TM-10-3950-672-24-2

TM-10-3950-672-24-2
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
TECHNICAL MANUAL
Unit, Direct Support
and
General Support Maintenance Manual
for
WAREHOUSE CRANE
10,000 LB. CAPACITY, M469
WHEELED, DIESEL POWERED
NSN 3950-01-412-5345
(Grove Model AP 308T)
Approved for public release: Distribution is unlimited.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
June 1997
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Technical Manual
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 15June 1997
No. 10-3950-672-24-2
Unit, Direct Support and
General Support Maintenance Manual
for
WAREHOUSE CRANE
10,000 LB. CAPACITY, M469
WHEELED, DIESEL POWERED
NSN 3950-01-412-5345
(Grove Model AP 308T)
REPORTING OF ERRORS
You can improve this manual. If you find any mistakes or if you know of a way to improve the procedures,
please let us know. Mail your letter, DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank
Forms) or DA Form 2028-2 located in the back of this manual direct to: Commander, US Army Tankautomotive and Armaments Command, ATTN: AMSTA-IM-OPIT, Warren MI 48397-5000. A reply will be
furnished to you. You may also provide DA Form 2028-2 information to TACOM via datafax or email.
TACOM's datafax number for AMSTA-IM-OPIT is: (810) 574-6323 and email address is: [email protected]
This manual is an authentication of the manufacturer's commercial literature and does not conform with the format and
content specified in AR 25-30, Military Publications. This technical manual does, however, contain valuable information
that is essential to the operation and maintenance of the equipment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS - VOLUME 2
Page
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL ....................................................................................ii
CHAPTER 4
ENGINE MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................ 4-1
CHAPTER 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDU! ES ............................................................................. 5-1
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Section 12
Section 13
Section 14
General Engine Maintenance ................................................................................... 5-1
Troubleshooting Logic .............................................................................................. 5-8
Coolant System ..................................................................................................... 5-49
Fuel System .......................................................................................................... 5-66
Air System ........................................................................................................... 5-111
Lubricating System .............................................................................................. 5-116
Electrical System ................................................................................................. 5-143
Base Engine Components ................................................................................... 5-160
Engine Disassembly and Assembly ..................................................................... 5-259
Fuel Injection Pump ............................................................................................. 5-263
Cylinder Block Disassembly and Assembly .......................................................... 5-278
Engine Replacement and Testing ........................................................................ 5-308
Engine Testing ..................................................................................................... 5-315
Specifications ...................................................................................................... 5-347
Approved for public release: Distribution is unlimited.
i
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
This manual is designed to help you operate and maintain the equipment. All task descriptions will take you step-by-step
through the procedure. Don't take shortcuts. Before you begin any task, you should read through the complete
procedure, make sure you know what needs to be done, then go back and follow the steps as written.
Pay particular attention to WARNINGS and CAUTIONS, as they contain information that will prevent injury to personnel
or damage to equipment.
Use the alphabetical index at the back of the manual to find a topic not listed in the table of contents.
ii
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
CHAPTER 4
ENGINE MAINTENANCE
INTRODUCTION
Subject
Page
Generic Symbols ..................................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Definition of Terms .................................................................................................................................................. 4-2
Illustrations .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-3
General Safety Instructions ..................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Generic Symbols
The following group of symbols have been used in this manual to help communicate the intent of the instructions. When
one of the symbols appears, it conveys the meaning defined below.
4-1
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Definition of Terms
The following is a list of guidelines for each procedure in the " Repair Sections" of the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual. The procedure will be given first; followed by a definition of the step or steps involved.
Check - Examine a component or system for damage, excessive wear, accuracy, safety, or performance.
Inspect - Examine a component or dimension to make sure it meets the required specifications.
Test - Check or compare the performance of a component or system to established specifications.
Adjust - Complete the necessary steps to set or adjust the component, assemblies, or system in the required setting or
position.
Visually Inspect - Look for any obvious damage or problem.
Remove - Take off a component or assembly.
Clean - Remove dirt, grease or other contamination.
Disassemble - Take the component or assembly apart.
Repair - Restore a component or assembly to a serviceable condition within the established specifications.
Note: Only the easiest and simplest repairs will be made to a component or assembly. If a
component or assembly must be rebuilt; it must be replaced with a new or Cummins Diesel
ReCon® , Inc. replacement or be rebuilt at a Cummins authorized repair location.
Replace - Install a new, properly rebuilt, or Cummins Diesel ReCon® , Inc. component or assembly in place of one which
is removed.
Install - Place a component or assembly in the correct position.
Star Pattern Torque Sequence -
4-2
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Illustrations
The illustrations used in the Diagnosis Sections of this manual are intended to give an example of a problem, show what
to look for and where to look for the problem. Most of the illustrations are generic and might not look exactly like the
engine or parts used in your application. Some illustrations contain symbols to indicate an action required and an
acceptable or unacceptable condition.
The illustrations used in the Replacement Sections are intended to show replacement procedures when the engine is
installed in a chassis. The illustration may differ from your application, but the procedure given will be the same.
4-3
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
General Safety Instructions
Important Safety Notice
Read and understand all safety precautions and warnings before performing repairs.
This symbol appears in the manual when a potential safety hazard exists that can cause personal injury
or death. These hazards are not always apparent to a trained mechanic.
It is not possible for Cummins Engine Co., Inc. to anticipate every possible circumstance that can
involve a potential hazard.
Warning: Cummins Engine Company, Inc. does not recommend or authorize any modifications or
repairs to engines or components except for those detailed in CUMMINS SERVICE INFORMATION.
In particular, unauthorized repair to safety-related components can cause personal injury. Below is a
partial listing of components classified as safety-related:
Air Compressor
Air Controls
Air Shutoff Assemblies
Balance Weights
Cooling Fan
Fan Hub Assembly
Fan Mounting Bracket(s)
Fan Mounting Capscrews
Fan Hub Spindle
Flywheel
Flywheel Crankshaft Adapter
Flywheel Mounting Capscrews
Fuel Shutoff Assemblies
Fuel Supply Tubes
Lifting Brackets
Throttle Controls
Turbocharger Compressor Casing
Turbocharger Oil Drain Line(s)
Turbocharger Oil Supply Line(s)
Turbocharger Turbine Casing
Vibration Damper Mounting Capscrews
Read and understand all of the safety precautions and warnings before performing any repair. This list contains the
general safety precautions that must be followed to provide personal safety. Special safety precautions are included in
the procedures when they apply.
Be sure the work area surrounding the product is safe. Be aware of hazardous conditions that can exist.
Always wear protective glasses and protective shoes when working.
Do not wear loose-fitting or torn clothing. Remove all jewelry such as rings, watches, etc., when working.
Disconnect the battery and discharge any capacitors before beginning any repair work. Disconnect the
air starter if equipped to prevent accidental engine starting. Put a " Do Not Operate' tag in the operator's
compartment or on the controls.
4-4
TM 10-3950-672-24-2 General Safety Instructions Important Safety Notice
4-5/(4-6 blank)
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
CHAPTER 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Subject
General Engine Maintenance ...........................................................
Troubleshooting Logic ......................................................................
Coolant System ...............................................................................
Fuel System .....................................................................................
Air System .......................................................................................
Lubricating System ..........................................................................
Electrical System .............................................................................
Base Engine Components ................................................................
Engine Disassembly and Assembly ..................................................
Fuel Injection Pump .........................................................................
Cylinder Block Disassembly and Assembly ......................................
Engine Replacement and Testing ....................................................
Engine Testing .................................................................................
Specifications ..................................................................................
Section
Page
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
5-1
5-8
5-49
5-66
5-111
5-116
5-143
5-160
5-259
5-263
5-278
5-308
5-315
5-347
Section 1. General Engine Maintenance
Subject ..................................................................................................................................................... Page
Engine Dataplate........................................................................................................................................................... 5-2
Fuel Pump Dataplate (Nameplate) ................................................................................................................................ 5-3
External Engine Components ....................................................................................................................................... 5-4
Engine Specifications.................................................................................................................................................... 5-6
5-1
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Dataplate
The engine dataplate shows specific information about
your engine. The engine serial number (1) and Control
Parts List (CPL) (2) provide information for ordering
parts and service needs.
5-2
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Fuel Pump Dataplate (Nameplate)
The fuel pump dataplate is located on the side of the
fuel pump. It provides information for fuel pump
calibration.
5-3
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External Engine Components
The pictures which follow show the locations of the major external engine components, the filters, and other service and
maintenance points. Some external components will be at different locations for different engine models.
Note: The pictures are only a reference to show a typical engine.
Fuel Pump Side View
Rear View
5-4
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Side View
Front View
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Engine Specifications
General Engine Data
Bore mm [in.] ...........................
Stroke -mm [in.] .......................
Displacement litre [in.3] ............
Engine Weight (Dry) Less Flywheel
and Electric’s-kg [lbs] ...............
Firing Order ..............................
Valve Clearances
-Intake - mm [in.] ................
-Exhaust - mm [in.] ............
Compression Ratio ...................
Rotation, viewed from the Front of
-the Engine ........................
Aspiration
-Naturally Aspirated ...........
-----------------------------------------102 [4.02] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------120 [4.72] ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3.9 [239]
308 [680]
1.3.4.2
----------------------------------------- 25 [.010] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 [.020] ---------------------------------------------------18.5: 1
-----------------------------------------Clockwise ---------------------------------------------------
X
Lubrication System
Oil Pressure at Idle
(Minimum Allowable) kPa [PSI]
----------------------------------------69 [10] ----------------------------------------------------Oil Pressure at Rated
(Minimum Allowable) kPa [PSI]
--------------------------------------- 207 [30] ---------------------------------------------------Regulating Valve Opening
Pressure kPa [PSI]..............
------------------------------------------ 414 [60] ---------------------------------------------------Differential Pressure to Open the
Bypass Valve kPa [PSI] .....
------------------------------------------138 (20] ---------------------------------------------------Oil Capacity of Pan (High/Low)
Litre [U.S. Qts.] .................
----------------------- 9.5 [10]
----------------------- 8.5 [ 9]
Cooling System
Coolant Capacity (Engine Only)
Litre [U.S. Qts.] .......................
---------- 7[7.4]
Standard Modulating
Thermostat Range °C [°F] ..
--------------------- Start 83 [180] --------------------- Fully Open 95 [203] ----------------Pressure Cap (kPa [PSI])
104°C [220°F] Systems ....
------------------------------------------ 103 [15] ---------------------------------------------------99°C [210°F] Systems .......
------------------------------------------- 48 [7]-----------------------------------------------------5-6
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Intake Air, Exhaust and Fuel
System
Maximum Allowable Intake
Restriction at Rated Speed and
Load with Dirty Air Filter Element
mm H20 [in. H20]...............
508
[20]
Maximum Allowable Exhaust
Restriction at Rated
Speed and Load
mm Hg [in. Hg] .................
Maximum Allowable Restriction
to Pump With Dirty Filter
mm Hg [in. Hg] .................
Maximum Allowable Return
Line Restriction ...................
mm Hg [in. Hg]
Electrical System
Minimum Recommended Battery
Capacity With Light
Accessories* ......................
-12 V Starter
With Heavy Accessories*.
-12 V Starter .......................
Maximum Allowable Resistance
of Starting Circuit With
- 12 V Starter Ohms ...........
------------------------------------------ 76.2 [3]-----------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------- 95 [3.75] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------518 [20.4) ---------------------------------------------------
625CCA
800CCA
----------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------- 0012 ------------------------------------------------------
*Typical light accessories include (alternator, small steering pump, and disengaged clutch)
**Typical heavy accessories include (hydraulic pump and torque converter)
5-7
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Section 2. Troubleshooting Logic
Subject
Page
Engine Diagrams ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-8
Problem Isolation and Correction ................................................................................................................................ 5-8
Troubleshooting Logic (List of Symptoms) ................................................................................................................... 5-9
Troubleshooting Logic
Engine Diagrams
A schematic of each of the major engine systems is provided at the beginning of the Section of the manual devoted to
troubleshooting and repairing that particular system.
The diagrams depict flow through the various engine systems. The information and configuration of the components
illustrated in the drawings are of a general nature. Some items for specific applications and installations may be
different.
Each Section also contains a discussion regarding diagnosing malfunctions for that specific system.
A knowledge of the systems can help you troubleshoot and repair the engine.
Problem Isolation and Correction
The following Troubleshooting Logic is designed to help you organize your study of a problem and to plan a procedure to
correct it. The series of fault/logic charts given do not provide all the answers, but they should stimulate a train of
thought that will lead you to the source of the trouble.
Be sure to consider any maintenance or repair action that could have caused the problem.
If the engine surges or runs rough initially after not being used for 2 months or more, do not assume that the engine has
a malfunction. Varnish can form on the internal parts of the injection pump and the oil film can drain from the piston
rings. Operate the engine for at least 5 minutes before troubleshooting.
The basic procedure is as follows:
Study the problem thoroughly.
Relate the symptoms to your knowledge of the engine components and systems.
Double-check before beginning the disassembly.
Solve the problem by deduction starting with the easiest things.
Determine the cause of the problem and make a thorough repair.
After making corrections, operate the engine in normal conditions to verify the cause of the problem was
corrected.
5-8
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Troubleshooting Logic
List of Symptoms ....................................................................................................................................................... Page
Alternator Not Charging Or Insufficient Charging ........................................................................................................ 5-48
Coolant Loss .............................................................................................................................................................. 5-32
Coolant Temperature Above Normal .......................................................................................................................... 5-28
Coolant Temperature Below Normal ........................................................................................................................... 5-31
Compression Knocks .................................................................................................................................................. 5-42
Contaminated Coolant ................................................................................................................................................ 5-39
Contaminated Lube Oil .............................................................................................................................................. 5-40
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start - No Smoke From Exhaust ..................................................................................... 5-11
Engine Hard To Start Or Will Not Start Smoke From Exhaust .................................................................................... 5-13
Engine RPM Will Not Reach Rated Speed ................................................................................................................. 5-21
Engine Runs Rough Or Misfiring ................................................................................................................................ 5-19
Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running ................................................................................................................... 5-15
Engine Will Not Crank Or Cranks Slowly .................................................................................................................... 5-10
Engine Will Not Shut Off ............................................................................................................................................ 5-44
Excessive Engine Noises ........................................................................................................................................... 5-47
Excessive Exhaust Smoke ......................................................................................................................................... 5-27
Excessive Fuel Consumption ..................................................................................................................................... 5-43
Excessive Vibration .................................................................................................................................................... 5-45
Fuel Or Oil Leaking From Exhaust Manifold ............................................................................................................... 5-41
Low Power ................................................................................................................................................................. 5-23
Lube Oil Loss ............................................................................................................................................................. 5-37
Lubricating Oil Pressure Low ...................................................................................................................................... 5-34
Lubricating Oil Pressure Too High .............................................................................................................................. 5-36
Rough Idle (Irregularly Firing Or Engine Shaking) ...................................................................................................... 5-17
Surging (Speed Change) ............................................................................................................................................ 5-16
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Engine Will Not Crank Or Cranks Slowly
5-10
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Engine Cranks But Will Not Start No Smoke From Exhaust
5-11
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Engine Cranks But Will Not Start No Smoke From Exhaust (Continued)
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Engine Hard To Start Or Will Not Start Smoke From Exhaust
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Engine Hard To Start Or Will Not Start Smoke From Exhaust (Continued)
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Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running
5-15
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Surging (Speed Change)
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Rough Idle (Irregularly Firing Or Engine Shaking)
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Rough Idle (Irregularly Firing Or Engine Shaking) (Continued)
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Engine Runs Rough Or Misfiring
5-19
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Engine Runs Rough Or Misfiring (Continued)
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Engine RPM Will Not Reach Rated Speed
5-21
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Engine RPM Will Not Reach Rated Speed (Continued)
5-22
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Low Power
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Low Power (Continued)
5-24
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Low Power (Continued)
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Low Power (Continued)
5-26
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Excessive Exhaust Smoke
5-27
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Coolant Temperature Above Normal
5-28
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Coolant Temperature Above Normal (Continued)
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Coolant Temperature Above Normal (Continued)
5-30
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Coolant Temperature Below Normal
5-31
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Coolant Loss
5-32
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Coolant Loss (Continued)
5-33
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Lubricating Oil Pressure Low
5-34
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Lubricating Oil Pressure Low (Continued)
5-35
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Lubricating Oil Pressure Too High
5-36
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Lube Oil Loss
5-37
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Lube Oil Loss (Continued)
5-38
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Contaminated Coolant
5-39
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Contaminated Lube Oil
5-40
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Fuel Or Oil Leaking From Exhaust Manifold
5-41
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Compression Knocks
5-42
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Excessive Fuel Consumption
5-43
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Engine Will Not Shut Off
5-44
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Excessive Vibration
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Excessive Vibration (Continued)
5-46
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Excessive Engine Noises
5-47
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Alternator Not Charging Or Insufficient Charging
5-48
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Section 3. Coolant System
Subject
Page
Coolant System Components and Flow ...................................................................................................................... 5-50
Coolant System Malfunctions - Diagnosis ................................................................................................................... 5-51
Pressure Caps ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-53
Water (Coolant) Pump ............................................................................................................................................ 5-54
Radiator, Fans, and Shutters ................................................................................................................................... 5-55
Thermostat ............................................................................................................................................................. 5-56
Gauges, Overfueling, and Loading .......................................................................................................................... 5-58
Coolant System Replacement Procedures ................................................................................................................. 5-59
Drive Belt ................................................................................................................................................................ 5-59
Belt Tensioner ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-59
Fan Pulley ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-59
Fan Hub .................................................................................................................................................................. 5-60
Coolant - Draining ................................................................................................................................................... 5-60
Water Pump ........................................................................................................................................................... 5-61
Thermostat ............................................................................................................................................................. 5-62
Thermostat (Inspection) .......................................................................................................................................... 5-63
Cup Plugs ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-65
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Coolant System
Coolant System Components and Flow
The following illustration identifies the significant features of the coolant system.
A. Coolant is drawn from the radiator by the integrally mounted water pump. The output from the water pump empties
into the oil cooler cavity of the cylinder block.
B. The coolant then circulates around each cylinder and crosses the block to the fuel pump side of the engine.
C. Coolant then flows up into the cylinder head, crosses over the valve bridges and down the exhaust manifold side of
the engine to the integral thermostat housing.
D. As the coolant flows across the head toward the thermostat housing, it provides cooling for the injector nozzle. When
the engine is below operating temperature, the thermostat is closed, and the coolant flow bypasses the radiator and
goes to the water pump inlet via internal drillings in the block and cylinder head.
When operating temperature is reached, the thermostat open, blocking the bypass passage to the water pump and
opening the outlet to the radiator.
∆
Caution: Never operate the engine without a thermostat. Without a thermostat, the coolant will not flow to the
radiator and the engine will overheat.
5-50
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Cooling System
Specifications
Coolant Capacity (Engine
Only)- Litre [U.S. Qts.].. 7 [7.4]
Standard Modulating
Thermostat - Range °C [°F] ........................ -------------------Start 80 [180] -----------------Fully Open 95 [203]----------------------------Pressure Cap (kPa [PSI])
104°C 1220°F] Systems ..............................
103 [15]
Pressure Cap (kPa [PSI])
99°C [210°F] Systems ..............................
48 [7]
Coolant System Malfunctions Diagnosis
The function of the coolant system is to maintain a
specified operating temperature for the engine. Some
of the heat generated by the engine is absorbed by the
coolant flowing through the passages in the cylinder
block and head. Then, heat is removed from the
coolant as it flows through the radiator. When you
troubleshoot overheating, remember that too much oil in
the oil pan can cause additional heat from friction when
the rod journals are submerged in oil.
Overfilling with oil raises the oil temperature which is
transferred to the coolant system at the oil cooler.
5-51
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The system is designed to use a specific quantity of
coolant. If the coolant level is low, the engine will run
hot.
Note: The engine or system has a
leak if frequent addition of coolant is
necessary. Find and repair the leak.
Caution:
The
engine
coolant
passages must be completely filled
with coolant.
During operation entrapped air mixes with the coolant
which results in cavitation corrosion and poor heat
transfer. Highly aerated coolant can cause localized
overheating of the cylinder head and block which can
result in a cracked head, scored cylinder or blown head
gasket.
During filling, air must be vented from the engine
coolant passages. The air vents through the "jiggle pin"
opening and the notched vent hole to the top radiator
hose and out the fill opening.
Note: Adequate venting is provided
for a fill rate of 30 liters/minute [8
U.S. Gallon/minute].
Caution: Never use only water for
engine coolant. In tropical climates
where antifreeze availability may be
limited, use a corrosion inhibitor
(Cummins Liquid DCA) to protect the
engine cooling system.
A mixture of 50% ethylene-glycol base antifreeze is
required for operation of the engine in temperature
environments above -37° C [-34° F]. A mixture of 40%
water and 60% antifreeze is recommended for
temperatures below -37°C [-34°F].
5-52
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Caution: The small holes in the head
gasket are especially susceptible to
plugging.
Water will cause rust formation reducing the flow in the
smaller coolant passages.
Caution: These holes are orifices and
their size is critical. Do not enlarge
the size of the orifices. To do so will
disturb the coolant flow and will not
solve an overheating problem.
Also, water used as a coolant for even a relatively short
period can result in the cup plugs rusting through
allowing the coolant to leak.
Note: A sudden loss of coolant from
a heavily loaded engine can result in
severe damage to the pistons and
cylinder bore.
Pressure Caps The system is designed to use a
pressure cap to prevent boiling of the coolant.
Different caps are specified for the two recommended
systems:
System
A - 104°C [220°F]
B - 99°C [210°F]
Cap
103kPa [15 PSI]
48kPa [7 PSI]
An incorrect or malfunctioning cap can result in the loss
of coolant and the engine running hot.
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Air in the coolant can result in loss from the overflow
when the aerated coolant is hot. The heated air
expands, increasing the pressure in the system causing
the cap to open.
Similarly, coolant can be displaced through the overflow
if the head gasket leaks compression gasses to the
coolant system.
The operating pressure of the coolant system and the
lubricating system can result in the mixing of the fluids if
there is a leak between the systems: head gasket, oil
cooler, etc. (refer to the Lubricating System).
Note: Transmission fluid can also
leak into the coolant through bottom
tank oil coolers.
Water (Coolant) Pump
The water pump pulls coolant from the bottom of the
radiator and pumps it through the engine back to the top
of the radiator for cooling. Reduced or interrupted flow
will result In the engine. running hot.
The pump is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley. An
automatic belt tensioner is used to prevent the belt from
slipping on the pump pulley. A malfunction of the
tensioner will cause the water pump impeller to rotate at
a slower speed reducing the amount of coolant flow.
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The coolant flow can also be reduced if the inlet hose to
the water pump collapses. A hose will usually not
collapse while the engine is running at low speed.
Check the hose while the engine is running at rated
speed.
Note: Be sure the engine is warm, a
minimum of 95°C [203° F], so the
thermostat is open.
A worn or malfunctioning water pump will not produce
the flow required to prevent the engine from running hot.
However, be sure to check the other possibilities
indicated in the Troubleshooting Logic before checking
the flow or replacing the pump.
As stated in the coolant discussion, an obstruction in the
passages can interrupt flow.
Radiator, Fans and Shutters
Air forced through the fins of the radiator by a fan cools
the
coolant
pumped
through
the
radiator.
Environmental debris (paper, straw, lint, dust, etc.) can
obstruct the fins and stop the flow of air which will
reduce the cooling effect of the radiator.
5-55
TM10-3950-672-24-2
If the fan is belt driven, a slipping belt will result in a
slower fan speed and reduced cooling.
A
malfunctioning automatic belt tensioner can be the
problem.
Note: Check the bearings in the fan
hub and other pulleys to make sure
they are not causing excessive belt
vibration and slippage.
An incorrect fan shroud or obstructions can reduce air
flow and cause the engine to run hot.
Note: Check to be sure air is not
recirculating.
Check for missing
baffles.
Thermostat
The thermostat controls the coolant temperature. When
the coolant temperature is below the operating range,
coolant is bypassed back to the inlet of the water pump.
When the coolant temperature reaches the operating
range, the thermostat opens, sealing off the bypass,
forcing coolant to flow to the radiator.
Caution: Never operate the engine
without a thermostat.
Without a
thermostat the path of least
resistance for the coolant is through
the bypass to the pump inlet. This
will cause the engine to overheat.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
An incorrect or malfunctioning thermostat can cause the
engine to run too hot or too cold.
As described in the coolant discussion, a jiggle pin fitted
to an opening in the thermostat flange is used to vent air
during filling of the coolant system.
After the engine is vented and filled, the jiggle pin acts
as a check valve to block the flow of coolant through the
opening during engine operation.
Note: A missing jiggle pin can cause
the engine to run cold.
With the jiggle pin sealing the opening, most of the flow
to the radiator is controlled by the thermostat in
response to the engine coolant temperature.
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A small amount of continuous flow through the vent
notch reduces the frequency of the closing or surging of
the thermostat.
Gauges, Overfueling and Loading
Gauges and sensors are used in the system to measure
the coolant temperature. These can malfunction and
provide an incorrect temperature indication.
Caution: Overfueling can cause the
engine to overheat. Make sure that
the fuel pump is calibrated correctly.
Caution:
Constant
overloading
(lugging) can cause the engine to
run hot.
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Cooling System Replacement Procedures
Drive Belt - Replacement
1/2 inch Square Drive
Lift the tensioner to remove and install the drive belt.
Belt Tensioner - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Remove the drive belt
15mm
Remove the capscrew and replace the tensioner.
Torque Value: 43 N•m 132 ft-lbs]
Fan Pulley Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Remove the drive belt.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
13mm
Remove the four capscrews, fan and spacer. Replace
the fan pulley.
Torque Value: 24N•m
[18 ft4bs]
Fan Hub - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Remove the drive belt.
• Remove the fan pulley.
10mm
Remove the four capscrews and replace the fan hub.
Torque Value: 24N•m
[18 ft4bs]
Coolant - Draining
The coolant is 50% mixture of water and ethyleneglycol base antifreeze; use an 8 gal. (30.3 L) capacity
container.
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Water Pump - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Drain the coolant.
• Remove the drive belt.
1
3mm
Remove the two capscrews and water pump, and
complete the following steps.
Clean the sealing surface on the cylinder block.
Inspect impeller blades for wear or corrosion.
Inspect pump for free rotation. Check weep hole for
evidence that seal has been leaking.
Install the new o-ring into the pump groove.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
13mm
Install the water pump.
Torque Value: 24 N•m
[18 ft-lbs]
Thermostat - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Drain the coolant.
• Remove the drive belt.
• Disconnect negative battery cable.
• Disconnect the upper radiator hose.
13mm
Note: Loosen the alternator link
capscrew and complete the following
steps.
16mm
Remove the alternator mounting capscrew and lower the
alternator.
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10 mm
Remove the thermostat housing, lifting bracket and
thermostat.
Clean the mating surfaces.
Thermostat - Inspection
Verify the thermostat is the new style pressure balanced
thermostat. Do not reuse old style thermostats. Older
style thermostats use a tang to orient the thermostat
jiggle pins in the proper location. The newer style
thermostat does not have a locator tang.
Visually inspect the thermostat for obvious damage such
as obstructions caused by debris, broken springs, or
stuck or missing vent pins.
The thermostat can be checked for correct operation.
Requirements
Start to open at 83°C [181 °F].
Fully open at 95°C [203°F].
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Position the rubber seal as shown for reassembly.
Note: Make sure the "jiggle" pin (1) is
in the notch and the tang (2) is in the
slot in the housing.
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Assemble the removed parts in the reverse order of
removal.
Torque Value: (Alternator Link) 43 N•m [32 ft-lbs]
(Alternator Mounting) 43 N•m [32 ft-lbs]
(Thermostat Mounting) 24 N•m ([18 ft-lb]
Cup Plugs Replacement
Remove the cup plugs from the coolant passages as
shown.
Apply a bead of Loctite 277 to the coolant passage cup
plugs.
Drive the plugs in until the outer edge is flush with the
counter sink in the block.
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Section 4. Fuel System
Subject
Page
Fuel System Components and Flow ........................................................................................................................... 5-67
Fuel System Specification .......................................................................................................................................... 5-68
Fuel System Malfunction - Diagnosis ......................................................................................................................... 5-69
Lift Pump ................................................................................................................................................................ 5-69
Air in the Fuel System ............................................................................................................................................. 5-70
Fuel Water Separator/Filter Unit ............................................................................................................................. 5-71
Injection Pump ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-72
Delivery Valves (Back Leakage Valves on Lucas CAV Pumps) ............................................................................... 5-76
Injection Pump Timing ............................................................................................................................................ 5-77
High Pressure Fuel Lines ........................................................................................................................................ 5-79
Injectors .................................................................................................................................................................. 5-80
Fuel Drain Manifold ................................................................................................................................................. 5-82
Fuel System Replacement Procedures ....................................................................................................................... 5-83
Fuel System- Bleeding ............................................................................................................................................ 5-83
Fuel Filter ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-85
Low Pressure Fuel Line ........................................................................................................................................... 5-87
Lift Pump ................................................................................................................................................................ 5-88
High Pressure Lines ............................................................................................................................................... .5-89
Fuel Drain Manifold ................................................................................................................................................ 5-92
Injection Pump Supply Line ..................................................................................................................................... 5-93
Injector .................................................................................................................................................................... 5-95
Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve ................................................................................................................................... .5-97
Lucas CAV DPA Back Leakage Valve and Sealing Washer .................................................................................... 5-99
External Pump Leaks - Repair .................................................................................................................................. 5-101
Replacing the Fuel Pump ......................................................................................................................................... 5-101
Injection Pump Timing Check ................................................................................................................................... 5-109
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Fuel System Components And Flow
The following illustration identifies the components of the fuel system.
Most of the engines will be equipped with a cam-actuated lift pump. Fuel flow begins as the lift pump pulls fuel from the
supply tank. The pump supplies low-pressure fuel (21-35 kPa, [3-5 psi] ) to the fuel filter head, through the filter and then
to the distributor injection pump.
The engines use distributor-type fuel pumps supplied by Lucas CAV.
The distributor pump builds the high injection pressures required for combustion, and routes the fuel through individual
high-pressure fuel lines to each injector.
When the high-pressure fuel reaches the injector, the pressure lifts the needle valve against the spring tension to let the
fuel enter the combustion chamber.
Any leakage past the needle valve enters the fuel drain manifold. The fuel drain manifold routes controlled venting from
the distributor injection pump and leakage from the injectors back into the fuel tank.
5-67
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Fuel System Specification
Maximum Allowable Restriction to Pump
With Dirty Filter - mm Hg [in. Hg]................
--------------------------
95 [3.75]
-------------------------
Maximum Allowable Return Line Line
Restriction - mm Hg [in. Hg] .......................
--------------------------
127 [5.0]
-------------------------
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop
Across Fuel Filter - kPa [psi] .......................
--------------------------
21 [3]
-------------------------
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Fuel System Malfunction Diagnosis
The function of the fuel system is to inject clean,
atomized fuel into the engine cylinders at a precise time
near the end of the compression stroke of each piston.
The components of the system contribute to the delivery
of fuel to the cylinders.
Lift Pump
Note: A malfunctioning lift pump can
cause low power from the engine.
The lift pump is mechanically driven by a lobe on the
camshaft. Wear on the lever or a damaged lobe can
reduce the pumping action.
A Do not operate the fuel system with a suction
restriction of more than 152mm (6 inches) Hg.
Caution: If the diaphragm ruptures,
fuel will drain from the weep hole (B)
in the housing.
Normal pressure drop across the filter is 21 kPa [3 psi],
maximum.
The pressure drop will increase as the filter removes
contamination from the fuel. Therefore, a worn lift
pump will have reduced capacity to force fuel through a
dirty filter. This can cause low engine power.
Note: Frequent filter replacement to
get full power from the engine can
indicate a worn lift pump.
The output of the pump can be measured:
• Volume (within 30 seconds):
0.75 [0.70 U.S. qt.]
• Pressure: 21 to 35 kPa [3 to 5 psi]
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
Air In the Fuel System
A replacement of supply lines, fuel filters, injection
pump, high pressure lines and injectors will let air enter
the fuel system. Follow the specified procedure to bleed
the air from the system.
Since the lift pump provides a positive pressure through
the fuel filter and supply line to the injection pump, loose
connections or defective seals will show as a fuel leak.
The most usual place for air to enter the fuel system is
between the inlet of the lift pump and the suction tube in
the tank. Fuel tanks that have the outlet fitting at the
top will have a suction tube that extends down in the
tank. Cracks or pin holes in the weld that joins the tube
to the fitting can let air enter the fuel system.
Air in the system will make the engine: hard to start, run
rough, misfire, produce low power, and can cause
excessive smoke and a fuel knock.
5-70
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Fuel Water Separator/Filter Unit
Caution: Be sure to use the correct
element.
Filtration and separation of water from the fuel is
important for trouble-free operation and long life of the
fuel system. Some of the clearances between the pump
parts are very close. For this reason the parts can
easily be damaged by rust formation and contaminants.
The element has a valve which can be opened regularly
to drain the collected water.
A dual water separator/filter adaptor option provides
additional filtering capacity.
It is used in severe
environments, where there is great exposure of the fuel
to water, rust particles, dust and other contaminants.
The fuel flows through the adapter to a larger
combination fuel water separator filter, and back to the
fuel filter for final filtering.
Regular maintenance, including draining moisture from
the fuel water separator/filter and supply tanks, is
essential to keep water out of the fuel.
5-71
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Injection Pump
These pumps perform the four basic functions of:
1.
Producing the high fuel pressure required for
injection.
2. Metering the exact amount of fuel for each injection
cycle.
3. Distributing the high pressure, metered fuel to each
cylinder at the precise time.
4. Varying the timing relative to engine speed.
A single plunger or rotor is used by the pumps to
develop and distribute the high pressure required for
injection.
A four-cylinder, Lucas CAV DPA rotor is shown in this
illustration.
A worn or damaged rotor or plunger can affect the
pressure and amount of fuel injected, thus reducing the
power from the engine. Generally, if the pump is
injecting fuel from one outlet, it will deliver from all
outlets.
Governor Malfunctions
Balance between the flyweight governor and control
lever position controls the metering of the amount of
fuel to be injected.
The pump governor performance and setting can affect
engine power.
Special equipment and qualified
personnel are required to verify governor performance.
5-72
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The Lucas CAV DPA pump uses a coded spring
connection to change the governor setting. Incorrect
connection of the governor spring can affect
performance.
Adjustments and rating changes are described in this
section.
Fuel Control Lever Travel and Adjustment
The amount of fuel injected and subsequently the speed
and power from the engine is controlled by the fuel
control lever. Restricted travel of the lever can cause
low power. Always check for full travel of the lever
when diagnosing a low power complaint.
Lucas CA V DPA Pump Adjustment Screws The idle
adjustment screw provides a stop for the lever at low
speed. The adjustment screw can be used to increase
idle speed for accessory loading or, if required, to lower
the idle speed.
A - Idle screw
B - High Idle Screw
5-73
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Manual Shut Down Levers
Both injection pumps are equipped with mechanical shut
down levers. These levers are spring-loaded in the run
position. Not all applications will use these manual shut
down controls and there will be no cable or rod
connected to the lever.
Note: Partial actuation of the
mechanical shutdown levers will
affect fuel flow and engine power.
Low power or the inability to stop the engine with the
manual shut down control can be corrected by adjusting
the cable/rod length to permit stop-to-stop lever travel.
Advance Timing Mechanism
Regulated pressure produced by a vane supply in both
injection pumps is used to advance the timing as the
engine speed increases. A return spring is used to
retard the timing as the engine speed is reduced. If a
spring should break, the timing will go to the advance
position resulting in torque loss, a fuel knock and
possible engine overheating.
Retarded (late) timing will result in torque loss, high fuel
consumption and white to black smoke.
5-74
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The Lucas CAV advance timing mechanism uses a
check ball in the circuit which, if omitted during
assembly, will result in no timing advance. If the pump
has been replaced or the mechanism has been removed
to fix a leak, the problem can be that the check ball is
missing.
Replacement of the spring and repair of the advance
timing mechanism must be performed by an authorized
injection pump service center.
Electrical Shut Off Valves
The injection pumps are equipped with electrical shut off
valves.
These solenoid-operated valves block the
supply of fuel to the high pressure pumping and
distribution components.
The Lucas CAV DPA shut off valve is located at the
bottom. rear of the pump.
The valves are designed to be closed when there is no
electrical power to the solenoid.
When the valve on the Lucas CAV pump opens, a
"click" can be heard.
Use the following values to check the solenoid with an
ohmmeter.
CAV Solenoid Values
Resistance
Volts to Energize
Volts
Ohms
(Minimum)
12
[email protected] 22 °C (71.6°F)
9
5-75
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not connect the electrical wire to the
solenoid when the plunger has been removed.
Without the plunger the valve can be damaged.
Malfunctioning valves can be diagnosed by removing
the plunger and spring, then reinstall the solenoid.
Delivery Valves (Back Leakage Valves On Lucas
CAV Pumps)
There is a valve for each discharge tube. The purpose
of the valve is to control the residual pressure in the
high pressure line. A malfunctioning valve will cause an
imbalance of the residual pressure resulting in rough
engine operation or surging.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Injection Pump Timing
Pump-to-engine timing is extremely critical. Pump timing that is off by only a few crankshaft degrees will cause:
1. Poor performance -- starting and power
2. Excessive smoke and emissions
3. Poor fuel economy
Engine pump timing begins with the timing of the
injection pump drive gear to the camshaft gear.
The first step is the location of TDC for Cylinder Number
1.
Then, depending on the engine configuration, a letter on
the gear is aligned with the mark on the camshaft gear.
Letter
Engine
A
4B3.9, 4BT3.9 (Lucas CAV DPA Pump)
To verify that the injection pump is timed correctly, first
check the alignment marks on the pump flange and gear
housing.
Note: 1 mm of rotation past the timing mark will
advance or retard (depending on direction of
rotation) the pump timing by 1 degree.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Both pumps have a provision for locking the pump shaft
at a position corresponding to top-dead-center for
Cylinder Number 1. New and reconditioned pumps
should be received with the shafts locked in this
position.
Note: The illustration shows pumps for the 4
cylinder and has the keys aligned with the number 1
delivery valve.
The engine is equipped with an engine timing pin to
locate TDC for Cylinder Number 1.
Caution: If the timing pin is incorrectly located on
the gear housing, the timing procedure will not
ensure that the pump is timed correctly.
After precisely locating TDC for Cylinder Number 1, the
factory positions the timing pin assembly to the gear
housing using the timing pin and the hole in the
camshaft gear. If the gear housing or timing pin
assembly are removed, the same precision is required
to relocate it
Caution: The flange of a replacement pump must be
marked to align with the mark on the gear housing
after installation.
During production, after the locked pump is fitted to the
engine with Cylinder Number 1 at TDC, a mark is
stamped on the gear housing and the pump flange.
Thereafter, when these marks are aligned, the pump is
correctly timed to the engine.
Note: The marks on the gear housing and the pump
flange are unique to each engine.
5-78
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Correct timing of the Lucas CAV DPA pump can be
verified by removing the inspection plate.
Note: Special equipment in an authorized shop is
required to precisely time the Lucas CAV DPA
pump. However, for trouble-shooting and in an
emergency, visual alignment of the timing mark is
close enough for the engine to run.
Both of these check are described in the injection pump
replacement discussion. Installation of the timing pin
housing is described in the Base Engine Components
Section.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Caution: The high pressure lines must be clamped
securely and routed so they do not contact each
other or any other component.
The high pressure fuel lines are designed and
manufactured to deliver fuel at injection pressure to the
injectors. The high pressure pulses will cause the lines
to expand and contract during the injection cycle.
Caution: Do not weld or substitute lines; use only
the specified part number for the engine.
The length, internal size and rigidity of the lines is
critical to smooth engine operation. An attached metal
tag is used to identify each line with a part number.
5-79
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Warning: The pressure of the fuel in the line is
sufficient to penetrate the skin and cause serious
bodily harm.
Use cardboard to check for cracks and leaks. With the
engine running, move the cardboard over the fuel lines
and look for fuel spray on the cardboard. Fuel leaks can
cause poor engine performance.
It is normal to have entrapped air in the fuel lines after
replacing the pump or the lines. Air in the lines will
cause the engine to run rough or produce a fuel knock.
Bleed the air from the high pressure line at the fitting
that connects the injector. Bleed one line at a time until
the engine runs smooth.
If the air cannot be removed, check the pump and
supply line for suction leaks.
Injectors
Caution: Use only injectors with number 2338
marked on the side as shown in illustration.
All engines use Robert Bosch, 7mm closed nozzles,
hole-type injectors. The last four digits of the Cummins
part number are used to identify the injectors.
5-80
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
During the injection cycle, high pressure from the
injection pump rises to the operating (pop) pressure
which causes the needle valve in the injector to lift.
Fuel is then injected into the cylinder. A shimmed
spring is used to force the needle valve closed as the
injection pressure drops below the pop pressure to seal
off the nozzle after injection.
Failure of the needle valve to lift and close at the correct
time or needle valve stuck open can cause the engine to
misfire and produce low power. Fuel leaking from the
open nozzle can cause a fuel knock, poor performance,
smoke, poor fuel economy, and rough running.
Caution: Be sure to tighten the fuel line nut before
proceeding to the next injector.
To find which cylinder is misfiring, operate the engine
and loosen the fuel line nut at one injector and listen for
a change in engine speed.
Note: A drop in engine speed indicates the injector
was delivering fuel to the cylinder.
Check each cylinder until the malfunctioning injector is
found.
Remove the malfunctioning injector to test or replace it.
If the engine continues to misfire after replacing the
injector, check for leaks in the high pressure line. Also
check for a defective delivery valve that lets the fuel
drain back into the injection pump.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Carbon build up in the orifices in the nozzle will also
cause low power from the engine. Remove and check
the spray pattern or replace the injectors.
Fuel Drain Manifold
The fuel system is designed to use fuel to cool and
lubricate the injection pump and injectors. Fuel is
continually vented from the injection pump and a small
amount of fuel leaks by the injector needle valve during
injection. This fuel is returned to the supply tank by the
fuel drain manifold.
Restriction of the fuel drain manifold can affect the
Lucas CAV DPA injection pump metering controls and
the operation of the injectors. Restricting the fuel drain
manifold raises the case pressure of the injection pump
which can prevent injection.
If the engine will restart after a waiting period following
an unexplained shut down, look for a restriction of the
manifold drain line.
Note: Restriction can cause the fuel temperature to
rise reducing power from the engine.
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Fuel System Replacement Procedures
A certain amount of air will be entrapped in the system during replacement of any of the system components. After
replacement of a component, bleed the system according to the following procedure.
Fuel System - Bleeding
Controlled venting is provided at the injection pump
through the fuel drain manifold. Small amounts of air
introduced by changing the filters or injection pump
supply line will be vented automatically, if the fuel filter
is changed in accordance with the instructions.
However, manual bleeding will be required if:
• The fuel filter is not filled prior to installation.
• Injection pump is replaced.
• High pressure fuel line connections are
loosened or lines replaced.
• Initial engine start up or start up after an
extended period of no engine operation.
5-83
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Low Pressure Lines and Fuel Filter - Venting 10mm
Open the bleed screw.
Operate the hand lever until the fuel flowing from the
fitting is free of air.
Tighten the bleed screw.
Torque Value: 8 N•m
[6 ft-lb]
Injection Pumps - Venting 8mm
Air/Fuel can be pumped from this location on the Lucas
CAV pump with the hand lever on the lift pump, if the
fuel solenoid valve is energized.
Warning: It is necessary to put the engine in the
“run” position: Because the engine may start, be
sure to follow all the safety precautions. Use the
normal engine starting procedure.
Caution: When using the starting motor to vent the
system, do not engage it for more than 30 seconds
at a time:
Wait two (2) minutes between
engagements.
Air can also be vented through the fuel drain manifold
line by operating the starting motor.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
High Pressure Lines - Venting 17mm
Warning: The pressure of the fuel in the line is
sufficient to penetrate the skin and cause serious
bodily harm.
Loosen the fittings at the injector, and crank the engine
to allow entrapped air to bleed from the line. Tighten
the fittings.
Warning: Do not bleed a hot engine as this could
cause fuel to spill onto a hot exhaust manifold
creating a danger of fire.
Start the engine and vent one line at a time until the
engine runs smoothly.
Fuel Filter - Replacement
80 to 95mm, Filter Wrench
Remove the combination water separator/fuel filter.
80 to 95mm, Filter Wrench
If used, remove the two filters from the dual filter
adaptor.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
24mm, Flat Blade Screwdriver
If a leak is found, remove the dual filter adapter and
replace the o-rings.
Torque Value: 32 N•m [24 ft4bs]
Fill the new filter(s) with clean fuel.
Lubricate the seal with clean oil.
Install the filter(s) and tighten it ½
contacts the filter head.
5-86
turn after its seal
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Low Pressure Fuel Line - Replacement 14mm and
17mm
Remove the line from the lift pump and filter head.
Clean fuel lines with approved solvent. Then blow dry
with clean low pressure air.
Inspect fuel lines for cracks and worn seals.
Inspect and replace any damaged seals.
NOTE
Coat seals in clean engine oil to aid
in installation.
Caution: When replacing fuel lines, replace banjo
fitting sealing washers (1) and ferrules (2) each time
they are removed.
Install the line and tighten the fittings securely.
10mm
Bleed the line by opening the banjo bleed screw.
10mm
Operate the hand lever until the fuel flowing from the
fitting is free of air.
Tighten the bleed screw.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Lift Pump - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Disconnect the Iow pressure fuel lines
10mm
Remove the lift pump and complete the following steps.
Inspect the camshaft lever and the return spring for
excessive wear.
To inspect the lift pump, pour clean diesel fuel or engine
oil into the inlet connection and perform the following
test:
Inspect the diaphragm by blocking the fuel inlet line with
your finger and operating the priming lever.
A good pump will have suction that will not bleed down
until the finger is removed from the inlet.
On standard lift pumps, parts replacement is not
practical; the pump is serviced as an assembly. An
optional lift pump is available which can be cleaned and
repaired with a minor repair kit.
Clean the mounting surface on the cylinder block.
10mm
Install the lift pump with a new gasket.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
5-88
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
14mm and 17mm
Install the low pressure fuel lines.
10mm
Open the banjo bleed screw to bleed the low pressure
line.
10mm
Operate the hand lever until the fuel flowing from the
fitting is free of air.
Tighten the bleed screw.
High Pressure Lines - Replacement
17mm
Disconnect the high pressure lines from the injectors
and complete the following steps.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
10mm
Remove the line clamp capscrews from the intake
cover.
14mm and 17mm
Remove the lines from the injection pump.
Note: Use two wrenches to prevent the delivery
valve holder from turning.
Visually inspect for cracks at both ends of the fuel lines.
Caution: The high pressure lines must be damped
securely and routed so they do not contact each
other or any other component. Inspect for areas of
contact that have worn the material thin.
Inspect the vibration isolators (clamps). Make sure all
the vibration isolators are positioned and tightened
properly. Missing or improperly installed isolators will
almost certainly result in fuel line failure.
Caution: Do not weld or substitute lines; use only
the specified part number for the engine.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
10mm
Assemble the lines in the reverse order of removal.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Warning: Do not bleed a hot engine as this could
cause fuel to spill onto a hot exhaust manifold
creating a danger of fire.
Start the engine and vent one line at a time until the
engine runs smoothly.
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Fuel Drain Manifold - Replacement
10mm
Remove the capscrews from the hold-down clamps and
complete the following steps.
10mm
Remove the banjo fitting screws and washers.
10mm
Disconnect the drain line fittings.
Inspect drain line for cracks and other damage.
Inspect rubber sealing surfaces for leak paths.
Replace any rubber seals that are damaged.
NOTE
Lubricate seals with clean engine oil
to aid in installation.
Assemble the drain line and fuel drain manifold in the
reverse order of disassembly.
Note: Use new seals for the fittings.
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The installation torque for the banjo fitting screw is 9
N•m [6.5 ft-lbs].
Note: Use new sealing washers for the fuel drain
manifold.
The installation torque for the clamp capscrews is 24
N•m [18 ft-lbs].
Injection Pump Supply Line - Replacement
17mm
Remove the bleed screw banjo fitting and complete the
following steps.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
14mm, 16mm, 19mm and 24mm
Remove the supply line assembly from the two Lucas
CAV pump fittings.
Note: Replace the seals in the fittings if the line is
disassembled.
17mm
Install the supply line in the reverse order of removal.
Tighten line securely to pump fittings.
Banjo Screw Torque Value:
32 N•m [27 ft-lbs]
Operate the hand lever 10-20 strokes to fill the supply
line.
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Injector - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Disconnect the high pressure fuel supply lines
• Disconnect the fuel drain manifold
• Clean around the injectors
Rust Penetrating Solvent
Caution: When rust has formed on the hold down
nut, the injector can turn in the bore when the nut is
loosened. This will cause severe damage to the
head by the injector locating ball cutting a groove in
the bore.
Soak the hold down nut with a rust penetrating
solvent for a minimum of 3 minutes.
Brass Drift Pin, Hammer
Hit the injector body with the drift pin to loosen any rust.
24mm Box Wrench, Adjustable Wrench
Hold the injector body with an adjustable wrench while
you loosen the hold down nut with a 24mm box wrench.
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Injector Bore Brush
Clean the injector nozzle bore.
Assemble the injector and new copper sealing washer.
Use Only One Copper Washer.
Apply a coat of anti-seize compound to the threads of
the injector hold-down nut and between the top of the
nut and injector body.
24mm Deep Well Socket
Caution: Align the injector's protrusion with the
notch in the bore.
Torque Value: 60 N•m [44 ft-lbs]
Note: The current Bosch injector has an o-ring
located above the hold down nut. After tightening
the injector be sure to push the o-ring into the
groove.
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Assemble the fuel drain manifold and high pressure
lines. Leave the high pressure fittings loose at the
injectors.
17mm
Warning: It is necessary to put the engine in the a
run position: Because the engine may start, be sure
to follow all the safety precautions. Use the normal
engine starting procedure.
Crank the engine to allow entrapped air to bleed from
the lines. Tighten the fittings.
Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve - Replacement
8mm
Remove the electrical wire and complete the following
steps.
Clean around the valve.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
22mm
Remove the valve.
Caution: When removing the valve. be careful not
to drop the plunger and spring.
"Package" the solenoid, o-ring, spring and plunger.
22mm
Tighten the solenoid securely.
Connect the electric wire.
Torque Value: 1 5 N•m [130 in-lbs]
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Lucas CAV DPA Back Leakage Valve and Sealing Washer - Replacement
Because the valves are installed 90 degrees to the pump axis, the pump may need to be removed to change the valves
close to the cylinder block.
Caution: The installation torque is very critical. Overtightening can distort the bore in the pump
hydraulic head causing the rotor to seize in the bore. Never tighten the valve with the engine running.
17mm
Disconnect the high pressure line.
16mm
Remove the valve.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the valve to be sure it is not stuck.
Inspect the sealing surfaces for possible leak paths.
16mm
Assemble the back leakage valve and new washers.
Tighten the valve to 30 N•m [23 ft-lbs].
17mm
Connect the high pressure line.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Start the engine and vent one line at a time until the
engine runs smoothly.
External Pump Leaks - Repair
Caution: Make sure that the surrounding area is
clean before removing the leaking part.
Note: Accessible sealing washers and gaskets can
be replaced without removing the pump.
Refer to the Shop Manual, Bulletin 3810206 for
additional information. This bulletin can be obtained by
calling 1-800-343-7357 or by writing Cummins @
Cummins Engine Co., Publishing Services, CMC 40924,
P.O. Box -3005, Columbus, IN 47202-3005
Replacing the Fuel Pump
Preparatory Steps:
• Disconnect the fuel drain manifold.
• Remove the injection pump supply line.
• Remove the high pressure lines.
• Disconnect the electrical wire to the fuel shut off
valve.
• Remove the fuel air control tube, if used.
Removing the Pump
Disconnect all control linkage.
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13mm
Remove the pump support bracket.
22mm
Remove the access cap and gear retaining nut and
washer.
Caution: Be sure to disengage the pin after locating
TDC.
Locate TDC for Cylinder Number 1 by barring engine
slowly while pushing in on TDC pin.
9/16 inch
Loosen the CAV injection pump lockscrew and position
the special washer, then tighten the lockscrew against
the pump drive shaft.
Torque Value: 7 N•m [5 ft-lbs]
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75mm T-Bar
Pull the pump drive gear loose from the drive shaft.
13mm
Caution: Do not drop drive gear key when removing
the pump.
Remove the 3 mounting nuts and take off the injection
pump.
Remove the gasket and clean the surface.
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Installing the Pump
Verify Cylinder Number 1 is at TDC by barring engine
slowly while pushing in on TDC pin.
Install a new gasket.
Note: The shaft of a new or reconditioned pump is
locked so the key aligns with the drive gear keyway
when Cylinder Number 1 is at TDC on the
compression stroke.
Install the pump. Make sure the key does not fall into
the gear housing.
Use your hands to tighten the three mounting nuts. The
pump must be free to move in the slots.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
22mm
Caution: Do not overtighten. This is not the final
torque.
Install the pump drive shaft nut and spring washer. The
pump will rotate slightly because of gear helix and
clearance. This is acceptable providing the pump is free
to move on the flange slots and the crankshaft does not
move.
Torque Valve: 15 to 20 N•m [11 to 15 ft-lbs]
13mm
If installing the original pump, rotate the pump to align
the scribe marks.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
If installing a new or rebuilt pump without scribe marks,
take up gear lash by rotating the pump against the
direction of drive rotation. Tighten the flange mounting
nuts.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Permanently mark the injection pump flange to match
the mark on the gear housing.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
9/16 inch
Loosen the CAV pump lockscrew and position the
special washer behind the lockscrew head.
Torque Value: 20 N•m [15 ft-lbs]
Caution: Disengage the timing pin, before rotating
the crankshaft.
10mm
Install the injection pump support bracket.
tighten all capscrews before final tightening.
Finger
Note: Tighten the bracket to block mounting
capscrew before tightening the bracket to injection
pump capscrews.
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Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
22mm
Tighten the pump retaining nut.
Torque Value: 65 N•m 48ft-lbs]
Install the access cap.
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8mm
Install all fuel lines and the electrical wire to the fuel shut
off valve.
When connecting the cable/rod to the control lever,
adjust the length so the lever has stop-to-stop
movement.
Bleed all air from the fuel system.
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If necessary, adjust the idle speed.
Injection Pump Timing Check
Rotate the engine to TDC.
Correct timing of the Lucas CAV DPA pump can be
verified by removing the inspection plate. Clean all dirt
and foreign material from around the timing window
cover on the injection pump.
NOTE: Special equipment in an authorized shop is
required to precisely time the Lucas CAV DPA
pump. However, for troubleshooting and in an
emergency, visual alignment of the timing mark is
close enough for the engine to run.
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The correct timing letter can be located on the engine
data plate as shown.
The letter G indicated refers to the correct timing letter
alignment as shown in the previous frame.
Injection Pump Rerating
Refer to the Injection Pumps Shop Manual, Bulletin
3666037-03 for additional information. This bulletin can
be obtained by calling 1-800-343-7357 or by writing
Cummins @ Cummins Engine Co., Publishing Services,
CMC 40924, P.O. Box 3005, Columbus, IN 472023005.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 5. Air System
Subject
Page
Air System Flow ......................................................................................................................................
Diagnosing Air System Malfunctions .......................................................................................................
Air Flow Restriction Results in Excess Smoke and Low Power ...........................................................
Damage from Non-Filtered Air ............................................................................................................
Air System Replacement Procedures ......................................................................................................
Intake Manifold Cover and Gasket ......................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold and/or Gasket .........................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold Inspection ...............................................................................................................
Intake Air Restriction ..........................................................................................................................
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5-115
Air System
Air System Flow
Air is pulled into the engine from an air filter. Clean air is very important to the life of the engine. Ingested dust and dirt
can damage the cylinders very quickly.
Caution: Make sure that a quality air cleaner is used and that it is periodically replaced according to the
manufacturer's recommendations.
Intake air for naturally aspirated engines flows directly from the filter to the intake manifold. From the intake manifold, air
is pulled into the cylinder and used for combustion. After combustion it is forced out of the cylinders through the exhaust
manifold.
Intake Air, Exhaust and 4B3.9
Fuel System
Intake Restriction at
Rated Speed and Load
with Dirty Air Filter
Element - mm H20 [in.
H20].....................
508 [20]
Exhaust Restriction at
Rated Speed and Load
- mm Hg [in. Hg]......... 76.2 [3 in.]
Diagnosing Air System Malfunctions
Air Flow Restriction Results in Excess Smoke and
Low Power
Restriction increases as the filter removes contaminants
from the intake air. Restricted air flow changes the air
to-fuel ratio, reducing power and increasing smoke from
the engine.
Verify that the air cleaner is being
maintained correctly.
NOTE
Air restriction is indicated by an air
restriction indicator mounted in the
air intake tubing on the output side
of the air cleaner assembly.
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Damage From Non-Filtered Air
Loose connections or cracks in the suction side of the
intake pipe can allow debris to be ingested by the
engine causing rapid wear in the cylinders.
Leaks at the intake manifold, unsealed bolt holes or
manifold cover gasket can also allow dust and dirt to be
ingested into naturally aspirated engines.
Loose connections or cracks in the suction side of the
intake pipe on turbocharged engines can allow debris to
be ingested into the turbocharger compressor and
forced into the engine.
Air System Replacement Procedures
Intake Manifold Cover and Gasket - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Remove the high pressure fuel lines.
• Disconnect the cold starting aid.
• Remove the air crossover tube.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
10 mm
Remove the manifold cover and complete the following
steps.
Caution: Keep the gasket material and any other
material out of the air intake.
Clean the sealing surface.
Caution: Some of the capscrew holes are drilled
through and must be sealed. Apply liquid teflon
sealant to the capscrews.
10mm
Install the gasket and cover.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Exhaust Manifold and/or Gasket - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
•
Remove the air crossover tube.
•
Disconnect the air intake and exhaust piping.
13mm
Remove the manifold and gasket.
Exhaust Manifold Inspection
Inspect the Exhaust Manifold for cracks, burn-out, or
damaged threads.
Place straight edge across the exhaust ports. The
maximum allowable clearance between the manifold
and straight edge is 0.10 mm [0.004 inch].
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Clean the sealing surfaces.
13mm
Install the manifold and gaskets.
Torque Value: 43 N•m [32 ft-lbs]
Follow the sequence shown in the illustration.
Intake Air Restriction
Replace the air cleaner element when the restriction
reaches the maximum limit at rated engine RPM.
Naturally Aspirated
508mm H2O
[20 in. H2O]
Refer to the Operator's Manual TM 10-3950-672-10 for
a description of the air restriction indicator which
indicated air intake restriction as the air cleaner element
clogs.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
Section 6. Lubricating System
Subject
Page
Lubricating System Flow ..........................................................................................................................
Lubricating Oil Pump................................................................................................................................
Pressure Regulating Valve .......................................................................................................................
Oil Coolers ...............................................................................................................................................
Oil Filters .................................................................................................................................................
Oil Filter Bypass Valve.............................................................................................................................
Lubricating System Specifications............................................................................................................
Diagnosing Lubricating System Malfunctions............................................................................................
High Oil Pressure...............................................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Regulating Valve ...........................................................................................................
Low Oil Pressure................................................................................................................................
Oil Dilution.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Leaks ...........................................................................................................................................
Lubricating System Replacement Procedures ..........................................................................................
Oil Pressure Regulator Valve and/or Spring .......................................................................................
Pressure Regulator Valve - Inspection ...............................................................................................
Oil Cooler Element and/or Gasket......................................................................................................
Oil Pan, Suction Tube, and/or Gaskets ..............................................................................................
Oil Pump ...........................................................................................................................................
Gear Cover - Installation ....................................................................................................................
Cup Plugs ..........................................................................................................................................
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
Lubricating System
Lubricating System Flow
Lubricating Oil Pump
The engine use gerotor type oil pumps (1). The machined cavity in the block is the same for all engines. A wider gerotor
is used in the six cylinder engine to increase the pump capacity. Consequently, the pumps are not interchangeable.
Pressure Regulating Valve
The pressure regulating valve (2) is designed to keep the oil pressure from exceeding 414 kPa [60 PSI]. When the oil
pressure from the pump is greater than 414 kPa [60 PSI], the valve opens uncovering the dump port so part of the oil is
routed to the oil pan. The minimum and maximum oil pressure limits is the same for the four cylinder and the six
cylinder engine. Because of manufacturing tolerances of the components and the oil passages, the oil pressure can
differ as much as 69 kPa [10 PSI] between engines.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
Oil Coolers
The engines use full flow, plate type oil coolers (3). The
oil flows through a cast passage in the cooler cover and
through the element where it is cooled by engine coolant
flowing past the plates of the element. The four cylinder
engine uses an element with five plates (A), the six
cylinder uses an element with seven plates (B).
Because of differences in plate restriction and oil pump
capacities, the oil cooler components are not
interchangeable between the four cylinder and six
cylinder engines. The use of incorrect components can
cause high or low oil temperature, varnish and sludge
build up.
Note: Prior to 10/21/86 six cylinder
engines were assembled with 9 plate
oil cooler elements.
Oil Filters
After the oil is cooled, it flows through the full flow oil filter (4). The filter for the six cylinder engine is longer than the
filter for the four cylinder engine.
Caution: Never use a filter for a six-cylinder engine on a four cylinder engine in order to extend
the oil change interval.
Oil Filter Bypass Valve
The oil cooler cover contains a bypass valve (5) that will let the oil flow bypass a plugged filter. The valve is designed to
open when the pressure drop across the filter is more than 138 kPa [20 PSI], as with a plugged filter, and lets the oil
continue on through the engine. When a filter becomes plugged, an oil pressure decrease of 60 kPa [10 PSI] or less
from the normal operating pressure can be observed on the vehicle oil pressure gauge.
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
The main bearings and the valve train are lubricated by pressurized oil directly from the main oil rifle. The other power
components, connecting rods, pistons, and camshaft receive pressurized oil indirectly from the main oil rifle.
The drillings in the crankshaft supply oil to the connecting rod bearings. The oil is supplied to the camshaft journals
through drillings in the main bearing saddle. Smaller drillings in the main bearing saddle supply oil to the piston cooling
nozzles. The spray from the nozzles also provides lubrication for the piston pins.
The number one main bearing saddle does not contain a piston cooling nozzle. Cylinder Number One receives the
lubricating and cooling spray from the nozzle located in the Number Two Bearing Saddle. Cylinder Number Two
receives the spray from the Number Three Bearing Saddle, etc.
Lubrication for the valve train is supplied through separate drillings in the cylinder block. The oil flows through the
drillings and across the oil transfer slot in the cylinder head gasket. From the transfer slot, the oil flows around the
outside diameter at the cylinder head capscrew, across a slot in the bottom of the rocker lever support, and up a vertical
drilling in the support. From these drillings, oil flows through drillings in the rocker lever shaft to lubricate the rocker
levers. Oil flows through a drilling in the rocker levers to fill a channel cast into the top of the levers. The oil from the
channel lubricates the valve stems, push rods and tappets.
Lubrication System
Specifications
(Minimum Allowable) kPa
[PSI] ............................. . 69 [10]
(Minimum Allowable) kPa
[PSI] ............................. . 207 [30]
Pressure kPa [PSI]......... 414 [60]
Open the Filter Bypass
Valve - kPa [PSI] ........... 138 [20]
(High/Low) - Litre [U.S.
Qts.].............................. . 9.5 [10]
8.5 [ 9]
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TM10-3950-672-24-2
Diagnosing Lubricating System
Malfunctions
Be sure to check items related to oil pressure, such as:
gauges, high and low oil level, excessive oil
contamination, oil viscosity, etc.
High Oil Pressure
High oil pressure usually occurs after the engine is first
started in cold weather. The lubrication system does not
have a cold start relief valve. The pressure regulating
valve components are machined to a size that will
relieve the excessive pressure created by cold engine
oil.
Oil Pressure Regulating Valve
The engine will have high oil pressure if the regulator
sticks in the closed position. Check the regulator for
freedom of movement.
Low Oil Pressure
Low oil pressure can be caused by several lubrication
system related malfunctions. To begin the investigation,
determine the engine operating conditions when the low
pressure was first observed.
Oil Level
Low oil level can cause low oil pressure.
Caution
Never operate the engine with the oil
level below the low (L) mark.
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Oil Filter
A plugged filter will cause a gradual loss of oil pressure
by approximately 69 kPa [10 PSI]. The pressure will
return to normal when the filter bypass valve opens.
Oil Gauge
Check the oil gauge and sending unit to make sure they
are operating correctly by verifying the pressure with a
manual gage.
Oil Suction Tube
A loose suction tube, damaged gasket or crack in the
suction tube can cause a temporary loss of prime for the
oil pump. The engine will have low pressure or no oil
pressure at starting followed by normal oil pressure.
Bearings and Oil Pump
A steady decrease in oil pressure over a long period of
time can be an indication of worn bearings or excessive
oil pump wear.
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Incorrect Oil Pump
The capacity of the six cylinder oil pump is greater than
the four cylinder. If low or high pressure occurs after
changing the pump, verify that the correct pump was
used.
A - Four Cylinder
• 12.947mm [0.516 inch]
B - Six Cylinder
• 17.947mm [0.715 inch]
Oil Dilution
Caution
Diluted oil can cause severe engine damage.
Check the condition of the oil.
• Thin, black oil is an indication of fuel in the oil.
• Milky discoloration is an indication of coolant in the
oil.
Coolant in the oil can be caused by:
• Cup plugs leaking.
• Damaged cylinder head gasket.
• Oil cooler element leaking.
Coolant Diluted Oil
Coolant leaking from the cup plugs in the cylinder block
water jacket will dilute the oil.
To check for leaks, remove the tappet cover and
pressurize the cooling system.
Coolant in the oil can also be caused by a damaged
cylinder head gasket.
Pressurize the cooling system to check for leaks. It may
be necessary to remove the oil pan to locate internal
leaks.
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Since the oil cooler design does not require gaskets or
seals to maintain the separation of oil and coolant, the
element itself must leak to allow mixing of the fluids
(refer to page 6-21).
During operation the oil pressure will be higher than
coolant pressure. A leak in the oil cooler will show as oil
in the coolant.
However, following an engine shutdown, the residual
pressure in the coolant system can cause coolant to
seep through the leak path into the oil.
Fuel Diluted Oil
Fuel dilution is limited to four sources:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-124
Injection pump shaft seal
Fuel leaking by the rings
Lift pump
A crack in the cylinder head from the fuel filter
location to the air intake
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Use the following logic to determine the source of the oil dilution with fuel:
Power Low - Increased
White Smoke During
Start Up ⇓
Check/Replace the
Injectors
Power Normal
Power Low - Increased
Black Smoke
⇓
Verify the Rings are
Sealing by Performing a
Compression Check
A worn or damaged injection pump shaft seal will allow
fuel to leak into the gear housing and then into the oil
pan.
The seal is designed to provide increased sealing as the
pump case pressure increases. Pressure forces the lip
(1) tighter around the shaft.
A worn seal is more apt to leak during start up and shut
down when case pressure is low.
Caution
A worn seal can not be detected by pressurizing the
pump.
Remove the access cover and rotate the engine so one
of the holes in the fuel pump gear exposes the back
gear housing.
Activate the fuel shut down valve by turning the switch
to the ON position.
5-125
⇓
Check Lift Pump For
Seal Leakage
⇓
Replace the Fuel
Pump
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Use a small mirror to check for leaks while pumping the
priming lever on the lift pump. If a leak is found,
replace the injection pump. The seal can be replaced
by an authorized Service Center.
Incomplete combustion in the cylinders can result in
unburned fuel draining into the oil pan.
This condition can be caused by a leaking injector or
reduced compression caused by inadequate piston ring
sealing.
An increase in white exhaust smoke during the first start
of the day is a symptom that an injector is leaking.
An injector leak will also cause the engine to run rough
and have low power.
Remove and replace leaking injectors (refer to Shop
Manual, 3810206 for test and repair instructions).
Perform a compression check to verify piston ring
sealing (refer to the Base Engine Components Section).
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There is a remote possibility for fuel to drain into the oil
from the lift pump.
For this to happen, the diaphragm in the pump would
have to break and the drain hole would have to be
plugged.
Another remote possibility, is a crack or porosity in the
head casting could allow fuel to leak to the air intake
and on to the cylinders.
Oil Leaks
Various gaskets, seals and plugs are used to contain the
oil.
Most leaks can be identified during routine
inspection of the engine and vehicle.
A blown cup plug can allow a relative large quantity of
oil to escape resulting in a sudden drop in the oil
pressure.
When checking for such a leak, be sure to check the
plug behind the tappet cover as well as those that may
be obscured by chassis parts.
Oil blowing out the breather of a four-cylinder engine is
a good sign of a blown plug.
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If the oil cooler element ruptures, the oil pressure will
force oil into the coolant system. Oil in the coolant
should be visible when the radiator cap is removed.
Inadequate sealing of the piston rings will result in oil
being blown out the breather tube and/or consumed by
the engine (refer to the Base Engine Components
Section for measuring blow-by).
Lubricating System Replacement
Procedures
Oil Pressure Regulator Valve and/or Spring Replacement
19mm
Remove the plug and valve.
Clean and inspect the plunger, bore and seat before
assembly.
Note
The plunger must move freely in the valve bore.
Assemble the valve in the reverse order of disassembly.
Torque Value: 80 N•m [60 ft-lbs]
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Pressure Regulator Valve - Inspection
Inspect the plunger bore for nicks or scratches.
The plunger must move freely in the bore.
Check or replace the spring.
Limit
Valve Open (Min.)
Height: 39.98 mm [1.574 inches]
Load: 91 N [20.5 lbs]
Assembled (Min.)
Height: 44.98 mm (1.77 inches]
Load: 60 N [13.5 lbs]
Oil Cooler Element and/or Gasket - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Drain the coolant.
90-95mm
Remove the oil filter.
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Clean around the oil cooler cover.
10mm
Remove the oil cooler cover, gaskets and cooler
element.
Clean the sealing surfaces.
Apply 483 kPa [70 PSI] air pressure to the element to
check for leaks.
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10mm
Assemble the oil cooler gaskets, element and cover.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Note
Be sure to remove the shipping plugs from the
element.
Fill the filter with clean lubricating oil and apply a light
coat of oil to the sealing gasket.
Install the oil filter.
Fill the coolant system and operate the engine to check
for leaks.
Stop the engine and check the coolant and oil level.
Oil Pan, Suction Tube and/or Gaskets Replacement
17mm and 10mm
Drain the oil and remove the pan and gasket.
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13mm
Caution
Be sure to connect the support bracket.
If required, remove the suction tube and gasket.
Clean the sealing surfaces.
Install the suction tube and gasket.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Caution
Be sure to fill the joints between the pan rail, gear
housing and rear cover. Use Three Bond 1207C.
Clean the pan sealing surfaces.
Inspect oil pan for cracks and damaged threads.
Inspect oil suction tube and brace for cracks. Replace if
damaged.
10mm and 17mm
Apply " K&W Copper Coat" sealant to both sides of the
gasket.
Install the pan and gasket.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Install the drain plug.
Torque Value: 80 N•m [60 ft-lbs]
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Fill the engine with oil. Run the engine and check for
leaks.
Stop the engine and check the oil level with the dipstick.
Oil Pump Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Remove the drive belt.
Note
Removal is easier if the crankshaft pulley is
loosened before removing the belt.
15mm
Remove the crankshaft pulley.
10mm
Remove the front cover.
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Remove the Lubricating Oil Pump
13mm
Remove the four mounting capscrews.
Remove the pump from the bore in the cylinder block.
Clean and Inspect
If the pump is to be inspected for reuse, follow these
steps.
Visually inspect the lube pump gears for chips, cracks,
or excessive wear.
Remove the back plate.
Mark "TOP" on the gerotor planetary.
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Remove the gerotor planetary.
Inspect for excessive wear or damage.
Clean all parts in solvent and dry with compressed air.
Inspect the pump housing and gerotor drive for damage
and excessive wear.
Caution
Be sure the gerotor planetary is installed in the
original position.
Install the gerotor planetary.
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Measure the tip clearance.
Limit
Maximum Clearance: 0.1778mm [0.007 inch]
Measure the clearance of the gerotor drive/gerotor
planetary to port plate.
Limit
Maximum Clearance: 0.127mm [0.005 inch]
Measure the clearance of the gerotor planetary to the
body bore.
Limit
Maximum Clearance: 0.381mm [0.015 inch]
Measure the gears backlash.
Limits (Used Pump)
0.05 to 0.38mm
[0.003 to 0.15 inch]
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Install the back plate.
Installing the Lubricating Oil Pump
Lubricate the pump with. clean engine oil.
Note
Filling the pump with oil during installation will help
to prime the pump at engine start up.
Caution
Make sure the idler gear pin is installed in the
locating bore in the cylinder block.
Install the pump.
13mm
Tighten in the sequence shown.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
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Note
The back plate on the pump seats against the
bottom of the bore in the cylinder block. When the
pump is correctly installed, the flange on the pump
will not touch the cylinder block.
Note
Be sure the gear backlash is correct if installing a
new pump.
Measure gear backlash.
Backlash Limits
A
B
.08 to .254mm
.08 to .254mm
[.003 to .010 inch]
[.003 to .010 inch]
Note
If the adjoining gear moves when you measure the
backlash, the reading will be incorrect.
Gear Cover Installation
Lubricate the front gear train with clean engine oil.
Caution
The seal lip and the sealing surface on the
crankshaft must be free from all oil residue to
prevent seal leaks.
Thoroughly clean the front seal area of the crankshaft.
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10mm
Install the front cover and gasket.
Note
Install the capscrews but do not tighten at this time.
Use the alignment/installation tool from the seal kit to
align the cover to the crankshaft.
10mm
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Remove the alignment/installation tool.
Caution
Always use a seal pilot when you install a seal.
Apply a bead of Loctite 277 to the outside diameter of
the seal. Install the pilot from the seal kit onto the
crankshaft. Install the seal onto the pilot and start into
the front cover. Remove the pilot.
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Note
To prevent damage to the seal carrier, hit the
alignment/installation tool alternately at the 12, 3, 6
and 9 o'clock positions.
Use the alignment/installation tool and a plastic hammer
to install the seal to the correct depth.
Install the front cover access cap and seal.
15mm
Install the crankshaft pulley.
Do not tighten the
capscrews to the correct torque value at this time.
1/2 inch Square Drive
Raise the belt tensioner to install the belt.
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15mm
Torque Value: 125 Nrm [92 ft-lbs]
Cup Plugs Replacement
Remove the cup plugs from the oil passages.
To Install the Cup Plugs
Apply a bead of Loctite 277 around the outside diameter
of the oil passage cup plugs.
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Drive the cup plugs in until they bottom in the bore.
Fill the engine with oil. Run the engine and check for
leaks.
Stop the engine and check the oil level with the dipstick.
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Section 7. Electrical System
Subject
Page
Electrical System Description/Operation.......................................................................................................
Prestolite Model 8AR2201L Alternator ...................................................................................................
Typical External Circuit ..........................................................................................................................
Injection Pump Fuel Shutoff Valve.........................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensors ......................................................................................
Diagnosing Electrical Malfunctions ...............................................................................................................
Starting Motor ........................................................................................................................................
Alternator...............................................................................................................................................
Fuel Shutoff Valve - Check ....................................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensor ........................................................................................
Engine Electrical System Replacement Procedures .................................................................................... .
Starting Motor ........................................................................................................................................
Alternator...............................................................................................................................................
Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve...................................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Switch................................................................................................................................
Temperature Sensor ..............................................................................................................................
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5-150
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5-157
5-158
Electrical System
Electrical System Description/Operation
The electrical system basically consists of the starting motor and the alternator.
The injection pump uses an electrical fuel shutoff valve. The function of the valve was discussed in the fuel system
section.
The engine should have temperature and oil pressure sensors connected to indicators or wired for automatic shutdown.
The engine may also be fitted with a block heater or an oil pan heater.
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Prestolite Model 8AR2201L Alternator
Typical External Circuit
5-144
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Injection Pump Fuel Shutoff Valve
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensors
5-145
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Electrical System
4B39
Minimum Recommended Battery
Capacity - With Light
Accessories*
- 12 V Starter ............................ 625CCA
With Heavy Accessories**
- 12 V Starter ............................ 800CCA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Maximum Allowable Resistance
of Starting Circuit
- With 12 V Starter - Ohms ....... ------------------------------------------------- .0012-------------------------------------------------------
*Typical light accessories include
(alternator, small steering pump,
and disengaged clutch)
**Typical heavy accessories
include (hydraulic pump and
torque converter)
Starter
Nippondenso - 12 VDC.................... ------------------------------------------------ 2.5 Kw -----------------------------------------------------Nippondenso P/N 028000-0540
Nut Size:
Battery Connection 3/8x16 inch
Switch Connection 8-32 inch
Alternator
Prestolite Model 8AR2201L, 65 ampere
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Diagnosing Electrical Malfunctions
Starting Motor
Before you troubleshoot the starting motor, make sure
the battery terminals are not loose or corroded.
Engine Does Not Crank
If the solenoid does not make an audible sound, check
for loose wiring connections.
Check the voltage at the solenoid battery post.
• No voltage check the condition of the battery.
Check the connections at the battery, engine and
solenoid.
• 12 volts at the solenoid battery post check the
voltage at the S (switch) terminal on the solenoid.
The ignition switch must be in the start position.
The solenoid is at fault if the check indicates 12 volts at
the S terminal.
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If no voltage is indicated at the S terminal. check:
• Fuses
• Voltage to the ignition switch
• And, voltage to neutral safety switch and engine
safety shutoff system.
If the solenoid does make an audible sound, turn the
switch off and attempt to bar the engine in both
directions.
Bar the engine as follows:
1. Direction of engine rotation.
2. Direction opposite engine rotations.
3. Direction of engine rotation.
If the engine will bar at Step 3, attempt to start the
engine. If the starter cranks the engine, check the
starter pinion gear and flywheel ring gear for damage.
If the engine bars and the starting motor does not crank,
check the voltage between the solenoid and starting
motor. The ignition switch must be in the start position.
No Voltage: Starter is at fault
Normal Voltage: The solenoid is at fault
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Engine Cranking Speed Too Slow
Make sure the wiring connections are clean, tight and
not damaged.
Check the battery voltage.
If the engine was not rotated to check the starting motor,
bar the engine in the direction of engine rotation to
make sure the engine is free and does not have an
internal malfunction.
If the engine is free, check the voltage at the starter
during cranking. If the voltage drops more than 2.4
volts, check that all connections are tight.
If the cables are correct and the voltage drop exceeds
the limit, replace the starter.
If the engine requires more than a normal effort to bar,
check for excessive load from the driven units and
accessories.
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Alternator
The terminals on the alternator are shown in this
illustration.
The "R" terminal provides voltage to
operate the hourmeter.
The ALTERNATOR DISCHARGING indicator and the
BATTERY ammeter indicate trouble with the charging
system.
Normal Indicator Lamp Operation
Check the indicator lamp for normal operation as shown
below.
Engine
Stopped
Stopped
Running
Switch
Off
On
On
Lamp
Off
On
Off
Ammeter
o
+
Switch Off, Lamp On, Engine Stopped
Disconnect the lamp lead at the ignition switch. If the
lamp stays on, there is a short to a positive wire on the
ignition side of the lamp.
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If the lamp goes out, there is a short in the switch.
Switch On, Lamp Off, Engine Stopped
This condition can be caused by an open in the circuit.
To determine where an open exists. Check for a blown
fuse, a burned out bulb, defective bulb socket, or an
open in No. 1 lead circuit between alternator and
ignition switch.
Switch On, Lamp On, Engine Running
Check the drive belt and alternator pulley to be sure the
alternator is rotating.
Disconnect the lead to Terminals No. 1 and No. 2. If
the lamp stays on, there is a short to ground on the
alternator side of the lamp.
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If the lamp goes out, replace the alternator.
Abnormal Charging System Operation
Check the battery and all wiring connections.
Inspect the wiring for defects. Check all connections for
tightness and cleanliness, including the slip connectors
at the alternator and firewall, and connections at the
battery.
With ignition switch on and all wiring harness leads
connected, connect a voltmeter from:
A. Alternator B + terminal to ground
B. Alternator No. 1 terminal to ground
C. Alternator No. 2 terminal to ground
A zero reading indicates an open between the voltmeter
connection and the battery.
Locate and repair the open circuit.
With all accessories turned off, connect a voltmeter
across the battery. Operate engine at moderate speed.
If voltage is 15.5 or more, remove the alternator for
repair.
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Fuel Shutoff Valve - Check
Note
Check all connections for loose or corroded
connections and for broken wires.
Remove the valve. Ground the valve and connect 12
volts DC to the terminal and observe plunger
movement.
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensor
When diagnosing problems with either the pressure
switch or the temperature sensor, check for loose or
corroded connections and for broken wires.
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Oil Pressure Switch - Check
Remove the pressure switch, install a gage, start the
engine and measure oil pressure.
Minimum oil
pressure:
Idle (675 to 725 RPM) ......... 69 kPa [10 PSI]
Full Speed......................... 207 kPa [30 PSI]
Note
The Pressure switch is set to actuate when oil
pressure drops to 34 kPa [5 psi].
Temperature Sensor - Check
Check for continuity. The sensor will have continuity
only when coolant temperature is above 107°C [225°F]
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Engine Electrical System Replacement Procedures
Starting Motor Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Disconnect the ground cable from the battery
terminal.
• Identify each electrical wire with a tag
indicating location.
17mm
Remove the battery cable from the solenoid.
10mm
Remove the starting motor.
Install the starting motor in the reverse order of removal.
Torque Value: 43 N•m
[32 ft-lbs]
Alternator - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Disconnect the ground cable from the battery
terminal.
• Remove the drive belt from the alternator
pulley.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
7/16 inch
Remove and tag all wires and complete the following _
steps.
13mm
Remove the alternator link capscrew.
16mm
Remove the alternator mounting capscrew.
13mm, 16mm
Install the alternator by tightening the 13mm capscrews
before the 16mm capscrew. Reconnect all wires.
Torque Value: (13mm) 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
(16mm) 43 N•m [32 ft-lbs]
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Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve - Replacement
8mm
Remove the electrical wire(s) and complete the
following steps.
24mm
Caution: When removing the valve, be careful not to
drop the piston and spring.
Clean around the valve.
Replace the valve and connect the electrical wire.
Oil Pressure Switch - Replacement
Disconnect the wire from the sending unit.
Note: The sending units illustrated may differ from those
installed by the equipment manufacturer.
Reconnect the wire to the sending unit.
Torque Value:
(Installed into Cast Iron)
16 N•m [12 ft-lbs]
(Installed into Aluminum)
10 N•m [7 ft-lbs]
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Temperature Sensor Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Drain coolant
3/8 inch or Screwdriver
Disconnect the temperature sensor wiring.
7/8 inch
Remove the temperature sensor.
7/8 inch
Apply liquid teflon sealant to the threads when installing
the temperature sensor.
Reconnect the wiring.
Torque Value:
50 N•m [37 ft-lbs]
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Section 8. Base Engine Components
Subject
Page
Operation and Description ...........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head and Valve Train ...............................................................................................................
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train ........................................................................................................
Front Crankshaft Seal .............................................................................................................................
Camshaft, Tappets, and Push Rods ........................................................................................................
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel ..............................................................................................................
Piston and Rod Assemblies ....................................................................................................................
Crankshaft and Main Bearings ................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block ........................................................................................................................................
Oil Pan ...................................................................................................................................................
Rear Crankshaft Seal .............................................................................................................................
Diagnosing Base Engine Component Malfunctions.......................................................................................
Valve Train and Head Assembly .............................................................................................................
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train ........................................................................................................
Rocker Lever, Valve Stem, Push Rod, Tappet, and Camshaft ................................................................ .
Crankshaft and Main Bearings ................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block ........................................................................................................................................
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel ..............................................................................................................
Base Engine Components Specifications ....................................................................................................
Valve Train .............................................................................................................................................
Gear Train ..............................................................................................................................................
Camshaft.................................................................................................................................................
Tappets ...................................................................................................................................................
Pistons ...................................................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod ......................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft ..............................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block ........................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore .........................................................................................................................................
Base Engine Components Replacement Procedures ...................................................................................
Rocker Levers and Push Rods ................................................................................................................
Camshaft and Tappet .............................................................................................................................
Timing Pin Assembly or Gasket ..............................................................................................................
Gear Housing or Gasket .........................................................................................................................
Timing Pin - Installation ..........................................................................................................................
Flywheel Ring Gear and Rear Seal .........................................................................................................
In-Chassis Overhaul ....................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Removal ..........................................................................................................................
Main Bearing Preliminary Inspection .......................................................................................................
Piston and Rod Removal ........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bores - De-Glaze ......................................................................................................................
Main Bearing Replacement ....................................................................................................................
Piston and Rod - Disassembly ................................................................................................................
Piston to Connecting Rod - Installation ...................................................................................................
Piston and Rod Assembly - Installation ...................................................................................................
5-159
5-161
5-162
5-163
5-163
5-163
5-164
5-165
5-167
5-167
5-169
5-169
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5-175
5-176
5-179
5-180
5-180
5-185
5-185
5-186
5-186
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5-188
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5-189
5-190
5-190
5-199
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5-211
5-215
5-219
5-220
5-221
5-222
5-223
5-227
5-231
5-235
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 8. Base Engine Components - continued
Subject
Page
In-Chassis Overhaul - continued
Cylinder Head and Gasket- Installation ...................................................................................................
Observe the Following Check List During Final Assembly .......................................................................
Cylinder Head - Disassembly ..................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Clean and Inspect .........................................................................................................
Valves- Grind .........................................................................................................................................
Valve Seats- Grind .................................................................................................................................
Valve Springs - Inspection ......................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Assembly ......................................................................................................................
Cup Plug Replacement ...........................................................................................................................
5-160
5-242
5-244
5-246
5-247
5-250
5-251
5-255
5-255
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Operation and Description
This section of the manual defines the base engine components, describes the operation of those components, provides
guidelines for diagnosing malfunctions and gives procedures for component replacement and in-chassis overhaul.
Definition
For the purpose of this manual, Base Engine Components are defined as mechanical functions not included in the other
major engine systems. The components include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Valve Train and Cylinder Head
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train
Camshaft, Tappets and Push Rods
Piston and Connecting Rod Assemblies
Crankshaft and Main Bearings
Cylinder Block
5-161
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cylinder Head and Valve Train
The cylinder head is a one piece, crossflow design with
two valves per cylinder. The head has integrally cast
valve guides and hardened valve seat surfaces which
can be repaired in a machine shop using the appropriate
service parts.
The cylinder head has a cast intake manifold, fuel filter
head, thermostat housing and an internal water bypass.
The injectors are mounted in the head for direct injection
into the cylinders.
Separate pedestals for each cylinder are used to support
and route oil to the rocker levers.
The cylinder head gasket is a laminated design with
print-o-seal on both sides around the water holes. A fire
ring in the gasket seals the cylinder bores. As discussed
in the Cooling System, the gasket also provides orifices
to control coolant flow.
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Front Gear Housing and Gear Train
The gear train consists of the crankshaft gear, lube
pump gear idler and drive gear, the camshaft gear, the
fuel pump gear and the accessory drive gear, if used.
The gear housing provides a support for the injection
pump, the timing pin and the accessory drive gear, if
used.
Front Crankshaft Seal
The front crankshaft seal is mounted in the front gear
cover. A double lipped Teflon seal is used. The sealing
surface on the crankshaft must be clean and free of oil
during assembly.
Camshaft, Tappets and Push Rods
The camshaft is gear driven from the crankshaft. A
replaceable bushing is used for the front journal to carry
the side loading from the accessory drive.
The
remainder of the journals operate in cast iron bores in
the cylinder block; however, these bores can be repaired
in a machine shop by installing service bushings.
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The camshaft has lobes to operate the intake and
exhaust valves and a special lobe to drive the lift pump.
The valve lobes contact " mushroom" shaped valve
tappets which operate the push rods. The operating arm
of the lift pump rides directly on the special lobe on the
camshaft. The profile of the cam lobes is the same for
all B Series engines.
The tappets are mushroom shaped. The convex shape
of the surface which contacts the camshaft lobe causes
the tappet to rotate as it lifts the push rod.
The ball end of the push rod fits into a ball socket in the
tappet. The other end of the push rod is fitted with a
socket into which the ball end of the rocker lever
adjusting screw operates.
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel Several optional
flywheel housing and flywheels are used depending on
the application. Ring dowels are used to locate the
housing within 0.20mm [0.008 in.) TIR.
Note: Service housings are drilled. Re-dowelling is not
required.
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Some housings are machined for the use of an optional
engine barring device.
Piston and Rod Assemblies
Piston features include: high swirl combustion bowl cast
aluminum body and three ring grooves. Always check
the part number to be sure that the correct configuration
is used during piston replacement.
The piston ring sets are also different. While both sets
consist of three rings, the top ring of the
turbocharged/aftercooled set has a keystone profile
which operates in a ni-resist insert cast into the piston.
The naturally aspirated top ring is square cut and
operates in a groove machined into the aluminum
piston.
A free floating, hollow piston pin is used to attach the
piston to the connecting rod. Lubrication of the pin and
journal is accomplished by residual spray from piston
cooling.
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The piston pin end of the connecting rod is angle cut to
provide additional bearing surface. The rod end is fitted
with a bronze bushing.
In production, steel backed aluminum rod bearings are
used for naturally aspirated engines. Steel backed
trimetal bearings are used in production for the
additional loading resulting from turbocharging and
aftercooling.
To prevent incorrect use of the two bearings at time of
repair, only steel back tri-metal bearings are available
for service.
Oversize service rod bearings are available for use with
re-ground crankshafts.
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Crankshaft and Main Bearings
The crankshaft is a balanced, forged steel unit. Fourcylinder engines have 5 main bearings. Six-cylinder
engines have 7 main bearings. The lower bearing shells
are all the same. All of the upper bearing shells are also
the same with the exception of the journal adjacent to
the rear one. The next to the last journal is fitted with a
flanged upper bearing shell. The flanges control the end
thrust of the crankshaft.
The upper bearings have three holes in them. The
middle hole receives oil from the main oil rifle. One of
the adjacent holes is aligned with drilling to the camshaft
journal and serves as an orifice for lubrication flow to
the journal. The other adjacent hole supplies oil for
piston cooling. The hole does not align perfectly with
the cooling nozzle. The hole is off-set to keep it away
from the highly loaded bearing area.
Note: Oversize service main bearings are available for
reground crankshafts.
Cylinder Block
We have discussed the cylinder block relative to cooling and lubrication in those respective systems. We have also
discussed the interfaces of some of the above power functions with the block. This discussion will cover the remaining
interfaces including the cylinder bores.
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The cylinder bores are machined directly into the block
during production. The size and condition of the bore is
critical to engine performance and life. During repair, be
sure to inspect the bore carefully. It will also be
necessary to deglaze the cylinder walls before
reassembly. A 30 degree crosshatch pattern is needed
to seat the new piston rings.
The cylinder bores can be rebored in a machine shop
and fitted with an oversize service piston. The cylinder
bore may also be bored to accept a service liner and
standard pistons.
Note: The head surface of the block is also critical to
sealing the bores. Inspect the surface carefully during
repair before assembly.
The head deck can be
resurfaced in a machine shop and a thicker surface
head gasket installed to keep the piston-to-head
clearance the same.
After machining, the block is identified as follows:
Machining
A - Standard
B - 0.15mm [0.006 inch]
C - 0.35mm [0.014 inch]
5-168
Mark
None
X
XX
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Oil Pan
A front sump, rear sump or center sump pan options
may be used depending on the application.
The
mounting of the oil pick up tube will vary with the pan
used.
Rear Crankshaft Seal
The rear crankshaft seal is mounted in a housing that
bolts to the rear of the block. Double lipped Teflon seals
are used. The sealing surface on the crankshaft must
be clean and free of oil during installation of the seal.
Diagnosing Base Engine Component Malfunctions
Valve Train and Head Assembly
The sound emitted from the overhead can indicate a
valve train problem. Loose rocker levers will clatter. A
squeaking noise can mean lack of lubrication for
adjusting screw and the push rod socket.
Caution: If the one of the individual
support pedestals is removed during
inspection or repair, all head bolts
must be retightened according to the
head bolt torque sequence.
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Air and Fuel Systems Check
When diagnosing a low power problem first troubleshoot
the air and fuel systems to make sure the engine is
receiving adequate intake air and fuel.
Check the intake air system for leaks. Make sure a
sealant is used on the through-hole capscrews which
secure manifold cover to the head.
Check the fuel system for correct timing and fuel
delivery.
Valve Adjustment Check
Verify that the valves are adjusted correctly (refer to
page 5-197).
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Compression Check
If the air and fuel system are functioning correctly,
perform a compression check to determine whether the
problem is:
• Piston ring sealing
• Valve sealing
• Head gasket sealing or a crack in the cylinder
head
Piston Ring Sealing
If the compression is low but can be increased
significantly by squirting oil into the cylinder, the cause
of low compression is inadequate sealing between the
rings and the cylinder walls.
Normal compression is 2413 kPa (350 PSI] at 250 RPM
cranking speed. A 1007 kPa [100 PSI] difference
between cylinders indicates a compression seal
problem.
Valve Sealing
f the compression is low on one or more non-adjacent
cylinders and the pressure cannot be increased by oiling
the rings, poor valve sealing is to be suspected.
Valve leakage is often audible from the intake and
exhaust manifold.
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The parent valve seats can be re-ground to a depth of
0.010 in. (0.254 mm). Re-ground seats are identified
with a mark on the cylinder head. Service valve seats
must be installed in previously ground seats (refer to
page 5-252).
Head Gasket Sealing
If the compression was found low on adjacent cylinders
and the pressure cannot be increased by oiling the rings,
the head gasket is probably leaking between the
cylinders.
Low compression on a single cylinder can be caused by
an external leak or a leak to a coolant passage.
A compression leak to the coolant will normally be
detected by loss of coolant as the coolant is blown from
the cooling system.
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External head gasket leaks can be detected visually.
Liquid soap can be used to locate external leaks.
Valve Seal Wear
Worn valve seals are typically detected by excessive
smoke at idle or when the engine is unloaded when the
vehicle is going down hill. Verify the condition by
removing the valve spring and inspecting the seals.
Hardening of the material and wear or damage to the
sealing surfaces will cause the seal to leak (refer to
page 5-255 for replacement instructions).
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Injector Protrusion
Injector protrusion can affect power from the engine. In
addition to a single sealing washer (A) on the injector,
the thickness (B) of the head gasket controls injector
protrusion.
Oversized service head gaskets are used when the
head surface on the block has been refaced. The head
gasket is marked to indicate the thickness. One notch
means the gasket is standard for use with blocks that
have not been refaced.
Two notches identify that the gasket is for use with
blocks that have been refaced 0.15mm [0.006 in.]. The
block should be marked with one X to indicate the
surface has been refaced 0.15mm [0.006 in.].
Three notches indicate the gasket is for use with a block
that has been refaced 0.50mm [0.20 in.]. Two XX's
identify a block has been refaced 0.O5Omm [0.020 in.].
5-174
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train
Troubleshooting the front gear housing and gear train
consists of checking for leaks at the gaskets (front
cover, timing pin assembly and injection pump) and the
front crankshaft oil seal, inspecting the gears and
measuring backlash when required.
Gear noise emitted from the cover can indicate worn
gear teeth (refer to page 8-43).
Note: Excessive backlash can affect
engine
timing
and
engine
performance.
As previously discussed in the fuel system, replacement
of the gear housing or the timing pin assembly
necessitates a realignment of the pin assembly on the
housing to correspond to TDC for Cylinder Number 1
(refer to page 5-211 for replacement instructions).
5-175
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Rocker Lever, Valve Stem, Push Rod, Tappet, and
Camshaft
Excessive valve lash can indicate a worn valve stem or
rocker lever.
Loose rocker levers and the need to re-set the valve
clearance frequently, can also indicate cam lobe or
tappet wear. If an inspection of the levers, valve stems
and push rods does not show wear, then tappet and/or
cam lobe wear can be suspected.
Caution: Anytime a new camshaft is
installed, new tappets must also be
installed.
The camshaft lobes can be visually inspected after
removing the pan. Similarly, the face of the tappet can
be inspected after removing the push rods and lifting the
tappet.
A severely damaged camshaft journal(s) can generate
metal chips which will be found in the pan and filter. As
the clearance in the journal(s) increases, a small
decrease in oil pressure may be detected.
5-176
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
There are a number of power related problems including
excessive oil consumption, smoke, blow-by, and poor
performance that can be caused by inadequate sealing
between the piston rings and the cylinder walls.
A blowby measurement can help detect the problem.
Verification of the damaged or worn component requires
visual/dimensional inspection of rings, pistons and
cylinder bore.
Piston wear can be the result of wear over a long period
of time or due to poor air intake system maintenance
over a short period of time. If necessary, troubleshoot
the air intake system.
During repair it is essential that the cylinder wall be
deglazed so that new rings will seat against the cylinder
wall. Failure of the rings to seat can result in high blowby and excessive oil consumption.
5-177
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
However, it is also critical that the cylinder walls be
thoroughly cleaned after the de-glazing. Grit left in the
cylinder wall will cause rapid wear out of the new rings
leading to the previously discussed power problems.
Overheating of the engine from a loss of coolant will
cause the cylinder to overheat resulting in seizure of the
piston. Loss of piston cooling can also lead to piston
seizure.
Improper maintenance of the lubrication system is the
primary cause of reduced main bearing life.
Normally, worn bearings can be detected by reduced oil
pressure.
But if this wear goes undetected, the
excessive clearance will cause the rod to strike the
crankshaft causing a distinct knocking sound.
5-178
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A rod knock occurs when the engine is not loaded.
Verify by first applying load and then unloading and
listening for the knock.
Crankshaft and Main Bearings
Improper maintenance of the lubrication system is also
the primary cause of reduced main bearing life.
A malfunction of the crankshaft/main bearing will usually
be detected by reduced oil pressure. As with rod
bearings, continued operation with low oil pressure will
lead to a rapid deterioration of the bearings and
eventually will produce a knocking sound.
A main bearing will be heard when the engine is loaded.
A damaged or worn thrust bearing flange of the upper
main bearing shell can be detected by measuring the
end play of the crankshaft (refer to page 5-231).
5-179
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cylinder Block
Diagnosis of cylinder block malfunctions relative to
cooling and lubrication have been discussed in those
respective systems.
The potential problems with
cylinder, the camshaft bore and the crankshaft main
journals has also been discussed in this Section.
Malfunctions of the block such as leaks, tappet bore
wear, etc. require a visual or dimensional inspection to
isolate the problem.
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel Diagnostics of the
flywheel housing and flywheel is normally limited to a
visual inspection of the parts for damage or wear.
5-180
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Occasional failure of a starter to engage can be caused
by damaged teeth on the ring gear. Service ring gears
are available for repairing flywheels (refer to page 5215).
When troubleshooting a transmission vibration problem,
it may be necessary to measure the concentricity of
flywheel housing-to-crankshaft.
Note: The following procedure is for
use with an indicator whose needle
rotates clockwise as the top is
depressed.
Flywheel Housing Concentricity Check
Attach a dial indicator to the crankshaft as illustrated.
Note: The extension bar for the
indicator must be rigid for an
accurate reading. It must not sag
Position the indicator at the 12 o'clock position. Adjust
the dial until the needle points to zero.
Slowly rotate the crankshaft. Record the readings
obtained at the 3 o'clock, 6 o'clock and 9 o'clock
position.
5-181
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Continue to rotate the crankshaft until the indicator is at
the 12 o'clock position. Check the indicator to make
sure the needle points to zero. If it does not, the
readings will be incorrect.
Caution: Do not force the crankshaft
beyond the point where the bearing
clearance has been removed. Do not
use the flywheel housing as a
fulcrum.
Determine the adjustment for main bearing clearance by
raising the rear of the crankshaft to its upper limit. Use
a floor mounted support with a padded pry bar to raise
the crankshaft.
Record the indicator reading.
Calculate the bearing clearance adjustment by
subtracting one-half of the reading obtained in the
previous step from the reading obtained at the 6 o'clock
position.
Example:
Total bearing clearance +0.08mm [0.003 in]
One-half bearing clearance
+0.04mm [0.0016 in]
6 o'clock position reading =
+0.20mm [0.008 in]
+0.20mm [0.008 in]
+0.04mm [0.0016 in]
+0.16mm [0.0064 in] (Adjusted 6 o'clock reading)
5-182
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Determine the Total Indicator Reading (TIR). The
following is intended to give examples of TIR
calculations with a mix of positive (+) and negative (-)
readings.
mm
in
12 o'clock
0.00
0.000
6 o'clock (adjusted)
+0.16
+0.0064
Total Vertical Reading =
+0.16
+0.0064
3 o'clock
9 o'clock
Total Horizontal Reading =
+0.08
-0.08
0.00
+0.16
0.16
+0.003
- 0.003
0.000
+0.0064
0.064
12 o'clock
6 o'clock
Total Vertical Reading =
0.00
+0.16
+0.16
0.000
+0.0064
+0.0064
3 o'clock
9 o'clock
Total Horizontal Reading =
+0.08
-0.05
+0.03
+0.16
0.19
+0.003
- 0.002
+0.001
+0.0064
0.0074
TIR =
TIR =
The maximum allowable Total Indicator Reading (TIR)
is determined by the diameter of the housing bore. If
out of specifications replace the housing.
SAE
No.
mm
Bore Diameter
in
TIR Max
mm n
2 447.68 to 447.80
3 409.58 to 409.70
17.625 to 17.630
16.125 to 16.130
0.20 0.008
0.20 0.008
Flywheel Housing Face Alignment Check
Caution: The dial indicator tip must
not enter the capscrew holes or the
gauge will be damaged.
Install a dial indicator as illustrated.
Note: The extension bar for the
indicator must be rigid for an
accurate reading. It must not sag.
Position the indicator at the 12
o'clock position. Adjust the dial until
the needle points to zero.
5-183
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Slowly rotate the crankshaft. Record the readings at the
3 o'clock, 6 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions.
Note: The crankshaft must be
pushed toward the front of the
engine to remove the crankshaft end
clearance each time a position is
measured.
Continue to rotate the crankshaft until the indicator is at
the 12 o'clock position. Check the indicator to make
sure the needle points to zero. If it does not, the
readings will be incorrect.
Determine the Total Indicator Reading (TIR).
Example:
12 o'clock
3 o'clock
6 o'clock
9 o'clock
Equals TIR
mm
0.00
+ 0.08
- 0.05
+0.08
in
0.000
+0.003
- 0.002
+0.003
0.13
0.005
The maximum TIR is determined by the diameter of the
housing bore.
Replace the housing If out of
specifications.
SAE
No.
Bore Diameter
mm
in
2 447.68 to 447.80
5-184
17.625 to 17.630
TIR Max
mm in
0.20 0.008
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Base Engine Components Specifications
Valve Train
Valve Clearance
• Intake
0.25mm [0.010 in]
• Exhaust
0.51mm [0.020 in]
• Valve Guide Diameter (Maximum)
8.019 (0.3157)
• Valve Stem Diameter (Minimum)
7.960 (0.3134)
• Valve Seat Angle
Intake
30 degrees
Exhaust 45 degrees
• Valve Depth (Installed)
0.89 to 1.42mm [0.035 to 0.056 in]
0.99 to 1.52 (0.039 0.060)
5-185
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
• Cylinder Head Flatness
Total
Maximum Overall
0.30 [0.012]
Incremental
Maximum variation within any 50.0 [2.0 in.]
diameter area
0.01 [0.0004]
Gear Train
• Gear Backlash (all gears)
0.08 to 0.33mm [0.003 to 0.013 in]
Camshaft
• Journal Diameter (Minimum)
53.962mm [2.1245 in]
• Valve Lobes (Min. Dia. at Peak of Lobe)
Intake 47.040mm [1.852 in]
Exhaust 46.770mm [1.841 in]
• Lift Pump Lobe (Min. Dia. at Peak of Lobe)
35.5mm [1.398 in]
Tappets
• Stem Diameter (Minimum at 10mm and
46mm height)
15.925mm [0.627 in]
5-186
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Pistons
• Skirt Diameter (Minimum)
Nominal
101.880mm [4.011 in]
Worn Limit
101.823mm [4.0088 in]
• Pin Bore Diameter (Maximum)
40.025mm 11.5758 in]
Note: Measure the diameter on a
vertical axis only.
• Ring Groove (Maximum)
Top Groove
Use Keystone Gauge
Intermediate Groove
0.150mm [0.006 in]
Oil Control Groove
0.130mm [0.005 in]
• Piston Pin Diameter (Minimum)
39.990mm [1.5744 in]
5-187
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Connecting Rod
• Pin Bore Diameter (Maximum)
40.053mm [1.5769 in]
Crankshaft
• Main Bearing Journal Diameter
Minimum
Standard
82.962mm [3.2662 in]
Machined 0.25mm
82.712mm [3.2564 in]
Machined 0.50,mm
82.462mm [3.2465 in]
Machined 0.75mm
82.212mm [3.2367 in]
Machined 1.00mm
81.962mm [3.2269 in]
• Journal Out of Round (Maximum)
0.050mm [0.002 in]
• Journal Taper (Maximum)
0.013mm [0.0005 in]
• Connecting Rod Journal
Minimum
Standard
68.962mm [2.7150 in]
Machined 0.25mm
68.712mm [2.7052 in]
Machined 0.50mm
68.462mm [2.6954 in]
Machined 0.75mm
68.212mm [2.6855 in]
Machined 1.00mm
67.962mm [2.6757 in]
• Journal Out of Round (Maximum)
0.050mm [0.002 in]
• Journal Taper (Maximum)
0.013mm [0.0005 in]
Cylinder Block
•
Top Surface Flatness (Maximum Overall
Variation)
0.075mm [0.003 in]
(Maximum Variation within any 50.Omm [2.0 in]
diameter area) 0.01mm [0.0004 in]
5-188
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
• Main Bearing Bore Diameter (Maximum)
83.106mm [3.272 in] (with bearing installed)
• Camshaft Bore Diameter (Maximum)
57.258 [2.2543] (without bushing) No. 1 only
54.133 [2.1312] No. 1 with bushing
54.139 [2.1316] No. 2 through No. 7
• Tappet Bore Diameter (Maximum)
16.055mm [0.632 in
Cylinder Bore
• Cylinder Bore Diameter
Maximum
102.116mm [4.0203 in]
• Out of Round (Maximum)
0.04mm [0.0016 in]
• Taper (Maximum)
0.076mm [0.003 in]
5-189
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Base Engine Components Replacement Procedures
Rocker Levers and Push Rods - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Remove the valve covers.
Removal
9/16 inch
Loosen the adjusting screw locknuts.
adjusting screws until they stop.
Loosen the
13mm, 18mm
Remove the 8mm and 12mm capscrews from the rocker
lever pedestals. Remove the pedestals and rocker lever
assemblies.
Remove the push rods.
5-190
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Rocker Levers - Disassembly
If the rocker lever and push rods are to be inspected for
reuse, follow these steps.
Remove the retaining rings and thrust washers.
Remove the rocker levers.
Caution: Do not disassemble the
rocker lever shaft and pedestal. The
pedestal and shaft must be replaced
as an assembly.
Remove the lock nut and adjusting screw.
5-191
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Clean all parts in a strong solution of laundry detergent
in hot water.
Use compressed air to dry the parts after rinsing in clean
hot water.
Note: The pedestals are made from
powdered metal and will continue to
show wetness after they have been
cleaned and dried.
Inspect for cracks and excessive wear in the bore and
the contact surface for the valve stem.
Measure the rocker lever bore.
Diameter (Maximum)
5-192
Limits
19.05mm (0.75 inch]
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the pedestal and shaft.
Measure the shaft diameter.
Minimum Diameter
Limits
18.94mm [0.746 inch]
Rocker Levers Assembly
Install the adjusting screw and lock nut.
Caution: Be sure to assemble the
intake and exhaust rocker levers in
the correct location.
Lubricate the shaft with engine oil.
5-193
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Position the levers on the rocker shaft.
Install the thrust washers.
Install the snap rings.
Clean the push rods in hot soapy water.
5-194
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the push rod ball and socket for signs of scoring.
Check for cracks where the ball and the socket are
pressed into the tube.
Check the push rods for roundness and straightness.
Install the push rods into the sockets of the valve
tappets.
Lubricate the push rod sockets with dean engine oil.
Caution: Make sure the rocker lever adjusting
screws are completely backed out.
5-195
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Rocker Lever Assembly Installation
Caution: Make sure the dowel rings in the pedestals
are installed into the dowel bores.
Use clean engine oil to lubricate the threads and under
the heads of the 8mm and 12mm capscrews.
Install the capscrews into the pedestals.
18mm
Use the sequence shown to tighten ALL of the 12mm
cylinder head capscrews.
Torque Value:
Step 1 - 40 N•m [29 ft-lbs]
Step 2 - 85 N•m [62 ft-lbs]
Step 3 - 126 N•m [92 ft-lbs]
13mm
Tighten the 8mm pedestal capscrews.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
5-196
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Be sure to disengage the pin after locating
top dead center.
Use the timing pin to locate Top Dead Center for
Cylinder Number 1.
Valve Clearance Adjustment
Caution: Adjust the valves when the engine is cold below 60°C [140°F].
Four-Cylinder Engine
Step A
9/16 inch
Adjust the clearance for the valves shown in the
illustration.
(I = Intake; E = Exhaust)
Intake: 0.254mm [0.010 inch]
Exhaust: 0.508mm [0.020 inch]
Tighten the locknut and check the clearance.
Note: The clearance is correct when some friction is
felt when the feeler gauge is moved between the valve
stem and the rocker lever.
Caution: Be sure the timing pin is disengaged
before rotating the crankshaft.
Mark the pulley and rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
5-197
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Step B
Adjust the clearance for the valves shown in the
illustration.
Intake: 0.254mm [0.010 inch]
Exhaust: 0.508mm [0.020 inch]
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
15mm
Install the valve covers.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
5-198
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Camshaft and Tappet - Replacement
Preparatory Steps:
• Remove the valve covers
• Remove the push rods
• Remove the drive belt
• Remove the crankshaft pulley
• Remove the gear cover
• Remove the lift pump
Camshaft Removal
3822513, Plastic Hammer
Insert the dowels through the push tube holes and into
the top of each tappet securely.
When properly
installed, the dowels can be used to pull the tappets up
and should not be able to be pulled out without
considerable effort.
Pull the tappets up and wrap a rubber band around the
top of the dowel rods. This will prevent the tappets from
dropping down.
5-199
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Rotate the engine to align the crankshaft to camshaft
timing marks.
13mm
Remove the capscrews from the thrust plate.
Remove the camshaft and thrust plate.
Camshaft Inspection
Inspect the lift pump lobe, valve lobes and bearing
journals for wear, cracking, pitting and other damage.
5-200
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the gear teeth for wear and damage. Look for
cracks at the root of the teeth.
Measure the bearing journals and valve lobes.
Limits
Journal
Minimum Diameter: 53.962mm (2.1245 inches]
Valve Lobes: (Minimum Diameter at Peak of Lobe)
Intake Minimum Height: 47.040mm (1.852 inches]
Exhaust Minimum Height: 46.770mm [1.841 inches]
Lift Pump Lobe Diameter Minimum: 35.5mm [1.398
inches]
Camshaft Bushing inspection
Caution: If the bushing is worn beyond the limit,
install a new service bushing.
Inspect the camshaft bore for damage or excessive
wear.
The limit for the bushing in the No. 1 bore is the same
as for the other bores without bushings.
Limit
Inside Diameter: 54.133mm [2.1312 inches]
Note: If the bores without a bushing are worn beyond
the limit, the engine must be removed for machining
and installation of service bushings or replacement of
the cylinder block.
Remove the bushing from the Number 1 bore.
5-201
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Note: Mark the cylinder block so you can align the oil
hole in the cylinder block with the oil hole in the bushing.
Install the bushing so that it is even with the front face of
the cylinder block.
Caution: the oil hole must be aligned.
Measure the installed bushing.
Limits
Inside Diameter: 54.146mm [2.1315 inches]
5-202
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Tappet Removal
Insert the trough to the full length of the cam bore.
Make sure the trough is positioned so it will catch the
tappet when the wooden dowel is removed.
Only remove one tappet at a time. Remove the
rubber band from the two companion tappets, securing
the tappet not to be removed with the rubber band.
Pull the wooden dowel from the tappet bore allowing the
tappet to fall into the plastic trough.
5-203
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Flashlight
When the tappet is dropped into the bottom trough, due
to the roundness of the trough most of the time, they will
fall over. However, if they do not, gently shake the
trough just enough to allow the tappet to fall over before
removing.
NOTE: Take special care when removing the Number 4
cylinder tappets to avoid knocking or shaking the
tappets over the tape barrier of the trough.
Carefully pull the trough and tappet from the cam bore
and remove the tappet. Repeat the process until all
tappets are removed.
Tappet Inspection
Inspect the socket, stem and face for excessive wear,
cracks and other damage.
Limits
(A)
- Normal wear
(B) and (C) - Abnormal wear - Do not reuse
5-204
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Tappet stem specifications
Limits
Minimum Diameter: 15.925mm [0.627 inches]
Tappet Installation
Insert the plastic trough the full length of the cam bore.
Feed the installation tool down the tappet bore and into
the plastic trough.
Feed the installation tool through the cam bores by
carefully pulling the plastic trough/installation tool out
the front. The barrier at the rear of the trough will pull
the tool out most of the time.
5-205
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Lubricate the tappets with LubriplateTM 105.
Insert the installation tool into the tappet.
Note: To aid in removing the installation tool after the
tappet is installed, work the tool in and out of the tappet
several times before installing the tappets.
Slide the trough back into the cam bore.
Pull the tool/tappet through the cam bore and up into the
tappet bore.
5-206
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
If difficulty is experienced in getting the tappet to make
the bend from the trough up to the tappet bore (due to
the webbing of the block), pull the trough out enough to
allow the tappet to drop down and align itself, then pull
the tappet up into the bore.
After the tappet has been pulled up into position, slide
the trough back into the cam bore and rotate it 1/2 turn.
This will position the round side of the trough up, which
will hold the tappet in place.
Remove the installation tool from the tappet.
Install a wooden dowel into the top of the tappet. Wrap
rubber bands around the wooden dowels to secure the
tappets.
Repeat this process until all tappets have been installed.
Camshaft Installation
Apply a coat of Lubriplate 105 to the camshaft bores.
5-207
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Lubricate the camshaft lobes, journals and thrust washer
with LubriplateTM 105.
Install the camshaft/thrust washer.
marks as illustrated.
Align the timing
Install the thrust washer capscrews and tighten to 24
N•m [18 ft lbs].
Verify the camshaft has proper back lash and end play.
A = 0.152 to 0.254mm [0.006 to 0.010 inch]
B = 0.12 to 0.33mm [0.005 to 0.013 inch]
5-208
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Complete the installation of the removed parts.
• Gear cover
• Vibration damper
• Rocker levers and valve cover
• Lift pump
• Operate the engine at idle for 5 to 10 minutes and
check for leaks and loose parts.
Timing Pin Assembly or Gasket - Replacement
Locate TDC for Cylinder No. 1.
T-25 Torx
Remove the timing pin assembly and gasket.
5-209
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Install a new gasket and, if required, new timing pin
assembly. Hold the pin (A) in the hole (B) in the
camshaft gear to align the housing.
Torque Value: 5 N•m [4 ft-lbs]
Gear Housing or Gasket - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
•
Remove the camshaft.
• Remove the gear driven accessory drive if the
engine is so equipped.
10 mm
Remove the gear housing and gasket.
Clean the gasket material from the cylinder block.
5-210
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
10mm
Caution: If a new housing or other than the original
housing is installed, the timing pin assembly must
be accurately located.
Install a new gasket and gear housing.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs]
Install the camshaft.
Note: Make sure the alignment marks on the camshaft
and camshaft gears are aligned.
Timing Pin - Installation
The location of the timing pin assembly on the gear
housing is critical for correct engine adjustments.
Follow this procedure to install the assembly so that it
corresponds to Top Dead Center (TDC) for Cylinder
Number 1.
18mm, 13mm
Install the rocker levers and the exhaust push rod for
Cylinder Number 1.
5-211
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Adjust the exhaust rocker lever to have zero (0) valve
clearance.
Remove the injector nozzles from all of the cylinders.
Note: This step is important to vent the cylinders so the
crankshaft can be rotated smoothly to locate TDC for
Cylinder Number 1.
18mm
Temporarily install the crankshaft pulley. Fabricate and
install a wire pointer as shown.
Rotate the crankshaft one-quarter rotation in the
direction opposite engine rotation.
5-212
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Tighten the adjusting screw for the exhaust valve two
complete turns of the screw.
Caution: Use extreme care that the piston does not
push against the exhaust valve with so much force
that it bends the push rod.
Rotate the crankshaft slowly in the direction of engine
rotation until the piston touches the exhaust valve.
Mark the crankshaft pulley.
Caution: Make sure that the piston touches the
valve with approximately the same amount of force
as in the previous step.
Rotate the crankshaft in the opposite direction until the
piston touches the valve.
Mark the crankshaft pulley.
Measure the distance and mark the pulley at one-half
the distance between the two marks. This mark is the
TDC mark.
5-213
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Completely loosen the exhaust valve adjusting screw.
Rotate the crankshaft in the direction of engine rotation
until the pointer is aligned with the TDC mark. Look
through the back side of the gear housing for the timing
pin hole in the camshaft gear. If the hole is not visible,
the crankshaft must be rotated one revolution.
T-25 Torkscrew
Apply a coat of Lactate 59241 to the threads of the
torkscrews. Hold the timing pin in the hole to align the
housing.
Torque Value: 5 N•m [4 ft-lbs]
Complete the procedure for camshaft installation
5-214
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Install the injectors and bleed the fuel system.
Operate the engine at idle for 5 to 10 minutes and check
for leaks and loose parts.
Flywheel Ring Gear and Rear Seal - Replacement
Preparatory Step:
• Remove the transmission
Ring Gear - Replacement
19mm
Remove the flywheel.
5-215
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Brass Drift Pin
Warning: Wear eye protection when you drive the
gear from the flywheel. Do not use a steel drift pin.
Use the drift pin to drive The ring gear from the
flywheel.
Heat the new ring gear for 20 minutes in an oven
preheated to 127°C [260°F].
Warning: Wear protective gloves when you install
the heated gear.
Install the gear. The gear must be installed so the bevel
on the teeth is toward the crankshaft side of the
flywheel.
Rear Seal - Replacement
1/8 inch Drill
Drill two holes 180 degrees apart into the seal carrier.
5-216
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No. 10 Sheet Metal Screw, Slide Hammer Dent Puller
Remove the rear seal.
Rear Seal - Installation
Caution: The seal lip and the sealing surface on the
crankshaft must be free from all oil residue to
prevent seal leaks.
Clean and dry the rear crankshaft sealing surface.
Install the seal pilot, provided in the replacement kit,
onto the crankshaft. Push the seal onto the pilot and
crankshaft.
Remove the seal pilot.
Use the alignment tool to install the seal to the correct
depth in the housing. Use a hammer to drive the seal
into the housing until the alignment tool stops against
the housing.
Hit the tool at 12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock positions to drive
the seal evenly and to prevent bending the seal carrier.
5-217
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Flywheel - Installation
Caution: Never use the timing pin to hold the
crankshaft.
Use two capscrews in the front of the crankshaft, or
similar device, to hold the crankshaft when the flywheel
capscrews are being tightened.
19mm Socket, Torque Wrench
Tighten the capscrews in the sequence shown.
Torque Value: 137 N•m [101 ft-lbs]
5-218
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In-Chassis Overhaul
The remaining procedures in this manual are organized for an in-chassis overhaul. An in-chassis overhaul includes:
•
•
•
•
•
Replacing piston rings
Replacing connecting rod bearings
Replacing crankshaft main bearings
Grinding valves
Testing injectors
This manual gives the procedures to replace the piston rings, rod bearings, main bearings, and grinding the valves. The
procedures to test the injectors are given in the Shop Manual, Bulletin Number 3810206.
Segments of the procedures can also be used to replace individual components when required.
The condition of the cylinder block and crankshaft is the limiting criteria for in-chassis overhaul. If there is reason to
believe that either are severely damaged, the engine should be removed for major overhaul.
Prior to deciding on an in-chassis overhaul, inspect the air intake for evidence of ingestion of particles that could have
severely damaged the cylinder walls. Check the oil and oil filter to be sure the lube system is not thoroughly
contaminated with metal. Also check for rust in the coolant which can indicate build up in the passages in the cylinder
block and require the block to be removed for cleaning. Also consider the condition of other components, particularly
those that are more difficult to replace in-chassis; e.g. the camshaft rear seal, etc. The combination of in-chassis
overhaul and time to repair those components may exceed the time required to remove the engine and perform an out of
chassis overhaul.
The in-chassis overhaul procedures include prescribed checks of the hardware to determine if continued in-chassis work
is practical. If the conditional limits are not met, the engine should be removed for completion of the overhaul.
5-219
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Cylinder Head Removal
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Drain the coolant and oil
Disconnect the radiator and heater
Remove the exhaust manifold
Remove the fuel lines and injector nozzles
Remove the valve covers
Remove the rocker levers and push rods
Remove the fuel filter
18mm
Remove the cylinder head capscrews in the sequence
shown.
Remove the cylinder head and gasket from the block.
Note: Inspect the coolant passages. A large build up of
rust and lime will require removal of the cylinder block
for cleaning in a hot tank.
Inspect the cylinder bores for damage or excessive
wear. Rotate the crankshaft so the piston is at BDC for
the bores being inspected.
Measure the cylinder bores.
Limits
Max. Diameter: 102.116mm [4.0203 inches]
Out-of-Roundness: .038mm [.0015 inch]
Taper: .076mm [.003 inch]
Refer to page 8-30 for the limits of the oversize cylinder
bores.
Note: Do not proceed with in-chassis overhaul if the
bores are damaged or worn beyond the above limits.
5-220
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Check the top surface for damage caused by the
cylinder head gasket leaking between cylinders.
Check the top surface for flatness between each
cylinder.
Limits
Variance: .050mm [.002 inch]
Note: Do not proceed with the in-chassis overhaul if the
cylinder block head surface is damaged or not flat.
Main Bearing Preliminary Inspection
Remove the pan and suction tube (A).
Perform a visual inspection of the main bearings and
crankshaft journals. Remove the No. 2 and 3 caps and
check the journals for signs of overheating, deep
scratches or other damage. If there is no damage, there
is no need to pull the other caps at this time.
Inspect the main bearing caps for dents, cracks, or other
damage.
5-221
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Inspect the journals for deep scratches, indications of
overheating and other damage.
Note: If the journals or main caps are damaged, the
engine will need to be removed to complete the
overhaul.
Piston and Rod Removal
Caution: Make sure the ridge reamer does not make
a deep cut into the bore. Do not remove more metal
than is necessary to remove the ridge.
If the cylinder bores have edges, use a ridge reamer to
cut the ridge from the top of the cylinder bore.
Hammer, Steel Number Stamps
Mark the cylinder number onto each connecting rod cap.
Hammer, Steel Number Stamps
Mark the cylinder number onto the top of each piston.
5-222
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
12mm
Remove the capscrews, connecting rod cap and
bearings.
Caution: Use care so that the cylinder bore or
connecting rod are not damaged.
Use a hammer handle or similar object to push the
piston and connecting rod through the cylinder bore.
Put the assemblies in a rack for disassembly later.
Inspect the rod journals for deep scratches, indications
of overheating and other damage.
Cylinder Bores - De-Glaze
Note: New piston rings may not seat in glazed cylinder
bores.
De-glazing gives the bore the correct surface finish
required to seat the rings. The size of the bore is not
changed by proper deglazing.
5-223
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Wrap the journals with clean cloth.
Cover the cloth with waterproof tape.
Place a clean shop towel around the top main bearing
saddle to deflect water and residue from the piston
cooling nozzles.
Also cover the lube holes in the top of the block with
waterproof tape.
5-224
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
A correctly de-glazed surface will have a crosshatched
appearance with the lines at 15 to 25 degree angles with
the top of the cylinder block, 30 to 50 degree included
angles on crosshatch.
Use a drill, a fine grit Flexi-Hone and a mixture of equal
parts of mineral spirits and SAE 30W engine oil to
deglaze the bores.
The crosshatch angle is a function of drill speed and
how fast the hone is moved vertically.
This illustration shows the result of the drill speed too
slow or the vertical stroke is too fast.
5-225
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
This illustration shows the result of the drill speed too
fast or the vertical stroke is too slow.
Note: Vertical strokes must be smooth continuous
passes along the full length of the bore.
Inspect the bore after 10 strokes.
Use a strong solution of hot water and laundry detergent
to clean the bores.
Since a relatively large volume of water will be used to
rinse the bores, position the vehicle over or close to a
floor drain.
Caution: Clean the cylinder bores immediately after
deglazing.
Rinse the bores until the detergent is removed and blow
the block dry with shop air.
5-226
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Caution: Be sure to remove the tape covering the
lube holes after the cleaning process is complete.
Check the bore cleanliness by wiping with a white, lint
free, lightly oiled cloth. If grit residue is still present,
repeat the cleaning process until all residue is removed.
Wash the bores with solvent and blow the block dry with
shop air.
Caution: Be sure to remove the covering from the
piston cooling nozzles.
Remove the protective tape and cloth, and clean the
crankshaft journals.
Use solvent and a brush to clean any residue that may
have splashed on the camshaft.
Note: Inspect the camshaft lobes and tappet faces for
signs of wear or damage. (Refer to page 5-200 for
camshaft information.)
Main Bearing Replacement
Remove all main bearing caps except the No. 1 and 5
cap for 4 cylinder engine, No. 1 and 7 cap for 6 cylinder
engine. The 4 cylinder engine is depicted in the
illustration.
5-227
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Use a pin to roll out the upper bearings from between
the crankshaft and cylinder block.
To make a pin, grind a 6mm capscrew to the
dimensions shown.
Install the pin into the oil hole in the crankshaft. Rotate
the crankshaft so the pin pushes against the end of the
bearing opposite the tang. Remove the bearing.
Follow this procedure to remove the other bearings.
Inspect all caps and main bearing crankshaft journals.
Determine the size of the bearing removed and obtain
the same size for installation.
Refer to page 5-188 for the dimensions of the standard
and undersize main bearing journals.
5-228
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not lubricate the side that is against the
cylinder block.
Apply a coat of Lubriplate 105 to the new upper
bearings.
Use the pin to push the bearing shell into position. Use
the pin to push against the end of the bearing with the
tang. Push the bearing in slowly being sure it is aligned
with the block. Make sure the tang on the bearing sets
into the notch.
Note: Make sure the tang on the bearing sets into the
notch in the bearing saddle.
Install the lower bearings into the caps. Apply a coat of
Lubriplate 105 to the bearings.
23mm
Caution: Make sure the caps are correctly installed
with the number towards the oil cooler side of the
engine.
Install a main bearing cap after each upper bearing is
installed to keep the bearing in place while the other
uppers are installed.
Tighten the capscrews to 50 N•m [37 ft-lbs].
Do not tighten to the final torque value at this time.
5-229
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Use the same procedure to remove and install rear main
cap, No. 5 or No. 7.
Flat Blade Screwdriver
Caution: Use care so the screwdriver does not
damage the crankshaft or cylinder block.
Note: The front main, No. 1, does not have a hole in
the journal so the pin can not be used to replace the
bearing.
Use a flat blade screwdriver. Gently bump the end of
the bearing to loosen it from the block. Then, use finger
pressure against the bearing shell and rotate the
crankshaft to roll the bearing out.
Lubricate and install the bearing.
Use the screwdriver to push the bearing into position as
you rotate the crankshaft.
23mm
Caution: The crankshaft must rotate freely.
Tighten the capscrews evenly and in sequence.
Step
1
2
3
Torque Value
60 N•m [44 ft-lbs]
119 N•m [88 ft-lbs]
176 N•m [129 ft-lbs]
Check the bearing installations and the size of the
bearings if the crankshaft does not rotate freely.
5-230
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Note: The dimensions of the thrust bearing and
crankshaft journal determine end play.
Measure the crankshaft end play.
Dim. (A) End Play Limits
Min
Max
0.13mm
0.25mm
[0.005 in)
[0.010 in]
Piston and Rod - Disassembly
Remove the retaining rings.
Remove the piston pin.
Note: Heating the piston is not required.
Remove the piston rings.
5-231
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Piston, Pin and Connecting Rod - Clean
Caution: Do not use bead blast to clean the pistons.
Soak the pistons in cold parts cleaner.
Soaking the pistons overnight will usually loosen the
carbon deposits.
Caution: Do not clean the pistons and rods in an
acid tank.
Wash the pistons and rods in a strong solution of
laundry detergent in hot water.
Caution: Do not use a ring groove cleaner and be
sure not to scratch the ring sealing surface in the
piston groove.
Clean the remaining deposits from the ring grooves with
the square end of a broken ring.
Wash the pistons again in a detergent solution or
solvent.
Rinse the pistons. Use compressed air to dry.
5-232
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Piston, Pin and Rod - Inspection
Inspect the piston for damage and excessive wear.
Check the top, ring grooves, skirt and pin bore.
Measure the piston skirt diameter as illustrated.
Minimum Diameter
101.823mm [4.0088 in]
Refer to page 5-187 for the limits of the oversize
pistons.
Use a new piston ring to measure the clearance in the
ring groove.
Limits
Maximum Clearance
Top
(Naturally Aspirated): 0.150mm [0.006 inch]
Intermediate: 0.150mm [0.006 inch]
Oil Control: 0.130mm [0.005 inch]
Measure the pin bore.
Maximum Diameter
40.025mm [1.5758 in]
5-233
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the piston pin for nicks, gouges and excessive
wear.
Measure the pin diameter.
Minimum Diameter
39.990mm [1.5744 in]
Caution: The I-beam section cannot have dents or
other damage. Damage to this part can cause
stress risers which will progress to breakage.
Inspect the rod for damage and wear.
Measure the pin bore.
Maximum Diameter
40.053mm [1.5769)
Bearing clearance can also be determined with Plastigage during engine assembly.
5-234
TM1 0-3950-672-24-2
Piston to Connecting Rod Installation
Caution: Be sure 'Front' marking on piston and the
numbers on the rod and cap are oriented as
illustrated.
Install the retaining ring into the pin groove on the "
Front" side of the piston.
Lubricate the pin and pin bores with engine oil.
Install the pin.
Note: Pistons do not require heating to install the pin,
however, the piston does need to be at room
temperature or above.
5-235
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Install the second retaining ring.
Determine the piston
appropriate ring set.
diameter
and
obtain
the
Piston Ring Gap Check
Position each ring in the cylinder and use a piston to
square it with the bore.
A 89mm [3.5 inches]
5-236
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Use a feeler gauge to measure the gap.
Limits
Ring
Top (N.
Aspirated):
Minimum
Maximum
0.25mm
in.]
[0.0100
0.55mm
[0.0215in]
0.25mm
in.]
[0.0100
0.55mm
[0.0215 in.]
0.25mm
in.]
[0.0100
0.55mm
[0.0215 in.]
Intermediate:
Oil Control:
Piston Rings Installation
Note: The top surface of all of the rings are
identified:
Assemble with the word "Top" or the supplier
mark up.
Position the oil ring expander in the oil control ring
groove.
Install the oil control ring with the end gap opposite the
ends on the expander.
5-237
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Install the intermediate ring.
Caution: The top ring for a turbocharged engine is
not the same as the top ring for a naturally aspirated
engine.
Install the top ring.
Position the rings.
Determine the size of the removed rod bearing and
obtain a set of the same size.
5-238
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Install the new bearings in the rods and caps and
lubricate them with a light coat of Lubriplate 105.
Piston and Rod Assembly Installation Lubricate the
cylinder bore with clean engine oil.
Generously lubricate the rings and piston skirts with
clean engine oil.
75 to 125mm Ring Compressor
Caution: If using a strap-type ring compressor,
make sure the inside end of the strap does not hook
on a ring gap and break the ring.
Compress the rings.
5-239
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Bar the crankshaft so the rod journal for the piston to be
installed is at Bottom Dead Center (BDC).
Caution: Be sure 'Front' marking on piston
and the numbers on the rod and cap are
oriented as illustrated.
Caution: Use care when you install the
piston and connecting rod so the cylinder
bore is not damaged.
Position the piston and rod assembly into cylinder bore
with the word " Front" on piston towards the front of the
cylinder block.
Push the piston into the bore until the top of the piston is
approximately 50mm [2 inches] below the top of the
bore.
Then, pull the connecting rod onto the crankshaft
journal.
5-240
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Note: The following series of illustrations show
the engine in a vertical position. This is for clarity
of illustration only.
Use clean engine oil to lubricate the threads and under
the heads of the connecting rod capscrews.
Caution: The four digit number stamped on the rod
and cap at the parting line must match and be
installed towards the oil cooler side of the engine.
Install the rod cap and capscrews to the connecting rod.
12mm Socket. Torque Wrench
Caution:
Tighten
capscrews evenly.
the
connecting
rod
and
Torque Value:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 -
35 Nom [26 ft4bs]
70 Nom [70 ft-lbs]
100 Nom [73 ft4bs]
Caution: The crankshaft must rotate freely.
Check for freedom of rotation as the caps are installed.
If the crankshaft does not rotate freely, check the
installation of the rod bearings and the bearing size.
5-241
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not measure the clearance between
the cap and crankshaft.
Measure the side clearance between the connecting rod
and crankshaft.
Side Clearance Limits
Min
0.10mm
[0.004 in]
Max
0.30mm
[0.012 in]
'
Install the suction tube and oil pan.
Cylinder Head and Gasket Installation
Caution: Make sure the gasket is correctly aligned
with the holes in the cylinder block.
The cylinder block and head must be clean and dry.
Position the gasket onto the dowels.
Carefully, put the cylinder head onto the gasket and
cylinder block.
Note: Make sure the cylinder head is installed onto the
dowels in the cylinder block.
5-242
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
install the push rods and rocker levers (refer to page 5190).
Lubricate the cylinder head capscrews.
illustrated torque sequence.
Use the
18mm
Torque Value:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 -
40 Nom [29 ft-lbs]
85 Nom [62 ft-lbs]
126 Nom [92 ft-lbs]
13mm
Caution: Be sure to lubricate the push rod sockets
with dean engine oil.
Install the rocker lever pedestal capscrews.
Torque Value: 24 Nom [18 ft-lbs]
Adjust the valve clearance.
5-243
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Install the parts previously removed:
• Valve covers
• Injector nozzles
• Fuel lines
• Fuel filters
• Exhaust manifold
Observe the Following Check List During Final Assembly
OK
• Correct injectors for the engine rating used and only one copper sealing washer installed?................... ______
• Sealant applied to the capscrews that attach the intake manifold cover or aftercooler?.......................... ______
• Engine filled with oil; oil filter filled with oil prior to installation so the engine has an immediate
supply of oil? ....................................................................................................................................... ______
• Fuel filter(s) filled with fuel and the injection pump primed using the lever on the lift pump? .................. ______
Caution: It is extremely important that all air is vented prior to operating the engine
5-244
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Stop the engine immediately if any
unusual sounds are heard.
Start the engine. If necessary, bleed the high pressure
lines at the injectors until the engine runs smoothly.
Operate the engine at idle for 5 to 10 minutes and check
for leaks and loose parts.
Check the coolant and oil level.
5-245
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cylinder Head Disassembly
Mark the valves to identify their position.
Compress the valve spring and remove the valve stem
collets. Use a magnet to remove the collets.
Release valve spring and remove the retainer and
spring.
Caution: Keep the valves in a labeled rack.
Remove the remaining collets, retainers, springs and
valves.
5-246
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Remove the valve stem seals.
Cylinder Head Clean and Inspect
Clean the carbon from the injector nozzle seat with a
nylon brush.
Scrape the gasket material from all gasket surfaces.
Wash the cylinder head in hot soapy water solution.
After rinsing, use compressed air to dry the cylinder
head.
5-247
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Polish the gasket surfaces with 400 grit paper.
Use an orbital sander or sanding block to keep a flat
surface.
Inspect the valve guides for scuffing or scoring.
Measure the valve guide bore.
Maximum Diameter
8.019mm [0.3157 in]
Inspect the head surface for nicks, erosion, or any other
damage.
Check for head distortion as illustrated.
Maximum Variation (within any 50.Omm [2.0in] dia. area)
0.01 mm [0.0004 in]
Clean the valve heads with a soft wire wheel.
5-248
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Polish the valve stem with crocus cloth.
Mark the valves again for location in the cylinder head.
Inspect for abnormal wear on the heads and stems.
Measure the valve stem diameter.
Maximum Diameter
7.960mm [0.3134 in]
If new valves are required, mark them for location in the
cylinder head.
5-249
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Valves Grind
Re-face all reused valves. Check/replace bent valves.
Seat Angle
30 Degrees
45 Degrees
Intake:
Exhaust:
Measure rim thickness.
Minimum Thickness (T)
0.79mm [0.031 inch]
Check the valve stem tip for flatness.
5-250
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
If required, re-surface the valve stem tip.
Valve Seats Grind
Note: The illustrated marks indicate valve seats
have been ground previously.
Previously re-ground seats can be replaced with service
seats.
Calculating the Grinding
Depth Install the valves in their designated location and
measure valve depth.
Note: The valve depth is the distance from the
valve face to the head deck.
Record the depth of each valve as (A).
5-251
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Grind the valve seats to remove scores, scratches and
burns.
Seat Angle
Intake:
Exhaust:
30 Degrees
45 Degrees
Install the valves in their respective bores and measure
depth again.
Note: Make sure the seats are clean before you
measure the depth.
Record the depth of each valve as (B).
Calculate grinding depth (GD) as follows:
GD = (B) - (A)
5-252
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Dimension (GD)
0.254mm [0.010 inch]
Note: Identify re-ground valve seats.
Install the valves in their designated location and
measure the depth.
Caution: Replace the valve if the depth is over the
limit.
Check valve depth (C).
Valve Depth
Min
0.99mm
[0.0389 in]
Max
1.52mm
[0.0598 in]
5-253
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Apply a light coat of valve lapping compound to each
valve and lap each valve to its companion seat.
Remove the valves and clean lapping compound from
the valves and seats.
Measure the valve seat width indicated by the lapped
surface.
Valve Seat Width Limit
Minimum 1: 1.5mm [0.060 inch]
Maximum 2: 2.0mm [0.080 inch]
If required. grind area (A) with a 60 degree stone and
(B) with a 15 degree stone to center the seat on the
valve face. Maintain the valve seat width limits.
Minimum 1: 1.5mm [0.060 inch]
Maximum 2: 2.0mm [0.090 inch]
5-254
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Valve Springs Inspection
Measure the valve spring.
Limits
Approx. Free Length (L): 55.63mm [2.190 in.]
Maximum Inclination: 1.Omm [0.039 in.]
Check the valve spring tension.
A minimum load of 289.32 N. [65.0 72.2 lb] is required
to compress the spring to a height of 49.25mm [1.94
inches].
Cylinder Head Assembly
Note: Clean all cylinder head components before
assembling.
Install the valve stem seals.
Note: The intake and exhaust seals are the same.
Lubricate the stems with SAE 90W engine oil before
installing the valves.
5-255
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Compress the valve spring after assembling the spring
and retainer.
Install new valve collets and release the spring tension.
Warning: Wear eye protection. If the collets are not
correctly installed, they can fly out when the stems
are hit with a hammer.
After assembly, hit the valve stems with a plastic
hammer to make sure that the collets are seated.
5-256
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cup Plug Replacement
Drill Motor, 3 mm [1/8 inch] drill bit, slide hammer, #10
metal screw.
Remove the cup plugs from the cylinder head.
400 grit sandpaper, Diesel Fuel
Thoroughly clean the cup plug holes.
Caution: Use protective clothing to prevent
personal injury.
Inspect for build-up of deposits in the coolant passages
which can cause engine overheating.
Be sure the coolant passages are clean.
Excessive deposits may be cleaned in an acid tank, but
the cylinder head must be disassembled first.
Caution: Use protective clothing to prevent
personal injury.
The cylinder head may be cleaned in a hot tank using a
soap and water solution.
5-257
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
NOTE: The cup plugs and cup plug holes must be
dean and free of oil before installing the cup plugs.
Apply a bead of Loctite -277 around the outside
diameter of all cup plugs before installing.
Cup Plug Driver Part No. 3900965
Drive all cup plugs in until the outer edge is flush with
the counter sink.
Cup Plug Locations (As Required)
5-258
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 9. Engine Disassembly and Assembly
Engine Disassembly
Disassemble the engine (removed from vehicle) in the following order.
a.
Remove starter, refer to Chapter 5, Section 7.
b.
Drain oil, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
c.
Remove lifting bracket.
d.
Remove drive belt, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
e.
Remove fan pulley, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
f.
Remove belt tensioner, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
g.
Remove fan hub, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
h.
Remove alternator, refer to Chapter 5, Section 7.
i.
Remove thermostat and housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
j.
Remove exhaust manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.
k.
Remove high pressure fuel lines, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
I.
Remove fuel drain manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
m.
Remove low pressure fuel lines, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
n.
Remove dipstick.
o.
Remove intake manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.
p.
Remove rocker covers, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
q.
Remove fuel injectors, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
r.
Remove rocker levers, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
s.
Remove push rods, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
t.
Remove cylinder head, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
u.
Remove front cover, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
v.
Remove water pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
w.
Remove flywheel, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
5-259
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Disassembly continued
x.
Remove flywheel housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
y.
Remove fuel injection pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
z.
Remove fuel injection pump drive gear, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
aa.
Remove fuel lift pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
bb.
Remove tappet cover, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
cc.
Remove oil fill, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
dd.
Remove oil cooler, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
ee.
Remove water inlet connection, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
ff.
Remove oil pan, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
gg.
Remove suction tube, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
hh.
Remove rear seal housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
ii.
Remove camshaft, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
jj.
Remove valve tappets, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
kk.
Remove lube oil pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
II.
Remove timing pin, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
mm.
Remove gear housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
nn.
Remove pistons and rods, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
oo.
Remove crankshaft, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
5-260
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Assembly
Assembly the engine (removed from vehicle) in the following order.
a.
Install valve tappets, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
b.
Install crankshaft, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
c.
Install pistons and rods, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
d.
Install gear housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
e.
Install lube oil pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
f.
Install camshaft, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
g.
Install timing pin, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
h.
Install rear seal housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
i.
Install suction tube, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
j.
Install oil pan, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
k.
Install oil cooler, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
I.
Install oil fill, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
m.
Install fuel lift pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
n.
Install tappet cover, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
o.
Install fuel injection pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
p.
Install flywheel housing, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
q.
Install flywheel, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
r.
Install water pump, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
s.
Install front cover, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
t.
Install cylinder head, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
u.
Install push rods, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
v.
Install rocker levers, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
w.
Adjust valve clearances, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
5-261
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Assembly - continued
x.
Install fuel injectors, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
y.
Install rocker covers, refer to Chapter 5, Section 8.
z.
Install intake manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.
aa.
Install fuel supply line, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
bb.
Install injection pump supply line, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
cc.
Install fuel drain manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
dd.
Install fuel injection pump vent line, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.
ee.
Install high pressure fuel lines, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
ff.
Install fuel filter head, refer to Chapter 5, Section 4.
gg.
Install exhaust manifold, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.
hh.
Install thermostat, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
ii.
Install fan hub, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
jj.
Install belt tensioner, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
kk.
Install water inlet connection, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
II.
Install alternator, refer to Chapter 5, Section 7.
mm.
Install drive belt, refer to Chapter 5, Section 3.
nn.
Install oil filter, refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.
oo.
Install starter, refer to Chapter 5, Section 7.
5-262
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 10. Fuel Injector Pump
Subject............................................................................................................................Page
Injection Pump - Service Tools ................................................................................................................5-264
Injection Pump Repairs - Lucas CAV DPA ..............................................................................................5-264
Locking Screw/O-Ring Replacement ....................................................................................................5-264
Back Leakage Valve - Replacement/Inspection ....................................................................................5-265
Shutdown Solenoid - Replacement ......................................................................................................5-266
Bleed Screws/Sealing Washers - Replacement ....................................................................................5-267
Vent Fitting/Sealing Washer - Inspection/Replacement ........................................................................5-268
Fuel Inlet Fitting/Sealing Washer - Replacement .................................................................................5-269
Control Lever- Replacement ................................................................................................................5-270
Shutdown Lever/Spring - Replacement ................................................................................................5-271
Timing Advance Components - Inspection ...........................................................................................5-274
Timing Advance - Assembly .................................................................................................................5-274
5-263
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Injection Pump - Service Tools
The following special tools are recommended for repairing the fuel injection pump. Use of the tool is shown on the
appropriate procedure.
Tool No.
Tool Description
Tool Illustration
Protective Sleeve
3376930
Used to replace the o-ring on the shut down solenoid for
the Lucas CAV fuel pump.
Protective Sleeve
3376931
Used to replace the o-ring on the pressure end cap of the
timing advance mechanism on the Lucas CAV pump.
Injection Pump Repairs Lucas CAV
DPA
Locking Screw/O-Ring Replacement
Precisely mark the shaft position before removing the
locking screw.
5-264
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
15 mm
Remove the locking screw and washer.
Install a new o-ring. Replace special washer, if required.
15 mm
Verify the shaft is still aligned and install the locking
screw assembly.
Torque Value: 30 Nom [22 ft4b]
Back Leakage Valve Replacement/ Inspection
16 mm
Remove the back leakage valve and sealing washer.
5-265
TM10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the valve to be sure it is not stuck.
Inspect the sealing surfaces for possible leak paths.
16 mm
Assemble the back leakage valve and new washers.
Torque Value: 31 Nom [23 ft4b]
Shutdown Solenoid Replacement
24 mm
Remove the solenoid, o-ring, spring and plunger.
5-266
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
14.7 mm Protective Sleeve Part No. 3376930
Replace the o-ring. Use the protective sleeve to
prevent cutting the o-ring.
Inspect the plunger tip. If the tip is damaged or
deformed, replace the solenoid assembly.
22 mm
Install the plunger, spring, solenoid and o-ring.
Torque Value: 15 Nom [11 ft4b]
Bleed Screws/Sealing Washers Replacement
8 mm, 11 mm
Remove the screw, fitting and washer.
5-267
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the threads and sealing surfaces.
If the fitting or bleed screw is damaged, replace the
damaged components.
8 mm, 11 mm
Install the bleed screw, fitting and new sealing washer.
Torque Value: (Fitting) 7.3 Nom [65 in-lb]
Torque Value: (Bleed Screw) 4.5 Nom [40 in-lb]
Vent
Fitting/Sealing
Replacement
Washer
Inspection/
16 mm
Remove the fitting and washer.
Inspect the sealing surfaces and verify that the orifice is
open.
5-268
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
16 mm
Install a new washer and vent fitting.
Torque Value: 20.6 Nom [15 ft-b]
Fuel Inlet Fitting/Sealing Washer Replacement
24 mm
Remove the fitting and washer.
Inspect the surface for a leak path.
24 mm
Install a new washer and fitting.
Torque Value: 51 Nom [38 ft-b]
5-269
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Control Lever Replacement
8 mm
Remove the locknut.
Inspect the lever components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Locknut
Bushing
Throttle Lever
Stop Arm
Washer
Torsion Spring
Spring Guide
Assemble the spring guide, torsion spring, washer and
stop arm.
The stop arm must slide over flats of the shaft.
8 mm
Install the lever, bushing and locknut.
Torque Value: 3.4 Nom [30 in-lb]
5-270
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Shutdown Lever/Spring Replacement
8 mm
Remove the locknut and washer.
Lift off the lever while allowing the return spring to
unwind.
Position the return spring with one end of spring
contacting the boss on the governor cover.
Hook the free end around the shut-off lever and rotate
the lever in a clockwise direction until it engages with
the flats on the shut-off shaft.
5-271
TMI10-3950-672-24-2
8 mm
Install the nut with a new lock washer.
Torque Value: 3.4 Nom [30 in-lb]
Automatic Timing Advance Disassembly
8 mm
Remove the small plug and washer.
24 mm
The spring cap is under spring tension; remove the cap
slowly.
Remove the shims and springs.
5-272
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
24 mm
Remove the pressure end plug and o-ring.
13 mm
Remove the cap nut and sealing washer.
19 mm
Remove the head/locating fitting assembly.
Do not lose the check ball.
Remove the housing and slide the advance piston from
the bore.
5-273
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Timing Advance Components Inspection
Inspect the advance piston and housing for scoring.
Inspect the check ball and seat for erosion. Make sure
the ball can move freely on the seat.
Be sure the orifice in the side of the seat in the head
locating fitting is open.
Check that the cam ring is free to move in the fuel
pump.
Timing Advance Assembly
Position a new gasket on the injection pump housing.
5-274
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Insert the advance piston into the housing with the blank
end toward the oil feed hole in the bore.
Position the advance housing over the stud in the
injection pump with the cam advance screw positioned
into the center bore in the piston.
Install new o-rings on the head locating fitting.
Position the check ball in the head/locating fitting.
5-275
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Position head/locating fitting through the advance housing and hand tighten.
13 mm, 19 mm
Install cap nut and a new washer. Tighten the cap nut
and head locating fitting progressively and evenly.
Torque Value
(Cap Nut)
30 N•m
[22 ft-lb]
(Locating Fitting)
40 N•m
[29 ft-lb]
Verify that the piston moves freely in the bore.
Install the springs and shims into the pocket end of the
advance piston.
5-276
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Install a new o-ring on the spring cap and place the
shims in the pocket.
24 mm
Install and tighten the spring cap on the advance housing.
Torque Value: 24 N•m [17.5 ft-b]
8 mm
Use a new washer and install the spring cap plug.
Torque Value: 2.3 N•n [20 in-lb]
21 mm Protective Sleeve Part No. 3376931
Install a new o-ring on the pressure end cap. Use the
protective sleeve to avoid damaging the o-ring.
5-277
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 11. Cylinder Block Disassembly and Assembly
Subject
Page
Precheck Before Disassembly ...................................................................................................5-279
Cylinder Block Disassembly ......................................................................................................5-279
Cylinder Block Cleaning ............................................................................................................5-281
Cylinder Block Inspection ..........................................................................................................5-287
Cylinder Block Assembly ...........................................................................................................5-288
Expansion and Pipe Plug - Installation ......................................................................................5-288
Camshaft Expansion Plug - Installation .....................................................................................5-290
Camshaft Bushing - Installation .................................................................................................5-291
Dipstick Tube - Replacement ....................................................................................................5-292
Cylinder Block - Storing .............................................................................................................5-293
Crankshaft- Cleaning .................................................................................................................5-293
Crankshaft- Inspection ..............................................................................................................5-294
Crankshaft Gear - Replacement ................................................................................................5-295
Camshaft- Cleaning ..................................................................................................................5-297
Camshaft and Gear - Inspection ................................................................................................5-297
Camshaft Gear - Replacement ..................................................................................................5-302
Vibration Damper- Cleaning and Inspection ...............................................................................5-303
Gear Housing and Timing Pin Assembly - Inspection ................................................................5-304
Gear Housing - Disassembly .....................................................................................................5-304
Fuel Pump Stud - Replacement ................................................................................................5-304
Flywheel Housing - Inspection ...................................................................................................5-305
Flywheel Housing - Assembly ....................................................................................................5-306
Front Support - Cleaning and Inspection ...................................................................................5-307
5-278
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cylinder Block - Precheck Before
Disassembly
Thoroughly clean the cylinder block with steam.
Visually inspect the cylinder block for damage that
would prohibit reuse.
Cylinder Block - Disassembly
3/8 Inch Square Drive
Remove the pipe plug from the water passage.
7/16 Inch
Remove the pipe plugs from the oil passages.
5-279
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Drill Motor, 3mm [1/8 inch] drill bit, Slide Hammer,
No. 10 Sheet Metal screw.
Drill a 3mm [1/8 inch] hole and use a slide hammer
equipped with a No. 10 sheet metal screw to remove
expansion plugs.
Remove the expansion plugs from the oil passages.
Punch, Visegrips®
Remove the large expansion plugs (58.06 mm [2.29 in.])
from the coolant passages.
Care should be taken not to drive the expansion plug
out and into the water jacket, especially the plug on the
end of the block.
Service Tip: If it becomes apparent the cup plug is not
going to pivot in the bore, use a center punch to catch
the edge of the cup plug and pry against the block to
pivot the plug out.
Hammer, Punch
Remove the small expansion plugs (25.07 mm [1 in.])
by driving the plugs into the water jacket.
Mechanical Fingers
Retrieve the plugs through the water passages in the top
of the block.
5-280
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Remove the expansion plug from the camshaft bore.
Universal Bushing Installation Tool
Remove the camshaft bushing.
Cylinder Block - Cleaning
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Use clean solvent and a brush to clean the main oil
drilling.
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Use clean solvent and a brush to clean the main bearing
to cam bore oil drilling.
5-281
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Use clean solvent and a brush to clean the piston
cooling nozzle bores.
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Use clean solvent and a brush to clean the main oil rifle
to overhead oil drilling.
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Use clean solvent and a brush to clean the oil cooler oil
passages.
Gasket Scraper
Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces.
5-282
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Clean the combustion deck with a Scotch-Brite®
cleaning pad or equivalent and diesel fuel or solvent.
Brush, 400 Grit Sandpaper, Diesel Fuel
Thoroughly clean all cup plug holes.
Caution: Excessive deposits may be cleaned in an
acid tank, but the cam bushings must first be
removed.
Build-up of deposits in the coolant passages can cause
engine overheating.
Be sure the coolant passages are clean.
Warning: Use protective measures to prevent
personal injury.
The block may be cleaned in a hot tank using a soap
and water solution without removing the cam bushing.
5-283
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: New piston rings may not seat in glazed
cylinder bores.
De-glazing makes the bore "rough" to help seat the
rings. The size of the bore is not changed by proper deglazing.
A correctly de-glazed surface will have a crosshatched
appearance with the lines at 15 to 25 degree angles with
the top of the cylinder block.
Use a drill, a medium grit Flexi-Hone and a mixture of
equal parts of diesel fuel and SAE 30W engine oil to deglaze the bores.
The crosshatch angle is a function of drill speed and
how fast the hone is moved vertically.
5-284
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
The drill speed is too slow or the vertical stroke is too
fast.
The drill speed is too fast or the vertical stroke is too
slow.
Caution: Vertical strokes must be smooth
continuous passes along the full length of the bore.
Inspect the bore after 10 strokes.
Caution: Be extremely careful not to hone the bore
out of specification.
A sizing hone can be used to remove minor grooves or
to correct minor out of taper.
Taper: 0.076mm [0.003 in].
5-285
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Operate the sizing hone similar to the Flexi-Hone.
Inspect the bore after 10 strokes.
Immediately clean the cylinder bores with a strong
solution of laundry detergent and hot water.
After rinsing, use compressed air to dry the block.
Check the bore cleanliness by wiping with a white, lint
free, lightly oiled cloth. If grit residue is still present, reclean.
Cleaning Brush Kit, 3823614
Wash the block in solvent.
Use a brush to clean all oil passages.
5-286
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
After rinsing with clean solvent, use compressed air to
dry the block.
Cylinder Block - Inspection
Inspect the cylinder bores for damage or excessive
wear.
Measure the cylinder bores.
Diameter
mm
102.000
MIN
102.116
MAX
in
[4.0157]
[4.0203]
Out-of-Roundness: .038mm [.0015 in]
Taper: 0.76mm [.003 in]
Oversize pistons and rings (0.5mm and 1.Omm
over- size) are available for re-bored cylinder blocks.
Straight Edge and Feeler Gauge
Use a straight edge and feeler gauge to measure the
overall flatness of the block. The overall flatness, end
to end and side to side, must not exceed 0.75 mm
[0.003 in].
Visually inspect the combustion deck for any localized
dips or imperfections. If present, the block deck must
be reground.
Inspect the main bearing bores for damage or abnormal
wear.
Install the main bearings and measure main bearing
bore diameter with main bolts tightened to 176 N•m [130
ft-lb]. Record for later reference.
Diameter
mm
in
83.106
MAX
[2.2720]
5-287
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the camshaft bores for scoring or excessive
wear.
Measure the diameter of camshaft bores No. 2 through
No. 5.
Diameter No. 2-5
mm
54.164
MAX
in
[2.1324]
Service bushings are available and must be used if wear
exceeds above dimensions.
Inspect the tappet bores for scoring or excessive wear.
Diameter
mm
16.000
16.055
MIN
MAX
in
[0.630]
[0.632]
Cylinder Block Assembly
Expansion and Pipe Plug - Installation
All expansion plug bores in the block are machined to a
standard english dimension (i.e., 11/16 in, 1-1/4 in, etc.).
To achieve the correct press fit of the expansion plug in
the bore, the expansion plug must be larger than the
bore diameter and the expansion plug driver must be
smaller than the bore diameter. Therefore, expansion
plugs and their drivers are not made to a standard
english dimension.
The plug drivers are called out by the dimension of the
bore they are to be used on (i.e., a 1 in driver for 1"
bore). The expansion plugs are called out by Cummins
part number (a dimension is also listed for reference).
Apply a bead of Loctite™ 277 around the outside
diameter of all expansion plugs before installing.
5-288
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Drive all expansion plugs in until the outer edge is flush
with the counter sink in the block
Refer to Page 5-290 for camshaft expansion plug
installation.
Apply a bead of liquid teflon sealant to pipe plugs.
Pipe Plug Torque Values
Size in Inches
1/8
1/2
Torque (Onto Case Iron)
8 N•m [ 6 ft-lb]
24 N•m [18 ft lb]
Driver Part No. 3823524 (Coolant Passages), Part
No. 3823520 (Oil Rifle)
Expansion plug locations. Front of block.
1. Expansion Plug Part No. 3900965 (58.06 mm)
2. Expansion Plug Part No. 3900956 (17.73 mm)
5-289
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Driver Part No. 3823524 (Coolant Passages)
Pipe plug and cup plug locations. Right side of block.
1. Expansion Plug Part No. 3900965 (58.06 mm)
2. Pipe Plug, 0.50 in (1/2 in)
Driver Part No. 3823524 (Coolant Passages), Part
No. 3823520 (Oil Rifle)
Expansion plug locations. Rear of block.
1. Expansion Plug Part No. 3900956 (17.73 mm)
2. Expansion Plug Part No. 3900965 (58.06 mm)
Driver Part No. 3823520 (Oil Rifle), Part No.
3376816 (Crankcase), Part No. 3376817 (Alternate
Oil Fill), Part No. 3822372 (Alternate Dipstick Holes)
Pipe plug and expansion plug locations.
block.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Left side of
Expansion Plug Part No. 3900956 (17.73 mm)
Expansion Plug Part No. 3914035 (25.75 mm)
Expansion Plug Part No. 3900955 (9.80 mm)
Expansion Plug Part No. 3900958 (32.03 mm)
Pipe Plug, 0.1250 in (1/8) NPTF Hex Head
Camshaft Expansion Plug - Installation
TM
Apply a bead of Loctite
277 around the outside
diameter of the camshaft expansion plug.
5-290
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Position the plug with the convex side out.
Large Drift, Hammer
Expand the plug with a large drift and a hammer.
Expand the plug until the convex side is flush with
the block.
Camshaft Bushing - Installation
Mark the camshaft bushing and block to align the oil
hole.
5-291
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Universal Bushing Installation Tool
Install the camshaft bushing flush with the block.
Be sure the oil hole is aligned.
A 3.2mm [0.128 in] diameter rod must be able to pass
through the hole.
Measure the installed camshaft bushing.
Camshaft Bushing Bore
mm
54.107
54.146
MIN
MAX
in
2.1302
2.1317
Dipstick Tube - Replacement
Pliers
If the dipstick tube is loose or damaged, remove it from
the cylinder block.
5-292
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Apply sealant, Part No. 3375068, to the new dipstick
tube.
Use a hex head capscrew to drive the tube into the
block.
Cylinder Block - Storing
If the block is not to be used immediately, lubricate all
surfaces to prevent rusting.
Crankshaft - Cleaning
Cleaning Brush Kit PIN 3823614
Clean the crankshaft oil drillings with a brush.
Rinse in clean solvent and use compressed air to dry.
5-293
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Clean the oil seal wear surfaces with diesel fuel and
crocus cloth.
Crankshaft - Inspection
Inspect the crankshaft seals wear surfaces for scratches
or grooving.
If shaft is grooved, install a wear sleeve.
Inspect the rod and main journals for deep scoring,
over-heating, etc.
5-294
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Determining Main Bearing Clearance
Measure the main journal diameters and determine
main bearing clearance.
Main Bearing Journal Diameter
mm
in
82.962
MIN
3.2662
83.013
MAX
3.2682
Out-of-Roundness: 0.050mm [0.002 in]
Taper: 0.013mm [0.0005 in]
Bearing Clearance = Main Bore Diameter with bearing
installed minus (-) Crankshaft Main Journal Diameter.
Maximum Bearing Clearance: 0.119mm [0.0047 in]
Crankshaft Gear - Replacement
Remove the crankshaft gear.
Use a heavy duty puller.
2 lb Steel Hammer, Gear Splitter Part No. 3823585
An optional tool is available to split the crankgear off of
the crankshaft.
Service Tip: Always use a large steel hammer when
splitting the crankshaft gear. Lead hammers absorb the
shock required to break the gear.
Remove all burrs and make sure the gear surface on the
end of the crankshaft is smooth.
5-295
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
If previously removed, install the alignment pin until it
bottoms.
Caution: The gear will be permanently distorted if
over-heated. The oven temperature should never
exceed 177°C [350°F].
Heat the crankshaft gear in a preheated oven for 45
minutes at 148°C [300°F].
Apply a thin coating of lubricant to the nose of the
crankshaft.
Warning: Wear
personal injury.
protective
gloves
to
prevent
Install the hot gear up to the crankshaft shoulder with
the timing mark out.
5-296
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Camshaft - Cleaning
Wash the camshaft and gear with solvent and a lint free
cloth.
Camshaft and Gear - Inspection
Inspect the lift pump lobe, valve lobes and bearing
journals for cracking, pitting or scoring.
Inspect the gear teeth for pitting; look for cracks at the
root of the teeth.
Measure the life pump and valve lobes.
Diameter at Peak of Lobe
mm
Intake
47.040
MIN
47.492
MAX
Exhaust
46.770
MIN
47.222
MAX
Lift Pump
35.50
MIN
36.26
MAX
in
1.852
1.870
1.841
1.859
1.398
1.428
5-297
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Measure the bearing journals.
Journal Diameter
mm
53.962
54.013
MIN
MAX
in
2.1245
2.1265
Pitting Reuse Criteria
A single pit should not be greater than the area of a 2
mm [.079 in] diameter circle.
Interconnection of pits is not allowable and is treated as
one pit.
The total pits, when added together, should not exceed
a circle of 6 mm [0.236 in].
5-298
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Only one pit is allowed within + or - 20 degrees of the
nose of the cam lobe.
Edge Deterioration (Breakdown) Criteria
The area of edge deterioration should not be greater
than the equivalent area of a 2 mm [0.079 in] circle
within + or - 20 degrees of the nose of the cam lobe.
Outside of the + or - 20 degrees of the nose of the cam
lobe, the areas of edge deterioration should not be
greater than the equivalent area of a 6 mm [0.236 in]
circle.
5-299
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5-300
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
5-301
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Camshaft Gear - Replacement
Remove the gear.
Remove all burrs and smooth any rough surfaces
caused by removing the gear.
Install the key.
Lubricate the camshaft surface with Lubriplate 105.
5-302
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: The gear will be permanently distorted if
over-heated. The oven temperature should never
exceed 177°C [350°F].
Heat the camshaft gear in a preheated oven at 149° C
[300°F] for 45 minutes.
Wear protective gloves to prevent personal injury.
Install the gear with the timing marks away from the
camshaft.
Be sure the gear is seated against the camshaft
shoulder.
If the camshaft is not to be used immediately, lubricate
the lobes and journals to prevent rusting.
Vibration Damper - Cleaning and Inspection
Clean the damper with hot soapy water and a brush.
After rinsing with clean water, use compressed air to
dry.
5-303
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Gear Housing and Timing Pin Assembly - Inspection
Visually inspect the gear housing for cracks or damaged
sealing surfaces.
Inspect the timing pin housing and pin for damage.
Gear Housing - Disassembly
Do not remove the timing pin housing unless it is
damaged or leaking, or the gear housing is being
replaced.
Refer to Page 5-210 for replacement
procedures.
Fuel Pump Stud - Replacement
13 mm
To install or remove fuel pump studs, use two nuts jam
locked onto the stud.
5-304
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
13 mm
If the fuel pump studs are damaged or being installed in
a new housing, coat the threads with Loctite TM 601 and
use two jam locked nuts to install and remove.
Flywheel Housing Inspection
Inspect the flywheel housing for cracks, especially in the
bolt pattern area.
Inspect for damaged threads commonly caused by cross
threaded capscrews or installing an incorrect capscrew.
Heli-coils are available to repair damaged threads.
5-305
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Flywheel Housing Assembly
3/8" square drive
Coat the drain plug with KW Copper Coats
install.
TM
Tighten to 47 N•m [42 ft-lbs]
Screwdriver
Install the plastic plug in the tach probe hole.
Install the expanding plug in the barring tool hole.
5-306
and
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Coat both sides of the inspection plate gasket with KW
Copper Coat™ .
13 mm
Install the inspection plate.
Tighten to 24 N•m [18 ft-lbs].
Front Support - Cleaning and Inspection
Use solvent. Clean the part.
Check the part for cracks or damage.
5-307
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 12. Engine Replacement and Testing
Subject
Page
Engine Replacement.....................................................................................................................5-308
Engine Installation.........................................................................................................................5-310
Engine Testing ..............................................................................................................................5-312
Blowby Limits ...............................................................................................................................5-313
Engine Run-In and Test in the Chassis .........................................................................................5-314
Engine Replacement and Testing
Engine Replacement
If the engine cannot be repaired in chassis, use the following guidelines for removal and installation of the engine.
Caution: Use the equipment manufacturer's recommendations and precautions for removal of chassis
parts to gain access to the engine.
Engine Removal
Preparatory Steps:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disconnect the air intake and exhaust pipes.
Disconnect the throttle linkage from the control lever.
Do not remove the control lever from the injection pump.
Disconnect all engine driven accessories.
Disconnect the drive units from the flywheel.
Drain the coolant.
Drain the lubricating oil.
Remove the chassis parts as necessary to lift the engine from the equipment.
5-308
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Disconnect all electrical connections. Put tags on the
connections to identify their locations.
Disconnect all lines including fuel lines to the lift pump
and fuel return. Use tags to identify the lines.
Put a cover or tape over all engine openings.
Use the lifting eyes to lift the engine. Apply tension to
the hoist to hold the engine while you disconnect the
engine mounts from the chassis.
Lift the engine from the equipment.
Dry Engine Weight:
4BTA3.9
6BT5.9
329 Kg
399 Kg
[725 lb]
[880 lb]
Note: Remove all accessories and brackets not
previously removed to use with the replacement engine.
5-309
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Installation
Caution: Do not exceed the torque value for the
engine supports.
Check the data plate to verify that the replacement
engine is the same model and rating as the engine that
was removed.
Note: Install all accessories and brackets that had been
removed from the previous engine.
Torque Value: 77 N•n [57 ft-lbs]
Use the lifting eyes to lift the engine. Keep tension on
the hoist while you align the engine in the chassis and
tighten the engine mounts.
Connect the engine and chassis parts in the reverse
order of removal.
When connecting the cable/rod to the control lever,
adjust the length so the lever has stop-to-stop
movement.
5-310
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Note: Make sure the air intake and exhaust pipe connec
tions are tight and free of leaks
Fill the engine with the required amount of lubricating
oil.
Four Cylinder
9.5L
[10 U.S. Qt]
Note: Check the oil level after the engine has run for 2
to 3 minutes. Oil held in the oil filter and oil passages
will cause the oil level in the oil pan to lower.
Fill the cooling system with a mixture of 50% water and
50% ethylene-glycol base antifreeze.
Refer to the equipment manufacturer's specifications for
radiator capacity.
Engine Only Coolant Capacity
Litres
[U.S. Quarts]
4B
7
[7.4]
5-311
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Operate the engine at idle for 5 to 10 minutes and check
for leaks and loose parts.
Engine Testing
Verify engine performance by performing an in-chassis check.
Operating Conditions for Run-In and Test
Measurement
Limit(s)
Coolant Temperature .............................................................................. 88° C [190°F] Maximum
Lubricating Oil Temperature.................................................................... 121 o C [250°F] Maximum
Lubricating Oil Pressure ......................................................................... 241 kPa [35 psi] Minimum
Air Inlet Temperature ............................................................................. 38°C [100°F] Maximum
Air Inlet Restriction.................................................................................. 25.4cm [10 in.] H2O Maximum
Boost Pressure........................................................................................ 50.8cm [20 in.] Hg Minimum
............................................................................................................... 66cm 126 in.] Hg Maximum
Exhaust Temperature ............................................................................. 700o C [1290° F] Maximum
Smoke
Bosch Smoke Meter.......................................................................... 2.5 Units Maximum
Celesco Smoke Meter....................................................................... 4% Opacity Maximum
5-312
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Blowby Limits
The following table gives the values of blow-by that should be seen on the B Series engines. These blow-by values have
been calculated on amount of displacement of the engine, volumetric efficiency, and cylinder pressure.
Engine
Model
4B
4B
4B
Speed
RPM
2200
2500
2800
New Limit
(Litres/Minute)
18
20
23
Worn Limit
(Litres/Minute)
36
40
46
Note: The blow-by values are for 100 percent load at the given speed. The B Series engines are measured using a
5.613 mm [0.221 in] diameter orifice.
Blowby Measurement
Blowby is generally recorded in Liters/Minute, but a water manometer may be used to measure blowby from the breather
tube after fabricating the following adaptation:
1. Plug the end of the straight portion of a pipe tee.
2. Drill a 5.613 mm [0.221 in] orifice in the plug.
3. Connect the open straight portion of the pipe tee
to the breather tube.
4. Connect a water manometer to the 90 degree
outlet.
5. Use the Blowby Conversion Chart to convert the
manometer reading to litres/minute.
Blowby Conversion Chart (5.613 mm [0.221 in] Orifice)
Inches of Water
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Litres/Minute
27
40
49
58
64
71
76
81
86
90
94
98
102
105
109
112
115
118
Inches of Water
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
5-313
Litres/Minute
121
124
128
131
135
137
140
144
147
150
154
157
160
163
166
169
172
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Run-In and Test in the Chassis
B Series Engine Rating Chart
Engine
Model
4B3.9
Rating
Hp/RPM
Torque
ft-lb/RPM
ft-lb/RPM
52/1500
61/1800
64/2200
69/2100
71/2200
73/2300
76/2500
182/1500
177/1800
153/2200
172/2100
169/2200
167/2300
160/2500
- - 165/1200
184/1200
184/1200
184/1200
184/1200
Engine Run-In and Test in the Chassis
Perform the run-in and test as follows:
1. Make sure that the fuel solenoid is in the "OFF" position or disconnected.
2. Crank the engine to establish oil pressure on the gauge.
Caution: Do not engage the starter for more than 30 seconds at a time, wait two (2) minutes between
engagements.
3. Reconnect the fuel solenoid if disconnected and move to the "RUN" position.
Note: Bleeding of the fuel system may be required to start the engine.
4. Start the engine and run at 1000-1200 RPM for 30 minutes. Observe the oil pressure and water temperature. If
oil pressure drops below 103 kPa [15 psi], stop the engine and troubleshoot the lubrication system. If water
temperature exceeds 88o C [190o F], stop the engine and allow to cool, then repeat step 4. If overheating
continued, troubleshoot the cooling system.
5. After completing Step 4, stop the engine and inspect for leaks.
6. Restart the engine and test drive the vehicle at approximately 1/3 throttle in "Drive" or "High" gear. Periodically,
open the throttle and accelerate to governed RPM and decelerate rapidly. Repeat this procedure at least 10
times.
For industrial engines, lightly load the engine with driven accessory and accelerate as above.
The engine should be operated normally, but not at continuous high speeds and loads for the first 500 miles or 20 hours.
Occasional quick acceleration followed by quick deceleration during this period is beneficial to engine break in.
Change the oil and filters after 500 miles or 20 hours of operation. Follow oil specification recommended in the
Operator's Manual.
5-314
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 13. Engine Testing
Subject
Page
Engine Testing - Service Tools...............................................................................................................................
Engine Testing - Engine Side Views.......................................................................................................................
Engine Testing - General Information.....................................................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test - Installation of the Engine ...........................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test- Engine Run-In ............................................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test - Performance Checking ..............................................................................................
Engine Test Procedures - Chassis Dynamometer...................................................................................................
Engine Run-in Procedure "In Chassis" (Off-Highway Vehicles)...............................................................................
Engine Painting......................................................................................................................................................
Engine Storage - Short Term..................................................................................................................................
Removing the Engine From Short Term Storage....................................................................................................
Engine Storage - Long Term ..................................................................................................................................
Removing the Engine From Long Term Storage ....................................................................................................
5-316
5-318
5-320
5-321
5-327
5-332
5-334
5-336
5-337
5-338
5-340
5-341
5-343
5-315
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Testing - Service Tools
The following special tools are recommended for testing the engine.
procedure.
Tool No.
ST-434
Tool Description
Tool Illustration
Vacuum Gauge
Check the fuel filter restriction during the engine performance
test.
Hose Adapter, Part No.ST-434-2, and vacuum gauge, Part
No.ST-424-12, are used to perform the test.
Pressure Gauge
Use to measure the engine intake manifold pressure.
ST-1 273
Oil Filter Wrench
Use to remove or tighten spin-on lubricating oil or fuel filters.
3375049
Blowby Checking Tool
Use to check engine crankcase blowby.
3822476
ST-11 1-3
Use of the tool is shown on the appropriate
Water Manometer
Used with the blowby check tool to measure engine crankcase
pressure.
Pressure Gauge (0-160 psi)
Used to measure lubricating oil pressure.
3375275
5-316
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Tool No.
Tool Description
Tool Illustration
Digital Optical Tachometer
Used to measure engine speed (RPM).
3377462
5-317
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Testing - Engine Side Views
Fuel Pump Side
5-318
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Testing - Engine Side Views
Exhaust Side
5-319
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Testing - General Information
The engine test is a combination of an engine run-in and a performance check. The engine run-in procedure provides an
operating period that allows the engine parts to achieve a final finish and fit. The performance check provides an
opportunity to perform final adjustments needed to optimize the engine performance.
An engine test can be performed using either an engine dynamometer or a chassis dynamometer. If a dynamometer is
not available, an engine test must be performed in a manner that simulates a dynamometer test.
Check the dynamometer before beginning the test. The dynamometer must have the capability to test the performance
of the engine when the engine is operating at the maximum RPM and horsepower range (full power).
The engine crankcase pressure, often referred to as engine blowby, is an important factor that indicates when the piston
rings have achieved the correct finish and fit. Rapid changes of blowby or values that exceed specifications more than
50 percent indicate that something is wrong. The engine test must be discontinued until the cause has been determined
and corrected.
General* Engine Test Specifications
Maintain the following limits during a chassis dynamometer test:
Intake Restriction (Maximum)
• Clean Filter (light duty) ..................................................................................................254 mm H20 [10 in.H20]
(medium duty)...........................................................................................305 mm H20 [12 in. H20]
(heavy duty)..............................................................................................381 mm H20 [15 in. H20]
•
Dirty Filter (light duty) .................................................................................................................. 635 mm [25 in.]
(medium duty)........................................................................................................... 635 mm [25 in.]
(heavy duty).............................................................................................................. 635 mm [25 in.]
Exhaust Back Pressure (maximum)
• Industrial............................................................................................................................ 76 mm Hg [3.0 in. Hg]
• EPA Certified.................................................................................................................... 11 4 mm Hg [4.5 in. Hg]
Blowby** (at Given Speed, 100% Load)
4B @ 2200
4B @ 2500
4B @ 2800
New (L/Min)
18
20
23
Worn (L/Min)
36
40
46
** Blowby checking tool, Part No. 3822476, has a special 5.613 mm [0.221 in.] orifice that must be used to get an
accurate reading.
Oil Pressure
• Low Idle (minimum allowable)........................................................................................................69 kPa [10 psi]
• Rated Speed (minimum allowable) ..............................................................................................207 kPa [30 psi]
Fuel Filter Restriction (Maximum)
• Dirty Filter......................................................................................................................... 89 mm Hg [3.5 in. Hg]
Fuel Return Restriction (Maximum)..............................................................................................................35 kPa [5 psi]
* Due to variations in ratings of different engine models, refer to the specific engine data sheet for the particular
engine model being tested.
5-320
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Dynamometer Test Installation of the Engine (14-01)
Use engine lifting fixture, Part No. ST-125, to install the
engine to the test stand.
Align and connect the
dynamometer. Refer to the manufacturer's instructions
for aligning and testing the engine.
NOTE: Make sure the dynamometer capacity is
sufficient to permit testing at 100 percent of the engine
rated horsepower. If the capacity is not enough, the
testing procedure must be modified to match the
restrictions of the dynamometer.
Install the coolant temperature sensor.
Minimum Gauge Capacity:
107°C [225°F]
Connect the coolant supply to the water inlet connection
(1).
Connect the coolant
connection (2).
return
to
the
water
outlet
Install the drain plugs, close all the water drain cocks,
and make sure all the clamps and fittings are tight.
Connect the vent tube to the vent connection on the
thermostat housing.
5-321
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Fill the cooling system with coolant to the bottom of the
fill neck in the radiator fill (or expansion) tank.
Inspect the engine for coolant leaks at connections,
fittings, plates, and plugs. Repair as necessary.
Attach the lubricating oil temperature sensor in one of
the locations on the side of the engine as shown.
Minimum Gauge Capacity:
150°C [300°F]
5-322
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Attach the lubricating oil pressure sensor to the main oil
rifle drilling in the cylinder block.
Minimum Gauge Capacity:
1034 kPa [150 psi]
Caution: The lubricating oil system must be primed
before operating the engine after it has been rebuilt
to avoid Internal damage. Do not prime the system
from the bypass filter head If an external pressure
pump is used. Damage to the bypass filter will
result.
To prime the system using external pressure, connect
the supply to the tapped hole in the main oil rifle.
Use a pump capable of supplying 210 kPa (30 psi]
continuous pressure. Connect the pump to the port on
the main oil rifle as shown.
Use clean 15W-40 oil to prime the system until the oil
pressure registers on the gauge.
Remove the oil supply tube, and install the plug.
Make sure the lubricating oil has had time to drain to the
pan, and fill the engine to the high mark as measured on
the dipstick.
5-323
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
If an external pressure pump is not available, prime the
lubricating system according to the following procedure.
Fill the engine with oil to the high level mark on the
dipstick.
Fill the lubricating oil filters with clean 15W-40 oil.
Screw the filters onto the filter head fitting until the
gasket contacts the filter head surface.
Use oil filter wrench, Part No. 3375049, to tighten the
filters an additional 3/4 to 1 turn.
To make sure the lubricating oil pump is providing
adequate oil to the engine, first disconnect any wires
leading to the fuel pump solenoid.
5-324
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not crank the starting motor for periods
longer than 30 seconds.
Excessive heat will
damage the starting motor.
Crank the engine until the oil pressure gauge indicates
system pressure.
NOTE: Allow 2 minutes between the 30-second
cranking periods so the starting motor can cool.
NOTE: If pressure is not indicated, find and correct the
problem before continuing.
Allow the lubricating oil to drain into the oil pan, and
measure the oil level with the dipstick.
Add oil as necessary to bring the level to the high level
mark.
Lubricate the gasket on the fuel filter with clean 15W-40
oil.
Fill the fuel filter with clean fuel.
Screw the fuel filter onto the filter head until the gasket
contacts the filter head surface.
Tighten the filter an additional 1/2 to 3/4 turn.
5-325
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Make sure the voltage supply matches that of the fuel
pump solenoid before connecting the electrical wires to
it.
Attach the throttle control rod onto the fuel pump throttle
lever.
For accurate engine crankcase blowby measurement,
insert a blowby checking tool in the crankcase breather
vent.
Connect a water manometer to the blowby tool. A
pressure gauge can be used in place of the manometer.
Minimum Gauge Capacity: 1270 mm H20 150 in. H20]
To measure fuel filter restriction, connect vacuum
gauge, Part No. ST-434, to the lift pump inlet line.
Minimum Gauge Capacity:
760 mm Hg [30 in. Hg]
5-326
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Inspect the voltage rating on the starting motor before
installing the electrical wiring.
Attach electrical wires to the starting motor and the
batteries, if used.
NOTE: If another method of starting the engine is used,
follow the manufacturer's instructions to make the
necessary connections.
Engine Dynamometer Test Engine Run-In (14-02)
The engine run-in period allows the tester to detect
assembly errors and to make final adjustments needed
for performance that meets specifications.
NOTE: The amount of time specified for the following
engine run-in phases are minimums. Additional time
can be used at each phase except engine idle periods,
if so desired.
Measurements from these indicators and gauges must
be observed closely during all phases of the engine runin period. Refer to page 5-320 for specifications and
acceptable readings.
5-327
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
To correctly evaluate the engine performance, this
additional measurement must be observed during
engine run-in phases.
It is good practice to observe these measurements even
if engine performance meets specifications. If engine
performance does not meet specifications, these
measurements can indicate possible reasons for underperformance.
Engine performance specifications and fuel system
calibration values are listed in the following publications:
1. Fuel Injection Pump Calibration and Parts Data,
Bulletin No. 3810449.
2. Engine Data Sheets
NOTE: Fuel pump calibration changes must be
performed by an ADS shop.
5-328
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not crank the engine for more than 30
seconds. Excessive heat will damage the starting
motor.
Crank the engine and observe the oil pressure when the
engine starts. If the engine fails to start within 30
seconds, allow the starting motor to cool for 2 minutes
before cranking the engine again.
Caution: If the lubricating oil pressure is not within
specifications, shut off the engine immediately.
Either excessively low or excessively high oil
pressure will cause engine damage.
Engine oil pressure must be between 69 kPa and 310
kPa [10 psi and 45 psi] at 700 RPM.
Correct the problem if the oil pressure is not within
specifications.
Caution: Do not operate the engine at idle speed
longer than specified during engine run-in.
Excessive carbon formation will cause damage to
the engine.
Operate the engine at approximately 700 RPM for 3 to 5
minutes.
Listen for unusual noises; watch for coolant, fuel, and
lubricating oil leaks; and check for correct engine
operation in general.
NOTE: Repair all leaks or component problems before
continuing the engine run-in.
5-329
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Move the throttle to obtain 1,200 RPM engine speed.
and set the test load to 25 percent of the rated load.
Operate the engine at this speed and load level until the
coolant temperature is 70o C [160o F]. Check all gauges
and record the data.
NOTE: Do not proceed to the next step until a steady
blowby reading is obtained.
Open the throttle to the speed at which peak torque
occurs, and adjust the dynamometer load to 50 percent
of rated load. Operate the engine at this speed and load
level for 2 minutes.
Check all gauges and record the data.
NOTE: Do not proceed to the next step until blowby is
stable and within specifications.
With the engine speed remaining at torque peak RPM,
increase the dynamometer load to 75 percent of rated
load. Operate the engine at this speed and load level
for 2 minutes. Check all gauges and record the data.
NOTE: Do not proceed to the next step until blowby is
stable and within specifications.
Move the throttle lever to its fully opened position, and
increase the dynamometer load until the engine speed is
at torque peak RPM. Operate the engine at this speed
and load level for 10 minutes or until the blowby
becomes stable and within specifications.
Check all gauges and record the data.
5-330
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Reduce the dynamometer load until the engine speed
increases to the engine's rated RPM.
Operate the engine at rated RPM for 5 minutes.
Check all gauges and record the data.
Caution: Shutting off the engine Immediately after
operating at full load will damage the turbocharger
and Internal components. Always allow the engine
to cool before shutting it off.
Remove the dynamometer load completely, and operate
the engine at 700 RPM for 3 to 5 minutes. This period
will allow the engine components to cool.
Shut off the engine.
5-331
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Dynamometer Test Performance Checking
Caution: Do not crank the engine for more than 30
seconds. Excessive heat will damage the starting
motor.
Crank the engine and observe the oil pressure when the
engine starts. If the engine fails to start within 30
seconds, allow the starting motor to cool for 2 minutes
before cranking the engine again.
Caution: If the lubricating oil pressure is not within
specifications, shut off the engine immediately.
Either excessively low or excessively high oil
pressure will cause engine damage. Correct the
problem If oil pressure is not within specifications.
Engine oil pressure must be between 69 kPa and 310
kPa [10 psi and 45 psi] at approximately 700 RPM.
Make sure the engine is at operating temperature.
Move the throttle lever to the "FULL OPEN" position.
Adjust the dynamometer load until the engine maintains
the rated RPM.
Allow the readings to stabilize. Read the horsepower.
Check all the gauges, and record the readings.
NOTE: The horsepower reading will not be accurate if
the lubricating oil temperature and fuel temperature are
not within specifications.
Lubricating Oil Temperature: MIN 90o C [190o F]
o
o
Fuel Temperature: MAX 32 C [90 F]
Check all gauges and record the data.
Caution: Do not shut off the engine immediately
after it has been loaded. it must be allowed to
sufficiently cool.
Remove the dynamometer load completely, and operate
the engine at idle speed for 3 to 5 minutes. This will
allow the turbocharger and other components to cool.
NOTE: Idle periods longer than 5 minutes are to be
avoided.
5-332
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Shut off the engine after the cool-down period.
If power specifications are not met, remove the fuel
pump and have the pump checked against the
calibration specification sheet.
Remove all test instrumentation. Remove the engine
from the dynamometer.
NOTE: If the engine is to be stored temporarily and
does not have permanent-type antifreeze, it is
necessary to drain all coolant. Drain locations are
identified on the engine side views, pages 5-318 and 5319.
Prepare the engine for Engine Painting (5-337) or
Engine Storage (5-338) or (5-341).
5-333
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
General
Engine
Test
Dynamometer) (14-05)
Procedures
(Chassis
The following procedure assumes that the lubricating oil
and fuel systems were correctly primed, the dipstick
calibrated, and the engine filled to the correct levels with
oil and coolant during installation of the engine into the
chassis. If these systems were not serviced during
installation of the engine, refer to Engine Dynamometer
Test - Installation of the Engine (14-01) for instructions
on priming the lubricating oil and the fuel systems and
calibrating the dipstick. Refer to the latest B Series
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Bulletin No.
3810205, for instructions on filling the lubricating oil and
the cooling systems.
The number of instruments and gauges required to
perform a chassis dynamometer test will vary according
to the type and the capability of the test equipment
used.
Refer to pages 5-318 and 5-319 for the correct system
pressure and temperature gage connecting locations.
To correctly monitor an engine's performance, record
the following parameters:
• Lubricating oil pressure (vehicle instrument panel)
• Coolant temperature (vehicle instrument panel)
• Coolant pressure*
• Intake manifold pressure*
• Inlet air restriction*
• Blowby*
• Engine speed (RPM) (vehicle instrument panel)
• Wheel horsepower (WHP) (dynamometer controls)
* See the following for the Service Tools required and
the installation locations on the engine.
Measure the coolant pressure at the cylinder head, rear
fuel pump side.
Minimum Gauge Capacity:
415 kPa [60 psi]
5-334
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Measure the intake manifold pressure.
Install a
pressure gauge, Part No. ST-1273, in the location
shown.
Minimum Gauge Capacity: 1905 mm Hg [75 in. Hg]
Measure the blowby by installing blowby checking tool in
the crankcase breather vent. Connect the blowby tool to
a water manometer.
NOTE: Excessive blowby indicates an engine internal
components malfunction, allowing combustion gases to
enter the crankcase.
Minimum Gauge Capacity: 1270 mm H20 [50 in. H20]
NOTE: If a sudden increase in blowby occurs, or if
blowby exceeds the maximum allowable limit during any
run-in step, return to the previous step and continue the
run-in. If blowby does not reach an acceptable level,
discontinue the run-in and determine the cause.
NOTE: Avoid long idle periods. Operate the engine at
low idle only long enough (3 to 5 minutes) to check for
correct oil pressure and any fuel, oil, water, or air leaks.
5-335
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Caution: Do not allow the engine speed to exceed
1,000 RPM before run-in. The internal components
can be damaged.
Caution: Do not shut off the engine Immediately
after the last stop of the run-in is completed. Allow
the engine to cool by operating at low idle for a
minimum of 3 minutes to avoid Internal component
damage.
Engine Run-In Procedure "In Chassis"
Highway Vehicles)
(Off-
Caution: Refer to General Engine Test Procedures
(Chassis Dynamometer) (1 4-05) before operating
the engine to avoid internal component damage.
Operate the engine as follows during the first 3 hours
after rebuild:
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
1. Do not idle the engine for more than 5 minutes at
any one time.
2. Operate the engine at 75 percent throttle while
loaded.
3. Do not operate the engine at rated speed (RPM) and
full load for more than 5 minutes at any one time.
Engine Painting (14-08)
Remove all belts from the engine.
Cover the following parts of the engine:
• Exhaust and intake openings
• Electrical components
• Fuel inlet and drain connections
• Any exposed fittings, threads, and electrical wire
terminals
Warning: When using a steam cleaner, wear
protective clothing and safety glasses or a face
shield. Hot steam can cause serious personal
injury.
Use steam to clean the engine, and dry with
compressed air.
NOTE: Make sure all engine surfaces are dean and dry
before painting the engine.
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Protect the following components from the paint:
• All dataplates
• Valve and injector set marks.
• Exhaust manifold
• Flywheel
• Flywheel housing transmission mounting
surface
Paint the engine.
Engine Storage Short Term (14-09)
NOTE: This procedure describes the correct method of
preparing an engine for short-term (1 to 6 months)
storage.
Operate the engine at high idle until the coolant
temperature reaches 70°C [160°F].
Shut off the engine.
Remove the fuel tube to the engine fuel filter and the
injector return tube.
NOTE: Fuel system preservative oil must meet Federal
Specification VV-L-800C. (Example: Daubert Chemical
NoxRust No. 518.)
Fill two containers, one with diesel fuel and the other
with the preservative oil. Put both fuel tubes into the
container of diesel fuel.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Start the engine. When it is operating smoothly, put the
fuel supply tube into the container of preservative oil.
Remove the injector return tube from the diesel fuel
container. When preservative oil flows from the tube,
shut off the engine.
Install the fuel supply tube to the fuel filter, and put a
cap on all other fuel tubes.
Drain the lubricating oil pan, the oil filters, and the fuel
filter.
Install the drain plug into the oil pan, and install the filter
cans. Tighten according to specifications.
Disconnect the electrical wires from the fuel pump
solenoid.
Drain the coolant passages and jackets.
NOTE: It is not necessary to drain the coolant if it is a
permanent-type antifreeze with a rust inhibitor. Do not
drain the coolant if the engine is installed in a vehicle.
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Look the engine over closely, and cover all openings
with tape to prevent dirt and moisture from entering.
Install a warning tag which alerts others of no oil in the
engine and that it must not be started.
Store the engine in a dry area of even temperature.
Rotate the crankshaft two to three revolutions every 3 to
4 weeks use the barring gear, Part No. 3904682 to
rotate the crankshaft.
Removing the Engine from Short-Term storage
Remove the tape from all openings, and remove the
warning tag.
Refill the oil filters with clean 15W-40 oil, and prime the
lubrication system. Refer to Engine Dynamometer Test
Engine Run-in (14-02).
Use clean diesel fuel to flush the preservative oil from
the fuel system, and fill the fuel filter again.
Connect the electrical wiring to the fuel pump solenoid.
Prime and vent the fuel system.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Storage - Long Term (14-10)
This procedure describes the correct method of
preparing an engine for long-term (6 to 24 months)
storage.
NOTE: If the engine has been stored for 24 months, the
cooling system must be flushed with a solvent. Repeat
the flushing procedure a second time.
Operate the engine at the high idle throttle position until
the coolant temperature is 70°C [160°F].
Shut off the engine.
Drain the lubricating oil pan. Install the drain plug, and
fill the oil pan to the high level mark on the dipstick with
preservative oil.
NOTE: Lubricating system preservative oil must meet
Military Specification MIL-L-21260 Type PE30-1 SAE
30. (Example: Shell 66202.)
Disconnect the fuel supply tube at the fuel filter and the
injector return tube at a convenient place.
NOTE: Fuel system preservative oil must meet Federal
Specification VV-L-800C. (Example: Daubert Chemical
NoxRust No. 518.)
Fill two containers, one with diesel fuel and the other
with preservative oil. Put both fuel tubes into the
container of diesel fuel.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Start the engine and, when operating smoothly, put the
fuel supply tube into the container of preservative oil.
Remove the injector return tube from the diesel fuel
container. When the preservative oil flows from the
tube, shut off the engine.
Connect the fuel supply tube to the fuel filter, and put a
cap on the ends of all the other fuel tubes.
Drain the preservative oil from the lubricating oil pan
and the oil filters. Install the drain plug.
Drain and flush the cooling system, using a watersoluble rust inhibitor.
Remove the exhaust manifold.
Refer to Engine Disassembly
Spray preservative oil into the intake and the exhaust
ports of the cylinder head and into the aftercooler
housing and the exhaust manifold.
Install the aftercooler assembly and the exhaust
manifold. Refer to Engine Assembly.
Remove the rocker housing covers, and spray the
rocker levers, valve springs, valve stems, valve guides,
and the push rods with preservative oil. Install the
rocker housing cover.
Spray preservative oil into the intake port of the air
compressor and on all exposed metal surfaces that are
not painted.
NOTE: Use a preservative compound that meets
Military Specification MIL-C-16137C Type P-2 Grade 1
or 2.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Cover all openings with heavy paper and tape to
prevent entrance of dirt and moisture.
Put a warning tag on the engine which contains the
following information:
• Date the engine was prepared for storage.
• Crankshaft must not be rotated.
• Coolant has been drained.
• Engine must not be operated.
Store the engine in a dry area of even temperature.
Removing the Engine from Long-Term Storage
Remove the paper and the tape from all openings.
Remove the warning tag.
Flush the fuel system with clean diesel fuel to remove
preservative oil.
Rotate the water pump to make sure it hasn't rusted in
place.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Rotate the crankshaft two complete revolutions to make
sure the piston rings are free and no foreign objects are
in the engine.
Remove the intake manifold cover or aftercooler and
visually inspect the lower valve stem area for presence
of rust. An accumulation of rust requires disassembly
and rebuild of the cylinder head.
Install the drive belt or belts.
Remove a plug from the main oil rifle drilling and flush
the preservative oil from the engine by pumping 4 liters
of light mineral oil into the oil rifle.
Rotate the
crankshaft three or four revolutions as the engine is
flushed. Install the plug.
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Remove the oil drain plug and allow the mineral oil to
drain from the engine.
Remove the lubricating oil filter. Install a new filter
according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Pressure fill the engine with 15W40 lubricating oil
through the 1.8 inch pipe tap on the side of the oil filter
housing directly below the turbocharger oil supply
connection. Use 207 kPa (30 psi) to pressure fill the
system with a minimum of 3.6 L (1 U.S. gal).
Caution: Make sure the engine does not start when
you crank the engine by disconnecting the fuel
solenoid or positioning the shut down lever in the
stop position.
Use the starter to crank the engine for a maximum of 30
seconds, with two minute intervals, until oil pressure
registers on the lubricating oil gauge.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Fill the oil pan to the high mark on the dipstick.
Install a new coolant filter if so equipped. Fill the
cooling system with a mixture of 50% water and 50%
ethyleneglycol type antifreeze.
Adjust the valve clearance according to the procedure in
the applicable service manual.
Tighten all capscrews, plugs and fittings as necessary.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Section 14. Specifications
Subject
Page
Tools Required to Repair the B Series Engine.....................................................................................................
Group 0 Specifications ........................................................................................................................................
Engine Disassembly.........................................................................................................................................
Engine Assembly .............................................................................................................................................
Group 1 Specifications ........................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block..................................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft .......................................................................................................................................................
Camshaft .........................................................................................................................................................
Vibration Damper.............................................................................................................................................
Piston ..............................................................................................................................................................
Piston Pin ........................................................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod ...............................................................................................................................................
Piston and Connecting Rod - Assembly............................................................................................................
Piston Ring Gap - Checking .............................................................................................................................
Piston Rings - Installation.................................................................................................................................
Group 2 Specifications ........................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Valve Inspection .....................................................................................................................
Valve Guide.....................................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Deck Flatness ...........................................................................................................................
Valve Seats .....................................................................................................................................................
Valve Springs ..................................................................................................................................................
Valve Grinding .................................................................................................................................................
Valve Seat Grinding.........................................................................................................................................
Group 3 Specifications- Rocker Levers and Pedestals ........................................................................................
Group 4 Specifications- Tappet and Push Rods ..................................................................................................
Group 6 Specifications- Injectors.........................................................................................................................
Group 7 Specifications- Lubrication.....................................................................................................................
Group 8 Specifications- Cooling System .............................................................................................................
Group 11 Specifications- Exhaust System...........................................................................................................
Group 16 Specifications- Mounting Adaptations ..................................................................................................
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric..................................................................................................
Torque Specification ...........................................................................................................................................
Engine Component Torque Value........................................................................................................................
B Series Sealants................................................................................................................................................
B Series Lubricants .............................................................................................................................................
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5-348
5-349
5-349
5-350
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5-356
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5-364
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5-369
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Tools Required to Repair the B Series Engine
Sockets
Wrenches
Other
12rnm
13mm
14mm
15mm
17mm
22mm
24mm (deep well)
8mm
10mm
13mm
14mm (open end)
15mm (open end)
17mm
19mm
22mm
24mm
Allen Wrench (8mm)
Breaker Bar (1/2 in. Square Drive)
Flat Screwdriver
Ratchet (3/8 in. Square Drive)
Ratchet (1/2 in. Square Drive)
Filter Wrenches (75-80mm and
90-95mm)
Drill Motor (1/4 inch)
Drill Bit (3mm)
Slide Hammer
Flat Chisel
Tear Puller (75mm)
Sheet Metal Screw (#10)
Torque Wrench
Pliers
Injector Bore Cleaning Brush
(Part No. 3822509)
Tappet Removal/Installation Tool
(Part No. 3822513)
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Engine Disassembly - Group 0 Specifications
Engine Weight
4B Wet Weight 325-350 Kg [715-770 lb]
Cylinder Head Weight.
4 cylinder
36 Kg
Injection Pump drive gear backlash
limits
A
0.076
0.330
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.013]
Camshaft gear backlash limits.
A
0.076
0.330
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.013]
Lube pump gear backlash limits.
A
0.076
0.330
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.013]
Lube pump idler gear backlash limit.
A
0.076
0.330
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.013]
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[80 lb]
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
Crankshaft Weight
4 Cylinder
36 Kg
in
[80 lb]
[123 lb]
Engine Assembly - Group 0 Specifications
Main bearing capscrew torque value
and sequence.
1
2
3
Crankshaft end play.
A
60 N•m
119 N•m
176 N•m
0.127
0.355
[44 ft-lb]
[88 ft-lb]
[129 ft-lb]
MIN
MAX
[0.005]
[0.014]
Piston ring position
Connecting Rod torque value.
Connecting Rod side clearance limits.
1
2
3
35 N•m
70 N•m
100 N•m
0.100
0.300
5-350
[26 ft-lb]
[51 ft-lb]
[73 ft-lb]
MIN
MAX
[0.004]
[0.012]
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
Crankshaft end play
mm
0.13
0.25
in
MIN
MAX
[0.005]
[0.010]
Lube pump gerotor size.
A = Four cylinder gerotor size
12.947mm [0.516 inch]
Lube pump gears backlash limits.
A&B
0.08
0.33
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.013]
Camshaft end play limits
A
0.12
0.34
MIN
MAX
[0.005]
[0.013]
Camshaft gear backlash limits
A
0.08
0.45
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.018]
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
This table must be used to make sure of proper fuel injection pump-to-engine timing. The critical parts list (CPL)
number from the engine data plate and the Control Parts List Manual (Bulletin No3379133-20) must be used to
determine whether or not the engine is certified, and if so, what year and regulating agency (EPA ro CARB)
Given this information, use the table to determine which letter on the fuel injection pump drive gear is aligned with
the camshaft gear.
Injection pump drive gear torque
values
Bosch & CAV 65 N•m
Injection pump drive gear backlash
limits
A
Cylinder Head Weight
4 Cylinder
Cylinder Head Torque value and
sequence
1
2
3
Valve stem to rocker lever clearances
Intake
Exhaust
0.08
0.045
36 Kg
40 N•m
85 N•m
126 N•m
0.25mm
0.51mm
[48 ft-lb]
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.018]
[80 lb]
[29 ft-lb]
[62 ft-lb]
[93 ft-lb]
[0.010]
[0.020]
Valve adjustment procedure
Perform step A of the valve set procedure with Cylinder Number 1 at TDC compression stroke (timing pin will engage).
Step A - Four Cylinder
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Perform Step B of the valve set procedure with Cylinder Number 1 at TDC plus 360 degrees (timing pin will not
engage).
Mark the crankshaft and front cover. Rotate the crankshaft one full turn.
Step B - Four Cylinder
Exhaust Manifold torque value and
sequence
43 N•m
[32 ft-lb]
Alternator assembly torque sequence
Cylinder Block - Group 1 Specifications
Cylinder Block
De-glaze the cylinder bore with a medium (120) grit flex-hone. The crosshatch should be at 15 to 25 degrees with
the top of the cylinder block.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Cylinder bore diameter
Ref. Point
mm
in
102.000
102.116
MIN
MAX
[4.0157]
[4.0203]
Out-of-Roundness
0.035
MAX
[0.0015]
Taper
0.76
MAX
[0.003]
Overall Flatness
0.75
MAX
[0.003]
Main bearing bore diameter with bolts
tightened to 176 N•m [130 ft-lb]
83.106
MAX
[2.2720]
Camshaft bore diameter with bushing
installed.
54.107
54.146
MIN
MAX
[2.1302]
[2.1317]
Camshaft bore diameter for all journals
except no. 1.
54.164
MAX
[2.1324]
Tappet bore diameter.
16.000
16.055
MIN
MAX
[0.630]
[0.632]
82.962
83.013
MIN
MAX
[3.2662]
[3.2682]
Out of roundness
0.050
MAX
[0.002]
Taper
0.013
MAX
[0.0005]
Bearing clearance
0.119
MAX
[0.0047]
Crankshaft
Crankshaft main bearing journal diameter
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Heat the crankshaft gear at 148°C [300°F] for 45 minutes. The gear will be permanently distorted if temperature
exceeds 177°C [350°F].
Camshaft
Camshaft diameter at peak of
the lobe.
Intake
Exhaust
Lift Pump
Camshaft bearing journal diameter.
47.040
47.492
46.770
47.222
35.50
36.26
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
1.852
1.870
1.841
1.859
1.398
1.428
53.962
54.013
MIN
MAX
2.1245
2.1265
Pitting Reuse Criteria
A single pit should not be greater than the area of a 2 mm [.079 in] diameter circle.
Interconnection of pits is not allowable and is treated as one pit.
The total pits, when added together, should not exceed a circle of 6 mm [0.236 in].
Only one pit is allowed within + or - 20 degrees of the nose of the cam lobe.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Edge Deterioration (Breakdown) Criteria
The area of edge deterioration should not be greater than the equivalent area of a 2 mm [0.079 in] circle within + or
- 20 degrees of the nose of the cam lobe.
Outside of the + or - 20 degrees of the nose of the cam lobe, the areas of edge deterioration should not be greater
than the equivalent area of a 6 mm [0.236 in] circle.
o
o
Heat the camshaft gear at 148 C [300 F) for 45 minutes. The gear will be permanently distorted if temperature
o
o
exceeds 177 C [350 F].
Vibration Damper
Index line out of alignment.
Missing rubber member chunks
A
B
1.59
3.18
MAX
MAX
[1/16
[1/8]
101.823
101.887
MIN
MAX
[4.0088]
[4.0107]
0.075
0.150
0.075
0.150
0.040
0.130
40.006
40.025
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
[0.003]'
[0.0059]
[0.003]
[0.0059]
[0.0016]
[0.0051]
[1.5750]
[1.5758]
Piston
Measure the piston skirt diameter as
illustrated.
Use a new piston ring to measure the
clearance in the ring groove.
Top
Intermediate
Oil Control
Pin bore diameter
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Piston Pin
Piston pin diameter
39.990
40.003
MIN
MAX
[1.5744]
[1.5749]
40.053
40.092
MIN
MAX
[1.5769]
[1.5784]
Connecting Rod
Pin bore diameter (with bushing
installed).
Rod Bearing Clearance - Checking
Measure the crankshaft bore with the bearings installed and the capscrews tightened to 99 N•m
[73 ft4b].
Record the smallest diameter.
Measure and record the mean diameter of
rod journal on the crankshaft.
68.962
69.013
MIN
MAX
[2.7150]
[2.7170]
Out-of-Roundness: 0.050mm [0.002 in]
Taper: 0.013mm [.0005 in]
Bearing clearance - Rod Inside Diameter Minus Crankshaft Journal Diameter.
Clearance: 0.114mm [0.0045 in]
Bearing clearance can also be determined with plastigage during engine assembly.
Piston and Connecting Rod - Assembly
Caution: Be sure "front" marking on piston and the numbers on the rod and cap are oriented
as illustrated.
Piston Ring Gap - Checking
Caution: The top ring for a turbocharged engine is not the same as the top ring for a naturally
aspirated engine.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Position each ring in the cylinder and use
a piston to square it with the bore.
Ref. Point
mm
in
A - 89mm [3.5 in]
Use a feeler gauge to measure the gap.
Top
(N. Aspirated)
Intermediate
Oil Control
0.25
0.55
0.25
0.55
0.25
0.55
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
[0.0100]
[0.0215]
[0.0100]
[0.0215]
[0.0100]
[0.0215]
7.94
7.98
MIN
MAX
0.3126
0.3142
0.79
MIN
[0.031]
8.019
8.090
MIN
MAX
0.3157
0.3185
Piston Rings - Installation
The top surface of all of the rings are identified: Assemble the word "top" up.
Install the oil control ring with the end gap 180' from the ends of the expander.
Cylinder Head - Group 2 Specifications
Valve Inspection
Valve stem diameter.
Rim thickness Limit
T
Valve Guide
Valve guide bore diameter.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Cylinder Head Deck Flatness
Overall Flatness, end to end and side to
side
0.75
MAX
[0.003]
0.254
MAX
[0.010]
Valve Seats
Grinding cleanup
Cylinder Head Cracks - Reuse Guidelines
These guidelines apply only to cracks extending from the injector bore to the intake valve seats.
Replace cylinder heads which exhibit valve bridge cracks in any other location.
The reuse guidelines for a cylinder head with a crack extending from the injector bore to the intake
valve seat are as follows:
If the crack does not extend into the valve seat, the head is reusable.
If the crack extends into or through the valve seat, the head must be repaired by installing a valve
seat insert per the Alternative Repair Manual, Bulletin No. 3810234.
Valve Springs
Valve spring measurements.
Approx. Free Length 55.63 mm [2.190 in.]
Inclination:
1.0
MAX
A load of 289.13 - 321.16 N. [65.0 - 72.2 lb] is required to compress the spring to a height of 49.25
mm [1.94 inches].
5-359
[0.039]
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Valve Grinding
Grinding angle
Rim thickness
Intake: 30 degrees
Exhaust: 45 degrees
T
0.79
MIN
0.031]
Valve Seat Grinding
The illustrated marks indicate valve seats have been ground previously. Additional grinding will
result in grinding past the induction hardened area.
Replace previously re-ground seats will with service seats. Refer to the Alternative Repair Manual,
Bulletin No. 3810234.
Seat grinding depth
B
Seat grinding angle
Valve depth
Valve seat width limit
Grind area (A) with a 60 degree stone and
(B) with a 15 degree stone to center the
seat on the valve face and obtain the valve
seat width limits.
0.254
MAX
[0.010]
Intake: 30 Degrees
Exhaust: 45 Degrees
C
0.99
1.52
MIN
MAX
[0.039]
[0.060]
1
2
1.5
2.0
MIN
MAX
[0.060]
[0.080]
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Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Rocker Levers and Pedestals - Group 3 Specifications
Rocker lever bore diameter.
19.000
19.051
MIN
MAX
[0.7480]
[0.7500]
Pedestal shaft diameter.
18.938
18.975
MIN
MAX
[0.7456]
[0.7470]
15.936
15.977
MIN
MAX
[0.627]
[0.629]
Tappet and Push Rods - Group 4 Specifications
Valve Tappet stem diameter.
Pit marks on the tappet face are acceptable.
The following criteria defines the size of the pits allowed.
1. A single pit can not be greater than 2 mm [0.078 in].
2. Interconnection of pits is not allowed.
3. Total pits when added together should not exceed 6 mm [0.236 inch] diameter or a total of 4
percent of the tappet face.
4. No pitting is allowable on the edges of the wear face of the tappet.
Injectors - Group 6 Specifications
Injector opening pressure
a. Open valve
b. Operate lever at one stroke per second
c. Read pressure indicated when spray begin
Leakage Test:
a. Open valve
b. Operate lever to hold pressure 20 bar [290 psi] below opening pressure
c. No drops should fall from the tip within 10 seconds
Lubrication - Group 7 Specifications
Pressure regulator valve spring valves.
Valve Open (Min.)
Height: 39.98 mm [1.574 inches]
Load: 91 N [20.5 lbs]
Assembled (Min.)
Height: 44.98 mm [1.77 inches]
Load: 60 N [13.5 lbs]
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Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Oil pump tip clearance
0.1778
MAX
[0.007]
Port plate clearance
0.127
MAX
[0.005]
Body bore clearance
0.381
MAX
[0.015]
Gear backlash Limits for a used
pump.
0.05
0.45
MIN
MAX
[0.003]
[0.018]
Cooling System - Group 8 Specifications
Thermostat requirements.
Start to open 83°C [181°F]
Fully open 95°C [203°F]
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Part or Assembly
Ref. Point
mm
in
Exhaust System - Group 11 Specifications
Exhaust manifold flatness.
0.10
MAX
[0.004]
0.20
MAX
[0.008]
Mounting Adaptations - Group 16 Specifications
Flywheel Housing Runout
Ring Gear Replacement
Heat the new ring gear for 20 minutes in an oven preheated to 127°C [2600 Fl.
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TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric
Metric capscrews are identified by the grade number stamped on the head of the capscrew or on the surface of
metric nuts. The higher the number, the greater the strength of the capscrew.
Commercial Steel Class
Thread Diameter
mm
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
Torque
N•m [ft-lb]
6 [5]
9 [7]
24 [18]
43 [32]
77 [57]
127 [94]
195 [144
Torque
N•m [ft4b]
8 [6]
14 [10]
34 [25]
64 [47]
112 [83]
180 [133]
266 [196]
Torque
N•m [ft-lb]
8 [6]
15 [11]
38 [28]
77 [57]
137 [101]
216 [159]
319 [235)
Notes:
1. Do not use these values when the torque values are specified in another section of the manual.
2. These values are based on clean, dry threads. Reduce the value by 10% when a lubricant is used. Reduce the value
by 20% if new plated capscrews are used.
Torque Specification
The B series engine uses parts that are of metric dimensions.
Always use caution to be sure that capscrews from the engine are put back in their proper locations.
When replacing capscrews, always use a capscrew of the same measurement and strength as the capscrew being
replaced. Incorrect capscrews can result in engine damage.
Metric Capscrew Nomenclature
M8
X
1.25 - 25
Length in millimeters
Distance between threads in millimeters
Major thread diameter in millimeters
5-364
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Pipe: Plugs, Fittings, and Adapters
• When installing directional fittings, tees or elbows, first tighten it to the appropriate torque value and then continue to
turn it in the tightening direction until it is aligned. Do not turn it in the loosening direction, and do not turn it more than
one revolution past the specified torque value.
• Apply liquid Teflon to all pipe fittings and plugs.
Torque For Pipe Plugs
Pipe Plug Size
1/16"
1/8"
1/4"
3/8"
1/2"
3/4"
1"
N•m
6
8
12
15
24
36
45
5-365
Torque (Into Aluminum Or Cast Iron)
[Ft-lb]
[ 4]
[ 6]
[ 9]
[11]
[18]
[27]
[33]
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Component Torque Value
Socket Or
Wrench Size
MM (Inch)
12
(1/2)
(15/16)
16
18
13
23
Allen 8mm
Allen 8mm
15
13
12
15
18
13
10
13
19
15
13
(1/2)
-18
(1 1/8)
17
17
10
10
80-95
Air Fuel Control Banjo Screw (In Pump) ..............................................
Air Fuel Control Fitting (In Head) .........................................................
Alternator Pulley .................................................................................
Alternator Mounting Bolt 15 SI ............................................................
Alternator Mounting Bolt and Nut 20-27 SI ..........................................
Alternator Support (Upper) ...................................................................
Balancer Mounting ................................................................... Step 1
(Alternately Tighten............................................................... Step 2
in Three Steps) ..................................................................... Step 3
Balancer Idler Gear..............................................................................
Belt Tensioner Flat Bracket..................................................................
Belt Tensioner Mounting .....................................................................
Cam Thrust Plate.................................................................................
Connecting Rod ....................................................................... Step 1
(Alternately Tighten............................................................... Step 2
in three Steps) ...................................................................... Step 3
Crankshaft Damper & Pulley ................................................................
Cylinder Head Mounting........................................................... Step 1
................................................................................................ Step2
................................................................................................ Step 3
Exhaust Manifold .................................................................................
Fan Bracket Mounting ..........................................................................
Fan Pulley ...........................................................................................
Flywheel .............................................................................................
Flywheel Housing ................................................................................
Flywheel Housing Cover .....................................................................
Flywheel Housing Plug.........................................................................
Front Cover Cap ..................................................................................
Front Engine Support Mounting ...........................................................
Front Engine Support (Barrel) .............................................................
Fuel Banjo Screw (In Fuel Pump) ........................................................
Fuel Banjo Screw (In Head) .................................................................
Fuel Banjo Screw (in Injector) .............................................................
Fuel Vent Screw on Banjo) ..................................................................
Fuel Filter ...........................................................................................
5-366
Torque ±
N•m
(Ft-lb)
12 ± 2
( 9)
8 ±1
( 6)
80 ± 8
( 59)
43 ± 4
( 32)
77 ± 7
( 57)
24 ± 3
( 18)
50
( 36)
80
( 58)
175
(129)
43 ± 4
( 32)
24 ± 3
( 18)
43 ± 4
( 32)
24 2 3
( 18)
35
( 26)
70
(51)
100
( 73)
125 ± 6
( 92)
40
( 29)
85
( 62)
126
( 93)
43 ± 4
( 32)
24
3 ( 18)
24
3 (18)
137
7 (101)
60 ± 6
( 45)
24 ± 3
( 18)
36 ± 3
( 25)
  Hand Tighten 
77 ± 7
( 57)
350 ± 20
(257)
32 ± 3
( 27)
24 ± 3
( 18)
8 ±1
( 6)
8 ±1
( 6)
3/4 Turn After Contact
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Component Torque Value
Socket Or
Wrench Size
MM (Inch)
14
24
17
22
(9/16)
13
10
10
10
24
10
(5/8)
10
18
23
15
75-85
10
17
17
10
19
13
13
10
15
13
15
(3/4)
(15/16)
8
13
(9/16)
10
10
Fuel Low Pressure Supply ...................................................................
Fuel Filter Adapter Nut ........................................................................
Fuel Line Fitting (High Press)...............................................................
Fuel Pump Drive Gear (With Pump Unlocked) ....................................
Fuel Pump Lock (CAV) .......................................................................
Fuel Pump Unlock (CAV) .....................................................................
Fuel Pump Mounting Nut .....................................................................
Fuel Pump Support Bracket .................................................................
Gear Cover ..........................................................................................
Gear Housing-to-Block ........................................................................
Injector Retaining Nut .........................................................................
Intake Manifold Cover..........................................................................
Intake Heater Plug ..............................................................................
Lift Pump Mounting/Cover Plate .........................................................
Lifting Bracket (Rear) ...........................................................................
Main Bearing Cap ................................................................... Step 1
................................................................................................ Step2
................................................................................................ Step 3
Oil Fill Tube Mounting .........................................................................
Oil Filter ..............................................................................................
Oil Cooler Assembly ............................................................................
Oil Pan Drain Plug ..............................................................................
Oil Pan Heater Plug ............................................................................
Oil Pan Mounting ................................................................................
Oil Pressure Regulator Plug.................................................................
Oil Pump Mounting .............................................................................
Oil Suction Tube (Flange) ....................................................................
Oil Suction Tube Brace .......................................................................
PTO Adapter........................................................................................
PTO Adapter Cover Plate (A Drive) ....................................................
PTO Adapter Cover Plate (B Drive) ....................................................
PTO Gear Nut A Drive ........................................................................
PTO Gear Nut B Drive .........................................................................
Rear Seal Mounting .............................................................................
Rocker Support ....................................................................................
Rocker Lever Nut.................................................................................
Starter Mounting .................................................................................
Tach Drive Retainer ............................................................................
5-367
Torque ±
N•m
(Ft-lb)
32 ± 3
( 27)
32 ± 3
( 24)
24 ± 3
( 18)
65 ± 6
( 48)
7 ±1
( 5)
20 ± 3
( 15)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
60 ± 5
( 44)
24 ± 3
( 18)
125 ± 10
( 90)
24 ± 3
( 18)
77 ± 7
( 57)
60
( 44)
119
( 88)
176
(129)
43 ± 4
( 32)
3/4 Turn After Contact
24 ± 3
( 18)
80 ± 3
( 60)
80 ± 3
( 60)
24 ± 3
( 18)
80 ± 12
( 60)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
77 ± 7
( 57)
43 ± 4
( 32)
77 ± 7
( 57)
100 ± 10
( 74)
134 ± 13
(100)
9 ±1
( 7)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
43 ± 4
( 32)
3 ±1
( 2)
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
Engine Component Torque Value
Socket Or
Wrench Size
MM (Inch)
10
(7/16)
10
T-25 Torx
13
(3/8)
13
15
--
Tappet Cover/Fuel Drain Line Supports ..............................................
Tee Bolt Type Clamp ..........................................................................
Thermostat Housing ............................................................................
Timing Pin Flange Mounting ................................................................
Water Hose Clamps.............................................................................
Water Inlet Connection ........................................................................
Water Inlet Plugs .................................................................................
Water Pump Mounting .........................................................................
Valve Cover.........................................................................................
Valve Cover Oil Fill .............................................................................
5-368
Torque ±
N•m
(Ft-lb)
24 ± 3
( 18)
8 ±1
( 6)
24 ± 3
( 18)
5 ±1
( 4)
4 ±5
( 4)
43 ± 4
( 32)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
24 ± 3
( 18)
Hand Tighten
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
B Series Sealants
Use the sealants listed below or sealants containing equivalent properties.
Part
Sealinq Method
Pipe Plugs
Gaskets
Oil Pan
Precoated blue teflon.
Gear Cover
Tappet Cover
All Other Gaskets
Cup Plugs
O-Rings
Rear Camshaft Expansion Plug
Intake Cover Capscrews
Fuel Pump Studs
Dipstick Tube in Block
Wet Flywheel Housing to Block
Front Seal in Gear Cover
Rear Seal in Rear Cover
Timing Pin Housing C/S
Apply Three Bond 1 207-C to the four "T" joints
and smear into the joints with finger until full.
No sealant required.
Self-adhesive tappet cover side. K&W Copper
Coat #1504 - block side.
K&W Copper Coat #1504- both sides.
Loctite 277 or 11,264.
No sealant required.
Loctite 277.
Precoated or Loctite 59,241 liquid teflon.
Loctite 601.
Loctite 277 or 11,264 or precoated.
Permatex 2-C.
Loctite 277 or 11,264.
No sealant required.
Loctite 59,241 liquid teflon or precoated.
B Series Lubricants
Use the lubricants listed below or lubricants containing equivalent properties.
Part
Lubricant Reauired
Rod Bearings
Main Bearings
Cam Lobes and Journals
Tappets
Pistons
Piston Rings
Piston Pin
Rocker Assemblies
Push Tubes
Capscrews (under head and on threads)
Main Capscrews
Balancer Mounting Capscrews
Cylinder Head Capscrews
Connecting Rod Capscrews
Flywheel Mounting Capscrews
Damper Mounting Capscrews
All Other Capscrews
Valve Stems
Front and Rear Seals to Crankshaft
Rear Seal in Seal Housing
Lube Oil Pressure Regulator
Lubriplate 105
Lubriplate 105
Lubriplate 105
Lubriplate 1 05
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil + Lubriplate 105 in Cup
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
15W40 Engine Oil
Preservative oil or 1 5W40 Engine Oil
90W or 140W Oil
Dry - use no Lubricants
Soapy water to install seal in housing
15W40 Engine Oil
5-369/(5-370 blank)
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Subject
Page
A
Air Flow Restriction Results in Excess Smoke and Low Power Troubleshooting .................................................
Air in the Fuel System Troubleshooting ..............................................................................................................
Air Restriction Indicator Replacement ................................................................................................................
Air System Flow, Description of ..........................................................................................................................
Air System Replacement Procedures .................................................................................................................
Alternator Not Charging Or Insufficient Charging Troubleshooting ......................................................................
Alternator Replacement Procedures ...................................................................................................................
Alternator Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................
5-111
5-70
5-115
5-111
5-112
5-48
5-155
5-150
B
Back Leakage Valve Replacement/lnspection(injection Pump) ...........................................................................
Base Engine Components, Operation and Description .......................................................................................
Base Engine Components Replacement Procedures ..........................................................................................
Base Engine Components Specifications ...........................................................................................................
Belt Tensioner Replacement ..............................................................................................................................
Bleeding the Fuel System ..................................................................................................................................
Blowby Limits .....................................................................................................................................................
5-265
5-161
5-190
5-185
5-59
5-83
5-313
C
Camshaft Specifications .....................................................................................................................................
Camshaft and Gear Inspection ...........................................................................................................................
Camshaft and Tappet Replacement Procedures ................................................................................................
Camshaft Bushing Installation ............................................................................................................................
Camshaft Cleaning .............................................................................................................................................
Camshaft Expansion Plug Installation ................................................................................................................
Camshaft Gear Replacement .............................................................................................................................
Camshaft, Tappets, and Push Rods, Operation and Description .........................................................................
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric .................................................................................................
Compression Knocks Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Specifications ...........................................................................................................................
Contaminated Coolant ........................................................................................................................................
Contaminated Lube Oil Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................
Control Lever Replacement (Injection Pump) .....................................................................................................
Coolant Draining ................................................................................................................................................
Coolant Loss Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................................
Coolant System Components and Flow, Description of ......................................................................................
Coolant System Replacement Procedures .........................................................................................................
Coolant System Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................................
Coolant Temperature Above Normal Troubleshooting ........................................................................................
Index-1
5-186
5-297
5-199
5-291
5-297
5-290
5-302
5-163
5-364
5-42
5-188
5-39
5-40
5-270
5-60
5-32
5-50
5-59
5-51
5-28
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
C - continued
Coolant Temperature Below Normal Troubleshooting .........................................................................................
Crankshaft and Main Bearings, Operation and Description of .............................................................................
Crankshaft and Main Bearings Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................
Crankshaft Cleaning ...........................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Gear Replacement ...........................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Inspection .........................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Specifications ...................................................................................................................................
Cup Plug Replacement ......................................................................................................................................
Cup Plugs Replacement (Coolant System) .........................................................................................................
Cup Plugs Replacement (Lubricating System) ....................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Assembly ....................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Cleaning .....................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Disassembly ...............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Inspection ...................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block, Operation and Description of .....................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Specifications .............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Storing ........................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Specifications ..............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bores De-Glaze (In-Chassis Overhaul) .................................................................................................
Cylinder Head and Gasket Installation (In-Chassis Overhaul) .............................................................................
Cylinder Head and Valve Train, Operation and Description of ............................................................................
Cylinder Head Assembly ....................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Clean and Inspect .......................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Deck Flatness Specifications .......................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Disassembly ................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Removal (In-Chassis Overhaul) ..................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Valve Inspection Specifications ...................................................................................................
5-31
5-167
5-179
5-293
5-295
5-294
5-188
5-257
5-65
5-141
5-288
5-281
5-279
5-287
5-167
5-188
5-293
5-180
5-189
5-223
5-242
5-162
5-255
5-247
5-359
5-246
5-220
5-358
D
Damage from Non-Filtered Air Troubleshooting .................................................................................................
Dataplate, Engine ...............................................................................................................................................
Dataplate (Nameplate), Fuel Pump ....................................................................................................................
Definition of Terms .............................................................................................................................................
Delivery Valves (Back Leakage Valves on Lucas CAV Pumps) Troubleshooting ................................................
Diagnosing Air System Malfunctions ..................................................................................................................
Diagnosing Base Engine Component Malfunctions .............................................................................................
Diagnosing Electrical Malfunctions .....................................................................................................................
Diagnosing Lubricating System Malfunctions ......................................................................................................
Dipstick Tube Replacement ................................................................................................................................
Drive Belt Replacement .....................................................................................................................................
Index-2
5-112
5-2
5-3
4-2
5-76
5-111
5-169
5-147
5-121
5-292
5-59
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
E
Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve Replacement .........................................................................................................
Electric Fuel Shut Off Valve (Electrical System) Replacement ...........................................................................
Electrical System, Description/Operation of ........................................................................................................
Engine Assembly Specifications .........................................................................................................................
Engine Component Torque Values .....................................................................................................................
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start (No Smoke From Exhaust) Troubleshooting ...................................................
Engine Dataplate ................................................................................................................................................
Engine Diagrams ................................................................................................................................................
Engine Disassembly ...........................................................................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test, Engine Installation ..................................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test, for Engine Run-In ...................................................................................................
Engine Dynamometer Test, Performance Check of ............................................................................................
Engine Electrical System Replacement Procedures ...........................................................................................
Engine Hard To Start Or Will Not Start (Smoke From Exhaust) Troubleshooting ................................................
Engine Installation ..............................................................................................................................................
Engine Painting ..................................................................................................................................................
Engine Replacement ..........................................................................................................................................
Engine RPM Will Not Reach Rated Speed Troubleshooting ...............................................................................
Engine Run-In and Test in the Chassis ...............................................................................................................
Engine Run-In Procedure "In Chassis" (Off-Highway Vehicles) ...........................................................................
Engine Runs Rough Or Misfiring Troubleshooting ..............................................................................................
Engine Side Views .............................................................................................................................................
Engine Specifications .........................................................................................................................................
Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running Troubleshooting .................................................................................
Engine Storage, Long Term ...............................................................................................................................
Engine Storage, Short Term ...............................................................................................................................
Engine Test Procedures, Chassis Dynamometer ................................................................................................
Engine Testing ...................................................................................................................................................
Engine Testing, General Information of ..............................................................................................................
Engine Testing Service Tools .............................................................................................................................
Engine Will Not Crank Or Cranks Slowly Troubleshooting ..................................................................................
Engine Will Not Shut Off Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................
Excessive Engine Noises Troubleshooting .........................................................................................................
Excessive Exhaust Smoke Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................
Excessive Fuel Consumption Troubleshooting ...................................................................................................
Excessive Vibration Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold Inspection ...............................................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold Replacement ..........................................................................................................................
Expansion and Pipe Plug Installation ..................................................................................................................
External Engine Components, Location of ..........................................................................................................
External Pump Leaks, Repair of .........................................................................................................................
Index-3
5-97
5-157
5-143
5-350
5-366
5-11
5-2
5-8
5-349
5-321
5-327
5-332
5-155
5-13
5-310
5-337
5-308
5-21
5-314
5-336
5-19
5-318
5-6
5-15
5-341
5-338
5-334
5-312
5-320
5-316
5-10
5-44
5-47
5-27
5-43
5-45
5-114
5-114
5-288
5-4
5-101
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
F
Fan Hub Replacement .......................................................................................................................................
Fan Pulley Replacement ....................................................................................................................................
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel, Operation and Description of ...........................................................................
Flywheel Housing and Flywheel Troubleshooting ...............................................................................................
Flywheel Housing Assembly ...............................................................................................................................
Flywheel Housing Inspection ..............................................................................................................................
Flywheel Ring Gear and Rear Seal Replacement ...............................................................................................
Front Crankshaft Seal, Operation and Description of ..........................................................................................
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train, Operation and Description of .....................................................................
Front Gear Housing and Gear Train Troubleshooting .........................................................................................
Front Support, Cleaning and Inspection of ..........................................................................................................
Fuel Drain Manifold Replacement ......................................................................................................................
Fuel Drain Manifold Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................
Fuel Filter Replacement .....................................................................................................................................
Fuel Injector Replacement .................................................................................................................................
Fuel Inlet Fitting/Sealing Washer Replacement (Injection Pump) .......................................................................
Fuel Lift Pump Replacement ..............................................................................................................................
Fuel Or Oil Leaking From Exhaust Manifold Troubleshooting .............................................................................
Fuel Pump Dataplate .........................................................................................................................................
Fuel Pump Replacement ....................................................................................................................................
Fuel Pump Stud Replacement ............................................................................................................................
Fuel Shutoff Valve Troubleshooting ...................................................................................................................
Fuel System Bleeding ........................................................................................................................................
Fuel System Components and Flow, Description of ............................................................................................
Fuel System Replacement Procedures ...............................................................................................................
Fuel System Specification ..................................................................................................................................
Fuel System Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................................
Fuel Water Separator/Filter Unit Troubleshooting ...............................................................................................
5-60
5-59
5-164
5-180
5-306
5-305
5-215
5-163
5-163
5-175
5-307
5-92
5-82
5-85
5-95
5-269
5-88
5-41
5-3
5-101
5-304
5-153
5-83
5-67
5-83
5-68
5-69
5-71
G
Gauges, Overfueling, and Loading (Coolant System) Troubleshooting ...............................................................
Gear Cover Replacement ...................................................................................................................................
Gear Housing and Timing Pin Assembly Inspection ...........................................................................................
Gear Housing Disassembly ................................................................................................................................
Gear Housing or Gasket Replacement ...............................................................................................................
Gear Train Specifications ...................................................................................................................................
General Safety Instructions ................................................................................................................................
Generic Symbols ................................................................................................................................................
Index-4
5-58
5-138
5-304
5-304
5-210
5-186
4-4
4-1
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
H
High Oil Pressure Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................... 5-121
High Pressure Fuel Lines Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................... 5-79
High Pressure Lines Replacement ...................................................................................................................... 5-89
I, J, K
In-Chassis Overhaul ...........................................................................................................................................
Injection Pump Fuel Shut Off Valve, Description/Operation of ...........................................................................
Injection Pump Re-Rating ..................................................................................................................................
Injection Pump Repairs - Lucas CAV DPA .........................................................................................................
Injection Pump Service Tools .............................................................................................................................
Injection Pump Supply Line Replacement ..........................................................................................................
Injection Pump Timing Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................
Injection Pump Troubleshooting .........................................................................................................................
Injector Replacement .........................................................................................................................................
Injectors, Troubleshooting of ..............................................................................................................................
Intake Air Restriction Replacement ....................................................................................................................
Intake Manifold Cover and Gasket Replacement ................................................................................................
5-219
5-145
5-110
5-264
5-264
5-93
5-77
5-72
5-95
5-80
5-115
5-112
L
Lift Pump Replacement ......................................................................................................................................
Lift Pump Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................
List of Troubleshooting Symptoms .....................................................................................................................
Locking Screw/O-Ring Replacement (Injection Pump) .......................................................................................
Long Term Storage, Engine ...............................................................................................................................
Low Oil Pressure Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................................
Low Power Troubleshooting ...............................................................................................................................
Low Pressure Fuel Line Replacement ................................................................................................................
Lube Oil Loss Troubleshooting ...........................................................................................................................
Lube Oil Pump Replacement .............................................................................................................................
Lubricants ..........................................................................................................................................................
Lubricating Oil Pressure Too Low Troubleshooting .............................................................................................
Lubricating Oil Pressure Too High Troubleshooting ............................................................................................
Lubricating Oil Pump ..........................................................................................................................................
Lubricating System Flow ....................................................................................................................................
Lubricating System Replacement Procedures ....................................................................................................
Lucas CAV DPA Back Leakage Valve and Sealing Washer Replacement ..........................................................
Index-5
5-88
5-69
5-9
5-264
5-341
5-121
5-23
5-87
5-37
5-133
5-369
5-34
5-36
5-117
5-117
5-128
5-99
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
M, N
Main Bearing Preliminary Inspection (In-Chassis Overhaul) ............................................................................... 5-221
Main Bearing Replacement (In-Chassis Overhaul) ............................................................................................. 5-227
O
Oil Cooler Element and/or Gasket Replacement ................................................................................................
Oil Coolers .........................................................................................................................................................
Oil Dilution Troubleshooting ...............................................................................................................................
Oil Filter Bypass Valve .......................................................................................................................................
Oil Filter .............................................................................................................................................................
Oil Leaks Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................................
Oil Pan, Operation and Description of ................................................................................................................
Oil Pan, Suction Tube, and/or Gaskets Replacement .........................................................................................
Oil Pressure Regulating Valve Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Regulator Valve and/or Spring Replacement ..................................................................................
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensors, Description/Operation of ...........................................................
Oil Pressure Switch and Temperature Sensor Troubleshooting ..........................................................................
Oil Pressure Switch Replacement ......................................................................................................................
Oil Pump System Replacement .........................................................................................................................
5-129
5-118
5-123
5-118
5-118
5-127
5-169
5-131
5-121
5-128
5-145
5-153
5-157
5-133
P, Q
Piston Specifications ..........................................................................................................................................
Piston and Rod Assemblies, Operation and Description of .................................................................................
Piston and Rod Assembly Installation (In-Chassis Overhaul) ..............................................................................
Piston and Rod Assembly Troubleshooting .........................................................................................................
Piston and Rod Disassembly (In-Chassis Overhaul) ...........................................................................................
Piston and Rod Removal (In-Chassis Overhaul) .................................................................................................
Piston Pin Specifications ....................................................................................................................................
Piston Ring Gap Check ......................................................................................................................................
Piston Rings Installation .....................................................................................................................................
Piston to Connecting Rod Installation .................................................................................................................
Pressure Regulator Valve Replacement .............................................................................................................
5-356
5-165
5-239
5-177
5-231
5-222
5-357
5-357
5-358
5-235
5-129
R
Radiator, Fans, and Shutters Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................
Rear Crankshaft Seal, Operation and Description of ..........................................................................................
Rocker Lever, Valve Stem, Push Rod, Tappet, and Camshaft Troubleshooting ..................................................
Rocker Levers and Pedestals Specifications ......................................................................................................
Rocker Levers and Push Rods Replacement ......................................................................................................
Rough Idle (Irregularly Firing Or Engine Shaking) Troubleshooting ....................................................................
Index-6
5-55
5-169
5-176
5-361
5-190
5-17
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
S
Safety Instructions, General ...............................................................................................................................
Sealants .............................................................................................................................................................
Service Tools, Engine Testing ............................................................................................................................
Short Term Storage, Engine ...............................................................................................................................
Shutdown Lever/Spring Replacement (Injection Pump) ......................................................................................
Shutdown Solenoid Replacement (Injection Pump) ............................................................................................
Starting Motor Replacement ...............................................................................................................................
Starting Motor Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................................
Surging (Engine Speed Change) Troubleshooting ..............................................................................................
4-4
5-369
5-316
5-338
5-271
5-266
5-155
5-147
5-16
T, U
Tappets Specifications .......................................................................................................................................
Temperature Sensor Replacement .....................................................................................................................
Thermostat Inspection ........................................................................................................................................
Thermostat Replacement ...................................................................................................................................
Thermostat Troubleshooting ...............................................................................................................................
Timing Advance Assembly (Injection Pump) ......................................................................................................
Timing Pin Assembly or Gasket Replacement ....................................................................................................
Timing Pin Installation ........................................................................................................................................
Tools Required to Repair the B Series Engine ....................................................................................................
Torque Specification ..........................................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting, Symptoms of ...........................................................................................................................
Typical Electrical Circuit, Description/Operation of .............................................................................................
5-186
5-158
5-63
5-62
5-56
5-274
5-209
5-211
5-348
5-364
5-9
5-144
V
Valve Grinding Specifications ............................................................................................................................
Valve Guide Specifications ................................................................................................................................
Valve Seat Grinding Specifications ....................................................................................................................
Valve Seats, Grinding of ....................................................................................................................................
Valve Seats Specifications .................................................................................................................................
Valve Springs Inspection ....................................................................................................................................
Valve Springs Specifications ..............................................................................................................................
Valve Train and Head Assembly Troubleshooting ..............................................................................................
Valve Train Specifications ..................................................................................................................................
Valves, Grinding ................................................................................................................................................
Vent Fitting/Sealing Washer Inspection/Replacement(Injection Pump) ...............................................................
Vibration Damper Cleaning and Inspection .........................................................................................................
Vibration Damper Specifications ........................................................................................................................
Index-7
5-360
5-358
5-360
5-251
5-359
5-255
5-359
5-169
5-185
5-250
5-268
5-303
5-356
TM 10-3950-672-24-2
ALPHABETICAL INDEX - continued
Subject
Page
W, X, Y, Z
Water (Coolant) Pump Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................
Water Pump Replacement .................................................................................................................................
Index-8
5-54
5-61
PIN: 075557-000
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