English Handbook

English Handbook
School of Arts and Humanities
Division of Literature and Languages
(Last revised September, 2015)
Pathfoot A11
The office is open between 9:00 and 17:00 on weekdays, closed between 12:30 and
13:30 for lunch. It is closed at weekends.
Divisional Administrator
Administrative Assistant
Administrative Assistant
Mr Andrew Miller
Miss Laura Paterson
Miss Katie Wallace
(01786) 467495
Please note that the area code and the initial 46- are unnecessary if you are calling
from a university telephone.
[email protected]
Just click on the links below:
Welcome to the School of Arts and Humanities. For those with an interest in Arts and Humanities the University of Stirling
is a great place to be. Our staff and students are drawn from all over the globe and come together to experience a friendly
but challenging intellectual environment. We teach and research in a wide range of disciplines and are committed to multi
and inter-disciplinary study. We have a strong postgraduate community and our undergraduate programmes facilitate
progression to postgraduate study. The School of Arts and Humanities is very much a happening place where we regularly
stage all manner of exhibitions, events and conferences. The culture is rich and vibrant. We believe that University life is
about much more than the passing of exams and encourage staff and students to participate in all aspects of University life.
We have strong links to the local community and see ourselves as an active player in that community.
Within the School of Arts and Humanities, our students have the desire to explore, to innovate and to create. One of the
largest Schools in the University, our subject areas are renowned for international and world leading research. Our work is
well represented in national and international journals, at academic conferences around the world and in the media.
We offer students a broad range of subjects to study in an exciting, research led and highly interdisciplinary environment.
Our teaching is regarded as innovative and the levels of student satisfaction are consistently high. A vibrant intellectual
community is constantly enriched and renewed by the contribution of visiting scholars and practitioners.
The School encompasses four divisions Communications, Media and Culture; History and Politics; Law and Philosophy and
Literature and Languages.
Professor Richard Oram
Head of School
Congratulations on gaining a place to study here at Stirling University. I am delighted to welcome you to Stirling where
you will become part of a thriving community, not only for your time with us but also after you have graduated – you will
always be a Stirling graduate and part of our community here. I expect you may be excited but also a little apprehensive
about what lies ahead.
The core benefit of the university experience is the opportunity to learn in a research active environment. In the School of
Arts and Humanities, learning and research are complimentary at all levels, from the first year of our undergraduate
programmes, to the support we provide for advanced level postgraduate study. Teaching staff in the four divisions of the
School of Arts and Humanities actively research in their specialisms, and many bring relevant professional experience to the
lecture and seminar room. This is complemented by extensive range of resources available through the University’s
attractive Library, many of which are available online.
Your time at Stirling will fly by. In the Arts and Humanities we place a lot of emphasis on proactive learning by students. Your
lecturers, tutors and supervisors will encourage you to set a realistic pace for your studies. There are also lots of interesting
activities and excellent facilities for students at Stirling, not least superb sport provision. I would encourage you to take the
opportunity to widen your interests and skills through these opportunities. Being at university should be fun as well as hard
work at times. However, a word of caution, you need to keep a balance to ensure you dedicate enough time to your studies.
Find that balance quickly and make the most of your academic opportunities, as well as your chance to be part of a wide
and cosmopolitan community.
A word or two about feedback. Take every opportunity to receive feedback from staff and your peers on your work and
performance, reflect on it and use it to improve. This is key to developing during your time here. Staff are available to
students throughout the semester to discuss feedback and deal with queries. We also look for feedback from you on how
to improve and develop. We take this very seriously and are constantly in a cycle of review and improvement. Please help
us to improve by giving feedback, we do listen and act on it where possible. Students are actively involved in the School in
developing policy through class representatives and our School Officers.
Finally, if you need help – ask. We are all here to help. I look forward to meeting many of you, and I wish you all the very
best in your course of study.
Alison Green
Director of Learning and Teaching
This Handbook at http://www.stir.ac.uk/arts-humanities/about/literature-languages/english-studies/
provides information about all aspects of the undergraduate study of English literature, Scottish
literature, Linguistics, and Creative Writing. It contains information relevant to every semester.
It is the responsibility of individual students to be sure to use the most up-to-date version of this
handbook, which is available on the English Studies website. You will be notified by e-mail of any
important changes made to the Handbook during the course of semester.
The mission of the University of Stirling is to pursue research and scholarship at an international
level of excellence and to provide flexible and innovative programmes of teaching and learning in
an attractive and vibrant environment.
Please note that this Handbook is produced for your guidance only. Your registration with the
University is governed solely by the provisions of the Charter, Statutes, Ordinances and Regulations of
the University and such other rules affecting students as may be made by or on behalf of the University
Court or the Academic Council. Nothing in this Handbook shall form part of any contract between you
and the University and your registration for any unit or module taught in English Studies is subject to
this express condition.
You will appreciate that for legal reasons this disclaimer has to appear. However, we wish to make
it absolutely clear to you that every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this Handbook at
the time of publication. The information, guidance and advice is offered in good faith, and in the
belief that it should help you to plan your studies effectively, to develop appropriate patterns of
collaboration for learning, and to know your rights.
The universities undergraduate handbook can be found here.
Autumn 2015
Monday 14 September-Monday 21 December 2015
Reading Week: Monday 26 October- Friday 30 October (inclusive)
Teaching ends on Friday 4 December
Spring 2016
Monday 18 January-Friday 27 May
Reading Weeks: Monday 22 February-Friday 26 February (inclusive)
Teaching ends on Friday 8 April
Good Friday: 25 March (no teaching)
Easter Monday: 28 March (no teaching)
Section 1: Divisional Information
Welcome from the Deputy Head of Division of Literature and Languages (English)
About English Studies and the Division of Literature and Languages
Teaching Staff
Advisor of Studies
Divisional Staff-Student Communications
Succeed (formerly WebCT)
Attendance Requirements
Section 2: Programme and Module Information
Programme Structure and Aims
Modules (Core and Optional)
Intended Learning Outcomes
Entry into Honours English
Section 3: Assessment
The Submission, Marking and Return of Coursework
Divisional Assessment and Marking Criteria
Honours Degree Classification
Essay Writing and Referencing
Late Submission and Essay Extensions
Dissertation Guidelines
Academic Misconduct
Section 4: Student Participation and Feedback
Student Questionnaires
Student-Staff Consultative Committee
Section 5: Sources of Academic and Technical Information and Support
Divisional Advising Teams
Student Programmes Office
University Calendar
The Library and Information Services
Student Learning Services
Complaints and Appeals
Audio Recording Policy
Section 6: Sources of Personal Support and Information
The Students’ Union
International Students
English Language Support
Student Development and Support Services
Disability Support
Careers Development Centre
Staff Officers
English Studies Stylesheet
1.1 Welcome from the Deputy Head of Division, Literature & Languages (English)
Welcome to English Studies. This is one of the largest subject areas in the university with a fine
record in teaching and research. We were rated as ‘excellent’ for our teaching provision in the last
national Teaching Quality Assessment, and in the annual National Student Survey, we almost
consistently score above 90% satisfaction rating. In the most recent Research Assessment Exercise
(REF 2014)
81% of our research has been viewed as world leading (4*) or internationally excellent (3*).
The Undergraduate Handbook has been prepared for your information during your time with English
Studies. It covers a multitude of different topics. We would like to hear from you, if you have
suggestions about how to make it more useful to you or to future students. To do this, please contact
Andrew Miller, School Administrator. Note, however, that the Handbook is largely a work of detailed
reference, which is why it is indexed and laid out in a rather formal style.
The Handbook is available on the website, and if any changes are made to its text over the next four
years of your studies, it’s there that you can download the most recent version. The English home
page is at http://www.stir.ac.uk/arts-humanities/about/literature-languages/english-studies/
We hope that you will find your literary, theoretical and linguistic studies with us to be challenging
and enjoyable, whether you are taking English for only a year or so as part of another degree, or
whether have embarked on the general degree, the BA in English or the full Honours English
Dr Bethan Benwell
Deputy Head of Division, Literature & Languages
School of Arts & Humanities
1.2 About English Studies and the Division of Literature and Languages
English Studies is the one of the largest subject areas within the School of Arts and Humanities.
It usually registers well over 200 students in its first year modules, and each summer it graduates
80 or more single and joint Honours students. Contact details for members of staff are listed in
The Head of the Division of Literature and Languages, who has overall responsibility for English
Studies affairs, is Dr. Andrew Hass (room E35). The School Administrator is Andrew Miller. He
is normally to be found in the office of the Division of Literature and Languages, (room A11)
during the University working day.
The English Studies undergraduate programmes grow out of the nature of the subject, the
research interests of members of staff and the needs and wishes of students. These interests and
concerns tend to focus on certain areas—notably nineteenth- and twentieth-century writing,
postcolonial writing in English, Scottish culture and literature, Renaissance and seventeenth
century writing, critical theory, publishing studies, women’s studies, language and linguistics,
creative writing—but, while English Studies may have particular strengths in these areas, its
teaching is deliberately broad-based. It offers a wide range of modules, giving students the
opportunity to study a great many aspects of English language and literature.
Mission Statement
In English Studies we seek to achieve the following:
Teaching: to engage with the variety and complexity of English Studies at all levels,
providing a stimulating mix of traditional and contemporary approaches through
extensive staff collaboration and interchange.
Research: to foster staff and postgraduate research; to develop research expertise in
specific areas and groupings; to enable participation in national and international circles
at the highest level.
Quality: to monitor and develop the quality of student learning through the judicious use
of internal and external mechanisms; to provide a sense of intellectual community at all
levels of English Studies.
Access and Outcome: to promote access to the subject, paying attention to the future
employment skills of graduates in English Studies and cognate areas.
Excellence: to develop English Studies at Stirling as a centre of excellence in a national
and international context, linking with other educational institutions wherever
Aims and Objectives
In English Studies we aim to develop the following transferable skills:
analytical skills: the ability to think rigorously and critically about ideas and propositions
and to assess the validity of arguments;
reading and interpretative skills: the ability to understand the complexities and varieties
of the ways in which texts communicate meaning and to be able to read them with sensitivity
to nuance and effect;
communicative skills: skill in discussion, argument, presentation and debate, the ability to
formulate a point of view and to present, develop, illustrate and defend it orally;
research skills: the ability to distinguish relevant data, to locate and gather it from a variety
of sources, and to record it in an accessible fashion;
writing and presentational skills: the ability to structure a written argument, to select
supporting evidence, to write confidently with clarity and lucidity, and to present written
work with consistent use of bibliographical and typographical conventions;
independent learning and study skills: the ability to work alone, to locate useful
information, and to record and deploy it pertinently;
time management skills: the ability to plan work ahead, to structure time purposefully and
the discipline to carry out what is planned to meet deadlines;
interpersonal skills: the ability to work co-operatively with others, to take part in joint
projects and to accept criticism.
The objectives by which these aims are realised include:
extensive reading in English poetry, prose and drama, from within and beyond the United
Kingdom, and from a variety of different times and cultures;
analysis of the English language, its structural, functional and creative aspects, its history
and diversity;
analysis and discussion of literary texts, of their historical and cultural contexts, and of
contemporary critical ideas and theory;
participation in small groups of varying size and composition, both through discussion
and, individually, in pairs and in a team, through the delivery of oral presentations;
the regular writing of essays in a continuous assessment system
the use of a critical vocabulary and of current concepts in critical theory;
the independent preparation, under supervision, of a dissertation on an individually
chosen topic.
1.3 Teaching Staff
Dr Elizabeth Anderson
Research Fellow: room A12; tel. 6207; email [email protected]
Dr Liam Bell
Lecturer: room A16a; tel. 7517; email [email protected]
Dr Bethan Benwell
Senior Lecturer: room A21; tel. 7976; email [email protected]
Professor Kirstie Blair
Room A25; tel. 7502; email [email protected]
Meaghan Delahunt
Lecturer: room A16a; tel. 7976; email [email protected]
Matt Foley
Lecturer: room A16; tel.7509; email [email protected]
Dr Suzanne Gilbert
Senior Lecturer: room B11; tel. 6206; email [email protected]
Dr Katie Halsey
Senior Lecturer: room B13; tel. 7513; email [email protected]
Dr Scott Hames
Lecturer: room A20; tel. 6205; email [email protected]
Dr Adrian Hunter
Senior Lecturer: room B15; tel 7507; email [email protected]
Professor Kathleen Jamie
Room A19; tel. 7508; email [email protected]
Dr Sarah Parker
Lecturer: room A12; tel. 6207; email [email protected]
Dr Stephen Penn
Lecturer: room A17; tel. 7498; email [email protected]
Dr Gemma Robinson
Senior Lecturer: room A18a; tel: 7494; email [email protected]
Frances Sessford
Teaching Fellow, room A18; tel: 7975; [email protected]
Dr Andrew Smith
Lecturer: room B3; tel: 7516; [email protected]
Professor Claire Squires
Room B9; tel. 7505; e-mail [email protected]
Dr Dale Townshend
Senior Lecturer: room A23 tel: 7512 email; [email protected]
Dr Angus Vine
Lecturer: room A14a; tel: 6208 email [email protected]
See Appendix A for Staff Officers.
1.4 Advisor of Studies
Dr Katie Halsey
1.5 Divisional Staff-Student Communications
Student Portal
Students can access the Portal by entering their university username and password at the bottom of the
university home page. The portal provides information about modules you have taken and are
currently taking, and the results you have been awarded
The Portal is also the primary means by which students register for modules. Any problems with module
registration should be reported to Student Programmes in the first instance.
Student Email
Every student registered with the university has a university email address. It is important to check for
email delivered to this address regularly, as this will be the primary channel by which the university
and the division (including academic and administrative staff) will communicate with you. You must
not expect emails from divisional or university staff to be delivered to any other email address.
1.6 Succeed (formerly WebCT)
Succeed is an internet platform via which essential information and learning materials relating to
modules you are taking is provided. Module handbooks, lecture notes and sound files (where available),
and assignment questions can all be downloaded from Succeed, and it is also possible to upload
assignments onto Turnitin here. Important announcements relating to your module are also provided via
Further details about Succeed can be found here: http://www.stir.ac.uk/is/student/it/software/succeed/.
1.7 Attendance Requirements
Class Attendance
Tutorials in English Studies are designed to give students hands-on experience in guided reading and,
week by week, to monitor their understanding of specific topics prior to formal assessment, usually
by written essay. The ability to formulate a point of view and to present, develop, illustrate and defend
it are among the key learning outcomes pursued in English Studies modules. Equally central to the
discipline is the ability to engage in critical discussion and debate with those whose point of view
may differ from your own. Tutorials allow your tutor to monitor your progress in acquiring these key
skills and to intervene where required in order to benefit your performance in formally assessed work
(essays). Tutorials are also designed to develop skills of oral presentation, which are again key
learning outcomes in this subject area. Essay assignment topics will refer to issues raised and explored
in group tutorial discussion. For all these reasons attendance at tutorials in English Studies is
designated ‘prescribed’ in accordance with the University’s Attendance.
Attendance at tutorials is monitored by means of a register circulated by your tutor for you to sign. It
is your responsibility to ensure that you sign the register each time you attend the class.
Students who are absent from more than three of their prescribed classes will have their mark for
the course capped at 40%.
If students are absent for more than three classes for medical reasons or because of unavoidable
detention (here considered good causes), they may have their cap waived at the Programme
Director’s discretion. Note, though, that they should ideally have documentary support for each or
for all of their absences.
The following grounds for non-attendance would be considered acceptable (‘good cause’).
Supporting documentation should be provided wherever possible:
Unavoidable detention:
• In hospital on/before date of class
• In court/detention on/before date of class
• Participation in authorised national or international sporting competition or
authorised national sports training camps.
Medical grounds:
• Confined to bed or otherwise unable to attend University
• Ability to work seriously impaired on or before the date of submission
Compassionate grounds:
• Death of a close person
• Sudden acute or serious illness or injury (including serious mental illness) of a
close person.
The definition of a ‘close person’ is, for example, a family member (parent/guardian,
spouse/partner, son/daughter, brother/sister, grandparent, grandchild) or someone
living at the same address as the student.
Other exceptional grounds (or other good cause for absence)
• Exceptional circumstances will be considered on their own merits.
All decisions regarding penalties for non-attendance at prescribed classes are the responsibility of the
Undergraduate Programme Director (Dr. Bethan Benwell).
In the case of an unavoidable absence on a core module, with prior notice a student may apply to the
Divisional office for an arrangement to attend another tutorial on the work of the week of the absence, if
one is available.
2.1 Programme Structure and Aims
Degree programmes at Stirling (as at all other Scottish higher education institutions) are described in
terms of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). This divides the stages of
progression through secondary and tertiary education into 12 levels. The volume of work involved is
specified by credit point totals. One point equates to the outcome of 10 hours of notional effort and the
assumption is that a year of full-time study could gain about 120 points (that is, 1200 hours’ work). Units
of study at Stirling (modules) are generally each worth 20 credit points. (For further information on the
SCQF see www.qaa.ac.uk and search for SCQF.)
Single Honours programme requirements are as follows:
Semester 1:
ENGU901 Introduction to
Literary Studies: Genre
Semester 2:
1 module (any)
1 module (any)
1 module (any)
1 module (any)
ENGU902 Introduction to Literary
Studies: Theories & Approaches
Semester 3:
ENGU903 Literary Revolutions
Semester 4:
2 semester 4 modules
1 module (any)
Semester 5:
1 module from Group 1
1 module from
Group 2
1 module (any)
1 module from
either group
See below for details of
modules in each group.
Semester 6:
3 Option seminars
Semester 7:
2 Option seminars
Semester 8:
Semester 4 modules:
ENGU9WH Writing and History: Scotland and Empire;
ENGU9WI Writing and Identity;
ENGU9WL Writing and Language
Semester 5 modules:
Group 1:
ENGU9HA From Medieval to Renaissance
ENGU9HB Restoration and Eighteenth Century
ENGU9HL History of the English Language
Group 2:
ENGU9HC British Romanticism
ENGU9HD Victorian Literature and Culture
ENGU9HE Modernism and Modernity
Programme table for all degree programmes including combined degrees can be found here.
Linguistics Modules
In addition to the modules listed in Semesters 1-3 above, there are three free-standing, level-8
linguistics modules: LINU911: Language and Society, (Autumn Semester) and LINU912: Foundations
of Language (Spring Semester), and LINU913: Language and the Brain (Autumn Semester), which are
run by members of English staff which complement the English Studies provision and may count as
prerequisites for ENGU903.
There are no prerequisites for registration on ENGU901 and ENGU902, but for registration on
ENGU903 the normal prerequisite is successful completion of either ENGU901, ENGU902, LINU911
or LINU912; for registration on ENGU9WH, ENGU9WI, ENGU9WL the normal prerequisite is
successful completion of ENGU903; for registration on ENGU9HA, ENGU9HB, ENGU9HC,
ENGU9HD, ENGU9HE and all level-10 option modules, the normal prerequisite is the successful
completion of a level-9 module.
Programme Requirements in English: General, Named and Honours Degrees
English Studies in General Degree Programmes
Degree programmes at Stirling (as at all other Scottish higher education institutions) are described in
terms of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). This divides the stages of
progression through secondary and tertiary education into 12 levels. The volume of work involved is
specified by credit point totals. One point equates to the outcome of 10 hours of notional effort and the
assumption is that a year of full-time study could gain about 120 points (that is, 1200 hours’ work). Units
of study at Stirling (modules) are generally each worth 20 credit points. (For further information on the
SCQF see www.qaa.ac.uk and search for SCQF.)
Details of the university’s degree programme requirements can be found here.
2.2 Modules (Core and Optional)
Core Modules
English Studies runs two kinds of semester module: core modules and option modules (often referred to
as core courses and option courses). Core modules are those which all students majoring in English
Studies are required to take and which are offered in a regular cycle. Building on the critical grounding
given in ENGU901 and ENGU902 (which are prerequisites for registration for further study) they
comprise a more systematic grounding in the historical, linguistic, and theoretical aspects of the subject
that have been touched on in the two first-year modules. The semester III module as its title suggests
deals more specifically than earlier modules with the various ways in which meaning is produced in
different modes of representation. The cores in semester IV are designed to develop theoretical
perspectives and their application in their various areas. The five period modules that follow in semester
V are devoted to literary history in the light of the theoretical and linguistic approaches previously
explored in the earlier cores.
For students on a single Honours English Studies programme the core modules are:
ENGU901, ‘Introduction to Literary Studies: Genre’
ENGU902, ‘Introduction to Literary Studies: Theories and Approaches’
ENGU903, ‘Literary Revolutions
Two of:
ENGU9WH, ‘Writing and History’
ENGU9WI, ‘Writing and Identity’
ENGU9WL, ‘Writing and Language’
Three of the following, including one from each period group (see above):
ENGU9HA, ‘Medieval to Renaissance’
ENGU9HB, ‘Restoration and Eighteenth Century, 1660-1790’
ENGU9HC, ‘British Romanticism 1780-1832’
ENGU9HD, ‘Victorian Literature and Culture’
ENGU9HE, ‘Modernism and Modernity’
ENGU9HL, ‘History of the English Language’
Students whose main subject is English will take a core module in each semester.
If students wish to take one of the period modules in semester VII that they were unable to take in
semester V they may do so. But students may not substitute an option seminar for a core module in
semester V unless it is part of their prescribed programme.
Option Modules (level 10)
In addition to the core modules, each semester English Studies offers a range of option seminars from
which students choose modules to take alongside their core modules. Options differ in being taught
exclusively through small group meetings, usually without lectures.
Module Information Sheets describing each module to be run in both semesters are posted on the English
Studies website before the portal opens for registration. While every effort is made to make the booklist
as accurate as possible, occasionally because a book may unexpectedly go out of print, changes may be
necessary to booklists in the Spring compiled in the previous May. Students are welcome to discuss the
modules with the tutors concerned before registration. A fuller module booklet or collection of papers,
giving details of the aims of the module, its structure, content, assessment methods and a booklist, is
available on Succeed and should be downloaded by students and taken to the first timetabled meeting.
General students whose main subject is English may take up to two English option modules in addition
to the required core modules.
It is the intention of the option system to allow students a large degree of control over the shape of their
degree programmes.
Requirements for combined Honours degrees vary and the number of options in English Studies which
may be taken can only be determined by consulting the combined degree programmes set out in the
current University Calendar (see 5.3 below).
2.3 Intended Learning Outcomes
Modules on your English Studies degree have a wide variety of intended learning outcomes, most of
which relate to the close analysis of literary and non-literary texts and the ability to formulate and defend
an argument. Crucially, all modules on the BA in English Studies are also designed to help you to express
yourself clearly in spoken and written English, transferable skills that that are keenly sought by
prospective employers.
For the learning outcomes of specific modules, consult the module outlines here:
3.1 The Submission, Marking and Return of Coursework
The modules run by English Studies operate various forms of periodic assessment. The exact details
differ from module to module and are spelt out in individual module booklets. All required assignments
specified in a module booklet must be submitted in order to gain a module mark. Students are expressly
prohibited from submitting the same work for assessment more than once, whether on the same or on
separate modules. In such cases, students will be deemed not to have completed the prescribed
coursework of the module and fail the module as a consequence.
Assignment questions on core modules are made available through Succeed at least two weeks in
advance of the submission date. Questions and topics on option modules are available from the tutor,
either in the module booklet at the start of the semester, or subsequently: the procedure to be followed
will be made clear at the beginning of the module.
Each piece of written work submitted MUST use as its opening page the Cover Sheet which will be
available on the English Studies homepage or can be collected from outside the divisional office. All
the details at the head of the cover sheet must be filled in. These include the student’s registration
number (no names or other forms of identification should appear on any assignment submitted for
assessment) and the name of the student’s tutor. Failure to give this information may result in the
essay being misdirected and delayed. Essays should also include a word count.
To protect the integrity of its degrees the university requires divisions to make use of the plagiarism
detection software Turnitin which is available through Succeed (see below on Plagiarism).
Accordingly English Studies REQUIRES students to upload an electronic copy of their essays on the
due date. Essays will not be marked unless the electronic copy is uploaded. If you fail to upload your
essays, you will receive 0% for that assignment. Note that all the regulations about submission of the
paper copy of your essays and assignments still apply. The electronic copy is an additional
requirement not a substitute; that is to say, an essay or assignment submitted electronically on time
but not submitted in hard copy before the due time will still be counted as late. Needless to say, the
electronic version and the paper version must be identical, and checks will be carried out to ensure
that this is so. Following a successful upload, you will receive a confirmation e-mail. If you do not
receive this e-mail, or have any other difficulties making the electronic upload, for example because
you get an error message during the process, you must contact your tutor immediately. Likewise, if
your tutor notifies you that your essay has not been received in electronic version, you must make the
upload immediately; otherwise you risk receiving a mark of 0% for your assignment.
Step-by-step instructions for uploading electronic copies of essays are available on the
Succeed pages of each module.
If you encounter problems while uploading, you may find it useful to contact the Information
Services Help Desk in the library.
The layout of essays and written work must follow the guidance which is given in the English Studies
Stylesheet, which forms Appendix B of this Handbook. Any weaknesses or inconsistencies in
presentation may adversely affect the mark awarded.
Essays and written assignments, which should not be submitted in plastic or cellophane folders or
envelopes, must be posted through the essay box outside the Divisional Office by the time set on
the due date. Ordinarily, English Studies does not accept assignments by post, fax or email from
students taking daytime modules. If exceptional circumstances make it necessary to send them by one
of these means in order to meet the deadline, the Office must be informed by telephone (01786
467495) in advance and agreement received. Posted, faxed or emailed assignments must be
addressed to Laura Paterson in the Office, and not to the tutor (email:
l[email protected]). Posted assignments must be sent by recorded delivery. Students
taking evening modules who may need to send their assignments in this way as a matter of course should
make sure that their tutor is aware how they are to be submitted. These students should also address
their assignments to Laura Paterson.
3.2 Divisional Assessment and Marking Criteria
Markers in our discipline appeal to no ‘gold standard’ in assessing written work. On some modules there
are certain kinds of analytical exercise and tests with precise goals. In these cases, techniques and
objectives will have been specifically spelled out. In the case of essays, markers do not work with a list
of set points which they wish to see to qualify an essay for any particular mark, nor do they have a
notional model answer in their heads. Essays are marked on their own terms, that is, on how successfully
they achieve what they set out to do. It is perfectly possible for an essay to achieve a First Class mark
arguing a case which its marker considers mistaken, just as an essay on lines the marker would support
might receive a poor mark. It is the overall quality of the performance that is marked. That performance
will be affected by:
the writer’s knowledge (of primary and, where appropriate, secondary texts, of intellectual
and cultural contexts, of precedents and analogues)
the writer’s intellectual skills (percipience in reading, sensitivity and freshness of response,
cogency of thought, independence in judgement, comprehensiveness of view)
the writer’s critical skills (textual analysis, the structuring and conduct of argument,
selection and citation of evidence)
the writer’s technical skills (clarity of exposition and prose style, vocabulary, grammar,
spelling and punctuation, accuracy of presentation in notes, bibliography, references)
For work submitted on all its modules English Studies uses the marking categories in the University’s
Common Numerical Scheme. They represent different levels of attainment in these four areas but it
is rare for excellence or inadequacy in all of them to be demonstrated consistently by any one essay.
Levels of attainment and skill in different areas can combine in a great variety of ways. Exceptional
originality of thought, for example, might appear in an essay which is very poorly written; impeccably
presented work might be quite unconvincing in its thesis. In general, work at each level will exhibit
a preponderance of the following qualities:
1st quality work (70%-100%):
a first-rate grasp of the text or topic in hand and of the issues raised together with an
awareness of their cultural context; fresh and incisive insights; sensitive and
discriminating judgements; a confident ability to marshal a compelling argument;
sophisticated critical skills; deft use of apposite evidence and stylistic fluency; accurate
and consistent management of conventions of presentation.
Upper 2nd quality work (60%-69%):
a very good grasp of the text or topic in hand and of the issues raised; a clear and
convincing line of argument; an ability to explicate texts and to spot relevant details, with
often acute and sometimes first-class observations; reliable spelling, grammar and
punctuation; generally accurate and consistent management of conventions of
Lower 2nd quality work (50%-59%):
a sound grasp of the text or topic in hand and of some of the issues raised; a persuasive
but limited argument; critical commentary only intermittently analytical; tolerable but not
wholly reliable spelling, grammar and punctuation; an attempt at accurate and consistent
management of conventions of presentation.
3rd quality work (40%-49%):
a basic knowledge of the text or topic in hand but little, if any, awareness of the issues
raised; some ability to make sound comments and to adduce some relevant evidence but
only of a general and undeveloped nature; a limited critical vocabulary and an acceptable
but inelegant and sometimes flawed prose style with errors of grammar, spelling and
punctuation; inadequate management, or complete disregard, of conventions of
Fail (0%-39%):
a superficial knowledge of the text or topic in hand; a weak sense of direction and poor,
if any, control of argument; a thin critical vocabulary and unconvincing expository skills;
a tendency to generalise rather than to produce specific evidence; and faulty spelling,
grammar and punctuation; inadequate management, or complete disregard, of
conventions of presentation.
These categorisations are necessarily general. Students may always discuss with their tutors the
particular reasons for the mark given to any specific piece of written work.
Marking Criteria for Creative Writing
These marking criteria have been developed for the assessment of creative writing. Critical
commentaries accompanying creative writing should be marked according to the essay
criteria, and the two marks averaged in a way that reflects the desired weighting on
that particular module.
Pieces of creative writing will exhibit most or all of the following qualities (some more or
less relevant depending on the particular genre of creative writing being assessed) at the
following levels:
1st quality work (70%-100%):
consistency and persuasiveness of setting, character and plot (in creative fiction) and
subject matter, theme and tone (in poetry); a first-rate command of register;
expression that is lucid, economic, striking and innovative; original and effective
handling of the subject matter; dialogue that is plausible and appropriate to character
and situation; an intimate relationship between plot and theme; a sensitivity for
narrative tension and nuances of plotting; a skilful handling of narrative point of
view and time frame; themes and meanings that are revealed through aspects of
narrative, rather than stated explicitly (show, don’t tell); (for poetry) a clear and
impressive grasp of the formal aspects and techniques of poetry, including metre,
rhythm, rhyme and other sound patterns, line breaks and stanza formation; effective,
appropriate and original use of imagery, metaphor and simile; astute editing and
accurate and consistent management of conventions of presentation (although
innovative and successful approaches to the ‘visual space’ of the page should not be
ruled out).
Upper 2nd quality work (60%-69%):
consistency and persuasiveness of setting, character and plot (in creative fiction) and
subject matter, theme and tone (in poetry); a good command of register; evidence that
the writer has engaged successfully with essential aspects of technique and form such
as narrative point of view, physical description and narrative time; successful and often
original handling of the subject matter; dialogue that is mostly plausible and
appropriate to character and situation; clear and fluent expression, though expression
may feel occasionally predictable, clichéd, or clumsy; themes and meanings mostly
revealed through aspects of narrative, but sometimes stated explicitly; successful
engagement with aspects of technique and form such as metre and rhyme, though the
handling of form may, at times, be flawed; clear evidence of editing skills although
there may be some inconsistency; good presentation in accordance with appropriate
Lower 2nd quality work (50%-59%):
evidence of the application of technique and command of form; the piece may contain
some notable aspects (e.g. an arresting detail, phrase or image, a convincing setting)
but, overall, may feel unoriginal or underdeveloped; the principle of ‘show, don’t tell’
may, largely, have been sacrificed for the sake of exposition; characters may seem
stereotypical, the dialogue inconsistent (perhaps flat or implausible), and the handling
of narrative structure and focus may be loose or inconsistent; a sense of focus in poetry
may have been sacrificed in favour of predictable or unengaging abstractions; some
editing will have been attempted but this may be inadequate and presentation and
layout may be flawed.
3rd quality work (40%-49%):
A readable piece of work in some respects but on the whole unconvincing. Haphazard
plotting, sketchy and undeveloped characterisation; erratic or confused point of view;
and overall narrative structure that is clichéd or confusing. Some attention to form and
technique (in poetry), but this may be haphazard. Flat or stilted diction and clichéd or
confusing imagery, metaphor and simile. The writing may be flawed in terms of
grammar and expression and there will be few signs of effective editing. Serious flaws
in presentation and layout.
Fail (0%-39%):
A superficial or wholly inadequate grasp of form and technique. The piece will lack
clarity, credibility, direction and coherence and is likely to contain significant flaws in
grammar, form and expression. Little attempt at rigorous editing; inadequate
management of, or complete disregard, of conventions of presentation.
Note: It is understood that students will have had a limited amount of time for this assignment.
An excellent piece of creative writing may (in professional terms) take months to complete.
It is, therefore, reasonable to award a high, even a ‘first’ mark, to a story that may not seem
quite the finished, polished article.
Note that compensation may be available if you marginally fail a module (i.e. achieve a mark of
30-39%). Compensation is available once in your first year, once in your second year, and once
over years 3 and 4. (Maximum of three compensated passes.)
Compensation is not permitted on modules that are compulsory for your degree programme.
The University Common Marking Scheme
A detailed description of the common marking scheme can be found under section 6.5.2 of the
university’s Assessment website, here.
Calculation and Award of Modules Marks
The overall mark for the module is calculated from the sum of weighted component marks, rounded
to the nearest whole number; a pass is not required in each component. This module mark represents
a summary of performance on that module.
Note that:
A written assignment which, for extreme brevity or for any other reason, is judged grossly
inadequate will not count towards the required work of the module for which it is submitted.
It will be classed as a non-submission and the module will be failed due to failure to meet
prescribed requirements.
Marks for written work cannot be altered by tutors once they have been recorded and the work returned.
However, at the end of the semester, module tutors meet to prepare final mark sheets, and at this internal
examiners’ meeting it is possible for tutors to raise particular cases, and for work to be read again. A
decision as to whether the mark can be raised may be taken at this meeting or the case may be referred
to the external examiner for adjudication. Cases of difficulty due to illness or special circumstances, and
any other cases calling for remark, are also reported to this meeting and reviewed by a committee which
meets at the end of the semester, chaired by the Department’s Chief Examiner, with a view to a
recommendation going forward to the external.
All module marks are checked and verified by the examiners at the end of each semester. On core
modules and options, convenors and tutors submit their work to the external during the last few days of
each semester, and present their mark sheets, together with a sample of the work submitted by students.
Performances are discussed and work is read. The external can make recommendation to the exam board
to alter marks either up or down. It is comparatively rare for marks to be revised at this stage.
In order to comply with the university’s directives about the retention of course work, essays are
retained in English Studies files for only four months after the semester in which they have been
examined. You may collect all of your essays that we have on file at the beginning of the semester.
Essays remaining on file after the mid semester break of the following semester will be destroyed.
3.3 Honours Degree Classification
Final degree classifications for single Honours degrees in English Studies and for the English Studies
component of combined degrees are based upon modules taken and passed in English Studies in semester
V. The classification is calculated according to the University’s standard procedures for determining
Honours Degree Classifications for which see the Supplement of the University Calendar.
Recommendations concerning Degree classifications are agreed at a meeting of the Examination Board
(that is, academic staff and the external examiners) held right at the end of the spring semester each year.
All modules taken by graduating students, and their projects, have by then been separately assessed and
marked and the final honours classification is determined in accordance with the University guidelines.
In English Studies, as elsewhere in the University, marks awarded to a student by a university in the
United States during a period of study abroad are converted according to the following guidelines with
adjustments according to the student’s comparative ranking in the American class. Conversions are made
jointly by the Study Abroad Adviser and the Head of Division.
The university’s guidelines on transfer of credit are currently under review. Please contact [email protected]
Classification of Degree
The final classification of your degree is determined by the mean mark.
First Class (1st)
A mean mark of 70 or greater.
Second Class, Upper Division (2:1)
A mean mark of between 60 and 69.
Second Class, Lower Division (2:2)
A mean mark of between 50 and 59.
Third Class (3rd)
A mean mark of between 40 and 49.
3.4 Essay Writing and Referencing
Guidance on essay writing can be given by your tutor or by the RLF Fellow. Details of how to give
references can be found in the Style Sheet (see Appendix B)
3.5 Late Submission and Essay Extensions
Time management and forward planning are important skills which English Studies seeks to foster. It is
the responsibility of students to foresee what will be required of them and to meet deadlines. Work
submitted late is date stamped in the divisional office. The University has established the following scale
of penalties for work submitted after the time set by the module co-ordinator on the due day:
Coursework will be accepted up to seven days after the submission date (or expiry of any agreed
extension) but the mark will be lowered by three percentage points per calendar day overdue.
Coursework which is handed in more than seven days after the submission date (or after expiry of any
agreed extension), will receive a mark of 0% which will result a fail for the module.
Extensions for Written Assignments
Requests for essay extensions are granted only in exceptional circumstances. Requests should be
made to your module convenor (who may or may not be your tutor), in advance of the essay
deadline. See the undergraduate handbook for the university’s definition of ‘legitimate grounds’ for
extensions (section C8).
Note that coursework deadlines are communicated at the start of each semester to ensure that
students have ample opportunity to organise their workload across their subjects. Computing
problems, pressures of paid employment and simultaneous deadlines for essays in different
subjects/modules will not normally be considered sufficient grounds for an extension.
The procedure for applying for an extension is as follows:
Apply for an extension prior to the essay deadline, when it becomes clear that your essay will be
submitted late.
Open Succeed and the module you wish to request an extension for. Under ‘Administration,
‘Assessments’, then ‘Extension Requests’, click on the link titled ‘Request Essay Extension’. This
will generate a prepopulated email in Outlook. Complete the information in the email and click send
to send it to the module coordinator (making reference to the regulations and the ‘legitimate
grounds’ for extensions listed in the undergraduate handbook).
The module convenor will either refuse the request or grant you an extension of a particular length
(e.g. 3 days), effectively issuing you with a new due-date for the assignment. If you submit your
essay later than this new due-date, you will be penalised for late submission.
An extension may be agreed subject to you providing appropriate supporting documentation (e.g. a
doctor's note); if you fail to provide such documentation when you submit your essay, the agreed
extension may be invalidated.
If you have not already agreed an extension with the module convenor, you are unlikely to be
granted an extension retrospectively. Only highly exceptional circumstances will be considered; if
such circumstances apply, they should be explained in sufficient detail on the extension request
form. Include supporting documentation where applicable.
Note that it is not possible to apply for an extension to an extension. Note also that essays cannot be
accepted after other essays in the same module have been marked and returned.
Module convenors are empowered to grant and refuse extensions in accordance with these regulations. If
you wish to appeal the outcome of an extension request, contact the Undergraduate Programme Director
(Dr Bethan Benwell).
Legitimate grounds for an extension:
See below for details of what the University agrees are acceptable grounds for late
submission. Please note that failure to find a functioning printer, or bringing the wrong disk
to print from, are not normally considered legitimate reasons, nor is pressure of work nor the
coincidence of deadlines. Forward planning and time management are of the essence.
Unavoidable detention elsewhere:
- in hospital on/before date of submission
- in court/detention on/before date of submission
- sports bursary in authorised competition.
Please give dates, nature of detention and provide independent certification.
Medical grounds:
- confined to bed or otherwise unable to attend University
- ability to work seriously impaired on or before the date of submission.
Students should note that the decision to grant extensions is an academic decision;
medical evidence is taken into account but does not guarantee an automatic essay
For illness of less than seven days, and for the first seven days of any period of
illness, self-certification should be provided.
For illness of more than seven days a medical certificate should normally be
provided (where possible) indicating the nature of the symptoms that prevented you
from attending University on the dates in question.
It is the student’s responsibility to provide certificated evidence of illness.
Compassionate Grounds:
- bereavement or onset of sudden serious illness in family member or other close
Other Exceptional Grounds (or Other Good Cause for Absence):
Exceptional circumstances will be considered on their own merits. Supporting
documentation should be provided wherever possible.
Resubmission of Coursework
In accordance with the University’s code of practice on assessment, students who achieve an overall
mark of 1% or better can avail of all resubmission/resit opportunities: modules that assess by
coursework only offer the possibility of an essay resubmission; modules that assess by
coursework/exam offer a resit exam in the next resit diet (February/August each year). Eligibility for
resubmission/resits is subject to the following rules and conditions;
A student who fails to submit coursework during the semester within the allowed period (up to 7
calendar days after the due date) for no legitimate reason will not be entitled to a resubmission
and will fail the module with a mark of 0% due to failure to comply with published requirements.
In cases where re-assessment takes place through resubmission of an essay, this will be on a new
topic and the student will not normally be able to make use of material that formed the substance
of a previous assignment.
Where the fail mark is a consequence of academic failure or penalties for lateness, then a
maximum mark of 40% for the module will apply.
If the reassessment is a consequence of medical or other extenuating circumstances the
reassessment will be marked normally.
3.6 Dissertation Guidelines (ENGU9A8 and reduced project ENGU9Z8)
The final part of a single Honours programme in English is devoted to the researching and writing, under
supervision, of a project on a topic of each student’s own choice. The topic is chosen in semester VII
during the dissertation preparation module, EUCU9C7. (See EUCU9C7 Succeed page in semester 7 for
During semester VII, EUCU9C7 is taken by all students doing a dissertation in English. This module is
designed to prepare students for the English Studies dissertation in semester 8. It will focus on the
key skills required to devise and develop a research project: using library, archive and IT resources
effectively to support research; distinguishing appropriate methodological approaches to research;
formulating a research question; writing a proposal; referencing accurately and professionally; and
presenting research findings to an audience. The first section of the module will be delivered via
weekly lectures, and there will also be a library training session. Students will then submit an outline
of their research topics, and will be allocated for the second section of the module to small supervisory
groups organized around these topics. In these groups, each student will deliver a short presentation,
based on the main features and specific challenges of the proposed dissertation project. Students will
often, but not always be assigned to a tutor who will then go on to be their supervisor in semester
Semester VIII is devoted entirely to research, writing up and submission, which constitutes the work for
ENGU9A8 or Z8. There are no required classes in semester eight for the dissertation itself, but students
are expected to make up to four appointments with their supervisors to discuss submitted drafts of their
dissertation. (See details below.)
The project is intended to provide a fitting conclusion to undergraduate studies by freeing students to
pursue their own lines of enquiry into a subject which has proved to be of particular interest or appeal to
them. The only restraints upon the choice of topic are three. First, at least half of the primary material
under investigation must be in English. Except in the case of a study of translation or certain kinds of
language project, the work in English must be original work in English. (Some language projects may
examine verbal text in spoken form.) A literary project devoted entirely to, say, Virgil or Ibsen, would
not be acceptable, though they might be discussed in relation to English epic or drama. Similarly, while
a dissertation may focus on the relationship of written texts to work in other media (e.g. film, music,
visual arts), it is not permissible to write solely on these other media unless a linguistic approach is
being adopted. (Exceptionally, this restriction may be waived by the Head of Division). The second
restraint is that there must be someone in English Studies able to supervise the work. In practice, this
requirement very rarely (if ever) excludes a topic. And the third restraint is that the proposed subject
should be able to bear the sustained treatment required. Please also be aware that it is not acceptable
to reproduce work from previous essays or to depend too heavily on books or topics you have
already written about in a previous class. In such cases you may be asked to explain what it is
that you will be doing differently with a given text.
Students may also present a Creative Writing dissertation in any genre or mixture of genres (fiction,
short fiction, poetry, drama, autobiography, memoir, etc) and this should be accompanied by a reflective
commentary. A commentary is intended to provide an opportunity to discuss aspects of the writing
process. These might include: the genesis of their narrative or poem; its relationship to other texts;
the student’s handling of form and technique. Reflective commentaries are not intended as ways for
students to provide a summary or evaluation of their own writing. The word length requirements for
creative prose (including the reflective introduction) are the same as those for an academic study. If
the creative dissertation is to be in poetry, students will be asked to submit an introduction of
approximately 3,000 words and between three hundred and five hundred lines of poetry. Creative
Writing dissertations can only be undertaken by students who have completed Creative Writing
options: ENGU9C1 and ENGU9C2
Proposed topics are reviewed and agreed by academic staff. Every effort is made to satisfy students’
preferences as regards supervision. Individual members of staff cannot enter into personal
agreements with students to act as their supervisors. Students are notified of the final acceptance of
their topic (or the need to revise it) and of their appointed EUCU6C7 tutor in October.
Final confirmation of allocation of supervisors is made at the end of the semester. The supervisor will
usually, but not always be the same as the tutor for EUCU9C7. Any queries regarding the dissertation
should be directed to your EUCU6C7 tutor until confirmation of final dissertation supervisor
Supervision procedures are as follows:
Students are entitled to attend one session of individual supervision at the end of
semester VII. This is usually in the second week of December when supervisors will
post available times on their doors.
Students are entitled to four further sessions of supervision in semester VIII. These
supervisory sessions, including the one in December, are optional classes, but students
are strongly recommended to avail themselves of the opportunity to receive supervision
in the course of preparing their projects.
When students wish to consult their allocated supervisors in semester VIII, it is their
responsibility to contact their supervisors to make arrangements for meetings.
Supervisors will comment on first drafts and may correct them in writing. Supervisors
do not read more than one draft of any part of a project. Projects are the student’s
responsibility, which means that the thinking, the research and the writing are their
At the end of each session, the supervisor completes, and asks the student to sign, a
form recording the date, time, duration and substance of the meeting, and the agreed
work for the next meeting.
Since marks awarded to projects are the result of deliberations between markers,
supervisors are not able to comment upon the mark that a project is likely to receive.
Students who feel that their supervision is inadequate should get in touch with the
module co-ordinator at the earliest possible opportunity. If after doing so they remain
dissatisfied, they should make an appointment to see the Head of Division.
Students on combined programmes usually have the choice of taking a project either in English Studies
or in their other subject. Students should therefore make a decision as to whether to take a project in
English Studies at the end of semester six.
Full projects should normally be about 14,000 words in length. The maximum word limit is 15,000
words. Projects exceeding this length will be penalised. The minimum acceptable length is 12,000
words. Projects falling below this length will be penalised. (These figures exclude any necessary
appendices and the bibliography, but include quotations and footnotes.) The number of words should be
stated on the title page.
Reduced projects and are expected to be about 9,000 words in length. They should not exceed 10,000
words in length nor be less than 8,000 words. Projects falling outside these limits will be penalised.
(These figures exclude the bibliography and any necessary appendices, but include quotations and
footnotes.) The number of words should be stated on the title page.
All projects must follow the conventions set out in the English Studies Stylesheet (appendix B of
this Handbook). Students should resist the temptation to use more than one style (or size) of font. Italic
and bold should be used only very sparingly and for specific purposes. Great care must be taken fully
and properly to acknowledge in the bibliography and also with a note cued to the relevant page all sources
of whatever kind consulted, paraphrased or quoted from.
TWO COPIES of the project, typed or word processed on A4 paper, double spaced, on one side of the
sheet only, should be submitted to the divisional office. A template for the title page is included in the
booklet for ENGU9A8 on Succeed. It is essential that the submission date be strictly adhered to.
Additionally, an electronic copy should be uploaded to Turnitin by the due date. In the case of electronic
submission, the same rules apply as in the case of essay submission (see 3.1). Note that to satisfy the
submission date both hard copy and the electronic copy must be submitted; that is to say, any project not
submitted in hard copy by the due date will be marked late even if the electronic copy is submitted on
Projects must be submitted to the Divisional Office (A11) by 12.30 p.m. on the due date. They must
be handed to a member of Office staff. Projects that are submitted late may have to be penalised
or failed. No extensions are granted. Students should be quite clear that difficulties with printers,
computer failure, inability to access files and similar word processing problems are not accepted as
excuses for late submission.
The title page of each submitted project should state: the title; the student’s number only (to preserve
anonymity as far as is possible in the marking process); the student’s address (so that arrangements can
be made for a viva if necessary); the degree scheme under which the project is submitted and whether it
is reduced or full length; the supervisor’s name; the word length.
A statement of the modules previously taken in English Studies must be included after the title page.
Students must retain their own copy of the project.
All projects are marked by the supervisor, who writes a report on the work, with a recommended mark,
and simultaneously by a second marker, who reports on and marks the work entirely independently.
Each year it is the custom for external examiners to read samples of undergraduate work at various stages
in the degree programme in order to confirm the different levels of grade (a typical 2.1, a typical 2.2 etc.)
as well as to ensure comparability of standards between modules, across the programme, and between
universities. In this way we ourselves, and senior colleagues from other institutions act as external
examiners in order to ‘moderate’ the performance of fellow institutions across the country. Each year
some dissertations will be sent to the externals for such moderation. If the two internal markers cannot
agree a final mark for a dissertation, that work may also be sent to the external for a deciding grade. In
such cases it is also possible for the student to be asked to attend a short interview with the readers and
the external examiner at the end of the semester. This will not be common practice, but if it is felt to be
absolutely necessary then appropriate arrangements will be made with the student in question.
Projects are marked on the same scale as that used for essays, but they count for 60 credits in the case of
ENGU9A8 and 40 credits in the case of ENGU9Z8 and so are triple weighted and double weighted
respectively in the calculation of degree classifications. Project marks are published on the notice board
at the end of semester VIII.
3.7 Academic Misconduct
It is generally understood why cheating in examinations is wrong: it is an attempt to gain
undeserved credit by presenting the work of another as one’s own. For the University not to treat
cheating as an extremely serious offence would be unfair to its students and would jeopardise the
standard of its awards. Exactly the same is true of coursework submitted for assessment. Plagiarism
is the equivalent of cheating in an examination because it involves the reproduction of another’s
work, whether ideas, data or expressions, without due acknowledgement. This is plagiarism,
whether the source is printed, electronic or handwritten, whether it is reproduced verbatim or is
paraphrased, and whether it is drawn on extensively or in brief.
The University has an agreed policy setting out procedures and penalties for dealing with academic
misconduct. This policy can be found on the University’s portal here. The policy also gives
guidance on proper and adequate acknowledgement of source material, but if students are in any
doubt at all about the nature of plagiarism, or the means by which to avoid it, students are strongly
advised to consult their tutor. Students should clearly understand that it is their responsibility to be
sure they understand these matters. Ignorance is not accepted as a defence for plagiarism.
You are therefore strongly recommended to consult the following web resource, “The Little Book
of Plagiarism”, devised by the university found here.
Little Book of Plagiarism
It is also important to note that all assignments should be original work and must not replicate
previously submitted work.
4.1 Student Questionnaires
At the end of teaching, you will be asked to complete a Module Evaluation Questionnaire concerning
the structure, teaching, and resource provision of modules. Tutors have access to the responses on an
anonymous basis. These questionnaires are extremely important and every student is urged to
complete them as fully as possible. They are the most immediate and authoritative record of how the
module has gone and an opportunity for students directly to influence the future shape of modules;
English Studies depends upon them to modify, revise and improve its teaching. Reports are made on the
questionnaires received for each module, and these findings are presented to the Joint Student Staff
Consultative Committee, and to Divisional and School Learning & Teaching committees, where they
are discussed and needful action resolved upon. At the end of their degree, students are asked to fill in
an online Student Completion questionnaire which will be an important part of the university’s Annual
Monitoring programme.
4.2 Student-Staff Consultative Committee
There is an active Student/Staff Consultative Committee. It is an advisory, not an executive, body which
meets twice a semester to allow discussion of matters which bear on students’ experience of studying
English. It is made up of two representatives from each of the current core modules and one
representative from each current option module (chosen at the beginning of the semester). From this
academic year (2011-2012), a Student Officer appointed to the Division of Literature & Languages
will liaise with the Learning & Teaching Officer for the Division, and will chair meetings of the
committee. The Student Officer will be entitled to attend meetings of the School of Arts & Humanities
Learning & Teaching Committee. English Studies Programme Directors, conveners of the core
modules, and the Divisional Learning & Teaching Officer represent the staff on the SSSC. Names
and contact details of student representatives of modules will be posted to the ‘useful contacts’ tab
on Succeed. Students are strongly urged to put to their student representatives any matter that they
would like to be raised.
5.1 Divisional Advisor for English Studies
The Divisional Advisor for English Studies is Dr Katie Halsey.
Student/Staff Communications
Students of English Studies should feel that, in addition to the advisers of studies, Personal Tutors and
the University’s own support services, all English Studies staff are freely available to them for advice on
academic and other matters. In particular, students should consult their tutors on matters to do with the
particular module they are taking with that tutor. All members of staff place on their office doors notices
indicating the times when they are most readily available. Should a student for any reason feel their
question or anxiety has not been met by their tutor, they may turn to the module convenor (on core
modules), the English Study Programme Director (Bethan Benwell), Divisional Learning & Teaching
Officer (Andrew Smith), or Head of the Division of Literature and Languages (Andrew Hass).
All members of staff are on email. To ensure the efficient delivery of post, students should keep the
university records office advised of their current postal address. Students should also consult their
university email account on a regular basis as tutors and staff in the English office may use this to
communicate with them and disseminate information. It is important to use the university email as
private email addresses may be regarded by the system as SPAM. Module information, details of events,
and a variety of other matters are advertised on the web site. Students should develop the habit of looking
on the web site and divisional notice boards, which should be checked regularly during the course of
each semester. See http://www.stir.ac.uk/arts-humanities/about/literature-languages/english-studies/
Staff cannot respond to requests for references without the prior WRITTEN agreement of the student
concerned. This is to protect the student’s own interests and confidentiality. Students must therefore ask
members of staff to act as referees before giving their name on applications for employment or further
education. Unless they have done so no references will be written on their behalf. Students are strongly
advised to make use of their PDP each semester so that they can assemble and submit material to their
Divisional Office: Office Hours are from 9am-5pm, Monday to Friday, closing 12:30-1:30 for lunch.
The office staff are available in room A11, tel.: 7495; from outside the University, (01786)-467495).
Andrew Miller, Laura Paterson, and Katie Wallace are available to give advice on administrative and
associated matters.
5.2 Student Programmes Office
The Student Programmes Office is responsible for academic registration of undergraduate and
taught postgraduate students and all matters relating to students’ engagement with their academic
Its main functions include:
Preparation of the UG and TPG volumes of the University Calendar
Academic registration of students - online module registration
Recording students’ academic achievement
Monitoring students’ academic progression
All matters relating to administration and progression of postgraduate research students
Matters relating to students on collaborative programmes with partner institutions
Academic awards
For information and contact details, see:
5.3 University Calendar
For fuller and more formal information concerning the organisation, administration and regulations of
the University, the current University of Stirling Calendar should be consulted. This annual publication
is the authoritative source for details of all aspects of University life. In it may be found: the
University’s statutes, ordinances and regulations; its committees and their membership; a full list of
academic staff; all undergraduate modules offered each year; the dates of semesters, vacations,
graduation and other University events. It is available on line here.
5.4 The Library and Information Services
Finding books
The library catalogue lists all the books, reports and journals available to you. The catalogue will
tell you: if the library has the item you want, where it is located and whether it is available. There is
a link from the Portal to the catalogue, or you can go here.
Borrowing books
The Short Loan Collection of items in heavy demand is located on Level 2. Items from the Short
Loan Collection can be borrowed for 3 hours (green label) or 24 hours (red label). These items can
be booked in advance using the ‘My Library Record’ feature on the Library Catalogue.
Items from the popular collection on levels 3 and 4 can be borrowed for one week. These can be
renewed unless they have been requested by someone else.
Items from the long loan collection on levels 3 and 4 can be borrowed for 4 weeks. These items can
be recalled by someone else, if this happens you will be notified by email and you must return the
item within 7 days.
To borrow items please take them to the self-issue machines. You will be given a receipt which
gives you the dates for returning the books. If you prefer you can write this date on the date label
inside the book. Fines may be charged on overdue items.
There is no restriction on the number of long loan books you can borrow, but popular loan is
restricted to ten items and short loan to four.
What to do if the book is on loan:
If the book you want is on loan you can place a hold. Click on Request / Hold on the catalogue
screen and submit your details. When the item is returned you will be notified by email. If you
place a hold on a long loan book, the current borrower will be notified that it must be returned
within a week. If the book you want is in the Short Loan Collection you can use the reservation
facility available from ‘My Library Record’ to book the item for a convenient time.
Finding electronic resources
The Library buys many electronic resources which can be accessed on and off campus. Our
electronic journals are listed in the Library catalogue. If you know which journal you want, enter
the name of the journal into the catalogue and select the record with [electronic resource]. Our
electronic books are also listed in the Library Catalogue. These books can be viewed online and,
subject to copyright, can be printed or saved.
How to find journal articles:
If you are looking for journal articles on a particular topic you need to search one of the Library’s
databases, not the Library catalogue. A full list of databases is available from
http://www.is.stir.ac.uk/resource-db/az-list.php and this list can be refined by subject area to show
databases for psychology, or sport or biology etc. Most of the databases have user guides which
explain how to search for journal articles. If you need any help with using the databases, please ask
in the Library.
Getting help:
If you need any assistance with finding library materials or searching for information please ask a
member of library staff. We also have a range of help available on our website:
Word processing Facilities
Computing facilities are available in the University for student use. However, as student demand is far
greater than the available computer provision, access to a machine cannot be guaranteed. All students
starting their period of study are automatically given a user-name and password. To access these
usernames and passwords during the first few weeks of semester, students should logon with the
username ‘student’ and follow the instructions. Students can receive advice from the Help Desk in
Cottrell (2Y11) which is open 9.00a.m – 5.00pm, Monday – Friday during the semester (tel.: 7250).
For full details of campus computing facilities, including those in Pathfoot, see:
5.5 Complaints and Appeals
Complaints Procedures
Students who feel they have cause for complaint over the teaching or assessment of a particular module
in English Studies should in the first instance speak to the relevant tutor. If they are unable to resolve the
matter with him or her, they should, on semester modules and core modules, see the module convenor.
Students on options, and core module students who feel the module convenor has not adequately dealt
with their grievance, should consult the relevant Programme Director, the Divisional Learning and
Teaching Officer, or Head of Division. In the exceptional event that neither your tutor, nor the module
convenor, nor any of the advisers can provide a satisfactory solution to a problem you may be having, it
is possible to approach the Head of Division.
Tutors and advisers are available for advice and guidance, but individual students must accept
responsibility for their own degree programme choices.
If you wish to make a formal complaint about some aspect of your learning and teaching experience, the
University’s complaints procedure is available in the Academic Quality and Standards Handbook.
This states that the complaint should be put in writing to the Head of Division or the administrative
service concerned. If there is still not a satisfactory response, the complaint should be put in writing to
the Academic Registrar.
Appeals Procedure
There is no appeal against the decisions of examining boards or committees which act in proper accord
with the University’s regulations and which have been confirmed by the authority of external examiners.
Module grades and degree classifications are not open to revision.
All decisions about student progress are made by the Student Progress Office, who may refer difficult
decisions to ESEC, a senior committee appointed by the Academic Council. Under certain
circumstances it may be possible for a student to appeal against a decision by ESEC. The University’s
Academic Standards and Quality Handbook explains the procedure for appeals against decisions
about student progress and academic awards. Details of the procedure can also be found on the
university’s website at http://www.stir.ac.uk/academicpolicy/handbook/student-academic-appeals-andcomplaints/
5.6 Student Learning Services
Students of English are entitled to seek the advice of tutors or the RLF Fellow in relation to their
academic work and written assignments.
Support is also available beyond divisional level from Student Learning Services, and credit-bearing
skills modules are also available. Information about Student Learning Services can be found here:
5.7 Audio Recording Policy
Almost all modules in English now make audio recordings of lectures available via Listen Again on
Succeed, Students are also entitled to make recordings lectures themselves, but it is courteous to seek the
permission of the lecturer before the lecture begins.
Pastoral support is available in the first instance from your personal tutor (and, if necessary, from the
Advisor of Studies). However, there are sources of support on campus to which your tutor may direct
you, or which you may decide to use.
6.1 The Students’ Union
The Students’ Union has its own welfare advice centre (located in the Robbins Centre) which has
acquired a good deal of experience of the kind of problems and difficulties students are likely to
encounter. The centre will offer help with a wide range of concerns, will pursue matters with the relevant
authorities, and can put students in touch with appropriate agencies.
The Union is there to make your time as a student the very best it can be! The Union runs a whole
host of campaigns and activities each year to promote the student voice and get your views and
opinions on the national stage, ensuring that any decision which affects you will do so in a beneficial
way. The Union supports the school in running the School Officer Programme and collaborates with
staff and students studying within the School to get the most out of their degree that they can. For
instance the Union facilitates a number of different student societies to run events and activities
alongside offering students skills and experiences to complement their degrees. Over the last few
years the Law Society and Philosophy Society have each run a number of seminars and Moot courts
which students have not only thoroughly enjoyed, but also gained some great experiences for their
CVs. The Union is always looking for some enthusiastic students to start up a new society and if you
have an interest in the arts then get in touch with them to discuss further.
The Union also offer some great recreational activities through the Sports Union which supports over
40 different sports clubs as well as having a bar and Starbucks Coffee shop on campus. For more info
on the Students Union checkout their website at www.stirlingstudentsunion.com
The Union is home to Studio, Underground and Venue where you can relax and enjoy a wide
selection of food, drink and even your favourite Starbucks coffee! With evening entertainment and
the latest in live sporting action, it’s the on campus place to be.
Facebook: www.facebook.com/stirlingstudentsunion
Twitter & Instagram: @stirlingunion
6.2 Tier 4 Students
If you are in receipt of a Tier 4 Visa then it is essential that you comply with the UK immigration
regulations during your stay in the UK. Following your enrolment you would have been sent a
message to your University email account which details the University’s formal points of contact
during your studies and also your immigration responsibilities. In addition to these, the School will
also outline the required academic contact points for the successful completion of each module. The
School will report any concerns about your attendance and participation to the Enrolment and
Records Team– for example if you have failed to submit coursework or if you have missed required
You should familiarise yourself with the agreed points of contact and your Tier 4 responsibilities
(available at
udents/. You will be withdrawn from the University and reported to UK Visas and Immigration
(UKVI) should you fail to comply with them.
The University expects that students will attend all classes. The University expects that all students
engage fully with the learning and teaching to be undertaken for each module studied, and with the
programme of study or research for which they are registered. Students are not permitted to be
absent from their studies without the authorisation of the University.
The normal expectation is that students on a Tier 4 Visa will remain at the University for the
duration of their studies, including the dissertation period. If you wish to return home early or to
conduct dissertation fieldwork away from the University for a period of more than 14 days then you
will need to get permission from the Programme Director and then complete an ‘Application to
Apply for Fieldwork or to Return Home Early’ form. Absences may have an impact on your
continued sponsorship under the Tier 4 visa. See
ngeofstudylocation/ for further information.
If you plan to undertake a work placement during your studies then you should notify
[email protected] . You should submit the name of the company where you will be
based, their location and the start and end date of the placement.
You should contact [email protected] should you have any questions regarding your
Tier 4 visa responsibilities or other matters relating to your Tier 4 Visa.
Advice and resources for international students can be found here: http://www.stir.ac.uk/study-in-theuk.
6.3 English Language Support
Information for students requiring help with their English (including in-sessional courses) is available
here: http://www.stir.ac.uk/education/courses/english-language/
6.4 Student Development and Support Services: Advice, Support and Counselling
Student occasionally need support in relation to personal, financial, religious and other issues. Though
tutors may be able to provide some help, they may not be able to offer you all of the support that you
need. In this case you should contact the Student Support Services. They are able to offer support and
advice with financial issues and with personal problems. A chaplaincy is available on the main campus,
and a counselling service is offered on all of the Stirling University campuses. Details about all of these
things are available here:
6.5 Disability Support
Students with disabilities may require support with certain aspects of their courses. In the first instance,
they should contact the Disability Service, which will be able to offer specialist advice and support.
The Disability Support Service is located in Cottrell 3A1, and its website can be found here:
6.6 Careers Service
The Career Development Centre can help you to develop your career plans, and offer advice about the
preparation of CVs and application letters. The centre can also offer help and advice relating to parttime work. It is located in Cottrell 3A1. The website is here: http://www.careers.stir.ac.uk.
Why you need work or volunteering experience
Getting into paid employment without relevant work experience can be very difficult, especially as
more and more students are entering the graduate labour market. Some people are fortunate in
obtaining a part-time job or work placement in the career area they are interested in. Although in
many cases this is not possible, it is important to recognise that all work experience is valuable.
Whatever way you gain experience, you’ll be gaining and further developing transferable skills that
employers are looking for, as well as helping you decide what you would like (or not like to do) in the
future. Adding this work experience to your CV, in addition to your degree, will help you stand out
from the crowd.
Work experience
Work experience enables you to gain the necessary experience often required for entry to future
careers, such as journalism, environmental work or social work. It gives you the opportunity to put
your theoretical knowledge into practice, and also lets you research and try out potential future
career areas to confirm or reject your ideas. At the same time you could be better off financially
while increasing your awareness of workplace culture. It will also help you build a network of
contacts which could be useful in the future or with your dissertation or class projects.
Students are expected to be aware of their own study commitments and not to take employment that
will adversely affect their academic work. A maximum of 15 hours work in term time is strongly
Finding Work Experience in the UK:
Contact the Job Shop for local casual/part-time work and volunteering during semester or
vacation: www.stir.ac.uk/careers
Apply for summer internship programmes organised by big employers.
These are very competitive and require early application, usually by an online application form,
some before Christmas. For many employers, these placements are an extended interview to help
them decide if they want to take you on after graduation.
Organise your own work experience by contacting employers directly.
Send a CV and covering letter to organisations you are interested in and follow up with a phone
call. Networking is another way of finding local opportunities. Go to events where you are likely to
meet people in the field of work you are interested in and try and speak to them. Make sure you
contact organisations a few months before you want to start work.
Consider contacting people about work shadowing
Make the most of any opportunity you can to shadow a professional working in a career area of
interest to increase your understanding and build up a useful network of contacts.
You may know someone who works in the field you are interested in. There is no harm in
contacting them. Alternatively, send your CV and a covering letter to organisations you would like
to work for, and follow this up with a phone call.
Voluntary work enables you to gain an insight into a career area of interest in order to help you
decide if it is definitely for you. It can also help you gain specific practical experience that is
required to get into a particular career area, e.g. developing fieldwork skills for environmental jobs.
Volunteering also helps develop transferable skills that may be useful in a wide variety of career
areas, e.g. organisational, team working, interpersonal and presentation skills.
There are a number of ways in which you can volunteer right here on campus that will look great on
your CV, including:
Become a Student Ambassador – assisting students and their relatives/friends on campus during
open days, applicant days, visit afternoons and individual tours.
Become a Student Mentor – providing peer support for undergraduate students in their first year of
Volunteer as a Class Representative – represent your fellow students at meetings with academic
Get involved in the Student’s Union – including clubs and societies, student representation,
committee membership, coaching and the international student buddy scheme.
The Career Development Centre offers a full accredited Work Experience Module (PDM9AL) 39
which allows you to gain at least 30 hours of graduate-level work experience with a local charitable
or voluntary organisation: http://www.stir.ac.uk/careers/modules/wemodules/
Skills Award
Complete the ‘My Stirling Award’ and:
• Gain a better understanding of the workplace
• Learn more about yourself, including your strengths and areas for improvement
• Develop new skills and be able to speak about them
• Maintain a record of your learning that can be used as evidence in future applications
• Improve your confidence
• Provide strong evidence for employers that you are a candidate to consider
For more information, visit:
Useful Resources
Careers Information Room (Cottrell 3A1):
Holds a selection of reference books and files on vacation work, working overseas, taking a year out
and volunteering. Also available are leaflets on work experience and volunteering opportunities.
Get Advice:
If you would like to discuss work experience, or your career plans, you can drop in to the Career
Development Centre (Cottrell 3A1) and speak to a Career Development Adviser from Monday to
Thursday between 11am and 3pm. You can also make a longer guidance appointment by calling
01786 467070.
Career Development Centre Website links:
Work experience and volunteering:
Vacancies & opportunities: http://stir.prospects.ac.uk/
Accredited work experience modules: http://www.stir.ac.uk/careers/modules/wemodules/
International students: http://www.stir.ac.uk/careers/students/international/working/
Employability Infogram: http://www.stir.ac.uk/employability/students/
Pamela Crawford/Lesley Grayburn
Joint Heads of the Career Development Centre
Representation and Shaping Your Learning Experience
Being at University, you may think it is all just about studying, partying and hopefully passing the
exams, but there are also some great opportunities available to you to shape your degree. Within the
School of Arts and Humanities students have the opportunity to become Course Representatives and
Student Officers for their modules and division. These roles make sure that the student voice is part
of all the decisions which affect your learning and improve your experience at Stirling.
Course Representatives
Course reps volunteer at the beginning of each semester to act as a voice for students on their module.
Course Reps take forward any issues or concerns students have about their modules to School staff
as well as views and opinions on where academic staff are doing really amazing things.
Course reps are offered professional training in their role and are supported by their division’s School
Officer. Reps attend the Schools Student Staff Consultative Committee twice each semester to discuss
developments with module staff and to resolve any issues. This role is a great way to get involved in
your degree and a brilliant way of getting to know the staff in the school a little bit more. To become
a rep, listen out for the role in your first few lectures and put yourself forward. More info on the role
can be found at http://www.stirlingstudentsunion.com/aboutus/courserepresentation/
School Officer
Each division has a School Officer for undergraduate and postgraduate students paired to a senior
member of staff to look at how students are experiencing their studies. This can be anything from
student employability, assessment and feedback, lecturing, modules, research and so on.
The officers help support course reps for each module and take forward any issues or commendations
they have about their courses. The Officers act as a liaison with the course reps for their division,
providing them with training and support on their roles and provide a connection to senior decision
makers within the University. School Officers ensure that staff know what students want and aim to
continually improve the learning experience.
The current School Officer for the school of Arts and Humanities can be found below:
Bryan Quinn
Natalie Smith
Communications Media &
History and Politics (Autumn)
History and Politics (Spring)
Literature and Languages
Philosophy and Law
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
If you are interested in more information about the role or if you are thinking of running for a post
look out for the recruitment emails in March next year. Remember that being at University is not just
about sitting in the classroom and reading in the library, it’s an opportunity to be an active part of
your learning and make decisions that can change how your degree is delivered.
Role Description - School Officer School of Arts and Humanities
Open to any student entering second, third or fourth year.
The role of School Officer exists to provide student representation and input within the academic
schools and play a key coordinating and support role within the course representative network.
The School Officer is an important one and can take up to 40 hours a semester to fulfil. However, the
University acknowledges that this is a substantial commitment and pays an honorarium of £150 per
School Officers would be requires to complete the following in order to be awarded the honorarium
per semester. Monitoring of these duties and responsibilities would be the responsibility of the School
and the Union to collate and record.
Attend initial Induction/Training meeting with the Union and School
Attend School Officer Training
Attend Fortnightly School Officer meetings with Union VP Education & Engagement
Attend Student Staff Consultative Committees (SSCC)
Attend School Divisional Committee Meetings as required
Attend specific School Learning and Teaching Committees
Attend a support appraisal at the start of semester 2
 Report regularly to the School on the work of the School Officer team
 Work with the designated Learning and Teaching Officers within the School on
learning, teaching and student engagement
 Aid in the recruitment of Course Representatives
 Contribute to Course Representative training
 Coordinate regular meetings with Course Representatives
 Meet regularly with other School Officers in the School and across other School’s
 Actively promote Union activities in Learning & Teaching (such as RATE Awards)
within the School
 Promote mechanisms to improve Learning and Teaching (such as the National Student
 Attend and contribute to the University’s Learning and Teaching Conference (EduFair)
Benefits of Applying
What will you get out of being a School Officer?
Extensive training and development of essential transferable skills; including meeting
skills, policy development, negotiation, team working and communication skills.
Be part of a team that works closely together and has extensive support from the Union
and the Schools
Be one of the first to find out what is going on in your School and Division.
Become familiar with senior University staff.
Help to makes things better for your fellow classmates and students in general.
Being part of the decision making processes of the Union and in particular helping to
shape the policies on academic issues
Candidates who are unsuccessful will get application and interview experience
If you are interested in more information about the role or if you are thinking of running for a post
look out for the recruitment emails in March next year. Remember that being at University is not just
about sitting in the classroom and reading in the library, it’s an opportunity to be an active part of
your learning and make decisions that can change how your degree is delivered.
Person Specification
Essential Desirable
Able to communicate with varied audiences on varied topics
Demonstrate good time keeping and organisational skills
Able to process information and present clear arguments
Show commitment to the role and to gaining a better understanding
of current issues in higher education
Good time management and organisational skills
The ability to use basic Microsoft Office Software (email, word)
Able to coordinate groups of individuals
Able to collate information and provide both verbal and written
Application and Selection
There are four School Officers posts available, one per academic division at Undergraduate Level.
These are Communications Media & Culture, History & Politics, Literature & Languages, and
Philosophy & Law.
Applications will open for Undergraduate Officers in March 2013 and for Postgraduate in September
of each Academic Session. For more information contact the Students Union on [email protected]
Welcome to Graduate Studies in the School of Arts and Humanities, this is the administrative centre
for our vibrant postgraduate community. With the growth in postgraduate numbers, the School has
centralised the administration and management of its programmes to provide a coherent and
supportive environment for our diverse postgraduate community. In many ways, our Graduate
Studies office acts as the hub for this community, servicing the needs of students and staff across a
range of disciplines and programmes, with the implicit aim of ensuring we provide a rewarding and
enjoyable student experience
Whether you are a taught or research student, studying full-time or part-time, from the UK or from
overseas, we will provide you with a supportive and intellectually enriching environment in which to
pursue your educational development. Our taught programmes reflect the academic excellence of our
research and are targeted at the needs of our students to develop the knowledge and skills required to
face the challenges of their future careers. Whether you are interested in the linguistic, literary,
philosophical, political or historic, or want to learn the practice of law, publishing, communications
or film, we have a diverse range of provision and expertise to suit your needs.
The Graduate Studies office is located in room E16, Pathfoot and our staff are:
Professor Kirstie Blair (Director of Graduate Studies)
Dr Scott Hames, Deputy Director (Research Postgraduate)
Email: [email protected] Tel: 01786 466205
Dr Emma Macleod, Deputy Director (Taught Postgraduate)
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 01786 467573 Pathfoot Room A70
Dr Colin Nicolson, Deputy Director (Arts Research Training)
Email: [email protected] Tel: 01786 467963 Pathfoot Room A83
Gillian Fairclough., Graduate Studies Administrator
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 01786 466279 Pathfoot Room E14.
Jane Campbell, Programme Administrator
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 01786 468400 Pathfoot Room E16
Lesley McIntosh, Programme Administrator
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 01786 466220 Pathfoot Room E16
Alison Scott, Programme Administrator
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 01786 467510 Pathfoot Room E16
Research students can draw on the expertise of our academic staff, all of whom have national and
international reputations in their respective fields. We understand that the needs of research students
are increasingly multi-disciplinary, and we encourage collaborative learning and research wherever
possible. We have developed dedicated research training for all our research students, and we
continue to seek innovative ways of delivering the research skills and training required for the 21 st
For more information please view our video podcasts, with messages from our programme directors.
You may also find up-to-date information from our newsletter, which is published three times a year
in November, March and May. A welcome event for all postgraduate students in the School will take
place in early October.
We hope you can join our postgraduate community and share our passion for the arts and humanities.
Professor Kirstie Blair
Director of Graduate Studies
Details of academic and administrative staff and contact numbers can be found in Section 1.3. Below is
a list of divisional officers and their responsibilities.
Head of Division:
Dr. Andrew Hass
Deputy Heads of Division:
Dr Bethan Benwell (English Studies)
Dr Cristina Johnston (Languages, Culture & Religion)
School Administrator:
Mr Andrew Miller
Learning & Teaching Officer:
Dr Andrew Smith
Programme Director:
Dr Bethan Benwell
Student Progress/Admissions Officer:
Dr Stephen Penn
Chief Examiner (undergraduate):
Dr Angus Vine
Dr. Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Saenz
(Publishing Studies):
Dr Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Saenz
Adviser (English Studies)
Dr Katie Halsey
M.Litt in Creative Writing
Dr Liam Bell
Professor Kathleen Jamie (Spring)
M.Litt in English Language & Linguistics: Dr Bethan Benwell/Dr Andrew Smith
M.Litt in The Gothic Imagination:
Mr Matt Foley
M.Litt in Modern Scottish Writing:
Dr Scott Hames/Dr Suzanne Gilbert
M.Litt in Publishing Studies:
Mrs Frances Sessford
MSc in International Publishing Management:
Mrs Frances Sessford
Postgraduate Officer:
Dr Katie Halsey
Research Officer:
Dr Scott Hames
Chair of UG Student/Staff Committee:
Dr Andrew Smith
Laura Paterson
Chair of PG Student/Staff Committee:
Dr Katie Halsey
Advisory Visits Co-ordinator:
Dr Stephen Penn
Study Abroad Adviser:
Dr Liam Bell
Library Officer:
Dr Stephen Penn
Timetable Officer:
Laura Paterson
Disability Contact:
Dr Katie Halsey
This stylesheet is intended as a guide to students in the presentation of written work submitted
for assessment. It deals with the layout and documentation of essays and projects. This should
not be regarded as an incidental or secondary matter: clear and consistent presentation of material
is an essential part of the process of lucid and effective communication. Every effort should
therefore be made to ensure that the use of conventional forms of reference and annotation
becomes habitual at an early stage, and certainly long before the final year project has to be
For further details and examples, consult the MHRA Style Guide, which can be downloaded for
free here:
This Stylesheet is arranged as follows:
Sample Essay
Essays, other written assignments and projects should be written or printed on both sides of
decent quality paper (A4 or other standard size). All essays should be double-spaced.
Each piece of written work submitted must use as its opening page the Cover Sheet which
will be available on the English Studies webpage or can be collected from the pigeonholes
by the Divisional Office. In addition, the front page of your essay must carry on its first
page the following information: (1) registration number (no names or other forms of
identification should appear on any assignment submitted for assessment); (2) the title of the
module for which the work is submitted; (3) the module code; (4) the essay question number, if
applicable; (5) the essay question or other assignment identification; (6) the name of the writer's
tutor. Failure to give this information may result in the essay being misdirected and delayed.
An even margin of approximately 5cm (2 inches) should be maintained on the lefthand or
righthand side of every page for markers’ comments.
Paragraphing is a technique to enable the reader to discern, grasp and absorb the key points in an
argument. Paragraphs should be regarded as clearly defined stages in the development of an
argument. An essay constructed with many short paragraphs gives the impression of ill-digested
notes, or jottings; an essay with only a few very long paragraphs appears to ramble aimlessly
rather than to argue pointedly. Both will seem to their readers to be disorderly pieces whose ideas
have not been thought through. Do not indent after a long quotation unless it is intended to begin
a new paragraph at that point.
Paragraphs should consequently be clearly marked off, either by noticeable indentation (that is,
starting the line a short distance (at least 1.5 cm) to the right of the lefthand margin), or by leaving
a line blank, or by both. An essay in which the paragraph divisions are not easily detected will
appear rough and unfinished.
Students should resist the temptation to use more than one style (or size) of font.
The titles of longer works and of books should be either underlined or italicized. This includes
novels, plays, long poems, collections of poems or short stories, and books of criticism. Shorter
pieces (individual poems, stories, essays) should appear within inverted commas. Thus:
‘Epithalamion’ but The Faerie Queene or The Faerie Queene; ‘We are
Seven’ but Lyrical Ballads or Lyrical Ballads; ‘The Love Song of J.
Alfred Prufrock’, but The Waste Land or The Waste Land. Never use both
underlining and quotation marks.
Each page should be clearly numbered; pages should be pinned or stapled together in the top
lefthand corner only (otherwise they are not easy to read and annotate).
Essays should not exceed the prescribed word length (which includes quotations and footnotes,
but excludes the bibliography).
Modern punctuation serves to define the structure of a sentence by marking off its constituent
parts. The neglect or misuse of marks of punctuation will obscure meaning and hence is likely to
mislead the reader.
Full stops are the heaviest marks of punctuation. They signal the completion of a sentence: that
is, they distinguish one coherent, self-contained statement from the next discrete point to be
made. Commas should not be used between sentences, even simple one-clause sentences.
The colon distinguishes two sentence elements (the first always being a full clause), where the
full significance of the second depends upon its relationship to the first. It is usually followed by
a conclusion drawn from the preceding statement, or by an enumeration, summation or
illustration of the point which has been made, e.g. ‘There was an obvious solution: she would
have to drive herself to the hospital’; ‘There were three colours in the mix: red, green and yellow’.
One of its commonest uses in literary essays is to introduce indented quotations.
The semicolon is a lighter stop, used between related points of equal significance, usually two
independent clauses, e.g. ‘I opened the envelope; the news was not good’; or sometimes two
independent clauses linked by a connecting adverbial: ‘He was on holiday; however, his mind
was still at the office’. A semicolon can always, in principle, be replaced either by a full stop
(yielding two separate sentences) or by the word and (possibly preceded by a joining comma).
However, it tends to be used in place of a full stop where the two parts are felt to be closely
Commas are used to distinguish parts of a single statement, but not to distinguish separate
statements. Typical uses include: the separating off of an introductory adverb (However,
Chaucer...; Nevertheless, Chaucer...); the distinguishing of items in a list;
marking out simple phrases and relative clauses which are readily detachable from the
Dashes should not be used as a means to avoid choosing the appropriate punctuation mark. A
dash can be used to set off an additional point, appended to a sentence as if in afterthought, often
in an ironic or exclamatory way. It is better not to use dashes as if they were brackets.
A pair of brackets encloses a comment within the course of another statement while keeping it
syntactically distinct.
Omissions should be indicated by three dots. (This is most commonly required within
quotations.) E.g., ‘The sea-cucumbers were…three hundred dollars a
Single quotation marks should be used for quotations within your own prose and double
quotation marks for quotations within a quotation. Note that indented quotations are not
enclosed within quotation marks (since it is already clear that these are quotations).
Exclamation marks should be used sparingly, if at all. Their frequent use gives the impression
that the writer is overexcited.
The apostrophe needlessly gives much trouble. It serves two purposes: first, it is used as a mark
of omission, in the place of letters which have been left out (o’er, didn’t etc.); secondly, it
is used to signify possession.
When used to signify possession, the apostrophe is placed before the ‘s’ with single nouns (e.g.
Dorigen’s, Bilbo’s, Lady Macbeth’s); with plural nouns, it is placed after the ‘s’
(e.g. the Metaphysicals’ fantasticality, the Romantics’
morbidity). (Note, however, that when the plural form of the noun does not take an `s’, the
apostrophe is placed before the possessive ‘s’: so, children’s, not childrens’). This
distinction should be observed, since it involves a difference of meaning: the sonnet's
structure and the sonnets’ structure do not mean the same thing. Care should
be taken with nouns which end in ‘s’: the possessive form of Keats is not Keat’s but
Keats’s (in such cases the possessive ‘s’ is sometimes omitted: Keats’). Yeat’s would
be the possessive form of Yeat, not Yeats.
‘Its’ and ‘it’s’ are the commonest cause of confusion in this connection. ‘It’s’ is an elision of ‘it
is’; the apostrophe signifies omission of the ‘i’ in ‘is’. The problem arises with ‘its’, which is the
possessive form of the pronoun ‘it’, but does not have an apostrophe. This possessive pronoun
was coined in the late sixteenth century, and came into common use in the seventeenth century
(‘his’ was formerly the neuter pronoun), though until the early nineteenth century it was
commonly spelled ‘it’s’, indicating its possessive nature (it + possessive s). However, the
apostrophe has now been dropped for two hundred years and ‘its’ has become the fixed form of
the pronoun, on the analogy of ‘his’. So:
it is/it has
of it (possessive)
does not exist
Spelling: Common Errors
The ability to spell is an elementary but an essential skill in a student of English. It is worthwhile
always working with a dictionary by your side to check spellings. It is a useful practice to
maintain a list of the correct spellings of words which, through experience, you find you
commonly misspell.
The following are pairs of words which are commonly not properly distinguished. It is
worthwhile looking them up and learning their meanings:
The following are words commonly misspelt:
definite (ly)
(Endings in ence/ance, ent/ant and able/ible give particular trouble and should be watched.)
The following singular and plural forms are often confused, misused or misconstrued:
Avoid colloquial abbreviations such as ‘don’t’, ‘aren’t’, ‘I’ll’.
Avoid the use of ‘etc.’: it suggests that you cannot be bothered to write down what you have in
Common and accepted abbreviations are: e.g., (= for example); i.e. (that is); cp. or cf. (=
compare); ff. (following, after a page reference). Their use, however, should be confined to
references and annotation; they should not appear within the body of your prose.
Quotation in Literary Studies
A good essay will analyse literary texts in detail and will pay close attention to specific passages
within them. To this end, quotation is essential.
As a rule of thumb, comment on a quotation should be at least as long as the
quotation itself.
Quotations may be either run into the text of an essay, or marked off from it: if the quotation is
no more than three lines long, it should be enclosed within quotation marks and run into the text;
if it is longer, it should not be within quotation marks but should be separated from the body of
the text by: indenting every line; single spacing; and the leaving of a line space before and after.
Both forms are illustrated by this passage from Catherine Belsey, John Milton (1988), p. 34:
Alastair Fowler cites a comment of 1734 which is more to the
point than some of the subsequent debate:
Milton’s language is English, but ‘tis Milton’s English;
‘tis Latin, ‘tis Greek English; not only the words, the
phraseology, the transpositions, but the ancient idiom is
seen in all he writes, so that a learned foreigner will
think Milton the easiest to be understood of all the
English writers.
F. R. Leavis, for whom Englishness was more or less
synonymous with virtue, would evidently have derived no
pleasure from the notion of the ‘learned foreigner’ with easy
access to Milton’s work. In his view, ‘cultivating so
complete and systematic a callousness to the intrinsic nature
of English’ Milton forfeits all possibility of subtle or
delicate life in his verse.
Run on quotations should look like this:
It is characteristic of Herbert to doubt his capacity to
fulfil his Christian commitment: he thinks of himself as
a ‘guest’ not ‘worthy’ to be admitted into Christian
communion. However, when he wishes that he were ‘an
Orangetree/ That busie plant’, it seems to be the exotic
and improbable which he desires as much as to be
productive and useful.
Lines are separated by an oblique stroke, and begin with a capital letter if they do so in the
After Ananias’ expostulation in Jonson's Alchemist that
‘Thou look’st like antichrist in that lewd hat’ neither
apocalyptic terrors nor seventeenth-century fashions can
ever be so fearsome again.
The extract is enclosed within quotation marks, but there are no quotation marks around dialogue
within it; should verse be quoted, the lines are separated as in quotation from poems. Always be
sure to indicate which character in the play is speaking.
When the outraged Stephen rounds on Maggie ‘"Good God!
...you rave. How can you go back without marrying
me?...You see nothing as it really is"’ he begins to
realise how misplaced has been his confidence that Maggie
would feel compelled by social pressure to comply with
his wishes.
In the case of prose, dialogue is contained within double quotation marks, while the whole extract
is placed within single quotation marks.
Indented quotations should be introduced by a colon and should look like this:
And, as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!
One, two! One, two! And through and through,
The vorpal blade went snickersnack!
He left it dead, and with its head
He went galumphing back.
‘And hast thou slain the jabberwock?
Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
O frabjous day! Calooh! Callay!’
He chortled in his joy.
The layout of the original is reproduced without quotation marks around the extract. Should there
be speech within the verse, it (but it alone) is included within quotation marks, as in the original.
Estragon: Fancy that. (He raises what remains of the
carrot by the stub of the leaf, twirls it
before his eyes.) Funny, the more you eat, the
worse it gets.
Vladimir: With me it's just the opposite.
Estragon: In other words?
Vladimir: I get used to the muck as I go along.
Estragon: (After a prolonged reflection.) Is that the
There are no quotation marks around what characters say in a drama, nor around the setin
quotation as a whole. The characters should be named if more than one of them speaks in the
‘Never mind, Harriet’, said Emma, ‘I shall not be a poor
old maid; and it is poverty only which makes celibacy
contemptible to a generous public! A single woman, with a
very narrow income, must be a ridiculous, disagreeable,
old maid! the proper sport of boys and girls; but a
single woman of good fortune, is always respectable, and
may be as sensible and pleasant as anyone else’.
Although there are no quotation marks around set-in quotations, dialogue in prose, unlike
dialogue in drama, is enclosed within quotation marks.
After indented quotations, the resumed text should not be indented unless a new paragraph is
intended. All indented quotations should be given in single spacing.
All quotations should faithfully reproduce the form of the original. Any omissions or alterations
should be clearly indicated (cf. 20).
Care should be taken not to break up sentences by incorporating long quotations within them.
Almost invariably, the result is that the reader loses the thread. After a long quotation, begin a
new sentence.
Indented quoted extracts should make sense within themselves as isolated passages; run-on54
quotations should make sense within the sentence in which they are placed.
Run-on quotations should not generally be placed within brackets in order to incorporate them
into sentences since this reduces them to parenthetical asides.
Presentation of Linguistic Data
If cases or data from spoken English or from written texts are lengthy (i.e. more than four or five
lines) they should be included in an appendix to your written work. Lines should be numbered
and your transcription and notation conventions (if not immediately obvious) should be provided.
The appendix will not be counted towards the total length of the submitted work.
When referring to data, the relevant passages should be quoted if they are short; when they are
longer, reference should be made to the appendix. In either case, always give the line number
allocated in the appendix. Quotations included in the text will count towards the total length of
the essay and should therefore be kept as short as possible.
If your written work consists entirely, or almost entirely, of analysis of data, with little prose
description, consult your tutor on how to lay it out.
Referencing (see the example essay given in 49)
All quotations and citations in your essay should carry a supporting reference giving details of
their source. The point of such reference is to make available the evidence on which an argument
is based. If the reader is to be able to look at this evidence, she or he must be able to identify both
the particular book which has been used and the place in the book where the relevant passage
may be found. References therefore need to give specific and clear information about: title;
edition; page.
References should be given as numbered footnotes at the bottom of each page of your essay. In
most word-processing programmes, footnotes are accessed through the Insert menu. The
important thing to stress is that the numbering of notes must be clear and sequential.
When you insert a footnote, the word-processing programme automatically places a superscript
numeral in the body of the text, and opens a footer space for you to enter the details of the source
you are citing.
Instructions for Referencing
The FIRST reference you make to any source takes the form of a footnote. All SUBSEQUENT
references to the same source are NOT footnoted, but instead appear in abbreviated form and
in parentheses (details in E.47 below).
Note on abbreviations used: in the case of books (as opposed to journal articles) the
abbreviation p. is used to indicate the page number being quoted or cited; pp. is used where the
quoted or cited material extends over more than one page. For example: p.3; and pp.36-7.
First Reference Formats
For the first reference you make to a particular source, you should mimic one of the sample
formats below, depending on the nature of the material being referenced. NB: for place of
publication, give the first place listed on the title page. Publishers often have offices in various
locations and will sometimes list some or all of these; but for purposes of this Stylesheet, you
should give only the first place of publication mentioned.
For books:
Ian McEwan, On Chesil Beach (London: Jonathan Cape, 2007), p.23
Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses (London: Viking, 1988),
Where there is more than one author:
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic:
the woman writer and the nineteenth-century literary imagination
(New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979), p.26
And where the book is in a later edition (i.e., not its first edition):
M. H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms, 4th edn (New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981), p.132
Editions often go through several impressions or printings (listed, or summarized, with dates,
on the imprint page). It is not usually necessary to specify which reprint of an edition is being
used, since these will all have the same pagination. So, an imprint page which reads ‘First
published in 1973/ Published by Virago Press, 1979/ Reprinted 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987,
1988, 1989, 1990, 1991’ may be rendered:
Margaret Atwood, Surfacing (London: Virago, 1979), p.9
For edited books:
Janet Todd, ed., A Dictionary of British and American Women
Writers 16601800 (London: Methuen, 1987), p.72
Hugh MacDiarmid, A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle, ed. by
Kenneth Buthlay (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1987),
For pieces within printed books:
Here it is important to give the author and title of the piece you are quoting or citing, as well as
the author, title and other publication details of the book within which the piece appears. To make
the reference as informative as possible for your reader, you should give page numbers indicating
the extent of the piece, and the specific page or pages you are quoting from or citing. So, in the
first example below, the tale by Henryson is printed on pages 37-41 of the Oxford Book of
Narrative Verse, and the page quoted from is page 38. In the second example, the whole article
is being cited:
Robert Henryson,‘The Tale of the Upland Mouse and the Burgess
Mouse’, in The Oxford Book of Narrative Verse, ed. by Iona
and Peter Opie (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988),
pp.3741 (p.38)
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala,‘How I Became a Holy Mother’, in The
Secret Self: Short Stories by Women, ed. by Hermione Lee
(London: Dent, 1991), pp.27491
Often, you will want to reference an article in a book where the book has more than one editor.
Where there are two or three editors, this should be indicated thus:
Maria DiBattista, ‘Virginia Woolf and the language of
authorship’, in The Cambridge Companion to Virginia Woolf, ed.
by Sue Roe and Susan Sellers, (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2000), pp.130-44 (p.139)
Ian Sampson, ‘Henry James and the Market’, in Modernist Writers
and the Marketplace, ed. by Ian Willison, Warwick Gould and
Warren Chernaik (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), pp.2-22 (p.16)
In the first example above, p.139 is being quoted form; the article in the book runs from pages
130-44; in the second example, it’s page 16 of an article which runs from pages 2-11. And so
Where there are more than three editors, as is often the case with large anthologies like the
Norton, only the name of the first editor should be given, followed by the phrase ‘and others’:
Robert Browning, ‘Memorabilia’, in The Norton Anthology of
Poetry, 3rd edn, ed. by Alexander W. Allison and others (New
York: W. W. Norton, 1983), p.737
For translated titles:
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. by H.M.
Parshley (London: Pan, 1988), p.88
Umberto Eco, The Name of the Rose, trans. by William
Weaver (London: Secker and Warburg, 1983), p.6
For articles in journals:
Note here that the volume number of the journal comes after the title, with the
year of publication following in brackets. Note also that the page numbering abbreviation ‘pp.’
used for marking the page extent of pieces within printed books (as in section d. above) is omitted
in the case of journal articles. So, in the first example here, the article runs from pages 13-21 of
the journal and the whole article is being cited; in the second example, the article runs from pages
143-65, but only page 145 is being cited or quoted from:
Catherine Belsey, ‘The Illusion of Empire: Elizabethan
Expansionism and Shakespeare's Second Tetralogy’, Literature
and History, 1 (1990), 1321
Peter Lake, ‘Feminine Piety and Personal Potency: The
"Emancipation" of Mrs. Jane Ratcliffe’, The Seventeenth
Century, 2 (1987),14365 (p.145)
Sometimes a journal will give a volume number and a part number within that volume.
Where that is the case you should follow this model (here page 190 of part 4 of volume 30 is
being cited):
David R. Olson, ‘On the Language and Authority of Textbooks’,
Journal of Communication, 30.4 (1980), 186-96 (p.190)
For materials from the internet
As far as possible, follow the style used for printed publications as detailed above.
Information should be given in the following order:
Author’s name
Title of item
Title of complete work/resource
Publication details (volume, issue, date)
Full address (Universal Resource Locator (URL))
Date at which the resource was consulted (in square brackets)
Location of passage cited (in parentheses)
For example:
Steve Sohmer, ‘The Lunar Calendar of Shakespeare’s King
Lear’, Early Modern Literary Studies, 5.2
[accessed 28 January 2000] (para. 3 of 17)
Plays and Long Works
The first full reference to a play or long work should indicate the edition used. Small capital
roman numerals should be used for the numbers of acts of plays, and for the numbers of
‘books’ and other major subdivisions. Smaller subdivisions (scenes, cantos, chapters, etc.) and
line numbers are usually indicated by arabic numerals. For example, to cite lines 99-107, in
Act 3 scene 4 of Macbeth, one would give the first reference thus:
William Shakespeare, Macbeth, ed. by A. R. Braunmuller
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), iii. 4. 99-107
Likewise, a first reference to Paradise Lost citing or quoting lines 342-7 of book 9 would
appear in the footnote/endnote thus:
John Milton, Paradise Lost, ed. by Alastair Fowler (Harlow:
Longman, 1971), ix, 342-7
References to the Bible should be in the following form: Isaiah 22. 17; ii Corinthians 5. 13–
15, and so on. Note that books of the Bible are not italicized; roman numerals are used for the
numbers of books, arabic numerals (separated by a full stop) for chapters and verses.
Subsequent Reference Format (see the example essay given in 49)
As you will see in the sample essay following, the above conventions apply to the first
reference the essay makes to a source text. Once the reference has been given in its full form,
there is no need to repeat it in its entirety. Instead, an abbreviated form of the footnote
reference should appear between parentheses, after your quotation but outside the closing
quotation mark. In the case of secondary sources, your parenthetical reference will consist of
the author's name and a page reference. For example:
(Chadwick and Chadwick, iii, 72)
If there can be no doubt which author is being referred to but more than one of his or her works has
been cited, use the short title of the specific work followed by the page reference:
(Worlds of Reference, p.9)
(‘The Lover as Icarus’, p.12)
Remember: your reader must always be able to trace these subsequent abbreviated references back
to an initial full reference to the work in question.
For first mention of a primary text, provide full bibliographic details (as above) in a footnote. For
subsequent references use the title of the poem, novel etc (rather than author). Abbreviations are
also acceptable:
(Frankenstein, p. 101)
Short stories:
(‘The Dead’, p. 179)
Poems (here the number refers to line rather than page):
(‘Leda and the Swan’ (or LS), l. 12)
Plays (here the numbers refer to act, scene and line(s))
(Taming of the Shrew (or TS), V.2.139)
48. Bibliography
Every essay must conclude with a list of all works cited or quoted from in your essay. In addition,
you should include any relevant works you referred to when writing your essay but which your
essay does not mention explicitly. (As you will see in the sample essay below, three relevant works
are listed in the bibliography but not directly cited in the essay).
The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by the surname of the first named author or editor of
the work in question. The names of collaborating authors or editors are listed in the normal order
(i.e., not surname first).
The bibliography is a list of sources, not a list of references. Accordingly, books should be listed
with their full publication details (as in the footnote reference), but page references for your first
quoted passage should be removed. This also applies to journal articles or book chapter: include the
page extent of the source, but omit the page reference for the quotation your footnote reference
The simplest way to assemble your bibliography is to copy and paste your first full footnote
reference to a work, remembering 1) to reverse the name order of the first author or editor; and 2) to
remove any page numbers referring to the specific passage you quoted from the book or article.
Page numbers which denote the page extent of an article in a book or journal should remain: see, for
example, the entry for Benjamin in the bibliography below.
If the bibliography includes more than one work by the same author or editor, a long dash should be
substituted for the name after the first appearance, and the works should be arranged in alphabetical
order of title, disregarding initial definite or indefinite articles (i.e., ‘A’ or ‘The’).
The sample essay following exemplifies most of the referencing formats detailed above.
49. Referencing Example
[Note: this mock essay is solely for the purpose of illustrating reference conventions; its content is
spurious and should not be relied upon]
In his book on modernist literature, Peter Childs describes in detail the formal characteristics of a
number of ‘richly allusive and ambiguous’1 short stories by James Joyce, Katherine Mansfield and
Virginia Woolf. Tim Armstrong augments Childs’ formalist account with a discussion of the role
that different publishing venues had in the development of the short story in this period:
By the time we arrive at the short fictions of Turgenev, Joyce and Mansfield, the short story
has become definitional to modernism: epiphanic, ambiguous, formally perfect—but still a
basic unit of magazine publication. […] The position of the short story can be taken as
emblematic of modernism as a whole: quality cannot be dissociated from a consumer culture
in which it identifies a particular audience.2
Peter Childs, Modernism (London and New York: Routledge, 2000), p.93
Tim Armstrong, Modernism: A Cultural History (Cambridge: Polity, 2005), pp.52-3
The significance of Armstrong’s contribution to short story criticism lies in the relationship it
perceives between the formal character of the short story, the cultural contexts of its production and
reception, and rise of modernist coterie magazine publishing. In this essay, I will explore further the
relationship between these three elements with particular reference to two stories by Virginia
In the minds of many critics, the coterie magazine functioned as the ‘engine of modernism’
(Armstrong, p.53). Mark Morrison, for example, argues that the medium offered modernist writers
an outlet that was uncontaminated by mass commercial values.3 A similar case is made by Leonard
Diepeveen who suggests that the magazine was the principal mechanism of ‘cultural elevation’4 for
modernist writing. At the same time, other modernist critics have begun considering the ways in
which particular literary forms might be said to be ‘calibrated’ (Childs, p.107) to the broader
cultural conditions of modernity. Fundamental to this school of thought is the work of Walter
Benjamin, who, in his essay ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, suggests
that art does not simply reflect modernity, but inhabits and produces it too.5 It is an idea strongly
echoed in recent criticism. Frederic Jameson, for example, regards the cultural function of the
modernist text as a matter of making the reader feel ‘at home in what would otherwise be a
distressingly alienating reality’.6 That is to say, in the way that it makes an aesthetic virtue out of
social phenomena of fragmentation, dislocation and isolation, the modernist text participates in the
Mark Morrison, ‘The Little Magazines’, in Modernist Writers and the Marketplace, ed. by Ian
Willison, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, 2nd edn (Basingstoke and London: Macmillan,
1996), pp.1-19
Leonard Diepeveen, ‘T.S. Eliot and the Modernist Magazine’, in Marketing Modernism, ed. by
Kevin J. H. Dettmar and Stephen Watts (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp.2-23
Walter Benjamin, ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, in Illuminations,
trans. by Harry Zohn (London: Pimlico, 1999), pp.211-44
Frederic Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca and
London: Cornell University Press, 1981), p.236
process of ‘acclimatizing’7 the subject to the experience of technological modernity.
Armstrong, Tim, Modernism: A Cultural History (Cambridge: Polity, 2005)
Benjamin, Walter, ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, in
Illuminations, trans. by Harry Zohn (London: Pimlico, 1999), pp.211-44
Childs, Peter, Modernism (London and New York: Routledge, 2000)
Diepeveen, Leonard, ‘T.S. Eliot and the Modernist Magazine’, in Marketing
Modernism, ed. by Kevin J. H. Dettmar and Stephen Watts (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp.2-23
Hunter, Adrian, The Cambridge Introduction to the Short Story in English
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Jameson, Frederic, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981)
Morrison, Mark, ‘The Little Magazines’, in Modernist Writers and the Marketplace,
ed. by Ian Willison, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, 2nd edn
(Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), pp.1-19
Taylor, Roger, Stephen Thomson and Graham Whittaker, eds., Modernism: A
Sourcebook (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)
Smith, Lloyd, ‘The Modernist Short Story’, English, 98 (1999), 13-31
---- ‘Modernist Textual Criticism’, Essays in Criticism, 45 (2002), 2-11
---- Text and Intertext (London: Routledge, 1996)
Lloyd Smith, ‘The Rise of the Modernist Short Story’, English, 98 (1999), 13-31 (p.20)
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