Part 13 - cd3wd413.zip - Offline - China: Recycling of Organic Wastes in Agriculture
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FAQ SOILS BULLETIN
china: in agriculture
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
OF THE UMTED NATIONS ROME
FAO SOILS BUbLETlN
china: recycling of organic wastes riculaure
report on an FAONNDP study tour to the people’s republic of china
28 april-24 may 1977
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
First printing 19 23
Second printing 1975
The copyright in this book is vested in the Food and Agriculture Orga- nization of the United Nations. The book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, by any method or process, without written permission from the copyright holder. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction desired, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
Important Manuria2 Resources
Ektent and Manner of Use of
Some of the Important
Anima1waatea i ii
&man habitation wastee
Green manure8 and aquatic plants
I.57 i ii iii i-v
V vi vii viii
Sheep and goat droppinga
xii xiii xiv xv
Teohniques for Prooeseing Composts and Stable b!anure
Some typical techniques *'or making composts fromvarious types of waste ma.terial i ii iii iv
V vi vii
Gasposting at field sites
High temperature cchmpost
Earth compost (fertile eerth)
Canpozting mixtures of oity garbage and night soil
Methods and rates of application of compost and manures
Selected experimental work on home made manures i ii
Effect of compost on crops
Wfect of oompost on soils
Application of organic fertilizers
Azolla i ii iii iv
V vi vii
Optimum conditione for growth of Azolla
U6e of Azolla as green manure
Nitrogen fixation by Azolla
Fertilization of Azolla
Disease and peete of Azolla
Advantages derived from growing Azolla
Inoculrttion of legumes
Use of GM
Use of Sludge and Efcluent
' y cHAPTNR5:
Research Imti+.ute of Agricultural Soienoee of
Jiangma Provinoe, Nanjing
National &sesroh Institute of Soil Science,
Cheng Bsiang Produotion BrigaaS, Pemg Niu Cammue,
Wu Chin County, Ji~geu Provinoe
Humhi Produotion Brim, giang Yin County,
Yueh CM People's Camune, Wu County, Jiaagau Prcrvinoe
Station of Feng Chiao Camme,
Inwtitute of Wu Chin County,
Xtslu People% Conmum, Shanghai
Shaaghai City Waste Diopoeal
Fu Shari Mmioipality, Guangdong &minoe
Ntulhai county, [email protected] Rovinoe
Hdn Hui County, Guangdong Provinoe
Taohd, &i Yang ccnulty, shad, prapsnoo
Ta Heh pradaation Brigade, Hebed Provinor
EKTEWION OFEXPEKCR?CEGAINEBIN CHINBIN OFUNIC RPICYCUNG
Reoyoling Programmes and Aotivitiea
6.2.1 F'reliminaq investigatione
Socio-economio aepeota of organic recycling
6.2.3 Elemente of development progrmmez i ii iii iv
V vi . .
Night soil disposal end utilizatior
Tanh, pond and river eilt
Reoyoling of organio wamtea in the People% Hopublio of
Arohshaped mhelter for pigo with frontal pit.
Ta Hah Roduotion Brigade, H&ei Rovina.6
Conorete tsaks for night soil oware3 with plamtio.
Background: TrsnspoPt of garbage from Shaaghai. xalu Peoplo'm
Compost bin6 for fermmtation of oity gmbage.
Three-Qmlc fermentation systa for treatment of night tloil on the omtryuide. Malu People% Cammae, Shawzhai
Boat for su~&Ing silt "rem the bottom of the oansi,,
Foreground: Silt tan&
I(rlu People% Ccmbune, SLaugh&
City garbage in state of fomentation, oovered by lilt.
ME& People's C-0, Shanghai
Silt-grura mirture or p%t ummm
Station, Fw Chiao People'm Ccnmuue, Jimu Rwinoo
Silt-grmm manure pitm.
Agrkoultural Euioaroh Station,
Feag Chiao People% Camme, Jiaagm Rtinoo
Hightmperature ompootheap (usingbamboo foraJdngholw for aeration). chun5Pr~otionmgdr,chocouuty,
The water fern Azolla [email protected],
(a) the water fern 10 X). b leaf with the blue greeu algae in the oavities t I i!
0 Anabaena azolla merwintering methodz of Azolla:
(a) in a pit; (b) in a heap.
Changzhox, Jiangeu Provinoe
Seeding ~50s field with
Ruylhi Produotion Brigade,
Fieldz prepared for rice wltivation and inooulated with Beolls.
Hue&i Produotion Brigade; Jiangeu Provinoe
Azolla, 10 deye after inoculation, ready for ploughing under.
The mat in the oenal prqmnte loss of Azolla. dgricultural
Reeearoh Station, Feng &iao People% Commune, Jiangeu Provinoe
Ploughing uuder of Azolla la~rer before rioe kaneplanting, uzing a12EPualHngtraotor.
Huamhi Prodnotion Brigade, Jiangeu Province
Bsollao~erlngth4~t~~uFEsoebet~~ri~ aeedliage and rsdy for burying in the soil.
Inooulatio~ of paddy with blue green algae.
Nanjing, Jiangma Rovinoe
Foreground: nursery for SembamLa. Bao&oundt rioe field inter- planted with
(in mm). Eai Chiao Peopls's Cumuae,
Tramplanting of Subania in rioe field. EM
Comnuw, Gtlaagaoae Rovinoe
Waterpleata (Altamanthera)grmm onTai Lake, Yueh Chi
People*a Cwnme, Jimgma Provinoe
Tooalised oultivatitm of Altarnarrthera an Tai Lake.
To control growth border8 of plots are marked with poles and ropea
Yueh Chi Peoplo'm C-e, JimgauPruviuoe,
Construotiou of a bio-gaa plant, inlet on the right; outlet on the1eftinbmkgmmd. ChengH6iangProduotiu~Erigade,
Building of piggery with inlot for e&ml uamtr to bi- chrng=rrrg
Roduotion Brigade, Jiangeu Provinoe
Helmi Ruviuw digutmumedfor plant.
~OOOunitr built in Ebui LaxCounty,
42 x~folgas unit
1 with mall 3zmete.r
Bio-gae unitNo. 3inde with lime andeerth
13 bioqae unite 14 m3 eaoh. Ta Beh Middle Sohool,
Hutxi Lu County, Hebei Ravince
431~3 bio-gee unit for the Hoepital of Ta Heh C~UUINII(I,
Simple maaometerindioatingbio-gae preeeuree
7-10 m3 biolgse units (houeehold eiee) y Id bio+sl unit (pi&gery eise)
Iexger sise bioqgm5 plant, &mu ueed to Pm1 dieoel engine.
Foregraund: outlet; oentrai outlet for gee by pladio pipe; badqround: inlet. chun sun Roallotion Brigade, Eebai Rovinm
Outlet uf large siae biolgslr plsnt. Effluent pumped into irrigation drain.
LIST OF TABLES
ColPpoeition of pig manure
Canpoeition of silt
Effects of ocmpoet on yield inormcm of important orops
Beeidual effeot of compost on rioa
Effect of oompoet on soil porosity
Effeot of oompoet on bulk deneity and etickinese ofeoil
Fkffeot of cmpont on water aboorption ability of aoil
Effeot of oompost on emporation from aoil
EFfeot of oompoet on mqme wtivity
Ebtimateduoe of org43niofertilieersinChina nelds from various methodm of application of
A8ollapinnatq in China
'Iielde ofgreenmutter,nitrogau mdproteinof vsciow greenmanure orops and aquatio plants
Fertilizer trialonrioe m
Thie i8 a repcrt on the flret of a series of Study Toure being orgaaiesd under
TheSt~TourtookpLce from 28 April to allay 1977 auditta purpose wae to aquaint uenior etaff from developing oountriee with praatioes in the reoycling of organic waatea in egricsulture and to emhange experience.
Study clroup oomieted of 20 partioipante
- 17 from aountriee in
Annex 8 List of PaMoipante).
Tn all, 17 nrtionaiitiee were represented (see
Af'ter bdng introduoedin Pang, the group travelled emkmeively in the Ruvinces of Jisagru, -,
SM,Hebei mdinthe area of
Shanghai (eee Annex 6 Rogranme).
Ekoellmt relatiam uero wtabliehed with the Chime hoots conoemed with plenning and oarrying out the
The major part of the report ia devoted to the main aubjeot of the Study Tour - reaJrallsgoforgni6uut~in~arzlt~ aadappUo&iUtyoftheruthode of orgenio rmliag l tudiedin
-audit wphasi5eis the practiual aepsots
China. The ohaptere on the various aepeotr are followed by notr on vieits to egrioultural in&it=?em, produotion brigadu, eta. nbieh should help in undarmtandingthe whole operatian of orgmio reoyoling pr8otiow.
Them are followed by a cdmpter ooatainilyr l ggeetione for follow-up aotivitiee enthe wparchmu ~nadinCiihain order to enmarsthattheknowledgeaoquiredwillbe appliedinthe videmt poemiblo way in the pmtiolpaute~ own oouatrioe.
Forrui~rmdi~,heotaro (hr)mndkLlogmme (kg)arten (t)hvrbeenueedae meamtriag unit8 etd US Dollmu (S) u a monetary unit but a table rhowing how three oompa.m with the Chinae zni*m im given on puge xiv. l!Wkanber ofthogrouphu acnrtri~tedtothe report butapetialoreditgoesto
P. L.S. %dava aad Dr.
Alaa El-Mn for the&r efforts in ite iinalisation.
Apprecirtionis alao exprwsed to
FAG oolleaguee for their oontributiona end helpful onthi8repart.
The members of the
Westee in Agrioulture, whioh took place f2om 28 April to 24 I& 1977, wish to express their appreoiationto the Governmen
People% Eepublio of China, to the Foodead
Agz-ioulture Organiaation of the United Nations end to the Uuited
Progranms for the oppcu%dty to participate in this Tour.
In Chinathegroup visited PeUng, theprcrrrinoee of Jian&eu, Guengdong, Eebei,
Shamd andthemmicipalit.yofShaughsi. Themembem ofthegroupmredeepply impreseed by the egrioultural, eoonmic end oultural aohievments of the People%
Republicof China. They gainedvaluable experiexms, eepeoially in the field of recyuliag of orgeaiowaetee iaagriaul~s whiohwill bemomt usef'ulin the development of agriculture in their om oountriea.
The membem of the group are very grateful to their Chinese hosta for the mllentorganizational -me&a made duri.ngtheStudyTour, the out&eading friendliness mat emerywhere in China d for the w hospitality extended to thus throughout the Tour.
The -bare of the gropp wish to expreno epeoial tha&s to their hoete at the wnirrtry of Agriculture and ForatIQr, i.e., Nr. Li [email protected]&, Dire&or, Bureau of
ForeignAffairs, I&, Chaag Shih-ohan,Head of the InternationalDivlsionandthe staff of the International Division, who made travel arraagmentm within the oouatry and aded a0 interpretare - #.~~Kuo-ahrmg,Hr.Tune andWi~IhngChien+ng. to the staff at the Chineee plrbsray in Rome for their kLnd aaairtaaoe in the preparation of the Twr.
Thegkoupaleouiehem koexpremr ifr sinoereappreoiation
CHINA with main administrative subdivisions at?d their capitals f.N-9
/ --El iFGHANISTAN .
,. . . :
. . . . . .
-L.R.S / I i i ‘7
; SANGLA-i’ f
/rr” . . . . . I” :,:::,
- -- TRAVEL BY AIR
LAOS ) ,.d-F
ITINERARY OF THE FAO STUDY i --
TOUR TO CHINA ON RECYCLING OF ORGANIC WASTE:
; IN AGRICULTUREG’PE-E62PB
28 APRIL - 24 MAY 1977
1lEU lhs lli lh
1.00 Jrusn la0 us%
1.85 ha mu ks jin I
1 gumgjia us
The Chinmo are phasing opt the jin and the li unit6 and are rJd= Eli and gaaejin (metrio unifo) etandard.
The People% Rqmblio of China has a total area of 9.6 million km2. The dimtauoa from eatsttou~tmeamre~ over 5 000 Icmandfromnorthto eouthwer 5 5OOkm. china% present population ia about 850 aillion.
The Han nationality is the moelt nrclll19, makLngup Wperoent ofthetotal population. The rest con&& of more than
50 nationalities, inoluding Mcmgolian, Hui, 'Pibetan, Uighur,
'pi, chueng, [email protected],
Korean, HaIlohu and genehan, dm.
Out of the totalpqpulation,
680 million or 80 pera+ live in rural areaa. The mein offioial laaguwe ie et8ndeu.d Qhineea baaed on the Peldng dialeot.
Other prlnoipal dialects are Cantonese, Shanghai, Fukioner~s and Eakka.
China now oo~st3ietrr of three munioipalitiee direotly under the
Shanghai and Tientein),
22pravinoeo wdfive autonaaus regiorm.
Thetop~aphioaloutlineio athree+Mp weet-eaatetairoane. It bqtinrr withthe
[email protected]!ibet Plateau 4000 rmtre;r above eeaa CroeaingtheKunlunaudChilienrauger on the plateau's [email protected] andthe Ibngtuanllarmtaine onits e&F ed&(e, the laadslqu awaytohighlanda aadbarsinemontlyfroe fbrthar sastuardtohillyregione
2 OOOtol OOOwtrea above rrea; thenitdeaoa& andplainabelow 1 OOOmetre9.
The oountry,a olimateie vfmtww ofth8 oount~hebig ocmtrolledbymoncwonuind8, The oaplcutMn, the differenoein latitude (53Wto 40mr)&vethe oountry sgrutwnytypu ofolimate, one of the faotora fawouring~oultur8ld0V0lopW3lt.
Chine aanthue grow avequide range of fo& oropm (rioe, wheat, Ilulw, sorghum, dllet, oil ased orope, groun&ut, rape, tW3ame, eta.); indpstrialorops (fNgaroea0, Oiiral, ootton, coffee, ooooa, tea, tobaooo)andf'ruit8 [email protected]
Thevariedpatteml territoryandite ofolirste, wpograp~, rookm andV~t&ionover langhi~toryof redandyellou,wadow,brown,black, agTioulturaldevel~nt,ha#givauit ohestnut,deoert and1lwld411ert moilm. china'~vawt ruprkfuda ofraib -
13Odllionhaof landunderarableand~toro~ which io 13.4 pefremt of the total area of the count-. Sinoal%lthe ha0beaninczwuwd~about1Omillionha. haor 66pewoautar0undarirrigatian.
Fromtbstotal a&oulturalaroa, agrioultur8larw'
(Souroe: FAO Pwduotiou Yearbook, Vol. 30, 1976).
Chinaumem r~ledozganiouutuinagrioullmre ontho largutmoale. cwno8e, there i* XlotMng lika wute; uamtoim on~ad8plaoadmcmr00wMaharnk*o~*
Thim wry ofloaldagqmnuamtoim
Totho oae a the avaluablematorial guidingprinaiplw mnd for amtherprduot. ofChina%traditioml oanoeptef thamultiqmpeooruc, ofnrmuwor tho rwovmy and m-we of rut0 8atoriJm.
The in8imtanoo ea tho rmoovory mad ro+au ofu~towt013aie f~~~~lt~~~lpprpo~m pr far~thatnditiarrl mtm.
Liberation (1 Ootobar [email protected]', uhon tlu Pooplo' Republio of China uam proold& by Chairmn
Ilro) the oamtr~hu bean aiming at tramforda( uutoiato mmalthandthopreteotim the moulal ad pwoal am&w tandthumefhmmhmlth. Itimalmoviawoduaa rmentidformoaial ~Ol~~alogiaCStbrtnditianrl~~~i~of
8peoialisstion of work. labouraaathe ef m m8nudrl rammroa im oar&tally oollootd, eaar;uwed and umod en the lmd, l o evedual* ~lpSal5to~~trin~051pr~otiatyira aetiagolr a
%uffmr,againmtdmrtyu ofthetotalxutriont mmmeswiliomrtisuebmmawet of mymtr ofintradvo eultivationand dnaral fa-tilisar. intmkoim derivadi!kom nrtumluumr~
Atpruant,aheut twodhird# andhuvyralimoeonthamo
-0mmtruotienoffartilinr twhniuai bbiiity. dmpoading upon [email protected] ru- fuhriemutwgreat
The dmoloprrt of a fartdlisor duMdmen~(~pwntd indwtry lue tt %a &tia& rathrr tkal importm.
o&ttleduJBg,tirinoaadpi(aoret&; oonmorvationmdumo u-o:
-hwnhaMtatiauutwr night l
- green manurea and aquatio plants;
Pygum I prmidam a abtel?ialainagriga1turcl, l iaplifled diagramatio prwantation of reoyoli4 of these noste aapraotisedin china.
1.3.1 Animal UMta ofUme of mom oftho Imwrtant Hmnurial Eeaouroee
Hg acuwta are the main sourue of howwade waurom~
The oowune~ prewte oollooti~ pig rai~i4 oun, !Phe~erofpi~ and million to 2% million head in 19'76). A target of one pig per pereon or onepi(5permU
0euati08 aud o- chi A-
(15pim p~rhrrotW~)[email protected]~Ss+. hwe almo
-0-8 individual memb8Fs to nine their hi morothanqaodrupledoinoe liberation
To&y,mauypref.ctures, reauhod their targeta; for inmtanoe, the mh
(uu cut&y), whioh tho graup erited, now mmm 1.6 pig/mu ur
Pigaeret~mriohin oiapp~q$ittothe orgaaiauttor,nitr4slrandphoqhoru&
~aLlrrOlo4 lasting. Tho Chinuo people e
!l%a off&a a pi6 a8 a noestlum fertili5er frotorJr muving on hoovusa. Tbim im jumtifled ma tho followi grotQl&. Chiaus ylronahtm aemuw that tho appiiuation ef one toa
Qi zbtr4anaw fortiLi%or (mm by thru ton& bcmdi4 thew8errat9to prednodIg2Oto of~lm8ulp~ts. dldgrus to wtiuter,thmmsnareproduoedbyapigthro4h inorum
0 &an uutput by loo to 150 kg. Thw, tho Mnuro
Am mrrao~~apdi4 for fodder, the raleprioe elrPyhtavd~gwodld~131yaaretburooverthe
~t~l~mitrumnnl~sldOilMnmd3000~oisumM fur tho waar. l ulphate) uauld raioo tha grain field (riot) mlt UJ one ton l.uyrelyuponHtohennstorrd ofmeat,bone~,britilu,eto. froma oosts of Irbouraadfod am a ftor gift
SiaoeaproduuUoataauapriur far~a~ttoarm~brrdoi~~rllthossrrrormd. to riur, this 'oostlum' [email protected]
UBO uf wing auimdw muiphato. ibuut 30-40 houEehol&, it ir not UnuBUal
3 tofadditional~nuhioh oonldbo soldtothe rtatswithu& onyd&n&ion of fortiliraar ooataainthe
Tha chiaao uar mlnnnt hu 8 pragmatio approaohto itll polisy toward8 pig r&si4. aadatuost6u fod&vorop& individual~~to~pigrbothu sat0 wd uf -
!ba ocrmrru mnl it aifflcmlt to mar pig0 in mffioieat lowuin tho haushol&,n~~thrgriiordtogrow~a9gh
Itim fortha~e~onmthattb rlrort~to~n~mlmpplrmfrcyinom~arpi~r~~4. mmbero
Gown t hw allowed amouroe ofmgply of piptofhr tc tiu pmduot.iun brig8du/t8m anp5g~af~pll~1t~t~~ta~U~. whioh are ituwy
Thaindiwidtulmubem hrorm~rganerellykaap~ hir piginon~~~d~~ltsrwithafibatil~rg pit
(ati 2 m&ap,proviilad dthrtmo l tap8)iilledwithoropwa8te~,ctraw ud UMM. Tha pi6 d0feUt.m in tb pit.
The utarial ia the pit ir r&ad over frcatirtotSmeaadmrortraumd~maddod. for lame on oolleotiva l8nd.
!l%enmre is finally oold
4-- cr fi
(BLUE GREEN ALGAE) / ,
-4 URBAN L.
I i I
RECYCLING OF ORGANIC WASTES IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
I i I
1 I /
I 1 ]
I I ’
I I 1
AroIMhspod ahelter for piga with f'rontal pit. Ta Heh l
Produation BFigade, Hebei Provinoe.
8OlZkWd gsy- pig urine
2.12 carpoatien $
0.48 0.24 0.11 0.63
RegwmtedbqTuehChi Pooplrr' C-o,[email protected]~o~
The raisiug of pigs oolleotively in, howewr, oarried out in mtiea. Water fral washing down the rrties io crtored in tankm Rnd applied direatly to Qrepm u top drusinga of liquid mnaure, when seeded. The wanbiryr f'mm pig l tier eituatedonthebanks alcm& the WPiter0oor60. ofawaterooume amtakeudireotlyhyboatmtofiielda
The 8olid annum io made by mixing the pig surrsta with an equal quantity of driediine mudaudotoredin mnure sheds.
ItiBumdlma8dwhennquirad a0 abual dreseingatthe rate cf80=1OOt/ha. Themudhrlp8inmini8idng nitrogmloaeee a8 well aeinreduoingtamll~. [email protected]
Thapigexoretaarealoo used for preparation of oumpcmt togathor with gramem, silt ud arop umtu,
Cattle plaJr an important role in the Chtws eoomqy u thbjr provi& au abundmt cmuroeof muure audvaluabl~itamiatha ofm&ivspouew fora&rieulture. diet, am well am beingamin mmoe
The livelrtoakpepulatiml f'mn 59.8 ndlliou in lsgto 96 miliion head in 1976.
(eatt1.g watar buffaloes, donbsys, mules aud -10) in Chine ia report&to ham imraamad
Aooworbuffklopmiueoa~~6to9t ofmmmeparpar. Thedmgir aolleoted fkw the atalla and patlnnye aud im oapmted with mop wutu, ueeaE,graasmld8ilt. p1ante.
To a limited abut the dnog is aluo wad in Mw
The mder dlliaain1~9to of l lmep mad goat8 i8 repartad
135millionheadin1976. dropping0 ooumtituteaminor mntrosofplantnutrieutm. to mo inmod fru
PouUry, duokaad rabbit
1.3.2 Etmaa habitati= uamtm md lCight8oil bm beam oollootad awltamed for the fartilisation ia a
*oh source of pleat nutrSent8. FkmtMpuint utilisatiouofu8turalramourmm, th8practioei~ rtriotaontrolmhnwetobeoamiedout. ofarepnutrieutr,itm rgpliartioutotheflelda
Sinoonight ofview oammda ble, of drop for oenturiw of ommwvaticm8ud althcm&for healthroamona, soilis ooxmideredavaluabloeourcm oauldnot bebumedanthagrousdm of
WsgaptibUohealthbmmrdlemt ill hmlthbarrplaoodbyfamlu. Aftorliboratian, praotioal modifloationm -0 m8de to rpdati~ praotiow.
Th#pxhoiplaof&iYiln&pawity to prwa&ianha8benadoptaddthorehmwabermhodtheampd#ruriud l ttheartrrmlma- tioll of peat8 ud diao8a.a. pmpar~d~iCpudalamdmtongs
Tha -3 ohrpkn mmbarm war. ashorted te l tero eight mi1 in farafmrnmkporbd mdliatuom ma prior to it0 appliartiaa.
Conomte tanka for night soil ommred with plaatio. Beakground: Traneport of garbage from Shanghai.
Malu People% Commune, shanghai.
Compwat bins for fermentation of city garbage.
Fu Shfml Gumgdong Province.
, Watn malrd rrcop+aclr night loll
Outlet of the liquid fqrtilizrr
S;dlment with &a
THREE -TANK FERMENTATION SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF NIGHT SOIL
ON THE COUNTRYSIDE.
MAUI Communr W-IANGHAII _
it is subjeoted to anaerobic digeetion whioh effectively k&l15 prrreitio doro-ocgani8m5.
Night 5oili8 al50 ueed a5 a oouroe of food far fish. -Fubliolatrine5 mebuilt over the fiehpande.
In cities, x~~$k-~~~l is effmiently oolleoted 5ad d&kohed to the rural are55 in olosedtsrts orbyboat and ia rdxednithoityor orOpuaBtee farhightaporature cmpomtiag,
3~ it is stored in covered pits for about l-2 month5 before bdng dietribrrted to prodwti~n brig5de5/te5am* sewmgeia sPppl.iedfkeetoo- pl5&5is
8 whioh&nmOol~pipQe ptpped to field6 whereitis laadae mmhfmabaaaldre8taing. w%*nirrprUVieedteSb for upea8 forirrigation. trldngthe 8-e. The come5 recedve a eabeidy amounting to ZI$ofthe eap5taloomt.
Th5 ant , when dried, im umed on
City gabwe is effeotiveYqlg' into the oomtryeideinthetho~rurdr redeihed,~t of is tra9op&d dally ant of the
&[email protected] boatethatply China% vaatnetwork of oanals. It ie unloaded at the wa%r15 edgo on 0 QIQltmd field5anddx5dnithnight5oilfer
Mghtemperature oaupo8taaking. Mspo5al of0itygarb5geintbi5m5mmrnoto5lyimprove5 wrb5nenvi rtmmntalbygiene but also provide8 kge smomts ofhighquality ormo fertiliaer for agrimlturs. The oitygaHnageiep5rtlyu5edfor feeding~ig5~ mat c-.
Citytifmba5e mndrdght 5oildi5po5al5y5tmm
Eowve~,inoertainmmioipalare88, oithetype dea0ribed5re~f5rthe the oitygarb5g5andnight5oilrre proou8ed into mmare by the mmidpalitiee thewelve8 md 8old to prodnotion tur. group came acxosb ~c~a5jlrt~~rrg~sd~t~.FuShan1Iunidpallty. unloadedinto~binefurfmmentatim
-w-mir periodof 25d45. The deoapmed mterialis on-t. YAk5wi5e,5ightaoilir wibjeoted to aaaeroj3io dige5tion.
Thm Mo-+p5is mmdtogemrate ele0trioityandthe ie rold to o- vbems. fera
The di8po8al 5y5tm follomd by the mmiaipal bodies help to return to the 8urmmdi5g
5gl%oultmal5rm5 aLty./tcm from tka k of the oon8tituents of nmnurialvalue which originally 05~8 into the try5id5inthe e8tabliohing a O~O 'o olmmge. formof food5adother5gri0ulturalpmduot5,thum
Under tM5 arrqgemmnt,
5hould not show op
~able&t~arr~onavsPapcrriodofJlsur. the produotive oap50ity of th5 land5
1.3.3 fertili55rtrhsni nfrath5mouatai55,mmd5,le5ve5 eld5 aft5r prooe55ing.
1.3.4 &'O- -8 am
Ud WprtiO Dlmt5 atadturf (non~r55idu55)5re
[2rermmzmrewhioh i8 r-55 widmly laud; thm mat or a k&aralfoedtf5rthr rioe orepi green manDre5 we
(1) dlk vetoh
*ini~~)t (2) hairy vetoh (Vioi& villolra~, (3) - vetoh
@rotalaria junoea) and alfalfa
The au under pen manure orops ir reported to &ve been inoraaasd frm 1.3 million heotuu aftor l.ibor&tion to 6.6 million heotarea in 1977. b.
In areae eerved with networloa of waterweye, water weeds are oultivated to provide fodder for livestook and manure for the fielda. The weada provide a major portion of fodder raquiranents and to that ertent prseeure on land for fodder rrisi~lg is relieved. EYeh oulture is aleo ntimulated under water weeds.
The Chineas say Yf you live near water, make the beet use of wateP. The o-a living near watsmraye have dgmonatratedin full masure how10 io done. mabem
An aooount of the green manuring prootiose and oultivation of water planta for menursis givenin Chapter 3.
Asollr) one oitheimportantinput(~ ~ep~aibl~bgr~o~t~~o~inmodera
Chir ham developd the use of Mo-fertili5ere T:lw-g*a?an algae ami whiohflr&[email protected]
Asollloultiv&ion,partioularly, nitr~forrioe oropaamumll M forgre6nmunariag. ofPthmdnar8lfa-tilisam. applioatLl4mmdaornadin~t~2* hubsendmralupadonr
Thairdmvalopmmtmdtho largeooak forfixing
Bio-fartilisem are ~ohaapersouroe rrtantmadmode oftheirfield
In arma mohutb wrfv,dltio
~~olurdPurlBirvrdslt~,wbioh~dauolyo~pplledwith aairport8nt8ouroo of fa-tiliser. dorebial dabrh ~watt~bottaoip~r~e~~fofflirharilfttrowbdah
Al~eamountofplmt,animeland oonewuontly and applied to rylutrblw aqligsn rb# the pomd md rioh in brrms and mgmmrellylomtedbrhaarappadaroam. pond md to fea+iIiu in fb water
0.6 h uhioh m mprud on the l m im l o umatial for fllrh. mnuriol oolutitwntm
Itimreportedthst of lmad. Tha pondmdim oollootadfmtio
@,P,K). The pond8
5Ob of fL~hproduo+emnagh f!kYfe tirm ayou fleldm, mllbmybedmurd- plaatationm.
Ruuwal of pond Rd 8ad am~wiatmd uqpnio mutter rlso halpa to inormes the
The dlt frathe botta of lakem mad watw i# rmovad by silt plmpm (milt mu&em) immtalld on bortm urdim depooitod ia pitr QII tha aide8 of tha banks for 910 in oap~ti~nith~adm,grumm,~~a uithni&tmCorpigmnma. withni&t roil'orpi~aomtrformkiq~mmaro mullara~ and orop wastu, or when dried it ir dxed
I&a&m ofmnl orrilt rrmmoohaniorllypoudaradformidllg m a large malo. Silt and mud are al80 wad to ooiar wlmrehempe 6rolud&mu l nanm [email protected]
Silt in laqe qtmatitiem im rued not mo moh for itr plant nutrienta aa for improving thophysiorloonditioRof~aIlr. The rvin bomfloial off& of milt fa attributad to itn orp8ai*tohelpr8t8in8oil8oirture uadinpro*c, l dlwtrwture.
I&a to moaia, raucmlwt oalyhmlpmtoolwrtha#tamqmblatraoovm ori~Bu.ylomt~awion. rlvm in mlna tand to eta large awmtr of silt and itll fura&r!lclulfurrlwet~flne soil
- 10 -
I i FiYn” 5
Boat for mmkkuz silt from the
Fig. 7 i3.ty garbage in date of fermentation, ocmred by silt. Malu Peopl~Q Cummme, sbensw
- 11 -
Table 2 coMPOS1TI0H OFSIrJr crganio Matter
0.50-0.60 oLw-a9) lA&e milt
Ammomimoml milt im reported to be two or three time8 more abundant than in field mcil.
Silt im also oonmidmred to bm useful 55 a culture of living mioro-orgmni~, pwti5ularlytho5eth5t fixI?.
1.3.7 Other ruonromo
The othmr mmnurirl remouromm in ume i33 China wm (i) fimh wmmtem, (ii) milk raster, mmA6ml omkmm, (v) mmhem, (4 droppimgm and t viii) indumtrial wmmte0. p=ltIcg droppillrga, WI (s-t 4 mud proommmed minor mouromm prwidm Mhmn apprmpriatelytmmtmd ocmmmntratedmrgmnio fertilicerm.
Fimh uamtem ii.
B;qurcultureiaChfnai5apartofthe~~l~otrlturrrl5ylt~~ oonmidmrable qumatitiem of fish ummte bmom wailable fur -0 mm nan~rm, apmrt framthm wmmteproduote dmrivedfrarflmhthat
4 or lakes. aommulateinpmndm
Common are fmdtofimhwhimhin fmrtilimationoforoplaad. turm mupply wmmte/dropIdmgm
Itimbmmicallyanmturmlmymlimmlpattmrm and appeam to be moologimally md. iii.
Animalbomem chinem<minmumll mmr JOomilliom l5rger5alm5i5.
Thebonwfra mlmughtmred mndfallmnanimbls are or&edforproduotionmfbonr-uil ubiohim a rioh mouroe of phomphatio fmrtilimer. oil55lce5.
Amby-produotm fraamrwmhimgfcw oil, en&mm grow&ut5, rape seedm, l eom mom&s, tea mm&m mnd tuw mmmdm
5&5t5ntial5ouro5 of ocmm5ntrat5dnnur5 in China.
Thmme mrm ummd madly for ommhoropm mumham Mtmnd vmgmtablmm.
- 12 -
Amhmm frarburntmtrmw, mtalb, bushes, woodandoomlareummdmm fwtiliser, either alone or lldxmd with human mxoreta.
The rapid erppneion of poultzyfamdngdnring inormmmedthmmvailabilityofpmultrydroppin&u reoentyeambaa oonmidmrablq forapplioationtothe5ail am Mnure*
It in emtimatmdthatabout JOadultbird5produo5n55rlyon5 tonmfmmnurep5ry55ro
Shoe0 and goat drominm
Thmnuuiber ofmhempaud~oatm hambmmninor~inginChina.
5ub5tmntial qamntitie5 of droppings rimh in plant nutrients. hmvelmngbeenftilimr withtheume of
Chin55e theme droppimgm 55 fmrtilimmr. f-erm
Indu5tz%alw55t55 5reu5uallyremmv5redin mubmtmntialquantiti~ mndmrebeing rwamed nutri~tmim tinly in the fonr of efflum&m. applied tothm lmnd~irrigation.
FaotoxLem, ehqttimem, gov5rm5ntoff!bhl5,5ohoo~5 mm apart ofthedz dailyroutine oollel0ting mxLdthmgaleralpopulatimnarmiznrolveddthmr orthrmughpmrtimipaticxo anrates fer re-we in induat~ or ypritaulture. in&W55 for
Proommming Capomto mnd
Th5re5rememmal techuigunm txpolrthm qumntitymndqualityof umedinnrmkinghmmmaademmnurem or maopmtmdepmndimg matmrialm avmilmble, air5um5tanoe5 mnd environmmnt, ineach
Th55etmchsiqu5aw5r5d5velop5dov5rthe5g55 pramticem mudmrpeaimncebut hmvmnowbemn mtmadardimed [email protected] oftrmditionel madgiv5namdmntiflobmmi5.
Fmzsmntmdaunxrem ofatypesimilPstotrodifioaelf~IPM1IP?e~m~OBtOf0 proo5555dfrandx5dorg5nio uamtem ofmgriaulture lik55traw,stdkrr,u55d8,5qu5tiop15nt5t eaiM'1 dung, urine mnd habitation or mlud&e, mto. Thmmemmtmrialm ur&rgointQMive f!knallyyi5ldrdu%bxWEhoedf¶@d-. dmoapomitimnin5tormgenithmdmquate maimtye end their
Thm d55ap55itionim requLrethepruen05 beoarsamuitablebrbitat oarrimd out bgo hrgevariety0fd0rowrgs6im mfmdequmte qmmatitiea mf msrb5naoe5u5Irterial5to mnergyan3oomrrem~mmding~ortimnmfnitrogmmmum titmame.
With theme bamio rmquimts.ud fmr~roumdero-er~mm mhrhlmfmr building their bmdy=mell with adequate raisture, ndxmd oxy~&o u&em whioh livmmndIp3tiply,mmrqi~~ activities efde~~qmsitianbybnrkLlrgdormoorpl~rtaia~ whi5he555ntirlly
5mrve55 ameurme of intosispleoaqmauds.
Anally, mnthmirdmath,theybeooreaprrt thw [email protected] ofthe~mwthrrelvmm. oampomd5 ofa~onatur5,5om5int~atmpr5duot5 oapomition of the ozi&al
~terirlm, oamp5umd5 oid5- and the oell l.4.2 SmtMmmltemhmiqumm fmrm&&mg eoeiammtm mfwmmtmmWmria1
River sltt or mud
Stabh monurr (pir)
Srm manure plants or wotar plocrts -
Supwpkrphata 20 kq
N cc&+ 0.3 o/o
0.3 % organic cktm 4.6- 6.0%
C/N - rotio lS-20:1
7.6 - 10.3 O/i
Groan monurr ( legumax, r.g. Astrogalusl or watrr plants, 0.0. water hyacinth 1
Stabk straw mlxtura manure (pig maw*)
SILT - GRASS MiitTURE OR PIT MANURE. YUEH CHI Communr, WU County ( JIANGSU Province)
Ruming over of the silt gram mixture. Agrioultural
Research Station, Feng Chiao People's Comune, Jiangsu
Silt-gram manure pite. Agricultural Reeearoh Station,
Fary Chiao People's C ommme, Jiangnu Province.
- 15 - eaoh 4erbeiag15oathiok.
The top 1-r ie of mud and a water oolaaun
34 a deep is lospt at the hollowed eurfaoe to oreate anamrobio oonditionm.
The anamobio oonditiom help in reducing the nitrogen l.oemea to a minimum.
Figure 8 illtrstratee the design and dimeneiom of them pite and the position of m of differemt wastes.
The apprmdmute quantities of different waetes put in the pit are:
Pig exoreta or aaimal dung
Aquatic plente mm-
The oontents of the ~tareturned done amnthafterthe over three time, the fimtturningbedng
Pit is filled. hningthieturniagauperphoephateis added?mdthoMmghly to the me to -de dxeduiththe optimm unothermonthmdthethirdafter ocagmtingpPterialmdwateris added moisture.
The emond turning is don. after about 2weeka. The manureim readyfor applioation in a total of three montha time.
C-eis about 8t ofmmre whichia euffioient for O.lhu of orop
The c~tionofmoha~e~ ipivenbelow: reportad bythe Rmh Chi People's c oxratio orgalit matter (k)
7.8 - 10.3
ThegrouP ~auamerioo of maohmnurepdte looatedall alongthebm$era of flel&rtths~~~l~eerohStationofthsA;lrgChiPa camuIl0. TheaepitEwsrer~~toho;vebe~filledd~llgths m8uonwlmknferiale for cwoetingare oolleoted.
Peopl#' rlaok aa b.
DhBdsndgroundmud (groIuldmah4nioallyformaaeprodnotion)i6 mimdwithpigexoretainequalproportio~ mdplaoediaapile uudar amrin a mmure shed until needed.
Ashie mixed to &with night eoil or pig exoreta. Thit~ irr then ndxed [email protected] ooverforumswhenneeded. l'idc'typeof- ~IJ generally prapamd in the dude in the warmer
Themnure sheda oomtrwtedforthepurpoms are rrilple rtruoturer, oblong in shqve with walls or pillam 1-1.5 PI high, tiled or thtchad roofs and with
BIzQDdh for aeration.
30 % [email protected] mtrr
30 % Anlnol -II, md OorbagI macroto ond nieht solI
- 17 - iii. iv. l9mgroupsawhow~8mzmm wa6 beingpreparedbythemembars of the Eo. 1 produ~tian te6m Of changloan Produotion Btigade. The u6e ofalrrnhinetop~wdertheaudure also wmre the unum sheda used. ofpe&iou~intsr~tee
Liquid- a. plgdroppingo &duashinge about 3mindiazmtmand tithe
6dded6ndkepttherefor1045dpys mummi66pplladaa atopdre6eing. sty are l&into aoBm9ntpit
1.51~ deep. Ueeda andaquatiaplanta
Bse forfermentrrtion. The liquid b.
Might m0i1 4 urine are oolleoted in ape&al tpnke whioh have ems11 op~ngr.
The tsnkis 6ealedaPter filling and the oontente are lefttof~tf0r dressing.
The ratio of exorement to crap wrote is about with arop re6idru6 6nd followed by mt. oontent im attained by adding water. m,
The qAinurn tisture
While &d.ng the heap a number Of bamboo pole6 pso inserted to 6erve +6 lmltlt m ohimeya. cbfma3cetbi&.
4jdap)tb fansed, itie eealedwithaplsrister
The burboo pole6 kn in perrition for a dq md ere ulb8nthetaparature riEest0
6cb7cm holerrarsrremled. The heapiewually evendeoa6pO6itian. while turning,water, arl.ulorbEllyL- turneduterialio tin..
Capo6toithi6 fra prnaitio nimRm. uu6d&dtoukeup6ny8Kdeturedefioienay. rqIi10d6ad6ea1ed. !Pha oapastie rsdyintuomOnth6 typei 00n6ideredtobe ofhighqu6.lityogdiPer
Figure Ilillu6tratu the6ise 0f6uohw *adthe 6rx%qaent6 m6defar
Ttmg Sh6oYimgProdnctionBrigade,TaHehC0unty, Babei, where abuudlm of
6ta~irute6dOfbuboopole6tru'luedfaraeration. 1% rawmateria~u6ed
Wm Qpop 6frlb M, [email protected]’t OOil +&t$ and milt
M. ~hOlJph6tO U ils0
Mod at the Iwte of 20 k&/t or oorpoding mteridl. woof
6Lrth oapo6t i6 a vrri&
6table manure in that 00pioru quurtitiee of dry eXfXCWnt6) iMte6d Of litter are mpraad on tb floor of a rtable Or 6tall.
The 60i1, uhioh is 6dded to fka fin6 to tiu, 8beorb6 the liquid8 aud en6ure6 that the otable or stall im
Mghqu6litypgmyC0, the ezsrementa
& nhturu of oity mrVmm and night roil
CiitJrmb6ge ([email protected] wtight), f&es rCgplre6istlZlfm6tter
The dudrt6&?lali6thmrpiledinr&aprbout ddartthetqp,ljmMgh6ndrbbut
4r long. Aftorheqdngdmt
Paldgh,mrtm at efbm&0opole6 prelaidhori6tmtallyontheheap mrw 1.w I, each mot cOnnected at the omtro dth 6 bubgo pole
- 18 -
Eigh trperaturw ooqmt hwape, seeled with plaster of mad.
Chun Sun Woduotioa Brigada, Ewbwi Ravinoe.
. . . ‘.
. h i :4
High tempwratur6 oompost heaps, 6houing the prqmration of the aexation
Byatwn lleing bagboo.
Chun Sun Produotion Brigade,
LOfWTUOlNAk SECTION of 6-6 mokertolkr
C_OMPONENT6 l/5 Earthm l/3 Crop l tolkm l/3 HWH dung, night roll,
20 kg/ton muporphowhok
HIGH TEMnMTURE COMPOST WEA?. (USING MAIZE STALKS FOR AERATION)
TUNG SHM WG PROWCT#)W @!WGADE, TA HEH County (HEBEI Prwh~o)
High temperature oompozt heap zealwd by mud and showing aeration zgstem lzsing maize stalks.
Ta Heh Rodaction
Silt being dried bwfore it ie ground and mixed with animal and hum uastw fordqmzmsre. ChungIl~ProdtaotionB14gade, l33inEui Count
- 21 -
6toodvwrtitil.y. [email protected] eiterhwaping, thwbypb~opolm srswithdra~~~eolezvingdrmy6 venti I.&ion.
On oanplrfion, thw harp ie 666lwd nit.h a 2-3 an
[email protected]@em mi~qdnithuatrr. The d6y for
The twnpwraturw of the heap rise6 to ovar 50+5oC within l-2 m pnd thiotwmp~tureiem&ntainwdformore tlmnlOd6y6, effectively d-troylmg pothogsai~ d aro-org66i6m6andpm6adte~,6ndbre6ki6g down patrersias orgemlo rrttwr.
Thw ocmpostis readyin ~aamth6.
In 6umar, bamboo polw ne6d not bw u66d for mmtilation. With a propsramirture content6ndlooeeefrddng, atemperature of about
55OC is devwlopwd.
In large 6oale amposting, oityrwfu6w 6ndnightsoilareplraedin heapaln high, lm uidw 6adaayoonv6ni6ntlwn&huithgpFbsgeand night coil leid in alternate laJnr6 in the ratio of
:l by volm6 (or in wqual weights). The vwntibtion 6y6t6m i6 al60 applied in this omw.
This type of oarporting requtrwe lw66 work end6paoemd mnhtaine tempwraturw0 dtmTw yaw.
Pl66twringthehsogcr withmudmaintsine moieture andtemperaturw, py#jd~ nutrient lwee6, prffents wmwrgwnow their life oyole6adkwwps cmtbrewdiagflie6. vii. OrwMral- a. b.
Heath6rsdcml,peotor ligniteirbrolosnupPndPiroduithorroni~, sodi~aitrate6ndpot66siumtobwocme ahumio aoidfmtilizwrwmily aksorbwd by oropts. It i6 alsw u6wd to 6dju6t ths 6adl pH.
Liquid ammiai6 zrlxed with peat inth6 ratio of
1:6. Sam Irdi6 add6daailthematarialiethwnk6ptinapitfo.r about aw6wkbwfm6u6ee
Thw matwrblio ksptin ahwap for awewkb6foro u6e.
Methoda s&rates ofa&io&ionofo~ost
Liquid- (moietm contwntexomding88$)ir 4pplied66 atopdmrrsing, aadifthw
Qmntity ie 16rge, it i6 applied by irrigation syutm. To aohiwve optiml effeotivenwse of liq6id-6,differcmttime6 u&t urdmdiuWi.h,it aobl6, it i6 6pplid during ofapplioaticmamrcroammnd6dfarvariou6type6 im bcmttomly w appli6dinwintsr. liquid m6uureinearlyopring. of soil. For
Form6dim&eavy wad autum. In dry [email protected] and in the lo&mds, it 16
Iti6oWmBdth6tthetypwof mamretmdie buhaoe, amham u?+~dlonr~rabls,shs~~~Pnd~rrl~w
8lldpigtBWlUl%OllhFOWllMil& mtohedtothe 6oilandpl6nt. onbl6ok6oils
(a) thw clrop, BOil,[email protected]~e
6mount of nutriant6, minly
- 22 - nitrcrgm,wbiohcanbs effootivrrlyutiliwdbythe not ~~re~~nofi~sPdee~~lsg~OYfh~~t~; depoaitd ~~?inoorporatbdintothe land, oropo lkmure oontainipglsalrtbn
Uithnight milrl~arliquidrmmxmuith limitedto [email protected]#o&tion.
5O$moi&ureir appliedatratea M Hghu 2ClO-3OOt/ba. gokmoi&sro oontent,appl.ic&ionrstw are
-sbeon ootton hai crap ma0
2nd arap uheat l&be fb
75-135 + mud at 65t/.h
1.4.4 se100tad euLb.rimnw work ml ~maurw
-mrmurw of the *ortaut srpwi5aItal rwultE cwmmIiryythebonofloaal~ff~ erebrieflydemribedbelow.
Em&of oamoatonorops of
Five yew6 of oontinuou6 eqleriwnt6 a tb spplio&tion of 0apoEt to paddy m&[email protected] &kbmwm affaot ofocmpomt 1antedt&0&tho
~oilin~hrratChiariPdi~t~thrtt&a oEap0 ofrioo,u&[email protected]&on8. on the doublewropping rioe lamd, the rulmaquant effeat of oampoat ma more
- 23 -
Stqarbeot uhert uillet s-z-
’ 14 630
Amount of cmpomtrpplird
Aold of urly
Total inoraama in
(!$4$ . gss
The rpplioation of ompaat hsa aho been found to improve the quality of upland oroptBL Field 8qmrimento carried out on ap lea ehowed that the fruit fmm oaPipoet-trerted tree8 oontained 12.6 ss8 of uugar and 0.X$ of a&d, with an inwemae of l.88$ and O.lO$ respectively in favour of the treated trees.
Woreover, the compoet-kwated tr686 showed great8r r98i8t92lo8 t0 adYelV38 OOnditi-.
Eff8Ot of oqoot on eoile
The application of ooupostimproveethe pbyaio-chemicalandbiologioal conditiona of mile beaides providing plant nutrients. The humm in oompoat is a aolloidal material with mgativs electrio charge and is coagulated with oationa and soil partiolee to foxm granules. So&l with more gmnulee iS less sticky, higher in buffering oapaoity, ham a better permeability and greater water holding oapaoity, and ia oapable of mgulating the pH of the soil, thtrs oreating a good environment for mopgrowth.
Treatwnt kY porolrity
No txwpo8t capomt
I! p8lwability to air (k)
No aapoet tJ
VHith eqost at 38 t/ha
Dspth (a) lo-25
E8E=TOFCONPOST OHHUTlcIE2iSITYAHDSTICKIHESS OFSOIL
Stlckinem ability g/a2
- 25 -
Thm ohengeinbulkdaasit~8nd paroeity of ma&ldireatlyi~flw~o88the growth aad rerpiration of tha mot8 of orop plmts. Th8 eatian
CbiokiWW 8ffOOtr th0 U~kAbi~ty Of AOil. of
Applicsstion oioapamth~ AA affwt muster holdillg wpaoityaAd ok the evaporation of water fka coil am ehmn below:
Amouutofuator aImu&adintbr coil with no oompomt applied
Awuut of water abrorbedin the soil with 220t/baof o-os3pu'd
With ocmpoot mthwt t%)
Tha applioatioa0f 0qmmtaffoOtr amyn aotivity, fibrodwapomitionmd cwbondioxidog8Amationinth8aoil.
Aa oapostisinordnglyrppliad, the urauoand protainum Beommro aotWe. Flds rofleotr not only a
6l'WtffaWUBt OfAitr~WOWWt8F'ia~ 08AtAiAOdiAthO AOilbAt~Ot~ rat* of miAeralisatioA of Aitragcmarrrr oapoun& mld tbs iA8rwme of the
Aitraga l atlhu supply to the orop.
Th8 ~08itiUA l oloro relrtionmhip lrbiohro001arateth8
A&&al. with d-8
PrrlQydrqgm -p-dame li~~~anofCOprrd)f~ikooq~tionofflbronr
- 26 -
R8sAlte obtaiwd fmm thee8 studier are Ahann in the table ba10wz
Iield oa/w ib
& & $iyiEEm
38 t/ha lane
3 040 2.56 0.0273 0.067 3.90
2 606 1.88 0.3243 0.062 2.86
2 151 1.79 o.oz10 0.062 2.56
-. zr iv-2
2.74 y Fibre d8oomporritianiA 8xpremerdcu COpin~/gnoil. d The at3tiVAtiOAOfpZ-OtsiAAA8iA ~8ACWdWJ~~ll&~giA8Oil.
1/ The tdiiV&iOAOfUl'[email protected]'tJSWhU3~4~~/~~~iA~Oil.
0.1 B KNrlo4.
Carp0&r8dAo8s IBoi10roAitxl. tbotcaraolupiagmAdyAoilth8 mrfAoorAA~aAdq196ll9u
StAdi8Ai.A SiOhllAA -A00
CmplatbaAprand iii. Appiioatian of OrgaAio fmrtilism
Anattapt hmbeenllds to eotimatethm f~~S.l'AiAcbiAE. thrildomrtiangsf~~or~A~~,aPdmppor?f~iArorrorrUbJr srtmt ofthome
!b OAtiABt8AgirQiAthotAbl~ publidk8ddata; atb88tth8yare~WOXluto0A.4. giveA ia th8 table belowt ofcqmaio a-F.-OdOA
1. Ti#ht roil
(at 60$ 4Yailablr)
3. pi8 -
(at 80$ lnaihble)
(at 66% mailabla)
PI*atnmiduosand wtrr phntm
(at 70% nrihbbla)
7. GrMn naurom
(at [email protected] available)
8. kd aud oilt
(at 80$ available)
9. atY ti!=-‘J
(at 60% awailabie)
(at &I$ available)
BuntitJr nrilablo iA DiliiOA toam
P I[20 I
0.60 0.20 0.09 0.30 0.25
PhAt AAtriOAtO iA thoumndtOna
411 0.60 0.30 0.13 0.80 0.66
534 3 988
0.42 2 855 2 284
2 855 2 no
65 0.60 0,30
0.13 1.20 0.99
23 1.46 1.17 0.51
1/ a8 follawing Srp&!UlatOry not86
0.18 1.00 0.83
1.00 0.44 2.00
10.0 '0.40 0.20
8 320 5 092 2 228 9 671 8 007
- 28 -
Explanatory notes for bseia of oalcmlation
Plant reeiduee and water plsnt8
Citygarbage oil 888d.CdS8B others
0.25 t per aapita; populetion 850 million persons
Animal population @million head, 6tmanure per aninul/y8ar
Pig population 238 million heard, 3 t manure psr pig/year
Aninml population 135 million head,
0.8 t wnure per animal/
Animal population 1.3 billiun heerd,
1 t manure par 40 animale/
Y- attherate of
6millionha, at lot/ha
18Cmilliontone amumed on land iP delta area8 r808iV8 arm at th8 rate of 2 t/ha the baais that 10 million ha of
8 t/ha and 50 million ha in other desuminganurbanpopulation garbage of 15Omillion pemonfa and oity per capita at 0.15 t/year
Thee8 include mch items a0 amher, fish wc&emp milk wmtes, bbnee, goat and sheep droppings
!PakLng 130 million ha a8 the ar8a of oropped laadin china, the average quantity of organic fertilizer available per hootme ia about
13tpery8ar. Int8rma of plant nutrients, Bpch hectare cf vFped lmd thm reodvea about 64 kg of N, 39 kg of P95
(17kgP) end74kgof&G of theme m&muree~
K) throughorgaaiofartilis8rm. limmr, as the mp~ly is almady approaohing the rmudmm prodtaotion limit, production of
AiMrai fertilizer8 ham of neoeesity to be et8pped up to meet the growing demand for plant matrieate titally important forincmmmd mop produotion.
- 29 -
Biological proom3~1ae atmospherio nitrogen through egrbiosie and by free- liviagnitrqsnfixiag orgmisrrs offer goodaoope andehauldbe ezploited. In China,itir r8oegAissd that a aottrrol biological ag8n0y eat be employed whereby atmoApheri.0 nitrw8n OAA ba.utilieed for fertilisirrg vast areaa of lowland rioe.
Ths two wam wed aret (a) kolla aud (b) blm=gmmA algm.
Techniques for their us8 in rice oaltivation axe described belaw.
Asolla oolvists of a floatin& brmoh8d rhisow uhioh srpall, altemute, 0v8rlappi~g bilobed 1SrVa aAd dA& rOQt8 BdliOh hsag down iAt the WatSr AAd it
Ao&ly veg8tatively, althcmgh 8p0rea me ala0 fomd.
A~abemapaolla8,iA alnym fotmdinthe amities [email protected] as aeymbiont uhiohfixssthe
&Oiia PiPnsfa growing on the W&U. MrfaO8
-hi &OdW3tiOA Brig&e, between riO8
THE WATER FERN A&b pinrato, b) LE* e) Aadoona
(10 X 1;
BLUE G&EN ALGA IN
CAVITIES (100 x 1; orolloo, A FILAMENTOUS HETEROCYSTOUS BLUE
- 31 -
The utility of %a;olla ae~ a fsFtili%er 6ouro8 braa first demomtrated by ghien from
Barth Vietnam, in 1957. bolla known for ite ability to f'ix large quPntiti8E Of atmosphewic nitrogen (312kg/ha/y8ar, Baoldng, lY'f6; 30-40 b/h/mm%h, ahtm 19%;
103-162 l&&ar, a eubstaatial
Stewart, 1977) aa well ea for ite ability emmnt of
7= the growth of heterotrophic nitrogea fixing lldcro-wgeniEw. to aupp'ly to the eooaywtem en matter (157.5 t/ho/year in China; 200-300 t/ha/year in
The clollo~ baolla in China is
Azolla pinnata, a floating ferm locally nam8d 'luping' or 'hang ping'.
It was introdumdin~na about X, yaare ago. i.
C&-&Mm oonditione for growth of Azolla a. The optimum temperature for growth of kollain China ie betwem
It wa8, howwcrr, reported that a tropioal sfr&n of
Azolla grows at temperabres rang-hag from 30 to 35OC in the eolxthersoat provinoe of Hainan. Azolla doe8 not a~rwive tsPp8ratures lower than 0% pnd higher thm 35OC. b.
Stending waterafeuoentiwtres neoeemsmy for ite growth. deep andphoaphorua are
Soilm of pH 6 to 7 eupport the baet growth.
Since daollatolerate8 a limited raug8 of tslperatumr end it oaa
[email protected]~8tatiV8ly,th8 proteatitfr~froetinthe in the southern prminoee.
Chi~888trlea m8atC?W8tO northern provinoee endhight8aperaturem
~ollrispratsatsd~orertrmtsaperptproo,treing folloting methode: on8 of the
- d!'ter oolleoting the Acolla and draining off th8 adherirrg water, it ie plaoed in a opeoiial pit lined e~doo~ereduithrrtrawmatti~g; ii.
- enother method, whioh ie -8 8ffeativ8, io to h8q the
5-w-e a straw apt laid ov(wp iataeoting
The grooves almo proVid8 aeratian. height of the h8ap iU maintained rt w 01. l% h8ap i0 oo~~edvithstraumato, drainag8
The whiohar8 peggeddoun, to preV8nt damage fr~lowteq~mturw urdlome ofmoiotur8;
-to prot8ot dsolla from high tanper&nres, it ie kept in fi8ldbaAine orp~ndewithwater cbrc\rlrrfionaAd/oris shaded byple~tingtreee prauadthe pands/watnrbaeinn.
OM-hunfimd & of Asolla w peat in a nursery bed (120 m2) divided into -1 baainm (3 I) x 4 I) of 8 cm depth. St~~wrtariErriAtpiA~iAthe Aarcl6rJr to~depthof irvowabtfor
A plaMng adnsity of
0.7 to 0.8 Ets/r2 is moot rapidaultiplic&ion.
AtalarnrdeAaitytheplaAttek8s loager to oover the numery aad almo aboorba lee0 ooler e~8xw.
"r8ediqn0.066 ha. Tbrn~reeryim oo~ereduithplaetio 8heetr ifth8tapratureirr low.
Seeding rib8 field with
PYo:ds prepared for tiO8 orrltivatioa and inooulated with dleolla.
Huaehi Rodaction Brigade, Jiangsu Ruviace.
-34- iii. iv.
After seeding the field, the
Asolla (500 kg) grow to double its weight every
5 dayo, i.e. 1000 kg in 5 days, 2 000 kg in onother 5 days.
The groupwpS toldinHsinIfui ([email protected]~~)that attuaparaturea abuve 2OoC
Azollo would double its weight in 3 dwfa. It wm otated that the maturity and yield of the orop oan be judged from the degree of ooveriag of ths uatsr by the plant. h"hsntke margbs ofindividualplants are in ooutaotuith one another, the yieldamountsto15t/ha,butwhenthe plante overlap one another the orop ie mature and the yield would ba 22.5 t/ha.
A5olh as green manure
The fielda being prapamd for rioe oultivatiou are flooded and seeded with
Azollr at the rate of 7.5 t/ha.
5-10 dap, when the A50110 bus reaohed a mitable density (22.5 t/ha) the water ie drained off, and the deolla ie ploughed underwinga12h.p. *wsllcingtmu~tor~. Thereafter,the field mpy again be flooded for further gruw$ng and subsequent ploughing under of
Azollo if it is intended to improve eoil fertility further or rioe oeedlinge are tra3llsplarlted.
Bzolla regeneratea with the rioe seedliqe and obtains a density of 22.5 t/h.s in 10-15 apsa. It ie then buried in the soil by haad. This pro0088 ie usually repeated two or three time, the last being at pmiale differeutiation of the rioe plants. In auy oobe, when the Asolla oovems the entire k&&r
8~~itsmetbsbvrriedtoavbidrtarrriagtherioeplPnts deouaponee 8-10 m afterinoorporationintRe soil. of-. It
Whenever the intervalbetwedPrwinterandearl3,rioa orope doea not allow
Asolla to be grown before traampluxting, Asollr eeed pieow prcrprrad in a nurfseqram opread5-1Odaga aftertraasplautingtherior rate of eeedingandthe maeteohniqueir usedinthie eeodlinge. omeD
Bitrqga fixation b-v da0118
Fields are eeeded with Bxolla at the same rate a8 for green mauuriw, and the orop io harvested up to 10 times in a period of 3-4 months. In me harvest, the yield of Azollaie about 15 t/ha. About 8t/hs of As0118 im left in the field to tmrve as %med*l for the following orup.
The total yield of dcolla through ita growth period of J-4 monthe is about160 t/he. The hamaatod Asollaia med osplantingmaterialfor minerals,itis wita gram, silt, eta. otherrioefielde. almousedam afeedforpige
Aaitie maddud riohinprotdnaud andfor oampoet Jdng dgolla yielda vq hr&re quantities of meem matter (about 160 t/ha) in a pbod of 3+monthe, ooutainingabout 425kg of nitrogen bore than 2tintenm of oaonium mlphate or about
1 t of urea). The green setter aud the rate of proteinpl?oduotianoatribut~byAaollaie highewthaathat of Sesbauis oannabinawhioh has the highetat nitrogen iyrotion ability of all~~noua plant&
ELghernitrogengaim have been aohievedthroughthe aeeocdation of Amllaand
Aaabaenain Chino thm in Vi&mm,
Aeolla, 10 dqm after inooulation, ready for ploughing under.
The mat in the oanal prevent6 loes of Aaolla. Agrioultural
Researoh St&ion, Feng Chiao People% Commune, Jiangeu Pmvinoe.
Ploughing under of
Azolla layer before rice transplanting, wing a
12 HP walldng tsaotor.
Huaehi Produotion Brigade, Jiangeu Provinoe.
- 36 - mb 24
Aeolla covering the water surfaoe between rice eeedlinge and ready for burying in the eoil.
Huaahi Produotion Brigade,
Burying of lleolla seedlings. Huaehi Production Brigade,
Green llloterial t/b
$iEy' urea wd
An a green manure orop
Ploughinguuderandh&d buryiing once
[email protected] burying twioe
Ploughingunderandhmd burying three timee
An a nitromm fixer
10 harvesta in 100 w
931.3 u Calculated on the basic of information reoeived.
Fertilization of Azolla
As nitrogenrequirments are mtfranthe ferti
‘iher neoeesary; it ie applied to kg/hare euperphoephate (24-36 kg
P2O5 air, phosphomaietheuin
Oocrasioually, aah fraa rioe e-trawls alao added M a 8ouroa of pota8tdm at the rate of 20.0 kg/ha K2C (16.6 kg/ha K).
The nitrmnoua Idneral fertilisep requiremente of rice me reduoed by half by using Asalla.
V1* Disean~oad pf5ats of A5olla s--
Azoik; lilw all orope, is attacked by varioue~ discaees and peste, chiefly the foliowing:
(1) oauaes greyepok3 onthesurface ofleavem. The dimoame readattempmatums higherthauthe optima. To aantrol the diieeaae, [email protected] with diluted Defmit (1 pert Refusit to
25O prrts of water) is reoamende d after wezy 7-10 &ye, uplag
1 125 iitrea of the diitrted drtmd per b60trrq.
A mixture of
-1 pmportions of Mpterex and Malathion (both at 0.1 to
0.2%) is also used to oontrol the dilremse.
(2j Runping-off: this disease oocurs at high temperatures and high plant densities end ie controllable by thinning or ploughing under the Crop.
Erownborerandgre~borer: the plants axe frequently attaak~d by the larvae
Gf lepidopteroua ineeote, whioh feed on the leaves.
FF?nitrothion or with a tiXtUr6 of Dipterex and klathion controla the pests.
Snails eat the roote and leaves of &alla. The above mentioned ineectioidee for oontrol of borem are also used for oontrol of smile. vii. Advantage8 derived from growing Asolla
1. Gain ofnitrogenthroughnitrogen fixation.
2. Increase in organic matter of the Boil.
(It was reported by the Huaehi
RroduotionBrigade (Ji.angau) that the organicmatter oontent of the soil increaeed from 1.3 to 2.8$ end that of the nitrogen from O.Ogto 0.2C$ aa a remalt of introduoing Asolla oultivation.)
3. Saving of nitrogenous mineral fertilizer of up to 30-40 k&a. (Applioation of
Aeolla to the fielde in addition to mineral fertiliaer 18 reported to have given lO=1% higher yield6 of rioa over the mineral fsrtiliser alone.)
5. Provision of a nutritious feed for liveetoolc at intervale of 7-10 *.
6. Aote aa en in&Lo&or of nutrient deficienoy.
The group had the opportunity to 6ee larg!,+3oale Azolla oultivation in varioum produotion brigades (e.g.
HUM?, Bang YinCounty, Jieageu Provinoe and Cha
Kung, EeinRui Co&y, were ale0 demonetrat&
2.1.2 Blue-green algae
Blue-grsenalgae,belongingtoagroup oanteining ohloropwll of he-krogeneoue oryptogamioplente ere highly effioientutilieere of solar energy andhavethe ability to fix moleoular nitrogen. Reeearohand developmentonalgae kvebtenuudertaken for some time. However, the potential for three-fold uee of algae as a food, fertiliser and energy eouroe ha8 attracted renewed attention.
In china, both baeic end applied reswoh ie being oarried out. An inooulum of a mixture of Anabaena ep. end Roetoo ep. ie prepared at the Agrioultural Reeearoh Institute,
HMjiW in flaeke oontdni~~~blenediaunder sterile oonditions. The aigae eogrown are then traneferred to lerger glass bowls to grow under nonsterile oonditionr;r.
A quantity of the freeh algae ie then Prred to inooulate a nursery plot (5-7 m long,
1 m wide end 20 om deep) at the rate of 150 g/m2. !l!he water in the nurseq is 6-7 om deep.
After about 7 days the algae in the plot atbt.tain a den&,ty of 500-l 000 g/m . The nursery ie ooveredwitht raneparcmt plaetio sheets to proteot the plante from 00%
Blur gram :!gar (Anabarno a Nortoc) grown on suirablr media
0 STERILE CONDITIONS
@ NON- STERILE CONDITIONS
Tronrparrnt plastic mhrrt ( by low temp.)
(Field scale 1
@ NURSERY OF BLUE GREEN
INOCULATION OF PADDY WITH BLUE GREEN ALGAE, NANJING (JIANGSU Province) c
Af'ter preparing the field for rioe oultivation, it ia flooded and algae at
750 kg/b are 0 [email protected]~~inooulum.
8&W grow to rtxmh
30°C. aaJrs andeva to
It wps reported that, under experimental conditione.,
16. oouldbsbeneMcdallyused. the increase in yield wan about
Fhrther reeearoh work ma reported to be in progrees to reaoh a atage at whioh akrs
- 41 -
Green Huwriaq humn
Green mtnare~ are crops whioh are not (or only partly) harvested for animal or conepption but are plcughed under for adding organic matter, improving coil rtruoture cad preventing matrient leaohing, and also in the caee of leguminous crops for adding fixed nitrogen to the coil.
They are normally platnted where cereal crop rwiduee are used for dcmeotic hrsl or oattle feed, ae in many developing countriee, and in oountriea euoh aa China the orgenio matter ie the major source of plant nutrienta.
The Chinese, who [email protected] green manuree ao "netural food" for plente and soils, have besnprratioing~~rrnuriagforaloagtiPlcr.
Green manuring wee given added impetus when the National People% Congrams of the People% Republic of
China, in ite seoond eeaeion held in April 1960, deoided that green manuring should fono pert of the National
Agricultural Development (13560l%i7). It wae emphmised thus: Qmreaae energetic014 the output of famm umure and chemical fertiiieer . . . . energetic efforts. should also be put into growing green manure crops according to local oonditiona . . . . baoterial fertiliser should be inoreaeed to the f'ulleet extent."
Ae a remit, the area under green manure orope haa increaeed Fran 1.3 million heetaree after liberation to about
6.6 million hectares in 1976 (excluding asea under aqustio plants which are also partly ueed for green manuring).
The l~noua orcpr ueual4 used for green mumring in
Ghineae egrioulture are:
10. milk vetch) hairy vetch) broad beim) omon vetoh) i alfalfa) f'ield peas)
! (mmet Clmr)
[email protected])' olden grem)
In south China, winter green manure orope mob pb milk vetoh aad eeebania em grown in winter; north
China grown alfalfa aud hairy vetoh.
1. Green manure mop sown and ploughed under in the same field.
Green mnmre orop is harveated and buried in other field6 of
3-4 times the &se.
Roots raminiag from the hamsated orop enrioh the f'irot field.
Groan manure crop ir out, nixed with gramerr and mud and put in pits located in oomerm of fleld6 for omoet mking or im fed to biogos plmt8. below:
The techniques of green mumring crith the moot o-on crops used me deeoribed
- 42 -
3.1.1 Astr;rgolue einioua ie either grown in rotation with two rioe orope or interoropped with taller cereal orops (0-g. maize). For example, in Yueh Chi People'8 Ccmmune, Wu
Jiangsu Provinoe, 267 ha cut of 287 ha were put under A8tmu8 while the area under Vioio, Crotaleria and Sesbenia we8 only 20 ha. In Wu County, a8 a whole, the are8 under green msunsre crop8 wa8 reported to be about one4hird of the rioe area.
A8tr8galu8 i8 8own in SeptePrber-Ootober and ie ploughed under or hMVO8tOd in April-
Nay. It8 yield of fkeeh green matter ie about 3745 t/ha.
3.1.2 Sesb8nia cannabina grow8 under varied egro-olimatio oonditionr: tropioai, eubtropical aud semi-id, wd ie reeietant to drought, coil acidity, alkalinity and waterlang.
A special technique haa been developed for growing Seabsnir in nureerieo and trms- planting the eeedling8 in the 8-r rioe cr .
The eeed ie 8own in the n\rrsey in late
Heroh or ear4 April at the rate of 70-90
One hectare of nursery produoss 8uffioient
8eedliIkg8 t0 green lEBXWre SuperphO8phate at the rate of 225 kg/b0 end night 8oil or campoet at the rate of 7.5 t/ha is applied in the nureery plot. The seedlings attain a height of
15 cm 30 day8 after 8e8ding.
When the 8eedling8 are 7-10 cm taller than the rioe plant8 to be green 8ubnured they are trail8plant8d in the paddy field in row8 at a
8padlg of 2-3 m between row8 pad 30-35 cm within the row. The Se8benia plpnte are topped
A when they attsin a height of 90-150 cm to stimulate bmnohing and leaf production. full grown plant attain8 a height of 3 m and weigh8 about 5 kg.
The fir8tadditicnalmenuring of the paddyfieldie done witheuperphosphate (75kg/ba)
8nd compost (2.25 t/ha) 10 apse before harvesting the rioe (or 20 dny8 after traW3pl8nting of Sesbania eeedliage).
Fifteen aSye after harvesting the rice, a quick acting nitrwen fertilizer 8uoh M monium sulphate is applied rt the rate of 5-0 kg/ho pnd
Sedmnia i8 ploughed uuder 3 day8 before the treneplanting of late rioe.
The yield of green manure ploughed under i8 about 15-22.5 t/ha containing 82.5 kg of nitrogen, 10.5-15.8
P205 (4.6-7.0 P) urd 22.5-33.75 kg of l$O (18.74~0 K).
The edvantage ofthie method ofgreennurFlriagiethptS~~aplonf8 donotoooupy th8 cultivated 8rea for more than a month aud yet yield aa well a8 when 8own an a sole crop for green manuring. Another advantpge of trau8pl8nting Se&a&a ssedli~ ie that it benefit8 even the Piret orop of rioe.
Growing of green m8nau-e crop8 eubstantially reduoes darnd for mineral fertiiiror,
The group no8 told that the Idng Si produotion Brig&e, which introduoed greek mug with Seebania in 1972, haa been able to reduoe nitrogenou8 fertiliser (m&tp muiphate) oon8umption from 75 to 45 kg/ha, 80 reducing f&iliaOr oost8 from US$ 68.0 to 40.5 for eaoh heotve of rice sown. It wa8 claimed that green manuring in oqnjunotion with mineral fertilizer ti8ed the rioe yield iram 4 125 kg to 5
025 kg/ha, i.e. 21.8fkinore~e.
3.1.3 Inooulation of legume8
~oorrhizal oulturee are generally used for legume8 and there are applied every 4th or 5th year in the 88ae field.
They me reported to inorewe the yield of green matter by about
The culture8 W prepared
100014 by the production team. Althoogh slseuhero baoterirl inocmlm for leguwr ia norm14 prwed under eterile condition8 in 8peoial lrboratoriw, the Chinore have developed a method 80 simple that it 08n be followed by the ocmune member8 ttielve8,
Foreground: nursery for
Baakground: rioe field interplanted with
(in row). Hei Chiao People's Commune, Gungdong Provinoe.
28 Transplanting of
Seabania in rice field. Hai Chiao People's Commune,
Collection and preservation of nodules
Plonte of eaoh speoiee are oarsfully wrooted when they v the largest number of aotive nodules. Theea plants are air-dried in the ahude and the nodules are remuwed fran them when an inoculum is to be prspored. b.
Preparation of the inooulum
The nodules are crushed and xixed with 0001 sterile water, adding 1% suger, l.O$ starch and di-potaseium [email protected] phoephote. The latter oan '58 replaaed with superphosphate, uhioh io neutraliaed to pI3 7.
Use of inooulum
The eeeds whioh are to be inoculated are exposed to the fun for 3-j houra and then soaked in water for 20 houra; they are then mixed with inooulum.
Ae the partially germinated inooulated eeeda tend to be etioky, they are mixed with rice husk to make broadoprating easier.
If see&i are not required for imaaediate sawing after inoaulation, eoaklng in water is unitted and after exposure to the sun they are only dxed with the inocultmrv aad air-dried.
Aquatic Plnnts for
In areaa with networka of uatsrwage, aquatio plants are oultivated to provide fodder livsetookandmanursforfielde. Aquatiaplantlrprovide amajoIpportionof fadder requirememts andtothat extent preewre on land is relieved. Fish oultureie also stimulated under water weeda. The Chinese say:
"If you live near water, make the best uee of water".
The ooiiwine mtmbris 'riving near waterways 'have dwow tratedin fuil waaure howthieie done,
The oilaewnrly grown aquatio plants and their oompaeition m given in Tabie 12.
Table 12 C~LYCR~A~~CPLBNTSBNDTWRCOIWISITI~
2. Pk6tia rrtratiotscl
% tfJbiin7 Y*"
1,s 0.20 k
Altemauthera is the most widely aultivated aquatia plant in the northeru provinaes of
China bemuse of ite tolersuoe to lower tempsraturen while
Eiohhornia and Piatis, whioh are sensitive to cold, ere grown in the eoutem provinaes.
Specxial techniques heva boon developed w the Chinese for cultivating these plaute to ensure their pr
'on from oold aud frost aud their localised cultivation to avoid obstruotiou in navzkgation. dress of water sdjaoant to the baulm of uatemqs are dmma&sd md looaliaed for growing aquatia plants. The lacalisatiouie areaaudeecmriagthemuithropee or wire. effeatedby pitahiugbmmbaa etialm srouudthe
Thirty to forty t/ha of plaute are used to seed the water surfaae area 80 laoalised.
The seeding is douein latrAprilorearl.yky.
Alternsntheraplantgroweproiuselyand~thin2-3aroathrr to a depth of 1 m. Theplautereaohm~turityinJulyeudAugust. spreads overau~~~aoflm2aud
The used to pull out the plaute whioh are loaded into boats and altimute takeutowherever needed. The aeocmdharvaetie tekeu after
3 mouths (OatobeHkwunber
A harvest of
225-375 t/ha of opeu water per year has beeu reparted.
Table 13 indicates composition, yield, etc. ofvaioumgreenwnure cropeaudaquatia
SWbWid interaropped with early rice4
344=572 2 147-3 572 z!
Bste of protein prodrratiun o&=/m)
Calaulated fkmiufommtion rsaeivedin d -1s~ (1976) y AbuiSl4kdal (1960)
4/ Bominkie (1976)
- 46 -
Water plents (Alternar.thera) grown on Tai Lake, Yieh Chi People'6
Camnnme, Jiangm Province.
Lmalized cultivation of Alternanthera on Ta.iL&e. To oontrol growth bordera of plots are marked with polee and ropea. Yueh Chi People's Commune,
The technology and utilisation of bio-gae has recently attraoted attention all over the world.
The rationale behind it is seen in the eoologioal benefits of the utiliaation of enimalandegrioulturalwaetee, coneervation of natural reeouroee, pollution control, euvironmntal eenitation and, above all, e&oitation of new re6ouroen of energy. In the developing aountriee application ofbio-gaeteohnologyacquiree ertraimportanae. productivity of farmlanda in these oauntriee, which is low owing toineuffkient
The use of locally ava$lable remuroee of ground water, fertilizers andfuele, canbeimprovedwith aheap energy provided by biw teahnology.
The loualremurce6 arelargelyunueed; loaalfuele endorgeaia manure8 in the form of anilmrl and vegetable wastes are partly wanted and are partly burned in ineffioient furnaaee which aapture little of the energy oontent and preserve alnmt none of the fertilizer value. Through bio-gee technology, these waetee alone can provide fuel for damatia use, energy for imigfbtion and other agricultural operations, organic muuree for fame and light emd electrioity in remote villages.
Bio-gaa teohnolagyis not new. The eecond world war eaw its experimental development, and einoe then inve&igatione on various aqeate have been going on, though haltingly, in one oountqaranother.
However, the reoent oil and fertilizer crieie has bean inetrmental in reviving interest in thie teehnololgy. A nmber of countriee, both developed end developing, ham etarted fuzther imestigatione aiming at analyeie of the prospeote, problpaps aud tamkm aaeocdated with bi-m plants, developing suitable deeigm for fnmily eise aa well 88 village
‘ty bio-gae plaate, the emphasis being on ease of assembly, use of cheaper and more etable materials and optimired dimmiona and conditicm of operation. These inveetigatione aleo include the development of effloient him utilisatiw demiaee eueh aa biolgaa burner6, epmk ignition engine8 and further development of pumps for idgstion, aa well aa dmelopment of en integrated bia-sgatem which amuree the eupply of fuel, fertiliser eadfaod.
China haa mmde remarkable prweee in thie field.
The firat Chineee attempta to canvert organiowanteeinto
Fran lgcP,'buta mamive end apparently well mgani- sed camp&&m to papuIari8e the technology starfed only mme yeeum agob Sinoe about
1972, the number of bio-gsa plants in different part6 of the oountzly haa been repmted to be incma8ingrapidly. In a county vieited in Hebei provinae, 40 000 out of
56 COC houaeholdm have biegae plants. Aoaording to Chinese ~ourcem~ therearenearly1OOOOOOMo-gauplJmta inuaein
China, alimaticrequir~te althoughthegreat ofbiolgae plante limit their effioientusetothe the aountry,buttheyazmalaohave majority are locatedin ~lyafewaatmties. a limitedseamonaluseinotherarea8.
The eouthernpart of
Bio-ga~ planta hawe been [email protected] aa a boon to the mm&em of the produotion teaw/brigadembecauae of the eemralbenef5ts aooruiw f'ranthen. Briefly theseme:
The-e obtainedfromhio-gas pbnfeie riaherinnitrogen eadorareinqaantitythanthetobtarudbyo~~cnrrlaarpoetiryl. aontent i8 reported that fermentation inoreaeem the amonia oontent by 120
Per~sntandthsawnrntofquiaLsctingphoephorue by15Operaant. In
It a ampamtive trial aauduatedin Ma Chin County, the [email protected] Of bio-gae menuregc~e a17$inareaseinwheatyield ampoet. faatorieal. over conventional
In fact, these plants are regarded as ~miniature manure
-48 - ii. iii. iv.
Ho-gas mamare i8 free fro$the offensive odour nomally aeeooiated with wnure pit e/heaps.
The pargsitee normally present are aleo killed during the process of digeetion and storiug of slurry.
Bio-gas plaute ooneerve looal fuel, wood or imported coal aud kerosene, and upgrade into an excellent organio fertilieer the vegetable refuse which would be otherwiee burued inefficiently snd animal and hu8au wastes which might otherwise be a eerious threat to health.
Bio-gae oau be used to power interual aombustion engines and to Bubstitute for die801 oil in small eleatria generators. A saving of'70$ of diesel oil in ruuuiug internal combuetion engine8 on bio-gae at the bio-ga8 researoh station in Wu Chin County ws8 reported.
The gas provides a olesu end comenient fuel for homehold cooking and a good light for reading. The rioe etraw whioh ie otherwise burnt a8 fuel is saved for tame aa fodder or for eilsge making.
Bio-gas 8avea time in cooking aud thus reduces the housekeeping load for women. vii.
Bio-gas plaute 8x8 acmplemeutary to piggery development. of
Bio-grrs~rogrampre 8 are thue reg8xded a8 a part of the eocial reoonetruction program88 china. Theprograaseie euppmtedthroughnationalcoufereuoe8,thetraiuing gauges sad through the de8igu of differently &aped fermentation pita. ofteohui- oiaus, the mmufaoture of eiaple gas 8tovee aud Lmps, rubber or plastic pipe8 and pressare
The prooesa of bio.gami geuemtiou, whioh ie eeeeutially the digestion under aZh%erObiO oonditiom oforgmiawmtes,produces aga8 whichie largelyamixture ofmethaueendoerbou dioxide. The ret&me is a aoabuetible gas. The digeetionis atwo-part prooe88 and eaohpart iaperfom8dbya8peoifiagroupofmgaui8msm The firetparti8thebreakdouu ofoamplex orgwia wtte into simple organic oaapouud8 by aoid fonsiug baoteria.
Several rpeoier of saidf~ly5bent~agrawandraproduoer~idly.
These are not very eeneitive to their ' exmiroumnt. Theybreakdowu ocmplex orgauic eabetenoee sad produoe priamrilyaoetio acid sndpropionicadd,togetbsrwith~~a8nd orgaui~,th8methaue+ormer8,breskdonnthe carbon dioxide. The eeooudgmup ofmioro- aoideintomethsueaudoarboudioxide. This group is oompoeed of a relatively few epeoiee of baoteria that grow aud reproduce slowly end LW quite semitive to their euviromnent.
Inaproperlyf"unotiouiugdige8ter,the thatthemethme-f- twogroup ofbaoteriamustbebalau0ed8o juatu8ethe aoide produoedbythe aoid-formers. If the aoid- former6 get aheadofthemethane~ormers,
Themainbio-ohemioal aud other operational faotore whioh me intportaut in ooutrolliug the apeed and quality of the digeatiou are a8 follow8: aoide beginto aooue,ulate, the pHdropa,the methaue-fonm8r8 ~einhilzit~sadulti~telydigsetianceaees. a. Twperature: The miaro-organiam whioh take partin methaue produotiou have optimumaotivityat 2C-3C°C. At lower temperatures, gas produotion ia reduoed.
The relationehip betweeu gas productian and temperatures observed in China is indicated below:
_ . . .
Cooktng~ fi Llghlrnlng
C, H,,O, t 2H,O
> 3CH, t 3C0,
BIOGAS CYCLE IN CHINA
- 50 -
Rice straw, pig manure and grasses
12-15 below 8
Hydrogen ion ooncentration
Methane forming b&eria are sensitive ta pB. They work beet in a range of pH
6.8 to 7.2 although they will tolerate a range of
If the pH grows too high the aoidio carbon dioxide fonaed by the digestion prooeae brings it down, but if it should be too low, the gas produoing baoteria are unable to uee up the acids quickly enough and the digestion stops.
It will be a matter of same time before the balance ia restored and digestion can remme. Introducing freeh raw material for digestion at a too high rate can cause the fermenting material to become aoidic.
In China, addition of lime solution or gram ashes is reoommended for maintaining the pH between
Carbon: nitrogen ratio
The bacteria require both oarbon and nitrogen in order to live, bmt they use up carbon about
35 times faeter than they use nitrwen.
When the ratio in the raw material is about 30 to
1, the digeetion prooeede at an optimum rate, other conditions being favourable. kf'hen the ratio ie lower there are loeees of available nitrogen affecting the manurial value of the digeeted mattar.
The enaerobic fermentation of organio m&ter prooeede beet if the feeding material oontaim
$ solid matter. The usual material6 fermented in a bioqas plant normally conta3.n higher percemtegee of eolida end they are therefore usually diluted with water. Inauffioient dilutim increasea the viecoeity to a point where baoterial growth ie inhibited; ozk if excessive, stratification oooura that require8 oontinuous etirring. The pE and ammonia toxicity al.80 becam more critical with ineuffioient dilution.
In China, camon combinationa of raw materiels are r orted to be: a mixture of urine (20$) aud human excreta (30$) and water
; or lO$ humm exorets,
30% animal dung, lU$ straw aud gram and 50$ water;
[email protected] pig manure and urine and 50$ Water;
WU3te, ~rE%rf#hgraEU3 and
WSteZ'. Crop waatea, green gram and other vegetable materials are deoomposed for more than 10 daya prior to their being put into the digester. or 20$ human exoreta, or IO$ eaoh of human and animal stirrinq
Stirring of the elurry in&de the digeeter ie desirable to etimulate baoterial action resulting in higher gas produation, though it ie not always essential.
Continuum feeding of fresh waste into the digester al- inducee male move- ment in the maae of material in the digester, helping to expose f'rwh undigested material to the baoteria.
Construction of a bio-as plant, inlet on the right; outlet on the left in background.
Cheng EIsiazzg Production Brigade, Jiangsu Provime.
Fig. 33 Building of piggery with inlet for animal wsates to bio-gas plant. Cheng Hsiang Produotion
Brigade, Jiangsu Province.
In the Ckneee blo-gea models, there ie no provieion for agitation. It has, however, 'been reported that in digesters fed with night soil alone, etirring increased gas production by %$ in comparison with non-stirring. f.
Design of bio-gae plant0
Bahia design of bio-gas plants provides for an anaerobic tank (digester) and a gas ohamber to oollsct the methane/oarbon dioxide mixture. The perfonzance, however, depends upon many faotors.
Five designs of bio-gaa plant are reported to have been evolved in China.
The group was able to Bee a large number of working bio-gae plante at some of the places visited.
A 10 m3 oapaoity design ie taken as the stendard design for a houeehold.
Some brigades have adopted a collective approach and built larger plante to eupply gas for small internal oambuztion engines for pumpe, generators and/or other purposes such ae cooking food for pige, distillation etc.
The unique feature of the bio-gaa plants in uze in China is that the gas holder and the digeeter are combined in one unit.
The gas holder is the brick daze &aped ouver of the digester iteelf. In the aonetruution of these plants looal materiale we seed. People along rivers use mainly pebbles, those in mountain areae me Btcnes and the people in the plaine webricks. A mixture of lime and earth in the proportion 5% and %$ respeotive'ly ie used in the oon&ruotion.
The walls of the biw rtit arethinlyplastered with cement. For the etandard oapaoity plant, the requirements of these materials are: brioke,
000; liIlEi1OOCkg,EUld cement lookg.
The coat of oonstruction ie reported to be nS$ 25, eroluding labour ohargee.
When gas is formed, it ascends towards the top of the dome and pushee the effhmt down.
The displtoed levelofthe effluent provides the necessary presaurs for the release of the gas from the plant. The preeeure lof the gas ia kept oonstant through an automatio adjwstmemt of water preseure~
The pressure equalization is based on the prinoiple that increased grvl pressure puehee slurry up the feed inlet and the outlet ohamber openinge and deorease in preemre is balanoed by return of slurry into the figeeter.
The eizee of the inlet ohamber and the outlet ohzmber are stated to be important features and their deeign hae undergone some changes over the yeare.
The digeeter ie built below ground level. !Phe remuval of aLudge and maintenance are aarried out twioe a year.
One-third of the eludge ie left in the digester to act as 'geeding' material.
Buildirw aBio-6caa Plant
In oonatruoting a plant, a round hole measuring
3 m in diameter and
UI deep ie firet dug. The digester portion which etiendz from the base to a height of 2 m ie well oompaoted using an earth-lime (9585) mixkure. The gae-holder portion, the bsiok dome- shaped cover of the digester, ie then oonatruoted leaving epaoee for the. inlet and outlet pipes which are
60 om in diameter and are at the sama level just above the ground.
The gas outlet
(55 cm upper diameter,
OIL lower diameter) is situated at the top of the gas holder from whioh the gaz flow through a polyethylene tube to the point of 0onaumption.
Advantages ofthie type ofbiw plentare:
1. ii. iii.
Lower construction aosts since no mild steel is used. Steel is soarce and expensive, partioulerly in rural areas,
The plants oan be easily oonstruoted by production teem membere who know how to work with briake and oement.
Sin0.r there are no moving parts, wear and tear and maintenanoe oosts are almost negligible. iv.
Maintenance of proper temperature is easier because of the whole etruoturs being under ground.
46 explain the designs of bio-gas plants in use in China, suited to local requirements.
These gae plant8 are, however, not without problems. The most important lilr;irst.ion is the impossibility of using them efficiently in oolder regions of China beoause of the thermal requirements of the fermentation process.
Ehren in warmer climates, a oonsidsrable deorease in efficiency and cessation of bio-gas production can ooour if the sludge lacks liquidity to balanoe the aoid and methanogenic baoteria. other problems are aseooiated with sand acoumulation, tvourn build-up and loading of human and animal wastes in proper dilution.
The half-yearly opening of the digeeter for sludge r-oval and mzintenanoe ie a bothersome operation.
The gas in the ohamber is likely to be subjeoted to variable pressure bsoause the difference between the levels of the slurry in the digester ohamber and outlet ohsmber is likely to vary continuously. Suoh variable pressures are not oonduaive to effioient functioning of the gas appliances. Furthermore, high pressure mqy be exerted on the elurry which is likely to reduce the gas production.
The group was told that these problems were being further investigated besides the new ones such as how to store surplus gas for use in winter and how to remove sludge and effluents by maohines.
Use cf G.as
The gas whioh oomes out of the bio-ss plants is quite similar to natural gs8. It ueually contains 60-7O$methaue,
30-3546 carbondiodde, some hydrogen, nitrogen andtraoee of hydrogen sulphide.
The gas has a oalorific value of about
000 Icoal/m& k ten cubio metre oapacity plant generates around
5 m3 of gas per w. When properly managed, the plent is sufficient to eupply a Chinese fdly with enough fuel for o~oking and lighting. Bio-gas must be burned on an a~nropriate burner for mzximum efficiency.
Plame speed faotor, which is a measure of the rseed at whioh a flame will travel along a
Its column of the gas, is low oompsred to that of ncxtural gas. This means that when the him is fed to a burner made for natural gaz, the flame tends to rise above the burner. Bio-gas
Peed at a lower pressure would stay on the burner, but might not burn effioiently and less heat would be reooverad fraz each oubio metre of gas.
The loupressure ofbio-gaa andthe low
Flame propagation speed of methzne, whioh is further slowed down by oarbon dioxide, oall for a apeoial design of bio-gas applianoee.
The burners in China are designed for a bioqaz ratio of 100 and these are locally fromaztixture of soilandash.
-mum heat to the utensils.
The burners are placed in a deep hearth to provide
Other aoceeeoriee euoh az stoves, pipes, lamps and preeeure peuges are ale0 looally made.
For lighting, bio-gae oan bo fed into any gas lamp with a mantle. In China small size silk mantles are used owing to low preesure of the gee.
The brightness of a standing bio-gaz
LBmp is reported to be greater than that of a hanging type beoause of the low density of the bic-gas oouplsd with the upward direction of the hot gases.
Fig.34 SOME BIOGAS DIGESTERS USED FOR 40.000 UNITS BUILT IN HUAI LU County (HEBEI Province)
Presented et the exhibition of biogas at PAICHI KAN
Production Brigade, LITSUN Commune,
HUAI LU County (HEBE! Prownce)
Gas outlet outlet inlet
BIOGAS UNIT No 1 WITH SMALL DIAMETER
Total volume: 4.72 m.3, fermentation chamber: 4.63 m? , arch : 0.09 t-n.3 a) Front elevetion drawing b) Longitudinal profile c) Precast cement cover
Fresh pig dung: 1000 kg. lnoculants :
Brick mode arch w
BIOGAS UNIT No 2 SHALLOW
Total volume: 7.29 m?, fermentation chamber : 5.11 m? , arch : 2.18 m? a) Front elevation drawing b) Longitudinal profile c) Longitudinal profile
INGREDIENTS 1 fresh pig dunC: 1000 kg. inoculants: 500 kg.
- 56 -
Covered with earth
Brick made arch cover
Gas outlet tube
Outlet made with lime and earth
Cement tube r
Piled up with lime ond earth 3 1 l/4 Brick made arch cover
BIOGAS UNiT No 3 made with lime and earth.
Total volume : 6.42 m.3 , fermentation chamber: 5.06 m? , arch : 1.36 m? a) Front elevation drawing b) Longitudinal c) Longitudinal profile profile
l/4 brick mode arch cover
Covered with earth
@ 30 cm. cement tubr
Made with lime and earth l/4 Brick made outlet
60s outlet tube
(b) l/4 Brick made arch Cover
Covered with cart fi 30 cm. cemrnt tube
Gas outlet tube
Mode with lime and earth
BIOGAS UNIT No 4
Total volume: 6 m? , fermentation chamber: 5m! , arch. lm? a) Front elevotion drowinq. b) Longitudinal profile. c) Longitudinal profile.
Mods with lime and ear l/4 Brick made outlet m
30 60 30
BIOGAS UNIT No 5
Total volume : 5.85 m? , fermentation
CI) Front elevation drawing b) Longitudinal profile c) Longitudinal profile
Fig. 39 chamber:
5 m? , arch. 0.85 m3
To School kitchen
Y I I I
13 BIOGAS UNITS 14 m! EACH, TA HEH MIDDLE SCHOOL, HUAI LU County, (HEEIEI Prcvince)
LATRINE i i/l
TO hospital kitchen
1 inlet (straw t monuras)
Fig.41 43m? BIOGAS UNIT FOR THE HOSPITAL OF
TA HEH Commune 1 HEBEI Province)
Colored water -
Fig.42 SIMPLE MANOMETER INDICATING BIOGAS PRESSURE
CHENG HSIANG Erigade, WU CHIN County (JIANGSU Province)
To the kitchen-F
=b a) CHUN SUN Prod. Brigade, CHAO County, HEW Province b)
TA HEH PWI~‘S
Flg.43 7-10 m? BIOGAS UNITS (household size)
Commune (HEEEI P~DVI~C~)
Fig.44 50m? BIOGAS UNIT (piggery size)
TA HEH People’s Commune (HEBEI Province)
- 60 -
Fig. 45 Larger size bio-gae plant, gas ueed to fuel diesel engine.
Foreground: outlet: centre: outlet for gae *y pleatic pipe; back- ground: inlet.
Chun Sun Production
Brigade, Hebei Province.
Outlet of large size bio-gae plant.
Effluent pumped into irrigation drain.
Cheng Hsiang F'roduotion Brigade, Jiangeu Prcvince.
- 61 -
Any internal combustion engine can be adapted to uee bio-gaa. The group maw a diesel engine running on bio-gss.
The engine wan fuelled by connecting the gas to the air intake and closing the diesel oil feed. It was reported that one cubic metre of ga# was enough to run an internal combustion engine (one h.p.) for 2 houra, a three ton truok for
2 km, to light a lamp (60-100 watts) for 6 hours and to generate one kilowatt of eleotricity.
Use of [email protected] and Rfluent
The output of sludge per year per plant (10 cubic metre oapacity) is roughly 10 cubic metros.
Sludge is used directly as mazure for basal os top dressing. It is also used for making humio aoid fertilizer.
When not required, it is heaped, plastered and kept till needed.
The output of effluent is about 14 cubio metree per year. It is either applied to the laud with irrigation water or stored in a tank for application as a top dressing.
Composition of sludge/effluent reported by the Ta Reh Production Brigade was:
Composition of bio-gae sludge and effluent
Org. matter $ 35.0
2 ooo.0 "
A field trial carried out by the production brigade showed that the application of effluent to wheat orops increased tillering rates end numbers of spikelets over those obtained Prom snm~onium chloride.
Some Wseful Bata (Bio-gas Research Station, Cheng Hsiang) aa Comparative effioienay of various types of wastes for gas production:
- 62 - b.
Rate of gas production from different mixtures of wastee at 25-28°C
Materiale Mixture proportion
Gas produotion after
70 dap per gramme of material
Gas produotion after
400 daya per gramme of material
+ rice etraw
Rice straw 120
-k rice straw
160 wheat etraw
Ewaan excreta and wheat straw
C. Effect of seeding or inoculation of fresh material with digested material
250 g night soil
'Ihe above eetabliahee the beneficial effect of 'seeding' the f'resh material with digested elurry which a&e ae an inooulum.
Rates of kill of paraeitee in digeeted elurry
Iweetigatione oarried out in China indioate that the moat reaietaut egg of all parasites ie the round worm ovum and that the bio+~ plant has relatively little impaot on ite viability. oonditions, the viability ratee of aaaarid
(round worm) egga ranged from 63 to 93 peroent after 10 to 90 w deorsesing to 2U$ alter 180 daye.
Fkra+phoidBbacilli eurvivedfor a period of 44 days and echistosomea were observed to live up to
Detailed investigations have ehovm that the reduction in the level of dieease oausing organisma in bio-gae digeetere ie due to both the physical eeparation of the organieme by their settling to the bottom of the digeeter end to their natural mortality under a&or739 aonditiona. The major oontributing factor to their reduction in the oaue of the hardier parasite eggs ie that of phyeioal separation.
SIliZil xookworm upper stratum
Effeot of time of digeetion on mortality of orgazrierna
W-J of digestion
92.17 m of digestion
Sedimentation of parasite eggs in biovae plants
(in 500 ml of effluent)
VISITS TO REZARCH STATIONS, CO-,
Research Inztitute of Agricultural Scienoes in Jiangsu Provinoe. Nanjirrq
(3 NW 197~)
The Research Institute of Agricultural Science8 in Jiangau Provinaa is the highest level Institute in the Province. It haa a caoprehenaive researoh role to investigate eoientific and technical problems in agrioultural production throughout the provinoe. In emence, the research work centrea around implementing 'the eight point charter for agriculture,
The Institute haa a total working staff of more than
700, of whom about
300 are reeearch and teohnical personnel, and an experimental farm of about
80 ha. There are various specialized departments, such as: (1) the Department of Food Crops, doing reeearoh on the selection, cultivation and popularization of new etraine of rioe, wheat, maize and sweet potatoes, as well aa on the corresponding high-yield cultivation techniquea;
(2)the Department of Industrial Crops: reeearoh on the eeleotion, cultivation and popularization of cotton, rape eeed and soybean aa well aa the appropriate teohniquee for obtaining high yields;
(3) the Depar!tment of Plant Proteotion: reeearoh on the inoidenoe of insect peets and plant dieeasee affecting the main oro 6 and the damage they oauae, az well aa the teohniquee for their prevention and oure;
(47 the Department of Soil
Amelioration and Fertilizers: reseamh on the improvement of saline and alkaline land, the seleotion and oultivation of new straina of leguminous orope end teohniques for short-&em inter-planting ~EJ well aa teohniques in the ohoioe and applioation of new baoterial and mineral fertilizers;
(5) the Department of Agro-Phyeioe and Agro-Chemietry: reeearoh on technique,, for treating orops both pmicallg and ohemioally to oreata new &rains, and on the ieotope tracer teohnique and analyaie of nutrient ooutente of orope and fertilizere;
(6) the Department of Animal Huabandry and Veterinary Soience: reaearoh on the prevention and cure of main disease6 affecting draught animals md livestook and breeding new breede of pig,,;
(7) the Department of Aquatic Produots: researoh on the eeleotion and breeding of new stooks of freehwater fieh, the prevention and oure of the main Fish dieeaees and the investigation of Freshwater fieh resources.
At preeent, research at the Institute is oonoentrated on the following four areas:
(a) breeding improved varietiee of food crop6 (rice, wheat, maize and sweet potatoes), oil crops (rape and soybean), industrial crops (cotton) and vegetablea;
(b) research on cropping systems, cropping pattern6 and praotioe8 to increase cropping intensity to attain high production per unit area per year, the objective being to develop three food crop aysteme (one wheat crop and two rice crops) with a total grain produotion target of 22,,5 t/ha.
Thi8 target haa already been achieved in eight experimental looatione in the province. The ourrent programme is to investigage appropriate oropping patterns, crop vsrietiee with suitable growth periods, effective fertilization praoticw and produotion of livestook feed and fodder in the cropping syeteme, measures for prevention and control of inseot pests and diseases of ma&n crepe; (c) crop production research to find effeotive meaauree for prevention end control of insect pests and diaeasee of main crepe;
(d) fertilizera fertility oenzervation involving etudierr on organio manures, green manure6, mineral fertilizere, bacterial fertilizers and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. and
The study team were given the opportunity to vieit come of the Inatitute,e laboratories, the fertilizer and entomology labor&oriee in partioular. The oheztietry laboratory ie provided with modern standard analytioal instruments to handle a large number of analyees.
The entomology laboratory ham a very good inseot oolleotion and, in addition to ite own research, also mounts epeoimens of the major pests of eoonomio orops
-65 - showing the life cycles of inzects with their respective predators, for supplying to local reeee.roh unite for referenoe, az teaching aide and for uBe in extension work.
It appeared that more emphasis waz placed on preventive measures, orop surveillance and diseaze reziatznt varieties rather than on ohemical aontrol.
DDl? waz recommended as a stslidard inzecticide; other inzeotioides do no exaeed the toxicity of DlYT. Biologioal oontrol waz being investigated. For reclaiming saline aoil, green manuring followed by rice cultivation waz recommended.
On the uze of nitrcgen-fixing blue-green algae, partioularly a mixed culture of Nostoo and Anabaena in rice Fields, it waz reported that a rice yield increase of about lcqd was obtaned under experimental conditions.
However, some teohnical problemz such az high pH, antzgonistio micro-organismz in the soil and climatic factors still had to be resolved before the technique could be applied zuooeesfully at the farm level.
In compost making, it waz reamended that
0.5 to 1% of euperphosphate should be incorporated with the oompozting materials to help aupprese the laze of nitrogen, thereby improving the fertilizing value of the compost.
As muoh az
30$ of the nitrogen could be lost from an open oompost heap, but the addition of superphosphate would reduce the nitrogen lozzea to around lO$, and by eealing the compost heap nitrogen losses become negligible.
Green manure applied at
15 000 kg/ha would increaze the rice yield by
A standard practice recommended waz to grow green manure crops over 30$ of the cropland in the Pirzt cropping zeazon, with 6C$ under wheat end lC$ under rape.
National Reeearoh Institute of Soil Science, Nanjing, Jiangzu Prwince
(3 % xv-()
Ths National Reeearch Inztitute of Soil Soienoe is a specialized Inztitute of the
Aoadq of Agriaultural Sciences and waz eetabliahed in 1953. At preeent, there is a total working staff of
400 of which about
300 are reeearoh eoientiets. The Institute ha9 9
Departments: Soil Geography, Agricultural Chemistry, Phyeical Chemistry, Bio-chemistry,
Xiccro-biology, Soil F%yMoa, Soil Reolamation, Paddy Soils, Soil Conservation and Pollution.
Major research prograzxQee of the Inztitute are: am b.
Soil eurvey and land resources evaluation fmprovement of problem soile partioularly saline and alkaline soils
Soil improvement for high orop yield and manurez Proper utilization of fertilizere
Soil pollution problemz
The q eeveral of the Inztitute*e research laboratories and was quite imprezzed to zee that they were well equipped, with modern, aophietioated instrument6 suoh as an atomic analyzer, atomic absorber, speotrophotaneter and an electron microsaope. Mzny of these eophisticated instruments were rqde in China snd the Institute has its own eletstronic worloshop to make zpecial parte as well ~EI to repair eoientifio inetrumentz. In the plant nutrition laboratory, quick tez,t kita are prepared for diztribution to commune experimental stations
In the soil pollution the perzistanoe of pesticidez in eoil, suitability laboratory, studies of industrial are being oonduoted on waste water for uze with soil, etc. In the soil mioro-biology laboratory, mme reeearoh ww in progresz on soil- borue plant pathogen8 se well az isolation and culture of Rhizobium etrainz. The Institute, however, did not oonduot any research on oomposting, green manuring and other recycling practioes 88 theze applied reeezroh topioe were meant to be oarried out at the reeearch inztitutee at lower levels.
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The Institute has a soil museum which is stocked with about 100 soil profiles representing different soil types in the country. The main soil types are:
1. ii. iii.
These soils are characterized by a high percentage of aesquioxidee whioh confers on them their characteristic red and yellowish red oolouring.
Red and yellow earthe are very acid but can be made quite fertile by anplying organic manures, growing green manure crops and application of lime and fertilizers.
These soils cover the greater part of South China.
They cnqy be correlated *with the Orthic and Ferric ACE~SO~B classification.
These soils show signs of hydromorphy but are quite fertile and exist chiefly in the tropical and sub-tropical regiaus of the country where they are used as paddylanis.
They correlate with Gleysols, Gleyic Luviaola and Gleyio
These soils are more fertile than the red earths. As they drain well, they are suitable for growing both food crops and fruit. They correlate with
DystrioandEutric Cambisols. iv. Black soils
These aoils were formed under steppe vegetation of leguminous plants and gramineoua herbage. Their dense rooting system, when decayed, turned into humus far down in the soil.
Chernozeme and Phaeozeme.
They are very fertile soils, oanparable to
V. Cheatnut soile
These soils are formed in short grass eteppas. They contain less humus than the black soils but their with Kastanozems. fertility ie still fairly high. They correlate
Desert and semi-desert soils
These soils develop in the arid and semi-arid area. They have a looae structure and.low hums oontent but are rich in vericn.~ mineral elemente.
They suffer from drought and eandstonnz as well az ealinization. They are
Yermosole and Xerosole, and Solonohak aud Solonetz coils occur frequently
A significant contribution from the Institute is the preparation of a new soil map of China at eoale 1:10.000.000 and an explanatory book on
'Soils of China', to be published in Chinese in
The library 07 the Institute haa a very exteuaive oolleotion of Boientifio books, works of reference and journals from all over the world.
Current ecientifio periodioals were up to date. It appeared that ecientiets of the Institute had faoilitiee to keep abreact with the lateat ecientifio infonaation from other parta of the world.
The Institute maintains oloee working relations in corresponding fielda with staff of research inztitutes in the provinoes by providing epeoialized training and ooneultationz.
Cheng Hsiang Production Brigade, Peng Niu C ommune, wu chill County i3ng~1u Rovinoe
1977) h Chin county has a population of 1.2 million persons and a cultivated land area of 87 000 ha. Agriaulture is highly intensive with a multiple cropping index of 2.1.
The county has earned a reputation in carrying out bio-gas programmes, and 60 000 biow plants were reported to have been set up in it.
The group was interested in the studies being carried out on bio-gas technology at the bio-gas research station.
The studies relate to gas produotion using different types of wastes singly or in combination, relationship between gas produotion and temperature, pathogen destruction in slurry, seeding with fermented material, etc.
The study team saw two bio-gas plants under oonstruction and also some plants working at the Cheng Heiang F'roduoti~Brigade~
Last year, the produation brigade conducted studies on the comparative value of bio-gas manure and ordinary compost. The bio-gas manure gave a lfl higher yield of wheat than sn equivalent weight of sn ordinary compost. Bio-as manure was also ocmpared with leke silt. A yield increase of 750 kg/ha of rice was obtained through application of bio-gas msnuTe.
The production brigade has a population of 1 100 and a total cultivated area of
It runs a feed processing unit for pigs, a distillery methane from the bio-gas plant is used as fuel in the distillery. and a bio-gas plant. The
The agricultural research team of the brigade was established in 1974. The team has a membership of 39 workers and an area of
7.5 ha earmarked for seed multiplication. The production brigade supplied the following quantities of improved seeds to the nine production teams under it:
25 ooo kg
65 ooo kg
The study group also saw cultivation of Azolla practiced extensively by the brigade and attended an educational performance emphasizing the various eocial benefits accruing from the use of bio-gas.
Huashi Production Brigade, Kiang Yin County, Jiangsu Province
(7 NY 197'1)
The production brigade has a population of 1 060 with a cultivated area of
Before liberation, the houses were scattered, land was subject to frequent floods and crop yields were very low (1
-2 273 kg/ha). In 1952, land holdings were txxuxolidated and plaoed in the charge of the production brigade. Work on the pattern of the Tachai mcrvement was initiated in 1964. As a result,
57 hillooks were removed to recldm land for cultivation, 4 000 m of subsoii drainage laid and sprinkler ir&rigation ws,z installed to serve
7 ha. The grain yield reported to have been obtained was:
12 100 kg/ha/~
The mono-crop system has been replaced by double cropping. mechanized.
The farm operations
The brigade has food reserves of 130 t and a public are semi- reserve fund of $294 000.
The brigade provides numerous facilities to the members such as nursery school, medical care service, Danteens, eto. The wage income has been increasing from year to year. It was $38 per member per year in 1963 which increased to $78 per member in 1976.
The brigade maintains poultry, pig, duck and rabbit farms. There is also a foundry workshop.
Azolla is extensively grown by the production brigade with very benefioial effects on the soil fertility. bicarbonate are used in two applications, the first at the time of puddling the soil and the second seven days after
For rice, in addition transplanting.
375 kg/ha of ammonium
Super-phosphate is also applied at
Forty bio-gas plants were reported to have been sat up by the production brigade.
It has a research centre employing 12 research workers. These workers go out to study field conditionz and to discuss problems with c omnme members and they also s.r.rsnge training for the commune members at the brig&e's research centre. This produotion brigade has no production team.
Yueh, Chi People's Cammune, Wu County, Jiangsu Province
(8 MsJr 1gm
The commune consists of 9 produution brigades, one fish production brigade snd production teams* The number of families in the cozxnune %s 2
925 with a total of 13 100 persons,
The area under cultivation is 952 ha in addition to
264 ha of forest area and
264 ha of open water. markedly developed.
The total yield obtained in 196 was reported to be obtained before liberation.
Pgriculture as well as subsidisry
In 1976, the oommune sold about oocupations have been
4.8 times that state and retained a good reserve of
145 t of grain.
4 60~1 t of grain to the
The important of the commune are: chicken, goose and duck raising, and serioulture, seoondary oocupations
In the matter of pig raising, the aomune has surpassed the target of 'one pig one ON' (abou% 15 head/ha); the average stocking rate reported was 24 [email protected] per ha. In
1976, 225 t of fish products and 24 t of silk cocoons were processed.
Ploughing, irrigation, crop protection and drainage operations have mostly been mechsnized. The cotmaune has invested $420 OW in machinery. The distribution power is equal to of machine
3.75 horse power/ha of land.
The living standard of the cczzmme members hae also been raised. In 19'77, each ooemnane
$59 and 300 kg of food grains.
Additionally, educational and cultural improvements have also been attdned.
The commune has a network of watemJays where water weeds are cultivated for pig feedas well as for compoetmsl&ng. philoxorkdam
The three aquatic plants grown are: (1) Alternanthcra
Eichhornia orassi es
(53 ha) and
Pietia stratiotes (40 ha).
L harvest of
000 t of these aquatic p ts is obtained per yeswhioh compost making absorb 24 000 t each and the balance is used for seed oupply, pig feed and
The study group toured t,Ce water area in boata to see aquatio plant aultivation and harvesting methods.
The group km impressed by the oare with whioh these plante were cultivated, harvested and convertsd into fodder or compost. For aompost m&kg, weeds are mixed with silt and grasses.
Green manuring is also popular in this o-e. The green manure crops in use are (1) Aztragaluz, Sesbada, Crotalaria and Vicia. The total acreage under Batragalue is
267 ha wherses the total s.rea for legumes is 20. obta;ined from all the green mBnupe crops is of the order of 10 000 t/year.
The total quantity
Agricultural Research Station of Feng Chiao People’8 WWIUXN, [email protected] ~fFOVi~0~
(9 b 1Pn)
The Reeearch Station ~az set up in lsr/l with its research work mainly oonoentrated on selection of seeds, testing of se&z, weather forecasting and plant protection. The research station keeps in touch with local agriBultura1 problems and undertakes experimental work to solve them.
The Feng Chiao Cormnune comprises and has a cultivated area of 2
28 production brigades apld 2
841 production teamz
667 ha. Agriculture is highly intensive, raising three
@raps in a year (wheat+rice+rice). Triple cropping has been possible by using early varieties of theee three crops,
The following yields are reported to have been achieved in the experimental plot of the researoh station:
The Bvaraa y<eld of food grtins obtsined at the research station is 15 OgO kg/ha. The average yield of food grain obtained in the commune in 1976 wan 13 515 kg/ha. The Ma
?emg Wxlucstion Brigade obtained a record yield of 2.5 t/ha/year during 197'6. It has been possible to achieve high yields through application of organic manure at high rates. Pig manure and aquatic weeds are the main Bources of organic manure used in the commme . The application rate of organic manure is as high a~ 227 t/ha/yr. manuring is not possible in the triple oropping eyetam.
The c oamnme ti an agricultural technical echo01 attached to the research station and hsa 60 workera and teahnicien6 on its staff.
It provides one year training course8 in agriculture and in addition, short courses are aloo arranged for members of the oomnune. In the 1-t two yeara,
84 students who graduated from this school are working aa egr&echniciaus in the communes of the oounty. Research workers from the provincial research inetituta are invited annually to give lectures. Rcperiancsd members of the commune and local farm experts also teach regularly but on a part-rtima 1-aai.e. The subjects taught by the full or part-time teaohera are for the most part the 6ama as those taught by the commune members but there ie a diffarenoe. While the latter stress the local edvancad techniques and experience of immediate practical value..to the zMadante the former give q8tematio instruction in the elements of agricultural, science, supplementing it with practical leesons.
Agricultural Research Institute of Wu Chin. County, [email protected] Province
(10 May ly7l)
The Institute wan mat up in September 1972 and has a staff of 102 workara and researchers. The research progrsnme of the Inetituta is mainly oonfined to:
(1) seed t3e;ection of main crops; (2) stanwzation of various manurial of high yielding agriculture1 praotioee; control of inseote and paste; (4) economic use of fertilizer reeourcas;
E)ig raising and (6) eericulture. and manures and tapping
The results achieved at the Institute are demon&rated at the reeearch stations and produotion units at lower levele. Results from a fertilizer trial on rioe conducted at the Institute given in Table 14 are:
1. Anmonium Rioarbonate (IfiN)
Grass + silt
Boseonium Bicarbonate (1796 N)
9. Graea + eilt
Applioation of manure/fartilisera
As the potassium content of the soil in the county is low or medium, different local rasouroas of potassium fertilizers are being tapped and tasted for wider applioation to the soi ls.,
The study group visited the county offioa and learnt that: the oounty comprises people's communes,
820 production brigs&s snd
1.1 million of which 0.99 million are engaged in sgricultura; teams; the population is
37 the total cultivated ares is
74 667 hs snd there is a labour foroa of 0.51 million. in this county (oropping intensity = 2.6).
Agrioulture is highly intensive
Acresga under different crops
Single rice crop
Green manure crops
58 667 ha
8 ooo II
22 ooo ”
The county has progressively incrassed the yields of crops sud total food pro&lotion:
Average yield par hs Total food production
2 250 kg
9 450 w
,195 000 tons
The incrasse in yield hss been achieved through self~alisnca, land improvement and smlicstion of heavy dressings of mauures supplemented by mineral fertilisers. Silt and
~t3.c plants =e used extausively. The oounty hss a fleet of 20 000 boats for csrrying
. It was reported that the following quantities of organic msuures are applied par hs:
Silt plusgrsss mixture
Animal siamme, pig manure
Green mnura crops
Average consumption of fertilieers (ssuacmium bioarbouate) wss reported to be 300 kg/hs/yr.
Through the liberal -use of organic omuures, more then $, a8 sgainat 1.574 in
1959. the organic content of soils has incrassed to
Malu People's Commma, Shsnghsi
The oomnme wss formed in 1958. It hss a populstion of 30 OCO in
Peroentsga distribution of area under different crops is:
14 production brigades, 14 production teams and a cultivated sres of 2
Oil mops, roots snd vegetables
Being in the vicinity of Shmghsi city, the commune is also engsged in other gsiuful activities such ss raising livestock inoluding pigs, poultry, rabbits, dairy, freshwater fish production, mushroom cultivation, rioe processing mills, muufsotura of ferm implements, and machinery to cater for the needs of the city dwellers. A number of sideline ocoupations such 88 hsndiorafts (bsmboo weaving) sewing and pearl culture hsva gsinad importance.
..- .._ _.--.-*-
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P3.g rsising in the commune hss also quickly developed:
Yasx No. of pigs
The commune hss made great progress in mechanization and it now hss 200 tractors
(almost one tractor for 10 ha) snd
37 tube*ells. receives
JO 000 t of city gsrbsga snd 10 000 t of night soil per year from Shanghsi Municipal
Committee free of charge.
It also m&as compost from silt, pig msnure and straw and it maintains
500 boats for carrying night soil and city garbage to produotion brigsdas/tesms.
The total amount of organic msnura used in the commune annually was reported to be
JO0 000 t, equivalent to 133 t per hectare of cultivated land.
The heavy dressings of organic manure have been mainly responsible for the great increase in yield of grain crops, ss shown below:
Average yield of grain
In the psst, the commuua wss a grain-deficit unit obtsining grains from the national food reserve but now it is a grdn eurplus unit.
(1976), 3 grain were supplied to the state.
Such crop in the rotation wheat+ca-rice
000 t of receives a bssal application of organic msnura made from pig msnure, silt and grass at followed by a second application of organic msnure to the seedlings at
If the coop shows a need for more nutrients, mineral fertilizers are sdded.
The study group saw whest fields interplsntad with cotton. Cotton plants are raised in a nursery and the seedlings are planted in holes dug by a ems11 hand tool in the wheat fialdsin early May. Cotton seed is 6own in a nursery for two reasons:
As a protection from cold, a nursery can be cavered with polyethylene sheets; cotton seedlings so rsised and later transplanted are not subjected to shade by tha wheat plants.
It wss reported that transplanted cotton gave a 10-15s higher yield than direct soml cotton. Cotton wss also seen interplanted among onions.
Shsnghsi City Wsste Disposal
The Shsnghai metropolitan city has a population of 10.7 million parsons (city sraa population
5.1 mi?lion snd suburban ares population
5.6 millim) aumprising 10 oounties,
147 oasnmmes, 2
800 production brigsdee and
OOC production teams. The Clesnsing
Dapsr'tment of Shsnghsi is responsible for the disposal of oity wsste. For that purpose,
Shsnghsi city sras has been divided into 10 districts and each distriot hss its own clasnsing dspsstment.
A district is subdivided into sections and each section hss a number of nightsoil collection tsnks into whioh the households dump their night soil. The oollection tanks are towed by truoks to whsrves where the night soil is dumped into storage tsnks.
An inseoticide (RLptarex) is applied to ths oontents of the tanka st c
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3 g/m3 of night soil to kill fly larvae. Prom the tanks the night soil is dumped into
50t capacity boats after a week of storsge and delivered at the atorsge tanks owned by communes snd production brigades along the wsterwsys. Night soil is kept in these tanks for about two weeks during which period all pathogenio micro-orgsnisms are destroyed through snserobio fermentation. The tanks sra cwered with plsstio sheets. Prom these tsnks, the night soil is pumped into the boats of production tesms. It is oolleoted by team membars from boats by bucket and applied directly to the field.
In this wsy, the entire quantity
(10 000 t par day) of night soil collected in Shsnghai city is delivered to different conununas in rotation. hbout
500 t of domestic gsrbsge are avsilable daily from Shsnghsi city. Each family deposits the domestic garbage at a fixed point from where it is carried in truoks whioh are emptied into
40-50 t capacity boats. The boats deliver the domestic garbage at comunit farms along the streams. The garbage is composted by members of the production
About 1 000 trucks and carts exe used for carrying the city garbage to different delivery stations. Night soil and danastio refuse is supplied at the delivery sites free of cost. The c ommunes have to arrange transport of these msterials from the delivery sites to the fields.
Composition of city wsstes
2. Organic matter
0.2-0.4 (P, 0.14.2)
0.37 (I&O.31 )
The study group wstched compost being made frcun domestic-garbsga in Malu Commune. The gsrbsga is stscked in heaps sbout
5 m in diameter end 2 m high and is usually owarad with a thin layer of silt. It is turned twice during the three months it is on the ground, at the end of whioh it hss become a brown friable material. To mska it rioher, gsrbsga is generally mixad with pig manure/night soil and than piled to oiraular or reatsngular heaps.
To provide the necessary moisture, hasps or tv&ng the material. night soil or water is sddad to the gsrbsge while making
I%e group also saw a three-ohsmber saptie teak dasigned for treatj,ng night soil.
It wss claimed that during the period of retention of night soil, patbogenio mioro-orgsnisms ware killed. inlet. manure.
The night soil from the latrines passes into the etorcy;e ohsmbar through en
The affluent ramsins in the third ohsmber for about a weak end tharesfter is is applied to fields.
The sediment in the storage ahsmber is remwad twice a year for use ss
During a visit to the conrnune hospital, the role of barefoot doctors in popularizing messures for the prevention snd cure of disesses wss explsinad. in
A visit to the Chiao 'ping Iiertilizar
Ftrctory wss also srrsnged. The factory, set up of ammonium bicarbonsta per year. The predicted production capscity of the factory wss reported to have bean exceeded by 20$. Eighty percent of the equipment and spars parts is manufactured in the factory itself. Ilathsnol is synthesized fram the waste gsses.
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5.10 Chso Y&g Sewage Treatment Plsnt, Shanghai
In the afternoon the group visited the Chso Ysng Sewsge Traatment Plant of Shanghsi metropolitan oity.
The plsnt wss sat up in 1954 to serve the residential area of Chowan.
It wss designed to treat
5 700 q
3 of sewage par day and to serve a population of 40 000 persons.
The plant now treats about 8 000-10 COO m3 of sawsge par day, serving a population of
Sewage is treated by an activated sludge process.
No facilities have been provided for dr#ting sludge because it is directly pumped to a sludge storage tank located in the farm area.
The reported compos.tion of the
01~~s was: N,
0,s; P2O5, 0.15% (P, 0.0%) and K,O, O.OZ$ (9, 0.1%). The compositions of raw and treated aewsge were not available.
Sludge and treated sewage are supplied free of charge to the commune. The underground pipes for transporting the sludge and treated sewage sre laid by the commune. Twenty percent of the capital sost of laying the underground pipes is given s.s a grant by the state to the commune. There are 10 such sewage treatment plants set up by the Shanghai metropolitan city to aerva the sawered aress.
The group also visited ChsngChin People's
Connnuna to sea sewage irrigatinn on an area of about 130 ha. Vegetables are msinly grown on this land. In sress receiving sewage irrigation no manure is added because the plsnt nutrients supplied through sewage can more than meet the requiraants of the vegetables.
It wss reported that the sewsge irrigation gave yields about 15% higher than those obtained through wall irrigation, The yield of vegetables wss reported to be about 1CCJ The sewage is applied intermittently, the time between appliostions being from one to three weeks depending on the condition of the soil. The vegetables sre grown on ridges and the sawsge is applied in f-rows between the ridges.
The sludge from the sewage trastment plant is stored in a sludge tank for two or more weeks before used ss a bssal stppliostion or top dressing.
Vu Shsn Municipality, Gusngdonu Province
The group studied the urbsn waste disposal system adopted by the municipality.
The city hss a population of 140 000 parsons.
The gsrbage (about 60 t/day) is brought to one of the three treatment sites where it is put into olosad compost bins for fermentation: is if nacasssry, the moisture oontent adjusted by adding water. A series of
80 such bins, each of 11.25 m3 capacity, has been providad at the treatment site visited.
The bin is covered and hss a ventilation hole at its bsse. During the fermentation period (25 dsys) parssites are killed by the high temperatures (700C) attsined.
F'ully treated gsrbaga is removed through the door in the front of the bin, screanad, and taken by the commune members on psyment of $0.80/t.
Night soil (170 t/dsy) is put into tEunke of
45 cubic metre capacity. ThirtyYtwo such tsnks have bean pruvided at the treatment site and each tank is 10.5 m long, 2.4 m wide and
2.3 m deep. These tsnks sre constructed below ground in two rows of
They sre inter-connected with pipe lines and hsve a cosunon drain and are provided with gsslight cwars fitted with wster seals.
The tanks are connected with the gas holder into which gss is pumped. The tsnks are filled with night soil to a depth of 1.9 m.
The night soil undergoes ansarobio digestion in the tsnk for 22 dsys, during whioh time mathsne is evolved. The gas is stored in a sausage shaped bsg msda of 0.22 mm thick
IQpolen lsminsted tith neoprene and rainforoed with nylon and with a PVC inlet and out let.
The bsg rests on a water surface as sn aid for detection of lealcs. About 230
103 of gss are produced daily, but in the winter ths output is reduced by 50$. The gas is used to generate electrioity. The sludge from the tanks ie sold to the commune members at $2.10 par ton, while the effluent is led through a pipe to a boat for transport to the fields.
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The garbage and night soil have the following composition :
1 Research Station, Rsi Chiao Commune, Nanhai County, Guangdong
The group visited the Research Farm of the Hsi Chiao Commune cultivation for green manuring. Sesbania is a leguminous annual crop of which there are two varieties: one with green stems and the other with red. The latter is cultivated by the c ommune because it is resistant to drought, acidity, alkalinity and waterlogging; it also resists high temperature and humidity. It produces the first two leaves 8-10 days after seeding and attains a height of 15 cm in about 30 days. The plants start branching
3540 dsp after seeding. Sesbania oannabina grows to a height of
3 m and each plant weighs about
The techniques of raising sesbania seedlings and their transplanting in rice fields were explained to the group. A practical demonstration of transplanting seedlings was arranged.
Hsin Iiui County, Guangdong Province
(15-16 May 1977)
The county comprises 22 people's communes with a total population of
000 persons. The cultivated area is 51 000 ha. The main crops of the county are rice, sugaroaneandmulbemy. The county is reported to have attained a high growth of agricultural production. The following rice yields were quoted:
7 500 l&a/year
The increase in productivity was mainly attributed to water conservation measures coupled with heavy dressings of natural manures.
The group visited the No. I production team of Chang Nan Production Brigade to see how composting was done.
The production team consists of
51 farming families with a population of 244 peraons.
The cultivated area is 16 ha. The brigade owns
On the aversge, each family has
11 pigs, the manure from which meets 60-7C$ of requirements.
8 258 kg/ha.
The rice yield in
The yield of wheat cultivated in
1976 aver an area of
5.3 ha was
The production team keeps all the pigs in a pigsty which is situated on the bank of .a etrsam. Wazhingz from the pigsty are led directly into a boat which carries the liquid manure to the fields.
The group saw a few msnure sheds constructed by the production team.
In the manure shed, pig dung is mixed with powdered mud prepared by a machine designed for the purpose.
The mixed material is stored in heaps for use when needed at mineral fertilizer is also applied as a supplement.
500 kg/ha/crop. Some
In the Cb m Pmducttion Brigade the grcup saw compost being made by the team mbers from different kinds of wzztes.
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Green manure crops, pig urine, human and animal excreta and garbage, are all put together in a pit and an equal volume of water is added.
The pit is two-thirds cwered and one-third is open. The manure ia ready in one month's time and is applied in liquid form.
The group also saw Azolla cultivaticn in the nursery and in rice fields.
May) the group had discussions with Chinese experts on green manuring, cropping systems, research on organic manures, use of fertilizers, blue-green algae, etc. silt, use of inoculation,
Tachai, Hsi J&g County, Shanxi Province
The study group visited Tachai which has earned a name in developing socialist agriculture through self-reliance and hard work.
Tachai is a production brigade of
Tachai People's Commune. It haz
160 form its labour force;
83 households with a population of
450 persons of whom
57 he&ares of cultivated land and
80 head of cattle, horses and mules.
The brigade's greatest achievements have been in the field of reclamation and development of land, installation of an irrigation system and construction of new houses for the members. Wan-made land, has been carved out of gullies and ridges. A further imprwement has been in the soil itself
- the depth of the original topsoil has been increased from
16 cm to 1.20 m by bringing soil from sloping areas.
Since 190, tops have been levelled off and 24 gullies filled in, merging the brigade's plots into 1
4 700 small and irrigation.
500 man-made level fields which are convenient both for tractor ploughing
7 km canal has been built along the mountain slope to bring water from Kuchuang reservoir to Tiger Head hill where five water storage tanks have been built and underground pipelines laid for irrigation.
In the past, a dry spell or a flood would cause disaster; todey, both have been controlled through irrigation and flood control devices.
Sprinkler irrigation has been introduced in high ares8 and
80$ of the cultivated land has been brought under irrigation fromvarious sources. Twenty-seven hectares of barren hills have been re-fforested
120 000 trees of which
000 are fruit trees. Forest earnings contribute 11% of the with brigade's total income. Agricultural mechanization has been going on steadily. The brigade has two bulldozers, six tractors and a number of agricultural machines.
A rope- way has been laid to carry agricultural produce, manures and fertilizers. Threshing and processing of agricultural products are mostly mechanized. In agriculture, new techniques such as close planting in widely spaoed rows and breeding new strains suited to the local climate are being adopted,
These have helped to improve seed strainz, to grow two crops instead of one and to grow fine grain in place of ooarse grain. organic manure is cor,tantly applied to newly reclaimed land at 150 t/ha. Manure is applied to other land at a rate of
75 t/ha per crop, plus 200 kg/ha of ammonium bicarbonate and
75 l&a of superphosphate.
&nure is made from crop stalks (maize, sorghum), cattle dung and human excreta.
The yield of grain has been increasing as indicated below:
Grain yield per hectare k/W
- 76 -
The grain output was reported to have exceeded the best pre-liberation figure by tenfold.
The brigade's food grain contribution to the state has grown with the increase in production. In 1975, it sold the State a record of
150 t of grain, averaging 2 t per household per year.
The collective economy has shown a corresponding growth, the total incorre from farming, forestry, animal husbandq and sideline occupations being 13 timea that of the early cooperative years.
The accumulated funds in
1977 were 60 times those of 1955; the accumulated fund in 1977 was 24.1s of the total income in that year. A larger accumulation fund has made avsilable more funds for productive i,nvestment. In 1977, the alount so invested amounted to
31.5% of the accumulation fund. Agricultural taxes in
1977 amounted to 0.83$ of the total income of the brigade in that year as against
8.5% in 1955. from facilities.
With the expansion of production, the income of the brigade members also increased
$74 per member in 1974. In addition, the members enjoy a number of
High school education has been made available to all children in the brigade.
Tuition fees from kindergarten to senior middle school are borne by the brigade.
Cultural and recreational activities are funded from the common fund and all members receive cooperative medical care.
All the brigade members live in new houses or new cave rooms paJring an annual rent of $1.30 per room or the equivalent of the value of two working deys.
Food grain is distributed on the principle of "to each one according to his need,,.
Ch..n Sun Production Brigade, Kebei Province
(19 May 19771
The study group was shown how high temperature compost is made and a practical demonstration was given.
In high temperature compost making, rice straw, garbage and night soil and animal exoreta were used.
Composition of high temperature compost
The manure is applied at 90 t/ha/hear. The members af the production brigade rear pigs individually. Each family keeps its pig in a small semi-oiroular sty to which is attached a small compost pit. The depth of the pit is about 2 m and it is almost filled with dry mud and straw. The pigs defaecate in the pit, the contents of which are periodically turned Over. The manure is ready after winter.
40 dap in summer md 60-80 de,wp in
A visit was paid by the group to F'sichi Ken Produotion Brigade (Litsun Commune,
Euai Lu County). Huai Lu County has a population of
The County is reported to have done well in water conservation and land improvement. Double cropping has been introduced. kg/hainlY76.
The grain yield has increased from
4 155 l&a in 1974 to 10
Bio-gas was introduced in 1973 since when 40 000 families in the oounty are reported to have set up bio-as plants. The group saw the bio-as exhibition arranged by the oounty.
Among the exhibits was an internal combustion en&ne running on bio-gas.
5-16 Ta Heh Production Brigade, Hebei Provinoe
The production brigade consists of 100 families. The group visited a bio-as plant under construction and a senior middle school run by the brigade.
Thirteen bio-gas plants have been set up in this school to impart bio-gas teohnolkgy to the students. The capacity of eaoh ,al.ant is 14 m3. Crop wastes and night soil are used in theee plants which supply in full all gas for cooking and all the electricity required by the school (340 students and
35 teachers and other staff.) The eludge from the plan-i~, ie used on the farm run by the echool.
- 77 -
The school also conducts two short-term courses on agricultural maohinery and the use of electricity bio-gas plants. in agriculture. After graduating the students go to the countryside for two years to work on the fsrms. The Ta Heh Production Brigade is reported to have set up 642
'The group inspected the wheat experimental plot which was laid out to study the comparative value of mineral fertilizers chloride at 375 kg/ha was applied to haif the plot and effluent from the bio-gas plant was a plied at 150 t/ha to the other half.
The following and effluent from bio-gas plants.
Both plots were given a basal dressing of observations were quoted:
No, of tillers
No. of spikelets
Plot reoeiving ammonium chloride
Plot receiving effluent
The group also visited Tung Shao Ying Production Brigade (Ku Cheng People's Commune) nhere the process of oompost making w~8 Been. Crop waste, silt and night soil/horse droppings were mixed thoroughly and while making the heap, a very large bundle of crop stalks was inserted to provide aeration.
General view of Tachsi Production Brigade, Shanxi Provinoe
- 78 -
The wealth of experience amassed in the People's Rqublic of China during the pact
28 years can, with suitable exteneion, be used to help other developing countries in their efforts to meet their ever-owing agrioultural needs.
$1 most developing countriee, a large proportion of organic wastes remain ae Buch, whereas th6ir utilization for remedying shortages of agricultural inputs should be an important aspect of national economy.
The foregoing chapters present detailed information on the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture aa practised in China and on the policies to step up such aotivitiee both from the point of increasing agrioultural production and of environmental senitation.
In this chapter some suggestions are made how to take best advantage of the experience gained in China in order to benefit other countries.
Recycling Programmes and Activities
6.2.1 Preliminary investinatiori
Wastes mey be broadly classified into three main gscups:
- agricultural ard animal waates/by-producte
- community wastes (rural and urban wastes)
- industrial wastes
It might be useful to conduct a comprehensive study in various oountriee on the present state of organic waste utilization and the potential scope of its exploitation.
The study could be oarried out from the following points of tiew: resources
(origin of wastes) such aa: wasi&Zmroaucts, w&6B/b~rOdUOt8, t iii) fruit and vegetable processing wastes,
(vii) induEtria1 wastes.
(i) crop wastes/by-products, (ii) forest
OozIIIIk ty wastes, (vi) fisheries and marine wastes and aa p- roduct0 euoh a8: protein food,
(i) animal and poultry feed, (ii) organic fertilizer,
(iv) paper, pulp board making, (v) indurrtrial furfural, oxalic aoid, activated carbon, silicon, etc.). chemicals
The study should envisage the following lines of action: i. Present state of utilization of waztea includiq: a. identification of wastes, b. present use of wastes in quantity and value, aa
0. reasons why the results of investigations in the use of waste materials, which have proved to be technioally feasible, have not been beneficially used, and remedial meazurea in this regard.
- 79 - ii.
Asseesment of possible utilization of wastes including: iii. a. b.
C. identification availability, of wastes, collection, storege in quantitative terms, identification of research and development of projects, areas for further work. a.
Prospects for utilization a. b. of wastes including: invitation of project proposals indicating the scope of the study, time, frame, co& implication and who is to undertake the study in the utilization of wastes, preliminary estimates of techno-economic feasibility,
C. identification productivity of viable projeote for impruving e&cultural
The availability of wastes depends on natural resources; so their assessment in quantitive tenza i6 not amenable to direct methods. An estimate of their availability is possible by indirect computation. lorewer, these wastee ere bulky in nature, containing nutrients in orgeaically bound form; therefore decompoeition of these we&es for a certain petiod is necessary to reduce volume and oonvert the nutrients into easily available forme for me by the plant. The publio health point of view must also be considered.
~ocio-eoonomic aspects of orgenio recycliq
There is scope for utilization of organic materials as a major source of crop nutrients in developing countries because of the short supply of tinera fertilizers, availability of organic resources, fertilizers and the availability the comparatively low production cost of organic of labour. easy countriee
The oonstraints to full exploitation of organic recycling potential available in these are: a. b.
Lack of auarenesz of the poeeibilities society towarde the progr-e, end lack of interest on the part of the inadequate infrastructure for oollection of wastes in rural and urban areas, inadequate technological development, leek of skill, e. f. g. social prejudi tea, lack of definite policy and programmee on the part of national gwernmente to support the use of organic fertilizere, financial difficulties ooncerning initial inveetment.
- 80 -
There is already sufficient working knowledge, experience and technical information available on city garbage ccnnposting, night soil treatment, utilization of eewage end animal wastes and fallen cattle, bio-gas, rural waste composting end green manuring. The
Chinese have this experience and India has also made a remarkable contribution in the field of recycling organio wastes in sgrioulture.
Those of the developing oountries who do not have the requisite technioal informati,Dn and expertise available in this field would do well to ask for expert assistance from outskde in the formulation and implementation of a nationwide prograzzae for development of local manurial resouroes.
6.2.3 Elements for development programnes
Soientists have shown that biological fixation of nitrogen is a very promising and aheap supplementary souroe of nitrogen for crepe. Many of the developed oountries have already adopted this approach. The contribution of legumes to nitrogen fixation in the soil is highest in
Australia and in the United States of Amerioa where legumes pravide a large amount of nitrwen for pfimsry production.
China has also made use of atmospheric nitrogen throng& extensive use of green manuring and Azolla oulture.
Other countries would do well to emulate these -lee.
These possibilities should be of particular interest to developing oountries which still spend much of their foreign exohange on importing mineral fertilizers and oontinue to have problems in distributing them to farmers.
For these, and teohnioal reasons, it app- that mzny developing countries would benefit greatly by making ertensive use of nitrogen fixation techniques and practices.
Eitherto leguminous plants have been used as green manure to enrich the soil by their nitrogen fixing ability, but another more beneficial~ of harnessing nitrogen is by using blue-green algae whiah are known to fix nitrogentothe extent of &MjOkg/ha.
-hk on the eeonozd~ use of algae has been going on in w eountriee
~cd 'here has been odderable basic and applied work in this field (e.g.
Ai1 2~pat1, Chba azd India). Inthe context of this report algae are of particular interest as bio+fertilizer. countries, algaehavelongbeenusedss ia
InJapezzsndsoms other Asian manure. Ithasbeendslaonstrated some field tdals in Japan that algal inoculation resulted in a yield increase of
Z!$ in the first year, 8$in the seoond, 19 in the third and
ZO$ fourth year.
China, algal inoculation has etarte2; under ezperiwntal conditions, the rice yield wsa increased by lO$.
Useful work on the role of algae ss a bio-hrtilieer, espeaially in conneotion with rice orops, has also been done in India. Vario~ blueween
~olstO0 and Bnsbaerza ogli~drO6~efanrm~ oau be used for nitmpn fixation.
~;~~~aebutalsotothe d-the arop is not only due to nitrogen fixation, release of scmevitaminz andgrowthpromoting
. He&ho& have been developed for large aoale production of algae..
Thaiy oan be either uultured in a tsnk or on m&at volcanic gravel or by open airmoiloulture.
Another method is oultivation in sewage water which is than used fm irrigation purposes.
Some other mzjar areae where algae oan help substantially in promoU.ng pxxduotitity &we:
-81 - a,
0. a61 a txmroe of food for mm end dcmeistic auimale: the algae as foodetuffe have some mique advantagea, for example the whole
.pPaut can be eaten with no waste. The protein content is very high.
The algae mop in general is not affeoted by climatic fluctuationa end can be grown throughout the year if adequate pre0auti-m are taken. simple,
Bmn the cultural techniques exe very as a muroe of enerq:: the recent energy oriaie ham attracted global attention to algae as e potential material for convemion of eolar energy into tramportable fuel.
Algae oan fix 2.5 to 3,s of the molar radiation and like other organic material can be eubjeated to anaerobic fermentation and generate b-w digeeted material oould be -used ae manure.
(methene); the pho~hoba&k&: there are aleo baotetia (phoephobaoteria) which exorete soids into the growth media and henoe eolubilies bound phoephatee. Theee orgakeme can be useful in the utilization of rock phosphates with a low phosphorus content. Amtralia haa forged ahead in the manufacture of W-per' by inooulation of a eulphur bacterium into a mixture of rook phoephate and eulphur.
&me aumeetiona for developiagtheum ofMo+ertilieere
The teohniques dmmloped in China for Asolla oulture oould potentially be appliedin duvelopizlg oounttie~.
Theme ootxntriea~initiallyadopt the teohniqwr to be applied to cioe fielde on atria1 baairr. AW.atance might be armn&forthetrazmfer ofmmhpraotdoeu.
On aninrsdiatebmirr, oountrdem whiohhme berpslaped algal bio-fertiliser could be requeerted to supply the oulturem and give ocmplete detail8 of multiplioation and application to other omntriee intereeted in initiating arcbapxwgmme.
Since the agro-olimatio and edaphio oondifiom nrrry vary in different region8, it ilr alma neommry to initiate progrumes to irolate and identie the blueween algae already premmt aad nstive to their own reapeotive auvironmenta.
Farmers in developing countriee &muldbepruvidedaa quioklyaa poeeible with the best ourrently available teohuolsgg to uue algal inooulation:
(aB)thrmghinten&ve agrioulfirreleduaationandextQlrriontothe plantetoenhanoebicqgaapmduotCmand(b padcaging, etsriagandmpplyofalgaef~ r thmughmmeproduotion cmLture. farmem with demmstratiorm on the WB~ of algae aa ecu mnure and in bio-gaa
ii. Green manurizq
Green manuring is practiced in c1Li*;9 but expansion of the multiple cropping system in that country would limit the scope of green manuring. Nevertheleee, in other countries where inadequate quautities of materials, euch as cattle dung and crop HaBtes, limit production of oompoet, green manures are the
Cheapest form of organic fertiliear.
However, their plaoe in the cropping pattern would need to be planned, ae growing only for ploughing into the soil involves the ices of a crop.
Most members of the Leguminosae are widely dietributed in the tropics and eub-rtropice, The floxsl composition of the natural vegetation in any doveloping ocuntry will reveal a herb, shrub or tree belonging to the three sub-families Mimosoideae, Caeaalpinnioideae and Papillionaceae, Raieing perennial shrubs such as Gliricida maoulata, on dry lands, on borders of fields, around manure pita, along imigation channel8 etc. wculd largely make up the deficiency in raw materials for compost making.
Some of the practices that could be adopted for green manuring are: a. sowing a green manure orop, harvesting it and using it for ccmpoet making with other crop wastes instead of ploughing under the orcp.
In this mannert the field, which must be left mown until de- compoeition of plcughed-in green manure, could be cultivated innnediately for sowing; b.
Sesbaniaeeedlinge meybetraneplanted on bordera ofpaddyfielda; out of every 4-5 plants being left for seed end the renkaining plant6 ploughed under after the harvest of the first crop of paddy. !fhe plants that are ploughed under serve as a green mauure crop for the followin& crop of paddy; if a heavy yield of a green manure crop is obtained in one unit area‘ it can be ploughed under in 34 other units; d. leeves of green m~ure treee or forest leaves can be used aa green manure, the leaves being applied to paddy fielda at the time of puddling; pulses like cowpea, aoybea, green gram, eto, may be includedin the cropping pattern without lose of any comeroial or cereal orop* In a period of 4-6 wedat the crepe supply an adequate quantity of greenmatter for greenmanuring andperhapa 2 or
3pickiage ofbeana a~ vegetables; f. legible could alao be advantageously grown in orcharde. Plantation crops also afford opportunities for the inclusion of
1-s in multi-layer cropping.
Chinese farmera have developed a eimple method for preparing legume inoculanta for increasing the nitrogen fixating capacity
It could be scientifically tried in other ccuntriea.
Much wgrk on isolation and screening of
Rhizobium for effioient titz%ine euited
%XJ legume crops haa c~lttare~ are now available. beeg done ‘in vari QUB countries and a number of
Interested countries should set up their OF-~ 'legume bank', which could include all the legumes grown with full sgroncmical, nutritional and matnqement details.
There is also a need for quality control standards for legume cultures now being prepared andmarketed.
City garbsge shculd be converted into compost as a means of garbsge disposal.
In China, city garbsge is diverted in raw form to surrounding commune areas where it is made into compost with night soil, animal wastes, eto, Transport of raw refuse to the countryside involves muoh haulsge at considerable cost in labour and materials. It is also a health ha5ax-d.
A better wsy would be for the municipal authorities themselves to compost the city garbege with night soil, in equal prcpcrtions by weight, and then supply it to People% Ccmmunes at cost ptioe or sven at a ncminal profit.
There should be arrangements for sieving compost by mesns of a hand rotary sieve or a mechanioal sieve,
The municipal authorities msy adopt cne of the three camposting methods best f&ted to their conditions: a, b.
Conventional ocizposting in trenches/heaps, compost bins, mechanical oomposting,
Method a. is most ocmzaonly adopted in
China. In certsin cities/towns compost bins are used for cornposting. The bins ere simple structures with little aeration snd in whioh it takes a relatively long time to ferment the garbage.
A modified bin (method b.) consisting of a cell type structure with a porous bsse snd space beneath for aeration snd drtinsge oould be used with advantage.
The baas oould be made of bamboo mesh, and the top would serve as a loading hatch and there could be an unloading door at the front. The closed bin would help prevent the e-a,, The sir would help thermophillio fermentation and with a suitable moisture oontent (5%) temperature would rise to 65 or 70°C within 33 dsys.
Mechenisa~ian in composting city garbsge (method a,) has been introduced in several countriss, both developed and developing.
A number cf,ccmpost plants have been set up in the Lkxitsd States snd Europe, but the problm of marketing compost has restrioted the use of mechanized composting as a method of refuse disposal. However, thie systemhss found favour in a number of other European countries.
In Asisn countries, mechanical cornposting hsz hsd limited suaaess and the following conclusions csn be drawn:
Ccmpost plants should not be operated with a profit motive. whereas it actually costs money to treat sewsgs or to reduce pollution, the aim that disposal of solid wastes shouldbring any finanaial income to the ocmpost plant is not logical.
The advantages of mechanization should be made use of, but turn- key projects of patented processes developed for highly industrialized environments requiring high degrees of elcills in operation and maintenance msy not be suitable.
A partially meahanized compost plant would be ideally suited for the developing Countries.
A new concept in nmAanica1 oompoeting is called for. Besides the norms1 meohanioal oompoeting, it would be neoeesary to impregnate the aompoet during promssing with oheap suurces of nitrogen and phosphoruz. The resulting product would be a much needed organo- mineral complex having an organic base which would peleaae the nutrients required by the plants in balanoed quantities.
The enriohed aazpozt could be tranzported eoonaaioally over greater distanaes for marketing anduse.
In arid r&one, water shortage iz a oontinuing problem, ~ometimee limiting [email protected] and econanio growth.
In this oontext, subjeoting municipal wzete water (doziestio sewage) to varying degrees of treatment and rcwreing the reolainred water in agricultural production beoomee increasingly attractive.
Added to the reaouroe value of waste water is the value of reclamation aa a meanz of controlling pollution.
Waste water rsolamation md r-e in agriuulture is oamnon in China, India andIsraeland, to a limited extent, in-e and the USA.
However, for health reazonz, the Bewage for re-uze in agrioulture needs t3une prior treatment. The two conventional methods of treatirq sews&e,
Viz, triokle filtration and aativated sludge prooezeee cm their modifioationz, are too ooztly aud thuz preolude their adoption in eeveral oountriez.
The oxidation pond treatment, a reoent innovation, hw attraoted great interezt all over the world, It haz graat scope in dzvelopiqg oountriez because of itz elmplioity and low cozt. Ita effioienoy iz oomparable or in some respeotz even superior to that of conventional treatment. Itz oapital oozt pluz capitalized running oozte is eztimated to be in the
-0 OfUS$ltO Jp~r heads~ irgaSZ&US$5 tO
20 forth8 trickle filter prooeze.
In the olddation pond, deckqozition of organic matter takes place contemporarily with algal photozyntheeis, The d6oanpozition m&es atilable
COz, NE4 and other simple zubstzncez which the algae oan utilize. For their part the alga4 produce vwhiohthe
UldzofzIi -gznizmz aerobiabaoteriarzq~Cre. The two are therefore of mutual azziztance to one another.
Given appropriate oonditionz for abundant algal activity, the net effeot of an oxidation pond ila to produoe organi matter in algal cells.
Effluent fraz ozidation pondz iz zuitable for quick growing typez of fish, zndthe finaleffluentfromthe i&&ion meet suited, purpoze6. odd&ion fishpond oanbe gainfullyutilizedfor pondz have their highest potential in the tropicz and zubtropioz to which areaz inmenzive treatment of thie hind ie
Seexqe farming ie differuntfromgeneral farming. The mtityof sewage that iz applied dependz on the nature of the soil. Proper crop rotationz andthe zimultaneouz cultivationofgreenmanure crops erepre+xquieitez of a suooezzf'ul sewage farm,
LIB in this WV the tilth of the zcdl will be lprrintained under int*zive cropIxLng.
Under oontinuedsewageirrigationbut withitiquate drainage, crop yields diminizh Steadily, india&iingthe gradualdevelogment of %euage 8i&esaw of the eoi.1. Treatment of zuoh ~aoilz with burnt lime followed by a fallow
In 60~~6 soil typen, eubzurfaoe d~dnage muzt be emplopd to anoure admuate aeration.
Ccnoentratedeewage has to be euitably purifiedor dilutedwithwatertomzke it fit for egricultural usea Sewage irrlgatitm pmmmteu considerable weed
&mm&h. !Phe maMy liea in planting the orcpm at a wider rrpac%ug 80 as to facilitate weeding.
Night soil dimonal ti utilizatfcn
China haa been making we of human excreta as Qznure for agr5cultural pr&&i~ fcr a long time and hzz developed aazitarymethods fcritetreatmemt.
In motet A&m ccuntriee there is strong prejudioe and social iuhibiticn egairmt the handling and uee of night ecil,
Ccnaequentlymthcdm whichdcnotinvolve direot handling of night soil shculd be aouebdered for these countrib&
In oities , r;cight cdl &.se&ion offem the 3ert fmluticu. T&e process involvea the mane digestion procees aa with eemge - sludge in oonwmtioual aewzge treatment plante.
The digeaticnplente are uaual'q demigned f4othatthey can became ocmpcnentparts cf ompletetreatrzent plant0 vhenuatez4mme eewerage mhemea beooma powible. The digestion plants have auadditionaladvautagein that bio-gaa is allrso obtained which could beneficially b8 utilized for heath&, co&zg and lighting or for generation of electricity.
A night soil digestion mystem haa been widely adopted in Japan. The eludge obtaiuedis dried/hsat~,beggedandeugplledtof~~ fcruee a~manure~
In village home, the simple teohnolo,gg adopted in Swedish mrrpl areaa may be tried. The technology ie based on bacterial action imide closed ocntainera known aa %czpost toil&P.
Humauexcreta, lemme sndHtchenmatesare emptied into these toilets.
After euveral months of decaupcoiticn, the prooeas prcdncea rm a fertili5er.~ cdourlese andixmocucuz huzmawh5ohcanudvautagmaalybeuaedaa
The recent energycrieie mdthe remaltant uidaspmadfart%liaer andtheSr~gh~cse,mdd~t~ir\ase~~c~~ofarc~~noropr,~~ mhcrtagem fcroeddeveloping oountrieuto re-emwinethe problemin arderfomake the fulleet use of indigencua remurce6. Inthie context, the po-aaibilityof
Ming the Mological protean of anaerobic ocnflictiagneeda cfbcth fuel anilmw famentaticnto reccncile the frantheeame~omcea (cattledun& orcp matee) haa atirmalated renewed wrldwide intersrrt in biolgsrr ptntr. A bio-gaa plant generates the mmbuetiblegaa nwrthmethmu&hthedigeaticncf oellulceio organic mate andrefume laetsriala uithcutimpairingthe~rrrurPria1 value.
China ham made a aamendable contribution
Aspecial foature cfthebiwaa to him technology and utilissticn. plant8 dwignedinChinaiafhatt~y~
~p,Id8ple~~bl)~elQ~1Yby~iagindi~~Iretofide. Thefcuz million plaatrr reported to hmm beau met up in China are aviaible rrgnbol of the naticn*e melf~eUance and detarndnstion to make the meat cf itu moeto, the biggest of which are ite mpcwer, rural ~emmrc~ andingentity.
In1~o~~tcfthedevelcpingocmntr4ee, Pccslihelt~ andfertilisem availablein the fcm of aninrrl and v-table remiduer are psrtially wmted and partially bumed in inefficient f+tmuum whichcaptmo little ofthe energyoont~t snd premerwalmcmtnone ofthefartiliservalue, Amwrobicdigutioucfth~e mrrrtee can prcv5de tie1 for fcmertic and oumercial~e, uthe eccnqezpmdz, fcr cottage indumtriea Eblg for irrigafim and,
- 86 -
The energy values reccvered from manure and other egmcultural wastes niay not seem impressive but at the unit level of farms and rural hopppa, each plant costing less than US8 50 oau produoe [email protected] methane gas for cooking and nitrogen rich manure for crops for an average sized family. Hhile fertilizers and electrification have benefitted those who have them, they are not uidely avsilable and the prospeats that such centralized eeotor-uiee develcpmznt will reach even a bare majority of the people in the next generation are remote in most of the developing countries.
It is inthie backgrcundthat bic-gaz teohnclogy could be considered a means for solving the fertilizer and fuel needs of rural people.
The currently available technology on biolgas in China, India andin saw of the other developing oouutriee is auffioient to expzndfhie prcgra!m~,but clearly there are some technical problems which remain to be solved to perfeot the bio-gaz plants for all conditions.
So far, the emphasis has been on individuai plants. The introduction of oozmnanity gas plants (fed on cattle dung, pig excreta, human excreta, water hyaointh, eto.) to developing countries is long cverdne and would be of great service to the cama'cmity, especially the weak sections.
In urban areas, ccnmnxzity plants (fed with human excreta) ahculd be installed, for instance in oolleges, sohools, eta.
Thegua canbeusedfcrcocEngand heating purposes and the slurry (digested sludge) led through a pipe to fields and used with irrigation water. There are opportunities for the inztallaticn
-.. .' . . ofbicqaz plants instead of 0oetlyundergrcunddraLnage syztemzingczarnment
-., spanecred houzing schemes.
At prwmntthe wse ofbic-gzziz usually limitedto fuel for ccckLngand production of manure. The farming cozznmity is equally interested in cheap and easily available fuel for diesel engines for lifting water for irrigation andfor othersgriculturaloperationz, Riesel oil being erpznzive, biolgae plante of larger capacities in rural sreaz will, therefore, prcve mere attractive, economic and a boon to farmers for watering their fields. Similarly, bio-gas plants can be used in cottage industries in rural areas.
The developing countries would be well advised to introduce bio-gse technology in the rural areas to provide fertilizer and energy from local sourcez in a mznner ccnsiztent with full employment. These projects w be adapted in zeveral contiguous villages as part of an integrated rural dzvelopmsnt prcgrrrp~wr.
Etmding of such projeotz could be ecught from naticnal and international agencies.
In view of the inoreazing interest in bioqas, rerrearch on much needed development of bio-gas technology zhculd be intensified. Investigations could include:
Further work on ahemical, microbiological and engineering aepecte; insulation studies for increasing gas generation; studies on conversion of internal cczibustion and oanpression ignition engines; da growing of algae in the liquid fraction cf the residual slurry; e* develcpment of light machinery to run on bit-gas so as to widen the eoope of use of gaz for cottage industries; f. imprcvementin burner design;
8. utilization of bio-b3aB fur egricultural purpose6 euch as driers and hatchery heaters; socio-econanio aP:eots of bio-as plants; h.
1m investigations on hydro-eleotrio generation programmes based on conventional water wheels dxriving small alternators;
J. solar and wind energy collectors.
Training oourses for teohuical personnel are lieeded urgently,
China has been producing orgsnoladneral fertilizers :'>ough +?'mps oz a limited scale.
Superphosphate aud ammonia are generally used together with organio mzterials in meking these fertilizers,
Agronomically, the benefits from balanoed use of organic msnures and mineral fertilizers -8 well established. following sdvantsges:
An orgsno-mineral fertilizer hzs the a, b.
CO d. ee it supplies all the nutrients in balanced quantities and therefore imprcvea the percentage utilization of nutrients added in fertilizers au required by oropef it prevents losses of nutrients because of the high ion exchangeable capaoity of orgtio matter; it supplies nutrients readily snd steadily ever the entire growing period of crops; it helps maintain the soil organic matter at a steady level, thereby ensuring good soil physical properties and futility status; it hzs signifioant residual effeots on succeeding craps and helps maintain productivity: f. it is more economic to transport the material over greater diatanoes since it is enriched in NJ, P and II and contains more plant nutrients perunitvolume,asocmpsredtobullqyorgauiamauurcs.
!Thus, suchan orgsno-zinsralaomplexwouldhelpin remcvingthe of organic manures cm the one hand end mineral fertilizers shortod~ on the other.
There is, therefore, a need to populax-ize production of organo-mineral fertiliaere indpnrelcpingocuntries.
There could'be seve~~+l approaches to production of enriched organic manures*
It hss been found that the rate and extent of liberation of nitrogen from app~edorganicmsnuresis adequate fornormalplsntgrowthwhentheir Cd ratio is less than 1O:l or the nitrogen content is more than 2.9. In practioe, the CB ratio of organio wastes osn be reduced by adding the requieite smount of nitrogcm in the fcrm of nitrogenous fertilizer. Thus a low quality manure ccntaining O.sNwith a
C:N ratio of 2O:lcsn betreatedwithszzsoni~ sulphate solution to add @ more nitrogen. !&is would reduce the Cd ratio
8:1. and the enriched ours oan then be utilized effeotively.
This method ie well suited to the direct utilization of large qusntities of orgunio wastes of wide C:N ,rstioa euoh as paddy and groundnut hnskz, wheat chaff, tobacoc wastes and sny mterial in a suitable physical oondition to be essilyin- corporated in soil.
This method enables the process of ccmposting to be eliminated, thus saving time snd labcur.
There i0 a ohemical proaess also for disintegrating bones, leather wastes and obtaining a sterilised bone-1 pouder whioh csn be used as awnare or es a cattle feed, The dry bones are *'ireated x%th diluted caustic soda
(5.C$) until they disintegrate oompletely to form a psste (12-15 dys). The disintegrated material is then washed with water and treated with lC$ hydroohlorio aoid solution to neutralise it. The dried material yields bone-mealin powder form.
-' viii. Aquatic planta
Aquatic plsnts are ocnsidered as weeds in most countries snd all possible means sre taken to eliminate them, while in China these plsnto ars oultured in a systematic way to prcmide material both for compost making and fcddsr for pigs. Feeding pigs with varicus aquatic plsnts suoh ss water hyacinth, water lettuce or water ohestnuts es a substitute for ccnoentrate feed is a usefulinncvatian. plants, ss in China.
These plants could also serve ss raw material for bicqas
Techniquea for oontrolled cultivation of water plants adapted in China are worth emulating by other couutries. A simple method is to drsg out the plants from uaterwsys and put them on the banks for semi-drying; they sre then reaped in alternate lm with mud or silt in equal prcporticns. decomposition, the heapisturnedtwc or three time sndwhenturning,
To hasten it must be ensuredthattheundeoomposedplsnts left eqosed on the surface. are oapletelyocveredaudnot ix. Tsnk, lpcnd and river silt
The benefWia1 effect of silt or mud cn crcp grcwth and soil well kccwn to Chinese farmers. The ertensivs use of silt in oouutry also helps in de-eilting waterweya, tanU and pcmds. device for sucklngmudfromthe bottom ofwaterusys oouldbe in other countries. imprwwent
Nwesrah Needs materials
GeneralXy8peeldng,rwe8roh - partioularly as mauuret bssnotbeendsvelcpedtothe applied ressaroh - on t‘h use of orgsdo ertentss cnincrganic,dneralfertiliser we. There is, therefcre, a need to initiate and expand rewsrch cm all sspects cf organio recyoling.
AlthopghChinahss awell-crgsninedorganio towards the solving of specific district or 1-e wnure rwesrch prcgmwe, it is cr%ented problum.
There is still a nesd fcr osrtdn investigations which cau be made at country or svsn rsgicnal level. For [email protected], in bicqgss prcductionimprcv~ntis neededinthe sepsrationcfmsthane fka~carbcndicxidsaudto srtsnd gas prcdnction into the colder mcnths cf the year; mom information is required regmdiag the interaotionbetween needed with crganic audmineralfertilisers; high nitrogen-firing new or imprcved varieties of lqgumss are oapacity; methcds of ocmposting oculdbe iq~rwed to &ive products with more fsvcurable C:N ratics for fertiliser usei and so on,
The bazio unit of rural production, adminietration, planning and a eocialiat cofmnmity life ia the People’e Cozmnane. It oorreeponds by and large to the old market distriot of pre-revolutionary timse (Hsiang).
There are at present about 55 000 people’s conw~~se in China. The original number of about 27 000 camnunes in 1958-59 wae increased to 77 000 after the ocmsolidation measures of
1961 in order to have smaller, administratively more wieldy unite, end then gradually again reduced by mergers whenever looal eaonomio experience showed that twc or more very emall coasnu~~ could be operated more ration8lly cm a leqfa scale.
The Psople’e Conmnxne
8 two-tier inner struoturei it is aubdivided into e;tveral
Brigades uhioh organizationally correspond to the Advanced Agricultural Produoere,
Cooperative of the pre-1958 stage. In moat oases, the Brigade ie co-extensive with a larger village or gro-q~ bz smaller hamlets.
It is subdivided into several Production Teams which represent the historically gron~ hamlet, small village or part of a larger village.
Teams consist d $-50 households, i.e. thoee which normally do their field work together
(and have done so in &he past); a team’s cultivated area may range from
1 to 15 ha. The
Erigade groups several teame with about 50 to 400 households and 50-400 ha but there are a few brigades which are not further subdivided into teams; the model brigade of Taohai is one cf those exoeptionsD
‘Ihere is a relatively clear divieion of labour between the three tiers d the ocnmaune system: the Team manages crop work in the fields, small-scale animal husbandry
(poultry and pigs), small-eoale tree plantations end other operations closely connected with the farmers, daily routine.
The Brigades usually manage local irrigation end lend improvement works, seed multiplication aprd testing, larger-scale animal husbandry, run farm maohines, repsir and maintenznoe shops, small-soale and seas-al sideline aotivities and rural industrial enterprises, supply end retail stationa (shops and warehouses); undertake fish farming and agrioultural forestry work.
The Cozsmnes are respossible for rural capital construction, labour deployment, full-time rural industries, large-eoala lend reclamatios and pilot and infrastructural projects.
All three tiers are governed by the assembly of their members who elect their
Revolutionary Cozmittses, end on the Counnme level the People,8 Cotmcil (40-200 representatives), who then elect; the Cazzuze,s Bevoluticnary Casnittea.
The Cusaittees, in oharge of msnagement, are oanposed of 5-9 members who are not professional adminis- trators but mnst exercise a productive prcfeesion which they continue to praotice during their tenure, end must after a given time return to the rsnk end file in order to m&e room for new caaaittee members, oultivators like them.
!Lhe fusotioning of the Consmue Caaaaitteez is superwised by the County (Esim) authorities, nhcse Cammnity Control Board caafrols the administrative praotioes, audits the financial mssagement and itmotions ar a oourt cf appeal in conflicts between ocmmme
In each csse, the local party cells, party cozzaittees and party secretaries sot as zzt animating and guiding elements under the principle of “unified leadership”
(between c czsnmal, administrative and party structures) which ensures close oontrol end pre-eminence cf’the CMnese Corznuni St Party (ml) in deoisionang at the village level.
The Camuse Caittae controls the two most vital organs of the collective: the trade and supply cooperative and the finance and eating cooperative.
Although both are called cooperatives they are in fact administrative organs entirely dependent upos the instructions from the Co,mmme mznsgemsnt. !L%O handles collection of the oantractu- ally due qusntitiez cf prcduce (quotas) for delivery to the Hsien authorities, of graiu smaants to be delivered in lieu cf toss, and of purohasing sny above-quota
- 91 - gusntitiee of produos that the collective or individual members want to oomneroialiee,
Inversely, it is also reepnnsible for procuring the neoeeary produoti on inputs for the brigades and teams, and d ordering and oommeroializing consumer goods from the state trading organization at the Hsien level, to the individual members of the collectives through the stores and distribution points at the brigade level,
The savings ooopr, sot as local branohea of the People'8 Bank in collecting the credit assets of the oolleotive and of individual members; the latter may have savings
They accept payments and remittsnoes e end its funds to the
EIeien authoAtiss and the People's Bank and inveresly handle loans from the latter to the oomnnle*
TheCormnmm~ andBrigados' acoouutsnts work closely vi;h those two cooperatives. The aooounting ie oalried s;tt in tno categories: in kind and ii; mm\ey.
Comnune revenue ie acoounted in these tlro terms. Remittanoee arb ?oing :G& iran the grose revenue in the following order to the tax aooount, to the quota delivery account, to the three commune funds and to working -counts. These transfers must be accepted by the Commune members' assembly, usually twice a year.
Once all production expenses are met and the neoesary and etatutory remittanoee are made, the assembly decides upon the distribution af the net proceeds: usually this is being done in two ways, in kind by giving each member first a basic amount of produoe suoh as grain, sugar, cooking oil, cotton, eto. and distributing the remainder in proportion to the wdk points each member has earned during the period of account under study.
In the same way, the cash net proceeds are distributed.
The three statutory frmdz to be supported by mandatory remittances from the colleotiveal gross revenue are: the welfare fund, from which the cosz~~os pay health, eduoation and other social erpensee; the reserve fund, whioh servr::o to defray unforeseen social costs, supprffts hardship oases, eto; and the acoumulatim ftmd. The latter is by far the nozt important as it is from it that the Conmnme paya for capital investments, be it in infrastruoture, in agricultuxl capital equipment or in expansion of productive capacity into other fields, i.e. rural small-scale industries. lhe level of remittance is theoretically freely mixed by the aseembly but the atate, through its argane and the looal WC oamaittse, Beeti to it that the rate of acouzmlation is not too low. In recent years, it uas mentioned that in most well-run oonmmnes the rate of accumulation use lO=12$ more.
(of gross revenue), in exemplary ones like Taohai, it was said to exceed 20$ and
- 92 -
S0ient:I.fj.o reseamh aotivii;y is mainly uudc. the jurisdiotiou of the Chinese Aosdslq~ of
Agricultural Sciences, whioh is subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture and
The Acadealy is responsible for long tern agricultural resewoh. Besides this, the Baadeny also operatee a nmber of speoialized research institutes and laboratories ~luah 88 the
Rational Institute of Forestxy, National Institutes of Plant; PTotWtiol$ RoZtiaUltUret
Sericulture and Soils.
Each Rational Research Institute epeoialigee in a major field of egrioulture or a speoific disoipline of sgrioultural problems all over the country in its special field. science and oovers agricultural
The Chinese Aoadsaiy of Soiemes 9190 does some ~qsearoh on sgrioulture the Aoade&)r of &&cultural but it is only confined to fuudamental we-& whereas
Scienoes mainly devote9 its time to applied regearoh. The
National Research Iuztitutes solve basio scientifio probleass and thus provide soientifia feedback for research institutes at lower lsvels.
The provinces sad autonamoua regions have their own aoadeudes of agriculture; eaoh province ha8 its own agrioultural reeearoh institute as do the munioipalities of Shaughsi aad Peking. At the oomty level also, there are Agrioultural Research Stations.
T&mica1 advsnoes from these researoh station9 have to reach the field produotion level and the field problems have to reaoh the rssearoh stations fox solution.
Cosmuual researoh aud teohnioal service systems at the aozsmne level have been iv,troduoed. Under these systems there are four levels of resesroh for the llbaeea, stsrtiug from the county to the production team.
Thus there is one agricultural resesroh station in each county, one experimental farm in each oumane, one reeearoh teem in each produation brigade aud oue research group in each prodwtiou tesm.
Through this eystes research findiugs are trsasforned into field trials, demonetratione and extemion with extension semioes ss suoh. The orgsmizatioual struoture of the o-e facilitate9 rapid dsmoustration of both information derived from ite own research aotivitiee and the remaltr, oouduoted at the higher level institutions.
In Jiangm Province alone, the number of workers engsged in sgrioultural aotivifies out of the total population of
55 million, of which
40 million is faming oomnmi tsc u9a reported to be at 1.2 million. It is evident that China has dsvelopsd a large network of sgricultural expsriment stations and demonstration farw.
While at levels from the oouuty upward research funding is oontributed by the State, the oosmuna 1 levels support their own research in a spirit of self-eliauoe.
'Phrcmshtbsrca-ohinstitmtas aiagriCUlt~lre8mmhforthe lwel). atprsfeotmal mame
(440~01 amg ocwnuneT brigadeand produotion
- 93 -
Resasroh pmgmmnes of the institute are formulated by tsking into oonsideratiou the requirwenta of the State, the needs of the f#msi.ng onmmmity and the institute% own vieus.
Tobe ofpraotioalbenefittothe oamnme members, field researoh is generally oonduoted on the prinoiple of a "fhree-&n-ones oanbiuation involving researoh, demonstration aud ertension.
The research is dented to inoresse agrioultural produoticn iu the follouing manner:
Estensive investigation of the national resouroes in the country and their use aadthe study of effioienttapping ofneuresomoesm
Overallstudyofthe be-thaw? utilization of landandwater areas andthe e&eusiou of oultivated lsuds ineluding reolsmatiou-of aUralAne and other poor mila.
Applioation of Chinese traditional ezperienoe in inteusive farming and of the latest soienoe teohnology to r&se the level of agrioultural produotion.
Strengthening of re9e9roh in eoonondos.
The %ightqoint charter for agriculture" prooldmed by Chairman Mao serves as basic guidelines for mug out the above resecrrch tasks. The oharter calls for (1) soil improvement, (2) rational applioation of fertilizers,
(3) water oonservation,
(4) breeding of high yielding varieties, (5) sational close planting,
(6) plant proteotion,
(7) field mamgement and (8) introduotion of improved fw:! implements.
- 94 - reoyoling
In Chini: -Ithough the major portion of plant nutrients is supplied by organio snd only one-third by mineral fertilizers, the sustained higher yields needed to support the population meke it neoeseary to enlsrge the quantity of mineral fertilizers in the effort to increase agricultural production. In addition, the policy of raising
.yields through intensive oropping systems, i.e. double or triple cropping, places a still
&eater demand on mineral fertilizers. The Chinese Government hsz, therefore, taken measures to inorease fertilizer produoti on.
Initially, in China, the emphasis was on setting up small factories and about county-sponsored amall-soale fat.tories advantages of such small factories sre: were established, less capital almost one for eaoh county, investment, less meohsnization minimum storage end transport oosts of the finished product, and time sating. These factories were designed by Chinese experts and equipped with 'home-msde' machinery.
At present, about
6O$ of the fertilizer an average is produced by snail and mediun-sized factories annual output of about 20 000 tons. The main produce is a nitrogen ferti with li zer + ernmonium bicarbonate.
The study team visited two small~oale bicarbonate; one was the Hshing fertilizer
County factory faotories producing azunonium wbioh produce9 20 000 tons, and the other the Chiaoe Tiag fertilizer faotory producing 80 000 tons per year. The predicted production capacity of this factory was reported to have been exceeded by 20$, snd
8% of the equipment and spare parts is produced by the factory itself.
Ammonium biosFbonate contains
17.5% nitrogen which makes it a relatively low snalysie fertilizer. The production process is relatively simple and cheap and is made aocording to the following reaotion:
The raw materials used for the process ere coal, air and water and two steps are involved:
1. production of ammonium hydroxide by combining water and azsnonia,
2. carbonation of the aroaonium hydrotide with carbon dioxide.
The production cost was given as about US$50 per ton and the selling price to the production brigades ss about US$73.
The packeging of auzzonium bicarbonate inplaztio bags considerably reduoee the loge of eJmWZlium.
In view of the increasing need for mineral fertilisem in China, the number of small*cale factories is still increasing, but for 88me time now more 9mph99i9 has been placed on larger-scale factories sndtothis end, 28 largeecale factories begun production during the FaurthFivequar Plan for
Import oontracts for 13 more
?~ge=6oale factories, mostly urea plants, await implementation from 1976 onwsrds, which could supply Chinese sgriculture with an additional 2.2 million tons of nitrogen per year, eqd to about half of the current consumption.
- 95 -
The consumption of mineral fertilizers in China in 1975/'i'6 was:
4.555 million tone N
0.333 million tons P tone K from these quentitiee, the following amounts have been during the same period: produced in China
3.300 million tone N
0.300 I' u
0.249 million ton8 P tone K 1
(s ource :
FAO, Honthly Bulletin of Agricultural Econmdce and
Despite the heawy working progmme during the Study Tour, our Chineee host6 were &ill able to arran&e vieita of kstorioal, political, teohnioal, industrial, ecmnanic and oultural interest. Theee were to: the Great Wall the Ming Tombs
Tien An Nen, Sqmre of the Eecntenly Peaoe the ImperialPalaoe&awum the 1st EIay Celebrationa the dgricultural Erhibition, Peking theGlwmareFactory,Peking the YangtseRiverBsidge,Nanjing
Dr.SuuYat-sen%~ Mausoleum, Nanjing the WalJring Traotor %otory, changshou the Con6tructionHaterialFactory,
Cher455hou the ErhibitiuAm1, chang&hort the Pottery Faotory, Tingmn I%mg County the sanohun cave
GasdgleinS~~includiagTi~Hill(lardgland~~ theSushouR&roideryBeeear&Ixwtitute the Shan&xL Industrisl&bibition the ChineoeFkport CammditieeFair, Guaag5hou the Nan Rui F hotory the Nunoriel Garden to the brtyro of the Guaqahou Commune Uprising sewemloutatanding oul+u-alpaa-formanoee, partioularlybyyo~people the Pei Yimn Reotaurmit, Gtmgshou; thePeHngKaoyaMm(PekkmgRoaatI)uak
Re6taprant) and mny other plaoeo~where we oonld appreaiate the uquioito Chinese cmioine. today.
All *heme experienoea eerved to attpplment our impremion of China aa it is
The Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Shandong Province
Compoet and ite effeote on eoil and orope in China
K. William Kapp
Recyolingin cantemporary China.
In. World Development, Vol.
Department of &viromental Health, Znetit%e of Hygiene, Chineee Acadmy of
Medical Sciences, Peking.
Sanitary effeota of urban garbage and night soil compoeting in China
China% energy policies and reeouroe development,
Report of a Seminar, Stanford University, l-96
The Taboo Resource -
The use of hurmn excreta in Chinese agriculture, fertilixere, Soil6 Dulletin 27, 1975
Organio materials and soil produotivity, Soils j3ulletin
Organia recycling in Ada and the Paaifio, Soil6 Bulletin (in print)
Algal bio-fertilisera for rise cultivation,
Indian Agrioultural Reeeamh Institute, New Delhi,
UN Eooncmrio and Sooial Cuamieeion for Asia and the Paoifio
Biogas te&no1agy and utili5ation
Reoent developments in the field of biological nitrogen fixation,
Seneible 81-e - A new look at a wasted natural reemroe,
Rodsle Press, Rmusue, PA, USA, 1977
National Amdany of Scdenceo
Wuhington, D.C., 1976
Biological realamation of solid wemtea,
Rodale Rxsm, Zhmme, PA, USA, 1977
AppliedSdenoePubliehere Ltd., London, 1977
Arrival of partioipanta in Peking
Introduction end diaouseion of the progremme with
Hr. Id Yung-kei, Direotor of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Welcoming dinner by courtesy of Mr. I;i Yw4cei
Imperial Palace Ruseurn
Participation at Labour I&v celebrationa - invitation by l&.IiYung-kai
Travel by air to NANJING, qapital of Jiangmu Province
Reeentation of the programe and introductory discueaion
Vieit to Y&se River Brid&e and to Dr. Sun Yet-en% Rausoleum
Research Institute of Agrioultural Scieuoee, Jiangau Province
Soil Researoh Institute of
Acadepsy of Sciencee
Travel by train to CEANGZEOU
Vieit to HaUdng l!raotor FaGtory, Conetruotion Material Factory and to the Industrial Exhibition Rail
Wu Ghin County : bio-gae aud green manure
YiShiDg county : fertiliaer factory giangYinCounty:
TmvelbytraintoSUZROU green maxweB, bolla
Yueh Chi People% Comune : green manure and aquatic plants
Agricultural Refmaroh Station of Feng Chiao People% Commune
Agricultural Reneamh Institute of Wu Chin County : green mat&e a organic manure
Diecuasion with the
- 99 -
Travel to SHANQHAI
Malu People's Commune : night soil and garbage; treatment of night soil and garbage from Shanghai City
Fertilizer factory of Chiao Ting County
Shanghai IndustFial Ekhibition Hall
Chao Yang seusge treatment plant
Use of sewage by the Chang Chen People's Commune
Travel to GUANGZHCU
FunshwlCity :treatment of night soilandgarbage
Chinese Export Conwditiea Fair, Gusngshou
Hsin Hui County : green msnure, night soil and compost. Azolla l&in Hui County (oontd....)
Travel to Gufmgshou
Dieaussion with Cbineee cunnterparte
Travel 'trg air/train to TACHAI (Shaaxi Province) via -G
Trsxre1b.y trein to SHIJIAZHUAIW3 (capital of Hebei Province)
: high temperature compost and &able manure
(Husi LuCuunty)x bio-gam
Ta Heh People's Cammzne : Mo-gaa
Travel by train to PEYWG
: high temperature ocerpoet
23, a l4iv
Preparstion of report pinal dimu~~sione with Chinese counterparts
Farewell dinner by oourtesy of the Team bader
Departure ofparticipantetotheirhom countries
- 101 -
Ministry of Agriaulture and Forestry
Li Yung-&i, Director of Foreign Affairs,
Chin Fengchu, Permanent Representative to F'AO
Chaug Shih-chan, Head of International Division
Hau Kuo-chang, Staff member International Division
'pung Ching-eung, Staff member International Divieion
Wang Yu-chung, Staff member Irrtemational Divieion
Kung Chien-ying, Staff msmber Iuterrmtional Division
Tang Luyyut Dire&r of Bgrioulture Dmpartmmt
Li Kung-chen, Heed of Livestock Division
' Li Pa, Techniaian
Sui Huaiqu' Staff of Agriculture Department
Ma Yung-tang, Staff of,Agriculture Department
Staff of Agriculture Department
Research Institute of daricultural Scienaea of Jianmu Province, lknjinq
Yang Yun-sheng, Head of the general office of the Revolutionary Committee of the
ShengHsin-pei, Deputy D&for of the Pe$artmeqt of soil Science
Huang Yu-ehin, Research Officer (Baoterial fertilirer)
Yen Yu-chou, Research Offioer (Bauterial fertiliser)
Chu Pei-lit Reie&& Offib& ((lreenlkmure)
Ting Chien-ying, Rese~ch Officer (Qreenlfknure)
Kuo Shao-cheng, Researeh Officer (Wheat)
Lu Pei-uen, Reeearoh Officer (Plant Prateotion)
Fan Heng-piaof Reoponaible member~.of the Seoretarial Unit, Offioe of the
- 102 -
Rational Research Institute of Soil Science. Ranjing
Hsung Yi, Vi;eE;F; of the Revolutionary Committee, Speoialist in Soil pbyeios
Lu Ju-kun, Assistant Professor Department of Agro-Chemistry
Hsi Chen-fan, Professor, Department of Soil Geography
Liu Uen-cheng, Research Officer (Saline and Alkaline Soils)
Shih Shu-lian, Research Officer (Soil Bio-Chemistry)
T;r Li-mai, Research Officer (Soil Bio-Chemistry; wu chin countg
Chang Ts&-heh, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Mu Chin County
Yu H-hen& Chief of the Methane Gas Office of the Revolutionary Committee
Shen Chih-ohang, Deputy Chief of the Methane Gas Office
Ri Fu-lit Staff meniber of the Methane Cas Offioe
Chang Pwchin, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Pen Riu Commune
Chou Shou-hai, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee ofChen# Hmiang Pro&x&ion Brigade
Chang Chen-hua, Deputy Offioer-
Director, Kiang Yin County
Uu Shi+ung, Vic&Jhairomn of the Revolutionary Committee of Huashi ProductionBrigsdo
Chau Hung-pi, Head of the Reoeption Uroup
Chang Jeng-chou, Staff member of the Reception Croup
Hu Yu-chai, Staff meniber of the Reception Croup
Hsiao Ting, Director of dgriculture Department Wu County
Ting.Chiwin& Technician of Agriculture Department of Mu County
WangRi&ua, Staff of AgrioultureDepartment
HU wn, Head of Reception Croup of Foreign Affairs of &what
Chuan Kuan+an, Head of Foreign.Affairs Division of Uu County
Yueh Chi People's Conmauw
Hsan=ehan, Chairman of the Revolutionary
Coxmittee of the Communs
Head of Agriculture Soientific Reeearoh Station
Feng Chiao Peopl$'s Cormuns
Chang [email protected]~-ohuanS, Head of Agricultural 3oientLfia Reasaroh'Station
Yang Chin-chin, Vice Dire&or of Agrioultural Saientific Reeearoh Station
Heho Chin+wuq,Brigads Leader
- 103 -
Soientific Research Institute of Ku County
Shih Tai-f~, Vice Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Research Institute
Ku Wei-ahun, Teohnician
Ming, Responsible member of Agrioultural Department of Sha&ai
Li-Heuei Kiang, Responsible member, Agricultural Department
Chou Wei-ohi, Vice
Chief of the Production Division of Agricultural Department
Chin Chewhan, Reeponeible member of the Cleaning Administration of Shan&ai
Yang Yu-ohen, Staff meniber
Li Cheng-hsun, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Malu People's Commuue
Peng Pan&wu, Staff member of the Revolutionary Committee
_, i;" gc p
, j I
Tao Chu-hua, Physician, Nalu'e Hospital
Tan Yun-lung, Responsible member of the Revolutionary Committee of
Chao Yaw Sewage
Ha Chin,@an& Responsible member
Treatment Plant of the Revolutionary Committee of
Chao Yang Sewage
Wang Tsuei-eht Teehnioian of Sewage Plant
ShenHt&-ohi, Responsible mdber of Chang Chen People's Commune
Hsu Lidat Responsible ndbsr
-d ', .-
?~ fxhlm.mm PROVIZICE of Chao Yang Produotion Brigade
,,$-' : b.
$f‘ i-1 ;_
Shei Ywng, Director Agrioultural Department
Ling Chee, Agronepist
Chang Huad, Heed of
Soil and Fertilizer
Division of Agricultural Soientifiu
LinHnao-ohin, Assistant Pr6fersor Agricultural Scientifia Reoearoh Ilvrtitute
Chu Euei-hue, Aeeistank Professor Agrioultural Soiexrtific Resee&h Institute
Lian Chtiuaug, Leoturer of
Agria~fure ati'P&atry College
Liu Bsu-ohi, Liotunr of Agricdthre ard~Foreefry College
Lui Tengdui, Ami6h.d of Agricdhke a& Forestry College hi0 Li-eha.n&, Assistant of A&rioulture arrd Forertry College i
' _, of the Department
'Ting au-hua, Remponeible metier-oi the Foreign Affairs Division of Pu Shari City
H8u chro-dn&, Teehxdoian of the &pid.twe
Depa&ent Fu Shan .,
- 104 -
Hsin Hui Countg
Chen Yu, Vice4hairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Hsin Hui County
Li Ping, Vice-Director of Agricultural Department of the County
Chang An-nan, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Hueng Chen Commune
Hsu Wen-ching, Director of the Commune Office i!%s!sz
Chia Lai-hen, Vice-f&airman of the Revolutionary Committee of Tachai Production Brigade
Hua Chit Deputy Director of Agricultural and Forestry Department
Hse Ye, Bead of Agricultural Division
Ting Titise, Staff member of Agricultural Division
Chang Tse-chi, Staff member of Bureau of Foreign Affairs chao coumty
Ma Chewkuo, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Chao County
Chou Huen-hou, Director of the Office of the Revolutionary Committee
Kao Chenqung, Director of Agriculture
Ho Ping, Staff member, Office of Foreign Affairs
Yang sng, Chairman crf the Revolutionary Committee, Hsao Chuang People's Commune
Chang Hsuan&sui, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee Chao Production Brigade
Tsui Lin+&an, Vice4hairman of the Revolutionary Committee Chao Production Brigade
Yen Chae, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
Wang !lkwhien, Dire&or of the Agriuultural Department
Chang Yueh-ming, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee, Ta Heh People's Common
Wang Kau-ohun, Vice-Chairman of thm Revolutionary Committee, Ta Heh Production Brigade
Chen Ta+hai, Vice4hairman of the Revolutionary Committee, Ta Heh Production Brigade
Yang Yudun, Director of Ta Heh Riddle School
Li Lin-chang, Teached of Ta Heh Middle S&o01
Tu Ii-en, Vice+hairman Revolutionary Coattee
Chin Chang-lin, Vice-Chairman RevxGutionary Conmdttee, Li Lin Pl~pls'~ Commune
Shibbn Production Brigade
Ho Eaerr~rpsn, Staff member
Offico of Foreign Affair6
Hang he-mei, Vice-ChairnwkKu Chin Peeplo's Commune
Hang Shengwhai, Chairman of Tung shro Ying Production Brigade
Hang Chuwtang, Staff mabert Office of lbreign Affairs Shijiazhuang
Wang Hmu-ohin, Vior-Mreotor of
Chae Heu-ynan, Bead of Bio-gam Office of the Prefecture
Pmeident of Resewoh and Soil Studies
Minitaffy-cf Agrioulture _
Bangladesh Agrioultural Reeoaroh Institute
Deputy Divisional Managsr
Agrioultural Corporation ssgseips
$~%zYo~ Food Development Authority
YLkndeO [email protected]~
Head, Mornbiology Eemaroh Department
Iuetitute of Soilm and Water Remaroh aiu. lbruavlUbilurdAUAElrDoB
Miorobiology Ruearoh Depmrtment
Iuatitute of Soila and Water Remewoh
Agrioultuml Reruroh Co&or
&e&d, [email protected] Se&ion EPID
P,O. mx 3824
Chief of Agrioultura
Dev*lopHnt'Servloe p.0, Boz
- 106 -
Topal Saran VYDYARl'HI
Commissioner, Fertilizer Promotion
Ministry of Agrioulture and Irrigation
Lekahman Sin& YADAVA
Deputy Commierioner, Manurer
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Chief, Soil Soienoe and Agrioultural Chemistry Division
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Irrigation
Khumal Tar Lalitpur
Chief Agrioultural Officer
Federal Ministry of Agriculture aB
34/36 lkoyi Road
Niear Humeain KUN
Deputy Seoretary, Livestook Division
Miniefry of Agriculture
Animal Husbandry Commissioner
Minietry of Agrioulfure
Provinoial Agrioultural Ertenmion Superviror
Bureau of Agrioultural Extendon
Region No. VI
Agrioultunrl Reeearoh Inrtituts
Direotor, Crop Development Division
- 107 -
Soil Resouxwzee Development and ConservatSan Service
Via dslle Terme di Caraoalla
Regional Plant Production and Protection Officer
FAO Regional Offioe for Aeia and the Far East
Regional Soil Reeouroes Offior
FAO Regional Offioe for Africa
THE FAO SOILS BULLETINS:
Soils of the arid zones of Chile, 1965 (E”)
A survey of soil laboratories in sixty-four FAO member countries, 1965 (E **)
Guide on general and specialized equipment for soil laboratories, 1966 (E**)
Guide to sixty soil and water conservation practices, 1966 (E**)
Selection of soil for cocoa, 1966 (E** F** S***)
Aerial photo interpretation in soil survey, 1967 (Et F* S**)
A practical manual of soil microbiology laboratory methods, 1967 (E**)
Soil survey interpretation and its use, 1967 (E*)
The preparation of soil survey reports, 1970 (E** F** S*)
Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis, 1970 (Et F* S*)
Soil fertility investigations on farmers’ fields, 1970 (E* F* S*)
A study cn the response of wheat to fertilizers, 1971 (E*)
Land degradation, 1971 (E* F*)
Improving soil fertility in Africa, 1971 (E* F*)
Legislative principles of soil conservation, 1971 (E*)
Effects of intensive fertilizer use on the human environment, 1972 (E*)
Trace elements in soils and agriculture, 1972 (E* F*** S*)
Guide to the calibration of soil tests for fertilizer recommendations, 1973 (Et F*** S***)
Soil survey interpretation for engineering purposes, 1973 (E* F* S*)
Fertilizer legislation, 1973 E* F*** S*)
Calcareous soils, 1973 (E* F*)
Approaches to land classification, 1974 (E**)
Management properties of ferrasols, 1974 (E** F***)
Shifting cultivation and soil conservation in Africa, 1974 (E* F*** S*)
Sandy soils, 1975 (E*)
Planning and organization of fertilizer use development in Africa, 1975 (E’)
Organic materials as’fertilizers, 1975 (E* F* S*)
S.I. units and nomenclature in soil science, 1975 (E*)
Land evaluation in Europe, 1976 (E*)
Soil conservation in developing countries, 1976 (E* F* S*)
Prognosis of salinity and alkalinity, 1976 (E*)
A framework for land evaluation, 1976 (E* F* S*)
Soil conservation and management in developing countries, 1977 (E*)
Assessing soil degradation, 1974 (Et)
Organic material and soil productivity, 1978 (E*)
Organic recycling in Asia (E*)
Improved use of plant nutrients (E***)
Soil and plant testing and analysis (E*** F*** S***)
Guidelines for prognosis and monitoring of salinity and sodicity, 1978 (E***)
China: recycling of organic wastes in agriculture, 1978 (E* F*** S***)
Organic recycling in Africa (E*** F***)
Availability: October 1978
Out of print
*** In preparation
FAO Soils Bulletins are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from
Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Via de//e Terme di Caracalla, OOlO(J Rome, Italy
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