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UFC 3-240-05A
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UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
SOLID WASTE INCINERATION
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UFC 3-240-05A
16 January 2004
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
SOLID WASTE INCINERATION
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U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity)
NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND
AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY
Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/)
Change No.
Date
Location
This UFC supersedes TI 814-21, dated 3 August 1998. The format of this UFC does not conform to
UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision. The body of
this UFC is the previous TI 814-21, dated 3 August 1998.
1
TI 814-21
3 August 1998
Technical Instructions
SOLID WASTE INCINERATION
Headquarters
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Engineering Division
Directorate of Military Programs
Washington, DC 20314-1000
TI 814-21
3 August 1998
Technical Instructions
SOLID WASTE INCINERATION
Headquarters
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Engineering Division
Directorate of Military Programs
Washington, DC 20314-1000
CEMP-E
TI 814-21
3 August 1998
TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS
Solid Waste Incineration
Any copyrighted material included in this document is identified at its point of use.
Use of the copyrighted material apart from this document must have the permission of the copyright holder.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Record of Changes (changes indicated by \1\..../1/)
No.
Date
Location
This Technical Instruction supersedes EI 11C302, dated 1 October 1997.
(EI 11C302 text is included in this Technical Instruction and may carry EI 11C302 identification.)
CEMP-E
TI 814-21
3 August 1998
FOREWORD
These technical instructions (TI) provide design and construction criteria and apply to
all U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) commands having military construction
responsibilities. TI will be used for all Army projects and for projects executed for other
military services or work for other customers where appropriate.
TI are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available
to users as part of the HQUSACE responsibility for technical criteria and policy for new
military construction. CEMP-ET is responsible for administration of the TI system;
technical content of TI is the responsibility of the HQUSACE element of the discipline
involved. Recommended changes to TI, with rationale for the changes, should be sent
to HQUSACE, ATTN: CEMP-ET, 20 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC
20314-1000.
TI are effective upon issuance. TI are distributed only in electronic media through the
TECHINFO Internet site http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/techinfo/index.htm and the
Construction Criteria Base (CCB) system maintained by the National Institute of
Building Sciences at Internet site http://www.nibs.org/ccb/. Hard copies of these
instructions produced by the user from the electronic media should be checked against
the current electronic version prior to use to assure that the latest instructions are used.
FOR THE DIRECTOR OF MILITARY PROGRAMS:
KISUK CHEUNG, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction Division
Directorate of Military Programs
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
CEMP-ET
Engineering Instructions
No. 11C302
EI 11C302
1 October 1997
INCINERATORS
Table of Contents
Page
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Paragraph 1-1.
1-2.
PURPOSE ......................................................................................................1-1
SCOPE ...........................................................................................................1-1
CHAPTER 2. PROJECT PLANNING
Paragraph 2-1.
2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
2-7.
2-8.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT.............................................................................2-1
ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNICAL COORDINATION................................2-1
DESIGN TEAM ...............................................................................................2-1
FEDERAL REGULATIONS .............................................................................2-1
RESOURCE RECOVERY MANAGEMENT MODEL .......................................2-2
TECHNOLOGY EFFECTS ON FEASIBILITY..................................................2-2
EXISTING SOLID WASTE PROGRAM SURVEY ...........................................2-2
DOCUMENTS.................................................................................................2-3
CHAPTER 3. BASICS OF INCINERATION
Paragraph 3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
3-6.
DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF INCINERATION PROCESS. ...............3-1
CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTE. .........................3-1
HEATING VALUE OF WASTES AND FUELS.................................................3-1
OXIDATION ....................................................................................................3-2
MECHANISM OF COMBUSTION ...................................................................3-4
COMBUSTION PROCESS CONTROL. ..........................................................3-9
CHAPTER 4. INCINERATOR TECHNOLOGIES
Paragraph 4-1.
4-2
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
4-9.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION..............................................................................4-1
PACKAGED INCINERATOR...........................................................................4-2
MODULAR INCINERATOR.............................................................................4-2
FIELD-ERECTED INCINERATOR ..................................................................4-5
ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR.......................................................................4-6
FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTOR (FBC) INCINERATOR.................................4-8
CO-FIRING OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN A COAL-FIRED BOILER .........4-9
MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATOR .................................................................4-9
TECHNOLOGY SELECTION GUIDANCE..................................................... 4-10
CHAPTER 5. POLLUTION CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING
Paragraph 5-1.
5-2.
5-3.
5-4.
POLLUTION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................... 5-1
POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT............................................................5-1
TYPICAL STACK EMISSIONS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES......................5-3
OTHER PLANT DISCHARGES.......................................................................5-7
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temperatures desired in the respective zones of the furnace. For this reason, a primary chamber
designed to operate in the starved-air mode will use a different configuration and type of insulation
than a unit designed for operation in the excess-air mode
g. Chamber Volume/Gas Residence Time.
(1) The combustion chamber must be sized to provide adequate residence time for
complete destruction. The time required in the primary chamber is a function of the characteristics
of the waste, the type of charging used, and the mode of operation (e.g., the starved-air mode
requires more time than does the excess-air mode).
(a) Of principal interest to the furnace designer is the projected hourly throughput
required, the average moisture in the waste, and the major constituents, including the percentage of
inerts and highly combustible materials.
(b) Best performance is obtained by providing as uniform a feeding of the waste to the
primary combustion chamber as possible. Similarly, allocation of space in the secondary chamber is
a function of the volume of the total gas throughput and the need to provide the necessary 1.0 to
2.5 seconds of residence time, at temperature, before the gases are discharged to the downstream
components.
h. Turbulence. Turbulence takes on two forms in the waste combustion process, slow
agitation of the solid waste and turbulent mixing of gases and air in the gas combustion zones.
(1) Continuous and/or routine agitation of the solid waste during the drying and volatilization
phases assures that material in the lower part of the bed will not be insulated from the heat and
gases sweeping over the top of the bed. By providing some physical means (usually a patented
grate system) for the continual turning of the waste, the drying process will proceed at a more
uniform rate.
(2) Excessive and violent agitation of the bed by vigorous turning or by high-velocity flow of
air up through the bed can be detrimental. Although drying may be more rapid and the waste is
more frequently exposed to the radiated heat from the chamber walls, the lightweight ash and
partially burned material on the surface could be excessively agitated.
(a) Vigorous agitation will result in excessive amounts of solids being carried up with the
gases. Some of these solids (e.g., flakes of paper and partially burned lightweight material) will
burn with the gases as they enter the secondary zone and end up as fly ash. However, some of
this solid material will continue to burn long after it leaves the secondary zone simply because it
takes much longer to oxidize the solid material than it does to oxidize the gases. Unless special
equipment is provided, the burning material may cause fires in the bag house.
(b) Aside from the fire potential, the excess solid particulate creates problems by fouling
the heat transfer surfaces and by producing additional loading to the gas cleanup system.
(c) Release of these unburned artifacts can also contribute to the adverse emissions
from waste incinerators. The release of dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) and dibenzofurans (furans) has
been associated with this condition; it has been postulated that the airborne unburned carbon
provides the sites for reaction of the chlorine gas released from the oxidized, chlorine-containing
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page
3-11
3-12
3-13
5-1
5-2
6-1
Amounts of air needed for combustion of various kinds of waste......................................... 3-25
Chemical analysis of waste to energy facility ashes and other materials.............................. 3-26
Comparison of under-fired air and over-fired air patterns in different
types of combustion systems .............................................................................................. 3-27
Bag fiber properties for boiler/incinerator applications ......................................................... 5-10
CO emission limits established in 40CFR 60.36 .................................................................. 5-11
Typical incinerator instrumentation equipment ......................................................................6-3
APPENDIX A
EXCERPTS FROM EPA RESOURCE RECOVERY MANAGEMENT MODEL
APPENDIX B
COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS
APPENDIX C
REGULATIONS AND PERMITTING
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1-1. PURPOSE. This manual provides guidance for the planning and concept design of
municipal waste incineration plants.
1-2. SCOPE.
a. Planning. This manual introduces issues which must be considered to determine the
cost effectiveness of municipal waste incineration as a complement to a comprehensive solid
waste program.
b. Design. This manual introduces the designer to the basics of incineration, incineration
technologies, pollution control, and overall incinerator plant design requirements.
c. Limitations. While this manual covers basic considerations which must be met to
comply with current Federal regulations, the reader is cautioned that state and local
requirements may have a significant affect upon the life cycle cost of an incineration project.
In addition, regulations affecting incinerators have been fluctuating for several years as the
effects of certain pollutants, combined with the ability to achieve emission reduction levels
continue to be studied.
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CHAPTER 2
PROJECT PLANNING
2-1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT. Project management’s role in waste management planning
activities is critical when incineration is being considered as an alternative, as municipal waste
combustor projects bring together and focus the concerns of multiple agencies within federal,
state, and local governments as few projects can.
2-2. ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNICAL COORDINATION. Incineration projects require
close coordination between the environmental regulations and the technical requirements of
the project. Assumptions used in environmental assessments must be coincidental with the
technology used and ultimately the performance of the equipment which becomes integral to
the plant.
2-3. DESIGN TEAM. The design team will by necessity consist of more individual technical
disciplines than traditional facility design. Environmental engineers and biologists will need to
rely on emission, discharge, and other technical data provided by the plant/equipment
designers, just as the plant/equipment designers will need to have performance parameters
which, for environmental assessment needs, may exceed nominal regulatory limits.
2-4. FEDERAL REGULATIONS. Under 40 CFR, the following regulations must be
considered:
Subchapter C - Air Programs
Part 50, National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards
Part 51, Requirements for Preparation, Adoption and Submittal of Implementation Plans
Part 52, Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Part 60, Subpart Ca, Emissions
Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Waste Combustors
Part 60, Subpart E, Standards of Performance for Incinerators
Part 60, Subpart Ea, Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors
Part 60, Subpart Eb, Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which
Construction is Commenced After September 20, 1994.
Subchapter D - Water Programs
Part 122, EPA Administered Permit Programs: The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System
Part 125, Criteria And Standards For The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA)
Subchapter I - Solid Wastes
Part 240, Guidelines For The Thermal Processing Of Solid Wastes
Part 241, Guidelines For The Land Disposal Of Solid Wastes
Part 246, Source Separation For Materials Recovery Guidelines
Part 260, Hazardous Waste Management System: General
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Part 261, Identification And Listing Of Hazardous Waste
Part 262, Standards Applicable To Generators Of Hazardous Waste
2-5. RESOURCE RECOVERY MANAGEMENT MODEL. The number of issues and
coordination requirements for a municipal waste combustion project makes the use of
previously developed management models appropriate. EPA publication SW-768 (September
1979), Resource Recovery Management Model is recommended as a guide to ensure that all
aspects of the project are addressed in an appropriate sequence. While available
technologies and regulatory requirements have changed since the publication of SW-768, the
information presented for planning purposes is still valid. Excerpts from the introduction
contained in the management model, as well as activity index lists for two phases of planning,
identified as initial feasibility screening and feasibility analysis are included in appendix A.
2-6. TECHNOLOGY EFFECTS ON FEASIBILITY. As new technologies advance our ability to
reduce pollutants, the complexity of waste incinerator systems increases, and the economic
factors which must be considered to make accurate determinations of feasibility become
complex as well. Capital and O&M (operations and maintenance) costs need to be closely
examined. Uncertainties as to how residual wastes such as bottom ash and fly ash must be
disposed of, and/or treated will have significant affects upon the ultimate cost of disposal, and
may in fact alter completely the outcome of an alternative disposal study.
2-7. EXISTING SOLID WASTE PROGRAM SURVEY.
a. The existing solid waste program must be analyzed in detail to determine what the
ultimate composition of the waste stream to be incinerated would be. The program should be
analyzed for the following:
(1) Clean Green Programs (separate collection of yard wastes).
(2) Source Separation (recycling programs for aluminum, tin, cardboard, office paper,
newspaper, glass, etc.).
(3) Source Separation for Hazardous Materials (separation of batteries, used oil
containers, solvents, paint, etc.).
(4) Collection and Transportation Systems.
(5) Remaining Waste Stream.
b. Each waste stream, whether it be composted, recycled, land-filled on site, long hauled,
or presently incinerated must be accurately quantified.
c. Weights and moisture content are critical, as are identification of unique types and
quantities of waste. The results of this analysis will be used to determine waste holding
capacities at the incinerator plant as well as equipment train sizing.
d. Variations in waste quantities should be considered in the context of leveling the
throughput at the plant. Increasing temporary storage capacities and/or altering the present
waste collection schedules are potential solutions.
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Table 3-9. Effect of Processing and Recycle Programs
RDF After Source Separation
Raw MSW
RDF
100%
66-65%
4,300-4,600
7,000-8,000
% Original
Material
Heating
Value
(Btu/lb)
43-55%
6,200-6,500
Table 3-10. Excess Air at Furnace Outlet
Fuels
Percent Excess Air
Gaseous
Natural Gas
Refinery Gas
Blast Furnace Gas
Coke Oven Gas
5-10
8-15
15-25
5-10
Liquid
Oil
3-15
Solid
Coal (Pulverized)
Coke
Wood
Bagasse
MSW (Excess Air)
MSW (Starved Air)
15-30
20-40
25-50
25-45
40-50
130-150
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these systems to meet past particulate emissions requirements without the addition of a particulate
control device, and the ability to easily adjust and maintain secondary combustor conditions. The
large field-erected units always operate in the excess-air mode.
4-2. PACKAGED INCINERATOR.
a. Retort-Type Incinerators.
(1) Most small, packaged incinerators in the 100-1000 lb/h (i.e., 1.2 to 12 tons/day)
capacity range are of the stationary hearth, retort-type. Gases are directed through a series of
connected "U"-shaped combustion chambers that share common walls and a common base (in lieu
of an "in-line" configuration). Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical "U"-shaped retort design.
(2) The "U"-shaped retort requires the gases to make right turns in both the horizontal and
vertical directions. This return flow of the gases permits the use of a common hot wall between the
various chambers. The compactness of a "U"-shaped retort incinerator saves space, yet it provides
a gas flow path that is long enough to keep the gases at the temperatures for the time required to
complete the oxidation process.
(a) Combustion air is introduced into each chamber at the rate required to achieve
complete burndown for the mode of operation (i.e., starved-air or excess-air).
(b) Solid waste is batch-fed through a sliding door onto a vented grate hearth. Each
batch pushes the previous batch along the hearth where it is ignited by the prior material. As the
material burns, the ash falls through the grate into the ash chamber.
(c) Primary chamber air, usually at substoichiometric ratios (i.e., starved-air mode) to
minimize fly ash, is introduced above and below the grate and controlled by dampers in the ducts
supplying air to each zone. Each succeeding chamber has provisions for adding more air and has
supplemental burner/heaters so that the desired temperature and stoichiometric ratios can be
adjusted and controlled in each chamber.
(3) The small, packaged, single units have wide application for the controlled destruction
of small quantities of municipal-type waste and are especially well suited for burning unique types of
waste that must be processed separately from general wastes.
(4) They are designed to be operated 8-16 h/day so that ash removal and certain
maintenance can be performed during the shutdown.
b. I n-line Retort Type Incinerator. The in-line packaged unit also has all chambers in one
housing, but the gases make 90o turns in the vertical direction only. Thus, the secondary chamber
is in-line, at the end of the primary chamber, rather than mounted alongside. The in-line unit is
therefore longer and less compact than the standard "U"-shaped retort design. All other aspects of
operation and performance are similar to the retort unit.
4-3. MODULAR INCINERATOR.
a. General Description.
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(b) Once inside the chamber, the material is slowly tumbled by the rotating action at a
rate of 0.75 to 2.50 rpm. Material is destroyed as it moves along the length of the drum, which has
a nominal length-to-diameter ratio of 2:1 to 5:1. Typically, the supplemental heat burner in the
primary chamber provides much of the heat required to destroy the waste. Residence time in the
chamber is changed by adjusting the angle (tilt of the horizontal axis) of the cylinder.
(2) Secondary Combustion. Residue ash tumbles off the kiln into the ash-collection pit in
the secondary chamber. Combustion gases pass through the secondary chambers in the same
manner as the fixed-hearth retort furnace.
(3) Capacity. Typical capacity for packaged rotary kilns is less than that for packaged retort
furnaces of the same physical size.
c. Modular Rotary Kiln.
(1) The rotary kiln incinerator size of interest to military bases is often a two-package, largescale, modularized version of the packaged incinerator. One package or module is the rotating
cylinder primary combustion chamber and its associated charging system. The second package is
the stationary secondary chamber unit described above. The modular rotary kilns may differ in
configuration and provide greater capacity than packaged rotary kilns; however, they operate in the
same manner at capacities up to 5000 lb/h. Seldom are these units operated in multiple-unit
facilities. Figure 4-4 illustrates a typical modular rotary kiln unit with heat recovery.
(2) Large-scale, multiple-module, rotary kiln systems, using individual truck-trailer mounted
modules for each subsystem, are used extensively for decontaminating soils and for destroying
large batches of difficult to burn wastes. Throughput for such modular systems is usually less than
5,000 lb/h.
d. Field Erected Rotary Chamber Systems.
(1) Application. Large-scale rotary kilns have been used for the routine destruction of
municipal-type wastes. Rotary kilns generate larger amounts of particulate when burning municipal.
(2) Field-Erected Incinerator Systems Incorporating Rotary Chambers. Several incinerator
manufacturers use rotary chambers in place of moving grates in the primary combustion sections of
their incinerators.
(a) Volund System. The Volund incinerator uses a refractory-lined rotary kiln in the final
two stages of primary combustion. Two moving grates are used for the drying and initial
volatilization /combustion stage. The partially burned material is then moved into the rotary kiln for
completion of primary combustion and final burndown of the char. Gases, vapors, and particulates
generated upstream of the kiln are partially burned in the kiln, and final destruction is completed in
the secondary combustion chamber/boiler section. All other aspects of the incinerator and its
operation are similar to other field-erected, furnace-type incinerators.
(b) O'Connor-Westinghouse System. This system uses an all-steel-pipe, inclined,
rotary-cylinder, primary-combustion chamber. Water-filled pipes make up the rotating, inclined,
horizontal, cylindrical chamber. The pipes are spaced and attached in a manner that allows primary
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(2) Carbon and hydrogen, when burned to completion with oxygen, unite according to
equations 3.1 and 3.2.
C + O2 = CO2 + 14,100 Btu/lb of C
(Eq. 3.1)
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + 61,100 Btu/lb of H2.
(Eq. 3.2)
2.66 lb of oxygen (or 11.5 lb of air) are required to oxidize one pound of carbon and produce 3.66 lb
of carbon dioxide. Similarly, 8.0 lb of oxygen (or 34.6 lb of air) are required to oxidize one pound of
hydrogen and produce 9.0 lb of water vapor.
b. Stoichiometry. The ratio of the actual amount of oxygen supplied in the oxidation process
to the amount actually required is called the Stoichiometric Ratio (S.R.). In the examples given, the
S.R.= 1.0. The heat released (i.e., 14,100 Btu/lb when carbon is oxidized, or 61,100 Btu/lb when
hydrogen is oxidized) raises the respective products of combustion, plus other gases present, to
high temperatures.
(1) The burning of compounds containing oxygen require less air since the compound
already contains some oxygen that will be made available during the combustion process. A typical
waste stream component like cellulose, a major constituent in paper products, is destroyed
according to equation 3.3.
C6H10O5+6O2+(19.97N2) = 6CO2+5H2O+(19.97N2)+10,036 Btu/lb
(Eq. 3.3)
(2) Because oxygen is present in the "fuel," only 5.1 lb of air per pound of cellulose are
required to completely oxidize the cellulose. The theoretical amount of combustion air will produce
the highest temperature combustion product gas temperature (i.e., an adiabatic gas product
0
temperature of 3,250 F).
c. Effect of Excess Air.
(1) Since air is the usual source of the oxygen, excess amounts of air will dilute the gases
and reduce the temperature of the gases. When mass burning unprocessed municipal waste,
approximately 7.5 lb of air (S.R.1.0) are required to burn 1 lb of waste. Any processing that
improves the fuel quality (i.e., removal of non-combustibles and high-moisture-content materials)
will increase the heating value of the remaining waste and the specific air demand (i.e., pounds of
air per pound of material actually being burned).
(2) Figure 3-1 shows the relationship between calculated flame temperature, stoichiometric
ratio, and moisture content in the waste.
d. Efficiency.
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(1) The objectives of combustion in an incinerator are the complete destruction of the
organic constituents to form harmless gases and the prevention of the release of any harmful
material to the environment. Efficient conversion of the heat released into useful energy, though
important, is secondary to safe and efficient destruction of the waste.
(2) The oxidation of the combustible elements requires a temperature high enough to ignite
the constituents, mixing of the material with oxygen, or turbulence and sufficient time for complete
combustion, (i.e., the three "Ts" of combustion). Proper attention to these three factors can
produce destruction/conversion efficiencies of 99.9%-99.95% in well-operated incinerators.
e. Excess Air.
(1) High-efficiency destruction (oxidation) of any combustible material requires that more
oxygen be present than what is required by the chemistry of the process. Since combustion is a
chemical process, the rate of oxidation is contingent upon many factors that can make the reactions
occur at a faster or slower rate. The percent of excess oxygen present and available to the reaction
is one of these factors.
(a) In general, combustible gases and vapors require less excess oxygen to achieve
high-efficiency oxidation than do solid fuels due to the ease of mixing and the nature of the
compounds in the gases and vapors.
(b) Solid fuel materials, because of the more complex processes involved in their
combustion, require more excess air and more time.
(2) Quantities of excess air have been determined empirically for different fuels and are
given in table 3-10.
(3) Increasing the quantity of excess air beyond the percentages indicated does not
benefit the combustion process and lowers the gas temperature thereby reducing the efficiency of
the downstream heat-recovery process.
(a) The best combination of combustion efficiency and energy recovery when mass
burning municipal waste in a large water-wall incinerator has been observed to occur with a system
S.R. of 1.4 to 1.5.
(b) The secondary combustion chambers in modular and packaged incinerators
achieve their highest destruction efficiency at S.R.s of 1.5 to 2.0.
3-5. MECHANISM OF COMBUSTION.
a. Primary Combustion Process. The thermal destruction of waste (or any other solid fuel with
significant moisture content) is accomplished in four phases as described below:
(1) Phase One. The first phase is the drying phase that occurs in the initial heating of the
heterogeneous material. Moisture is driven off as the material is heated past the vaporization
temperature of water. Drying is usually complete by the time the material has reached 300oF.
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(2) Phase Two. The second phase is the volatilization of vapors and gases which occurs as
the temperature of the waste continues to rise. Vapors and gases diffuse out as their respective
volatilization temperatures are attained. Those vapors and gases having low flash points (i.e., the
temperature at which a specific gas or vapor will ignite) may react with primary combustion air to
burn at the surface of the bed of waste. If excess oxygen is not available, as in the case of starvedair incinerators, the low-temperature volatilization of vapors and gases may react to form other
hydrocarbons and/or partially oxidized compounds (i.e., carbon monoxide, etc.). These compounds
must be burned later in the secondary combustion process where there is sufficient oxygen for
complete combustion. The higher flash point gases and vapors will most likely burn only after they
have been swept up in the gas flow and subsequently ignite when they are exposed to their
respective ignition temperatures. How well they are destroyed will depend upon their being
subjected to their requisite "three T" conditions in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. The
flash point for the gases and vapors driven off in this phase of the primary combustion process
ranges from approximately 500 to 1,300oF, which is usually several hundred degrees higher than
their respective volatilization temperatures. Consequently, combustion of the gases and vapors
occurs some distance above the bed in a zone where there is sufficient temperature and oxygen for
them to be oxidized. If either or both conditions are not met, the partially oxidized vapors and gases
will be carried through the system until the right conditions for completion of the oxidation process
are met. Table 3-11 shows the ratios of air to weight of solids to burn different types of solid waste.
(3) Phase Three. The third phase in the burndown of solids is the in-place oxidation of the
burnable solids left after the vapors and gases have been volatilized. The remaining, partially
oxidized cellulose, lignins, and other hydrocarbon solids, when further heated, oxidize to form
carbon dioxide and water vapor. This portion of the combustion process occurs in or on the bed in
a fairly violent manner. In excess-air systems, the residues from this phase are incompletely
burned carbon (char) and inert noncombustibles. Starved-air systems will also have some
unburned hydrocarbons.
(4) Phase Four. The fourth phase in the process involves the final burndown of char and
the consolidation and cooling of the inert residues, known as bottom ash (metals and ceramic
oxides; primarily alumina, silica and calcia, plus lesser amounts of other oxides; see table 3-12).
This material is the end product, which, after a short period of cooling on the hearth/grate, is
dumped into the ash-receiving system. In small units, the ash may be dumped directly into a dry
collection hopper. In large units, the grate continually dumps the ash into the ash quench pit where
it is cooled by water.
b. Secondary Combustion.
(1) The final destruction process requires specific conditions. The secondary combustion
zone (i.e., secondary combustion chamber in packaged and modular units and the hightemperature secondary combustion zone in large field-erected units) must provide the desired
temperature, turbulence, and excess air required to achieve complete destruction of all the
unburned gases, vapors, and particulates released from the primary combustion process.
(a) The complete destruction of high-flash-point, low-heat-content vapors and
particulates requires more time and greater turbulence than does the complete destruction of the
more easily burned materials.
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(b) The secondary combustion zone or chamber in which this final combustion process
occurs is therefore designed to provide a sufficient volume to achieve the high-temperature
residence times required to complete the oxidation of these harder-to-burn materials.
(c) By maintaining the temperatures and oxygen partial pressure in the secondary
combustion zones well above the requisite minimum conditions, the reactions involved in the
complete destruction of the high-flash-point and/or the low-heat-of-combustion compounds is
allowed to proceed at a rate fast enough to assure a high degree of destruction during the limited
residence time in this zone or chamber.
(2) Common practice in the design of secondary combustion chambers for municipal waste
incinerators is to provide a nominal minimum of 1 to 2.5-seconds gas residence time and nominal
secondary gas temperatures in the range of 1,800 to 2,000oF. Also, since the combustion of these
volatiles will not be complete unless sufficient oxygen is available, additional air is introduced.
(a) For unprocessed municipal solid waste (MSW), the optimal percent excess air
required to achieve high destruction efficiency and high-efficiency energy recovery in a large waterwall furnace is approximately 40-50% (i.e., a Stoichiometric Ratio of 1.4 to 1.5, which provides an
atmosphere containing 6.6%-7.7% excess oxygen).
(b) The smaller modular and packaged units achieve their highest destruction
efficiencies with 50-100% excess air, or greater (i.e., a stoichiometric ratio of 1.5 to 2.0). They pay
for this higher dilution of exhaust gas by having lower efficiency energy recovery.
(c) Introduction of this amount of excess air has been found to be necessary in order to
supply the necessary partial pressure of oxygen required to achieve the highest destruction
efficiency practical for the conglomeration of materials in municipal waste.
c. Time for Primary Combustion Affected by the Method of Burning.
(1) The time required for complete burndown of municipal solid waste in the primary
combustion chamber is a function of how the solid waste is fed into the system. The time required
varies from six hours to a few minutes, depending upon the design of the furnace and the method
used for feeding and supporting the waste while it is being burned.
(a) Mass Burn Systems. These systems are the dominant type used to burn solid
waste. A mass burn system uses a hearth or a grate to support a large mass of raw or processed
waste as it is progressively burned down. The burndown process typically requires a nominal four to
six hours from the time the waste is introduced into the primary combustion chamber until the ash is
discharged. Incinerators operating under oxygen-deficient conditions (starved-air primarycombustion mode) require longer burndown times than the furnaces operating in the oxygen-rich
condition (excess-air primary-combustion mode).
(b) Injection-Fed, Dispersed-Bed System. This type of feed and method of distributing
the waste as it is being burned is used in the fluidized-bed incinerator. Because the waste is diluted
as it is rapidly distributed throughout the volume of the fluidized bed, much less time is required for
complete destruction. The thermal destruction of waste in a fluidized-bed incinerator requires
essentially the same sequence for progressive destruction of the material, but instead of occurring
in discrete zones, all of the processes occur simultaneously in a single large bed. Air and small
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particles of waste are continuously injected at a high rate into the bed, and ample oxygen is always
available to all parts of the bed. This allows each distinct piece of waste to undergo its drying,
volatilization, oxidation of the gases and vapors, combustion of organic solids, and complete
burndown of the char in all parts of the bed at the same time. Residence time for destruction of the
small, (-2 inch), sized waste in the 1,5000F bed is of the order of minutes.
(c) Co-firing of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF). Co-feeding and co-firing of specially
prepared refuse, RDF, with coal in a coal-fired boiler allows the waste to be destroyed at a rate
comparable with that of burndown of the coal fed to the boiler furnace. This method of destruction
of waste requires that the waste be sized, prepared, and fed into the furnace in a manner that
assures that the 10-20% by weight of waste will burn down at a rate faster than that required for
the 80-90% by weight of coal, for which the boiler was originally designed. Thus, a spreader stoker
furnace burning 2-in. coal is co-fired with 0.75-1.5 in.-diameter pellets or cubes of RDF.
Suspension-fired boiler furnaces firing pulverized coal are co-fired with fluff RDF.
d. Special Design Considerations.
(1) In the case of incinerators used to burn hazardous substances, a minimum residence
time of 2 seconds at a minimum of 1,800oF is used in the design criteria for achieving the 99.99%
destruction efficiency required by law for hazardous waste incinerators. Some states are also
requiring this higher efficiency destruction on municipal waste incinerators in order to assure the
destruction of dioxins.
(2) Toxic materials may be formed during primary combustion by the reaction of partially
burned hydrocarbons with chlorine and must be destroyed in the secondary combustion process.
(3) Figure 3-2 shows the relationship of destruction efficiency of biphenyls and
chlorobenzenes (autogenous ignition temperature of 1,3190F and 1,2450F, respectively), with time
and temperature.
e. Mechanical Features Used to Achieve Process Control. The design of a mass burn furnace
requires special provisions:
(1) Controlled introduction of air at the appropriate locations above and below the bed is
required in order to accomplish the drying, volatilization, and combustion processes in the
respective zones of the combustion chamber.
(2) Incinerators with primary combustion chambers operating in the starved-air mode require
proportionately larger amounts of secondary air. This larger amount of air tends to cool the gases
and requires that an auxiliary burner be provided to heat and maintain the gases at the required
temperature. Typically, the less the amount of air delivered to the primary chamber (i.e., starved-air
mode), the more air and the greater the auxiliary burner (either oil or natural gas fired) input to the
secondary. This requires that the starved-air units (SAU) be provided with a larger volume
secondary chamber than their comparable capacity excess-air unit (EAU). Table 3-13 lists the
typical air distribution for primary and secondary combustion chambers/zones for modular and fielderected incinerators.
f. Chamber Geometry and Insulation. Well-designed units make provision for the necessary
features (i.e., insulation, size and shape of the chambers, etc.) for attaining and maintaining the
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(5) Even if test results meet RCRA requirements, local or state pollution regulations may
require that plant discharges be disposed in a separate landfill area (monofill). Local regulations
may also require the ash be mixed with Portland cement or otherwise stabilized to minimize the
possibility of undetected contaminants leaching out after being land filled. The design of the
incinerator facility and the ash/ residue disposal facility must include an area of adequate size for
handling and storage of all of the ash and other solid residues (e.g., spent scrubber sorbent)
produced by the incinerator plant during operation.
(6) The fly ash and the gas cleanup system residues if disposed separately from the bottom
ash, may be land filled in a special monofill or may be required to undergo special treatment before
placement in a Subtitle D landfill. The amount of material falling into this category is usually a small
percentage of the original waste stream (i.e., 1-5% by weight).
5-5. ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING.
a. Professional Assistance. Each proposed facility must satisfy unique conditions and limits
imposed by the permitting authorities. Regulatory authorities that have jurisdiction must be
identified, as well as, the current regulations that apply to the project.
b. Environmental Assessment/ Environmental Impact Statement. An Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS) may have to be prepared as part of the permitting process. If several older boiler
plants without pollution controls are to be shut down, and less pollutants emitted as a result of
operating an incinerator plant with emission controls, credit can be taken for the net reduction in
emissions. If an EIS is not required, an Environmental Assessment (EA) will be necessary, if for no
other reason than to document why the EIS is not needed. Inordinate concern by the public over
an incinerator project may force the issuance of an EIS. This concern may also require preparation
of other reports, not required by regulations, in order to demonstrate the thoroughness of the
planning process and to preempt legal challenges that can cause long delays in the completion of
the project. Some civilian companies found out the hard way that the legal challenges turned out
to be considerably more expensive than the cost of dealing with the public's concerns ahead of
time. This can be especially true if the regulators or the public believe that the decision to build has
occurred without proper consideration of all environmental consequences.
c. Permit Hearing. Local pollution control boards may have stringent, regulations due to
public concern over the local ambient environmental quality. Official public hearings as specified in
the federal regulations (40CFR 60.23) are required if the state has chosen to accept the provisions
of this regulation. Demonstration of compliance to all requirements will have to be made at the
hearing. Informal meetings with public officials and citizen groups should be encouraged only after
the project planners and the engineers have demonstrated their environmental data base is
complete and accurate.
d. BACT, LAER, MACT and RACT.
(1) There are four emission control concepts that the designer should be aware of: Best
Available Control Technology (BACT), Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), Maximum
Available Control Technology (MACT), and Reasonable Available Control Technology (RACT).
(2) BACT. BACT refers to a standard of performance and not a specific pollution control
technology. However, the standard of performance frequently has been established by a specific
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Table 5-2. CO Emission Limits Established in
40CFR 60.36.
Incinerator Type
CO Limit (ppmv)
a)
Modular Starved Air
50
b)
Modular Excess Air
50
c)
Massburn Waterwall
100
d)
Massburn Rotary Waterwall
250
e)
Bubbling Fluidized Bed
100
f)
Coal/RDF Mixed Fuel-Fired Combustor
150
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CHAPTER 7
INCINERATOR PLANT DESIGN
7-1. STANDARD BUILDING TYPE. Pre-engineered metal buildings, typical of small modular
plants, can be supplied with a wide variety of sidings, fascia, and other trim for aesthetic purposes.
The incineration equipment should draw the combustion air from inside the plant. This helps keep
the building under negative pressure to minimize release of odors. Roof fans are needed to insure
adequate air circulation, and maintain the slightly negative pressure inside the building.
7-2. WASTE RECEIVING AND PRETREATMENT
.
a. Scales. The design of any incinerator plant must include truck scales. The scale is needed
to establish the weight of incoming solid waste, outgoing residue, salvaged materials, and to
monitor the performance of the facility. State and local regulatory agencies may require this
information be made available to ensure the plant is not processing more waste than it is licensed
for and is not overloading the incinerators.
b. Receiving Accommodations. Trucks must have adequate room to turn and maneuver after
going over the scales. This is especially important for back-in arrangements. There should be
several acres of free area around the waste receiving area for maneuvering and parking of trucks
and for storage of drop-off containers. At least the receiving area, if not the entire plant site, must
be surrounded by a wire-link fence to prevent paper and other debris from blowing out of the
immediate area.
c. Tipping Floor.
(1) Typical Layout. The normal configuration for a small modular incinerator facility building
is for the trucks to unload their waste onto a tipping floor. If the waste is not processed at an MRF,
a front loader will be used to separate out any material that should not go into the incinerators, push
some of the waste into the incinerator charging hoppers, and pile-up the rest in storage areas. The
front loader used to service the incinerators must be large enough to deliver an adequate amount of
waste to the feed hoppers, but have a bucket narrow enough to directly access the feed hopper
opening. Irrespective of whether an MRF is used, the tipping floor area at the incinerator should
have some provision for reducing the size of large, burnable material that has been delivered.
Typically this type of material includes scrap lumber, timber, logs, tree stumps, pallets, and wooden
boxes. A shear shredder or a tub-grinder with ample capacity to handle timbers, tree trunks, and
large pallets may be required.
(2) Waste Storage Area. For the storage of 3-5 days feed stock, approximately 130 ft2 of
tipping floor area should be provided for each ton-per-day incinerator capacity. This storage
capacity is required to insure continuous operation during those periods when waste deliveries are
not being made. The actual space allocation will be influenced by the type of floor arrangement
selected, the amount of truck and front loader traffic, and how high the front loader can pile the
waste in storage (which is also affected by the height of the concrete retaining wall against which
the waste is to be piled).
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(1) Typically the steam or hot water produced in the energy recovery system is matched to
the existing space-heating power plant conditions. The incinerator is used as a base-load
generator due to its need to burn waste at a constant rate of throughput. This inflexibility in
operating the incinerator means that the existing fossil-fueled, space-heating plant will be swingloaded to follow changes in the daily demands.
(2) During the summer months, steam or high-temperature hot water produced by the boiler
may be used to produce chilled water for air conditioning. Large, multi-stage, high-pressure (125
psig steam) absorption chillers are available from several manufacturers. Steam turbines running a
mechanical chiller and exhausting into low-pressure (12 psig) absorption units are available. It is
also possible to purchase ammonia refrigeration units that work off of low-quality waste heat;
however, low-pressure absorption units should never be used by themselves because of their low
thermal efficiency.
d. Co-generation. It may be desirable to equip the incinerator plant with a steam turbine to
produce electricity or do other mechanical work (e.g., pump water, run air compressors) if the
incinerator plant is larger than 50-tpd capacity. It is also possible to generate both electricity and
district heating steamin small steam generation facilities.
(1) Steam turbines are available that use steam at pressures as low as 300 psig, perform
mechanical work, and exhaust the steam at 150 psig or lower.
(2) Electricity Generation. The designer can expect electrical generation rates of 400 kWh
from a 50-tpd incinerator plant and more than 1,600 kWh from a 200-tpd plant, despite the relatively
low overall plant efficiencies (i.e., 10-12%).
(3) Operation on Demand. Co-generation is often used when high-pressure steam can be
delivered to the district heating system via a high-pressure heat exchanger to produce low-pressure
steam when the demand for district heating is high. It can also be used to send the high-pressure
steam directly to the turbine when the demand for district heating is low.
7-4. ASH SYSTEM.
.
a. The hot ash from an incinerator is usually dumped directly into a water-filled quench tank at
the discharge end of the primary combustion chamber. The water is maintained at a level that
provides a seal at the exit of the incinerator and thereby prevents unwanted air from entering the
primary combustion chamber.
b. Removal Methods. Several methods of ash removal may be used, each with their
advantages and disadvantages. Problems with ash system design and optimization are reasons
why it is vital to hire a contractor with extensive experience in the design of waste incineration
facilities. Experience has shown that plants have more trouble with the ash removal system than
with any other support system. Two causes stand out: (1) under design, and (2) failure to remove
wire-containing products, cable, and band strapping from the incinerator feed stock.
(1) Drag-Chain Conveyor. Drag-chain conveyors are the most common device for removal
of ash. Water is allowed to drain from the ash as it is carried up a chute and out of the plant. Due
to the gritty environment, the drag-chain conveyor is normally a high-maintenance item. The plant
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APPENDIX A
EXCERPTS FROM EPA RESOURCE RECOVERY MANAGEMENT MODEL
A-1. INTRODUCTION. The U.S.A. Environmental Protection Agency developed a model for
the planning and construction of resource recovery facilities based on the successes and
failures experienced in the civilian sector. This model has been used successfully in
subsequent planning and construction of facilities since its issuance. Excerpts from this
document are provided here in order to orient the user of this manual to the type of detail and
the scope of activities that must be analyzed if the project is to be successful.
a. The management model (SW-768) can be obtained from the National Technical
Information Service (NTIS) and though recommended as the basis for the planning and
construction scheduling for civilian projects it is applicable to military resource recovery
projects as well.
b. The material reproduced from the Management Model document only covers excerpts
from the Introduction and the List of Activities required during the Feasibility Screening and the
Feasibility Analysis phases. This should help the reader to appreciate the scope of these initial
phases in a successful project and should provide the basis for project activity checklists.
Failure to provide complete answers to questions or unresolved issues in any of these areas
can mean the difference between success or failure of the project.
A-2. GENERAL DISCUSSION. Resource recovery refers to the collection and reuse of solid
waste, generally residential and commercial waste, for the production of commodities in the
form of energy and materials, either at a central processing facility or by source separation, or
both. This effort has gained recognition over the last decade as a partial solution to two major
problems confronting this country: the need for environmentally sound disposal of solid
wastes, including the need to reduce dependence on land disposal; and the need for alternate
energy sources, including energy conservation. While the concept is not new, the potential in
more communities for its use as a method for solid waste disposal has stimulated rapid growth
in both large- and small-scale systems technology.
A-3. KEY QUESTIONS. In considering resource recovery, the following key questions must
be addressed and resolved:
a. Is sufficient refuse available to support a resource recovery project and can it be
committed in the long term to a facility?
b. Do realistic long-term markets for energy and materials products exist?
c. Are sites and technologies available which are environmentally sound and politically
acceptable?
d. Do local laws permit procurement options and necessary contractual agreements?
e. Is the project financially feasible?
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f. How does resource recovery compare to the non-recovery disposal alternatives?
g. Failure to address any one of these key questions may make project implementation
impractical. The inability to obtain any critical item, such as a facility site, energy market, or
adequate waste supply can spell the termination, or at least the postponement, of a project.
The Management Model shows what tasks must be done and where in the planning process
they should be accomplished. The Model is presented in considerable detail, which is
necessary for those with limited experience in the field, and is useful as a checklist for those
with more experience.
A-4. THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT MODEL. Because of the time span over which
planning and procurement of resource recovery facilities takes place, events such as a change
in project manager, departure and replacement of a key appointed official, or a newly elected
official taking office can be expected to occur, as well as changes in laws and regulations.
The Model provides a systematic approach for charting tasks already accomplished, thus
helping to maintain project continuity and mitigate a tendency toward the unnecessary
retracing of steps.
a. Recent experience in resource recovery projects indicates that some of the difficult
decisions were not addressed in a timely and proper manner; thus time, effort, and money
were wasted. The Model is intended to “close the gate” on continuing a project until a needed
decision is made, then the gate will be opened to continue with the next major phase. These
gates are political decisions conducted publicly based upon written documentation.
b. The Model allows new projects to benefit from past experience in resource recovery
implementation by identifying for project managers the critical decisions in the project which
must be made before succeeding activities can begin. It defines the proper relationship of all
activities and decisions. This should result in improved decisions and smoother
implementation with less redundancy of effort.
A-5. DESCRIPTION OF THE MANAGEMENT MODEL. The model is constructed in four
phases. Phases I, II, and III are identified as Feasibility Analysis, Procurement Planning, and
System Procurement, respectively. These three phases are preceded by a Phase 0, Initial
Resource Recovery Feasibility Screening, denoting certain steps necessary to decide whether
there is a strong reason not to study and plan for a resource recovery project.
a. Phase 0 depicts an informal preliminary review of certain information which enables
decision makers to become aware of the potential for resource recovery even though the
information may emerge from past planning efforts. The numeral 0 is used to stress that this
phase is less formal than others because it is a test of whether local conditions preclude
consideration of resource recovery. The function of Phase 0 is to investigate in rough terms
whether to proceed with a resource recovery program at all.
b. Phase I, Feasibility Analysis, includes an evaluation of the feasibility of resource
recovery an preliminary identification of alternatives, including source separation and codisposal. This phase should form the basis for a decision to terminate, postpone, or proceed.
It also includes activities necessary to construct a preliminary implementation strategy.
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a. In many cases interest in resource recovery is stimulated by a need to abandon the
current system, such as an incinerator with excessive emissions or a landfill reaching capacity.
In cases such as these, the program manager has two concurrent tasks.
(1) The first is to plan for the shorter-term phase-over solid waste management
needs.
(2) The second is to plan for the long-term resource recovery program.
b. Although phase-over planning is required immediately, it should progress along with
and be compatible with the long-term planning represented by this Management Model. While
the two planning functions are often concurrent and some of their respective activities may be
interdependent, the two planning activities may be separate and distinct. Where possible, the
same project manager or task force should be involved in both activities. The primary focus is
to avoid actions of a short term or phase-over nature that are inconsistent with the long-range
goal.
c. It is not the purpose of this Model to address phase-over planning. While the need for
this planning, as well as points of interdependence (e.g., site selection and size, residual
disposal), are acknowledged the Management Model is designed primarily to assist the project
manager in implementation of only the resource recovery program. Concurrent functions,
scheduling constraints, and other problems facing the municipality must be resolved by the
project manager responsible for the function.
A-12. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS. There is a need in every project, because of the time
that may elapse between project phases, to maintain contact with members of the participating
organizations, especially during periods of low activity. For example, after letters of intent are
received from markets, time passes while public presentations and political decisions are
made. Project momentum should be continued by the project manager, and continuous
contact should be maintained with markets and member municipalities so that they are kept
constantly up to date and interest and desire for participation is not lost.
Activity Index
Master
Activity
No.
______
Phase 0 - Conduct initial Resource Recovery Feasibility Screening.
000
Complete Overview of Phase 0.
001
Evaluate Non-Recovery Disposal Options and Associated Environmental Issues.
002
Sample Citizen and Political Interest.
003
Conduct Preliminary Market Survey.
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APPENDIX B
COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS
B-1. GENERAL.
a. Purpose. The purpose of the following combustion calculations is not to design the
incinerator. The details of the incinerator design must be left to the manufacturer since the
manufacturer must guarantee its performance. However, information on heat release, gas
flow rates, particulate loading, and other pollutants in the flue gas will be needed in order to
prepare system performance requirements for the heat recovery boiler, pollution control
equipment, certain auxiliary equipment such as ID fans, and as input to an EIS. The data will
also be used to fill in the blanks on the flow and instrument diagram that the designer will find
among the standardized drawings.
b. Scope.
(1) The combustion calculations described in this appendix are much more detailed
than those performed by the HRIFEAS computer program. HRIFEAS only calculates the heat
release and the amount of useful heat available based upon an assumed 55% thermal
efficiency for starved-air incinerators. The program does determine the optimum fit for the size
and number of incinerators to burn the available waste, based on the given operating schedule
and assuming an extra, redundant unit for maintenance and backup. In order to perform the
following combustion calculations, the characteristics, as well as the amount, of the waste
must have been determined during a waste survey as outlined in appendix A.
(2) The combustion calculations may be approximate or as detailed as the designer
feels is warranted by the requirements of the project and the accuracy of the waste
characterization. The effects of any material recovery performed on the waste stream must be
included because both noncombustible and combustible material will be removed. Most of the
combustion calculations will be in terms of mass or volume on a per-minute or per-hour basis.
B-2. HEAT RELEASED/RECOVERED.
a. Heat Content of Feed Stock.
(1) The waste characterization study should have determined the average heat
content of the waste in Btu per pound of waste on an as-received basis, including effects of
material recovery as noted above.
(2) The rate of release of the heat is based on the hourly rate of firing of the waste. If
35 tons of waste are to be burned in a 24-hour period, the rate of firing is as follows:
(35) (2,000 lb/ton) / (24 h/day) = 2,917 lb/h
(Eq. B-1)
If a shorter firing period is to be used, the numbers would be adjusted accordingly. This
information is also provided by the HRIFEAS program.
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(3) The amount of heat that would theoretically be released is the product of the
heating value (HHV) of the waste and the firing rate. In the above example, if the waste had a
heating value of 4,500 Btu/lb, the heat release rate would be calculated by the following:
(2,917) (4,500) = 13,126,500 Btu/h=13.1265 MBtu/h
(Eq. B-2)
b. Actual Heat Available for Recovery.
(1) Unfortunately, not all of the theoretically available heat can be recovered in a
useful form.
(a) The combustion process may not consume all of the carbon.
(b) The basic laws of thermodynamics will not allow all of the heat to be recovered
as it passes through a heat exchanger.
(c) Large amounts of excess air will further reduce the amount of recoverable
heat.
(2) The amount of recoverable heat is determined by multiplying the theoretically
available heat by the thermal efficiency. Most incinerator/boiler combinations can be assumed
to have a thermal efficiency of 75%, but starved and controlled air should be assumed at
55% because of the large amounts of excess air used in the secondary combustion areas and
less complete burn-out of the carbon.
(3) Actual values should be obtained from typical manufacturers whenever possible.
(4) For the above example of a starved-air incinerator, the nominal amount of
recoverable heat is calculated using the following equation:
(13,126,500) (0.55) = 7,219,575 Btu/h
(Eq. B-3)
c. Efficiency of Energy Recovery Affected by the Temperature of the Media.
(1) If steam or hot water is the form of useful energy produced, the production rate will
also depend on the temperature of the water entering, and the enthalpy of the product leaving
the boiler/heater.
(a) In the case of hot water, the heat transferred to the media will be based solely
on the difference between the inlet and outlet temperature of the water.
(b) If dry, saturated steam is to be produced, the enthalpy will be based upon the
exit pressure. The enthalpy of super-heated steam is based on both exit temperature and
pressure. Values may be found in most engineering handbooks.
(2) For the above example with a 55% overall thermal efficiency for a starved-air unit,
water of 190°F (158.0 Btu/lb), and saturated steam at 150 Psig (1195.5 Btu/lb), the calculation
would be as follows:
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C-5. NONATTAINMENT REVIEW. If any pollutant will be emitted by the major facility in an
area where ambient air concentrations of that pollutant exceed NAAQS, NSR requires a nonattainment Review. At minimum, this entails application of the Lowest Achievable Emission
Rate (LAER) control technologies for each non-attainment pollutant. LAER is the most
stringent control technology feasible, and often results in a first-of-a-kind technology.
C-6. WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLY. Both federal and state regulations may influence
water supplies for and discharges from condenser cooling, boiler water makeup, boiler
blowdown, floor and equipment washes, potable water, etc. If the water supply involves
construction in any floodplain, waterway, or wetland, permits may be needed from both the
state and the appropriate Corps of Engineers office. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
which was amended and is referred to as the Clean Water Act of 1977, authorized the USEPA
to develop and implement a system to regulate pollutant discharges. The National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is the primary regulatory tool used to control
water pollution and is required for any discharge of pollutants to surface waters. The Water
Quality Act of 1987 (WQA) contains several provisions that specifically address storm water
discharges and provides that states with authorized NPDES programs require permits for
storm water discharges to waters of the United States, including those from industrial activities.
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Table 3-9. Effect of Processing and Recycle Programs
RDF After Source Separation
Raw MSW
RDF
100%
66-65%
4,300-4,600
7,000-8,000
% Original
Material
Heating
Value
(Btu/lb)
43-55%
6,200-6,500
Table 3-10. Excess Air at Furnace Outlet
Fuels
Percent Excess Air
Gaseous
Natural Gas
Refinery Gas
Blast Furnace Gas
Coke Oven Gas
5-10
8-15
15-25
5-10
Liquid
Oil
3-15
Solid
Coal (Pulverized)
Coke
Wood
Bagasse
MSW (Excess Air)
MSW (Starved Air)
15-30
20-40
25-50
25-45
40-50
130-150
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Table 3-13. Comparison of Under-Fired Air and Over-Fired Air
Patterns in Different Types of Combustion Systems
Type of
Primary Chamber Air
Secondary
Dilution
Unit
Under-Fired
Over-Fired
Chamber
Air
Modular
Starved-Air
50% - 60%
nil
80 - 100%
100 - 200%
Modular
Excess-Air
-60%
40 - 50%
60 - 100%
50 - 100%
Water-Wall
80 - 140%
-60%
minimal
minimal
NOTE: The percentage of stoichiometric air given above is based on a S.R. in the gases
leaving the secondary chamber of 1.5-2.0.
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CHAPTER 4
INCINERATOR TECHNOLOGIES
4-1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION.
a. Furnace type incinerators have the following classifications:
(1) Packaged Units - Packaged furnace-type units are generally the smallest and least
sophisticated. The controls are minimal, and an automated ash-removal system may not be
included. The unit comes completely shop-assembled. The primary combustion chamber has a
fixed hearth that may be either a solid surface or a grate. The capacity for these incinerators is
approximately 100-900 lb of waste/h (i.e., 1-10 tons/day).
(2) Modular Units - Modular, furnace-type units are larger than packaged units typically
having capacities of 20-75 tons/day per combustion chamber. The primary combustion chamber,
the secondary combustion chamber, the stack, the energy recovery heat exchanger, and the
waste-charging system are totally fabricated in the shop as separate modules. These modules are
shipped for final assembly and hookup in the field. Installation requires the construction of
foundations, erection of support steel structures and enclosures, the assembly of the modules, and
the final installation of the auxiliary systems (i.e., the instrumentation and control system, the ashhandling equipment, the hydraulic power system, etc.). Typically, a modular incinerator facility has
two to four units in parallel.
(3) Field-Erected Units. These are usually the largest, most sophisticated, and most
efficient incinerators. With typical single unit capacities greater that 75 tons/day, major components
are too large to be shipped as modules. Basic parts are shop fabricated and shipped to the site.
These large units are meant to run continuously and due to capacity are required by law to have
elaborate pollution control systems. A unit with this capacity will have limited application to a military
installation, especially if the base has an aggressive materials recovery and recycle program. The
increased construction costs of a plant with a capacity exceeding 250-400 tons/day is offset by
higher efficiency and lower maintenance costs per ton of waste destroyed. The furnace type
incinerators denote stationary hearth system designs and include fixed solid-surface hearths, fixed
grate hearths, rocking grates, reciprocating grates, traveling grates and sliding tiered solid hearths.
Rotary hearths or fluidized-bed units are not included in the furnace type classification. Rotaryhearth units and the fluidized-bed units are described in sections 4-5 and 4-6 as technology
systems that are unique and different from the more commonly used stationary-hearth-type furnace
incinerator.
b. Mode of Operation.
(1) Irrespective of the size classification (packaged, modular, or field-erected), the mode of
operation of the furnace used to destroy the waste (i.e., starved-air units [SAU] or excess-air units,
[EAU]) is often used as the primary basis for characterizing an incinerator system.
(2) The size of the combustion chambers will be affected by the mode of operation. Most
packaged and modular units operate in the starved-air mode because of the inherent simplicity of
primary combustion chamber design, the inherently lower emission of particulates that has allowed
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these systems to meet past particulate emissions requirements without the addition of a particulate
control device, and the ability to easily adjust and maintain secondary combustor conditions. The
large field-erected units always operate in the excess-air mode.
4-2. PACKAGED INCINERATOR.
a. Retort-Type Incinerators.
(1) Most small, packaged incinerators in the 100-1000 lb/h (i.e., 1.2 to 12 tons/day)
capacity range are of the stationary hearth, retort-type. Gases are directed through a series of
connected "U"-shaped combustion chambers that share common walls and a common base (in lieu
of an "in-line" configuration). Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical "U"-shaped retort design.
(2) The "U"-shaped retort requires the gases to make right turns in both the horizontal and
vertical directions. This return flow of the gases permits the use of a common hot wall between the
various chambers. The compactness of a "U"-shaped retort incinerator saves space, yet it provides
a gas flow path that is long enough to keep the gases at the temperatures for the time required to
complete the oxidation process.
(a) Combustion air is introduced into each chamber at the rate required to achieve
complete burndown for the mode of operation (i.e., starved-air or excess-air).
(b) Solid waste is batch-fed through a sliding door onto a vented grate hearth. Each
batch pushes the previous batch along the hearth where it is ignited by the prior material. As the
material burns, the ash falls through the grate into the ash chamber.
(c) Primary chamber air, usually at substoichiometric ratios (i.e., starved-air mode) to
minimize fly ash, is introduced above and below the grate and controlled by dampers in the ducts
supplying air to each zone. Each succeeding chamber has provisions for adding more air and has
supplemental burner/heaters so that the desired temperature and stoichiometric ratios can be
adjusted and controlled in each chamber.
(3) The small, packaged, single units have wide application for the controlled destruction
of small quantities of municipal-type waste and are especially well suited for burning unique types of
waste that must be processed separately from general wastes.
(4) They are designed to be operated 8-16 h/day so that ash removal and certain
maintenance can be performed during the shutdown.
b. I n-line Retort Type Incinerator. The in-line packaged unit also has all chambers in one
housing, but the gases make 90o turns in the vertical direction only. Thus, the secondary chamber
is in-line, at the end of the primary chamber, rather than mounted alongside. The in-line unit is
therefore longer and less compact than the standard "U"-shaped retort design. All other aspects of
operation and performance are similar to the retort unit.
4-3. MODULAR INCINERATOR.
a. General Description.
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(1) Modular incinerators are by far the most prevalent in terms of units built. Multiple, 2075-tpd module units, combined to provide a total facility capacity of 50-300 tpd, have been widely
used in small communities and have found wide application at military installations.
(2) Units designed for operation in the starved-air mode (SAU) have historically been most
common because of their ability to achieve sufficiently clean burning of the waste (i.e., relatively low
particulate emission without the need for separate air pollution control equipment. This resulted in
making the modular SAU facility the least expensive facility to construct. New federal regulations
however, have tightened particulate emissions limits, restricted acid gas emissions and subject the
smaller capacity units to federal emissions regulations.
b. System Configuration. Generally, facilities size each unit to carry its share of the daily
waste stream when one unit in the system is down for repair. Thus, a facility consisting of four
primary combustion chambers would have each unit sized to handle one-third of the projected
maximum daily throughput. The operating availability of a modular unit may be approximately 7580%. The operator can anticipate that downtime for planned maintenance and repair will amount to
about 10% of the annual operating time, and that forced downtime due to unexpected failures and
malfunctions may account for another 10-15% of the time. If one secondary chamber services two
primary combustion chambers, the ducts between the primary and secondary chambers are
provided with isolation dampers. This allows continued operation of the unaffected primary and
secondary chambers when one primary chamber must be shut down.
c. Typical Design. Figure 4-2 illustrates a typical design of a multiple combustion chamber
arrangement of a modular incinerator. Units designed as either a SAU or an EAU incinerator use
separate primary and secondary combustion chambers. The details of each design differ in order
to accommodate differences in operating conditions. In either mode, measured amounts of waste
are normally batch-fed through a fire door into the primary chamber by using essentially the same
equipment. Beyond this point, their mechanical features vary.
d. Starved-Air Modular Incinerator.
(1) Primary Combustion Chamber. The SAU primary combustion chamber usually has a
solid, stepped-floor, with three or four steps. The vertical riser of each step is connected to a ram
that pushes waste from one level down to the next. The use of slow-moving rams and low flow of
air into the bed result in only enough agitation of the waste to slowly tumble it down over each
succeeding step as it progresses over the full length of the stepped hearth. Minimal agitation and
mixing of the waste helps to minimize particulate generation and carry over in the gases and vapors
leaving the primary chamber.
(a) Longer retention times (i.e. 4-6 s to transverse the length of the primary chamber)
are required to achieve a reasonable burndown of the waste due to the low agitation, reduced rate
of destruction associated with the low stoichiometry (S.R. of 0.6 to 0.9), and the subsequent lower
temperature.
(b) A minimal flow of air is provided to the bed from overfire air ports along the walls and
underfire air ports below the bed meter. The careful balance of airflow achieves the uniform
substoichiometric conditions required for the partial oxidation of the waste in the front two-thirds of
the furnace and the burndown of the combustible solids and char at the last third of the bed.
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(c) The height of the furnace at the inlet is reduced in order to force the burning away
from the charging door. The chamber increases to its full height where partial combustion and
pyrolysis occur in order to accommodate the large flow of gases released.
(d) A large opening strategically located in the roof of the furnace discharges the
partially oxidized vapors, gases, and particulates into the secondary combustion chamber. Some
manufacturers attach two primaries to a common secondary chamber and manifold more than one
secondary chamber to a heat-recovery boiler.
(2) Secondary Combustion Chamber. Irrespective of the configuration, the secondary
combustion chamber is essentially a solid-walled, solid-floored, horizontal, refractory-lined cylinder.
(a) Length and diameter are determined by the volume of gas that leaves the primary
chamber, the amount of gas generated by the secondary burner and the necessary retention times
for completion of the required reactions. The size of the chamber is such that it takes from 1.5 to
2.5 s from the time the gases enter the chamber until they leave.
(b) The burner flame and secondary combustion air are introduced just above the
secondary chamber gas inlet opening. Gases entering the chamber are injected in such a manner
as to induce a swirling action to enhance the agitation needed to improve mixing and uniform
combustion.
(c) Normally, the gases leaving the secondary chamber are vented to a heat-recovery
boiler to produce steam or hot water. However, an alternate discharge path, via a "dump valve" in
the secondary chamber discharge duct, is required to allow direct discharge to the atmosphere in
the event of an upset condition (i.e., a case where the boiler is forced to shut down because of
equipment failure). The hot gases generally cannot be sent to the gas-cleanup system if their
temperature is above 500°F, so they must be "dumped" to the atmosphere. In such a case, the
waste feeding operation is stopped, but the waste in the incinerator continues to burn.
e. Excess-Air Modular Incinerator.
(1) Primary Combustion Chamber. The primary combustion chamber of the EAU modular
incinerator usually uses a porous grate that allows larger volumes of air to be introduced to the
bottom of the bed and in a more uniform manner than that provided on the SAU.
(a) The grate is usually a manufacturer's patented design that provides unique means
for introducing underfire air and for moving the waste along the length of the furnace. The plane of
the floor is inclined, and the mechanism for moving the waste also imparts a slow tumbling action to
the bed of waste as it is moved and burns along the length of the combustion chamber.
(b) Because of the larger amounts of air required (i.e., S.R.= 1.1 vs. S.R.= 0.6-0.9 for
the SAU), and the consequent larger volume of combustion gases, the primary chamber volume for
an EAU will be larger than a comparable-capacity SAU. The primary chamber length and the
residence time for burndown will be shorter than those for an SAU. Overfire air inlets direct air to
the full length of the bed. Exterior ducting and valving controls the amount of air directed to each
stage (zone) of combustion.
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(2) Secondary Combustion Chamber. The design of the secondary chamber for the
modular EAU attempts to produce the same mixing, chamber temperatures, and retention times as
for the SAU. However, since the EAU secondary chamber inlet gas temperature tends to be 400500°F higher, less additional secondary combustion air is required (see table 3-12). The final
combustion of unburned gases, vapors, and particulates (i.e., 25-50% of that discharged to the
SAU secondary chamber) will require less time and less supplemental heat. Like the modular SAU,
the EAU must have a hot gas "dump valve" to bypass the heat exchanger and/or flue gas treatment
system when either system is not operating.
f. Controlled-Air Modular Incinerator. Some incinerator designs, referred to as "controlled-air"
incinerators, use a modified single chamber and a grate system similar to that of the excess-air
units. By careful control of underfire and overfire air, they achieve performance similar to a starvedair unit, even though they have the physical appearance of an excess-air unit..
4-4. FIELD-ERECTED INCINERATOR.
a. General Description. When the capacity of a waste incineration system exceeds the
nominal 200-250-t/day capacity of modular incinerator systems, field-erected incinerators are
usually used because of their higher operating efficiency and more dependable operation. Their
design is comparable with the design used for coal-fired boilers; however, the design contains a
number of significant, unique features required for the efficient destruction of municipal-type waste.
Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical field-erected mass-burn incinerator.
b. System Configuration. Because of the large stream of waste serviced by these facilities, it
is important the facility have redundant destruction capability so that outage of one furnace will not
result in a large accumulation of waste.
(1) Field-erected furnaces with their integrated boilers also require time for maintenance
and repair, as well as allowances for forced outages due to failure of any major component in the
unit. If three units are used, it is common to size each unit to handle one-half of the facility's total
capacity. Similarily, if four units are used, each is sized to handle one-third total capacity.
(2) In general, an 80% availability is projected for field-erected units.
c. Design Description for In-Line Grate Systems.
(1) Primary Combustion. The basic design uses an excess air grate of patented design,
which may be a traveling grate, a rocking grate, a reciprocating grate, or some combination thereof.
(a) The grate meters waste delivered by the feeding system, which includes a crane
and a long chute. The waste then flows by gravity down onto the grate.
(b) The grate then moves the bed of waste through the primary combustion section
until the residues are dumped off the grate into a water--filled ash-quench system, where the ash is
cooled and removed by conveyor.
(c) Air is metered to locations along the length of the grate system to control the rate of
drying, volatization, and burndown of the nonvolatiles and char. The primary combustion air is
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supplied above and below the bed in excess of stoichiometric requirements in order to force the
combustion process to progress in a prescribed manner.
(d) Typically, 40-60% of the combustion air is introduced under grate to provide grate
cooling.
(e) The walls of the primary combustion chamber are lined with refractory insulation,
which covers the water-wall boiler piping to a height that assures that the pipe will not be attacked
by corrosive substoichiometric gases leaving the bed. The roof of the primary combustion chamber
is contoured to force the hot combustion gases to sweep across the top of the bed of waste.
(f) Combustion of the solid waste in these large units is characterized by vigorous,
turbulent burning from the high volume of air used with a consequent high rate of destruction.
Burndown is usually completed in less than four hours.
(2) Secondary Combustion.
(a) Secondary combustion starts as the gases approach the roof of the primary
combustion chamber. Secondary air is injected above the primary combustion overfire air ports; in
addition, air is also injected at the bottom of the secondary combustion area (i.e., at the base of the
vertical radiant boiler) and at one or two elevations along the length of the vertical waterwall boiler.
(b) Air is introduced at strategic positions and in sufficient quantities to impart the
turbulence required to ensure complete combustion and maintain gas temperatures at prescribed
levels.
(c) The mean gas temperature in the radiant boiler is approximately 1,600-1800°F with
combustion gas hot spots as high as 3,000°F. With higher localized temperatures, larger units can
generate significantly higher concentrations of NOx than the modular SAUs and EAUs.
(d) Typically, the efficient field erected incinerators can yield 5,000-6,000 lb of lowpressure district heating steam, or 350-450 kWh of electricity, per ton of waste destroyed.
4-5. ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR.
a. General Description. The unique feature of the rotary kiln furnace/incinerator is that the
primary chamber rotates in order to agitate the waste and expose it to combustion air and heat
generated by a supplementary burner. Rotary kiln incinerators have found wide application where
the material to be destroyed contains high moisture or is deficient in readily combustible
constituents.
b. Packaged Rotary Kiln Incinerators. Packaged rotary kiln incinerators have been used
extensively for the destruction of hospital waste and pathological wastes. Typically, they are used
to destroy up to 500 lb/h of these difficult to burn materials.
(1) Primary Combustion. Packaged rotary kilns are very similar to retort-type furnaces,
except that the primary combustion chambers are rotating, inclined, refractory-lined cylinders.
(a) Material to be destroyed is fed into the chamber through a sliding door via a ram in
much the same manner used to feed the retort furnace. The stationary door frame has a sliding
seal that prevents gas leakage between the door frame and the rotating kiln.
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(b) Once inside the chamber, the material is slowly tumbled by the rotating action at a
rate of 0.75 to 2.50 rpm. Material is destroyed as it moves along the length of the drum, which has
a nominal length-to-diameter ratio of 2:1 to 5:1. Typically, the supplemental heat burner in the
primary chamber provides much of the heat required to destroy the waste. Residence time in the
chamber is changed by adjusting the angle (tilt of the horizontal axis) of the cylinder.
(2) Secondary Combustion. Residue ash tumbles off the kiln into the ash-collection pit in
the secondary chamber. Combustion gases pass through the secondary chambers in the same
manner as the fixed-hearth retort furnace.
(3) Capacity. Typical capacity for packaged rotary kilns is less than that for packaged retort
furnaces of the same physical size.
c. Modular Rotary Kiln.
(1) The rotary kiln incinerator size of interest to military bases is often a two-package, largescale, modularized version of the packaged incinerator. One package or module is the rotating
cylinder primary combustion chamber and its associated charging system. The second package is
the stationary secondary chamber unit described above. The modular rotary kilns may differ in
configuration and provide greater capacity than packaged rotary kilns; however, they operate in the
same manner at capacities up to 5000 lb/h. Seldom are these units operated in multiple-unit
facilities. Figure 4-4 illustrates a typical modular rotary kiln unit with heat recovery.
(2) Large-scale, multiple-module, rotary kiln systems, using individual truck-trailer mounted
modules for each subsystem, are used extensively for decontaminating soils and for destroying
large batches of difficult to burn wastes. Throughput for such modular systems is usually less than
5,000 lb/h.
d. Field Erected Rotary Chamber Systems.
(1) Application. Large-scale rotary kilns have been used for the routine destruction of
municipal-type wastes. Rotary kilns generate larger amounts of particulate when burning municipal.
(2) Field-Erected Incinerator Systems Incorporating Rotary Chambers. Several incinerator
manufacturers use rotary chambers in place of moving grates in the primary combustion sections of
their incinerators.
(a) Volund System. The Volund incinerator uses a refractory-lined rotary kiln in the final
two stages of primary combustion. Two moving grates are used for the drying and initial
volatilization /combustion stage. The partially burned material is then moved into the rotary kiln for
completion of primary combustion and final burndown of the char. Gases, vapors, and particulates
generated upstream of the kiln are partially burned in the kiln, and final destruction is completed in
the secondary combustion chamber/boiler section. All other aspects of the incinerator and its
operation are similar to other field-erected, furnace-type incinerators.
(b) O'Connor-Westinghouse System. This system uses an all-steel-pipe, inclined,
rotary-cylinder, primary-combustion chamber. Water-filled pipes make up the rotating, inclined,
horizontal, cylindrical chamber. The pipes are spaced and attached in a manner that allows primary
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combustion air to be introduced between the pipes and supplied to the bed of waste as it slowly
tumbles with the rotation of the cylinder. All four stages of combustion progress to completion as the
solid waste passes through the chamber. Residence time is determined by the speed of rotation.
The water in the pipes is pumped from manifolds attached to rotary seals that are located some
distance from the actual combustion of the waste. Thus, the seals are not subject to the high gas
temperature environment of the pipes that make up the walls of the rotating cylindrical chamber.
(3) Unique Applications. Rotary kilns may be operated in either a starved-air mode or an
excess-air mode. The mode of operation will dictate the materials of construction. Of concern is
the corrosiveness of the products of partial combustion in the primary chamber. The refractorylined kilns have been especially effective for the destruction of difficult to burn, high-moisturecontent materials that require air-rich conditions and high agitation of the solids.
(a) In such applications, the primary source of heat is the auxiliary burner used to
maintain the temperature in the rotating chamber at the desired 1,800 to 2,000°F.
(b) The chamber stoichiometry is maintained in the air-rich condition to ensure there is
enough oxygen to destroy the waste. The partially burned gases leave the rotary kiln and enter into
the stationary secondary combustion chamber. Additional air and a supplementary burner is
required in the secondary chamber to maintain optimum temperature. The necessary temperature,
residence time and outlet gas stoichiometry conditions are required to completely destroy unburned
gases and particulates to the same extent as in conventional furnace units.
(c) Since these type units generate large amounts of particulates, even small
packaged-unit installations may require some type of permit that will mandate the unit meet some
set of emissions requirements.
4-6. FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTOR (FBC) INCINERATOR.
a. General Description. Figure 4-5 illustrates a typical bubbling-bed FBC unit. Combustion air
enters the lower portion of the combustion chamber and passes through a grid that acts as a floor
for the inert (usually sand) bed. The bed is levitated and kept in constant agitation by the flowing
(vertical) air. Auxiliary fuel burners are used to heat air delivered to the bed to the temperature
required for ignition of the waste fuel. The waste is shredded, sized, and air classified to eliminate
the larger and/or heavier materials before being fed into the FBC unit via a pneumatic feed system.
b. Process Description. Once the bed reaches the fuel-ignition temperature, sized feedstock
is fed into the bed. The "boiling/scrubbing" action of the sand/fuel mix keeps the feed material in
constant contact with the combustion air. As combustion progresses, lighter fuel particles rise to
the top of the bed and are consumed; heavier residue particles settle to the bottom and are
routinely discharged. Since the bed temperature is typically 1,500°F, NOx emissions are low and
particulate emissions are high. Heat is recovered by hot water or steam pipes in the wall of the
chamber and in the waste-heat recovery heat exchanger in the path of the discharge gases.
Instead of an external scrubber, specially sized limestone is added to the bed to accomplish acidgas control within the unit.
c. Waste Feed. One of the main advantages of using an FBC unit to burn waste (besides
environmental emissions) is the insensitivity of the combustor portion to fuel quality. However,
preparation of the fuel in order to feed it into the bed is a major impediment of FBC. Although
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beneficiation of the waste by removal of certain components is not required (with the possible
exception of glass), bulk material still must be shredded, sized, and classified and thus is
considered a form of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The status of commercial FBC technology using
RDF, though considered developmental for certain applications, does not have the satisfactory
third-generation experience that would make it a proven technology.
4-7. CO-FIRING OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN A COAL-FIRED BOILER.
a. Application. The destruction of processed refuse by co-feeding with coal into a coal fired
boiler is an option that has not been used at military installations in the past but has been well
demonstrated in the civilian sector
b. Operation. Typically, the co-firing of carefully processed waste (up to 20% by heat content)
with coal (80% by heat content ) has no significant detrimental effect on the performance of the
boiler, nor has it reduced the effectiveness of destruction of the waste. Waste processed to make
Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) with a 6,000-8,000-Btu/lb fuel value displaces bituminous coal at a ratio
of 1.5-2 tons of RDF for every ton of coal. When co-fired at 20% by heating value, 30-40 tons of
RDF would be burned for every 80 tons of coal consumed. This would mean that a 100,000 lb/h
steam boiler for a district heating plant that normally consumes 145 tons per day (tpd) of coal would
then burn 120 tpd of coal and 45-65 tpd of RDF. This 45-60 tpd of RDF would be produced from
90-120 tpd of waste generated at the base, before recycling.
c. Economics. Typically, the cost for constructing a facility to produce RDF has been 20-40%
of the cost for an incinerator. This option may be an effective solution if the base has a suitable
size and type of coal-fired district heating boiler. The drawback to using this technology is that the
RDF/waste stream would have to be matched to the minimum daily steam demand of the boiler,
thus assuring that the daily waste stream could always be processed and burned.
4-8. MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATOR. Medical waste incinerators fall into the category of special
applications of proven technology.
a. Technologies. Most incinerators used for the disposal of medical waste are of the
packaged, fixed-hearth, multiple-chamber, retort type, although some hospitals have installed a
single modular unit for the processing of all their waste. Most medical-waste-incineration operations
are extremely small (i.e., several hundred pounds per day). Rotary kilns have been used on larger,
regional facilities.
b. Operation. The very small units will typically be located in the same area as the regular
hospital boilers. One of the existing boilers may be modified to recover the heat from the gases.
(1) Supplementary fuel burners are usually required to maintain the necessary
temperatures in both the primary and secondary chambers. If the waste steam has large amounts
of wet, Type 4 pathological waste, large quantities of auxiliary fuel will be needed to maintain the
temperatures required for safe destruction.
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(2) Some hospitals have co-fired fairly large percentages of relatively dry, noninfectious
paper; plastic products; and paper-product type waste with their infectious waste to successfully
accomplish the job with minimal extra fuel required. The smaller units are usually batch operated
(i.e., waste being fed only when the previous load has been consumed). This only permits a certain
number of loads to be burned per day; furthermore, if there is no provision for an automatic ashremoval system, the ash must be removed manually following an overnight burndown and cool-off.
c. Environmental Considerations. Current trends are that even the smallest incinerators
(especially medical waste incinerators) will be subject to pollution control regulations.
(1) Air pollution control equipment that may be cost-effective on larger units may be
prohibitively expensive on typical medical waste incinerators. Wet scrubbers have been found to
be very effective and are probably the best pollution control device for these small units since they
capture acid gas and particulates.
(2) High-pressure venturi scrubbers have been used effectively; however, require a great
deal of energy in order to achieve high capture efficiency. If the gases can be cooled by an acidgas condenser heat exchanger, a small fabric dust filter may be sufficient and is cost-effective.
(3) The bottom-ash residue must not contain any recognizable medical material (i.e.,
complete burnout). Therefore, sharps may have to be screened from the ash and disposed of
separately as scrap metal. Because of the potential hazards and liability if the unit is poorly
operated, operators will have to be properly trained and certified. A training course has been jointly
established by the American Hospital Association and the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
4-9. TECHNOLOGY SELECTION GUIDANCE.
a. Technology Selection. Modular starved-air units have been the most widely selected for the
military services because their capacity includes units below 50 tpd (the size most used at military
installations), without the need for additional air pollution control equipment. Other small-capacity
systems, namely excess-air grate, fluidized-bed, and most rotary kiln incinerator designs, usually
requiresome type of particulate emissions control. A number of states have enacted, or are
enacting, increasingly stringent acid gas and particulate control legislation applicable to small units
(down to 20 tpd have been regulated in New Jersey). It is expected that incinerator plants at
military installations with unit sizes of 20 tpd or greater will most likely be modular unit plants
operating in either the starved-air mode or the excess-air mode and equipped with state-of-the-art
pollution control. Comparative economics will be the ultimate selection factor. For installations not
located in states with highly stringent regulations, or for plants with unit sizes below the Federal
regulatory threshold, the modular starved-air incinerator will probably continue to be the incinerator
of choice. The military procurement guidelines for incinerators will be used to specify this
incineration equipment. It may be modified if it is necessary to allow for excess-air units.
b. Special Needs. Two technologies are expected to have definite, but limited, applications.
The rotary kiln is especially good for difficult-to-burn wastes, such as sludges or other very wet
materials. The fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) should be used for very homogeneous wastes that
may be hazardous because of acidity or possible toxic elements. FBC can also burn liquids and
sludges as well as solids and can burn several fuels simultaneously. Further details on all of these
types of incinerators may be found in the literature listed in the bibliography.
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Figure 4-1. Typical retort unit
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Figure 4-2. Typical modular incinerator configuration
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Figure 4-3. Typical field-erected, mass-burn incinerator
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Figure 4-4. Typical rotary kiln incinerator
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Figure 4-5. Typical bubbling-bed fluidized-bed combustor.
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CHAPTER 5
POLLUTION CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING
5-1. POLLUTION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS. The major problem with the public's
acceptance of waste incineration has been the issue of pollution. As a result of increased
apprehension, the waste incineration industry has one of the most stringent sets of air emissions
and residue disposal regulations of all industries.
a. Comparative Efficiencies. Figure 5-1 shows the comparative efficiencies of the various
types of particulate removal technologies in use. As regulations become more stringent, designers
are required to use more sophisticated systems for achieving 80-90% removal of acids formed,
higher efficiency removal of particulates, and the associated removal of any chemicals that may
adhere to the particulates.
b. Current Regulations.
(1) The most recent regulations use the Best Available Control Technology (BACT, see
section 5-3) to establish the minimum performance limits.
(a) The most recent of these regulations is the revised Clean Air Act, 40CFR
Parts 51, 52, and 60 dated July 1, 1996. The regulations continue to be revised, requiring the
designer to keep up to date with the latest revisions and their application to the facility proposed.
(b) The current regulations apply to municipal waste combustors (MWC’s) with a
capacity greater than 250 tpd. Comparable regulations appropriate to smaller facilities will be
issued, and the planning of any new facility for the incineration of municipal-type waste must
provide for pollution control equipment.
(c) Additional considerations for required permits are discussed in appendix C.
(2) Many states also require continuous emission monitoring equipment for the pollutants of
concern. It is imperative that the project planning effort determine all applicable federal, state and
local regulations for the new facility.
5-2. POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT. The devices discussed in the following paragraphs
are schematically illustrated in figure 5-2. Many of these devices are covered in their respective
military design manuals and procurement guide specifications.
a. Cyclone.
(1) A particle separation cyclone is a common and inexpensive device for control of large
particulates. It has a conical shape and imparts a swirling action to the gases to remove the
particulates. The cleaned gas is extracted from the center of the vortex and the ash falls out of the
bottom of the cone.
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(2) High-efficiency cyclones improve the collection of particulates by using additional gas
injected along the sides at high velocity or mechanical impellers to increase the velocity of the
gases inside the cyclone.
(3) A multiclone is a housing containing many small cyclones that is used to improve the
collection efficiency for the smaller particulates.
(4) Typically, high-efficiency cyclones and multiclones cannot meet state particulate control
regulations; however, they may be used in conjunction with other pollution control equipment.
Cyclones have been used to reduce the incidences of fires in bag houses. A refractory-lined
cyclone may be used before the heat recovery boiler to reduce plugging and erosion and lower the
required frequency of cleaning ash from the boiler.
b. Bag house.
(1) A bag house is a housing that contains multiple fabric filters. Depending upon the filter
material selected, flow rate can vary from 3 - 50 scfm per square foot of filtration surface. Generally,
the flue gases are maintained between 300°F and 500°F. Bags may be damaged or remaining
carbon in the ash may ignite at temperatures exceeding 500°F. Below 300°F condensed acids
attack the bags and other equipment. Table 5-1 shows a comparison of the intrinsic properties of
various commercial bag materials.
(2) A bag house has a high collection efficiency and is especially good for smaller
particulates.
(3) Bag houses are generally located upstream of the induced draft fan, operating under
negative pressure. This minimizes the escape of unfiltered flue gases and fugitive emissions.
c. Electrostatic Precipitator.
(1) An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) uses an electrically-charged field between a series of
plates and wires to attract and collect particulates. In general, fly ash from municipal waste is more
difficult to collect and remove than fly ash from coal because its characteristics constantly change
with the composition of waste. Some designs use a variable electrical field to compensate for
changes in the ash characteristics. The collection efficiency decreases as the particle size
decreases. While ESP’s can attain 99% removal and an emission limit of 0.012 grains/dscf, they
have problems doing so on a consistent basis.
d. Wet Scrubber.
(1) A wet scrubber is either one of the following two devices, or both devices working
together:
(a) One such device is called a venturi and involves the gases going through a
passageway that first narrows and then expands. An alkaline solution (frequently calcium-based) is
injected into the venturi in order to atomize it, cause it to mix with the gas, and react with the acids in
the gas.
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(b) The other device is called a packed tower and is a chamber with baffles or other
materials that cause the gas to flow through numerous small passages which constantly change
direction.
(2) The gas normally flows up through the scrubber as the scrubber solution is sprayed
down from the top. The solution mixes with the gas as both flow through the small passages. In
most cases, the gas flows through a venturi then through a packed tower.
(3) This system will remove particulates as well as acid gases. The scrubber solution needs
to be removed and replaced frequently, as it becomes contaminated with the particulates and salts
from reaction with the acid. Before exiting to the atmosphere, the gases pass through a demister
(usually chevron type) in order to remove the scrubber solution liquid entrained in the gas. If the
demister does not function with a high degree of efficiency, the chemical mist in the gas will be
detected as particulate and the incinerator will fail the environmental test.
(4) The used scrubber solution is a liquid and may have to be dewatered before disposal.
e. Dry Scrubber.
(1) A spray dry scrubber involves a tall reaction tower that sprays a fine mist of scrubber
solution into the flue gas. The acid/scrubber solution reacts in the flue gas and produces a soluble
salt which when dried becomes a fine particulate. The temperature of the ambient flue gas into
which the scrubber solution is sprayed enhances the drying process and causes the reacted
solution (salts) to dry into fine powder. The warm gases, with powder entrained, go into either an
ESP or a bag house for removal of the ash particulate and dry salt powder.
(2) Units that utilize a bag house generally remove more pollutants than those utilizing an
ESP because of the higher fine particle collection efficiency of the bag house and the additional
acid gas reaction that occurs as the gases pass through the powder cake on the surface of the
bags. All of the material to be discarded is a dry powder.
(3) This equipment is commonly used in large incinerator plants, but is prohibitively
expensive for use in small plants. The spray dry scrubber followed by a bag house is generally
regarded as the standard system against which all other systems must compete in regard to
performance.
5-3. TYPICAL STACK EMISSIONS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES.
a. Particulate.
(1) Particulate is composed of fine ash (usually inert) and unburned carbon particles
(smoke). The amount of particulate in the gas is directly related to the velocity and turbulence of
the gas in the combustion chambers.
(2) Reported values for particulate emissions from uncontrolled starved-air, stagedcombustion incinerators vary from 0.012 to 0.212 grains/dscf at 12% CO2. Starved-air incinerators
have the ability to operate with particulate emission rates consistently below 0.08 grains/dscf at
12% CO2 for IIA Waste Types O, 1, and 2 (see table 3-1). Other technologies have much higher
uncontrolled levels.
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(3) The 1996 federal regulations mandating low levels of specific species of emissions, will
necessitate the use of particulate control devices for all incinerator technologies.
b. Acid Gases.
(1) Sulfur Dioxide. Based on the limited literature available, an average uncontrolled SO2
emission rate of 45-87 ppm can be expected from municipal waste incinerators. In normal SO2
scrubbing systems for solid fuel boiler systems, an actual operating removal efficiency of 90-95%
can be assumed.
(2) Hydrogen Chloride.
(a) Under 40CFR Part 60, the scrubbing system must also control hydrogen chloride
(HCl), acid gases, and NOx. Control of NOx will reduce the removal efficiency SO2 to an anticipated
80%. Fortunately, most municipal-type waste has a low sulfur content and SO2 emission levels of
50 ppm or less are readily achieved with a scrubber.
(b) Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is the primary form of acid gas produced in municipal waste
incinerators. PVC plastics, paper, and putrescible garbage are the major contributors of chlorine in
the refuse stream and are considered the primary source of HCl emissions at refuse-burning
facilities.
(c) HCl emissions from burning IIA Type 2 waste (municipal) in starved-air or excess-air
incinerators have ranged from 53-724 ppm before the exhaust gas is treated.
(d) HCl emission levels vary widely and reflect variations in feed stock. Plastics and
paper have been found to be the major contributors, while food waste and untreated wood products
are minor contributors of HCl. Typically, food waste and wood products make up only 8% of the
source of chlorine. Because military waste streams have high paper content, an aggressive paper
and plastic recycle program can drastically reduce the source of chlorine and reduce HCl emissions
to the low end of the 50-725 ppm HCl range for an incinerator with a materials recovery facility.
(e) Because PVC plastics contain 40% chlorine, removal of all PVC plastics from the
waste delivered to the incinerator may be a significant factor in helping achieve low HCl emissions.
(f) The recommended process for removal of HCl is a spray dry scrubber followed by a
bag house (emission limits in the Federal Regulations were established on the basis that the limits
could be achieved by a spray dryer/bag house system).
(g) In all systems, uncaptured acid vapors (e.g., H2SO4, H2SO3 or HCl) will condense on
surfaces at temperatures below 275°F. Resultant corrosion on equipment and structures can be
detrimental. If scrubbers are not used, the equipment and structures downstream must be kept at
temperatures above 300°F or designed to withstand the acid attack.
c. Nitrogen Oxides.
(1) Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are compounds consisting of nitrogen and oxygen and are
products of all combustion processes.
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(a) Nitric oxide (NO) is the predominant form of NOx produced during combustion
withNO2 produced in smaller quantities.
(b) NOx emissions come from two separate sources during combustion. The first source
is oxidation of nitrogen in the fuel (fuel NOx); the second source is the high temperature oxidation of
atmospheric nitrogen (thermal NOx). The amount of NOx generated is highly dependent upon the
furnace heat release rates and residence time (see figure 3-4). NOx emission rates increase with
increasing furnace temperatures and excess air. The rate of thermal NO2 generated at
temperatures below 2900°F is substantially reduced by lowering the temperature. The primary
combustion process in starved-air incinerators typically operates well below 2900°F with a S.R.
below 1. As noted, these conditions combine to produce minimal thermal NOx.
(c) Rates of NOx formation are affected by nitrogen availability as well as temperature.
Waste containing a high nitrogen-content, such as leaves and grass clippings, will increase the fuel
NOx.
(d) An uncontrolled NOx emission rate between 258-327 ppm can be expected from
most incinerators. The starved-air configuration which limits excess air during thermal
decomposition of wastes in the primary chamber, typically produces emissions below or at the low
end of this range. The federal limit on NOx for incinerator unit sizes of 250 tpd or larger is 180 ppm.
(e) NOx can be reduced by the injection of ammonia of urea. Injection is accomplished
using either steam or compressed air. The relationship between NOx removal efficiency and
reagent utilization is known as the Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio, which is the actual molar ratio
of reagant to inlet NOx divided by the stoichiometric molar ratio of reagant to inlet NOx. The
efficiency of the reduction process is temperature dependent which usually requires multiple
injection points, as the temperature at any given point in the system tends to vary in proportion to
the heat content of the fuel source. By monitoring the temperature and injecting the reagant at the
appropriate locations, the effectiveness of the NOx reduction system can be maintained. Reduction
levels as high as 65 percent can be obtained.
d. Carbon Monoxide.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete oxidation of carbon compounds. The control of
CO is by way of complete combustion. Federal Regulations 40CFR 60, Sect. 129 and 56FR 5488
set CO emission limits for all types of incinerators. Excerpts from the regulations are listed in table
5-2. Existing control systems and standard operating and maintenance practices are generally
sufficient to regulate CO emissions. Maintenance on the natural gas burners and their temperature
controllers, in the primary and secondary chambers, will assure that temperatures in these
chambers are maintained above the 1130-1215oF ignition temperature of CO. Bag house and
scrubber systems have no effect on CO emissions. High CO emissions reflect inefficiency in the
combustion process, incomplete destruction of organic compounds, and loss of energy that should
have been released in the combustion process. Also, there is a strong correlation between the
presence of CO above 50 ppm and the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons (especially dioxins),
making close control of CO very important to minimize release of toxic chemical compounds.
e. Dioxins and Furans.
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(1) Chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzo-furans (PCDF) can be generated with
small amounts of chlorine present.
(2) The formation of these complex chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur in the combustion
process and during the combustion gas cool-down process. The quantity of PCDD and PCDF is a
function of the combustion process efficiency (see figures 5-3).
(3) The secondary combustion process has a significant affect on the "polishing" of the
combustion gas. The temperature must be maintained above 1500°F to assure rapid destruction of
the PCDDs and PCDFs formed at lower temperatures in the primary combustion process (see
figure 5-4).
(4) Measurable amounts of PCDD and PCDF are formed as secondary pollutants during the
cool-down of gas and condensation of vapors. Therefore, it is important the chlorine be "locked"
into stable compounds during the prior oxidation process or be scrubbed out of the gas stream by
reaction with a chemical sorbent in the high-efficiency gas cleanup system.
(5) There are no current or proposed regulations governing the emissions of PCDD
(commonly called dioxin) and PCDF (commonly called difurans) for incinerators with a unit capacity
below 250 tpd. Federal regulation (40CFR 60.34) specifies a limit of 125 ng/dscm emission of
dioxin/difuran from incinerator units with capacities between 250 tpd and 1,100 tpd. Any release
greater than these levels from unregulated facilities (i.e., capacities below 250 tpd) would likely be
unacceptable to anyone opposing an incinerator project.
(6) Baghouses will not have an appreciable effect on either PCDD or PCDF unless the
exiting gas temperatures are below 350oF. Scrubber efficiency for the removal of PCDD and PCDF
is on the order of 50%. Efficiency is affected by the ability of the mist eliminators to remove the
droplets containing the trapped PCDD and PCDF.
f. Heavy Metals.
(1) The primary sources of toxic heavy metals in MSW incinerators are automobile
batteries, cylindrical batteries, "button" batteries, and electronic devices. Additional control must be
exerted by source separation or a front-end processing/operator to remove car batteries (primary
source of lead), flashlight and electronic device batteries (primary sources of cadmium and
mercury), and any other unusual items from waste prior to incineration.
(2) There are no current or proposed regulations governing the emissions of heavy metals
from either incinerators or fossil-fueled boilers with capacities below 250 tpd. For plants with
capacities between 250 and 1,100 tpd, federal regulation (40CFR 60.33a) specifies a limit of .030
gr/dscf. The lower primary combustion chamber modular SAUs have demonstrated levels of heavy
metal particulate emissions in the range of 0.0046-0.0085 grains/dscf (i.e.,for less than one third of
the acceptable limit).
(3) The best control alternative is a fabric-filter system. As the flue gases cool, the
vaporized heavy metals condense on particulates. Due to their small size (less than 10 microns),
heavy metal particulates are not collected effectively by scrubbing systems (less than 50%
effective). Fabric-filter systems with "seeded" bags create a tortuous path that effectively controls
release of fine particulates.
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5-4. OTHER PLANT DISCHARGES.
a. Waste Water. Incinerator plants produce various contaminated waste waters other than
normal sanitary and storm water effluents. These discharges come from water drained from the
waste or used to wash down the tipping floor, water from the ash system, and gas scrubber solution
blow-down. The water from the ash system includes water leaking from the ash collection
dumpsters prior to being removed and emptied. This water may contain toxic minerals leached
from the ash and should be collected and retained in a separate container. Water from the tipping
floor may be slightly acidic and contain significant amounts of bacteria and organic solids. This
water should be processed through a grit trap to collect the larger solids before further processing.
The liquid from the ash system and the scrubber blow-down will typically be alkaline with a high
solids concentration and should be filtered and buffered before release to the sanitary sewer.
Liquids will probably require treatment at the incinerator plant for pH balance and removal of solids
before discharge. Dumping these liquids into the sanitary sewer system without any treatment may
cause problems at the sewage treatment plant. The designer must check with the base sewage
plant and review local water pollution regulations to determine treatment requirements at the
incinerator plant.
b. Ash. Ash is produced in two forms: bottom ash and fly ash.
(1) Bottom ash is the residue that collects inside the incinerator after the completion of the
combustion process. Fly ash consists of the smaller, lighter particles entrained in the flue gases
that are collected in the pollution control equipment and mixed with used scrubber sorbent. Bottom
ash accounts for 90% (nominal) of the residue and consists mostly of alumina, silica, and oxides of
iron. Bottom ash by itself is alkaline and may be acceptable for landfill disposal without treatment.
(2) Fly ash may contain significant amounts of any low-melting-temperature heavy metals
which were present in the waste stream. The presence of toxic metals will have a significant affect
upon the possible treatment and disposal of the ash. Starved-air incinerators and FBC units
typically retain the greatest amount of heavy metals in the bottom ash because the lower combustor
bed temperatures produce less volatilization. The high-turbulence, excess-air incinerators have the
greatest amount of heavy metals in the fly ash since the higher grate temperatures promote greater
volatilization.
(3) The 1994 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court states that the ash and pollution control
process residues from municipal waste incinerators are not exempt from RCRA (Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act) hazardous waste regulations. This decision now forces all
residual ash to be tested to determine whether or not it meets the criteria for hazardous or
nonhazardous waste. If significant amounts of heavy metals are found and the ash and other
residues fail to meet RCRA requirements, the material will have to be treated as a hazardous waste
and be disposed in a hazardous waste landfill. Disposal in a Subtitle C landfill is considerably more
expensive than disposal in a RCRA Subtitle D landfill.
(4) The current USEPA-approved method of testing for heavy metals (i.e., TCLP) and its
predecessor (EP-toxicity) use different criteria for determining acceptability. The designer should
check which test is currently required. The local pollution control authority will most certainly require
an initial test burn with a typical sample of waste to check for the presence of heavy metals in the
total residue as well as require periodic checks during the operation of the incinerator plant.
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(5) Even if test results meet RCRA requirements, local or state pollution regulations may
require that plant discharges be disposed in a separate landfill area (monofill). Local regulations
may also require the ash be mixed with Portland cement or otherwise stabilized to minimize the
possibility of undetected contaminants leaching out after being land filled. The design of the
incinerator facility and the ash/ residue disposal facility must include an area of adequate size for
handling and storage of all of the ash and other solid residues (e.g., spent scrubber sorbent)
produced by the incinerator plant during operation.
(6) The fly ash and the gas cleanup system residues if disposed separately from the bottom
ash, may be land filled in a special monofill or may be required to undergo special treatment before
placement in a Subtitle D landfill. The amount of material falling into this category is usually a small
percentage of the original waste stream (i.e., 1-5% by weight).
5-5. ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING.
a. Professional Assistance. Each proposed facility must satisfy unique conditions and limits
imposed by the permitting authorities. Regulatory authorities that have jurisdiction must be
identified, as well as, the current regulations that apply to the project.
b. Environmental Assessment/ Environmental Impact Statement. An Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS) may have to be prepared as part of the permitting process. If several older boiler
plants without pollution controls are to be shut down, and less pollutants emitted as a result of
operating an incinerator plant with emission controls, credit can be taken for the net reduction in
emissions. If an EIS is not required, an Environmental Assessment (EA) will be necessary, if for no
other reason than to document why the EIS is not needed. Inordinate concern by the public over
an incinerator project may force the issuance of an EIS. This concern may also require preparation
of other reports, not required by regulations, in order to demonstrate the thoroughness of the
planning process and to preempt legal challenges that can cause long delays in the completion of
the project. Some civilian companies found out the hard way that the legal challenges turned out
to be considerably more expensive than the cost of dealing with the public's concerns ahead of
time. This can be especially true if the regulators or the public believe that the decision to build has
occurred without proper consideration of all environmental consequences.
c. Permit Hearing. Local pollution control boards may have stringent, regulations due to
public concern over the local ambient environmental quality. Official public hearings as specified in
the federal regulations (40CFR 60.23) are required if the state has chosen to accept the provisions
of this regulation. Demonstration of compliance to all requirements will have to be made at the
hearing. Informal meetings with public officials and citizen groups should be encouraged only after
the project planners and the engineers have demonstrated their environmental data base is
complete and accurate.
d. BACT, LAER, MACT and RACT.
(1) There are four emission control concepts that the designer should be aware of: Best
Available Control Technology (BACT), Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), Maximum
Available Control Technology (MACT), and Reasonable Available Control Technology (RACT).
(2) BACT. BACT refers to a standard of performance and not a specific pollution control
technology. However, the standard of performance frequently has been established by a specific
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pollution control technology. In the case of incinerator plants, the performance of a spray dry
scrubber followed by a bag house is considered the BACT by most states. Dry lime and wet
scrubber systems have been shown to provide performance comparable to a spray dry unit. The
manufacturers should be able to provide design and performance data to prove their claims in order
to get the design approved and obtain a construction permit. Use of a relatively new technology for
which there is little or no data to prove it can perform as well as a spray dry scrubber will probably
not be approved.
(3) LAER. If the plant is to be built in a non-attainment area (poor ambient air quality), it
may be required to comply with the LAER concept. The plant will be designed to achieve the
lowest emission rates technically possible, regardless of cost.
(4) MACT. An emission limitation for new sources which is not less stringent than the
emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source. Reflects the maximum
degree of reduction in emissions of hazardous air pollutants that the administrator (taking into
consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, any non-air quality health and
environmental impacts and energy requirements), determines is achievable by sources in the
category or subcategory to which such emission standard applies.
(5) RACT. Devices, system process modifications or other apparatus of techniques that are
reasonably available taking the following into account:
- The necessity of imposing such controls in order to attain and maintain a national ambient air
quality standard.
- The social, environmental and economic impact of such controls.
- Alternative means of providing for attainment and maintenance of such standard.
e. Emission Trade-Offs. If the ambient air quality is extremely poor, it may be necessary to
eliminate or reduce emissions from existing sources before the incinerator plant can be built
(emission trade-offs).
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Figure 5-1. Range of concentration and collector performance
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Figure 5-2. Typical air pollution control equipment
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Figure 5-3. Correlation of emissions of dioxins, CO, and THC vs. top temperature
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Table 5-2. CO Emission Limits Established in
40CFR 60.36.
Incinerator Type
CO Limit (ppmv)
a)
Modular Starved Air
50
b)
Modular Excess Air
50
c)
Massburn Waterwall
100
d)
Massburn Rotary Waterwall
250
e)
Bubbling Fluidized Bed
100
f)
Coal/RDF Mixed Fuel-Fired Combustor
150
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CHAPTER 6
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS
6-1. PURPOSE.
a. Instrumentation and control systems for incinerator plants are critical to the successful
operation of the plant. As many individual systems are involved, the controls are nearly always
distributed type using multi-loop PLC’s networked to a central computer based system.
b. Individual systems requiring control include; fuel feed system for refuse, overfire and
under-fire combustion air, auxiliary fuel burners, boilers and other heat recovery devices,
material handling systems for refuse, fly ash, bottom ash, dry powders, slurries, compressed
air systems, water systems, boiler feed controls, scrubber controls, carbon injection systems,
urea or ammonia injection, continuous emission monitoring equipment (CEM), fly ash
stabilization facilities, etc.
c. Incinerators in the size range of 100 tpd may include the following control and monitoring
instrumentation:
(1) Process Instrumentation. This instrumentation monitors the conditions under which the
basic processes in the incinerator are proceeding (e.g., chamber temperatures, gas concentrations
of CO and CO2, gas flow rate).
(2) Data Acquisition and Recording. This equipment provides data that will assist in
determining operating costs and help determine areas where potential improvement in operations
are cost effective (e.g., auxiliary fuel consumed, steam produced).
d. Larger incinerators have more sophisticated instrumentation and control systems.
6-2 . BASIC DESIGN GUIDELINES. Guidance for typical incinerator instrumentation is listed in
table 6-1. Basic control areas and their relationships to this instrumentation are shown in table 6-2.
6-3. BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS. Fundamental concepts for incinerator control design are
described below.
a. Combustion Air Control.
(1) To obtain complete combustion of refuse, the proper amount of air must be introduced
above and underneath the grate/hearth commensurate with the mode of operation (i.e., starved air
or excess air).
(2) Because of the nonhomogeneous nature of raw refuse, the actual under-fire air
requirement varies considerably. (Note: pretreatment of the waste in the MRF can significantly
reduce the heterogeneity problem). The largest and most sophisticated incinerators have under-fire
air control systems involving motor-operated dampers and sensors to adjust the air flow relative to
the quality and quantity of waste being fed (as determined by temperature sensors in the furnace).
Most smaller units, use manual control of dampers to partition air to the various stages. The
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dampers are maintained in a fixed position once they have been set for the waste. In such cases,
the feed rate of waste is adjusted to match the flow of air rather than vice versa.
b. Furnace Temperature Control. To insure complete combustion, the furnace outlet
temperature must be maintained at its set point. In packaged and small modular units, temperature
control is the primary parameter for adjusting the waste feed rate. However, temperature is used by
all technologies to influence the firing rate to some degree. Temperature limit controls may be used
to initiate a water spray or to activate the under-fire air flow controller to abruptly reduce the
chamber temperature. In excess-air units and in the secondary zone of starved-air units, excessive
temperature is corrected by increasing the airflow. If the temperatures become too low, the
auxiliary gas/oil-fired burners will ignite. In all cases, the temperature is sensed by a thermocouple
mounted in the side wall or in the crown of the combustion chamber. The controller will use the
temperature signal to initiate alarms or make automatic adjustments.
c. Furnace Pressure Control.. Various actions will cause pressure fluctuations in the
incinerator and systems that follow; such as, variations in air flow to the incinerator, operation of
internal rams, and feed door opening and closing; therefore, it is necessary to have a draft control
system. Normally, a forced draft (FD) fan is used on large units to supply air to the combustion air
ducting system. An induced draft (ID) fan is used to draw combustion gases from the incinerator
through the heat recovery boiler and air pollution control system. (Note: It is preferable to pass
clean air through the fan.) The draft control system balances the operation of these two fans and
maintains a nominal primary chamber pressure of (-) 0.1 in. of water column (vacuum).
Irrespective of how air flow is controlled, a negative pressure is maintained throughout the
combustion gas flow path to preclude toxic gas leaks from the system.
d. Cooling Control System. Heat recovery is used on all but the smallest incinerators.
Typically, packaged units and modular unit secondary combustion chambers are followed by a
convection heat exchanger that heats hot water or produces steam. The design of the heatrecovery system provides for the cooling of flue gases from a nominal 1,500-1700°F down to 350450°F. Temperature control of the flue gases is absolutely necessary before the gases go through
the pollution control system and ID fan. If an over-temperature upset condition occurs, cooling is
accomplished by a water spray in the ducting, dilution of the gas stream with tempering air, and/or
"dumping" the gas directly to the atmosphere by means of a "dump valve" located between the
secondary combustion chamber and the heat recovery device.
e. Combustion Monitors. The quality of the combustion process is monitored by devices
sensing CO, O2, CO2, and total hydrocarbon (THC) levels in the flue gas leaving the incinerator.
The sensors provide input to the computer control system to automatically adjusts feed rates and
air flows to maintain optimal combustion process conditions. Output of these sensors may also go
to a recorder for environmental emissions monitoring. As federal and state regulations become
more stringent, the use of more sophisticated monitors and controls become commonplace.
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CHAPTER 7
INCINERATOR PLANT DESIGN
7-1. STANDARD BUILDING TYPE. Pre-engineered metal buildings, typical of small modular
plants, can be supplied with a wide variety of sidings, fascia, and other trim for aesthetic purposes.
The incineration equipment should draw the combustion air from inside the plant. This helps keep
the building under negative pressure to minimize release of odors. Roof fans are needed to insure
adequate air circulation, and maintain the slightly negative pressure inside the building.
7-2. WASTE RECEIVING AND PRETREATMENT
.
a. Scales. The design of any incinerator plant must include truck scales. The scale is needed
to establish the weight of incoming solid waste, outgoing residue, salvaged materials, and to
monitor the performance of the facility. State and local regulatory agencies may require this
information be made available to ensure the plant is not processing more waste than it is licensed
for and is not overloading the incinerators.
b. Receiving Accommodations. Trucks must have adequate room to turn and maneuver after
going over the scales. This is especially important for back-in arrangements. There should be
several acres of free area around the waste receiving area for maneuvering and parking of trucks
and for storage of drop-off containers. At least the receiving area, if not the entire plant site, must
be surrounded by a wire-link fence to prevent paper and other debris from blowing out of the
immediate area.
c. Tipping Floor.
(1) Typical Layout. The normal configuration for a small modular incinerator facility building
is for the trucks to unload their waste onto a tipping floor. If the waste is not processed at an MRF,
a front loader will be used to separate out any material that should not go into the incinerators, push
some of the waste into the incinerator charging hoppers, and pile-up the rest in storage areas. The
front loader used to service the incinerators must be large enough to deliver an adequate amount of
waste to the feed hoppers, but have a bucket narrow enough to directly access the feed hopper
opening. Irrespective of whether an MRF is used, the tipping floor area at the incinerator should
have some provision for reducing the size of large, burnable material that has been delivered.
Typically this type of material includes scrap lumber, timber, logs, tree stumps, pallets, and wooden
boxes. A shear shredder or a tub-grinder with ample capacity to handle timbers, tree trunks, and
large pallets may be required.
(2) Waste Storage Area. For the storage of 3-5 days feed stock, approximately 130 ft2 of
tipping floor area should be provided for each ton-per-day incinerator capacity. This storage
capacity is required to insure continuous operation during those periods when waste deliveries are
not being made. The actual space allocation will be influenced by the type of floor arrangement
selected, the amount of truck and front loader traffic, and how high the front loader can pile the
waste in storage (which is also affected by the height of the concrete retaining wall against which
the waste is to be piled).
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(3) Construction. The tipping floor must be a finished and sealed, reinforced concrete slab
designed to carry the truck loads. The floor must have a grate-covered drain to catch water from
the waste, water used to wash down the floor, and rainwater that might collect near the truck doors.
d. Pit and Crane. If the incinerator plant is especially constrained for space, it may be
necessary to use a pit-and-crane system for waste storage and feeding. A loose (uncompacted)
bulk density of 100-150 lbs/yd3 should be used to determine the required volume of the pit.
(l) Where cranes are used for feed, incinerator plant operation is dependent upon the crane
reliability which can operate continuously. Accordingly, the crane should be rated for MHI CMAA 70
Class F (Continuous Severe Service). The best type of bucket for handling garbage is the "orange
peel" grapple. In addition, hose bibs must be provided both to wash down the pit periodically, and
to put out occasional fires in the pit.
(2) Space and Service. The pit will occupy considerably less floor space in the plant than
the tipping floor due to its depth below grade. Waste hauling trucks need to pull only part way into
the incinerator building in order to be out of the weather when discharging their loads into a pit.
e. Waste Processing. If the decision has been made to expand the present materials
recovery and recycle program, provisions must be made in the design for the waste processing
equipment required prior to the incineration. Typically, this will require some form of handpicking
operation, preferably using conveyors and certain equipment for removing metals. If possible, the
MRF and incinerator should share a common site.
(1) MRF Tipping Floor. In a totally integrated system, the MRF tipping floor needs to provide
for the acceptance and preprocessing of waste. All material deemed not recyclable, but acceptable
for burning, would be sent to the incinerator facility for storage prior to burning.
(2) MRF Discharge. If an MRF is integrated into the system, the processed waste can be
transported via a conveyor to the pit or the incinerator tipping floor, where it would be mixed with the
other burnable waste that bypassed the MRF.
f. Waste Bypass.
(1) Normal Operation. Some types of wastes will not be suitable for incineration. Other
wastes will not be suitable for processing at the MRF. Therefore, provisions must be made for direct
bypass of these wastes or for dumpsters to receive the discards separated from the waste to be
disposed by other methods.
(2) Contingency Methods. The design must accommodate and plan for contingencies
caused by equipment failures leading to unscheduled outages. Accommodation of these types of
occurrences will require either a landfill for temporary disposal or some type of temporary storage
capability until the facilities can be brought back up to full capacity.
(a) Loss of Incinerator Capacity. Provisions have to be made for landfilling large
amounts of raw (otherwise combustible) waste in the event of a severe mechanical failure that
reduces incineration capability to handle the flow beyond the 3- to 5-day storage capacity of the
tipping floor or pit.
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(b) Loss of MRF Capacity. If there is an MRF, it will probably have sufficient tipping floor
capacity to store 1 to 2 days' collection. Such storage capacity will have to be in the building in
order to protect the materials from the elements. Once the storage capacity in both facilities is filled,
the processed burnable waste would have to be sent to the landfill.
7-3. ENERGY RECOVERY. Energy recovery will normally be in the form of steam and/or hot
water. Typical efficiency of modular unit facility heat recovery is a nominal 65%. The more efficient
field-erected facilities typically achieve 80-85% recovery of the energy generated.
a. Heat Exchanger System.
(1) Modular Unit Systems. In a modular incinerator facility (i.e., less than 200 tpd), the
energy recovery heat exchanger will usually be a packaged convective heat exchanger that serves
all the incinerator units in the facility. The heat exchanger may be of the firetube or watertube type.
Firetube construction is more common in small units since they are generally the least expensive. If
a pressure above 300 psig is required (e.g., for a steam turbine or for steam central heating), a
watertube heat exchanger is needed.
(2) Field-Erected Units. Large, field-erected incinerators use a combination of an integral,
radiant-heated water-wall boiler that forms the walls of the secondary combustion chamber and
convection-heated super heaters and economizers. Each unit has a complete heat recovery system
for the gases generated in the incinerator, including its own steam drum.
(3) Heat Transfer Surface Cleaning. Soot blowers must be provided for both types of
boilers since cleaning of fly ash from a heat exchanger is frequently the limiting factor on how long
the incinerator can continue to operate. Firetube boilers are multi-pass to minimize length and
permit cleaning. The thermal efficiency will also be lower if soot is not blown out regularly.
(4) Other Types of Soot Removal. "Hot cyclones" (refractory-lined) have been used
between modular incinerator units and the associated heat-recovery system to reduce the dust
loading on heat-transfer surfaces. These have seen limited use and then only in small units.
(5) Economizers. Part of the reason for higher efficiencies in the large field-erected
incinerator facilities is economizers, which are usually not cost effective in small units. The
economizer is designed to remove the heat in the gases leaving the steam and boiler water
convection heaters (shown on figure 4-4). As much as 10% of the total recoverable heat in the
gases may be removed in the economizer to preheat boiler feedwater or combustion air. Care
must be taken to ensure that economizer tube surface temperatures remain in excess of acid gas
condensation temperatures. The exit gas temperature from the heat exchanger system will usually
be limited to above 450oF to prevent tube metal corrosion. Specially designed equipment may
o
allow a reduction in temperature to 300 F. Acid gas corrosion appears at temperatures below
o
275 F.
b. Operating Mode. The waste-heat boiler and incinerator must be sized and operated to be
base loaded. Thermal cycling (kept warm and on standby) for this type of application is not feasible
and will result in damage (e.g., tube buckling and refractory loss) to the equipment.
c. Energy Use.
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(1) Typically the steam or hot water produced in the energy recovery system is matched to
the existing space-heating power plant conditions. The incinerator is used as a base-load
generator due to its need to burn waste at a constant rate of throughput. This inflexibility in
operating the incinerator means that the existing fossil-fueled, space-heating plant will be swingloaded to follow changes in the daily demands.
(2) During the summer months, steam or high-temperature hot water produced by the boiler
may be used to produce chilled water for air conditioning. Large, multi-stage, high-pressure (125
psig steam) absorption chillers are available from several manufacturers. Steam turbines running a
mechanical chiller and exhausting into low-pressure (12 psig) absorption units are available. It is
also possible to purchase ammonia refrigeration units that work off of low-quality waste heat;
however, low-pressure absorption units should never be used by themselves because of their low
thermal efficiency.
d. Co-generation. It may be desirable to equip the incinerator plant with a steam turbine to
produce electricity or do other mechanical work (e.g., pump water, run air compressors) if the
incinerator plant is larger than 50-tpd capacity. It is also possible to generate both electricity and
district heating steamin small steam generation facilities.
(1) Steam turbines are available that use steam at pressures as low as 300 psig, perform
mechanical work, and exhaust the steam at 150 psig or lower.
(2) Electricity Generation. The designer can expect electrical generation rates of 400 kWh
from a 50-tpd incinerator plant and more than 1,600 kWh from a 200-tpd plant, despite the relatively
low overall plant efficiencies (i.e., 10-12%).
(3) Operation on Demand. Co-generation is often used when high-pressure steam can be
delivered to the district heating system via a high-pressure heat exchanger to produce low-pressure
steam when the demand for district heating is high. It can also be used to send the high-pressure
steam directly to the turbine when the demand for district heating is low.
7-4. ASH SYSTEM.
.
a. The hot ash from an incinerator is usually dumped directly into a water-filled quench tank at
the discharge end of the primary combustion chamber. The water is maintained at a level that
provides a seal at the exit of the incinerator and thereby prevents unwanted air from entering the
primary combustion chamber.
b. Removal Methods. Several methods of ash removal may be used, each with their
advantages and disadvantages. Problems with ash system design and optimization are reasons
why it is vital to hire a contractor with extensive experience in the design of waste incineration
facilities. Experience has shown that plants have more trouble with the ash removal system than
with any other support system. Two causes stand out: (1) under design, and (2) failure to remove
wire-containing products, cable, and band strapping from the incinerator feed stock.
(1) Drag-Chain Conveyor. Drag-chain conveyors are the most common device for removal
of ash. Water is allowed to drain from the ash as it is carried up a chute and out of the plant. Due
to the gritty environment, the drag-chain conveyor is normally a high-maintenance item. The plant
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operations crew should be aware that wire and items containing wire (e.g.,automobile tires) are a
primary cause of problems with drag conveyor jamming.
(a) Conveyor Arrangement. Because of the persistent problem of jamming, each
combustion chamber must have its own ash conveyor; however, they may share a common water
pit.
(b) Maintenance Considerations. Since the ash conveyor is known for its maintenance
problems, the designer must make provisions to ensure ease of maintenance and repair. Proper
design requires sufficient space be provided on the sides for access, but not excessive room so
that ash will accumulate in these areas. The chain must not pass through the falling ash before
turning to pick up the ash from the bottom of the tank because metal objects (e.g., cans, bolts,
scrap steel) may get caught, jam the conveyor, and break the flights. Provisions (e.g., portable
pumps, filter, and floor drains) will have to be made for removing the water from the water pit for
repairs and overhaul. The conveyor must lift the ash high enough outside the plant to allow a
dumpster to be placed underneath to receive the ash. The ash has a higher density than the
original waste, thus dumpsters have to be emptied half full not to exceed truck capacities.
(2) Back-Hoe Conveyor. Some manufacturers prefer the back-hoe type conveyor to
remove ash from the quench tank. This type of system allows the chain mechanism to remain out
of the water. A mechanism on the chain flips a metal plate (hoe) into the tank, pulls the hoe out of
the tank and up the chute, drops the ash into the dumpster, and then flips the hoe back into the up
position for the return to the quench tank. This design requires less maintenance and allows for a
much steeper rise as the ash is withdrawn.
c. Ash Cooling. Some manufacturers do not quench the ash. Instead, a spray system may be
adequate for cooling the ash if a large enough volume of water (deluge) is used. For small
incinerators (less than 10 tpd), some manufacturers may dump the hot ash directly into the
dumpster. In that case, the operators have to watch for fires in the dumpster from incompletely
burned waste. In very small units, ash removal may be done manually after a cool-down.
d. Ash Disposal. In all cases, provisions have to be made in the design for adequate ash
disposal.
(1) Dewatering. Dumpsters must have drain provisions because most landfills require the
ash to be dewatered; in addition, drained dumpster water must be collected in a sump rather than
discharged into the storm sewer.
(2) Treatment. In some cases, if other precautions are not taken to reduce the source of
heavy metals, the ash may have to undergo some form of treatment before disposal to minimize
leaching of heavy metal. If an MRF is used, the removal and collection of all batteries, electronic
equipment, and other sources of lead, cadmium, and mercury from the waste sent to the incinerator
will greatly reduce the need for special treatment and/or special disposal of the ash. If the ash does
contain excess heavy metals, ash stabilization techniques such as combining the ash with portland
cement may be required. Ultimate disposal will usually be in a monofill (i.e., a landfill specially
dedicated to receiving incinerator ash). If such a commercial landfill is not available, one will have
to be constructed on the base.
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7-5. POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT. The various types of pollution control equipment and
possible regulations are described in chapter 5. Provision may have to be made to keep waste
water streams from the ash and waste receiving and storage areas separate so that they may be
treated before being discharged to the sanitary sewer system. This treatment will undoubtedly
include filtering to reduce the suspended solids, and may include chemical treatment to balance pH
and remove other contaminants.
7-6. OPERATION AND ASSOCIATION COSTS. The O&M cost portion of the HRIFEAS computer
program also gives only a very approximate estimate. As part of the final economic evaluation and
preparation of an operating budget for the plant, a detailed estimate of the operating costs of the
plant needs to be made.
a. Operations.
(1) Personnel. Incinerator plant operating personnel should be of the same grade and
quality as regular boiler plant operators. Operators should be trained and certified under the triservices program for certification through the National Institute for the Uniform Licensing of Power
Engineers (NIULPE).
(2) Responsibilities. Approximately 60% of the operation deals with running the front loader
and feeding waste into the charging hoppers. A comprehensive training program is necessary so
that each person knows how to effectively function as a solid-fuel-fired boiler operator, a solid waste
equipment handler, a maintenance and repair person, and a shift supervisor. In a larger plant,
several people may be required to operate front loaders, to monitor the operation of the
incinerators, and to provide routine maintenance. A 24 hours per day, seven days per week
operation will require an extra "swing" shift of operators. A plant manager will also be needed to
supervise all the operators and monitor the plant operation, and may also be used to record the
weight of waste being delivered.
(3) Size of Operating Crews. Typically, a small incinerator plant (i.e., less than 50 tpd) will
require a minimum of three operations crew members per shift (two operators plus a mechanic who
may be shared with another plant) plus the manager or a shift supervisor. If the facility has a dry
scrubber and bag house, one to two more people per operating shift may be required.
b. Consumable Supplies. Information should be gathered from major equipment suppliers as
to consumable supplies, especially for the gas cleanup system. A detailed list and associated costs
need to be developed. The contractor is required by the incinerator CEGS to submit a list of repair
parts and supplies that will be needed for a number of months of operation.
c. Operation Schedule. Ideally, the incinerator plant should be designed (i.e., sized) to operate
continuously. Minimizing the number of startup/shutdown cycles will prolong the life of the
equipment, especially the refractory insulation in the combustion chambers. Depending upon the
size of the incinerator, especially packaged units, it may be necessary to shut down on the second
shift for an overnight burn-down and cool-off if ash removal is a manual operation.
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APPENDIX A
EXCERPTS FROM EPA RESOURCE RECOVERY MANAGEMENT MODEL
A-1. INTRODUCTION. The U.S.A. Environmental Protection Agency developed a model for
the planning and construction of resource recovery facilities based on the successes and
failures experienced in the civilian sector. This model has been used successfully in
subsequent planning and construction of facilities since its issuance. Excerpts from this
document are provided here in order to orient the user of this manual to the type of detail and
the scope of activities that must be analyzed if the project is to be successful.
a. The management model (SW-768) can be obtained from the National Technical
Information Service (NTIS) and though recommended as the basis for the planning and
construction scheduling for civilian projects it is applicable to military resource recovery
projects as well.
b. The material reproduced from the Management Model document only covers excerpts
from the Introduction and the List of Activities required during the Feasibility Screening and the
Feasibility Analysis phases. This should help the reader to appreciate the scope of these initial
phases in a successful project and should provide the basis for project activity checklists.
Failure to provide complete answers to questions or unresolved issues in any of these areas
can mean the difference between success or failure of the project.
A-2. GENERAL DISCUSSION. Resource recovery refers to the collection and reuse of solid
waste, generally residential and commercial waste, for the production of commodities in the
form of energy and materials, either at a central processing facility or by source separation, or
both. This effort has gained recognition over the last decade as a partial solution to two major
problems confronting this country: the need for environmentally sound disposal of solid
wastes, including the need to reduce dependence on land disposal; and the need for alternate
energy sources, including energy conservation. While the concept is not new, the potential in
more communities for its use as a method for solid waste disposal has stimulated rapid growth
in both large- and small-scale systems technology.
A-3. KEY QUESTIONS. In considering resource recovery, the following key questions must
be addressed and resolved:
a. Is sufficient refuse available to support a resource recovery project and can it be
committed in the long term to a facility?
b. Do realistic long-term markets for energy and materials products exist?
c. Are sites and technologies available which are environmentally sound and politically
acceptable?
d. Do local laws permit procurement options and necessary contractual agreements?
e. Is the project financially feasible?
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f. How does resource recovery compare to the non-recovery disposal alternatives?
g. Failure to address any one of these key questions may make project implementation
impractical. The inability to obtain any critical item, such as a facility site, energy market, or
adequate waste supply can spell the termination, or at least the postponement, of a project.
The Management Model shows what tasks must be done and where in the planning process
they should be accomplished. The Model is presented in considerable detail, which is
necessary for those with limited experience in the field, and is useful as a checklist for those
with more experience.
A-4. THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT MODEL. Because of the time span over which
planning and procurement of resource recovery facilities takes place, events such as a change
in project manager, departure and replacement of a key appointed official, or a newly elected
official taking office can be expected to occur, as well as changes in laws and regulations.
The Model provides a systematic approach for charting tasks already accomplished, thus
helping to maintain project continuity and mitigate a tendency toward the unnecessary
retracing of steps.
a. Recent experience in resource recovery projects indicates that some of the difficult
decisions were not addressed in a timely and proper manner; thus time, effort, and money
were wasted. The Model is intended to “close the gate” on continuing a project until a needed
decision is made, then the gate will be opened to continue with the next major phase. These
gates are political decisions conducted publicly based upon written documentation.
b. The Model allows new projects to benefit from past experience in resource recovery
implementation by identifying for project managers the critical decisions in the project which
must be made before succeeding activities can begin. It defines the proper relationship of all
activities and decisions. This should result in improved decisions and smoother
implementation with less redundancy of effort.
A-5. DESCRIPTION OF THE MANAGEMENT MODEL. The model is constructed in four
phases. Phases I, II, and III are identified as Feasibility Analysis, Procurement Planning, and
System Procurement, respectively. These three phases are preceded by a Phase 0, Initial
Resource Recovery Feasibility Screening, denoting certain steps necessary to decide whether
there is a strong reason not to study and plan for a resource recovery project.
a. Phase 0 depicts an informal preliminary review of certain information which enables
decision makers to become aware of the potential for resource recovery even though the
information may emerge from past planning efforts. The numeral 0 is used to stress that this
phase is less formal than others because it is a test of whether local conditions preclude
consideration of resource recovery. The function of Phase 0 is to investigate in rough terms
whether to proceed with a resource recovery program at all.
b. Phase I, Feasibility Analysis, includes an evaluation of the feasibility of resource
recovery an preliminary identification of alternatives, including source separation and codisposal. This phase should form the basis for a decision to terminate, postpone, or proceed.
It also includes activities necessary to construct a preliminary implementation strategy.
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c. Phase II, Procurement Planning, further develops all elements leading to system
procurement, including obtaining options to purchase sites (with associated environmental
analysis and public meetings), strengthening market and waste supply commitments, risk
allocation, and selection of a preferred procurement and financing approach.
d. Phase III, Procurement, covers the steps required for system procurement, including
waste supply, market, construction, and operation (if applicable) contracts, necessary preconstruction permits (and associated environmental analysis), and obtaining the debt or equity
capital to finance the project.
e. Toward the end of Phases 0, I, and II, a formal report (or statement) is prepared
documenting the results and presenting a recommended course of action and associated
budget for the next phase. Using the report as a basis, a political/public decision is made
either to proceed or terminate.
A-6. MAJOR ISSUES. Major ongoing issues which must be considered in all phases include:
a. Public participation
b. Environmental considerations
c. Waste reduction
d. Source separation
e. Phase-over planning
f. Project communications
g. Assessment of industry roles and offers
A-7. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION.
a. The public may be involved in the project development in many ways, such as public
meetings and hearings, presentations, advisory groups, newsletters, assistance, and
coordination. The presentation of issues at an early stage promotes an atmosphere of
openness and mutual trust.
b. History has taught that early and continuing presentation of issues to the public is
essential in gaining public confidence in any program. Not only should the public be informed
early, but also continuously for the duration of the project. The importance of this cannot be
overemphasized, nor should the lessons regarding the consequences of past failures be
forgotten. Without public dialogue, the project may be undermined for no more sufficient
reason than a perceived lack of an informed and well-structured process or for the substantial
reason that the project does not meet the community’s goals and desires.
A-8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
a. Depending upon the individual state and local environmental assessment
requirements, different environmental analyses may be necessary. The Model contains three
types of environmental review.
(1) The first is an initial screening in the Feasibility Analysis phase.
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(2) The second is a refinement of environmental criteria and analytical work,
principally site selection (Procurement Planning phase).
(3) The third may be an assessment or a full Environmental Impact Statement which
is system-specific and occurs after selection of a system or completion of preliminary design
(Procurement phase).
b. In areas of air quality non-attainment, additional monitoring may be required to be
completed prior to design and construction of the facility. This action may be initiated early
and may continue throughout a large part of each phase. The Model is more concerned with
the position in the process of the completion and in some cases may leave the decision about
when to commence this work up to local requirements an customs. Use of the Model should
allow careful and timely consideration of all environmental restrictions which have typically
impacted resource recovery projects.
A-9. WASTE REDUCTION.
a. Waste reduction generally refers to reducing the quantity of solid waste generated so
that there is simply less waste for disposal in landfills, for resource recovery, or for source
separation. The reuse and recycling of beverage containers is an example of waste reduction
because fewer containers enter the municipal waste streams.
b. While the model is used independently of waste reduction, the two are compatible.
The only adjustment needed in the resource recovery planning process is a revision of the
estimates of solid waste quantity and composition that will be available to the resource
recovery system after all reasonably foreseeable waste reduction systems are in place. The
Model does not detail a method for introducing waste reduction programs, but recognizes their
potential and allows ample opportunity for a project manager to factor waste reduction into the
overall resource recovery management plan.
A-10. SOURCE SEPARATION. Source separation is defined as the setting aside of
recyclable waste materials at their point of generation for segregated collection, transport, and
delivery to specialized waste processing sites or final manufacturing markets.
a. The Model encourages and promotes the pursuit of a separation program, either
independently or in conjunction with a larger-scale program. Analysis of a source separation
program is placed early in the consideration of solid waste resource recovery processes. In
some cases, source separation may be the only viable recovery program available to a locality.
b. The Model indicates that source separation is carried out independently, but at
specific points is factored into the Master Network because the municipal decision process
may occur on both systems at the same time.
A-11. PHASE-OVER PLANNING. Most resource recovery projects represent long-term
solutions to solid waste disposal for communities. One must, however, count on substantial
time to elapse between the initiation of resource recovery planning and the actual
commencement of resource recovery plant operations. The transition from the existing solid
waste management system to the initiation of the long-term resource recovery program is the
phase-over period.
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a. In many cases interest in resource recovery is stimulated by a need to abandon the
current system, such as an incinerator with excessive emissions or a landfill reaching capacity.
In cases such as these, the program manager has two concurrent tasks.
(1) The first is to plan for the shorter-term phase-over solid waste management
needs.
(2) The second is to plan for the long-term resource recovery program.
b. Although phase-over planning is required immediately, it should progress along with
and be compatible with the long-term planning represented by this Management Model. While
the two planning functions are often concurrent and some of their respective activities may be
interdependent, the two planning activities may be separate and distinct. Where possible, the
same project manager or task force should be involved in both activities. The primary focus is
to avoid actions of a short term or phase-over nature that are inconsistent with the long-range
goal.
c. It is not the purpose of this Model to address phase-over planning. While the need for
this planning, as well as points of interdependence (e.g., site selection and size, residual
disposal), are acknowledged the Management Model is designed primarily to assist the project
manager in implementation of only the resource recovery program. Concurrent functions,
scheduling constraints, and other problems facing the municipality must be resolved by the
project manager responsible for the function.
A-12. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS. There is a need in every project, because of the time
that may elapse between project phases, to maintain contact with members of the participating
organizations, especially during periods of low activity. For example, after letters of intent are
received from markets, time passes while public presentations and political decisions are
made. Project momentum should be continued by the project manager, and continuous
contact should be maintained with markets and member municipalities so that they are kept
constantly up to date and interest and desire for participation is not lost.
Activity Index
Master
Activity
No.
______
Phase 0 - Conduct initial Resource Recovery Feasibility Screening.
000
Complete Overview of Phase 0.
001
Evaluate Non-Recovery Disposal Options and Associated Environmental Issues.
002
Sample Citizen and Political Interest.
003
Conduct Preliminary Market Survey.
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004
Conduct Preliminary Waste Supply Assessment.
005
Assess Source Separation Potential.
006
Assess Economics, Environmental Impacts, and Procurement Methods of Recovery
Technologies.
007
Test Appropriateness of Proceeding.
Phase I - Resource Recovery Feasibility Analysis
101
Organize Project Team and Public Process
10101
10102
10103
10104
10105
10106
10107
102
Secure Required Resources
10201
10202
10203
10204
10205
10206
10207
10208
10209
10210
10211
103
Establish Project Director.
Establish Project Manager.
Identify Organizations to be Solicited for Membership.
Solicit Members.
Establish Team, Assign Responsibilities.
Establish Policy, Goals, and Guidelines.
Establish Public Release Procedures.
Establish Scope of Work for Project.
Establish Scope for In-House Staff and Consultants.
Develop Preferred Contracting Method.
Develop Consultant Selection Method.
Advertise for Qualifications.
Secure Commitments from In-House Staff.
Negotiate with Consultants on Retainer.
Select Short List of Firms.
Interview Short Listed Firms.
Select Preferred Firm.
Negotiate and Sign Contract.
Screen Environmental Requirements
10301
10302
10303
10304
10305
Determine Conditions for Requiring A-95 Review.
Determine Zoning Categories and Restrictions.
Determine Ambient Air Quality and Emissions Restrictions.
Determine Surface and Ground Water Use and Effluent Restriction.
Determine State and Local Environmental Review Requirements Including
Major Permit.
10306 Determine Other Restrictions and Requirements.
104
Conduct Technology Analysis.
10401 Review the State-of-the-Art.
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10402 Analyze Input Requirements and Output Characteristics (Other than Refuse
and Products).
10403 Investigate Source Separation Technologies.
10404 Determine Refuse Input Requirements and Co-Disposal Capabilities.
10405 Ascertain Product Specifications.
10406 Ascertain Size, Reliability, and Costs.
10407 Determine Procurement Issues and Industry Service Potential.
10408 Summarize Results.
105
Analyze Waste Stream
10501
10502
10503
10504
10505
10506
10507
10508
10509
10510
10511
10512
10513
10514
10515
10516
10517
Obtain List of Industries.
Obtain Population Data.
Obtain Prior Studies and Reports.
Obtain List of Transfer, Processing, and Disposal Sites.
Obtain List of Collection Agencies and Companies.
Obtain List of Sewage Treatment Plants.
Obtain Sludge Checklist Information for Each Sewage Treatment Plant.
Obtain Septic Tank Pumping Data.
Determine Existing and Future Sludge Generation and Disposal Needs.
Estimate Municipal Waste Generation.
Estimate Industrial Waste Generation.
Estimate Seasonal Fluctuations of Solid Waste.
Estimate Facility Throughput and Disposal Quantities by Site.
Perform Weighing Survey.
Estimate Disposed Quantities from Survey by Site.
Compare Estimates, Develop Consistent Generation and Disposal Quantities.
Perform Compositional Analysis to Support Materials, Energy, and Source
Separation Studies.
10518 Estimate Average Yearly Composition.
10519 Estimate Average Heating Value.
10520 Estimate Quantities of Recoverable Materials.
106
Perform Detailed Energy Market Analysis.
10601
10602
10603
10604
10605
10606
10607
10608
10609
10610
10611
10612
107
Obtain List of Fossil Fuel Users.
Conduct Telephone Survey (Except Utilities).
Identify Potential Markets.
Visit Potential Markets.
Identify Viable Potential Markets.
Plot Commodity Demand.
Develop Commodity Pricing Schedule.
Obtain Energy Market Letters of Interest.
Conduct Introductory Meeting with Utilities.
Conduct In-Depth Meeting with Utilities.
Obtain Letters of Interest from Utilities.
Obtain Commodity Demand and Pricing Schedule from Utilities.
Analyze Existing Disposal Options
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10701
10702
10703
10704
10705
108
Conduct Material Market Analysis
10801
10802
10803
10804
10805
109
Determine Future Landfill Requirements.
Obtain Data and Costs of Existing Facilities.
Examine Current Operations and Plans of Neighboring Areas.
Analyze Existing Facilities and Expansion Potential.
Define Existing Disposal Options.
Obtain List of Possible Markets.
Conduct Market Survey.
Identify Potential Markets.
Analyze Existing Source Separation Programs.
Obtain Materials Market Letters of Interest.
Conduct Source Separation Feasibility Analysis
10901 Develop System Parameters and Logistics.
10902 Develop Cost and Revenue Estimates.
110
Perform Preliminary Environmental Analysis
11001 Determine Whether Air Quality Monitoring is Required Prior to Construction.
11002 Analyze Capabilities of the Various Technologies to Meet the Environmental
Requirements.
111
Establish Transportation Analysis Model
11101
11102
11103
11104
11105
Establish Centroids of Waste Generation.
Establish Transportation Linkages.
Establish Average Travel Times for Links.
Define Calculation Method.
Establish Cost Functions for Packer Truck Haul, Transfer Trailer Haul,
Processing, and Disposal.
112
Perform Preliminary Site Analysis
`
11201
11202
11203
11204
113
Perform Financial, Legal, and Institutional Analysis
Solicit New Site Nominations and Obtain Site Checklist Information.
Obtain Existing and Potential Site Checklist Information.
Categorize Sites According o Suitability.
Rank Higher-Potential Sites.
11301 Identify Options for Roles, Responsibilities, Procurement, Legal, and
Financial Options.
11302 Define Risks Associated with Resource Recovery.
11303 Identify Funding Sources and Constraints.
11304 Examine Existing Waste Supply Status.
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11305 Examine Existing Waste Contracting Capability.
11306 Analyze Risk Assignment for Each Option.
11307 Summarize Options, Needed Legislation, Constraints, and Risks.
114
Develop Project Alternatives
11401
11402
11403
11404
11405
Formulate Technological Alternatives.
Develop Costs for Each Alternative.
Analyze Regionalization and Transportation.
Assess Risks.
Develop Preferred Financial and Institutional Arrangements for Each
Alternative.
11406 Summarize Results.
115
Establish Political/Public Decision Process
11501 Establish Ordered Briefing List.
11502 Establish Decision Path.
116
Develop Recommendations and Report
11601
11602
11603
11604
117
Rank Alternatives.
Formulate Preliminary Recommendations.
Conduct Review and Incorporate Comments by Project Team.
Obtain Project Team Adoption.
Obtain Political/Public Decision to Proceed
11701 Conduct Appropriate Briefings.
11702 Obtain Feedback and Brief as Necessary.
11703 Proceed with Decision.
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APPENDIX B
COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS
B-1. GENERAL.
a. Purpose. The purpose of the following combustion calculations is not to design the
incinerator. The details of the incinerator design must be left to the manufacturer since the
manufacturer must guarantee its performance. However, information on heat release, gas
flow rates, particulate loading, and other pollutants in the flue gas will be needed in order to
prepare system performance requirements for the heat recovery boiler, pollution control
equipment, certain auxiliary equipment such as ID fans, and as input to an EIS. The data will
also be used to fill in the blanks on the flow and instrument diagram that the designer will find
among the standardized drawings.
b. Scope.
(1) The combustion calculations described in this appendix are much more detailed
than those performed by the HRIFEAS computer program. HRIFEAS only calculates the heat
release and the amount of useful heat available based upon an assumed 55% thermal
efficiency for starved-air incinerators. The program does determine the optimum fit for the size
and number of incinerators to burn the available waste, based on the given operating schedule
and assuming an extra, redundant unit for maintenance and backup. In order to perform the
following combustion calculations, the characteristics, as well as the amount, of the waste
must have been determined during a waste survey as outlined in appendix A.
(2) The combustion calculations may be approximate or as detailed as the designer
feels is warranted by the requirements of the project and the accuracy of the waste
characterization. The effects of any material recovery performed on the waste stream must be
included because both noncombustible and combustible material will be removed. Most of the
combustion calculations will be in terms of mass or volume on a per-minute or per-hour basis.
B-2. HEAT RELEASED/RECOVERED.
a. Heat Content of Feed Stock.
(1) The waste characterization study should have determined the average heat
content of the waste in Btu per pound of waste on an as-received basis, including effects of
material recovery as noted above.
(2) The rate of release of the heat is based on the hourly rate of firing of the waste. If
35 tons of waste are to be burned in a 24-hour period, the rate of firing is as follows:
(35) (2,000 lb/ton) / (24 h/day) = 2,917 lb/h
(Eq. B-1)
If a shorter firing period is to be used, the numbers would be adjusted accordingly. This
information is also provided by the HRIFEAS program.
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(3) The amount of heat that would theoretically be released is the product of the
heating value (HHV) of the waste and the firing rate. In the above example, if the waste had a
heating value of 4,500 Btu/lb, the heat release rate would be calculated by the following:
(2,917) (4,500) = 13,126,500 Btu/h=13.1265 MBtu/h
(Eq. B-2)
b. Actual Heat Available for Recovery.
(1) Unfortunately, not all of the theoretically available heat can be recovered in a
useful form.
(a) The combustion process may not consume all of the carbon.
(b) The basic laws of thermodynamics will not allow all of the heat to be recovered
as it passes through a heat exchanger.
(c) Large amounts of excess air will further reduce the amount of recoverable
heat.
(2) The amount of recoverable heat is determined by multiplying the theoretically
available heat by the thermal efficiency. Most incinerator/boiler combinations can be assumed
to have a thermal efficiency of 75%, but starved and controlled air should be assumed at
55% because of the large amounts of excess air used in the secondary combustion areas and
less complete burn-out of the carbon.
(3) Actual values should be obtained from typical manufacturers whenever possible.
(4) For the above example of a starved-air incinerator, the nominal amount of
recoverable heat is calculated using the following equation:
(13,126,500) (0.55) = 7,219,575 Btu/h
(Eq. B-3)
c. Efficiency of Energy Recovery Affected by the Temperature of the Media.
(1) If steam or hot water is the form of useful energy produced, the production rate will
also depend on the temperature of the water entering, and the enthalpy of the product leaving
the boiler/heater.
(a) In the case of hot water, the heat transferred to the media will be based solely
on the difference between the inlet and outlet temperature of the water.
(b) If dry, saturated steam is to be produced, the enthalpy will be based upon the
exit pressure. The enthalpy of super-heated steam is based on both exit temperature and
pressure. Values may be found in most engineering handbooks.
(2) For the above example with a 55% overall thermal efficiency for a starved-air unit,
water of 190°F (158.0 Btu/lb), and saturated steam at 150 Psig (1195.5 Btu/lb), the calculation
would be as follows:
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7,219,575/ (1195.5-158.0) = 6,959 lb/h of steam
(Eq. B-4)
B-3. THEORETICAL COMBUSTION AIR. There are several ways to calculate the theoretical
air requirement for complete combustion of the waste.
a. Alternative Methods.
(1) If the waste has been carefully characterized by component, tables 3-7 and 3-8
give the ultimate analysis of most of the major components found in waste. A composite
ultimate analysis may be calculated by assuming a lot of 100 lb and adding the amount of
each element that each component contributes to the lot. If a waste stream was 2%
newspaper, there would be 0.9828 lb of carbon (0.02 x 49.14) from the newspaper in the lot.
The amount of carbon contributed by each component would be calculated and added to
determine the total amount of carbon in the lot. The same would then be done for hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Table 3-5 lists the ultimate analyses for some typical waste
streams. Once a composite ultimate analysis is obtained, table B-1 may be used to calculate
the theoretical air and flue gases produced. Careful attention should be given to the note on
table B-1 regarding chlorine being an oxidizer and the consequent reduction in air required.
This also reduces the amount of water and nitrogen produced in the flue gas.
(2) If a less complete characterization has been done, or a less tedious method is
desired to calculate the theoretical air requirements, table 3-9 gives values for several major
waste stream components on a moisture and ash free (MAF) basis. These values are based
on the MAF HHV of each component. The procedure described in the first note on the table
may be reversed in order to determine the MAF HHV of the waste stream from the “as
received” data developed during the waste survey.
(3) The same criteria may be used to determine the theoretical air requirements for
the entire waste stream based on its MAF HHV. The MAF value may also be converted back
to the “as received” condition.
b. Use of Tables. Table 3-2 gives an estimated value of theoretical air for a waste
stream and compares it to the values for wood and paper. The amount of theoretical air also
has to be adjusted for the moisture (humidity) in it. A typical value can be assumed based
upon average local climactic data. Using the data from table 3-2 and the above example, the
theoretical dry air requirement would be calculated as follows:
(2,917) (6.53) = 19,048 lb air/h
(Eq. B-5)
B-4. EXCESS AIR. Because of problems with incomplete mixing and insufficient reaction
times, supplying only the theoretically required amount of air will not result in complete
combustion. Additional air must be supplied. Different types of fuels (more or less reactive)
and different types of combustion systems will require different amounts of combustion air as
listed in table 3-10. The third note on table 3-11 gives instructions on how to compute the air
mass flow requirements for whatever amount of excess air is required. For the above
example and 130% excess air (from table 3-10) the results would be as follows:
(19,048) 100+130) / (100) = 43,810 lbs dry air/hr
B-3
(Eq. B-6)
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B-5. FLUE GAS. Table B-1 and an ultimate analysis must be used to accurately determine
the amount of flue gas produced by the combustion process. Excess air can be considered as
just passing through. If an ultimate analysis is not available, the mass flow rate can be
estimated by assuming that all of the waste, on an ash-free basis, will be oxidized (water
evaporated) and come out with what was originally combustion and excess air. Although the
chemical combinations have changed, the mass will remain the same. Therefore, the mass
flow rate of the flue gas is the combustible portion of the waste, plus the moisture in the waste,
the theoretical combustion air, the excess air, and the moisture in the air. Table 3-2 gives an
example of flue gas rates for a particular garbage composition and various amounts of excess
air. Normally, the additional flue gas produced from the operation of the auxiliary burners
should be very small and can be ignored. This is not true if the waste is very difficult to burn
and the auxiliary burners are expected to be operating most of the time.
B-6. GAS VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE. Since air is 78% nitrogen by volume and 76% by
weight, both air and flue gas may be treated the same for volumetric calculations with the only
adjustment being for the moisture content. The volumetric flow rate may be determined based
upon the density of air (temperature, pressure, and moisture content) measured at any specific
point in the process. If an actual average moisture value for the specific geographical area is
not known, the value of 0.013 lbs/lb of dry air may be used. Table B-2 may be used to
perform these calculations.
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Table B-1. Theoretical air and flue gas calculations.
Air
lb/lb
Fuel
CO2
Flue
Gas
O2
lb/lb
N2
Fuel
H2O
Acid
C
Cx11.519=
Cx3.667
-----
Cx8.852
-----
-----
H2
O2
H2x34.557=
-----
-----
H2x26.557=
H2x9.0
-----
-----
-----
O2x1.0
-----
-----
-----
N2
----
-----
-----
N2x1.0=
-----
-----
S
Sx4.32=
-----
-----
Sx3.32=
-----
Sx2.0=
C1*
C1x0.968
-----
-----
C1x0.744=
C1x0.3=
C1x1.03=
H2O
-----
-----
-----
-----
H2Ox1.0=
-----
Ash
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
----
O2x1.0=
-----
O2x1.0=
O2x3.32=
-----
-----
Ultimate
Element
Subtotal
Analysis
lb/lb
Fuel
1.00
Subtract O2 in Fuel
TOTAL
0.00
* Chlorine is an oxidizer that will react with the hydrogen and reduce the air requirement. It is
assumed that all of the chlorine will react with the hydrogen in the fuel. This will also reduce
the moisture produced and the amount of nitrogen in the flue gas as indicated by the minus
signs.
Source: Steam by Babcock and Wilcox.
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Table B-2. Flue Gas Volumetric Flow Rate.
1. Fuel Fired, lb/h
2. Theoretical Air to Fuel Ratio, lb/lb fuel
3. Theoretical Dry Air, (1) x (2) lb/hr
4. Excess Air, %
5. Excess Air, (4) x (3) / 100 lb/hr
6. Actual Dry Air, (3) + (5) lb/hr
7. Moisture, 0.013 x (6) lb/hr
8. Total Air, (6) + (7) lb/hr
9. Moisture in Fuel, (H2O) x (1) lb/hr
10. Moisture from Combustion, (H2O) x (1) lb/hr
11. Combustion Products, (1) x [1-(H2O) - (H2) - (Ash) ] lb/hr
12. Total Dry Gas, (11) + (6) lb/hr
13. Total Moisture, (7) + (9) + (10) lb/hr
14. Flue Gas Temperature, ° F
15. Absolute Pressure, psia
16. Volumetric Flow of Dry Air, (6) x 0.00617 x [460 + (14) ] / (15) ACFM
17. Volumetric Flow of Dry Products, (11) x 0.00596 x [460+(14)] / (15)
ACFM .
18. Volumetric Flow of Moisture, (13) x 0.00993 x [460 + (14) ] / (15)
ACFM
19. Total Volumetric Flow, (16) + (17) + (18) ACFM
SOURCE: Steam by Babcock & Wilcox.
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APPENDIX C
REGULATIONS AND PERMITTING
C-1. AIR QUALITY. Air pollutant emissions from new combustion sources, including power
generation facilities and incinerator plants, are regulated by emission limits established by both
the USEPA and its equivalent in the state where the plant is to be built. Applicable federal
regulations include New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), National Emission Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS), and New Source Review requirements (NSR).
Regulations vary greatly on a state-by-state basis. The state regulatory agency will usually
have been delegated authority by the USEPA to review applications, perform New Source
Review, and issue Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permits. Preparation of the
application and supporting documents ordinarily takes 2 to 3 months, and review and approval
(including public comment) may take as long as 12 months.
C-2. NEW SOURCE REVIEW. NSR procedures established pursuant to the Clean Air Act are
intended to maintain clean air and yet allow for reasonable industrial growth. Under the
provisions of NSR, any facility, regardless of size, that requires a federal or state air quality
permit must demonstrate through mathematical modeling, that its emissions will not cause a
violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). As part of the NSR process,
compliance with PSD regulations will also be required. Federal and state air pollution control
and NSR focus on NAAQS for six major pollutants established under the Clean Air Act and its
amendments. These are particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx),
carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3), and lead (Pb).
C-3. PREVENTION OF SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION. Major new sources of air pollution
require additional NSR requirements for emission control and impact assessment under PSD
regulations. A source of air pollution is considered to be “major” and subject to PSD
regulations if the source will emit more than 100 tons per year of any regulated pollutant and is
a fossil-fuel-fired steam electric plant (including combined-cycle auxiliary boilers) with more
than 250 MBtu/hr of heat input, or a waste-to-energy plant capable of disposing of more than
250 tons per day of refuse. Any type of source can also be considered major if the emission of
any regulated pollutant exceeds 250 tons/year. PSD regulations apply when a source is found
to be major for one regulated pollutant. PSD also applies to each additional regulated
pollutant which exceeds specified significant emission rate increments. Each pollutant for
which PSD regulations apply requires a PSD permit and a Best Available Control Technology
(BACT) demonstration.
C-4. BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY. BACT is specific to each pollutant and is
determined for each project on a case-by-case basis, considering recent industry practice,
engineering reliability, economic impact, and environmental benefits or penalties of the control
technology. BACT for fossil-fuel-fired plants may include lime injection or scrubbing for SO 2
high-efficiency particulate control (electrostatic precipitator or fabric filters), and Selective
Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for NO x , and possible catalytic control for CO. BACT
for waste-to-energy facilities may necessitate acid gas control for SO2 hydrochloric acid (HC1),
high-efficiency particulate control (electrostatic precipitator or fabric filters), and SCR for NOx
control. PSD permits require a refined modeling analysis of air quality impacts.
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C-5. NONATTAINMENT REVIEW. If any pollutant will be emitted by the major facility in an
area where ambient air concentrations of that pollutant exceed NAAQS, NSR requires a nonattainment Review. At minimum, this entails application of the Lowest Achievable Emission
Rate (LAER) control technologies for each non-attainment pollutant. LAER is the most
stringent control technology feasible, and often results in a first-of-a-kind technology.
C-6. WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLY. Both federal and state regulations may influence
water supplies for and discharges from condenser cooling, boiler water makeup, boiler
blowdown, floor and equipment washes, potable water, etc. If the water supply involves
construction in any floodplain, waterway, or wetland, permits may be needed from both the
state and the appropriate Corps of Engineers office. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
which was amended and is referred to as the Clean Water Act of 1977, authorized the USEPA
to develop and implement a system to regulate pollutant discharges. The National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is the primary regulatory tool used to control
water pollution and is required for any discharge of pollutants to surface waters. The Water
Quality Act of 1987 (WQA) contains several provisions that specifically address storm water
discharges and provides that states with authorized NPDES programs require permits for
storm water discharges to waters of the United States, including those from industrial activities.
C-2
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