Newport PTS-PUMP Datasheet

Newport PTS-PUMP Datasheet
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LASER DIODE TESTING
94 — P h o t o n i c s
PTS-PUMP Series
Fiber Amplifier Pump Light Source Modules
Key Features
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
• F-P pump laser diodes available in
980 nm and 1480 nm wavelengths
• Kink-free output
The PTS-PUMP Stabilized Light Source Modules incorporate high-power
Fabry-Perot laser diodes, emitting at 980 or 1480 nm. These lasers are used in
pumping erbium doped fiber gain media, which are key building blocks in longhaul fiber optic telecom networks. 980 nm pump modules are also available with
an optional built-in fiber Bragg grating, assuring enhanced wavelength stability
and narrow spectral linewidth.
• Temperature control for wavelength
stabilization
Specifications
• Integrated fiber Bragg grating available
for 980 nm module
Description
• Available with various fiber optic output
connector styles
980 nm Pump LD with Bragg
Grating
Option Code
90
Center Wavelength (nm)
Spectral Width, with grating
(nm)
Spectral Width, without
grating (nm)
Max Output Power
100 mW
91
980±5
1
92
96
980±5
1480 nm Pump LD
97
5
130 mW
150 mW
100 mW
130 mW
40
41
1480±15 nm
10 nm
150 mW
120 mW
140 mW
6
Power Adjustment (dB)(1)
Power Stability (typ) (dB)
Short-Term - 15 min
±0.02
±0.05
Long-Term - 8 h(2)
Fiber Type
Dimensions (H x W x D)
[in. (cm)]
Weight [lb (kg)]
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
980 nm Pump LD
95
4.2/125 µm SM
5.23 (13.3) x 1.39 (3.5) x 9.09 (23.1)
9/125 µm SM
1.75 (0.8)
0°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
1) Spectral characteristics vary with power
2) After 1 hr. stabilization at 23 ±3.0°C ambient
Ordering Information
LASERS
When ordering a Pump Light Source Module, please specify the following
Model number:
PTS-PUMP- - Wavelength
Code – see
specification table
Connector 55 – FC/APC
Output
75 – SC/APC
Style
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Order example: PTS-PUMP-41-55
Pump Laser Diode Module with center wavelength of 1480 nm, 140 mW of
output power, 9/125 µm SM fiber pigtail and FC/APC connector output.
DANGER
LASER RADIATION—
AVOID DIRECT EXPOSURE
TO BEAM
Maximum Power: 300mW
Wavelength: 600–1650nm
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
CLASS IIIb LASER PRODUCT
LASER RADIATION
AVOID EXPOSURE TO BEAM
CLASS 3B LASER PRODUCT
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
P h o t o n i c s — 95
Optical Power Meter Modules
Key Features
• Free-space and fiber optic measurements
• Compatible with all of Newport’s lowpower 818 Series, semiconductor
detectors, including 818-IS-1
integrating sphere based systems
Single and dual-channel versions of this
module are available, featuring an
analog output for monitoring the
detector input directly with an
oscilloscope or volt meter.
• Wide power range—from 1 pW up to
2 W (-90 to +33 dBm)
• Analog output for connection to external
instruments
The PTS-OPM modules utilize any one
of Newport’s new 918 Series low-power, semiconductor detectors.
This makes these meters extremely versatile for measuring free-space and fiber
optic lights sources, with power levels from 1 pW (-90 dBm) up to 2 W
(+33 dBm), and wavelengths in the 190 nm to 1800 nm regime. The modules are
also backward compatible with Newport’s full range of 818 Series detectors,
using the 818-ADAPT-OPM adaptor cable (requires a calibration module).
Specifications
Model
Module Type
Model
PTS-OPM-1
PTS-OPM-2
Single-Channel
Dual-Channel
Module Type
Signal Ranges
Auto-Ranging Time (typ)
Maximum Detector Input Current (mA)
Analog Output (into 1 MΩ)
PTS-OPM-1
PTS-OPM-2
Single-Channel
Dual-Channel
Up to 8 decades (detector dependent)
200 ms
5
0–2 V
DC Accuracy
Detector Input
Connector, Analog Output
Dimensions (H x W x D) [in. (cm)]
Weight [lb (kg)]
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
LASERS
Ordering Information
<±2 %
14-pin circular connector
Mini-SMA
5.23 (13.3) x 1.39 (3.5) x 9.09 (23.1)
1.75 (0.8)
0°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
Material
918-SL/818-SL
918-IR/818-IR
918-IG/818-IG
818-IS-1
Silicon
Silicon
Germanium
InGaAs/Si
1.13
190–1100
-83 to +23
±2%
0.5%
50
1.13
400–1100
-90 to +33
±2%
0.5%
50
0.3
780–1800
-70 to +21.5
±3%
±0.5%
4
Indium Gallium
Arsenide
0.3
800–1650
-90 to +21.5
±2%
±0.5%
30
1) 0.01 A/W for the 818-IS-1
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
400–1650
-70 to +23
±2.5%
±0.5%
3(1)
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Active Diameter (cm)
Wavelength (nm)
Power Range (dBm)
Accuracy (w/o attenuator)
Linearity (%)
NEP @ 5 Hz and 1 A/W (fW/√Hz)
918-UV/818-UV
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Module/Detector System Specifications
Detector Model
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
The optical power meter modules are individually calibrated using NIST
traceable, precision current sources, and are shipped with a certificate of
calibration.
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
• Wide wavelength range—190 nm to
1800 nm
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
The PTS-OPM Series Optical Power
Meter Modules give the Model 8800
and 8200 Photonics Test System
mainframes the utility of a benchtop
optical power meter along with the
convenience of a modular platform.
LASER DIODE TESTING
PTS-OPM Series
LASER DIODE TESTING
96 — P h o t o n i c s
PTS-FOPM Series
Fiber Optic Power Meter Modules
Key Features
The PTS-FOPM Series Fiber Optic Power
Meters accept a direct fiber input to acquire
power measurements in the 400–1800 nm
wavelength range. Both single and dualchannel versions are offered, with five different
input connector options to select from.
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
• Direct fiber input for fiber optic
component measurements
• Single and dual-channel versions offered
• Three modules cover 400–1800 nm
wavelength range
The low-noise 300 µm diameter detector and
eight gain ranges, enable continuous power
measurements from a low -100 dBm up to
3 dBm (2 mW).
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
• Measurement range from -100 to
+3 dBm
• Analog output for connection to external
instruments
• Available with variety of fiber connector
styles
Please see the Fiber Optics and
Accessories Section for fiber optic
patchcords, adaptors, and many
more accessories that can be used
with these modules.
A certificate of calibration as well as the actual calibration curves recorded are
shipped with each module. Annual re-calibration is recommended to assure
measurement accuracy.
Specifications
Option Code
Module Type
Active Diameter (µm)
Wavelength (nm)
Power Input Range
Accuracy
Linearity
NEP @ 5 Hz and 1 A/W (fW/√Hz)
Dimensions
(H x W x D) [in. (cm)]
Weight [lb (kg)]
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
LASERS
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
Accessories
Each module is individually calibrated to NIST-traceable standards using
Newport’s in-house calibration facility. Calibration data is taken in 10 nm
increments, and electronically stored inside the module, resulting in accurate
power measurements over the entire wavelength band.
SL
Si
IR
IG
Ge
InGaAs
1000
400–1100
780–1800
800–1650
-100 to +3 dBm (100fW -80 to +3 dBm (10pW -100 to +3 dBm (100fW 2mW)
2mW)
2mW)
±5%
±0.5%
20
1
10
5.23 (13.3) x 1.39 (3.5) x 9.09 (23.1)
1.75 (0.8)
0°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Ordering Information
When ordering a Fiber Optic Power Meter Module, please specify the following
Model number:
Order example: PTS-FOPM-SL0265
Dual-channel Fiber Optic Power
Meter Module with Silicon
detector, operating in the
400–1100 nm wavelength range,
and SC/PC connector input.
PTS-FOPM- Detector Code
See specification table
Connector 25 – ST/PC 55 – FC/APC
Input Style 45 – FC/PC 65 – SC/PC
75 – SC/APC
Number of 01
Channels 02
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
P h o t o n i c s — 97
Variable Fiber Optic Attenuator Module
Key Features
The PTS-VFOA Variable Fiber Optic
Attenuator Module enables automated
adjustment of optical power in the
1280–1670 nm wavelength range.
• Wide attenuation range of 0–60 dB
The module can be used for a variety of fiber
optic test and measurement applications
such as: automated bit-error-rate testing of
fiber optic transmission links; dynamic range
measurements of detectors and receivers; and
characterization of fiber optic amplifiers.
• Factory calibrated at 1310 or 1550 nm
• Direct fiber input for automated fiber
optic component measurements
• Available with variety of fiber connector
styles
To assure precise and repeatable measurements, the module is factory
calibrated for operation at 1310 or 1550 nm, with calibration curves stored in the
module’s non-volatile memory.
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
The VFOA module features a wide
attenuation range, incremental attenuation adjustments of 0.2 dB, low insertion
loss and high repeatability.
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
• High resolution and repeatability
LASER DIODE TESTING
PTS-VFOA
The module is offered with various fiber optic connector options.
Specifications
Please see the Fiber Optics and
Accessories Section for fiber optic
patchcords, adaptors, and many
more accessories that can be used
with these modules.
Attenuation Range (dB)(1)
Resolution (dB)
1.5–70
0.2
0.2
Repeatability (dB)(2)
Absolute Accuracy (dB)(2)
±0.25
Insertion Loss(2)
1.5 dB
0.3
-50
50–1400
300
9/125 µm SM
5.23 (13.3) x 1.39 (3.5) x 9.09 (23.1)
0.8
5°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
LASERS
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) (dB) (PDL)(2)
Back Reflection (dB)(2)
Tuning Speed (ms)
Maximum Input Power (mW)
Fiber Type
Dimensions (H x W x D) [in. (cm)]
Weight (kg)
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
Accessories
1) Low end of the range may vary between 0.7 and 1.5 dB
2) Without connectors
When ordering a Variable Fiber Optic Attenuator Module, please specify the
following Model number:
Order example: PTS-VFOA-601365
PTS-VFOA- Attenuation
60 = 60dB
Connector Style
55 = FC/APC
Wavelength
13 =1310 nm 15 =1550 nm
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
25 = ST/PC 45 = FC/PC
65 = SC/PC 75 = SC/APC
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Variable Fiber Optic Attenuator
Module calibrated at 1310 nm with
SC/PC connectors
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Ordering Information
LASER DIODE TESTING
98 — P h o t o n i c s
PTS-FOSW
Fiber Optic Switch Modules
Key Features
The PTS-FOSW Fiber Optic Switch
Modules feature fast switching times, high
repeatability and low polarization dependent
loss (PDL). These switches are optically
passive which make them bi-directional and
transparent to bit rates or data formats.
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
• Fast switching times with high
repeatability
• Ideal for testing of multi-port fiber optic
components
The PTS-FOSW modules are ideal for testing
multiple passive fiber optic devices or multiport devices with a single light source and a
single optical meter. Components or
instruments can also be selectively
bypassed.
• Wide variety available—1x2, 2x2, 1x4,
1x8, 1x16
• Variety of fiber connector styles available
Remote switch control with a PC enables automated test sequences, used in
long term burn-in and environmental testing.
Accessories
Please see the Fiber Optics and
Accessories Section for fiber optic
patchcords, adaptors, and many
more accessories that can be used
with these modules.
1) Call Newport for availability of versions
with higher channel count.
2) Without connectors.
3) Optimum value after 1 hour warm-up.
4) Only IS type available.
5) Multimode 1xN’s do not have APC
connector offering.
6) 1x16 is double-wide.
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Specifications
1x2 / 2x2(4)
Typ.
Wavelength (nm)
When ordering a Fiber Optic
Switch Module, please specify the
following Model number:
1x4 Fiber Optic Switch Module
with 9/125 SMF that operates at
1270–1630 nm with FC/APC
connectors
1xN (N = 4,8,16)(1) (5)
Max.
Typ.
1270–1630 (SM or MM) or 750–940 (MM only)
1.2
0.4
Max.
Insertion Loss (dB)(2) (SM)
0.6
Return Loss (dB)(2)
60
>55
60
>55
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) (dB)(2)
(PDL)
0.06
0.1
0.02
0.05
Repeatability, Sequential (dB)(3)
±0.03
±0.05
±0.005
±0.02
Repeatability, Random (dB)(3)
Isolation/Crosstalk (dB)
Switching Time, One Channel (ms)
Switching Time, Additional Channels
(ms)
Maximum Input Power (mW)
Fiber Type
-65
5
0.9
±0.01
±0.05
-90
75
15
-80 dB
-60
8
300
62.5/125 µm MMF or 9/125 µm SMF
5.23 (13.3) x 1.39 (3.5) x 9.09 (23.1)
Dimensions (H x W x D) [in. (cm)](6)
Weight [lb (kg)]
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Order example: PTS-FOSW-14IS55
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
The switch module is offered in a wide variety of standard port configurations—
1x2, 2x2, 1x4, 1x8 and 1x16—allowing the user to choose the appropriate
module for the specific task at hand. Various fiber optic connector options are
available.
Switch Type
LASERS
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
• Select switches with SM or MM fibers
300 mW
1.75 (0.8)
0°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
Ordering Information
PTS-FOSW- Switch Type
12=1x2
22=2x2
14=1x4
18=1x8
16=1x16
Fiber Type and Wavelength Range
IS=9/125 SMF 1270–1630 nm
IM=62.5/125 MMF 1270–1630 nm
SM=62.5/125 MMF 750–940 nm
Connector Style
25 = ST/PC
45 = FC/PC
55 = FC/APC
65 = SC/PC
75 = SC/APC
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
P h o t o n i c s — 99
Wavelength Reference Standard
Cell Absorption Lines
• 780 nm & 795 nm
• 852 nm
• Multiple-line Cells (Refer to Tables)
Instrument Key
Features
• Utilizes ultra-pure Acetylene and
Hydrogen Cyanide Cells
The Hydrogen Cyanide cell uses ultra-pure HCN, creating absorption lines in
the 1528–1563 nm wavelength range. The proximity of the cell’s transition lines
to the ITU DWDM grid is ideal for calibrating Optical Spectrum Analyzers used
in testing of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) having their gain band in
the 1535–1560 nm region.
• WDM source calibration and locking
• OSA Calibration
The 2010WR can be
ordered with either the
Acetylene cell, the HCN
cell, or with both cells for
coverage of the entire
1512–1563 nm range.
Optical
Spectrum
Analyzer
Model 2010WR-A
SM Fiber
R Branch
1.0
P Branch
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Normalized Transmittance
Applications
LASERS
Both Acetylene and HCN cells’ input and output are coupled into a single-mode
fiber, preventing a frequency drift in calibration associated with changes in fiber
mode structure. All cells are leak tested to a leak rate of <5 x 10-11cm3/sec.
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
The Acetylene cell uses ultra-pure (99.94%) 12C2H2, creating absorption lines that
are 2–3 GHz wide, with absorption varying from 3–60% in the 1512–1542 nm range.
• 770 nm
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
• High resolution via direct single-mode
fiber output
• 633 nm
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
• Includes temperature-controlled,
broadband LED source
The Newport Reference Cells are
offered in several configurations and
elements when used in conjuction with
a broadband optical energy source will
create a molecular absorption at
specific wavelengths. These are utilized
as an intrinsic wavelength reference
standard for any spectral based
measuring device or instrument. See
reference table below for descriptions
and absorption lines for each vapor
and gas type. The 2010WR WDM
Reference Standard utilizes a built-in
broadband, temperature-controlled
LED light source, centered at 1550 nm; to generate the complete set of molecular
absorption lines of Acetylene and Hydrogen Cyanide; as depicted in the table.
These spectral patterns are very useful in calibrating optical spectrum analyzers
(OSAs) across the complete ITU dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)
grid and to measure drift in fiber optic transmitters or WDM telecommunication
systems operating in the 1550 nm region.
LASER DIODE TESTING
Gas & Vapor Reference Cells and Instrumentation
0.8
0.6
0.4
1510
1515
1520
1525
1530
Wavelength (nm)
1535
1540
1545
1) 225 ±10% Torr internal pressure
2) 100 ±10% Torr internal pressure
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Optical spectrum analyzer calibration by using absorption of LED light
by Acetylene (12C2H2)
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
LASER DIODE TESTING
100 — P h o t o n i c s
Acetylene Absorption
Lines
Wavelength
(nm)
Wavelength
(nm)
1512.45
1513.20
1513.97
1514.77
1515.59
1516.44
1517.31
1518.21
1519.14
1520.09
1521.06
1522.06
1523.09
1524.14
1525.76
1526.87
1528.01
1529.18
1530.37
1531.39
1532.83
1534.10
1535.39
1536.31
1538.06
1539.43
1540.83
1542.25
Reference Cell Specifications and Ordering Instructions
Model (Metric)
Description
Vapor Reference Cells
2010-I
2010-K
2010-RB-01
Iodine Vapor Cell (633 nm)
Potassium Vapor Cell (770 nm)
Rubidium Vapor Cell
(780 and 795 nm)
Rubidium Vapor Cell
(780 and 795 nm)
Rubidium Vapor Cell
(780 and 795 nm)
Cesium Vapor Cell (852 nm)
Cesium Vapor Cell (852 nm)
Cesium Vapor Cell (852 nm)
2010-RB-02
2010-RB-03
2010-CS-01
2010-CS-02
2010-CS-03
Gas Reference Cells
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
LASERS
25 x 76
13 x 51
25 x 25
25 x 51
25 x 76
25 x 25
25 x 51
25 x 76
2010-AC12
Acetylene Gas Cell(1)—
see table
8 x 51
2010-HCN
Hydrogen Cyanide Gas Cell(2)—
see table
7 x 75
Accessories
Hydrogen Cyanide
Absorption Lines
818-SL
818-IR
Silicon Detector (400–1100 nm)
Germanium Detector
(800–1800 nm)
Self-Centering Lens Mount
LCM-2 (M-LCM-2)
Wavelength
(nm)
Wavelength
(nm)
1528.05
1528.49
1528.93
1529.38
1529.94
1530.31
1530.79
1531.28
1531.77
1532.28
1532.80
1533.33
1533.87
1534.42
1534.97
1535.54
1536.12
1536.70
1537.30
1537.91
1538.52
1539.15
1539.79
1540.43
1541.09
1541.75
1543.11
1543.81
1544.52
1545.23
1545.96
1546.69
1547.44
1548.19
1548.96
1549.73
1550.52
1551.31
1552.12
1552.93
1553.76
1554.59
1555.46
1556.29
1557.16
1558.03
1558.92
1559.81
1560.72
1561.64
1562.56
1563.50
2010WR Standard Instrument Specifications
Gas Cells
Acetylene (12C2H2)
Hydrogen Cyanide (H13CN)
LED Light Source
Center Wavelength (nm)
Linewidth (nm)
Typical Output Power (µW)
Fiber Type
Fiber Output Connectors
Chassis Ground
Power Requirements
1550
±40
30
9/125 µm single-mode
FC/PC, FC/APC
4mm banana jack
90–132 volts (1 Amp max)
198–250 volts (0.5 Amp max)
50–60 Hz
3.5 (88) x 8.5 (215) x 11 (280)
6.5 (2.9)
0°C to 40°C
-20°C to 60°C
Size (H x W x D) [in. (mm)]
Weight (dual-cell model) [lb (kg)]
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Ordering Information
Model
Description
2010WR-A-AP
2010WR-A-PC
2010WR-AHC-AP
2010WR-AHC-PC
2010WR-HC-AP
2010WR-HC-PC
Wavelength Reference Source with Acetylene Cell
Wavelength Reference Source with Acetylene Cell
Wavelength Reference Source with both Acetylene and Hydrogen Cyanide Cells
Wavelength Reference Source with both Acetylene and Hydrogen Cyanide Cells
Wavelength Reference Source with Hydrogen Cyanide Cell
Wavelength Reference Source with Hydrogen Cyanide Cell
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Size
(mm)
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
P h o t o n i c s — 101
LASER DIODE TESTING
Tutorial
Introduction
Fiber Optic
Communications
Advantages
Tx
Tx
Tx
λ3
Time slot
λn
λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 ... λ n
MUX
DEMUX
Rx
Rx
λ1
Rx
Rx
λ3
λ2
λn
Data
Multiple Transmitters
Multiple Receivers
λ
Transmitter
Receiver
Dense WDM
λ1
λn
LASERS
Wavelength
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
An alternate method for increasing
the capacity of fiber optic
communications systems is known
as wavelength division multiplexing,
or WDM. Using this method, the
capacity can be increased by using
more than one optical carrier
(wavelength) on a single fiber.
Therefore, adding a second
transmitter and receiver to an
optical fiber can double the
bandwidth of that communications
system. This method of increasing
the capacity of an optical system has
appeal for a variety of reasons. If a
system was to increase in capacity
using TDM alone, the existing
transmitter and receiver would be
replaced with a faster and more
expensive transmitter/receiver pair.
Using WDM, the existing transmitter
and receiver do not need to be
replaced. A second
transmitter/receiver pair of a
different wavelength is simply
added. This is done by coupling, or
multiplexing the output of the two
lasers into a single fiber. At the
receiving end, the two wavelengths
are thenseparated, or demultiplexed,
and each optical carrier is routed to
its own receiver. For transmission
systems using a 1310 nm laser, a
second laser at 1550 nm is usually
added. The reason for choosing
these wavelengths is that they lie in
the “windows” or ranges of least
attenuation. This allows the signal
to travel a longer distance.
The idea of WDM has recently been
extended in an attempt to fully
exploit the potential bandwidth of
optical fiber. The ITU (International
Telecommunication Union) has
proposed a set of closely-spaced
wavelengths in the 1550 nm window.
This method of WDM is known as
Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing, or DWDM. These
different wavelengths or channels,
are spaced 100 GHz apart, which is
approximately 0.8 nm. This set of
channels is commonly known as the
ITU-T grid, and is specified in
frequency. The reason the 1550 nm
window was chosen by the ITU is
twofold: it is in one of the windows
that have the smallest amount of
attenuation; and it also lies in the
band in which erbium doped optical
amplifiers operate.
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
There are two methods that are
employed to achieve an increase in
bandwidth. The first is known as
Time Division Multiplexing or TDM.
Multiple channels are transmitted
on a single carrier by increasing the
modulation rate and allotting a time
slot to each channel. However,
increasing the bit rate of a system
requires more sophisticated highspeed electronics at the
transmitting and receiving ends of
the communications link. And as
the bit rate increases, inherent
modulation limiting characteristics
of optical fibers become dominant.
Chromatic and polarization mode
dispersion cause pulse spreading,
which affects the signal quality over
longer transmission distances.
Tx
λ2
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
The theoretical bandwidth of optical
fiber transmission in the 1550 nm
window alone is on the order of
terabits. In contrast, coaxial
transmission generally has a
bandwidth limit of 500 MHz. Current
fiber optic systems have not even
begun to utilize the enormous
potential bandwidth that is
possible.
λ1
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
With the increase in voice and data
communications over recent years,
the need for bandwidth is growing
at an exponential rate. The Internet,
as well as other voice, data and
video applications, are pushing the
limits of today’s communications
systems infrastructure.
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
LASER DIODE TESTING
102 — P h o t o n i c s
Fiber Optic Testing
ITU-T DWDM Grid
Test Environments
Channel Code
λ
(nm)
Channel code
λ
(nm)
Channel code
λ
(nm)
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
1563.05
1562.23
1561.42
1560.61
1559.80
1558.98
1558.17
1557.36
1556.56
1555.75
1554.94
1554.13
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
1553.33
1552.53
1551.72
1550.92
1550.12
1549.32
1548.52
1547.72
1546.92
1546.12
1545.32
1544.53
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
1543.73
1542.94
1542.14
1541.35
1540.56
1539.77
1538.98
1538.19
1537.40
1536.61
1535.82
1535.04
Fiber optic testing can occur in a
number of different settings, all of
which require different testing
conditions as well as different
parameters.
Field Test
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
1534.25
1533.47
1532.68
1531.90
1531.12
1530.33
1529.55
1528.77
1527.99
Fiber Optic Network Utilizing
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Wavelength
Meter
Power
Meter
λ2
ITU DWDM
Wavelengths
Network Monitoring
λ1
LASERS
λ
(nm)
Testing in the field is aimed at
already deployed systems and
components in the field. These
It is envisioned that in the near term, a combination of TDM and WDM will be
measurements are typically
utilized to further increase network bandwidth. The following diagram is a
performed by field service
conceptual example of a fiber optic network.
technicians who use rugged handheld and portable test equipment for
testing parameters such as insertion
loss, return loss, continuity, and link
length and attenuation. Tests in the
field are performed to verify that
fiber and components of a fiber
optic system are performing to
specification after deployment.
ITU DWDM
Wavelengths
λ1
3%
λ3
λ2
Er 3+
Er 3+
Er 3+
WDM
97%
λ3
WDM
λn
λn
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
λ3
λ3
Add/Drop
Channel
Transmitter
Coupler/Splitter
Receiver
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Channel code
Isolator
Dense Wavelength
Division Multiplexer
(DWDM)
WDM
Wideband Wavelength
Division Multiplexer
(WDM)
Tunable Bandpass
Filter
λ
λ
1310 nm
1310 nm
Dense Wavelength
Division De-Multiplexer
(DWDDM)
Fiber Optic
Circulator
Fiber Optic
Switch
Er 3+
Erbium-Doped
Fiber Amplifier
(EDFA)
Fiber Bragg
Grating
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
P h o t o n i c s — 103
[ ]
Return Loss [dB]
Return loss, also known as optical
return loss, is a ratio between the
incident power and the reflected
power. Reflected optical power
should be minimized to reduce the
overall loss in a system and to
eliminate the possibility of multipath
interference and oscillations and
instabilities in DFB lasers, EDFAs
and other active components. Return
loss is calculated as:
 Pin 
RL dB = 10 log10 

 Preflected 
[ ]
and is a positive number. Because
the amount of reflected power is
desired to be a minimum, a higher
return loss number means better
performance. Another term that is
often used is reflectance. This is
calculated as:
P

Reflectance dB = 10 log10  reflected 
P


in
[ ]
and is the inverse ratio of return
loss. Therefore, the two terms can
often be used interchangeably by
adding a negative sign for
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
Newport’s Model 8800 and Model
8200 platforms have been designed
for testing of fiber optic components
and systems in both laboratory and
manufacturing environments. The
systems’ modular design provides
the flexibility to perform most of the
following tests.
[ ] [ ]
IL dB = Pin dB − Pout dB
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
The Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA) as part of the
Electronics Industry Association
(EIA) has established a set of fiber
optic test procedures (FOTPs) in an
attempt to standardize the way fiber
optic measurements are performed
and specifications are obtained and
reported.
Insertion loss is the amount of
optical power that is lost by
“inserting” a device or component
into an optical link. Insertion loss is
typically performed at a specific
wavelength, but may also be
performed over an entire spectral
region. Insertion loss calculation
follows where Pin is the optical
power entering the device under test
(DUT) and Pout is the optical power
exiting the device.
LASERS
Testing is also performed to ensure
that components meet specifications
and to obtain additional critical test
TIA/EIA Fiber Optic Test
Procedures
Insertion Loss [dB]
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
As optical components are
manufactured, they are often tested
and monitored as they pass through
each step of the manufacturing
process, including insertion loss,
accuracy and back-reflection
measurements, to name a few. These
tests are performed both under
ambient operating temperatures as
well as under rigorous
environmental conditions per
Telcordia (formerly Bellcore)
qualification requirements. In these
testing conditions it is beneficial to
have a semi or fully automated
testing platform for performing
repetitive measurements for these
optical components, in high volume.
Telcordia qualification requirements
are standardized to ensure that
components and instruments will
perform properly when deployed in
the field. Environmental tests
include temperature storage tests
from -40 to +85°C, thermal cycling,
vibration and impact tests. The
Telcordia qualification requirements
are highly rigorous and are
recognized around the world as the
de facto standard for optical
component environmental testing.
Component Testing
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
QA and Manufacturing Test
Telcordia (formerly Bellcore)
Qualification
Types of Tests
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
Tests performed in a laboratory
environment usually have more
relaxed environmental requirements.
Laboratory tests may be performed
for researching new component
technologies or developing new
optical systems. Laboratory test
environments typically use benchtop
test equipment or rack mounted test
systems. Due to the unpredictable
nature of research testing that needs
to be performed, it is often desirable
to have test equipment that has
flexibility and can be used for a
number of different types of tests.
It is not always practical to have an
entire test system dedicated to
performing a single test.
data. QA departments may perform a
number of set tests to verify
important parameters such as
insertion loss, return loss,
polarization dependent loss and
bandwidth (in the case of wavelength
division multiplexers and optical
filters). These tests may be
performed under the same Telcordia
environmental conditions to ensure
operation in extreme environments.
This test data isused to accept/reject
components as well as provide data
that may be used in network design
and link budget analysis.
LASER DIODE TESTING
Laboratory Test
LASER DIODE TESTING
104 — P h o t o n i c s
reflectance, which also implies that
a smaller number means better
performance.
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
LASERS
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
Polarization Dependent Loss
(PDL) [dB]
The polarization state in an optical
network is affected by many
parameters ranging from stress on a
fiber to the movement of a fiber
jumper, making it almost
impossible to predict. The varying
loss associated with changing
polarization is called polarization
dependent loss. PDL is measured by
monitoring the change in insertion
loss as the polarization is changed
through all of the possible
polarization states with a
polarization controller. PDL is
expressed as the difference between
the maximum and minimum
insertion loss.
Polarization Mode Dispersion
(PMD) [dB]
Polarization mode dispersion is
another form of material dispersion.
Single-mode fibers support one
mode, which consists of two
orthogonal polarization modes.
Ideally, the core of an optical fiber
has an index of refraction that is
uniform over the entire cross
section (unless the fiber has a
graded index of refraction). However
mechanical stresses (i.e. bending,
pulling, squeezing) can cause slight
changes in the index of refraction in
one dimension. This can cause one
of the orthogonal polarization
modes to travel faster than the
other, hence causing dispersion of
the optical pulse. The effects of
dispersion can introduce errors as
pulses spread into one another,
eventually limiting error-free
transmission of the fiber optic link.
Bandwidth [nm]
Optical filters and wavelength
division multiplexers have an
associated “bandwidth” in the
optical domain, which is analogous
to the bandwidth of a RF filter in the
frequency domain. Optical
bandwidth is the spectral
bandwidth, expressed in
nanometers. There are three
different levels that bandwidth is
typically specified at, relative to the
maximum optical power level: -3 dB,
full width at half maximum (FWHM)
and -20 dB.
wavelengths, if the optical power is
high enough. This presents a
problem for two reasons. First, the
new carriers may lie closely or
directly over an existing carrier
wavelength. This will interfere with
the existing carrier thus degrading
the performance of that channel.
Second, optical power is robbed
from the wavelengths that create the
mixing, thus reducing the signal to
noise ratio of these channels.
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
IL dB = Pin dB − Pout dB
Instrumentation
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
(SBS)
SBS is the strongest non-linear
effect in optical fibers. It occurs
when very narrow linewidth, highpower signals are used. This effect
occurs when an acoustic wave is
created in the fiber due to a strong
electric field, which is a result of
high-power densities. The result is a
new optical wave that is reflected
back at the transmitter, creating
attenuation in the transmitted wave.
Hence, knowing where this
threshold is, with respect to the
signal power being transmitted and
amplified in the network, is of great
interest to system designers.
Because of the bulk amplification of
an EDFA, if one wavelength drops
out, all the other wavelengths will
experience an increase in power.
If these wavelengths were already
close to the SBS threshold, this
boost may push them beyond this
threshold and cause a system wide
link failure.
Four Wave Mixing
Four wave mixing is a non-linear
effect that occurs in dispersion
shifted fiber. Two or more
wavelengths may experience nonlinear mixing that introduces
“phantom” carriers at new
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
(EDFAs)
Noise Figure
Noise figure is a figure of merit for
an EDFA. It is defined as the ratio of
the signal to noise ratio at the input
of an EDFA to the signal to noise
ratio at the output. This requires
that the EDFA system be quantumlimited (i.e., shot-noise limited).
Gain Tilt
Uneven gain profile over the EDFA
amplification band causes gain tilt,
with longer wavelengths usually
amplified slightly more than shorter
wavelengths. The effect of gain tilt is
particularly significant in longer
transmission links when a signal
travels through multiple EDFAs. As
the signals exit the last EDFA, the
shorter wavelength power level will
be very small and the longest
wavelength power will be very large.
EDFA manufacturers are beginning
to address this problem by
flattening the gain spectrum of their
devices, and by using gain-flattening
filters.
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P h o t o n i c s — 105
System
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
Crosstalk
Absolute Wavelength
Absolute power measurements
allow one to monitor the power
levels of the carriers to ensure that
they do not exceed the
specifications of various fiber optic
components and instrumentation.
Power Stability
Power stability through an optical
network is important because
fluctuations in power may cause link
failures. If the power of a single
channel in a DWDM network
fluctuates, it can affect the power of
all other carriers due to the bulk
amplification of all the carriers in an
EDFA. An increase in power of one
wavelength can reduce the
amplification of the other
wavelengths, pronouncing gain tilt
and possibly causing some
wavelengths to saturate their
receivers and others to fall below
the minimum sensitivity.
Dynamic Range
Dynamic range of an optical system
is often defined by the maximum
amount of power that can be
accepted by the receiver before
saturation occurs to the minimum
amount of power that is acceptable
Phone: 1-800-222-6440 • Fax: 1-949-253-1680 • Email: [email protected] • Web: newport.com
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
An absolute wavelength
measurement is often measured
with a wavelength meter or optical
spectrum analyzer. While an optical
spectrum analyzer can provide
wavelength measurements, the
resolution of an OSA is typically on
the order of 0.1 nm, which does not
provide enough accuracy. A
wavelength meter can often measure
wavelength with resolution in
picometers.
Absolute Power
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
Intensity crosstalk occurs between
channels and is a result of non-ideal
optical filtering, where light from
neighboring channels can leak
through and be detected along with
the filtered signal of interest. When
the leakage level of a neighboring
channel is higher than the noise
floor that is associated with the
channel of interest, it becomes the
dominant noise factor in the SNR.
As a rule of thumb, the intensity
crosstalk of neighboring channels
must be at least 20 dB below the
target signal level. This type of
crosstalk can be dealt with by using
The measurement of wavelength is
critical in DWDM systems. Channel
spacings are extremely tight;
therefore the tolerance of
wavelength registration becomes
increasingly important.
Measurement of the optical power
of DWDM carriers is also important.
LASERS
Intensity Crosstalk
Wavelength
Optical Power
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
In DWDM networks, crosstalk is an
important parameter. There are two
types of crosstalk that can have
detrimental effects on the
performance of an optical system.
The first is known as inter-channel
crosstalk or “intensity” crosstalk. The
second is intra-channel crosstalk,
sometimes termed as ”coherent”
crosstalk.
Coherent crosstalk is less common
than intensity crosstalk and only
applies to networks that reuse
wavelengths and have non-ideal
wavelength routing elements, or
networks that suffer from four wave
mixing effects. This type of crosstalk
occurs when the leakage signal (the
crosstalk term) is of the same
wavelength as the signal. This makes
it impossible to remove the
crosstalk once it is present because
it cannot be filtered out optically.
This has similar effects on the SNR
as intensity crosstalk. Furthermore,
when the crosstalk wavelength
differs very slightly from the
wavelength of the signal, coherent
beat noise, which manifests itself in
the form of intensity beats at the
photodetector, may occur if the
difference frequency falls within the
electrical bandwidth of the receiver.
Wavelength stability is of extreme
importance in a DWDM network.
With channel spacings of 0.8 nm,
even the slightest drift in
wavelength of an optical carrier can
severely affect the performance of
the system. The stability of a
channel can be monitored with a
wavelength meter, which monitors
the absolute wavelength.
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
Signal to noise ratio is the ratio
between the optical carrier power
and the noise (which corresponds to
non-carrier signal) at the receiver.
A rule of thumb is that the SNR
should not fall below 20 dB for most
optical communication systems.
Coherent Crosstalk
Wavelength Stability
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
The small signal gain of an EDFA is
the gain provided by the amplifier
while operating in the linear or nonsaturated region. In this region, the
gain should be independent of the
input signal power, as well as all
other operating conditions such as
wavelength, temperature, etc.
a high quality optical filter to
eliminate all unwanted signals
outside of the target channel
bandwidth.
LASER DIODE TESTING
Small Signal Gain
FIBER OPTIC TEST
INSTRUMENTATION
LASER DIODE TESTING
106 — P h o t o n i c s
at the receiver to realize the BER
necessary for performance
requirements. DWDM systems must
be specially designed to account for
failures. The failure of a single
transmitter in a DWDM network may
push other channel powers outside
of the dynamic range of the system
because of the gain sharing
properties of EDFAs. Care must be
taken to factor in appropriate error
margins to ensure that a single
failure does not bring the entire
network down.
The 21st century has already been
labeled by some as “the century of
light”. This label is very appropriate
considering the current growth rate
of DWDM and the even greater
demand for bandwidth. The alloptical network will be the next
evolution in optical
communications. Current DWDM
systems are point-to-point links
meaning that the signals have a
single distinct starting and ending
point. Research is being performed
to help these networks evolve into
fully configurable networks, which
are not limited to fixed point-topoint links.
All optical switching is still in the
research phase; however,
researchers are looking for ways to
create reliable, low loss switches
with fast switching speeds.
Investigation into the possibility of
optical packet switching and other
novel technologies are currently
underway. The all optical network
may be just around the corner.
Please call Newport for Applicaton
Notes depicting how fiber optic
parameters can be measured by
using Newport’s test equipment.
OPTICAL FIBERS
& ACCESSORIES
FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENTS
LASERS
FIBER ALIGNMENT
& ASSEMBLY
POWER METERS
& DETECTORS
The All Optical Network
Transparency in the optical layer
opens many possibilities for the
future. Digital and analog
transmission can occur on the same
fiber. Different bit rates using
different protocols will all travel
together. Current research is being
performed on reconfiguring an
optical network in real time.
Wavelength selective switching
allows wavelengths to be routed
through the network individually.
Some of the applications of this are
for network restoration and
redundancy, which may reduce or
entirely eliminate the need for an
entire back up system to help the
network recover from failures such
as equipment malfunctions or fiber
breaks. A reconfigurable network
may offer bandwidth on demand to
configure itself to optimize for
traffic bottlenecks. The future may
also include wavelength translation
to convert traffic on one wavelength
to another wavelength in the optical
domain.
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