisations in the provision of CCTV services in public places,
including installation and operation by appropriately qualified personnel and licensed security
operators.
Local councils may consider contracting a consultant with appropriate CCTV expertise to assist with
developing draft specifications and Standard Operating Procedures. Private sector agencies involved
in the provision of CCTV services would, of course, be expected to comply with all Codes of
Conduct, Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures developed and applied by the local council.
The tender processes which are available to councils are set out in section 55 of the Local
Government Act 1993 and the Local Government (Tendering) Regulation 1999. Councils must follow one
of the three processes outlined in the Regulation and comply with all associated procedures.
The preparation of the contract for the provision and operation of the CCTV system, and the
management of the contract, are critical to ensuring that the CCTV system is effective. Councils
should consider the Department of Local Government’s Competitive Tendering Guidelines (January
1997), particularly the following:
14
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
n
being clear about the objectives of the CCTV system before preparing the contract
n
the council and the contractor having the same understanding of what is required by a contract
n
specification of performance monitoring arrangements in the contract.
Options for monitoring performance include:
– inspections by council officers
– using performance indicators
– using client surveys
– monitoring complaints
– reports by the contractor
n
specification of dispute settlement and termination provisions in the contract.
8. Install and Trial a CCTV System
As well as the above planning and consultation processes, local councils will need to consider a
number of technical and operational issues before installing a CCTV scheme. More details about
these aspects of a scheme can be found in the Appendices to these Guidelines.
Implementing a CCTV program involves a substantial outlay of resources. In the circumstances, local
councils are encouraged to lease CCTV services rather than making a capital investment in their
installation.
A trial period for the scheme will allow any problems to be identified early and corrected. It will
also allow initial assessment of the effectiveness of the scheme and whether or not it is meeting its
objectives, whether objectives are realistic and whether any adjustments to the scheme need to be
made, or indeed, whether the scheme should continue at all. For these reasons, it is recommended
that the CCTV scheme be trialled for a specified period, preferably no longer than six months. The
scheme should be monitored carefully and its implementation reviewed throughout this period. This
review process should be undertaken in conjunction with the Community Safety Committee and/or
CCTV Committee.
If the scheme is to continue past the trial period, monitoring should continue with set review times
built into the ongoing scheme.
9. Location of Cameras
Effective location of cameras will be critical to the success of the program. Camera location should
also be guided by the specific objectives of the program and should be done in consultation with the
local police. As a guide, consideration should be given to the following:
n
identified crime hot spots
n
ATMs and banking institutions
n
licensed premises
n
bus stops, taxi ranks, car parks and railway stations
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
15
n
community facilities including toilets, telephones
n
places frequented by potentially at-risk groups such as the elderly and young people.
An Environmental Assessment and a Commercial Assessment should also be undertaken to inform
the strategic location of cameras. These Assessments would require a level of technical expertise
that is likely to be found in a CCTV Committee rather than in the Community Safety Committee.
The Crime Assessment previously undertaken will also provide valuable information in relation to
locating cameras.
9.1
Environmental Assessment
The decision of where to locate the cameras must be made with regard to the following:
9.2
n
lighting levels including shadowing, minimum lux levels, type and height including varying
lighting levels in open areas as opposed to under awnings etc, obstructions to fields of
view
n
landscaping including type and growth rate of trees and vegetation
n
pedestrian and vehicular thoroughfares, including analysis of the amount of pedestrian and
vehicular traffic flows throughout each day
n
recommended height of equipment above ground to deter potential vandalism and damage
caused by vehicular traffic (while noting that position height of cameras needs to allow
adequate identification of persons)
n
clear field of view from camera height, taking into account building structures and awnings
n
direction of sun, including sunrise and sunset "blooming" effect on the cameras
n
whether cameras would need to be affixed to private or public utility property, and if in
the case of a private property, whether such approval is likely to be granted by owners
n
whether private premises would come within the view of the cameras
n
possibility of the accompanying lighting intruding upon the surrounding areas and impinging
upon the public's enjoyment of that area.
Commercial Assessment
Once the Crime Assessment and the Environmental Assessment relating to camera locations
have been conducted, the final stage of the camera location assessment is the commercial
analysis that includes:
16
n
access to power supply
n
cabling routes and distances
n
availability of existing cables and conduits
n
trenching and reinstatement costs
n
affixing of equipment onto private property including access for maintenance, supply of
electricity, costs, etc.
n
investigating funding options for the installation and ongoing operation of the CCTV
system.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
Once the possible camera locations have been identified in terms of Crime, Environmental
and Commercial Assessments, consideration should be given to locating cameras so that each
camera can look at another camera. This is particularly important in identifying people
attempting to damage cameras.
10. Liability Issues
Local councils should be aware of the potential for increased liability which may be incurred when
considering the installation of CCTV. By taking on the responsibility of ensuring public safety within
the CCTV area, a local council may be found liable should a person be injured in some way. This is
especially so where camera equipment is not working, or if it is not supervised or is pointing in the
wrong direction.
It is strongly recommended that local councils seek independent legal advice on this issue prior to
installing CCTV equipment.
11. Staffing of the Control Centre
The Control Centre is to be staffed by either contracted security personnel or local council
employees and is to meet the requirements of the Security Industry Act 1997. Under the terms of the
Act, all personnel employed in the Control Centre are required to be licensed security operators.
Personnel assigned to the Centre must be trained and qualified in the use of surveillance equipment
and the responsibilities required.
A local council, when defining the contractual terms for the party engaged to conduct the CCTV
monitoring, should make that party aware of these Guidelines and the requirements of the Security
Industry Act 1997.
A set of Standard Operating Procedures must be developed for Control Centre monitoring staff.
The Standard Operating Procedures must reflect the requirements of these Guidelines. Appendix 2
provides further guidelines on developing a Standard Operating Procedure.
Control Centre staff must be required to sign an undertaking to comply with the Standard
Operating Procedures and be subjected to discipline should they breach that undertaking.
11.1 Control Centre staff training
Each prospective Control Centre staff member must be trained or be proficient in:
n
use and control of camera management systems
n
use and control of video recording systems
n
use and control of video photograph systems
n
identification and prediction of potential events
n
familiarity with the local area
n
knowledge of identified potential trouble spots
n
police policy and procedures relating to recording of information, exhibit handling and
incident reporting
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
17
n
emergency response and procedures
n
accountability and confidentiality
n
privacy.
Local police shall advise operators on what type of information they require from monitoring
staff when reporting incidents, and on the types of incidents to which a police response is
generally appropriate. This should be built into staff training.
12. Control and Operation of Cameras
Monitor operators must act with the utmost probity.
The tracking or zooming in on any member of the public shall not be done in a gratuitous or
unreasonable manner. All operators should be made aware, as a matter of course, that their camera
operation may be audited and that they may be called upon to satisfy their interest in a member of
the public.
Generally, operators shall not allow cameras to view into private residences. Private residences may
come into view as part of a wide angle or long shot or as a camera is panning past them.
An operator may allow a private residence to remain in view when there are reasonable grounds for
so doing, that is, for the purpose of identifying individuals or actions when there is a reasonable
suspicion that a serious offence is in progress or is about to occur.
13. Community Information Strategy
Information strategies will need to be developed to ensure continuing public understanding and
support for a CCTV scheme. These strategies should be implemented prior to the installation of the
CCTV system. The community should be aware of the objectives of the program and be confident
that a CCTV scheme is only used for its stated and correct purposes. It should also be informed of:
18
n
the date on which the trial will commence
n
the area(s) being monitored
n
the planned duration of the program, including the period after which it will be evaluated
n
the means by which the scheme will be evaluated and the expected outcomes
n
the broad areas of responsibility of the key players
n
the communication method between the Control Centre and the police
n
the cost and funding arrangements of the program. This includes both the installation and the
ongoing costs of operating the system
n
the avenue by which complaints about the operation of the program may be lodged
n
the evaluation results at the end of the trial period and subsequent evaluations, and the
opportunity to comment on these results.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
A community information strategy should include the following:
a) notice or article in newspapers circulating in the local area e.g. local papers and ethnic press
b) article in local authority newsletter
c) information attached to rates notice
d) notice distributed to community groups
e) notice on community noticeboards in libraries and shopping centres
f) radio announcements on community and ethnic radio
g) notice or information distributed to schools and local youth organisations
h) written information should be translated into appropriate community languages.
14. Erection of Signs
Signs informing the public of the existence of CCTV cameras must be erected. There is currently no
one sign that is universally accepted - different signs have been developed by organisations using
CCTV, including local councils.
In deciding the design and location of signs, it is strongly recommended that councils consider
Australian Standard – Development, testing and implementation of information and safety symbols and
symbolic signs – AS 2342 – 1992. This publication is available from Standards Australia, telephone
1300 654646.
It is strongly recommended that councils ensure the following:
n
the signs are placed at each main access point to areas which members of the public are
reasonably entitled to use, and which are being monitored
n
the signs provide members of the public with information about the size of the area being
monitored. For example, the signs might include the name of the area or incorporate directional
arrows
n
if the CCTV system is not monitored or recorded 24 hours a day, this is reflected in the content
of the signs
n
the signs are easily understood by members of the public, including people who are from nonEnglish speaking backgrounds. For this reason, councils should ensure that signs use a mix of
worded text and symbols (it should be noted that worded signs are considered to have a greater
deterrent effect than signs which are based on symbols. This is because potential offenders may
come from outside the local area and may not have been exposed to the publicity regarding the
CCTV program. Further, the meaning and understanding of a graphic may lose currency over
time if it is not accompanied by continuing publicity). Councils might also contact other councils
using CCTV signs such as Fairfield City Council and Sydney City Council. As well as increasing
consistency between the signs used, there may be cost benefits for councils in entering into joint
purchasing arrangements with other councils for CCTV signs
n
the signs are clearly visible, distinctive, located in areas with good lighting, placed within normal
eye range, and large enough so that any text message can be easily read
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
19
n
members of the public are provided with information about the meaning of the signs. This
information should be available in appropriate community languages. As well as residents,
councils should consider information strategies for people who are visitors to the area. Councils
should also consider providing information on a regular basis for new residents and to remind
current residents
n
the signs should not be used by a local council to convey a sense of enhanced public safety or
security due to the use of CCTV in the area.
Other information to be included on the signs should include:
n
the ownership of the scheme
n
hours of operation (e.g. when the area is monitored – continuous or random)
n
numbers to ring if there is a problem, enquiry or complaint.
The information provided on the signs should comply with section 10 of the Privacy and Personal
Information Protection Act 1998.
15. Complaints
To ensure their continuous improvement, openness and fairness, all public area CCTV schemes
should possess well publicised, straightforward and efficient complaint handling systems. Complaint
procedures should also consider the handling of requests from the public for information under
Freedom of Information legislation. Local councils and the NSW Police Service will have their own
internal complaints handling systems. These should be checked to ensure that they are capable of
accommodating complaints about a CCTV scheme, and any information about them amended
accordingly. Information about complaint procedures should be included in Protocols and Standard
Operating Procedures and in all community information strategies.
The Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 authorises the Office of the Privacy
Commissioner (Privacy NSW) to receive and investigate complaints about alleged violations of
privacy. Any information distributed about the scheme should advise members of the community
that they can lodge a complaint to Privacy NSW under section 45 of the Privacy and Personal
Information Protection Act 1998. Local councils should also co-operate with the investigation of any
complaint by Privacy NSW.
Local councils and Privacy NSW should endeavour to establish communication and reach an
agreement so that when one receives a complaint, the other is notified directly as appropriate.
16. Complaints Handling by Local Councils
Part 5 of the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 requires that wherever a complaint
indicates that an information protection principle has been breached, a local council must conduct an
internal review as outlined in that Part of the Act. This process is subsequently reviewable by the
Administrative Decisions Tribunal.
Complaints which do not indicate a breach of the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998
can be handled in the manner set out below.
Local councils should already have a complaints handling mechanism in place as outlined in the
Department of Local Government’s Practice Note No.9 Complaints Management in Councils (August 1994).
20
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
This mechanism, which provides for the following three levels of review, should also be used to deal
with any complaints about the CCTV system:
First level – receiving, registering and resolving complaints. While any staff may be able to receive a
complaint about the CCTV system, it is strongly recommended that this be the responsibility of a
special officer designated within council. Complaints are likely to be mainly about privacy, and
consequently should be handled by staff who are aware of and sensitive to privacy issues in relation
to the use of CCTV. This may require staff to undergo specific training.
Second level – where the complainant is still dissatisfied, the complaint is investigated by a more
senior, or an identified complaints officer and the results of the investigation reported to the
complainant.
Third level – where the complaint cannot be resolved within the council, the complainant is
referred to an outside agency to seek resolution. Privacy NSW is authorised under the Privacy and
Personal Information Protection Act 1998 to receive, investigate and resolve through conciliation,
complaints about alleged violations of privacy. The Ombudsman investigates complaints about the
conduct of public authorities, and will always consider for investigation complaints which cannot be
resolved within the public authority, as well as failure by a public authority to deal satisfactorily with
a complaint.
Important components of a complaints handling mechanism for effectively dealing with complaints
regarding CCTV include the following:
n
providing all groups in the community with information about the procedure for making a
complaint. It is strongly recommended that this information be provided in appropriate
community languages
n
there should be a system for keeping the complainant informed of what is happening
n
strategies should be put in place to prevent occurrence of the problems identified by complaints.
Councils might also consider the following publications in developing and implementing an effective
complaints handling mechanism in relation to CCTV:
n
Australian Standard – Complaints Handling – AS 4269 – 1995. This publication is available from
Standards Australia, telephone 1300 654646
n
Contracting out: the case for consumer rights in the provision of local government services, Gabby
Trifiletti, Consumer Law Centre Vic. Ltd., 1996.
17. Monitoring and Evaluation
A monitoring and evaluation plan is to be developed and implemented to determine the
effectiveness of CCTV in achieving its objectives. It is recommended that a formal evaluation occur
after a six month trial period, and then at least every twelve months after the end of the trial period
if it is decided that CCTV should continue to operate. Any evaluation should also look at whether
there has been any displacement of crime from the monitored area to ascertain whether the
operation of CCTV has had this effect. The local councils might consider contracting an independent
consultant with the appropriate evaluation expertise to assist with this process.
Guidelines concerning monitoring and evaluation are presented below in relation to the broad
objective of CCTV of decreasing crime.
Local councils should also refer to the document Crime Prevention Resource Manual.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
21
17.1 Collection of data
A method by which to capture or access statistical information should be implemented.
Crime statistics for the twelve months previous to the program commencement must be
captured to serve as a benchmark. This information should have been collected as part of the
crime assessment process prior to the decision to implement CCTV. The NSW Bureau of
Crime Statistics and Research and/or the local police should be able to assist in providing this
information.
Data collected during the period that CCTV is operating will allow for an assessment of what
if any differences the implementation of the CCTV scheme has had on crime in the
designated area. To supplement crime statistics, a method of recording all incidents to which
a response was initiated should be implemented (see section 18.1). This will serve to record
those incidents where intervention was achieved and no official response was required.
It is important to remember, however, that changes in recorded crime data may arise from a
number of different factors, and may not be attributable solely to the introduction of CCTV.
This will particularly apply in the case of CCTV, which should only be implemented as part of
a range of crime prevention measures.
Councils should consider collecting statistics from areas that are not covered by CCTV but
which might be sites for a displacement effect. Councils should also consider identifying and
collecting crime statistics about a non-CCTV area, which has similar characteristics eg. crime
rates to the area covered by CCTV (this might be another local government area), and
compare statistics to assist in determining the impact of CCTV on crime.
Research may also be conducted into people’s perceptions of crime in the area. While this
may be an associated benefit, it should not be a primary objective of the scheme. Recent
research commissioned by the then National Campaign Against Violence and Crime shows
that there are a number of methodological issues which need to be considered in carrying
out research into public perceptions about safety and fear of crime. It is recommended that
expert advice be obtained prior to carrying out such research, or that the research be carried
out by an appropriately qualified organisation.
An indication of an increase in the public's perception of the safety of a given area is an
increase in their actual usage rate of the area. Surveys of the public and businesses in the
area could provide valuable supplementary information.
17.2 Publication of evaluation results
Evaluation results should be made public and the community consulted as to whether or not
the program should continue.
Evaluation reports should be forwarded to the Crime Prevention Division in the NSW
Attorney General’s Department (GPO Box 6, Sydney 2001). The Division will review the
reports and use them to provide advice to councils about evaluating the effectiveness of
CCTV.
17.3 Alterations to the scheme
As a result of the evaluation process, it may be appropriate to continue the program with
necessary alterations to the system to enhance its operation. The community should be
consulted about these alterations.
22
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
18. Auditing
It is essential that the community have confidence in local councils’ use of CCTV technology. Local
councils must regularly audit compliance with these Guidelines. In addition to audits, all logs of
Control Centre activity should be regularly scrutinised by the owners of the scheme.
Local councils should arrange for an independent audit to be carried out.
Privacy NSW may request to undertake spot audits from time to time and local councils should
comply with such requests.
Local councils should also inform the public about how they can obtain access to the results of any
audits. The results of audits should be included in formal evaluation reports.
Other mechanisms for an independent system of monitoring might be considered, such as
establishing an audit committee with representation from independent bodies with no vested
interest in the scheme. This body should provide regular reports to the local council and/or
Community Safety Committee.
18.1 Incident reporting and analysis system
An incident reporting and analysis system should be included in the CCTV initiative. Ideally
the system should be computerised through an appropriate software program, as this would
make monitoring and evaluation of the system easier than collecting and analysing information
from a manual system. The reporting system should be capable of recording:
n
type of incident (according to defined offence categories) monitored and to which a
response was made
n
date, time and location of the incident
n
response taken, including who made the response (i.e. some incidents will require a
response from police while others would be the responsibility of local councils’ staff or
other emergency services)
n
result of the response (i.e. arrest, caution, etc.).
It is imperative that any reporting system does not include information in which individuals
can be identified.
19. Code of Practice, Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures
A detailed code of practice which covers all aspects of the management of the operations of a public
area CCTV scheme should be developed. Such a code would include reference to all the following
matters:
n
scheme objectives and principles of operation
n
parameters of the scheme including geographical boundaries, number and location of cameras,
system description, method of operation
n
scheme ownership, partners to the scheme including suppliers of equipment and police and their
respective responsibilities, management of the scheme, control and operation of cameras,
accountability, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, and avenues for complaints
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
23
n
signage, publicity and information about schemes
n
rules defining access to scheme control rooms and monitors so that only those with a lawful and
legitimate reason may operate or view the equipment in a control room
n
adequate standards for the recruitment, integrity and training of control room staff
n
lawful, fair, safe and secure procedures defining recording and storage practices, tape retention
times, tape re-use and tape copying
n
information being recorded which is adequate, accurate, and relevant
n
rules on how recorded images/tapes are accessed for evidentiary purposes, and in ways which
satisfy continuity of evidence
n
provision for the implementation of disciplinary and/or other procedures where protocols are
breached.
The Code of Practice should underpin the management and operations of the scheme and be
supplemented by Protocols or Procedures and appropriate Standard Operating Procedures for
participating agency staff to guide the day-to-day operation of the scheme.
Again, section 12 of the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 lays down a number of
requirements relating to security of information collected and held. Standard Operating Procedures
should comply with these requirements and these should be built into formal agreements, such as
Memorandums of Understanding, between local councils and the NSW Police Service.
An example of a Standard Operating Procedure is provided at Appendix 2. The City of Sydney Street
Safety Camera Program Code of Practice, available from the Sydney City Council, is also a useful
example.
20. Technical Specifications – Some Issues for Consideration
(see also Appendix 3)
It is strongly suggested that scheme owners seek expert advice on issues relating to technical
requirements and specifications. In seeking this advice, it is important that owners have a clear
understanding of exactly what they wish the CCTV system to do. The consultant providing such
advice must have a sound understanding of all of the components which will eventually make up the
CCTV system. This includes the utilisation of a CCTV system, the way in which it operates
(specifications) and their ability to interface within the system, their suitability for operation within
the given environment and the level of human intervention required.
As CCTV recordings are used more and more for evidentiary purposes by police, consideration will
need to be given to the development of technical standards to be applied to scheme equipment,
which safeguard evidentiary standards.
Programs using leased CCTV equipment under a service contract may be more flexible than capital
expenditure on CCTV cameras as a permanent fixture. This is particularly relevant in the light of
rapidly developing technological advances in the area of video surveillance.
24
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
List of Resource Information
– Australian Standard AS 2342 - 1992, Development, testing, and implementation of information and
safety symbols and symbolic signs
– Australian Standard AS 4269 - 1995, Complaints Handling
– CITY OF SYDNEY, Code of Practice Street Safety Camera Program, December 1998
– Local Government Act 1993 (NSW) (No. 30 of 1993)
– Local Government (Tendering) Regulation (NSW) (No. 464 of 1999)
– NATIONAL CAMPAIGN AGAINST VIOLENCE AND CRIME (NCAVAC) – Commonwealth
Attorney General’s Department, Fear of Crime, May 1998
– NSW ATTORNEY GENERAL’S DEPARTMENT, Crime Prevention Resource Manual, 1998
– NSW DEPARTMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Competitive Tendering Guidelines, January 1997
– NSW DEPARTMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Practice Note No. 9, Complaints Management in
Councils, August 1994
– NSW POLICE SERVICE, Evaluation of the Closed Circuit Television System in the City of Sydney Patrol
Safety Zone, 31 January 1996.
– NSW POLICE SERVICE, Safer Communities Action Plan, April 1998
– NSW POLICE SERVICE (on behalf of the Police Commissioners’ Policy Advisory Group (PCPAG)),
The Police and Public Area CCTV: Issues, Principles, Policy and Practice, 1999
– Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 (NSW) (No. 133 of 1998)
– PRIVACY NSW, A Guide to the Information Protection Principles, 2000
– Raciti v Hughes (unreported, Supreme Court of NSW Equity Division, No. 3667 of 1995)
– Security Industry Act 1997 (NSW) (No. 157 of 1997)
– Trifiletti G, Contracting out: the case for consumer rights in the provision of local government services,
Consumer Law Centre Vic. Limited, 1996
– Workplace Video Surveillance Act 1998 (NSW) (No. 52 of 1998)
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
25
Appendix 1
Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998
Part 2 – Information protection principles
Division 1 – Principles
8.
Collection of personal information for lawful purposes
(1)
A public sector agency must not collect personal information unless:
(a)
the information is collected for a lawful purpose which is directly related to a function or
activity of the agency, and
(b)
the collection of the information is reasonably necessary for that purpose.
(2)
A public sector agency must not collect personal information by any unlawful means.
9.
Collection of personal information directly from individual
A public sector agency must, in collecting personal information, collect the information directly from
the individual to whom the information relates unless:
(a)
the individual has authorised collection of the information from someone else, or
(b)
in the case of information relating to a person who is under the age of 16 years the
information has been provided by a parent or guardian of the person.
10.
Requirements when collecting personal information
If a public sector agency collects personal information from an individual, the agency must take such
steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to ensure that, before the information is collected or as
soon as practicable after collection, the individual to whom the information relates is made aware of
the following:
(a)
the fact that the information is being collected,
(b)
the purposes for which the information is being collected,
(c)
the intended recipients of the information,
(d)
whether the supply of the information by the individual is required by law or is voluntary, and
any consequences for the individual if the information (or any part of it) is not provided,
(e)
the existence of any right of access to, and correction of, the information,
(f)
the name and address of the agency which is collecting the information and the agency which
is to hold the information.
11.
Other requirements relating to collection of personal information
If a public sector agency collects personal information from an individual, the agency must take such
steps as are reasonable in the circumstances (having regard to the purposes for which the
information is collected) to ensure that:
26
(a)
the information collected is relevant to that purpose, is not excessive, and is accurate, up to
date and complete, and
(b)
the collection of the information does not intrude to an unreasonable extent on the personal
affairs of the individual to whom the information relates.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
12.
Retention and security of personal information
A public sector agency which holds personal information must ensure:
(a)
that the information is kept for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the
information may lawfully be used, and
(b)
that the information is disposed of securely and in accordance with any requirements for the
retention and disposal of personal information, and
(c)
that the information is protected, by taking such security safeguards as are reasonable in the
circumstances, against loss, unauthorised access, use, modification or disclosure, and against all
other misuse, and
(d)
that, if it is necessary for the information to be given to a person in connection with the
provision of a service to the agency, everything reasonably within the power of the agency is
done to prevent unauthorised use or disclosure of the information.
13.
Information about personal information held by agencies
A public sector agency which holds personal information must take such steps as are, in the
circumstances, reasonable to enable any person to ascertain:
(a)
whether the agency holds personal information, and
(b)
whether the agency holds personal information relating to that person, and
(c)
if the agency holds personal information relating to that person:
(i)
the nature of that information, and
(ii)
the main purposes for which the information is used, and
(iii)
that person's entitlement to gain access to the information.
14.
Access to personal information held by agencies
A public sector agency which holds personal information must, at the request of the individual to
whom the information relates and without excessive delay or expense, provide the individual with
access to the information.
15.
Alteration of personal information
(1) A public sector agency which holds personal information must, at the request of the individual to
whom the information relates, make appropriate amendments (whether by way of corrections,
deletions or additions) to ensure that the personal information:
(a)
is accurate, and
(b)
having regard to the purpose for which the information was collected (or is to be used) and
to any purpose that is directly related to that purpose, is relevant, up to date, complete and
not misleading.
(2)
If a public sector agency is not prepared to amend personal information in accordance with a
request by the individual to whom the information relates, the agency must, if so requested by
the individual concerned, take such steps as are reasonable to attach to the information, in
such a manner as is capable of being read with the information, any statement provided by
that individual of the amendment sought.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
27
(3)
If personal information is amended in accordance with this section, the individual to whom
the information relates is entitled, if it is reasonably practicable, to have recipients of that
information notified of the amendments made by the public sector agency.
16.
Agency must check accuracy of personal information before use
A public sector agency which holds personal information must not use the information without
taking such steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to ensure that, having regard to the purpose
for which the information is proposed to be used, the information is relevant, accurate, up to date,
complete and not misleading.
17.
Limits on use of personal information
A public sector agency which holds personal information must not use the information for a purpose
other than that for which it was collected unless:
28
(a)
the individual to whom the information relates has consented to the use of the information
for that other purpose, or
(b)
the other purpose for which the information is used is directly related to the purpose for
which the information was collected, or
(c)
the use of the information for that other purpose is necessary to prevent or lessen a serious
and imminent threat to the life or health of the individual to whom the information relates or
of another person.
18.
Limits on disclosure of personal information
(1)
A public sector agency which holds personal information must not disclose the information to
a person (other than the individual to whom the information relates) or other body, whether
or not such other person or body is a public sector agency, unless:
(a)
the disclosure is directly related to the purpose for which the information was collected, and
the agency disclosing the information has no reason to believe that the individual concerned
would object to the disclosure, or
(b)
the individual concerned is reasonably likely to have been aware, or has been made aware in
accordance with section 10, that information of that kind is usually disclosed to that other
person or body, or
(c)
the agency believes on reasonable grounds that the disclosure is necessary to prevent or
lessen a serious and imminent threat to the life or health of the individual concerned or
another person.
(2)
If personal information is disclosed in accordance with subsection (1) to a person or body
which is a public sector agency, that agency must not use or disclose the information for a
purpose other than the purpose for which the information was given to it.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
19.
Special restrictions on disclosure of personal information
(1)
A public sector agency must not disclose personal information relating to an individual's
ethnic or racial origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union
membership, health or sexual activities unless the disclosure is necessary to prevent a serious
or imminent threat to the life or health of the individual concerned or another person.
(2)
A public sector agency which holds personal information must not disclose the information to
any person or body who is in a jurisdiction outside New South Wales unless:
(a)
a relevant privacy law which applies to the personal information concerned is in force in that
jurisdiction, or
(b)
the disclosure is permitted under a privacy code of practice.
(3)
For the purposes of subsection (2), a "relevant privacy law" means a law which is determined
by the Privacy Commissioner, by notice published in the Gazette, to be a privacy law for the
jurisdiction concerned.
(4)
The Privacy Commissioner is, within the year following the commencement of this section, to
prepare a code relating to the disclosure of personal information by public sector agencies to
persons or bodies outside New South Wales.
(5)
Subsection (2) does not apply:
(a)
until after the first anniversary of the commencement of this section, or
(b)
until a code referred to in subsection (4) is made,
whichever is the later.
Appendix 2
Example of Standard Operating Procedures
This set of Standard Operating Procedures has been included to serve as a guide and is not to be
considered as an exhaustive list of the material which should be included. The Standard Operating
Procedures developed for individual CCTV operations would need to reflect individual requirements.
Among the key issues to be covered by the Standard Operating Procedures are:
Access to and security of Control Centre monitoring room
1.
Access to the Control Centre monitoring room should be generally restricted to authorised
monitor operators and persons involved with the management of the system.
2.
Local councils should develop policy and procedures concerning visitors to the monitoring
room. These should cover matters like which parties might be granted access, the process for
granting access, the circumstances under which access will be granted, what level of access
visitors will be granted, and how visitors will be supervised.
3.
Monitors must not be located in such a position as would enable public view.
4.
A register, which records the employees tasked to monitor and control the equipment each
monitoring shift, must be maintained.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
29
5.
A register should also be maintained to record the name, organisation and length of visit of
any person entering the monitoring room.
6.
A tasked operator must always be present during the operation of the monitors. If the
monitors are to be left unattended by a tasked officer, the monitoring room is to be secured
against unauthorised entry.
The following procedures are to be adhered to by monitor operators rostered for duty at the
CCTV Control Centre:
n
At the commencement of each shift, monitor operator(s) are to record the following detail in
the Shift Log:
n
personal details
n
date/time of shift
n
identifying number of tape(s) to be used during shift.
n
At the completion of each shift, the off-going operator is to remove the videotape(s) for storage.
The tapes are to be placed at the end of the rotation line in the secure tape cabinet.
n
The on-coming operator is to immediately install the next tape(s) from the rotation line after
completing identification and shift details in the Shift Log.
n
Tapes are to remain in the CCTV video for duration of an operator's rostered shift.
Initiating response to identified incidents
When an operator identifies an actual or emergency incident to which a response is required, the
operator must contact either the police or local council officers (whichever is appropriate), while
ensuring that the potential incident is being recorded.
When contacting the police, ensure the reported incident is displayed on the police monitor (if
available), and follow police directions regarding camera operation. The police will assess the
reported incident and organise the response.
If possible, the incident must continue to be recorded up to and including the completion of the
response.
Whenever a response is deemed appropriate to an identified incident, the monitor operator must
record the following in the Incident Log:
n
type of incident (according to defined offence categories), including description (e.g. number of
persons involved)
n
date and time of incident
n
organisation making response (i.e. police or local council).
The incident report must be filled out by monitoring personnel and copies provided to the local
council and police. The incident report must record information which will assist police in the
recording of the incident. An example of an incident report is illustrated in Appendix 4.
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NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
Transferring operating control of monitor to police
Monitor operators must only transfer control of the police monitor to police personnel when so
requested by police. In such cases, the monitor operator must record the following in the Shift Log:
n
the name of the requesting police officer
n
the reason given for the request for transfer of operating control
n
the date, time and length of transfer control.
Tapes, photographs and other recorded material
The most commonly used medium in CCTV systems is videotapes and still photographs. The term
‘recorded material’ refers to, but is not limited to, videotape, compact disk, computer disk, film and
any other media used for storing images. It is important that the local council recognises that the
use of and access to recorded medium is clearly defined and outlined in Standard Operating
Procedures developed.
As owners of the recorded material, local councils will need to ensure that:
n
CCTV systems will be used only for the purposes defined in the CCTV program approved by
local councils
n
access to recorded material is strictly defined and monitored
n
material will not be sold or used for commercial purposes or the provision of entertainment
n
recorded material will only be provided in accordance with the law e.g. in compliance with police
requirements in connection with the investigation of a crime.
Retention of and access to recorded material
1.
All videotapes must be chronologically marked and stored in a secure, lockable cabinet within
the monitoring room of the Control Centre.
2.
All videotapes must be marked with a unique security number which cannot be transferred to
another tape. The security number should indicate if movement from original tape occurred
e.g. change colour, self-destruct, etc.
3.
A register must be maintained, outlining the exact date and time of use of each tape. Control
Centre personnel should be informed that the tape register will be included in the regular
audit.
4.
A rotation system must be used for recorded videotapes. Used tapes must be stored in the
secure cabinet and rotated in turn. The recorded images of a day’s activities must not be held
for longer than 31 days from the time of recording, unless there has been a request to hold a
tape for investigative or evidentiary purposes. The tape is then to be recorded over.
5.
If a request is received to hold a tape, that tape shall be taken out of the rotation group and
replaced with an another tape.
6.
A copy of the tape must only be released to a police officer on receipt of a signed request
from the Local Area Commander. The operator is to retain the original tape and place it in a
tamper resistant container. An operator may take a tape out of the rotation group and place
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
31
it on hold, following a verbal request from a police officer. However, the tape can only be
released to the officer if a signed request for release of the tape is received within 31 days. If
the release request is not received within that time, the tape is to be returned to the rotation
group.
7.
Generally, tapes should be released to the police only.
8.
Requests for access to tapes from non-police persons must be referred to the local council’s
Public Officer. The Public Officer is to take account of the requirements of the Privacy and
Personal Information Protection Act 1998 before making any decision in relation to access.
9.
A register must be maintained to record all requests for tapes. The register must record the
recording date of the tape and the name of the officer to whom the copy was released.
10.
At the completion of every shift, Control Centre personnel must conduct a handover and
account for master tapes contained in security sealed bags, still photos taken during the shift
and access to the Control Centre.
11.
Recorded material should be released to the media only in specific circumstances. Such
requests should be co-ordinated via the NSW Police Service. A release should only occur to
gain public information in respect to the identity of an offender wanted in connection with an
offence which was recorded. In such cases, the recognisable characteristics of other people in
the footage shall be obscured.
12.
Still photographs should be treated in the same manner as videotapes. A register of
photographs taken must be maintained. The register must record the date on which the
photograph was taken and, as necessary, the name of the officer to whom the still photograph
was released.
13.
To maintain a register for still photographs, an identifying tamper resistant number must be
printed on the photograph.
14.
Images from recorded tapes must not, under any circumstance, be used to publicise the
existence or success of the CCTV program.
15.
Tapes must be maintained and used no more than the maximum number of times, as
recommended in manufacturer’s instructions.
16.
Tapes must be disposed of in a manner which does not allow the reproduction of any of the
recorded material.
Requests for video tapes and/or still photographs
Monitor operators must refer all requests for access to tapes and still photographs from non-police
persons to the local council Public Officer.
On receipt of a verbal request from a police officer to hold a tape, monitor operators must take the
nominated tape out of the tape rotation line and replace it with another tape. The requested tape
‘on hold’ must be kept secured in a lockable cabinet.
On receipt of a verbal request from a police officer to provide a still photograph, the monitor must
cut the still photograph and place ‘on hold’ in a secured lockable cabinet. The number of the still
photograph must be noted in a register.
32
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
A tape and/or still photograph must only be released to a police officer on receipt of a signed
request from the Local Area Police Commander (see Appendix 4). In this case, the police officer is
to receive a copy of the requested tape and/or still photograph. The operator must place the
original tape in a tamper resistant container and secure it in the lockable cabinet.
For tapes which are ‘on hold’, if a signed request for release of the tape is not received within 31
days, the tape is to be returned to the rotation group.
When a verbal request for recorded material is received, monitor operators are to sign and record
the following in the Tape and Photo Request Log:
n
number and recording date of tape
n
date of request for tape to be held
n
name of requesting police officer.
When a copy of a tape and/or a still photograph is released to a police officer, monitor operators
are to sign and record the following in the Tape and Photo Request Log:
n
number and recording date of tape
n
date on which tape was released
n
name of the officer to whom the tape copy was released.
The master tape is only to be released to a police officer on the provision of a subpoena and release
of master videotape form (see Appendix 4). When the master tape is released, monitor operators
are to sign and record the following in the Tape and Photo Request Log:
n
number and recording date of tape
n
date on which tape was released
n
name of the officer to whom the tape copy was released.
Appendix 3
Guide to technical aspects – some issues for consideration
This Appendix lists some of the technical aspects involved in establishing and implementing a CCTV
scheme, which a local council or other auspicing body will need to consider. It is not intended to be
exhaustive, nor intended to make specific recommendations about technical matters. It should be
read as a guide only.
It is strongly suggested that scheme owners seek expert advice on issues relating to technical
requirements and specifications. The consultant providing such advice must have a sound
understanding of all of the components which will eventually make up the CCTV system. This
includes the utilisation of a CCTV system, the way in which it operates (specifications) and their
ability to interface within the system, their suitability for operation within the given environment and
the level of human intervention required. Membership of one of the accredited professional security
organisations such as the Australian Security Industry Association Limited (ASIAL) should be a
minimum requirement when selecting a consultant.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
33
As CCTV recordings are used more and more for evidentiary purposes by police, consideration will
need to be given to the development of technical standards to be applied to scheme equipment
which safeguard evidentiary standards. There are a number of industry standards which apply – VHS
and VHS-C being the main ‘analog’ one, and DVC and DVC Pro being two of a number of emerging
digital formats.
Lease or purchase
Programs using leased CCTV equipment under a service contract may be more flexible than capital
expenditure on CCTV cameras as a permanent fixture. This is particularly relevant in the light of
rapidly developing technological advances in the area of video surveillance.
Equipment considerations
These can be grouped within the headings of Capture, Transmission, Display, Recording and Playback.
Capture
The first element in implementing a CCTV scheme is the cameras. The scheme owners or their
technical expert(s), should understand the significance of such things as:
n
pan, tilt, zoom, focus and iris mechanisms
n
lenses and associated operations (e.g. auto iris)
n
light thresholds, the effect of under and over illumination
n
resolution
n
optical distortion in domes
n
line and distribution amplifiers.
Cameras
The following provides a broad basis for camera specification:
n
where possible cameras should be colour. Monochrome cameras may be considered where
infra-red applications are of importance
n
all cameras to have a low light capability preferably under an illumination level of 2 lux
n
each camera to have a minimum resolution of 50 horizontal lines.
Pan, tilt and zoom motor drives
The following provides a broad basis for pan, tilt and zoom motor drive specification:
34
n
where camera re-positioning is required, each camera is to be equipped with pan, tilt and zoom
motor drive unit
n
pan speed to be no less than 20 degrees per second, including dual speed drives, and to be
capable of 360 degrees rotation
n
where preset positioning is required, pan, tilt and zoom motor drives to include preset
functionality of a minimum of 5 presets per camera
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
n
all camera units should be equipped with an optimum of 14x zoom capability, unless the field of
view required at a particular location is of such size that lesser zoom units provide sufficient
identification
n
all controlling devices for the motorised mechanisms to be located in such a manner as to
prevent damage from vandalism, and should include a tamper alarm.
Dome units
The following provides a broad basis for dome unit specification:
n
all cameras to be enclosed in environmentally sealed dome housings
n
the housings are to include tinting and "clear slot" design so as not to reveal the particular
direction in which the camera is facing
n
the camera viewing port to be designed so as to minimise any loss in low light capability
n
dome unit to be vandal resistant
n
housing to be environmentally sealed against dust, heat and moisture
n
dome unit to be fitted with a security chain.
It is essential that domes be manufactured to minimise optical distortion when cameras are operated
at maximum tilt and zoom. Equally, as cameras are generally situated lower than other security
cameras, they should operate silently. This provides greater security for the cameras against
vandalism.
Display and Recording
In conjunction with monitors, the technical expert should be able to assess the need for the
following equipment:
n
screen splitters
n
motion detection
n
sequencers
n
frame storage.
In regard to video recorders, the consultant should be aware of the relative merits of:
n
real time recording
n
slow scan
n
monochrome and colour
n
digital onto disk.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
35
Transmission
In regard to system interconnection, the transmission media for the final system will need to be
tailored to cope with the particular urban environment in question. The consultant must be able to
recommend which of the following, or combination of them, best suit it:
n
twisted pair
n
coaxial cable
n
optical fibre
n
microwave
n
infra-red.
Or any combination of the above units in a hybrid system.
Note: with regard to microwave and infra-red transmission, local councils should be alerted to the
issues of safety and public perception regarding the health impact of these systems.
Display
Monitoring room and monitors
The following provides a basis for monitoring equipment specification:
36
n
a singular colour screen to be used as the main monitoring screen; to be no less than 41cm
measured diagonally across the screen
n
all required activity on the main monitoring screen to be recorded in ‘real time’ (Note: slow scan
should not be used as the principal recording system)
n
one secondary monitor to be supplied for each bank of four cameras; to be no less than 15cm
measured diagonally across the screen
n
each secondary monitor to be capable of sequencing through each of the undisplayed cameras at
a preset rate and/or displaying all of the four cameras on the screen at the one time
n
all monitoring to be conducted in a secure area or room
n
lighting within the monitoring room to be in accordance with Occupational Health and Safety
regulations
n
monitors to be positioned in such a manner as to prevent eye strain.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
Appendix 4 - Incident Report
(Note: This document is provided as an example only and agencies are encouraged to
develop their own document)
Location: Incident Report
Incident
? Assault – serious
? Assault – minor
? Brawl
? Weapon
? Malicious Damage
? Motor veh. Accident
? Drug overdose
? Drug offence
? Trespass
? BE&S
? Stealing
? Robbery
? Intoxicated Person
? Information only
? Operation
? Warrants
? GIC
? Steal MV
? Street offence
Other Emergency
? Fire
? Water
? Medical
? Power
Community
? Cash escort
? Demonstrations
? Special Events
? Parade
? Security
Report No:..................................
Local Authority
? Repair/maintenance
? Environment
? Waste
? Traffic
? Health
? Ordinance/breach
? Safety
CCTV Maintenance
? Cameras
? Monitoring equip.
? Recording equip.
? Optic fibre
? House keeping
Organisations Responding
? Police
? Fire
? Ambulance
Ref. Name……………. Time/Date Notified……………………………..
Other
1
2
3
? FCC
Time Responded…………………....
Entities Involved:
(Enter a brief description of the people involved, circle relevant options only, and refer to them as P1, P2 etc in
the narrative. Be factual and concise.)
Person 1
Sex: M/F
Age:………..?
Person 2
Sex: M/F
Age:………..?
Person 3
Sex: M/F
Age:………..?
Height: S M T
App: As Ca Me Ab Pa
Bld: T M L F
HrT: S M L B
HClr: Fa Br Co Re Bl
Other:
Height: S M T
App: As Ca Me Ab Pa
Bld: T M L F
HrT: S M L B
HClr: Fa Br Co Re Bl
Other:
Height: S M T
App: As Ca Me Ab Pa
Bld: T M L F
HrT: S M L B
HClr: Fa Br Co Re Bl
Other:
Vehicle 1
Rg:
State/Terr.: NSW QLD Vic Tas NT
WA SA ACT
Type: 4w Se Wg Va Pan
Mk
Md
Clr:
Narrative:
Incident Recording Details
Tape No.
Date
Officer Name
Officer Sig
Camera No.
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
37
Sample forms
(Note: This document is provided as an example only and agencies are encouraged to
develop their own document)
RELEASE FORM FOR A COPY VIDEOTAPE
The Proper Officer – Local Authority
Address
Dear Sir/Madam
Videotape Requisition
The following incident occurred in the vicinity of the (identified area) and has been recorded on videotape
by the CCTV cameras operated by (Local authority).
Alleged Incident
Location of Incident
Date/Time
Master Tape Number
COPS Event Number
Requesting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Station/Branch
Collecting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Copy Tape Number
*I acknowledge that I am responsible for ensuring the tape(s) is/are only used for official Police
purposes.
Monitoring Staff (Print)
Date/Time
Supplied is a blank video cassette to record the original tape. This copy will be used for investigation
purposes only. Please hold the original until a video exhibit release form and subpoena from the court is
forwarded.
Exhibit Reference Number is…………………
.............................................................................. (Please Print)
.................................................................................. (Signature)
Date ....................................................................
q Local Area Commander
q Duty Officer
Note: Blue coloured Exhibit Receipt Form is to be attached to this Requisition Form by Police Officer in charge of
the matter.
38
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
(Note: This document is provided as an example only and agencies are encouraged to
develop their own document)
RELEASE FORM FOR A PHOTO EXTRACT
The Proper Officer – Local Authority
Address
Dear Sir/Madam
Photo Extract Requisition
The following incident occurred in the vicinity of the (identified area) and has been recorded on videotape
by the CCTV cameras operated by (Local authority).
Alleged Incident
Location of Incident
Date/Time
Tape Number/s
Photo No/s
COPS Event Number
Requesting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Station/Branch
Collecting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Copy Tape Number
*I acknowledge that I am responsible for ensuring the tape(s) is/are only used for official Police
purposes.
Monitoring Staff (Print)
Date/Time
Supplied is a blank video cassette to record the original tape. This copy will be used for investigation
purposes only. Please hold the original until a photo exhibit release form and subpoena from the court is
forwarded.
Exhibit Reference Number is…………………
.............................................................................. (Please Print)
.................................................................................. (Signature)
Date ....................................................................
q Local Area Commander
q Duty Officer
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
39
(Note: This document is provided as an example only and agencies are encouraged to
develop their own document)
RELEASE FORM FOR A MASTER EXTRACT
The Proper Officer – Local Authority
Address
Dear Sir/Madam
Videotape Requisition
The following incident occurred in the vicinity of the (identified area) and has been recorded on videotape
by the CCTV cameras operated by (Local authority).
Alleged Incident
Location of Incident
Date/Time
Master Tape Number
COPS Event Number
Requesting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Station/Branch
Collecting Officer (Print)
Signature*
Rank and Registered Number
Copy Tape Number
*I acknowledge that I am responsible for ensuring the tape(s) is/are only used for official Police
purposes.
Monitoring Staff (Print)
Date/Time
Supplied is a blank video cassette to record the original tape. This copy will be used for investigation
purposes only. Please hold the original until a video exhibit release form and subpoena from the court is
forwarded.
Exhibit Reference Number is…………………
.............................................................................. (Please Print)
.................................................................................. (Signature)
Date ....................................................................
q Local Area Commander
q Duty Officer
Note: Blue coloured Exhibit Receipt Form is to be attached to this Requisition Form by Police Officer in charge of
the matter. A subpoena must also accompany this form.
40
NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in Public Places
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