S7530 Operating Manual
S5048 and S7530
Vector Network Analyzer
Operating Manual
First Edition
2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 8
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................... 9
1
GENERAL OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 11
1.1
Description.................................................................................................................... 11
1.2 Specifications................................................................................................................ 11
1.2.1
Basic Specifications............................................................................................... 11
1.2.2
Measurement Capabilities ..................................................................................... 16
2
1.3
Ordering Information .................................................................................................... 23
1.4
Principle of Operation................................................................................................... 23
1.5
Typical Measurement ................................................................................................... 24
PREPARATION FOR USE .......................................................................................... 26
2.1
General Information...................................................................................................... 26
2.2
Software Installation ..................................................................................................... 26
2.3 Front Panel .................................................................................................................... 29
2.3.1
Power Switch ......................................................................................................... 30
2.3.2
Test Ports ............................................................................................................... 31
2.4 Rear Panel ..................................................................................................................... 31
2.4.1
Power Cable Receptacle ........................................................................................ 32
2.4.2
External Trigger Signal Input Connector .............................................................. 32
2.4.3
External Reference Frequency Connector ............................................................. 32
2.4.4
USB 2.0 High Speed.............................................................................................. 32
3
4
GETTING STARTED ................................................................................................... 33
3.1
Analyzer Preparation for Reflection Measurement ...................................................... 34
3.2
Analyzer Presetting....................................................................................................... 34
3.3
Stimulus Setting ............................................................................................................ 34
3.4
IF Bandwidth Setting .................................................................................................... 35
3.5
Number of Traces, Measured Parameter and Display Format Setting ........................ 35
3.6
Trace Scale Setting ....................................................................................................... 37
3.7
Analyzer Calibration for Reflection Coefficient Measurement .................................... 37
3.8
SWR and Reflection Coefficient Phase Analysis Using Markers ................................ 40
MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING ............................................................ 42
4.1 Screen Layout and Functions........................................................................................ 42
4.1.1
Softkey Menu Bar.................................................................................................. 42
4.1.2
Menu Bar ............................................................................................................... 44
4.1.3
Instrument Status Bar ............................................................................................ 45
4.2 Channel Window Layout and Functions ...................................................................... 46
4.2.1
Channel Title Bar .................................................................................................. 47
4.2.2
Trace Status Field .................................................................................................. 48
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
Graph Area ............................................................................................................ 50
Trace Layout in Channel Window......................................................................... 50
Markers .................................................................................................................. 52
Channel Status Bar ................................................................................................ 53
4.3 Quick Channel Setting Using Mouse............................................................................ 57
4.3.1
Active Channel Selection ...................................................................................... 57
4.3.2
Active Trace Selection .......................................................................................... 57
4.3.3
Measured Data Setting .......................................................................................... 57
4.3.4
Display Format Setting .......................................................................................... 57
4.3.5
Trace Scale Setting ................................................................................................ 58
4.3.6
Reference Level Setting ........................................................................................ 58
4.3.7
Reference Level Position....................................................................................... 59
4.3.8
Sweep Start Setting................................................................................................ 59
4.3.9
Sweep Stop Setting ................................................................................................ 59
4.3.10 Sweep Center Setting ............................................................................................ 59
4.3.11 Sweep Span Setting ............................................................................................... 60
4.3.12 Marker Stimulus Value Setting ............................................................................. 60
4.3.13 Switching between Start/Center and Stop/Span Modes ........................................ 60
4.3.14 Start/Center Value Setting ..................................................................................... 60
4.3.15 Stop/Span Value Setting ........................................................................................ 60
4.3.16 Sweep Points Number Setting ............................................................................... 60
4.3.17 Sweep Type Setting ............................................................................................... 61
4.3.18 IF Bandwidth Setting............................................................................................. 61
4.3.19 Power Level / CW Frequency Setting ................................................................... 61
4.4 Channel and Trace Display Setting .............................................................................. 62
4.4.1
Channel Window Allocating ................................................................................. 62
4.4.2
Number of Traces Setting...................................................................................... 63
4.4.3
Trace Allocating .................................................................................................... 64
4.4.4
Trace/Channel Activating...................................................................................... 67
4.4.5
Active Trace/Channel Window Maximizing......................................................... 67
4.5 Stimulus Setting ............................................................................................................ 68
4.5.1
Sweep Type Setting ............................................................................................... 68
4.5.2
Sweep Span Setting ............................................................................................... 69
4.5.3
Sweep Points Setting ............................................................................................. 69
4.5.4
Stimulus Power Setting ......................................................................................... 69
4.5.5
Power Slope Feature .............................................................................................. 70
4.5.6
CW Frequency Setting .......................................................................................... 70
4.5.7
RF Out Function .................................................................................................... 70
4.5.8
Segment Table Editing .......................................................................................... 71
4.5.9
Measurement Delay ............................................................................................... 73
4.6
Trigger Setting .............................................................................................................. 74
4.7 Measurement Parameters Setting.................................................................................. 76
4.7.1
S-Parameters .......................................................................................................... 76
4.7.2
S-Parameter Setting ............................................................................................... 77
4.7.3
Absolute Measurements ........................................................................................ 77
4.7.4
Absolute Measurement Setting.............................................................................. 78
4.8 Format Setting .............................................................................................................. 79
4.8.1
Rectangular Formats.............................................................................................. 79
4.8.2
Polar Format .......................................................................................................... 81
4.8.3
Smith Chart Format ............................................................................................... 82
4.8.4
Data Format Setting............................................................................................... 84
4.9
Scale Setting ................................................................................................................. 86
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
4.9.6
4.9.7
4.9.8
Rectangular Scale .................................................................................................. 86
Rectangular Scale Setting ...................................................................................... 86
Circular Scale ........................................................................................................ 87
Circular Scale Setting ............................................................................................ 87
Automatic Scaling ................................................................................................. 87
Reference Level Automatic Selection ................................................................... 88
Electrical Delay Setting ......................................................................................... 88
Phase Offset Setting .............................................................................................. 89
4.10
Measurement Optimizing .......................................................................................... 90
4.10.1 IF Bandwidth Setting............................................................................................. 90
4.10.2 Averaging Setting .................................................................................................. 90
4.10.3 Smoothing Setting ................................................................................................. 91
4.11
Mixer Measurements................................................................................................. 92
4.11.1 Mixer Measurement Methods................................................................................ 92
4.11.2 Frequency Offset Mode ......................................................................................... 93
4.11.3 Automatic Adjustment of Offset Frequency ......................................................... 95
4.11.3.1 Setting of Offset Frequency Automatic Adjustment ...................................... 96
5
CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT ............................................................. 98
5.1 General Information...................................................................................................... 98
5.1.1
Measurement Errors .............................................................................................. 98
5.1.2
Systematic Errors................................................................................................... 99
5.1.2.1
Directivity Error ............................................................................................. 99
5.1.2.2
Source Match Error ........................................................................................ 99
5.1.2.3
Load Match Error ........................................................................................... 99
5.1.2.4
Isolation Error .............................................................................................. 100
5.1.2.5
Reflection Tracking Error ............................................................................ 100
5.1.2.6
Transmission Tracking Error ....................................................................... 100
5.1.3
Error Modeling .................................................................................................... 101
5.1.3.1
One-Port Error Model .................................................................................. 101
5.1.3.2
Two-Port Error Model.................................................................................. 102
5.1.4
Analyzer Test Ports Defining .............................................................................. 103
5.1.5
Calibration Steps ................................................................................................. 104
5.1.6
Calibration Methods ............................................................................................ 105
5.1.6.1
Normalization............................................................................................... 106
5.1.6.2
Directivity Calibration (Optional) ................................................................ 106
5.1.6.3
Isolation Calibration (Optional) ................................................................... 106
5.1.6.4
Full One-Port Calibration ............................................................................. 107
5.1.6.5
One-Path Two-Port Calibration ................................................................... 107
5.1.6.6
Full Two-Port Calibration ............................................................................ 107
5.1.6.7
Sliding Load Calibration .............................................................................. 108
5.1.6.8
Unknown Thru Calibration .......................................................................... 108
5.1.6.9
TRL Calibration ........................................................................................... 109
5.1.6.10 Multiline TRL Calibration ........................................................................... 111
5.1.7
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits ......................................................... 113
5.1.7.1
Definitions and Classes of Calibration Standards ........................................ 113
5.1.7.2
Types of Calibration Standards .................................................................... 113
5.1.7.3
Methods of Calibration Standard Defining .................................................. 114
5.1.7.4
Calibration Standard Model ......................................................................... 114
5.1.7.5
Data-Based Calibration Standards ............................................................... 116
5.1.7.6
Scope of Calibration Standard Definition .................................................... 116
5.1.7.7
Classes of Calibration Standards .................................................................. 118
5.1.7.8
Subclasses of Calibration Standards ............................................................ 119
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
5.2 Calibration Procedures................................................................................................ 120
5.2.1
Calibration Kit Selection ..................................................................................... 120
5.2.2
Reflection Normalization .................................................................................... 121
5.2.3
Transmission Normalization ............................................................................... 123
5.2.4
Full One-Port Calibration .................................................................................... 125
5.2.5
One-Path Two-Port Calibration........................................................................... 127
5.2.6
Full Two-Port Calibration ................................................................................... 129
5.2.6.1
Unknown Thru Calibration .......................................................................... 131
5.2.7
TRL Calibration .................................................................................................. 132
5.2.7.1
Multiline Option of TRL Calibration ........................................................... 134
5.2.8
Calibration Using Subclasses .............................................................................. 135
5.2.9
Calibration Using Sliding Load ........................................................................... 136
5.2.10 Error Correction Disabling .................................................................................. 137
5.2.11 Error Correction Status ........................................................................................ 137
5.2.12 System Impedance Z0 .......................................................................................... 138
5.2.13 Port Extension ..................................................................................................... 139
5.3 Calibration Kit Management ...................................................................................... 141
5.3.1
Table of Calibration Kits ..................................................................................... 141
5.3.1.1
Calibration Kit Selection for Editing ........................................................... 142
5.3.1.2
Calibration Kit Label and Description Editing............................................. 142
5.3.1.3
Predefined Calibration Kit Restoration ........................................................ 143
5.3.1.4
User-Defined Calibration Kit Deleting ........................................................ 143
5.3.1.5
Calibration Kit Saving to File ...................................................................... 143
5.3.1.6
Calibration Kit Loading from File ............................................................... 143
5.3.2
Calibration Standard Definition .......................................................................... 144
5.3.2.1
Standard Adding to Calibration Kit ............................................................. 145
5.3.2.2
Standard Deleting from Calibration Kit ....................................................... 145
5.3.2.3
Calibration Standard Editing ........................................................................ 145
5.3.2.4
Calibration Standard Copy/Paste Function .................................................. 146
5.3.2.5
Management of Sequence in Standard Table ............................................... 147
5.3.3
Table of Calibration Standard S-Parameters ....................................................... 148
5.3.3.1
Line Adding to Table ................................................................................... 149
5.3.3.2
Line Deleting from Table ............................................................................. 149
5.3.3.3
Table Clearing .............................................................................................. 149
5.3.3.4
Table Format Selecting ................................................................................ 149
5.3.3.5
Port Reversing .............................................................................................. 150
5.3.3.6
Data Opening from File................................................................................ 150
5.3.4
Calibration Standard Class Assignment .............................................................. 151
5.3.4.1
Standard Class Table Editing ....................................................................... 151
5.3.4.2
Standard Deleting from Standard Class Table ............................................. 152
5.3.4.3
Strict Class Assigment Function .................................................................. 152
5.3.4.4
Function of Group Assignment of Port Number .......................................... 153
5.4 Power Calibration ....................................................................................................... 154
5.4.1
Loss Compensation Table ................................................................................... 154
5.4.2
Power Calibration Procedure ............................................................................... 155
5.4.3
Power Correction Setting .................................................................................... 155
5.4.4
Loss Compensation Table Editing....................................................................... 155
5.5 Receiver Calibration ................................................................................................... 157
5.5.1
Receiver Calibration Procedure ........................................................................... 157
5.5.2
Receiver Correction Setting ................................................................................ 158
5.6
Scalar Mixer Calibration............................................................................................. 159
5.7 Vector Mixer Calibration............................................................................................ 163
5.7.1
Vector Mixer Calibration Procedure ................................................................... 164
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
5.8 Automatic Calibration Module ................................................................................... 166
5.8.1
Automatic Calibration Module Features ............................................................. 167
5.8.2
Automatic Calibration Procedure ........................................................................ 168
5.8.3
User Characterization Procedure ......................................................................... 169
5.8.4
Confidence Check Procedure .............................................................................. 170
6
MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS ...................................................................... 172
6.1 Markers ....................................................................................................................... 172
6.1.1
Marker Adding .................................................................................................... 174
6.1.2
Marker Deleting................................................................................................... 174
6.1.3
Marker Stimulus Value Setting ........................................................................... 174
6.1.4
Marker Activating ............................................................................................... 175
6.1.5
Reference Marker Feature ................................................................................... 176
6.1.6
Marker Properties ................................................................................................ 177
6.1.6.1
Marker Coupling Feature ............................................................................. 177
6.1.6.2
Marker Table ................................................................................................ 178
6.1.6.3
Marker Value Indication Capacity ............................................................... 179
6.1.6.4
Multi Marker Data Display .......................................................................... 179
6.1.6.5
Marker Data Arranging ................................................................................ 180
6.1.6.6
Marker Data Alignment ............................................................................... 180
6.1.6.7
Memory Trace Value Display ...................................................................... 181
6.1.7
Marker Position Search Functions....................................................................... 181
6.1.7.1
Search for Maximum and Minimum ............................................................ 181
6.1.7.2
Search for Peak ............................................................................................ 182
6.1.7.3
Search for Target Level ................................................................................ 184
6.1.7.4
Search Tracking ........................................................................................... 186
6.1.7.5
Search Range ................................................................................................ 186
6.1.8
Marker Math Functions ....................................................................................... 187
6.1.8.1
Trace Statistics ............................................................................................. 187
6.1.8.2
Bandwidth Search ........................................................................................ 189
6.1.8.3
Flatness......................................................................................................... 191
6.1.8.4
RF Filter Statistics ........................................................................................ 192
6.1.9
Marker Functions................................................................................................. 193
6.2 Memory Trace Function ............................................................................................. 195
6.2.1
Saving Trace into Memory .................................................................................. 196
6.2.2
Trace Display Setting .......................................................................................... 196
6.2.3
Mathematical Operations..................................................................................... 197
6.3 Fixture Simulation ...................................................................................................... 198
6.3.1
Port Z Conversion................................................................................................ 198
6.3.2
De-embedding ..................................................................................................... 199
6.3.3
Embedding........................................................................................................... 201
6.4 Time Domain Transformation .................................................................................... 204
6.4.1
Time Domain Transformation Activating ........................................................... 205
6.4.2
Time Domain Transformation Span .................................................................... 205
6.4.3
Time Domain Transformation Type .................................................................... 206
6.4.4
Time Domain Transformation Window Shape Setting ....................................... 206
6.4.5
Frequency Harmonic Grid Setting....................................................................... 207
6.5 Time Domain Gating .................................................................................................. 208
6.5.1
Time Domain Gate Activating ............................................................................ 209
6.5.2
Time Domain Gate Span ..................................................................................... 209
6.5.3
Time Domain Gate Type ..................................................................................... 210
6.5.4
Time Domain Gate Shape Setting ....................................................................... 210
6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.6
S-Parameter Conversion ............................................................................................. 211
6.7 Limit Test.................................................................................................................... 213
6.7.1
Limit Line Editing ............................................................................................... 214
6.7.2
Limit Test Enabling/Disabling ............................................................................ 215
6.7.3
Limit Test Display Management ......................................................................... 215
6.7.4
Limit Line Offset ................................................................................................. 216
6.8 Ripple Limit Test ........................................................................................................ 217
6.8.1
Ripple Limit Editing ............................................................................................ 218
6.8.2
Ripple Limit Enabling/Disabling......................................................................... 220
6.8.3
Ripple Limit Test Display Management ............................................................. 220
7
ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT ................................................................................... 221
7.1 Analyzer State............................................................................................................. 221
7.1.1
Analyzer State Saving ......................................................................................... 222
7.1.2
Analyzer State Recalling ..................................................................................... 223
7.2 Channel State .............................................................................................................. 224
7.2.1
Channel State Saving........................................................................................... 224
7.2.2
Channel State Recalling ...................................................................................... 224
7.3 Trace Data CSV File ................................................................................................... 225
7.3.1
CSV File Saving/Recalling.................................................................................. 225
7.4 Trace Data Touchstone File ........................................................................................ 226
7.4.1
Touchstone File Saving/Recalling....................................................................... 227
8
SYSTEM SETTINGS .................................................................................................. 229
8.1
Analyzer Presetting..................................................................................................... 229
8.2
Graph Printing ............................................................................................................ 229
8.3
Reference Frequency Oscillator Selection.................................................................. 230
8.4
System Correction Setting .......................................................................................... 231
8.5
Beeper Setting............................................................................................................. 232
8.6
User Interface Setting ................................................................................................. 233
8.7
Screen Update Setting................................................................................................. 237
8.8
Power Meter Setting ................................................................................................... 238
8.9
Stimulus Frequency Adjustment ................................................................................. 241
9
MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE........................................................................... 242
9.1 Maintenance Procedures ............................................................................................. 242
9.1.1
Instrument Cleaning ............................................................................................ 242
9.1.2
Factory Calibration .............................................................................................. 242
9.1.3
Performance Test ................................................................................................. 243
9.2
10
Storage Instructions .................................................................................................... 243
WARRANTY INFORMATION ............................................................................. 244
Appendix 1 — Default Settings Table .............................................................................. 245
7
INTRODUCTION
This Operating Manual contains design, specifications, functional overview, and
detailed operation procedures for the Network Analyzer, to ensure effective and safe
use of its technical capabilities by the user.
Maintenance and operation of the Analyzer should be performed by qualified engineers
with basic experience in operating of microwave circuits and PC.
The following abbreviations are used in this Manual:
PC
– Personal Computer
DUT – Device Under Test
IF
– Intermediate Frequency
CW
– Continuous Wave
SWR – Standing Wave Ratio
8
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Carefully read the following safety instructions before putting the Analyzer into
operation. Observe all the precautions and warnings provided in this Manual for all the
phases of operation, service, and repair of the Analyzer.
The Analyzer should be used only by skilled and thoroughly trained personnel with the
required skills and knowledge of safety precautions.
The Analyzer complies with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II as well as
POLLUTION DEGREE 2 as defined in IEC61010–1.
The Analyzer is a MEASUREMENT CATEGORY I (CAT I) device. Do not use the
Analyzer as a CAT II, III, or IV device.
The Analyzer is for INDOOR USE only.
The Analyzer has been tested as a stand-alone device and in combination with the
accessories supplied by Copper Mountain Technologies, in accordance with the
requirements of the standards described in the Declaration of Conformity. If the
Analyzer is integrated with another system, compliance with related regulations and
safety requirements are to be confirmed by the builder of the system.
Never operate the Analyzer in an environment containing flammable gasses or fumes.
Operators must not remove the cover or any other part of the housing. The Analyzer
must not be repaired by the operator. Component replacement or internal adjustment
must be performed by qualified maintenance personnel only.
Never operate the Analyzer if the power cable is damaged.
Never connect the test ports to A/C power mains.
Electrostatic discharge can damage the Analyzer whether connected to or disconnected
from the DUT. Static charge can build up on your body and damage sensitive internal
components of both the Analyzer and the DUT. To avoid damage from electric
discharge, observe the following:
-
Always use a desktop anti-static mat under the DUT.
Always wear a grounding wrist strap connected to the desktop anti-static mat via
daisy-chained 1 MΩ resistor.
-
Connect the post marked
on the body of the Analyzer to the body of the
DUT before you start operation.
Observe all general safety precautions related to operation of electrically energized
equipment.
9
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
The definitions of safety symbols used on the instrument and in the Manual are listed
below.
Refer to the Manual if the instrument is marked with this
symbol.
Alternating current.
Direct current.
On (Supply).
Off (Supply).
A chassis terminal; a connection to the instrument’s
chassis, which includes all exposed metal surfaces.
WARNING
This sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in injury or
death to personnel.
CAUTION
This sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of part or all of the instrument.
Note
This sign denotes important information. It calls attention
to a procedure, practice, or condition that is essential for
the user to understand.
10
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.1
Description
The S5048/S7530 Network Analyzer is designed for use in the process of development,
adjustment and testing of various electronic devices in industrial and laboratory
facilities, including operation as a component of an automated measurement system.
The Analyzer is designed for operation with an external PC, which is not supplied with
the Analyzer.
1.2
Specifications
1.2.1
Basic Specifications
Table 1.1 Basic Specifications
1
2
Test ports
S5048
2 N socket ports, 50Ω
S7530
2 N socket ports, 75Ω
Frequency range
S5048
20 kHz to 4.8 GHz
S7530
20 kHz to 3.0 GHz
CW frequency accuracy
Frequency setting resolution
Number of measurement points
Measurement bandwidth
±5×10–6
10 Hz
1 to 200,001
10 Hz to 30 kHz
(with 1/1.5/2/3/5/7 steps)
Dynamic range (IF bandwidth 10 Hz)
From 20 kHz to 300 kHz:
100 dB, 110 dB typical
From 300 kHz to 4.8 GHz:
120 dB, 123 dB typical
11
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Table 1.1 (continued)
1
2
Magnitude/phase transmission measurement accuracy 1,
S11 and S22 less than –32 dB; S21 and S12 as
follows:
+5 dB to +10 dB
0.2 dB/2o
-50 dB to +5 dB
0.1 dB/1o
-70 dB to -50 dB
From 20 kHz to 300 kHz:
2.5 dB/11o
From 300 kHz to 4.8 GHz (S5048):
0.5 dB/3o
From 300 kHz to 3.0 GHz (S7530):
0.5 dB/3o
-90 dB to -70 dB
From 300 kHz to 4.8 GHz (S5048):
2.5 dB/11o
From 300 kHz to 3.0 GHz (S7530):
2.5 dB/11o
Magnitude/phase reflection measurement accuracy1;S11
and S22 as follows:
-15 dB to 0 dB
-25 dB to -15 dB
-35 dB to -25 dB
0.4 dB/3°
1.0 dB/6°
3.0 dB/20°
Trace noise (IF bandwidth 3 kHz)
From 20 kHz to 300 kHz:
0.005 dB RMS
From 300 kHz to 4.8 GHz (S5048):
0.002 dB RMS
From 300 kHz to 3.0 GHz (S7530):
0.002 dB RMS
Temperature dependence (per one degree of temperature
variation)
0.02 dB
1
The specifications of the Analyzer apply over the temperature range of 23 °C ±5 °C (unless
otherwise specified) after 40 minutes of warming-up, with less than 1 °C deviation from the full two-port
calibration temperature, at output power of -5 dBm, and IF bandwidth 10 Hz.
12
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Connector type N, 50Ω:
Effective directivity
46 dB
Effective source match
40 dB
Effective load match
46 dB
Connector type N, 75Ω:
Effective directivity
46 dB
Effective source match
40 dB
Effective load match
46 dB
1
2
Uncorrected directivity
18 dB
Uncorrected output port match
22 dB
Output power level
-50 dBm to +5 dBm
Output power level accuracy
±1.0 dB
Output power resolution
0.05 dB
Harmonic distortion
-25 dBc
Non-harmonic spurious
-30 dBc
Uncorrected input port match
Damage level
Damage DC voltage
22 dB
23 dBm
35 V
Receiver noise floor (IF bandwidth 10 Hz)
From 20 kHz to 300 kHz:
-95 dBm
From 300 kHz to 4.8 GHz (S5048):
-115 dBm
From 300 kHz to 3.0 GHz (S7530):
-115 dBm
Measurement time per point
200 µs
Source to receiver switchover time
10 ms
External frequency reference
External frequency reference input level
External frequency reference input impedance
Frequency reference input/output connector type
Output reference signal level into 50Ω
Warm-up time, minimum
10 MHz
2 dBm ± 3 dB
50 Ω
BNC female
3 dBm ± 2 dB
40 minutes
13
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Power supply, external DC
Power consumption, external DC
Dimensions LxWxH
9-15 V
10 W
267x160x44 mm
14
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Table 1.1 (continued)
1
Weight
2
1.3 kg
Operating conditions:
– environmental temperature
– humidity at 25 °C
– atmospheric pressure
5 °C to 40 °C
90%
84 to 106.7 kPa
15
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.2.2
Measurement Capabilities
Measured parameters
Number of
measurement channels
S11, S21, S12, S22
Absolute power of the reference and received signals
at the port.
Up to 16 logical channels. Each logical channel is
represented on the screen as an individual channel
window. A logical channel is defined by such
stimulus signal settings as frequency range, number
of test points, power level, etc.
Data traces
Up to 16 data traces can be displayed in each channel
window. A data trace represents one of the following
parameters of the DUT: S-parameters, response in the
time domain, or input power response.
Memory traces
Each of the 16 data traces can be saved into memory
for further comparison with the current values.
Data display formats
Logarithmic magnitude, linear magnitude, phase,
expanded phase, group delay, SWR, real part,
imaginary part, Smith chart format and polar format.
Sweep setup features
Sweep type
Linear frequency sweep, logarithmic frequency
sweep, and segment frequency sweep, when the
stimulus power is a fixed value; and linear power
sweep when frequency is a fixed value.
Measured points per
sweep
From 2 to 200001.
Segment sweep
A frequency sweep within several user-defined
segments. Frequency range, number of sweep points,
source power, and IF bandwidth can be set for each
segment.
Power settings
Source power from -50 dBm to +5 dBm with
resolution of 0.05 dB. In frequency sweep mode the
power slope can be set to up to 2 dB/GHz to
compensate high frequency attenuation in cables.
Sweep trigger
Trigger modes: continuous, single, hold. Trigger
sources: internal, manual, external, bus.
16
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Trace display functions
Trace display
Data trace, memory trace, or simultaneous data and
memory traces.
Trace math
Data trace modification by math operations: addition,
subtraction, multiplication or division of measured
complex values and memory data.
Autoscaling
Automatic selection of scale division and reference
level value to have the trace most effectively
displayed.
Electrical delay
Calibration plane compensation for delay in the test
setup, or for electrical delay in a DUT during
measurements of deviation from linear phase.
Phase offset
Phase offset in degrees.
Accuracy enhancement
Calibration
Calibration methods
Calibration of a test setup (which includes the
Analyzer, cables, and adapters) significantly increases
the accuracy of measurements. Calibration allows for
correction of errors caused by imperfections in the
measurement system: system directivity, source and
load match, tracking, and isolation.
The following calibration methods of various
sophistication and accuracy enhancement are
available:

reflection and transmission normalization;

full one-port calibration;

one-path two-port calibration

full two-port calibration;

TRL calibration.
Reflection and
transmission
normalization
The simplest calibration method. It provides limited
accuracy.
Full one-port calibration
Method of calibration performed for one-port
reflection measurements. It ensures high accuracy.
17
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
One-path two-port
calibration
Method of calibration performed for reflection and
one-way transmission measurements, for example for
measuring S11 and S21 only. It ensures high accuracy
for reflection measurements, and reasonable accuracy
for transmission measurements.
Full two-port
calibration
Method of calibration performed for full S-parameter
matrix measurement of a two-port DUT. It ensures
high accuracy.
TRL calibration
Method of calibration performed for full S-parameter
matrix measurement of a two-port DUT. LRL and
LRM types of this calibration are also supported. In
ensures higher accuracy than a two-port calibration.
Mechanical calibration
kits
The user can select one of the predefined calibration
kits of various manufacturers or define additional
calibration kits.
Electronic calibration
modules
Copper Mountain automatic calibration modules
make the Analyzer calibration faster and easier than
traditional mechanical calibration.
Sliding load calibration
standard
The use of sliding load calibration standard allows
significant increase in calibration accuracy at high
frequencies compared to a fixed load calibration
standard.
Unknown thru
calibration standard
The use of an arbitrary reciprocal two-port device
instead of a zero-length thru during a full two-port
calibration allows for calibration of the test setup for
measurements of non-insertable devices.
Defining of calibration
standards
Different methods of calibration standard definition
are available:
Error correction
interpolation

standard definition by polynomial model

standard definition by data (S-parameters).
When the user changes settings such as start/stop
frequencies and number of sweep points, compared to
the settings of calibration, interpolation or
extrapolation of the calibration coefficients will be
applied.
18
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Supplemental calibration methods
Power calibration
Method of calibration, which allows for maintaining
more stable power levels at the DUT input. An
external power meter should be connected to the USB
port directly or via USB/GPIB adapter.
Receiver calibration
Marker functions
Data markers
Method of calibration which calibrates the receiver
gain at absolute signal power measurement.
Up to 16 markers for each trace. A marker indicates
the stimulus value and measurement result at a given
point of the trace.
Reference marker
Enables indication of any maker value as relative to
the reference marker.
Marker search
Search for max, min, peak, or target values on a trace.
Marker search
additional features
User-definable search range. Available as either a
tracking marker, or as a one-time search.
Setting parameters by
markers
Setting of start, stop and center frequencies from the
marker frequency, and setting of reference level by
the measurement result of the marker.
Marker math functions
Statistics, bandwidth, flatness, RF filter.
Statistics
Calculation and display of mean, standard deviation
and peak-to-peak in a frequency range limited by two
markers on a trace.
Bandwidth
Determines bandwidth between cutoff frequency
points for an active marker or absolute maximum.
The bandwidth value, center frequency, lower
frequency, higher frequency, Q value, and insertion
loss are displayed.
Flatness
Displays gain, slope, and flatness between two
markers on a trace.
RF filter
Displays insertion loss and peak-to-peak ripple of the
passband, and the maximum signal magnitude in the
stopband. The passband and stopband are defined by
two pairs of markers.
19
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Data analysis
Port impedance
conversion
The function converts S-parameters measured at 50 Ω
port (75Ω in the case of S7530) into values which
would be found if measured at a test port with
arbitrary impedance.
De-embedding
The function allows mathematical exclusion of the
effects of the fixture circuit connected between the
calibration plane and the DUT. This circuit should be
described by an S-parameter matrix in a Touchstone
file.
Embedding
The function allows mathematical simulation of the
DUT parameters after virtual integration of a fixture
circuit between the calibration plane and the DUT.
This circuit should be described by an S-parameter
matrix in a Touchstone file.
S-parameter conversion
The function allows conversion of the measured Sparameters to the following parameters: reflection
impedance and admittance, transmission impedance
and admittance, and inverse S-parameters.
Time domain
transformation
The function performs data transformation from
frequency domain into response of the DUT to
various stimulus types in time domain. Modeled
stimulus types: bandpass, lowpass impulse, and
lowpass step. Time domain span is set by the user
arbitrarily from zero to maximum, which is
determined by the frequency step. Various window
shapes allow optimizing the tradeoff between
resolution and level of spurious sidelobes.
Time domain gating
The function mathematically removes unwanted
responses in time domain, allowing for obtaining
frequency response without the influence of the
fixture elements. The function applies a reverse
transformation back to the frequency domain from the
user-defined span in the time domain. Gating filter
types: bandpass or notch. For better tradeoff between
gate resolution and level of spurious sidelobes the
following filter shapes are available: maximum, wide,
normal and minimum.
20
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Mixer / converter measurements
Scalar mixer / converter
The scalar method allows measurement of scalar
measurements
transmission S-parameters of mixers and other
devices having different input and output frequencies.
No external mixers or other devices are required. The
scalar method employs port frequency offset when
there is difference between receiver frequency and
source frequency.
Vector mixer /
converter measurements
The vector method allows measuring of the mixer
transmission S-parameter magnitude and phase. The
method requires an external mixer and an LO
common to both the external mixer and the mixer
under test.
Scalar mixer / converter
calibration
The most accurate method of calibration applied for
measurements of mixers in frequency offset mode.
The OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD calibration standards
are used. An external power meter should be
connected to the USB port directly or via USB/GPIB
adapter.
Vector mixer /converter
calibration
Method of calibration applied for vector mixer
measurements. The OPEN, SHORT and LOAD
calibration standards are used.
Automatic adjustment
of frequency offset
The function performs automatic frequency offset
adjustment when scalar mixer / converter
measurements are performed to compensate for LO
frequency inaccuracies internal to the DUT.
Other features
Familiar graphical user
interface
Graphical user interface based on the Windows
operating system ensures fast and easy Analyzer
operation by the user.
Analyzer control
Using a personal computer.
Printout/saving of traces
The traces and data printout function has a preview
feature. Previewing, saving and printing can be
performed using MS Word, Image Viewer for
Windows, or the Analyzer Print Wizard.
Remote control
21
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
COM/DCOM
Remote control over COM/DCOM. COM automation
runs the user program on an Analyzer PC. DCOM
automation runs the user program on a LANnetworked PC.
22
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.3
Ordering Information
The Analyzer is designed for use with an external computer with keyboard and monitor,
none of which are included. The Analyzer consists of the Analyzer Unit with connector
ports of Type N or Type N 75, in accordance with GOST 51914-2002 PB. The devices
are powered by an external source, which is also not included.
The parts lists of the S5048 and S7530 Analyzers are indicated in Tables 1.1 and 1.2,
respectively.
Table 1.1 Parts list for S5048
Name
Measuring unit
USB cable
USB flash memory containing
software and instruction manual
Part number
Count
IB5048.1
1
–
1
RE 6687–102–21477812–
2013
1
1
Form
FD 6687–102–21477812–
2013
1
Table 1.2 Parts list for S7530
Name
Part number
Count
IВ7530.1
1
–
1
USB flash memory containing
software and instruction
manual
RE 6687–102–21477812–2013
1
Form
FD 6687–102–21477812–2013
Measuring unit
USB cable
1.4
1
1
Principle of Operation
The block diagram of the Analyzer is represented in figure 1.1.
The Analyzer Unit consists of a source oscillator, local oscillator, source power
attenuator, and a switch connecting the source signal to two directional couplers, which
are connected to the Port 1 and Port 2 connectors. The incident and reflected waves
from the directional couplers are passed into the mixers, where they are converted to
first IF (0.4 MHz), and are passed further to the 4-Channel receiver. The 4-Channel
23
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
receiver, after filtering, digitally encodes the signal and supplies it for further
processing (filtration, phase difference estimation, magnitude measurement) by the
signal processor. The IF measurement filters are digital and have bandwidths of
between 10 Hz and 30 kHz. Either port of the Analyzer can be a source of the tested
signal as well as a receiver of the signal transferred thought the DUT. If port 1 is a
source, port 2 will be a receiver. The definition “incident and reflected” wave is correct
for the port when it is a source of the test signal. The combination of the assemblies of
directional couplers, mixers and 4-Channel receiver forms four similar signal receivers.
An external PC controls the operation of the components of the Analyzer. To perform
the S-parameter measurement, the Analyzer supplies the source signal of the assigned
frequency from one of the ports to the DUT, then measures magnitude and phase of the
signals transmitted and reflected by the DUT, and after that compares these results to
the magnitude and phase of the source signal.
1.5
Typical Measurement
A typical connection diagram of the Analyzer to the DUT is shown in Figure 1.1. In
this configuration, complex reflection coefficients S11 and S22 can be measured, as
well as complex transmission coefficients S21 and S12 of the DUT.
1 – Measurement cables
2 – Device Under Test (DUT)
Figure 1.1. Typical connection diagram.
24
Figure 1.1 S5048/S7530 Network Analyzer block diagram
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
25
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.1
General Information
Unpack the Analyzer and other accessories. Connect the Analyzer to a 100 VAC to 240
VAC 50/60 Hz power source by means of the external power supply supplied with the
instrument. Connect the USB-port of your Analyzer to the PC using the USB Cable
supplied in the package. Install the software (supplied on the USB drive) onto your PC.
The software installation procedure is described below in section 2.2.
Connect the Analyzer to a PC using the USB cable
supplied. Install the PC software from the included USB
drive. The procedure for installing the software is
described below.
Warm-up the Analyzer for 40 minutes after power-on.
Assemble the test setup using cables, connectors, fixtures, etc, which allow DUT
connection to the Analyzer.
Perform calibration of the Analyzer. Calibration procedure is described in section 5.
2.2
Software Installation
Connect the Analyzer to your PC via USB interface and install the S5048/S7530
software using the USB drive supplied with the instrument.
26
3 GETTING STARTED
Minimal system
requirements for
the PC
WINDOWS 2000/XP/VISTA/7
1.5 GHz Processor
1 GB RAM
USB 2.0 High Speed
The supplied CD contains the following software.
CD contents
Setup_S5048_vX.X.exe 1 or
Setup_S7530_vX.X.exe installer file
folder Driver contains the driver
folder Doc contains documentation
The procedure of the software installation is broken up into two steps. The first one is
the driver installation. The second step comprises installation of the program,
documentation and other files.
1
X.X – program version number
27
3 GETTING STARTED
Driver installation
Connect the Analyzer to your PC via the supplied
USB cable. It is allowed to connect the USB cable
to the running PC.
Turn on and boot the PC, if it is off.
Turn the Analyzer on by the Power key on the front
panel.
When you connect the Analyzer to the PC for the
first time, Windows will automatically detect the
new USB device and will open the USB driver
installation dialog (Windows 2000/XP/VISTA).In
Windows 7, open the USB driver installation
dialog as follows: Start > Control Panel > Device
Manager. Make the right mouse click on the
Unknown Device line and select Update Drivers.
In the USB driver installation dialog, click on
Browse and specify the path to the driver files,
which are contained in the \DRIVER folder on the
CD and on hard drive in analyzer software folder.
When the driver is installed, the new USB device
will appear in the system.
Program and other
files installation
Run
the
Setup_S5048_vX.X.exe
or
Setup_S57530_vX.X.exe installer file from the
CD. Follow the instructions of the installation
wizard.
28
3 GETTING STARTED
2.3
Front Panel
The front view of the Analyzer is shown in figure 2.1. The front panel is equipped with
the following parts:
Power Switch
Test Ports
Indicator LEDs
Figure 2.1. Analyzer front panel
29
3 GETTING STARTED
2.3.1
Power Switch
Switches the power supply of the Analyzer on and off.
You can turn your Analyzer on/off at any time. After
power-on of the Analyzer connected to PC, the program
will begin uploading embedded firmware into the
instrument. The uploading process will take 10 sec.; after
that the Analyzer will be ready for operation.
Note
When you turn on your Analyzer for the first time, the
USB driver will be installed onto the PC. The driver
installation procedure is described in section 2.2. Some
computers may require re-installation of the driver in case
of change of the USB port.
30
3 GETTING STARTED
2.3.2
Test Ports
The type-N 50 Ω (S5048) or 75 Ω type-N 75 (S7530) test
port 1 and test port 2 are intended for DUT connection.
Each test port has a LED indicator. A test port can be
used either as a source of the stimulus signal or as a
receiver of the response signal of the DUT. Only one of
the ports can be the source of the signal at a particular
moment of time.
If you connect the DUT to only one test port of the
Analyzer, you will be able to measure the reflection
parameters (S11 or S22) of the DUT.
If you connect the DUT to the both test ports of the
Analyzer, you will be able to measure the full Sparameter matrix of the DUT.
Note
LED indicator identifies the test port, which is operating
as a signal source.
CAUTION
Do not exceed the maximum allowed power of the input
RF signal (or maximum DC voltage) indicated on the
front panel. This may damage your Analyzer.
2.4
Rear Panel
The rear view of the Analyzer is shown in figure 2.2. Descriptions of the elements of
the rear panel is provided below the figure.
USB
Port
External
Frequency
Reference
External
Trigger
Power
Cable
Receptacle
Figure 2.2 Analyzer rear panel
31
3 GETTING STARTED
2.4.1
Power Cable Receptacle
Please connect an external DC power supply voltage from
9 to 15 V. The power supply can be powered by a
battery, including a vehicle battery, through an
appropriate vehicle power cable.
2.4.2
External Trigger Signal Input Connector
This connector allows the user to connect an external
trigger source. Connector type is BNC female. TTL
compatible inputs of 3 V to 5 V magnitude have up to 1
μs pulse width. Input impedance at least 10 kΩ.
2.4.3
External Reference Frequency Connector
External reference frequency is 10 MHz, input level is 2
dBm ± 3 dB, input impedance 50 Ω. Output reference
signal level is 3 dBm ± 2 dB into 50 Ω impedance.
Connector type is BNC female.
2.4.4
USB 2.0 High Speed
The USB port is intended for connection to
computer.
32
3 GETTING STARTED
3 GETTING STARTED
This section represents a sample session of the Analyzer. It describes the main
techniques of measurement of reflection coefficient parameters of the DUT. SWR and
reflection coefficient phase of the DUT will be analyzed.
For reflection coefficient measurement only one test port of the Analyzer is used. The
instrument sends the stimulus to the input of the DUT and then receives the reflected
wave. Generally in the process of this measurement the output of the DUT should be
terminated with a LOAD standard. The results of these measurements can be
represented in various formats.
Typical circuit of reflection coefficient measurement is shown in figure 3.1.
DUT
Figure 3.1 Reflection measurement circuit
To measure SWR and reflection coefficient phases of the DUT, in the given example
you should go through the following steps:
 Prepare the Analyzer for reflection measurement;
 Set stimulus parameters (frequency range, number of sweep
points);
 Set IF bandwidth;
 Set the number of traces to 2, assign measured parameters and
display format to the traces;
 Set the scale of the traces;
33
3 GETTING STARTED
 Perform calibration of the Analyzer for reflection coefficient
measurement;
Note
3.1
 Analyze SWR and reflection coefficient phase using markers.
In this section the control over Analyzer is performed by
the softkeys located in the right-hand part of the screen.
The Analyzer also allows the user to perform quick
control by the mouse (See section 4.3).
Analyzer Preparation for Reflection Measurement
Turn on the Analyzer and warm it up for the period of time stated in the specifications.
Ready state features
The bottom line of the screen displays the instrument
status bar. It should read Ready. Above this bar, the
channel status bar is located. The sweep indicator in the
left-hand part of this bar should display a progress.
Connect the DUT to Port 1 of the Analyzer. Use the appropriate cables and adapters for
connection of the DUT input to the Analyzer test port. If the DUT input is type-N
(male), you can connect the DUT directly to the port.
3.2
Analyzer Presetting
Before you start the measurement session, it is recommended to reset the Analyzer into
the initial (known) condition. The initial condition setting is described in Appendix 1.
To restore the initial condition of the Analyzer, use the
following softkeys:
System > Preset > OK
3.3
Stimulus Setting
After you have restored the preset state of the Analyzer, the stimulus parameters will be
as follows: frequency range from 20 kHz to 4.8 GHz in the case of S5048, or 20 kHz to
3.0 GHz in the case of S7530. The preset sweep type is linear, number of sweep points
is 201, and power level is 0 dBm.
For the current example, set the frequency range to from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.
34
3 GETTING STARTED
To set the start frequency of the frequency range to 10
MHz, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Start
Then enter «1», «0» from the keyboard. Complete the
setting by pressing «M» key.
To set the stop frequency of the frequency range to 3
GHz, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Stop
Then enter «3» from the keyboard. Complete the setting
by pressing «G» key.
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
3.4
IF Bandwidth Setting
For the current example, set the IF bandwidth to 3 kHz.
To set the IF bandwidth to 3 kHz, use the following
softkeys:
Average > IF Bandwidth
Then enter «3» from the keyboard and complete the
setting by pressing «k» key.
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
3.5
Number of Traces, Measured Parameter and Display Format
Setting
In the current example, two traces are used for simultaneous display of the two
parameters (SWR and reflection coefficient phase).
To set the number of traces, use the following softkeys:
Display > Num of Traces > 2
35
3 GETTING STARTED
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
Before assigning the measurement parameters of a trace, first activate the trace.
To activate the second trace, use the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Trace > 2
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
Assign S11-parameter to the second trace. To the first trace this parameter is already
assigned by default.
To assign a parameter to the trace, use the following
softkeys:
Measurement > S11
Then assign SWR display format to the first trace and reflection coefficient phase
display format to the second trace.
To set the active trace display format, use the following
softkeys:
Format > SWR
(for the first trace),
Format > Phase
(for the second trace).
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
36
3 GETTING STARTED
3.6
Trace Scale Setting
For a convenience in operation, change the trace scale using automatic scaling function.
To set the scale of the active trace by the autoscaling
function, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Auto Scale
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey (colored
in blue).
3.7
Analyzer Calibration for Reflection Coefficient Measurement
Calibration of the whole measurement setup, which includes the Analyzer, cables and
other devices, supporting connection to the DUT, allows to considerably enhance the
accuracy of the measurement.
To perform full 1-port calibration, you need to prepare the kit of calibration standards:
OPEN, SHORT and LOAD. Such a kit has its description and specifications of the
standards. To perform proper calibration, you need to select in the program the correct
kit type.
In the process of full 1-port calibration, connect calibration standards to the test port
one after another, as shown in figure 3.2.
37
3 GETTING STARTED
LOAD
OPEN
SHORT
Figure 3.2 Full 1-port calibration circuit
In the current example, an Agilent 85032E calibration kit is used.
To select the calibration kit, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
Then select the kit you are using, from the table in the
bottom of the screen.
To perform full 1-port calibration, execute measurements of the three standards. After
that the table of calibration coefficients will be calculated and saved into the memory of
the Analyzer. Before you start calibration, disconnect the DUT from the Analyzer.
38
3 GETTING STARTED
To perform full 1-port calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 1-Port Cal
Connect an OPEN standard and click Open.
Connect a SHORT standard and click Short.
Connect a LOAD standard and click Load.
To complete the calibration procedure and calculate the
table of calibration coefficients, click Apply softkey.
Then connect the DUT to the Analyzer port again.
39
3 GETTING STARTED
3.8
SWR and Reflection Coefficient Phase Analysis Using Markers
This section describes how to determine the measurement values at three frequency
points using markers. The Analyzer screen view is shown in figure 3.3. In the current
example, a reflection standard of SWR = 1.2 is used as a DUT.
Figure 3.3 SWR and reflection coefficient phase measurement example
To enable a new marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Add Marker
Then enter the frequency value in the input field in the
graph, e.g. to enter frequency 200 MHz, press «2», «0»,
«0» and «M» keys on the keypad.
Repeat the above procedure three times to enable three
markers in different frequency points.
By default only active trace markers are displayed on the screen. To enable display of
two traces simultaneously, first activate the marker table.
40
3 GETTING STARTED
To open the marker table, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Table
41
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.1
Screen Layout and Functions
The screen layout is represented in figure 4.1. In this section you will find detailed
description of the softkey menu bar, menu bar, and instrument status bar. The channel
windows will be described in the following section.
Menu bar
Softkey menu bar
Channel
windows
Instrument status bar
Figure 4.1 Analyzer screen layout
4.1.1
Softkey Menu Bar
The softkey menu bar in the right-hand side of the screen is the main menu of the
program.
Note
The top line of the screen represents the menu bar, which
enables you direct access to the submenus of the softkey
menu. This menu is an auxiliary one and can be hidden.
The softkey menu bar consists of panels, which appear one instead of the other. Each
panel represents one of the submenus of the softkey menu. All the panels are integrated
into multilevel menu system and allow access to all the functions of the Analyzer.
42
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
You can manipulate the menu softkeys using a mouse.
Also you can navigate the menu by «↑», «↓», «←», «→», «Enter», «Esc», «Home» keys
on the external keyboard.
The types of the softkeys are described below:
The top softkey is the menu title key. It enables you to
return to the upper level of the menu. If it is displayed in
blue you can use keyboard to navigate within the softkey
menu.
If the softkey is highlighted in dark gray, pressing «Enter»
key on the keyboard will activate the function of this
softkey. You can shift the highlight from key to key using
«↑» and «↓» arrows on the keyboard.
A large dot on the softkey indicates the current selection
in a list of alternative settings.
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates the
active function, which you can switch on/off.
The softkey with a right arrow enables the access to the
lower level of the menu.
The softkey with a text field allows for the selected
function indication.
The softkey with a value field allows
entering/selection of the numerical settings.
for
This navigation softkey appears when the softkey menu
overflows the menu screen area. Using this softkey you
can scroll down and up the softkey menu.
To navigate in the softkey menu, you can also (additionally to «↑», «↓») use «←», «→»,
«Esc», «Home» keys of the keyboard:

«←» key brings

«→»

«Esc» key functions

«Home»
up the upper level of the menu;
key brings up the lower level of the menu, if there is a highlighted
softkey with a right arrow;
similar to «←» key;
key brings up the main menu.
43
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Note
4.1.2
The above keys of the keyboard allow navigation in the
softkey menu only if there is no any active entry field. In
this case the menu title softkey is highlighted in blue.
Menu Bar
Figure 4.2 Menu bar
The menu bar is located at the top of the screen. This menu is an auxiliary one and
enables you direct access to the submenus of the main menu. Also it contains the
functions of the most frequently used softkeys. You can hide the menu bar to gain more
screen space for the graph area. The menu bar is controlled by the mouse.
Note
To hide the menu bar, use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Menu Bar
44
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.1.3
Instrument Status Bar
Date and time
Messages
Figure 4.3 Instrument status bar
The instrument status bar is located at the bottom of the screen.
Table 4.1 Messages in the instrument status bar
Field Description
Message
Not Ready
DSP status
Sweep status
DSP program is loading.
Ready
DSP is running normally.
Meas
A sweep is in progress.
Hold
A sweep is on hold.
Ext
Waiting for trigger, which is set to “External”.
Man
Waiting for trigger, which is set to “Manual”.
Bus
Waiting for trigger, which is set to “Bus”.
Calibration…
RF signal
RF output Off
System correction
status
Factory calibration
error
External power
meter status
No communication between DSP and
computer.
Loading
Calibration
External reference
frequency
Display update
Instrument Status
ExtRef
Update Off
Calibration standard measurement is in
progress.
Stimulus signal output is turned off.
External reference frequency input (10 MHz)
is turned on.
Display update is turned off.
PC Error
System correction is turned off (see section
8.4).
ROM error of power calibration.
RC Error
ROM error of system calibration.
Sys Corr OFF
Power Meter:
message
When external power meter is connected to the
Analyzer via USB the following messages are
displayed: connection, connection error, ready,
measurement, zero setting, zero setting error
45
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2
Channel Window Layout and Functions
The channel windows display the measurement results in the form of traces and
numerical values. The screen can display up to 16 channel windows simultaneously.
Each window corresponds to one logical channel. A logical channel can be represented
as a separate analyzer with the following settings:

Stimulus signal settings (frequency range, power level, sweep type);

IF bandwidth and averaging;

Calibration.
Physical analyzer processes the logical channels in succession.
In turn each channel window can display up to 16 traces of the measured parameters.
General view of the channel window is represented in figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4 Channel window
46
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2.1
Channel Title Bar
The channel title feature allows you to enter your comment for each channel window.
You can hide the channel title bar to gain more screen space for graph area.
Channel title bar
on/off switching
To show/hide the channel title bar, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Title Label
Channel title editing
You can access the channel title edit mode by using
the following softkeys:
Display > Edit Title Label
You can also make it by mouse clicking on the title
area in the channel title bar.
47
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2.2
Trace Status Field
Trace properties
Reference level value
Trace scale
Display format
Measured parameter
Trace name
Figure 4.5 Trace status field
The trace status field displays the name and parameters of a trace. The number of lines
in the field depends on the number of active traces in the channel.
Note
Using the trace status field you can easily modify the
trace parameters by the mouse (as described in section
4.3).
Each line contains the data on one trace of the channel:

Trace name from «Tr1» to «Tr16». The active trace name is
highlighted in inverted color;

Measured parameter: S11, S21, S12, S22, or absolute power
value: A(n), B(n), R1(n), R2(n);

Display format, e.g. «Log Mag»;

Trace scale in measurement units per scale division, e.g. «10.0
dB/»;

Reference level value, e.g. «►0.00 dB», where «►» is the
symbol of the reference level;

Trace status is indicated as symbols in square brackets (See
table 4.2).
48
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.2 Trace status symbols definition
Status
Error Correction
Definition
Symbols
RO
OPEN response calibration
RS
SHORT response calibration
RT
THRU response calibration
OP
One-path 2-port calibration
F1
Full 1-port calibration
F2
Full 2-port and TRL calibration
SMC
Scalar mixer calibration
Other
RC
Receiver calibration
Calibrations
PC
Power calibration
Z0
Port impedance conversion
FD
Fixture de-embedding
FE
Fixture embedding
Data Analysis
PExt
No indication
Trace Display
D&M
M
Off
Port extension
Data trace
Data and memory traces
Memory trace
Data and memory traces – off
D+M
Data + Memory
D–M
Data – Memory
D*M
Data * Memory
D/M
Data / Memory
Electrical Delay
Del
Electrical delay other than zero
Smoothing
Smo
Trace smoothing
Gating
Gat
Time domain gating
Math Operations
Conversion
Zr
Reflection impedance
Zt
Transmission impedance
Yr
Reflection admittance
Yt
Transmission admittance
1/S
S-parameter inversion
Ztsh
Transmission-shunt impedance
Ytsh
Transmission-shunt admittance
Conj
Conjugation
49
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2.3
Graph Area
The graph area displays the traces and numeric data.
Figure 4.6 Graph area
Reference
line position
The graph area contains the following elements:
Note
4.2.4

Vertical graticule label displays the vertical axis numeric data for
the active trace. You can set the display of the data for all the traces
or hide the vertical graticule label to gain more screen space for the
trace display.

Horizontal graticule label displays stimulus axis numeric data
(frequency, power level or time). You can also hide the horizontal
graticule label to gain more screen space for the trace display.

Reference level position indicates the reference level position of the
trace.

Markers indicate the measured values in different points on the
active trace. You can enable display of the markers for all the traces
simultaneously.

Marker functions: statistics, bandwidth, flatness, RF filter.

Trace number allows trace identification when printed out in black
and white.

Current stimulus position indication appears when sweep duration
exceeds 1.5 sec.
Using the graticule labels, you can easily modify all the
trace parameters by the mouse (as described in section
4.3).
Trace Layout in Channel Window
If the number of the displayed traces is more than one, you can rearrange the traces to
your convenience. You can select display of all the traces in one graph (See figure 4.6)
or display of each trace in its individual graphs (See figure 4.7).
50
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Figure 4.7 Two traces in one channel window (sample)
51
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2.5
Markers
The markers indicate the stimulus values and the measured values in selected points of
the trace (See figure 4.8).
Figure 4.8 Markers
The markers are numbered from 1 to 15. The reference marker is indicated with R
symbol. The active marker is indicated in the following manner: its number is
highlighted in inverse color, the indicator on the trace is located above the trace, the
stimulus indicator is fully colored.
52
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.2.6
Channel Status Bar
The channel status bar is located in the bottom part of the channel window. It contains
the following elements:
Figure 4.9 Channel status bar

Sweep progress field displays a progress bar when the channel data
are being updated.

Error correction field displays the integrated status of error
correction for S-parameter traces. The values of this field are
represented in table 4.3.

Receiver correction field displays the integrated status of receiver
correction for absolute power measurement traces. The values of this
field are represented in table 4.4.

Power correction field displays the integrated status of power
correction for all the traces. The values of this field are represented
in table 4.5.

Port extension field displays the integrated status of execution of
this function for S-parameter traces. If the function is enabled for all
the traces, you will see black characters on gray background. If the
function is enabled just for some of the traces, you will see white
characters on red background.

Fixture simulation field displays the integrated status of execution of
this function for S-parameter traces. Fixture simulation includes the
following operations: Z0 conversion, embedding, de-embedding. If
the function is enabled for all the traces, you will see black
characters on gray background. If the function is enabled just for
some of the traces, you will see white characters on red background.

Stimulus start field allows for display and entry of the start
frequency or power, depending on the sweep type. This field can be
switched to indication of stimulus center frequency, in this case the
word Start will change to Center.

Sweep points field allows for display and entry of the number of
sweep points. The number of sweep points can be set from 2 to
200001.

Sweep type field allows for display and selection of the sweep type.
The values of this field are represented in table 4.6.

IF bandwidth field allows for display and setting of the IF
bandwidth. The values can be set from 10 Hz to 30 kHz.
53
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING

Power level field allows for display and entry of the port output
power. In power sweep mode the field switches to indication of CW
frequency of the source.

Averaging status field displays the averaging status if this function is
enabled. The first number is the averaging current counter value, the
second one is the averaging factor.

Stimulus stop field allows for display and entry of the stop frequency
or power, depending on the sweep type. This field can be switched
to indication of stimulus span, in this case the word Stop will change
to Span.
54
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.3 Error correction field
Symbol
Cor
C?
C!
Definition
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active for
settings are the same for the measurement all the traces – black
and the calibration.
characters
on
gray
background.
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
If the function is active
settings are not the same for the
only for some of the traces
measurement
and
the
calibration.
(other traces are not
Interpolation is applied.
calibrated)
–
white
characters
on
red
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
background.
settings are not the same for the
measurement
and
the
Extrapolation is applied.
Off
---
Note
calibration.
Error correction is turned off.
For all the traces. White
characters
on
red
No calibration data. No calibration was background.
performed.
Table 4.4 Receiver correction field
Symbol
RC
RC?
RC!
Definition
Note
Receiver correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active for
settings are the same for the measurement all the traces – black
characters
on
gray
and the calibration.
background.
Receiver correction is enabled. The stimulus
If the function is active
settings are not the same for the
only for some of the traces
measurement
and
the
calibration.
(other traces are not
Interpolation is applied.
calibrated)
–
white
on
red
Receiver correction is enabled. The stimulus characters
background.
settings are not the same for the
measurement
and
the
Extrapolation is applied.
calibration.
55
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.5 Power correction field
Symbol
PC
PC?
PC!
Definition
Note
Power correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active for
settings are the same for the measurement all the traces – black
and the calibration.
characters
on
gray
background.
Power correction is enabled. The stimulus
If the function is active
settings are not the same for the
only for some of the traces
measurement
and
the
calibration.
(other traces are not
Interpolation is applied.
calibrated)
–
white
characters
on
red
Power correction is enabled. The stimulus
background.
settings are not the same for the
measurement
and
the
Extrapolation is applied.
calibration.
Table 4.6 Sweep types
Symbol
Lin
Log
Segm
Pow
Definition
Linear frequency sweep.
Logarithmic frequency sweep.
Segment frequency sweep.
Power sweep.
56
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.3
Quick Channel Setting Using Mouse
This section describes the mouse manipulations, which will enable you to set the
channel parameters fast and easy. In a channel window, over the field where a channel
parameter can be modified, the mouse pointer will change its form to indicate the edit
mode. Apart from that in text and numerical fields the edit mode will be indicated by
the «underline» symbol appearance.
Note
4.3.1
The mouse manipulations described in this section will
help you to perform the most frequently used settings
only. All the channel functions can be accessed via the
softkey menu.
Active Channel Selection
You can select the active channel when two or more channel windows are open. The
border line of the active window will be highlighted in light color. To activate another
window, make a mouse click within its area.
4.3.2
Active Trace Selection
You can select the active trace if the
active channel window contains two or
more traces. The active trace name will
be highlighted in inverted color. To activate a trace, make a mouse click on the required
trace status line, or on the trace curve or the trace marker.
4.3.3
Measured Data Setting
To assign the measured parameters (S11, S21, S12 or S22) to a trace, make a mouse click
on the S-parameter name in the trace status line
and select the required parameter in the dropdown menu.
4.3.4
Display Format Setting
To select the trace display format, make a mouse
click on the display format name in the trace status
line and select the required format in the drop-down
menu.
57
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.3.5
Trace Scale Setting
The trace scale means the vertical scale division value, which can be set by two
methods.
The first method: make a mouse click on the
trace scale field in the trace status line and enter
the required numerical value.
The second method: move the mouse pointer over the vertical scale until the
pointer form becomes as shown in the figure. Locate the pointer in the top or
bottom parts of the scale, at approximately 10% of the scale height from the
top or bottom of the scale. Press left button of the mouse and holding it drag
the pointer from the scale center to enlarge the scale, or to the center of the
scale to reduce the scale.
4.3.6
Reference Level Setting
The value of the reference level, which is indicated on the vertical scale by «►» and
«◄» symbols, can be set by two methods.
The first method: make a mouse click on the
reference level field in the trace status line and
enter the required numerical value.
The second method: move the mouse pointer over the vertical scale until the
pointer form becomes as shown in the figure. Locate the pointer in the center
part of the scale. Press left button of the mouse and holding it drag the
pointer up the scale to increase the reference level value, or down the scale to
reduce the value.
58
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.3.7
Reference Level Position
The reference level position, indicated on the vertical scale by «►» and «◄» symbols,
can be set in the following way. Locate the mouse pointer on a reference
level symbol until it becomes as shown in the figure. Then drag and drop the
reference level symbol to the desired position.
4.3.8
Sweep Start Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus scale until it becomes as shown in the figure.
Locate the mouse pointer in the left part of the
scale, at approximately 10% of the scale length
from the left. Press left button of the mouse and
holding it drag the pointer to the right to increase the sweep start value, or to the left to
reduce the value.
4.3.9
Sweep Stop Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus scale
until it becomes as shown in the figure. Locate
the mouse pointer in the right part of the scale, at
approximately 10% of the scale length from the right. Press left button of the mouse and
holding it drag the pointer to the right to increase the sweep stop value, or to the left to
reduce the value.
4.3.10 Sweep Center Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus scale
until it becomes as shown in the figure. Locate
the mouse pointer in the center part of the scale.
Press left button of the mouse and holding it drag the pointer to the right to increase the
sweep center value, or to the left to reduce the value.
59
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.3.11 Sweep Span Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus scale
until it becomes as shown in the figure. Locate
the mouse pointer in the center part of the scale,
at approximately 20% of the scale length from the right. Press left button of the mouse
and holding it drag the pointer to the right to increase the sweep span value, or to the
left to reduce the value.
4.3.12 Marker Stimulus Value Setting
The marker stimulus value can be set by drag operation or by entering the value using
numerical keys of the keyboard.
To drag the marker, first move the mouse pointer on one
of the marker indicators until it becomes as shown in the
figures.
To enter the numerical value of the stimulus, first activate its field in the marker data
line by a mouse click.
4.3.13 Switching between Start/Center and Stop/Span Modes
To switch between the modes Start/Center and
Stop/Span, make a mouse click in the respective
field of the channel status bar. Label Start will be changed with Center, and label Stop
will be changed with Span. The layout of the stimulus scale will be changed
correspondingly.
4.3.14 Start/Center Value Setting
To enter the Start/Center values, activate the respective field in the
channel status bar by a mouse click on the numerical value.
4.3.15 Stop/Span Value Setting
To enter the Stop/Span values, activate the respective field in the channel
status bar by a mouse click on the numerical value.
4.3.16 Sweep Points Number Setting
To enter the number of sweep points, activate the respective field in the
channel status bar by a mouse click on the numerical value.
60
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.3.17 Sweep Type Setting
To set the sweep type, click on the respective field in the channel
status bar and select the required type in the drop-down menu.
4.3.18 IF Bandwidth Setting
IF bandwidth can be set by selection in the drop-down menu or by entering the value
using numerical keys of the keyboard.
To activate the drop-down menu, make a
right mouse click on the IF bandwidth
field in the channel status bar.
To enter the IF bandwidth, activate the respective field in the channel
status bar by a left mouse click.
4.3.19 Power Level / CW Frequency Setting
To enter the Power Level/CW Frequency, activate the respective field
in the channel status bar by a mouse click on the numerical value. The
parameter displayed in the field depends on the current sweep type: in
frequency sweep mode you can enter power level value, in power sweep mode you can
enter CW frequency value.
61
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.4
Channel and Trace Display Setting
The Analyzer supports 16 channels, which allow measurements with different stimulus
parameter settings. The parameters related to a logical channel are listed in table 4.7.
4.4.1
Channel Window Allocating
A channel is represented on the screen as an individual channel window. The screen can
display from 1 to 16 channel windows simultaneously. By default one channel window
opens. If you need to open two or more channel windows select one of the layouts
shown below.
To set the channel window layout, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Allocate Channels
Then select the required number and layout of the channel
windows in the menu.
The available options of number and layout of the channel windows on the screen are as
follows:
In accordance with the layouts, the channel windows do not overlap each other. The
channels open starting from the smaller numbers.
Note
For each open channel window, you should set the
stimulus parameters, make other settings, and perform
calibration.
Before you start a channel parameter setting or
calibration, you need to select this channel as active.
The measurements are executed for open channel windows in succession.
Measurements for hidden channel windows are not executed.
62
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.4.2
Number of Traces Setting
Each channel window can contain up to 16 different traces. Each trace is assigned the
measured parameter (S-parameter), display format and other parameters. The
parameters related to a trace are listed in table 4.8.
The traces can be displayed in one graph, overlapping each other, or in separate graphs
of a channel window. The trace settings are made in two steps: trace number setting and
trace layout setting in the channel window. By default a channel window contains one
trace. If you need to enable two or more traces, set the number of traces as described
below.
To set the number of the traces, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Num Of Traces
Then select the number of traces from the menu.
All the traces are assigned their individual names, which cannot be changed. The trace
name contains its number. The trace names are as follows: Tr1, Tr2 ... Tr16.
Each trace is assigned some initial settings: measured parameter, format, scale, and
color, which can be modified by the user.
Note

By default the measured parameters are set in the following
succession: S11, S21, S12, S22. After that the measurements
repeat in cycles.

By default the display format for all the traces is set to
logarithmic magnitude (dB).

The scale parameters by default are set as follows: division is
set to 10 dB, reference level value is set to 0 dB, reference
level position is in the middle of the graph.

The trace color is determined by its number. You can change
the color for all the traces with the same number.
Full cycle of trace updating depends on the S-parameters
measured and the calibration method. The full cycle can
consist of one sweep of Port 1 or Port 2 being a source, or
can include two successive sweeps, of Port 1 then of Port
2. For example, to have two traces (S11 and S22)
measured, two successive sweeps will be performed. Two
successive sweeps are also performed during full 2-port
calibration, independently of the number of the traces and
S-parameters measured.
63
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.4.3
Trace Allocating
By default all the traces are displayed in channel window, overlapping each other. If
you need to display the traces in separate graphs, set the number and layout of the
graphs in the channel window as shown below.
To allocate the traces in a channel window, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Allocate Traces
Then select the required number and layout of the
separate trace graphs in the menu.
The available options of number and layout of the trace
graphs of one channel window are as shown in section
4.4.1.
Compared to channel windows, number and layout of the trace graphs are not
correlated. Number of traces and number of graphs are set independently.

If the number of traces and the number of graphs are equal,
all the traces will be displayed separately, each in its
individual graph.

If the number of traces is greater than the number of graphs,
traces will be assigned successively (beginning from the
smallest trace number) to the available graphs. When all the
graphs become occupied, the process will continue from the
first graph (the following in succession traces will be added
in the graphs).

If the number of traces is smaller than the number of graphs,
empty graphs will be displayed.
If two or more traces are displayed in one graph, the vertical scale will be shown for the
active trace.
Note
The Analyzer offers feature of showing the vertical
graticule label for all the traces in the graph. By default
this feature is set to off. For details see section 8.6.
If two or more traces are displayed in one graph, the markers' data will be shown for the
active trace.
64
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Note
To display the marker data for all the traces
simultaneously, there are two options: use marker table
feature (See section 6.1.6.2) or deactivate identification of
the active trace marker only, which is set by default (See
section 6.1.6.4).
Stimulus axis is the same for all the traces of the channel, except for the conditions
when time domain transformation is applied to some of the traces. In this case the
displayed stimulus axis will refer to the active trace.
65
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.7 Channel parameters
N
Parameter Description
1
Sweep Type
2
Sweep Range
3
Number of Sweep Points
4
Stimulus Power Level
5
Power Slope Feature
6
CW Frequency
7
Segment Sweep Table
8
Trigger Mode
9
IF Bandwidth
10
Averaging
11
Calibration
12
Fixture Simulator
Table 4.8 Trace parameters
N
Parameter Description
1
Measured Parameter (S–parameter)
2
Display Format
3
Reference Level Scale, Value and Position
4
Electrical Delay, Phase Offset
5
Memory Trace, Math Operation
6
Smoothing
7
Markers
8
Time Domain
9
Parameter Transformation
10
Limit Test
66
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.4.4
Trace/Channel Activating
The control commands selected by the user are applied to the active channel or the
active trace, respectively.
The border line of the active channel window is highlighted in light color. The active
trace belongs to the active channel and its title is highlighted in inverse color.
Before you set a channel or trace parameters, first you need to activate the channel or
trace, respectively.
To activate a trace/channel, use the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel
Then activate the trace by entering the number in the
Active Trace softkey or using Previous Trace or Next
Trace softkeys.
Active channel can be selected in similar way.
4.4.5
Active Trace/Channel Window Maximizing
When there are several channel windows displayed, you can temporarily maximize the
active channel window to full screen size. The other channel windows will be hidden,
but this will not interrupt the measurements in those channels.
Similarly, when there are several traces displayed in a channel window, you can
temporarily maximize the active trace. The other traces will be hidden, but this will not
interrupt the measurements of those traces.
67
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To enable/disable active channel maximizing function,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Channel
To enable/disable active trace maximizing function, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Trace
Note
4.5
Channel and trace maximizing function can be controlled
by a double mouse click on the channel/trace.
Stimulus Setting
The stimulus parameters are set for each channel. Before you set the stimulus
parameters of a channel, make this channel active.
Note
4.5.1
To make the measurement more accurate, perform
measurements with the same stimulus settings as were
used for the calibration.
Sweep Type Setting
To set the sweep type, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Sweep Type
Then select the sweep type:
■
Lin Freq:
■
Log Freq:
■
Segment: Segment
■
Power Sweep: Power sweep
Linear frequency sweep
Logarithmic frequency sweep
frequency sweep
68
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.5.2
Sweep Span Setting
The sweep range should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency sweeps (Hz) and
for linear power sweep (dBm). The sweep range can be set as Start / Stop or Center /
Span values of the range.
To enter the start and stop values of the sweep range, use
the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Start | Stop
To enter center and span values of the sweep range, use
the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Center | Span
Note
4.5.3
If the power sweep is activated, the values on the Start,
Stop, Center, and Span softkeys will be represented in
dBm.
Sweep Points Setting
The number of sweep points should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency sweeps,
and for linear power sweep.
To enter the number of sweep points, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Points
4.5.4
Stimulus Power Setting
The stimulus power level should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency sweeps.
For the segment sweep type, the method of power level setting described in this section
can be used only if the same power level is set for all the segments of the sweep. For
setting of individual power level for each segment see section 4.5.8.
69
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To enter the power level value, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Power
4.5.5
Power Slope Feature
The power slope feature allows for compensation of power attenuation with the
frequency increase, in the fixture wire. The power slope can be set for linear,
logarithmic and segment frequency sweeps.
To enter the power slope value, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Slope (dB/GHz)
To enable/disable the power slope function, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Slope (On/Off)
4.5.6
CW Frequency Setting
CW frequency setting determines the source frequency for the linear power sweep.
To enter the CW frequency value, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > CW Freq
4.5.7
RF Out Function
RF Out function allows temporary disabling of stimulus signal. While the stimulus is
disabled the measurements cannot be performed.
To disable/enable stimulus, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > RF Out
70
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Note
4.5.8
RF Out function is applied to the whole Analyzer, not to
some channels. The indication about it will appear in the
instrument status bar (See section 4.1.3).
Segment Table Editing
Segment table determines the sweep rule when segment sweep is activated.
To open the segment table, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Segment Table
When you switch to the Segment Table submenu, the segment table will open in the
lower part of the screen. When you exit the Segment Table submenu, the segment table
will become hidden.
The segment table layout is shown below. The table has three mandatory columns:
frequency range and number of sweep points, and three columns, which you can
enable/disable: IF bandwidth, power level and delay time.
Each row describes one segment. The table can contain one or more rows, up to 20001
(the total number of sweep points of all the segments).
To add a segment to the table, click Add softkey. The new
segment row will be entered below the highlighted one.
To delete a segment, click Delete softkey. The highlighted
segment will be deleted.
For any segment it is necessary to set the mandatory parameters: frequency range and
number of sweep points. The frequency range can be set either as Start / Stop, or as
Center / Span.
71
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To set the frequency range representation mode, click
Freq Mode softkey to select between Start/Stop and
Center/Span options.
For any segment you can enable the additional parameter columns: IF bandwidth, power
level, and delay time. If such a column is disabled, the corresponding value set for
linear sweep will be used (same for all the segments).
To enable the IF bandwidth column, click List IFBW
softkey.
To enable the power level column, click List Power
softkey.
To enable
softkey.
the delay time column, click List Delay
To set a parameter, make a mouse click on its value field and enter the value. To
navigate in the table you can use the keys of the keyboard.
Note
The adjacent segments do not overlap in the frequency
domain.
The segment table can be saved into *.lim file to a hard disk and later recalled.
To save the segment table, click Save… softkey.
Then enter the file name in the appeared dialog.
To recall the segment table, click Recall… softkey.
Then select the file name in the appeared dialog.
Segment sweep graph has two methods of frequency axis representation. The axis can
display the frequencies of the measurement points. For some cases it can be helpful to
have the frequency axis displayed in sequential numbers of the measurement points.
72
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To set the frequency axis display mode, click Segment
Display softkey and select Freq Order or Base Order
option.
4.5.9
Measurement Delay
Measurement delay function allows to add additional time interval at each measurement
point between the moment when the source output frequency becomes stable and the
moment of measurement start. This capability can be useful for measurements in
narrowband circuits with transient period longer than the measurement in one point.
To set the time of measurement delay, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Meas Delay
73
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.6
Trigger Setting
The trigger mode determines the sweep actuation of the channel at a trigger signal
detection. A channel can operate in one of the following three trigger modes:

Continuous – a sweep actuation occurs every time a trigger signal
is detected;

Single – one sweep actuation occurs at one trigger signal
detection after the mode has been enabled, after the sweep is
complete the channel turns to hold mode;

Hold – sweep actuation is off in the channel, the trigger signals do
not affect the channel.
The trigger signal influences the whole Analyzer and controls the trigging of all the
channels in the following manner. If more than one channel windows are open, the
trigger activates the successive measurement of all the channels, which are not in hold
mode. Before the measurement of all the channels is complete, all the new triggers will
be ignored. When the measurement of all the channels is complete, if there is as least
one channel in continuous trigger mode, the Analyzer will turn to waiting for a trigger
state.
The trigger source can be selected by the user from the following four available
options:

Internal – the next trigger signal is generated by the Analyzer on
completion of each sweep;

External – the external trigger input is used as a trigger signal
source;

Manual – the trigger signal is generated by pressing the
corresponding softkey.

Bus – the trigger signal is generated by a command
communicated from an external computer from a program
controlling the Analyzer via COM/DCOM.
74
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To set the trigger mode, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger
Then select the required trigger mode:
■
Hold
■
Single
■
Continuous
and Continuous All Channels softkeys
turn all the channels to the respective mode.
Hold All Channels
softkey aborts the sweep and returns the trigger
system to the waiting for a trigger state.
Restart
Trigger
softkey generates the trigger in manual trigger
mode.
To set the trigger source, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Source
Then select the required trigger source:
■
Internal
■
External
■
Manual
■
Bus
75
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.7
Measurement Parameters Setting
4.7.1
S-Parameters
For high-frequency network analysis the following terms are applied: incident, reflected
and transmitted waves, transferred in the circuits of the setup (See figure 4.10).
Figure 4.10
Measurement of magnitude and phase of incident, reflected and transmitted signals
allow to determine the S-parameters (scattered parameters) of the DUT. An S-parameter
is a relation between the complex magnitudes of the two waves:
S mn =
transmitted wave at Port m
incident wave at Port n
The Analyzer allows measurement of the full scattering matrix of a 2-port DUT:
 S11 S12 
S = 

 S 21 S 22 
To measure the full scattering matrix, you do not need to change the connection of the
DUT to the Analyzer.
For the measurement of S11, S21 parameters, test Port 1 will operate as a signal source.
The incident and reflected waves will be measured by Port 1. The transmitted wave will
be measured by Port 2.
For the measurement of S12, S22 parameters, test Port 2 will operate as a signal source.
The incident and reflected waves will be measured by Port 2. The transmitted wave will
be measured by Port 1.
76
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.7.2
S-Parameter Setting
A measured parameter (S11, S21, S12 , S22) is set for each trace. Before you select the
measured parameter, first activate the trace.
To set the measured parameter, use the following softkey:
Measurement
Then select the required parameter by the corresponding
softkey.
4.7.3
Absolute Measurements
The absolute measurement is the measurement of absolute power of a signal at a
receiver input. Unlike relative measurements of S-parameters, which represent a relation
between the signals at inputs of two receivers, absolute measurements determine the
signal power at input of one receiver. A 2-port Analyzer has four independent receivers:
A, B, R1, R2 (See figure 4.11).
R1
R2
A
B
Port 1
Port 2
Figure 4.11 Analyzer block diagram
77
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
R1 and R2 are the receivers of a reference signal, A and B are the receivers of a test
signal. A and R1 receivers are located in port 1, B and R2 receivers are located in port
2. There are six types of absolute measurements depending on the port number (See
table 4.10):
Table 4.10 Absolute measurements
Symbols
Definition
A(1)
Test signal receiver A (Source Port 1)
A(2)
Test signal receiver A (Source Port 2)
B(1)
Test signal receiver B (Source Port 1)
B(2)
Test signal receiver B (Source Port 2)
R1(1)
Reference signal receiver R1 (Source Port 1)
R2(2)
Reference signal receiver R2 (Source Port 2)
4.7.4
Absolute Measurement Setting
To select absolute measurement, click softkeys:
Measurement > Absolute >
Receiver A, Source Port 1 |
Receiver B, Source Port 1 |
Receiver R1, Source Port 1 |
Receiver A, Source Port 2 |
Receiver B, Source Port 2 |
Receiver R2, Source Port 2
Note
In absolute measurement mode, dBm measurement units
will be used for logarithmic magnitude format, W
measurement units will be used for measurements in linear
magnitude format. Other formats are not applied to absolute
measurements as power is measured in scalar values.
78
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.8
Format Setting
The Analyzer offers the display of the measured S-parameters on the screen in three
formats:
4.8.1

rectangular format;

polar format;

Smith chart format.
Rectangular Formats
In this format, stimulus values are plotted along X-axis and the measured data are
plotted along Y-axis (See figure 4.12).
Y
Measurement
X
Stimulus
Figure 4.12 Rectangular format
To display S-parameter complex value along Y-axis, it should be transformed into a real
number. Rectangular formats involve various types of transformation of an S-parameter
S = a + j ⋅ b , where:

a – real part of S-parameter complex value;

b – imaginary part of S-parameter complex value.
There are eight types of rectangular formats depending on the measured value plotted
along Y-axis (See table 4.11).
79
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.11 Rectangular formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Logarithmic
Magnitude
Log Mag
Data Type (Y-axis)
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude:
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Decibel (dB)
20 ⋅ log S ,
S = a2 + b2
Voltage
Standing Wave
Ratio
SWR
Phase
Phase
1 + S
Abstract number
1 − S
S-parameter phase from –
180° to +180°:
180
π
⋅ arctg
Degree (°)
a
b
Expanded
Phase
Expand
Phase
S-parameter phase,
measurement range
expanded to from below –
180° to over +180°
Degree (°)
Group
Delay
Group Delay
Signal propagation delay
within the DUT:
dϕ
,
−
dω
a
ϕ = arctg , ω = 2π ⋅ f
b
Second (sec.)
Linear
Magnitude
Lin Mag
S-parameter linear
magnitude:
Abstract number
a2 + b2
Real Part
Real
S-parameter real part:
Abstract number
a = re(S )
Imaginary Part
Imag
S-parameter imaginary part:
Abstract number
b = im(S )
80
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.8.2
Polar Format
Polar format represents the measurement results on the pie chart (See figure 4.13). The
distance to a measured point from the graph center corresponds to the magnitude of its
value. The counterclockwise angle from the positive horizontal axis corresponds to the
phase of the measured value.
Figure 4.13 Polar format
The polar graph does not have a frequency axis, so frequency will be indicated by the
markers. There are three types of polar formats depending on the data displayed by the
marker. The traces will remain the same on all the graphs.
Table 4.12 Polar formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Linear
Magnitude and
Phase
Polar (Lin)
Logarithmic
Magnitude and
Phase
Polar (Log)
Real and
Imaginary
Parts
Data Displayed
by Marker
S-parameter linear magnitude
S-parameter phase
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude
S-parameter phase
Polar
(Re/Im)
S-parameter real part
S-parameter imaginary part
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Abstract
number
Degree (°)
Decibel (dB)
Degree (°)
Abstract
number
Abstract
number
81
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.8.3
Smith Chart Format
Smith chart format is used for representation of impedance values for DUT reflection
measurements. In this format, the trace has the same points as in polar format.
Figure 4.14 Smith chart format
The polar graph does not have a frequency axis, so frequency will be indicated by the
markers. There are five types of Smith chart formats depending on the data displayed by
the marker. The traces will remain the same on all the graphs.
Table 4.13 Smith chart formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Linear
Magnitude and
Phase
Smith
(Lin)
Logarithmic
Magnitude and
Phase
Smith
(Log)
Real and
Imaginary Parts
Smith
(Re/Im)
Data Displayed
by Marker
S-parameter linear
magnitude
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Abstract
number
S-parameter phase
Degree (°)
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude
S-parameter phase
S-parameter real part
S-parameter imaginary part
Decibel (dB)
Degree (°)
Abstract
number
Abstract
number
82
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Table 4.13 Smith chart formats (continued)
Complex
Impedance
(at Input)
Smith
(R + jX)
Resistance at input:
R = re( Z inp ) ,
Z inp = Z 0
Ohm (Ω)
1+ S
1− S
Reactance at input:
X = im( Z inp )
Ohm (Ω)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance:
C=−
L=
Complex
admittance
(at Input)
Smith
(G + jB)
1
,
ωX
X
,
ω
X <0
X >0
Farad (F)
Henry (H)
Conductance at input:
G = re(Yinp ) ,
Yinp =
Siemens (S)
1 1− S
⋅
Z0 1+ S
Susceptance at input:
B = im(Yinp )
Siemens (S)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance:
C=
L=−
B
, B>0
Farad (F)
1
, B<0
ωB
Henry (H)
ω
Z0 – test port impedance. Z0 setting is described in section 5.2.12.
83
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.8.4
Data Format Setting
You can select the format for each trace of the channel individually. Before you set the
format, first activate the trace.
To set the rectangular format, use the following softkey:
Format
Then select the required format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude
■
SWR
■
Phase
■
Expanded phase
■
Group delay
■
Linear magnitude
■
Real part
■
Imaginary part
84
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To set the Smith chart format, use the following softkeys:
Format > Smith
Then select the required format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude and phase
■
Linear magnitude and phase
■
Real and imaginary parts
■
Complex impedance (at input)
■
Complex admittance (at input)
To set the Smith chart format, use the following softkeys:
Format > Polar
Then select the required format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude and phase
■
Linear magnitude and phase
■
Real and imaginary parts
85
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.9
Scale Setting
4.9.1
Rectangular Scale
For rectangular format you can set the following parameters (See figure 4.15):

Scale division;

Reference level value;

Reference level position;

Number of scale divisions.
Scale
Divisions
10
9
Division
8
7
6
Reference
Level
5
Reference Level
Position
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 4.15 Rectangular scale
4.9.2
Rectangular Scale Setting
You can set the scale for each trace of a channel. Before you set the scale, first activate
the trace.
To set the scale of a trace, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Scale
To set the reference level, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Ref Value
To set the position of the reference level, use the
following softkeys:
Scale > Ref Position
86
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To set the number of trace scale divisions, use the
following softkeys:
Scale > Divisions
Note
4.9.3
1
Quick trace scale setting by the mouse is described in
section 4.3.
Circular Scale
For polar and Smith chart formats, you can set the outer circle value (See figure 4.16).
Scale
Scale
Figure 4.16 Circular scale
4.9.4
Circular Scale Setting
To set the scale of the circular graphs, use the following
softkeys:
Scale > Scale
4.9.5
Automatic Scaling
The automatic scaling function automatically allows the user to define the trace scale so
that the trace of the measured value could fit into the graph entirely.
In rectangular format, two parameters are adjustable: scale division and reference level
position. In circular format, the outer circle value will be adjusted.
1
Number of the scale divisions affect all the graphs of the channel.
87
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To execute the automatic scaling, use the following
softkeys:
Scale > Auto Scale
4.9.6
Reference Level Automatic Selection
This function executes automatic selection of the reference level in rectangular
coordinates.
After the function has been executed, the trace of the measured value makes the vertical
shift so that the reference level crosses the graph in the middle. The scale division will
remain the same.
To execute the automatic selection of the reference level,
use the following softkeys:
Scale > Auto Ref Value
4.9.7
Electrical Delay Setting
The electrical delay function allows the user to define the compensation value for the
electrical delay of a device. This value is used as compensation for the electrical delay
during non-linear phase measurements. The electrical delay is set in seconds.
If the electrical delay setting is other than zero, S-parameter value will vary in
accordance with the following formula:
S = S ⋅ e j⋅2π ⋅ f ⋅t ,
where
f – frequency, Hz,
t – electrical delay, sec.
The electrical delay is set for each trace individually. Before you set the electrical
delay, first activate the trace.
To set the electrical delay, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Electrical Delay
88
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.9.8
Phase Offset Setting
The phase offset function allows the user to define the constant phase offset of a trace.
The value of the phase offset is set in degrees for each trace individually. Before you set
the phase offset, first activate the trace.
To set the phase offset, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Phase Offset
89
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.10
Measurement Optimizing
You can set IF bandwidth, averaging and smoothing parameters in Average softkey
submenu.
4.10.1 IF Bandwidth Setting
The IF bandwidth function allows the user to define the bandwidth of the test receiver.
The IF bandwidth runs through the following sequence of numbers: 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 5, 7
within the range of 10 Hz to 30 kHz.
The IF bandwidth narrowing allows to reduce self-noise and widen the dynamic range
of the Analyzer. Also the sweep time will increase. Narrowing of the IF bandwidth by
10 will reduce the receiver noise by 10 dB.
The IF bandwidth should be set for each channel individually. Before you set the IF
bandwidth, first activate the channel.
To set the IF bandwidth, use the following softkeys:
Average > IF Bandwidth
4.10.2 Averaging Setting
The averaging is performed in a measurement point is made over several previous
sweeps. The averaging function is similar to IF bandwidth narrowing. It allows you to
reduce self-noise and widen the dynamic measurement range of the Analyzer.
The averaging in each measurement point is made over several sweeps in accordance
with the following equation:
 M i = Si ,

Si

 1
 M i = 1 − n  ⋅ M i −1 + n ,



i=0
i > 0, n = min(i + 1, N )
Mi
– i-sweep averaging result;
Si
– i-sweep measurement parameter (S-parameter) value;
– averaging factor is set by the user from 1 to 999; the higher the factor value the
N
stronger the averaging effect.
90
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
When the averaging function is enabled, the current number of iterations and the
averaging factor, e.g. «9/10», will appear in the channel status bar. The averaging
process is considered stable when the both numbers have become equal.
The averaging should be set for each channel individually. Before you set the
averaging, first activate the channel.
To toggle the averaging function on/off, use the following
softkeys:
Average > Averaging
To set the averaging factor, use the following softkeys:
Averaging > Avg Factor
4.10.3 Smoothing Setting
The smoothing of the sweep results is made by averaging of adjacent points of the trace
determined by the moving aperture. The aperture is set by the user in percent against the
total number of the trace points.
The smoothing does not increase dynamic range of the Analyzer. It does not affect the
average level of the trace, but it reduces the noise bursts.
The smoothing should be set for each trace individually. Before you set the smoothing,
first activate the trace.
To toggle the smoothing function on/off, use the
following softkeys:
Averaging > Smoothing
To set the smoothing aperture, use the following softkeys:
Averaging > Smo Aperture
91
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
4.11
Mixer Measurements
4.11.1 Mixer Measurement Methods
The Analyzer allows you to perform measurements of mixers and other frequency
translating devices using scalar and vector methods.
The scalar method allows measurement of scalar transmission S-parameters of the
frequency translating devices. Phase and group delay measurements are not accessible
in this mode. Simple measurement setup (without any additional equipment) is the
advantage of this method (See figure 4.17).
Figure 4.17 Scalar mixer measurement setup
The scalar measurement method is based on frequency offset mode. The frequency
offset mode produces frequency offset between the Analyzer test ports and described in
detail in section 4.11.2. The frequency offset mode can be combined with different
calibration methods.
When measuring the mixers by scalar method the most accurate method of calibration is
scalar mixer calibration (See section 5.6).
An easier but less accurate method is to use the absolute measurements in combination
with receiver calibration and power calibration (See sections 4.7.3, 5.5 and section 5.4).
This method often features ripple of transmission S-parameters of the mixer due to the
mixer input and output mismatch. Partially this can be compensated by matching
attenuators at input and output of the 3-10 dB mixer.
The vector method allows measurement of mixer transmission complex S-parameter
including phase and group delay. The method requires additional equipment (See figure
4.18): an external mixer with filter, which is called calibration mixer, and a LO
common for both the calibration mixer and the mixer under test.
92
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Calibration
mixer/filter
Mixer under
test
LO
Figure 4.18 Vector mixer measurement setup
The vector mixer measurement method ensures same frequency at the both test ports of
the Analyzer, in normal operation mode. In this case, the only applicable calibration
method is vector mixer calibration (See section 5.7).
4.11.2 Frequency Offset Mode
The frequency offset mode enables you to measure transmission S-parameters of the
frequency translating devices. In this section, we refer to the frequency translating
devices such frequency shifting devices as mixers and converters, as well as devices
dividing or multiplying frequency.
This measurement mode is based on frequency offset of receiver port frequency relative
to source port frequency. The frequency offset is defined for each port using three
coefficients: multiplier, divider, and offset. These coefficients allow for calculation of a
port frequency relative to the basic frequency range.
Fport =
M
Fbase + Fofs
D
M – multiplier,
D – divider,
Fofs – offset,
Fbase – basic frequency.
93
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
In majority of cases it is sufficient to apply offset to one of the ports, leaving the other
one at the basic frequency (M=1, D=1, Fofs=0).
Below are some examples of offset coefficient calculation at different types of
frequency conversion. Mixer input is connected to port 1, mixer output is connected to
port 2. RF – output frequency, IF – intermediate frequency, LO – local oscillator
frequency. Second port of the Analyzer is running in frequency offset mode:
1. IF = RF – LO
Port 2: M = 1, D = 1, Fofs = – LO.
2. IF = LO – RF
Port 2: M = – 1, D = 1, Fofs = LO.
3. IF = RF + LO
Port 2: M = 1, D = 1, Fofs = LO.
In frequency offset mode, the bottom part of the channel window will indicate each port
frequency span (See figure 4.19).
Figure 4.19 Channel window in frequency offset mode
To enable/disable frequency offset mode, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Frequency Offset
94
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
To enter offset coefficients for port 1, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Port 1 > Multiplier | Divider |
Offset
To enter offset coefficients for port 2, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Port 2 > Multiplier | Divider |
Offset.
4.11.3 Automatic Adjustment of Offset Frequency
When you perform mixer measurements in frequency offset mode, you need to set the
offset frequency equal to LO frequency. The accuracy of the offset frequency setting
must be no less than IF filter bandwidth, otherwise, the receiver will not get the output
signal from the mixer. In practice, there is always some LO frequency setting error
(unknown to the user) when the tested mixer has an internal LO.
The Analyzer offers the automatic adjustment function of the offset frequency. This
function enables you to accurately set the offset frequency equal to the frequency of the
internal LO of the DUT.
Automatic adjustment function of the offset frequency can be activated only for one
port. The value of the offset frequency automatic adjustment will be indicated in the line
of the respective port in the channel window (See figure 4.20).
The automatic adjustment can be made within ±500 kHz range from the offset
frequency set by the user. The function can be enabled/disabled by the user. Adjustment
can be performed upon key pressing, or continuously with the set time interval.
95
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Figure 4.20 Channel window in frequency offset mode with enabled automatic
adjustment function of the offset frequency
The typical error of automatic adjustment of the offset frequency depends on the current
IF filter bandwidth (See table 4.14).
Table 4.14 Typical error of offset frequency automatic adjustment
IF Filter Bandwidth
Typical Error of Offset Frequency Automatic
Adjustment
10 kHz
500 Hz
3 kHz
50 Hz
1 kHz
15 Hz
300 Hz
5 Hz
100 Hz
1.5 Hz
4.11.3.1
Setting of Offset Frequency Automatic Adjustment
To enable/disable automatic adjustment function of the
offset frequency, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Offset
Adjust
96
4 MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS SETTING
Select port by softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Select Port
Note: normally, it is the port with enabled frequency
offset.
Enter adjustment value by softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust
Value
Note: or click Adjust Immediate, as described below.
To enable/disable continuous adjustment, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Continuous
Adjust
To enter the time interval for continuous adjustment, click
softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust
Period
To initiate a single adjustment, click softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust
Immediate
97
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1
General Information
5.1.1
Measurement Errors
S-parameter measurements are influenced by various measurement errors, which can be
broken down into two categories:

systematic errors, and

random errors.
Random errors comprise such errors as noise fluctuations and thermal drift in electronic
components, changes in the mechanical dimensions of cables and connectors subject to
temperature drift, repeatability of connections and cable bends. Random errors are
unpredictable and hence cannot be estimated and eliminated in calibration. Random
errors can be reduced by correct setting of the source power, IF bandwidth narrowing,
sweep averaging, maintaining constant environment temperature, observance of the
Analyzer warm-up time, careful connector handling, and avoidance of cable bending
after calibration.
Random errors and related methods of correction are not mentioned further in this
section.
Systematic errors are the errors caused by imperfections in the components of the
measurement system. Such errors occur repeatedly and their characteristics do not
change with time. Systematic errors can be determined and then reduced by performing
mathematical correction of the measurement results.
The process of measurement of precision devices with predefined parameters with the
purpose of determination of measurement systematic errors is called calibration, and
such precision devices are called calibration standards. The most commonly used
calibration standards are SHORT, OPEN, and LOAD.
The process of mathematical compensation (numerical reduction) for measurement
systematic errors is called an error correction.
98
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.2
Systematic Errors
The systematic measurement errors of vector network analyzers are subdivided into the
following categories according to their source:

Directivity;

Source match;

Load match;

Isolation;

Reflection/transmission tracking.
The measurement results before the procedure of error correction has been executed are
called uncorrected.
The residual values of the measurement results after the procedure of error correction
are called effective.
5.1.2.1
Directivity Error
A directivity error (Ed) is caused by incomplete separation of the incident signal from
the reflected signal by the directional coupler in the source port. In this case part of the
incident signal energy comes to the receiver of the reflected signal. Directivity errors do
not depend on the characteristics of the DUT and usually have stronger effect in
reflection measurements.
5.1.2.2
Source Match Error
A source match error (Es) is caused by the mismatch between the source port and the
input of the DUT. In this case part of the signal reflected by the DUT reflects at the
source port and again comes into the input of the DUT. The error occurs both in
reflection measurement and in transmission measurement. Source match errors depend
on the relation between input impedance of the DUT and test port impedance when
switched as a signal source.
Source match errors have strong effect in measurements of a DUT with poor input
matching.
5.1.2.3
Load Match Error
A load match error (El) is caused by the mismatch between the receiver port and the
output of the DUT. In this case part of the signal transmitted through the DUT reflects
at the receiver port and comes to the output of the DUT. The error occurs in
transmission measurements and in reflection measurements (for a 2-port DUT). Load
match errors depend on the relation between output impedance of the DUT and test port
impedance switched as a signal receiver.
99
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
In transmission measurements the load match error has considerable influence if the
output of the DUT is poorly matched.
In reflection measurements the load match error has considerable influence in case of
poor output match and low attenuation between the output and input of the DUT.
5.1.2.4
Isolation Error
An isolation error (Ex) is caused by a leakage of the signal from the source port to the
receiver port escaping transmission through the DUT.
The Analyzer has typical isolation ratio of –140 dB, what allows to ignore this error for
most of measurements. The isolation error measurement is a non-mandatory option in
all types of calibration.
5.1.2.5
Reflection Tracking Error
A reflection tracking error (Er) is caused by the difference in frequency response
between the test receiver and the reference receiver of the source port in reflection
measurement.
5.1.2.6
Transmission Tracking Error
A transmission tracking error (Et) is caused by the difference in frequency response
between the test receiver of the receiver port and the reference receiver of the source
port in transmission measurement.
100
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.3
Error Modeling
Error modeling and method of signal flow graphs are applied to vector network
analyzers for analysis of its systematic errors.
5.1.3.1
One-Port Error Model
In reflection measurement only one port of the Analyzer is used. The signal flow graph
of errors for the port 1 is represented in figure 5.1. For port 2 the signal flow graph of
the errors will be similar.
1
Ed1
S11m
Es1
S11a
Er1
Port 1
Figure 5.1 One-port error model
Where:

S11a – reflection coefficient true value;

S11m – reflection coefficient measured value.
The measurement result at port 1 is affected by the following three systematic error
terms:

Ed1 – directivity;

Es1 – source match;

Er1 – reflection tracking.
For normalization the stimulus value is taken equal to 1. All the values used in the
model are complex.
After determining all the three error terms Ed1, Es1, Er1 for each measurement frequency
by means of a full 1-port calibration, it is possible to calculate (mathematically
subtract the errors from the measured value S11m) the true value of the reflection
coefficient S11a.
There are simplified methods, which eliminate the effect of only one or two out of the
three systematic errors.
101
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.3.2
Two-Port Error Model
For a two-port measurement, two signal flow graphs are considered. One of the graphs
describes the case where port 1 is the stimulus source, the other graph describes the case
where port 2 is the stimulus source.
The signal flow graphs of errors effect in a two-port system are represented in figure
5.2:
1
Ex1
Et1
S21a
Ed1 Es1
S11a
Er1
S11m
El1
S22a
S12a
Port 2
Port 1
S22m
S21a
Et2
S12m
S21m
Et2
S11a
Er2
S22a
Es2
S12a
Ed2
1
Ex2
Figure 5.2 Two-port error model
Where:

S11a, S21a, S12a, S22a – true values of the DUT parameters;

S11m, S21m, S12m, S22m
parameters.
– measured values of the DUT
For normalization the stimulus value is taken equal to 1. All the values used in the
model are complex.
The measurement result in a two-port system is affected by twelve systematic error
terms.
102
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Table 5.1 Systematic error terms
Description
Stimulus Source
Port 1
Port 2
Directivity
Ed1
Ed2
Source match
Es1
Es2,
Reflection tracking
Er1
Er2
Transmission tracking
Et1
Et2
Load match
El1
El2
Isolation
Ex1
Ex2
After determination of all the twelve error terms for each measurement frequency by
means of a 2-port calibration, it is possible to calculate the true value of the Sparameters: S11a, S21a, S12a, S22a.
There are simplified methods, which eliminate the effect of only one or several out of
the twelve systematic error terms.
Note
5.1.4
If you use a 2-port calibration, to determine any of Sparameters you need to know all the four measurements
S11m, S21m, S12m, S22m. That is why to update one or all of
the S-parameters, you need to perform two sweeps: with
port 1 as a signal source, and with port 2 as a signal
source.
Analyzer Test Ports Defining
The test ports of the Analyzer are defined by means of calibration. The test port is a
connector accepting a calibration standard in the process of calibration.
A type-N 50 Ω connector on the front panel of the Analyzer will be the test port if the
calibration standards are connected directly to it.
Sometimes it is necessary to connect coaxial cable and/or adapter to the connector on
the front panel for connection of the DUT with a different connector type. In such cases
connect calibration standards to the connector of the cable or adapter.
Figure 5.3 represents two cases of test port defining for 2-port measurement. The use of
cables and/or adapters does not affect the measurement results if they were integrated
into the process of calibration.
103
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Port 1
Port 2
Adapters
Port 1
Port 2
Figure 5.3 Test port defining
In some cases, the term of calibration plane is used. Calibration plane is an imaginary
plane located at the ends of the connectors, which accept calibration standards during
calibration.
5.1.5
Calibration Steps
The process of calibration comprises the following steps:

Selection of the calibration kit matching the connector type of the
test port. The calibration kit includes such standards as SHORT,
OPEN, and LOAD with matched impedance. Magnitude and
phase responses i.e. S-parameters of the standards are well
known. The characteristics of the standards are represented in the
form of an equivalent circuit model, as described below;

Selection of a calibration method (see section 5.1.6) is based on
the required accuracy of measurements. The calibration method
determines what error terms of the model (or all of them) will be
compensated;

Measurement of the standards within a specified frequency range.
The number of the measurements depends on the type of
calibration;

The Analyzer compares the measured parameters of the standards
against their predefined values. The difference is used for
calculation of the calibration coefficients (systematic errors);

The table of calibration coefficients is saved into the memory of
the Analyzer and used for error correction of the measured results
of any DUT.
Calibration is always made for a specific channel, as it depends on the channel stimulus
settings, particularly on the frequency span. This means that a table of calibration
coefficients is being stored each for an individual channel.
104
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.6
Calibration Methods
The Analyzer supports several methods of one-port and two-port calibrations. The
calibration methods vary by quantity and type of the standards being used, by type of
error correction, and accuracy. The table below represents the overview of the
calibration methods.
Table 5.2 Calibration methods
Calibration
Method
Reflection
Normalization
Parameters
Standards
S11

or

SHORT or OPEN
LOAD
1
One-Path TwoPort
Calibration
Full Two-Port
Calibration
TRL
Calibration
S21

or

Et1, Ex1 2
THRU
2 LOADs
2
2
Low
or
Et2, Ex2 2
S11

SHORT
Er1, Ed1, Es1
or

OPEN
or
S22

LOAD
Er2, Ed2, Es1
S11, S21

SHORT
or

OPEN
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
Ex1 2
S12, S22

LOAD

THRU

2 LOADs 2
S11, S21

SHORT
S12, S22

OPEN

LOAD

THRU

2 LOADs 2
S11, S21

THRU or LINE
S12, S22

REFLECT

1
High
Er2, Ed21
S12
Full One-Port
Calibration
Er1, Ed11
Accuracy
or
S22
Transmission
Normalization
Errors
LINE or 2 LOADs
High
Medium
or
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
Ex1 2
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
El1, Ex1 2
High
Er2, Ed2, Es2, Et2,
El2, Ex2 2
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
El1
Very
High
Er2, Ed2, Es2, Et2,
El2
If optional directivity calibration is performed.
If optional isolation calibration is performed.
105
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.6.1
Normalization
Normalization is the simplest method of calibration as it involves measurement of only
one calibration standard for each S-parameter.

1-port (reflection) S-parameters (S11, S22) are calibrated by means
of a SHORT or an OPEN standard, estimating reflection tracking
error term Er.

2-port (transmission) S-parameters (S21, S12) are calibrated by
means of a THRU standard, estimating transmission tracking
error term Et.
This method is called normalization because the measured S-parameter at each
frequency point is divided (normalized) by the corresponding S-parameter of the
calibration standard.
Normalization eliminates frequency-dependent attenuation and phase offset in the
measurement circuit, but does not compensate for errors of directivity, mismatch or
isolation. This constrains the accuracy of the method.
Note
5.1.6.2
Normalization can also be referred to as response open,
response short or response thru calibration depending
on the standard being used: an OPEN, SHORT or THRU
respectively.
Directivity Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers optional directivity (Ed) calibration feature, which can be used in
combination with reflection normalization by means of additional measurement of a
LOAD standard. Auxiliary directivity correction increases the accuracy of
normalization.
5.1.6.3
Isolation Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers optional isolation (Ex) calibration to be combined with the
following three methods of calibration:

transmission normalization,

one-path two-port calibration,

full two-port calibration.
This calibration is performed by isolation measurement using LOAD standards
connected to the both test ports of the Analyzer. Isolation calibration can be omitted in
most of tests as the signal leakage between the test ports of the Analyzer is negligible.
106
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Note
5.1.6.4
For isolation calibration, it is recommended to set narrow
IF bandwidth, attenuation, and firmly fix the cables.
Full One-Port Calibration
Full one-port calibration involves connection of the following three standards to one test
port:

SHORT,

OPEN,

LOAD.
Measurement of the three standards allows for acquisition of all the three error terms
(Ed, Es, and Er) of a one-port model. Full 1-port calibration is a highly accurate
method for 1-port reflection measurements.
5.1.6.5
One-Path Two-Port Calibration
A one-path two-port calibration combines full one-port calibration with transmission
normalization. This method allows for a more accurate estimation of transmission
tracking error (Et) than using transmission normalization.
One-path two-port calibration involves connection of the three standards to the source
port of the Analyzer (as for one-port calibration) and a THRU standard connection
between the calibrated source port and the other receiver port.
One-path two-port calibration allows for correction of Ed, Es, and Er error terms of the
source port and a transmission tracking error term (Et). This method does not derive
source match error term (El) of a 2-port error model.
One-path two-port calibration is used for measurements of the parameters of a DUT in
one direction, e.g. S11 and S21.
5.1.6.6
Full Two-Port Calibration
A full two-port calibration involves seven connections of the standards. This calibration
combines two full 1-port calibrations for each port, and one THRU connection, which
provides two transmission measurements for each test port being a source. If optional
isolation calibration is required, connect LOAD standards to the both test ports of the
Analyzer and perform two isolation measurements for each source port.
Full 2-port calibration allows for correction of all the twelve error terms of a 2-port
error model: Ed1, Ed2, Es1, Es2, Er1, Er2, Et1, Et2, El1, El2, Ex1, Ex2 (correction of Ex1, Ex2
can be omitted).
107
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Full 2-port calibration is a highly accurate method of calibration for 2-port DUT
measurements.
5.1.6.7
Sliding Load Calibration
In full one-port and full two-port calibrations it is possible to employ a SLIDING
LOAD calibration standard instead of a fixed one. The use of the SLIDING LOAD
standard allows for significant increase in calibration accuracy at high frequencies
compared to the FIXED LOAD standard.
The sliding load calibration involves a series of measurements in different positions of
the sliding element to compensate for reflection from the dissipation component.
To activate the sliding load calibration algorithm, the selected calibration kit should
contain the calibration standard of sliding load type, and it should be assigned "load"
class of the corresponding port. Calibration standard editing and class assignment are
further described in detail.
The sliding load calibration is not applied at lower frequencies. To eliminate this
limitation, use a FIXED LOAD standard in the lower part of the frequency range. For
combined calibration with SLIDING and FIXED LOADS, use the procedure of
standard subclasses assigning. This procedure is described in detail below.
5.1.6.8
Unknown Thru Calibration
An UNKNOWN THRU calibration standard is used only in full two-port calibration,
which is also known as SOLT (Short, Open, Load, Thru) calibration.
This calibration method involves connecting the test ports to each other, what is called
THRU. If the connectors’ gender or type prevent direct connection, a DEFINED THRU
is used. But it is not always possible to know the exact parameters of the THRU, in this
case UNKNOWN THRU calibration is used.
An arbitrary two-port device with unknown parameters can be used as an UNKNOWN
THRU. An UNKNOWN THRU should satisfy only two requirements.
The first requirement applies to the transmission coefficient of the THRU. It should
satisfy the reciprocity condition (S21 = S12), which holds for almost any passive
network. Besides, it is not recommended to use a THRU with the loss higher than 20 dB
as it can reduce the calibration accuracy.
The second requirement is to know the approximate electrical length of the
UNKNOWN THRU within the accuracy of 1/4 of the wavelength at the maximum
calibration frequency. This requirement, however, can be omitted if the following
frequency increment is selected:
∆F <
1
,
4 ⋅τ 0
where τ 0 – delay of a two-port device.
108
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
In this case the Analyzer program automatically determines the electrical length (delay)
of the two-port device.
In other words, you can perform the calibration without setting the delay of the
UNKNOWN THRU if the frequency increment is small enough. For example, for
UNKNOWN THRU with l 0 ≈ 100mm and delay coefficient 1 / ε ≈ 0.7 , the delay will be
τ 0 ≈ 477 ps . In this case the frequency increment for automatic defining of the
UNKNOWN THRU delay should be set to ∆F < 524 MHz , or the number of points
within the sweep span of 8 GHz should be no less than 16. To ensure reliable operation,
set the frequency increment and the number of points with double margin at least.
To be able to use the unknown thru calibration algorithm in full two-port calibration, the
calibration kit definition should include the UNKNOWN THRU standard, assigned to
the THRU class for the two ports. The procedure of calibration standards editing and
their assignment to classes is further described in detail.
An UNKNOWN THRU is defined automatically, if you set the delay to zero in the
calibration kit editing menu. Otherwise the user-defined delay value will be used. This
value should be set within the accuracy of 1/4 of the wavelength at the maximum
calibration frequency.
5.1.6.9
TRL Calibration
TRL (Thru-Reflect-Line) calibration is the most accurate calibration method described
herein, as it uses airlines as calibration standards. The TRL calibration requires the use
of the following calibration standards:

THRU or REFERENCE LINE,

REFLECT (SHORT or OPEN),

Second LINE or two MATCHes.
TRL is a general name for a calibration family, which comprises such calibrations as
LRL, TRM, or LRM named depending on the calibration standards used.
If a zero-length THRU is used as the first standard, the method is called TRL
calibration. If a non-zero length LINE is used as the first standard, the calibration
method is called LRL (Line-Reflect-Line). To denote the first standard of the TRL and
LRL calibration, assign TRL-Thru class, which includes THRU and LINEs. A LINE of
TRL-Thru class is also called Reference Line.
An OPEN or SHORT is usually used as a second standard in TRL calibration. To
denote the second standard of the TRL calibration, assign TRL-Reflect class.
A second LINE is used as the third standard in TRL calibration. At low frequencies, at
which MATCHes work well, two MATCHes can be used, as they are an equivalent of a
matched line of infinite length. In the latter case, the calibration method is called TRM
(Thru-Reflect-Match) or LRM (Line-Reflect-Match) respectively. To denote the third
standard of the TRL calibration, assign TRL-line/match class, which includes LINEs
and MATCHes.
109
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Frequency Range
TRL and LRL calibrations have a limited bandwidth with lower to upper frequency
ratio up to 1:8. The band limits depend on the LINE length in TRL calibration or on the
difference between the lengths of the two LINEs in LRL calibration.
In theory TRM and LRM calibrations do not have limitations by frequency, however
their use at higher frequencies is limited by the quality of the MATCHes. It is
recommended to use the TRM and LRM calibrations up to 1 GHz.
Impedance of LINEs and MATCHes
All the LINEs and MATCHes used for TRL calibration must have Z0 impedance values
as precise as possible. TRL calibration transfers the impedance of standards into the
calibrated system. Precise airlines with an accurate Z0 impedance of 50 Ω are used as
LINEs in coaxial paths.
REFERENCE LINE
A zero-length THRU is used as the first standard in TRL calibration. In LRL calibration
a LINE, which is called REFERENCE LINE, is used instead of a zero-length THRU.
The shortest LINE is used as the REFERENCE LINE. Its length must to be known, so
that the calibration plane positions could be calculated exactly. However, LRL
calibration is also possible when the REFERENCE LINE length is not known. In this
case, its length is assumed to be equal to zero, the calibration plane being in the middle
of the LINE, and not at the ports’ edges.
TRL LINE
TRL LINE is an airline used in TRL calibration, or the second longest LINE used in
LRL calibration. The length of TRL LINE should be known just approximately. The
LINE length is used to determine the calibration bandwidth. Let ΔL be the difference
between the two LINEs in LRL calibration. In TRL calibration this difference will be
equal to the LINE length, as a zero-length THRU is used as a REFERENCE LINE.
Then the phase difference between the TRL LINE and REFERENCE LINE or THRU
should be no less than 20° at the lower frequency and no more than 160° at the upper
frequency of the calibration.
20 <
360 ⋅ f ⋅ ∆L
< 160 ,
v
∆L = L1 − L0 ,
L0 – REFERENCE LINE length,
L1 – TRL LINE length,
ν – wave velocity in LINE (for airline it is с =2.9979·108 м/с).
So, the useful frequency range for TRL/LRL calibration is 1:8. Besides, TRL/LRL
calibration does not work at low frequencies, as it would require a very long LINE. Two
110
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
or more TRL LINEs are used to extend the calibration frequency. For example, in case
of using two TRL LINEs the frequency range can be increased up to 1:64.
TRL MATCH
Unlike TRL/LRL calibration, TRM/LRM calibration uses MATCHes, which are the
equivalent to the infinitely long LINE, instead of a TRL LINE. Theoretically
TRM/LRM calibration has no frequency limitations. However, the use of TRM/LRM
calibration at higher frequencies is limited by the quality of the MATCHes. As a rule,
the TRM/LRM calibration is used at lower frequencies, as it is good starting from zero
frequency.
TRL REFLECT
There are no strict requirements to the TRL REFLECT standard. You should know only
approximate parameters of the TRL REFLECT standard. The REFLECT standard
should have high reflection coefficient, close to 1. The phase of the standard must be
known within ±90°. Normally, any OPEN or SHORT meets this requirement. The next
requirement is that the reflection coefficient must be the same for all the ports. If one
standard is used for all the ports by turns, then this requirement is automatically
fulfilled. If the ports have different genderes or types of connectors, use special
standards with the identical electrical specifications, which are available in pairs.
TRL Calibration Frequency Extension
To extend the frequency of TRL calibration a method of dividing into several nonoverlapping bands is applied. For each frequency band a separate TRL LINE of
different length is used. The phase difference between each TRL LINE and the
REFERENCE LINE must be from 20° to 160°, as indicated above. A MATCH standard
is used in the lowest frequency band.
The Analyzer software allows using up to 8 LINES for calibration frequency extension.
To achieve this, there are two steps of handling the calibration kits:
- defining frequency limits to calibration standards (see section 5.3.2);
- assigning classes to calibration standards, where up to 8 calibration standards can be
assigned to one class (see section 5.3.4).
Perform the above mentioned dividing of the calibration band into sub-bands and assign
a separate TRL LINE to each of them in the calibration kit editing menu before
calibration.
5.1.6.10
Multiline TRL Calibration
Regular TRL calibration, described in the previous section uses several LINEs of
different lengths for frequency extension. It is provided by the method of dividing the
frequency band into separate sub-bands.
Multiline TRL calibration also uses several LINEs. But it does not divide the frequency
band into several sub-bands. Instead, all the LINEs are used simultaneously over the
whole calibration bandwidth. The redundancy of the LINEs measurements allows for
both extending the frequency range and increasing the calibration accuracy. The number
111
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
of LINEs should be no less than three. The more LINEs you use, the higher the
accuracy you will achieve.
To employ multiple LINEs in the calibration procedure, use the same method of
standards subclasses assignment as in the regular TRL calibration (see section 5.3.4).
Defining frequency limits to calibration standards is not necessary for Multiline TRL
calibration method.
The procedure of switching between the normal and Multiline TRL calibrations see in
section 5.2.7.1.
The following table shows the differences between the regular and Multiline TRL
calibrations when entering the data into the calibration standards editing menu.
Calibration Standard
Data in Calibration Kit Manager
TRL
REFERENCE LINE
or THRU
1. Type: THRU/LINE
1. Type: THRU/LINE
2. Min and max frequency
2. Delay*
3. Delay*
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
or TRL THRU
4. Class: TRL THRU
LINE
Multiline TRL
1. Type: THRU/LINE
2. Min and max frequency
The total number of LINEs is
no less than 3.
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
MATCH (optional)
1. Type: MATCH
1. Type: MATCH
2. Min and max frequency
2. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
REFLECT
1. Type: SHORT or OPEN
2. Min and max frequency
3. Model parameters, which allow calculating value of phase
response within ±90°.
4. Class: TRL REFLECT
L
, where L is the length of the LINE, and ν
v
is the wave velocity in LINE equal to 2.9979·108 m/s.
* The delay for coaxial airlines is equal to
112
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.7
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits
Calibration standards are precision physical devices used for determination of errors in
a measurement system.
A calibration kit is a set of calibration standards with a specific connector type and
specific impedance.
The Analyzer provides definitions of calibration kits produced by different
manufacturers. The user can add the definitions of own calibration kits or modify the
predefined kits. Calibration kits editing procedure is described in the section 5.3.
To ensure the required calibration accuracy, select the calibration kit being used in the
program menu. The procedure of calibration kit selection is described in section 5.2.1.
5.1.7.1
Definitions and Classes of Calibration Standards
Each calibration standard has a definition and belongs to one or several classes.
Calibration standard definition is a mathematical description of its parameters.
Calibration standard class is an application of the standard in a specific calibration
method associated with a specific test port number. For example, "LOAD of port 1" in
full two-port calibration.
5.1.7.2
Types of Calibration Standards
Calibration standard type is a category of physical devices used to define the parameters
of the standard. The Analyzer supports the following types of the calibration standards:
Note

OPEN,

SHORT,

FIXED LOAD,

SLIDING LOAD,

THRU/LINE,

UNKNOWN TRHU,

standard defined by data (S-parameters).
The type of a calibration standard should not be confused
with its class. Calibration standard type is a part of the
standard definition used for the calculation of its
parameters.
113
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.7.3
Methods of Calibration Standard Defining
The Analyzer provides two methods of defining a calibration standard:

calibration standard model (See section 5.1.7.4),

table of S-parameters (See section 5.1.7.5).
The calibration standards defined by the table of S-parameters are called Data-Based
standards.
Besides, each calibration standard is characterized by lower and upper values of the
operating frequency. In the process of calibration, the measurements of the calibration
standards outside the specified frequency range are not used.
5.1.7.4
Calibration Standard Model
A model of a calibration standard presented as an equivalent circuit is used for
determining of S-parameters of the standard. The model is employed for standards of
OPEN, SHORT, FIXED LOAD, THRU/LINE types.
One-port model is used for the standards OPEN, SHORT, and FIXED LOAD (See
figure 5.4).
Calibration
plane
Offset (transmission line):
Lumped parameters:
 Z0 – impedance;
 OPEN – conductance C;
 T – propagation delay;
 SHORT – inductance L;
 Rloss – loss.
 LOAD – impedance RL.
Figure 5.4 One-port standard model
114
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Two-port model is used for the standard THRU/LINE (See figure 5.5).
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
Offset (transmission line):
 Z0 – impedance;
 T – propagation delay;
 Rloss – loss.
Figure 5.5 Two-port standard model
The description of the numeric parameters of an equivalent circuit model of a
calibration standard is shown in table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Parameters of the calibration standard equivalent circuit model
Parameter
(as in the
program)
Z0
(Offset Z0)
Parameter Definition
For a one-port standard, it is the offset impedance (of a
transmission line) between the calibration plane and the circuit
with lumped parameters.
For a two-port standard, it is the transmission line impedance
between the two calibration planes.
T
(Offset Delay)
Rloss
(Offset Loss)
The offset delay. It is defined as one-way propagation time (in
seconds) from the calibration plane to the circuit with lumped
parameters or to the other calibration plane. Each standard delay
can be measured or mathematically determined by dividing the
exact physical length by the propagation velocity.
The offset loss in one-way propagation due to the skin effect. The
loss is defined in Ω/sec at 1 GHz frequency. The loss in a
transmission line is determined by measuring the delay T [sec] and
loss L [dB] at 1 GHz frequency. The measured values are used in
the following formula:
Rп[Ω / s ] =
L[dB ] ⋅ Z 0 [Ω]
4.3429[dB ] ⋅ T [s ]
115
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Rload
Load impedance in [Ω].
(Load
Impedance)
C
(С0, С1,
С2, С3)
The fringe capacitance of an OPEN standard, which causes a phase
offset of the reflection coefficient at high frequencies. The fringe
capacitance model is described as a function of frequency, which is
a polynomial of the third degree:
C = C0 + C1 f + C2 f 2 + C3 f 3 , where
f – frequency [Hz]
C0…C3 – polynomial coefficients
Units: C0[F], C1[F/Hz], C2[F/Hz2], C3[F/Hz3]
L
(L0, L1,
L2, L3)
The residual inductance of a SHORT standard, which causes a
phase offset of the reflection coefficient at high frequencies. The
residual inductance model is described as a function of frequency,
which is a polynomial of the third degree:
L = L0 + L1 f + L2 f 2 + L3 f 3 , where
f – frequency [Hz]
L0…L3 – polynomial coefficients
Units: L0[H], L1[H/Hz], L2[H/Hz2], L3[H/Hz3]
5.1.7.5
Data-Based Calibration Standards
The calibration standards defined by data are set using the table of S-parameters. Each
line of the table contains frequency and S-parameters of the calibration standard. For
one-port standards the table contains the value of only one parameter – S11, and for twoport standards the table contains the values of all the four parameters – S11, S21, S12, S22.
The table of S-parameters can be filled in manually by the user or downloaded from a
file of Touchstone format. Files with *.s1p extension are used for one-port standards,
and files with *.s2p extension are used for two-port standards.
5.1.7.6
Scope of Calibration Standard Definition
Different methods of calibration apply either full or partial definitions of the calibration
standard kits.
The full two-port calibration, full one-port calibration, one-path two-port calibration,
and normalization use fully defined calibration standards, i.e. the standards with known
S-parameters. The S-parameters of OPEN, SHORT, LOAD, and THRU/LINE must be
defined by the model or by data.
116
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Note
The UNKNOWN THRU and SLIDING LOAD standards
are exceptional in the above calibrations. The Sparameters of these standards are defined in the process
of calibration. UNKNOWN THRU is used only in full
two-port calibration.
TRL calibration and its modifications (TRM, LRL, LRM) apply partial definition of the
standards:

TRL THRU standards must have the required value of Z0
(S11=S22=0) and known length (delay),

TRL LINE/MATCH standard must have the same value of Z0 as
the first standard,

TRL REFLECT standard must have the phase known as
accurately as ±90°.
117
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.7.7
Classes of Calibration Standards
Along with defining a calibration standard by a calibration model or data, the standard
should also be assigned a specific class. One calibration standard may belong to several
classes. The class assignment is performed for each particular calibration kit. The
procedure of class assignment to the calibration standards is described in section 5.3.4.
Class assignment to a calibration standards is required for specifying such properties as
the calibration method, the role of a standard in the calibration, and the number of the
port(s). The Analyzer supports the following classes of the calibration standards (See
table 5.4).
Table 5.4 Classes of the calibration standards
Calibration Methods
Class Label
Full Two-Port
Calibration
OPEN
Full One-Port Calibration
SHORT
One-Path Two-Port
Calibration
TRL Calibration
LRM Calibration
1
2
LOAD
1
2
THRU
1-2
TRL THRU
1-2
LRL Calibration
TRM Calibration
1
2
Transmission Normalization
Reflection Normalization
Port
1
TRL REFLECT
2
TRL LINE/MATCH
1-2
For example, if you assign the class "OPEN of port 1" to the OPEN -F- calibration
standard, it will indicate that this standard is used for calibrating the first port using the
following calibration methods: full two-port, full one-port, one-path two-port, and
normalization.
Note
Class assignment changes the labels of the calibration
standards on the calibration softkeys.
118
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.7.8
Subclasses of Calibration Standards
Subclasses are used for assignment of one class to several calibration standards. The
procedure of subclass assignment is mainly employed for calibration within a wide
frequency range by several calibration standards, each of which does not cover the full
frequency range. Each class of standards can contain up to 8 subclasses.
For example, in your calibration kit the LOAD standard is defined as from 0 GHz to 2
GHz, and the LINE standard is defined as from 1.5 GHz to 12 GHz. To perform the
TRM/TRL calibration within the full frequency range the LOAD should be assigned the
subclass 1, and the LINE should assigned the subclass 2 of the "TRL line/match" class.
If the standards have an overlapping frequency range (as in the example above, from 1.5
GHz to 2 GHz), the last measured standard will be used.
Note
Subclass assignment changes the labels of the calibration
softkeys. The measurement softkey is replaced by the
key, which opens the subclass menu containing the keys
for measuring several calibration standards.
119
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2
Calibration Procedures
5.2.1
Calibration Kit Selection
The calibration kit employed during a calibration should be selected according to the
following procedure. If it is not specified in the list of the predefined calibration kits,
you should add it. The procedure of adding and editing of the calibration kits is
described in the section 5.3.
To open the list of the calibration kits (See figure 5.6), use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
Figure 5.6 The list of calibration kits
Highlight the required line in the list of the calibration kits
and use the following softkey:
Select
Or click on the checkbox in the row "Select" by the mouse.
Note
Make sure that the selected calibration kit is checkmarked.
120
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.2
Reflection Normalization
Reflection normalization is the simplest calibration method used for reflection
coefficient measurements (S11 or S22). Only one standard (SHORT or OPEN) is
measured (See figure 5.7) in the process of this calibration. You can also perform
directivity calibration by measuring a LOAD standard.
Port
Port
SHORT or
OPEN
LOAD
(optional)
Figure 5.7 Reflection normalization
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), and select the
calibration kit.
To open reflection normalization submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Response (Open) | Response
(Short)
Select the test port to be calibrated using Select Port.
Clicking this softkey you can switch between the test ports
(measured parameters).
Connect an OPEN or a SHORT standard to the test port as
shown in figure 5.7. Perform measurement using Open or
Short softkey respectively.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
121
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To perform the optional directivity calibration, connect a
LOAD standard to the test port as shown in figure 5.7 and
perform measurement using Load (Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration turn off the error correction
function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
122
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.3
Transmission Normalization
Transmission normalization is the simplest calibration method used for transmission
coefficient measurements (S21 or S12). One THRU standard is measured (See figure 5.8)
in the process of this calibration. You can also perform isolation calibration by
measuring two LOAD standards.
Port 1
Port 2
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 5.8 Transmission normalization
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), and select the
calibration kit.
To open transmission normalization submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Response (Thru)
Select the direction of the calibration using Select Ports
softkey. The label on the softkey indicates the following:
receiver port – source port (measured parameter).
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If the
port connectors allow through connection connect them
directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform measurement
using Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
123
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect two
LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in figure 5.8
and enable measurement using Isolation (Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standard, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration, turn off the error correction
function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
124
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.4
Full One-Port Calibration
Full one-port calibration is used for reflection coefficient measurements (S11 or S22). The
three calibration standards (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD) are measured (See figure 5.9) in
the process of this calibration.
Port
SHORT
OPEN
LOAD
Figure 5.9 Full one-port calibration
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), and select the
calibration kit.
To open full one-port calibration submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 1-Port Cal
Select the test port to be calibrated using Select Port.
Clicking this softkey you can switch between the test ports
(measured parameters).
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the
selected test port in any consequence as shown in figure
5.9. Perform measurements clicking the softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
125
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration, turn off the error correction
function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
126
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.5
One-Path Two-Port Calibration
One-path two-port calibration is used for measurements of the DUT parameters in one
direction, e.g. S11 and S21. This method involves connection of the three calibration
standards to the source port, and connection of a THRU standard between the calibrated
source port and the other receiver port (See figure 5.10). You can also perform isolation
calibration by measuring two LOAD standards.
Port
SHORT
Port 1
Port 2
OPEN
LOAD
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 5.10 One-path two-port calibration
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), and select the
calibration kit.
To open one-path two-port calibration submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > One Path 2-Port Cal
127
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Select the direction of the calibration using Select Ports
softkey. The label on the softkey indicates the following:
receiver port – source port (measured parameters).
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the
source port in any consequence, as shown in figure 5.10.
Perform
measurements
clicking
the
softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If the
port connectors allow through connection connect them
directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform
measurement using Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect two
LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in figure 5.10
and enable measurement using Isolation (Optional)
softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
128
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.6
Full Two-Port Calibration
Full two-port calibration combines two one-port calibrations for each test port with
measurement of transmission and reflection of a THRU standard in both directions (See
figure 5.11). You can also perform isolation calibration by measuring two LOAD
standards.
SHORT
SHORT
Port 1
Port 1
Port 2
OPEN
OPEN
LOAD
LOAD
Port 2
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 5.11 Full two-port calibration
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), and select the
calibration kit.
To open full two-port calibration submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 2-Port Cal
129
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the 1
and 2 ports in any consequence, as shown in figure 5.11.
Perform measurements clicking the softkey corresponding
to the connected standard.
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If the
port connectors allow through connection connect them
directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform measurement
using Port 1–2 Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect two
LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in figure 5.11
and enable measurement using Port 1–2 Isol (Optional)
softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration, turn off the error correction
function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
130
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.6.1
Unknown Thru Calibration
The unknown thru calibration procedure is same as the one for a full two-port
calibration described in the previous section.
To start unknown thru calibration, first add UNKNOWN THRU standard to the
description of the calibration kit and assign the class to it. After that, the unknown thru
measurement softkey will become available in the two-port calibration menu.
See section 5.3.2 for a calibration standard definition in a calibration kit. When adding
the unknown thru standard to a kit you should specify just two parameters:
UNKNOWN THRU type of the standard and approximate delay of propagation in one
direction. You can enter zero value for delay for it to be automatically determined
during calibration (See section 5.1.6.8).
See section 5.3.4 for the calibration standard class assignment. A newly added
UNKNOWN THRU standard is to be assigned to “Thru, Port 1-2” class.
131
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.7
TRL Calibration
TRL calibration is the most accurate calibration method for two-port measurements
(See figure 5.12):
Port 1
Port 2
THRU or LINE
Port 1
REFLECT
REFLECT
Port 1
Port 2
Port 2
LINE or 2 LOADs
Figure 5.12 TRL calibration
132
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Before starting calibration, perform the following settings: select active channel, set the
parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc), select the calibration
kit.
To open TRL calibration submenu, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > 2-Port TRL Cal
Connect a TRL THRU (THRU or LINE) standard between
the test ports. Perform measurement using 1–2 Thru/Line
softkey.
Connect a TRL REFLECT standard to the test ports in any
order. Perform measurement using Port 1 Reflect and Port
2 Reflect softkey.
Connect a TRL LINE/MATCH (LINE between the test
ports and 2 LOADs to each port). Perform measurement
using Port 1-2 Line/Match softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
Note
System correction will turn automatically off when you
press Apply softkey to perform TRL calibration (See
section 8.4).
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6).
133
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.7.1
Multiline Option of TRL Calibration
The procedure of Mulitline TRL calibration is the same as the procedure of TRL
calibration described above. The number of the LINEs of various lengths should be no
less than three.
First of all create and edit the calibration kit for the Multiline TRL calibration. For
details on the data to be entered for the normal and Multiline TRL calibrations see
section 5.1.6.10.
Switching between the normal and Multiline TRL calibrations is performed by a
specific button in TRL calibration menu.
To toggle between normal and Multiline TRL
calibrations, use Multiline softkey.
134
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.8
Calibration Using Subclasses
When several calibration standards of one class are used for calibration, you should
assign subclasses to these standards using the calibration kit editing function. The
procedure of subclass assignment is described in section 5.3.4.
When assigning two or more subclasses to one class of calibration standards, the
standard measurement softkey is replaced by the softkey, which opens the subclass
menu containing the list of all the standards of this class.
Further this section describes an example of calibration using the calibration kit for TRL
calibration, in which the "TRL LINE/MATCH" class contains 3 subclasses: load
(Lowband), line 2 (TRL Line2), and line 3 (TRL Line3).
In the main menu of TRL calibration the 1-2 Line/Match
softkey will open the subclass menu (if the above
mentioned condition is met).
Connect the Lowband, Line2 and Line3 to the test ports
in any consequence and perform measurements clicking
the softkey corresponding to the connected standard.
If two standards have an overlapping frequency range the
last measured standard will be used in the overlapping
region.
To view additional information about each standard
frequency range, in which its measurements are applied
(See figure 5.13), press Info softkey.
Figure 5.13 Information on calibration standard measurements.
135
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.9
Calibration Using Sliding Load
The SLIDING LOAD can be used instead of a FIXED LOAD in full one-port and twoport calibrations.
If a calibration kit contains a SLIDING LOAD, the standard measurement softkey is
replaced by the softkey, which opens the submenu containing the SLIDING LOAD
calibration logic.
The sliding load calibration involves a series of measurements in different positions of
the sliding element. The minimum number of measurements is 5, the maximum number
of measurements is 8.
In the main menu of one-port or two-port calibration the
Load softkey will open the sliding load menu (if the above
mentioned condition is met).
…
Note
Connect the SLIDING LOAD to a selected test ports and
perform a series of measurements in different positions of
the slidling element clicking the Position 1, Position 2 …
Position 8 softkeys.
The sliding load had a low cutoff frequency. To perform
calibration in the full frequency range, use two loads:
FIXED LOAD standard in the lower part of the frequency
range, and SLIDING LOAD in the upper frequency range
using subclasses (See section 5.2.8).
136
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.10 Error Correction Disabling
This feature allows the user to disable the error correction function, which automatically
becomes enabled after completion of calibration by any method.
To disable and enable again the error correction function,
use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Correction
5.2.11 Error Correction Status
The error correction status is indicated for each trace individually. Also there is a
general status of error correction for all the traces of a channel.
The general error correction status for all the S-parameter traces of a channel is indicted
in the specific field on a channel status bar (See table 5.5). For channel status bar
description, see section 4.2.6.
Table 5.5 General error correction status
Symbol
Cor
C?
C!
Off
---
Definition
Note
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active
settings are the same for the measurement and for all the traces – black
the calibration.
characters
on
gray
background.
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
If the function is active
settings are not the same for the measurement
only for some of the
and the calibration. Interpolation is applied.
traces (other traces are
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus not calibrated) – white
on
red
settings are not the same for the measurement characters
background.
and the calibration. Extrapolation is applied.
Error correction is turned off.
For all the traces. White
characters
on
red
No calibration data. No calibration was background.
performed.
The error correction status for each individual trace is indicated in the trace status field
(See table 5.6). For trace status field description, see section 4.2.2.
137
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Table 5.6 Trace error correction status
Symbols
RO
Definition
OPEN response calibration
RS
SHORT response calibration
RT
THRU response calibration
OP
One-path 2-port calibration
F1
Full 1-port calibration
F2
Full 2-port or TRL calibration
5.2.12 System Impedance Z0
Z0 is the system impedance of a measurement path. Normally it is equal to the
impedance of the calibration standards, which are used for calibration. The Z0 value
should be specified before calibration, as it is used for calibration coefficient
calculations.
To set the system impedance Z0, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > System Z0
Note
Selection of calibration kit automatically determines the
system impedance in accordance with the value specified
for the kit.
138
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.2.13 Port Extension
The port extension function enables you to eliminate the fixture (with or without losses)
effects on the measurement results. The function virtually extends the test ports moving
the calibration plane to the terminals of the DUT (by the length of the fixture). The
fixture parameters are defined by the user for each port individually (See figure 5.14).
Calibration
plane
Port 1
Port 2
Figure 5.14 Port extension
The phase incursion caused by electrical delay is compensated for, when a lossless
fixture needs to be removed:
e j⋅2π ⋅ f ⋅t ,
where
f – frequency, Hz,
t – electrical delay, sec.
The feature of removing a lossless fixture is similar to the feature of electrical delay
setting for a trace (See section 4.9.7), but unlike the latter it applies to all the traces of
the channel. It compensates for a fixture length in transmission measurements and for a
double fixture length in reflection measurements.
To remove a fixture with losses, the following methods of loss defining (in one, two or
three frequency points) are applied:
1. Frequency-independent loss at DC - L0
L( f ) = L0
2. Frequency-dependent loss determined by the losses in two frequency points: L0 at
DC, and L1 at frequency F1
139
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
L( f ) = L0 + (L1 − L0 )
f
F1
3. Frequency-dependent loss determined by the losses in three frequency points: L0 at
DC, L1 at frequency F1, and L2 at frequency F2
 f 

L( f ) = L0 + (L1 − L0 )
F
 1
n
,
L1
L2
n=
F
log 1
F2
log
140
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3
Calibration Kit Management
This section describes how to edit the calibration kit description, add and delete a
calibration kit.
The Analyzer provides a table for 50 calibration kits. The first part of the table contains
the predefined kits. The second part of the table is for calibration kit added by the user.
A calibration kit redefining can be required for the following purposes:

To change the port assignment of a standard to ensure connector type
(male, female) matching;

To add a user-defined standard into the kit, e.g. a non zero-length thru;

To precise the standard parameters to improve the calibration accuracy.
A new user-defined calibration kit adding can be added when a required kit is not
included in the list of the predefined kits.
Deleting function is available for user-defined calibration kits only.
Any changes made to the calibration kits are automatically saved into the nonvolatile
memory of the Analyzer. For the saving no clicking on a “Save” button is required.
Note
5.3.1
Changes to a predefined calibration kit can be cancelled
any time and the initial state will be restored.
Table of Calibration Kits
The table of calibration kits (See figure 5.15) allows selecting and editing of the
calibration kits.
Figure 5.15 Table of calibration kits
141
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To open the table of calibration kits, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
To edit a calibration kit, highlight its line in the table.
The calibration kit editing is comprised of two main procedures: defining of calibration
standard (sections 5.3.2 and 5.3.3) and assignment of classes to calibration standards
(section 5.3.4). First you need to perform defining of the calibration standards, and then
the assignment of classes to them. Defining of calibration standards and assignment of
classes to them is performed in different tables.
The label of a calibration kit and its description can be edited in the table of the
calibration kits (figure 5.15). The label appears on the calibration menu softkeys. The
description is just for information of the user.
The table also contains display-only fields: flags of predefined and modified calibration
kits and the counter of the calibration standards in a kit.
5.3.1.1
Calibration Kit Selection for Editing
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15) table
using “↑” and “↓ “ arrows.
Note
5.3.1.2
The checkmark in the “Select” field does not matter for
the kit selection for editing, it selects the calibration kit
for calibration.
Calibration Kit Label and Description Editing
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15) table
using “↑” and “↓” arrows and click on the «Enter» softkey. Then enter the new text in
the table.
To activate the on-screen keyboard, click On-Screen
Keyboard softkey.
142
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.1.3
Predefined Calibration Kit Restoration
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15).
To cancel the user changes of a predefined calibration kit,
use the following softkeys:
Restore Cal Kit
Note
5.3.1.4
It is possible to restore only such calibration kits, whose
“Predefined” and “Modified” fields have “Yes” labeling.
User-Defined Calibration Kit Deleting
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15).
To delete a user-defined calibration kit from the table, use
the following softkey:
Erase Cal Kit
Note
5.3.1.5
It is possible to delete only such calibration kits, whose
“Predefined” field have “No” labeling.
Calibration Kit Saving to File
Saving of a calibration kit to file is necessary for copying it to a different line of the
table or to a different Analyzer.
This command is not necessary for saving of changes made by the user to the
definitions of the kit as these changes are saved automatically.
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15).
To save a calibration kit to file, click the following
softkey:
Save to File…
5.3.1.6
Calibration Kit Loading from File
You can load the calibration kit files created by the previous command.
143
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See figure 5.15).
To load a calibration kit form file, click the following
softkey:
Load from File…
5.3.2
Calibration Standard Definition
The table of the calibration standards (See figure 5.16) includes the full list of the
standards in one calibration kit. For the standards defined by the model, the table
contains the model parameters. For the data-based standards, the parameters of the
model remain blank; S-parameters of such standards are represented in a different table
(See section 5.3.3).
Figure 5.16 Calibration standard definition table
To open the table of calibration standard definitions, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit > Define STDs
144
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.2.1
Standard Adding to Calibration Kit
To add a calibration standard to the table of calibration
standard definition (See figure 5.16), use the following
softkey:
Add STD
5.3.2.2
Standard Deleting from Calibration Kit
To delete a calibration standard from the table of
calibration standard definition (See figure 5.16), use the
following softkey:
Delete STD
5.3.2.3
Calibration Standard Editing
Moving in the table of calibration standard definitions (See figure 5.16) using
navigation keys, enter the parameter values for a calibration kit:
Standard No.
The calibration standard number is specified in the
calibration kit data sheet (just for information).
Standard Type
Select the standard type:

Open,

Short,

Load,

Thru/Line,

Unknown Thru,

Sliding Load,

Data-Based
Standard Label
Standard labels specified on the calibration menu
softkeys.
Freq. Min.
Lower cutoff frequency of the standard.
Freq. Max.
Upper cutoff frequency of the standard.
Offset Delay
Offset delay value in one direction (s).
145
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Offset Z0
Offset wave impedance value (Ω).
Offset Loss
Offset loss value (Ω/s).
Load Impedance
Lumped load impedance value (Ω).
–15
C0 10
For an OPEN standard, C0 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the fringe capacitance:
F
C = C0 + C1 f + C2 f 2 + C3 f 3
For an OPEN standard, C1 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the fringe capacitance.
–27
F/Hz
–36
F/Hz
2
–45
F/Hz
3
–12
H
C1 10
C2 10
C2 10
L0 10
For an OPEN standard, C2 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the fringe capacitance.
For an OPEN standard, C3 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the fringe capacitance.
For a SHORT standard, L0 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the residual inductance:
L = L0 + L1 f + L2 f 2 + L3 f 3
For a SHORT standard, L1 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the residual inductance.
–24
H/Hz
–33
H/Hz
2
For a SHORT standard, L2 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the residual inductance.
–42
H/Hz
3
For a SHORT standard, L3 coefficient in the polynomial
formula of the residual inductance.
L1 10
L2 10
L2 10
5.3.2.4
Calibration Standard Copy/Paste Function
To save a calibration standard into clipboard, highlight the
required line in the calibration standard definition table
(See figure 5.16) and click the following softkey:
Copy STD
or
Copy All STDs
146
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To paste the standard(s) from the clipboard, click the
following softkey:
Paste
5.3.2.5
Management of Sequence in Standard Table
To change the sequence in the table, use the following
softkeys:
STD Up
or
STD Down
147
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.3
Table of Calibration Standard S-Parameters
The table of calibration standard S-parameters (See figure 5.17) allows viewing and
editing of S-parameters of the calibration standards of the “Data-Based” type.
Figure 5.17 Table of calibration standard S-parameters
To open the table of calibration standard S-parameters,
move the required line in the table (See figure 5.17), and
click the following softkeys:
Define STD Data
Note
softkey is disabled if the type of the
standard is other than “Data-Based”.
Define STD Data
There are two different tables for one-port standards and for two-port standards. The
table contains one parameter (S11) for one-port standards, and four parameters (S11, S21,
S12, S22) for two-port standards. Before the user fills in the table, its type will be
defined: by the Touchstone format (s1p or s2p) if the data is downloaded from a file, or
the user will be requested to specify the type if the data is entered by the user.
The data in the table can be represented in three formats according to the user settings:

Real part and Imaginary part,

Linear magnitude and Phase (°),

Logarithmic magnitude (dB) and Phase (°).
The following rule is applied for the calibration of a two-port standard: the standard is
considered connected by port 1 (S11) to the port with smallest number, and by port 2
(S22) to the port with the biggest number. If you need to “reverse” a two-port standard,
use the “Port Reverse” function (section 5.3.3.5).
148
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.3.1
Line Adding to Table
To add a line to the table of the calibration standard Sparameters (See figure 5.17), use the following softkeys:
Add Row
5.3.3.2
Line Deleting from Table
To delete a line from the table of the calibration standard
S-parameters (See figure 5.17), use the following softkey:
Delete Line
5.3.3.3
Table Clearing
To clear the entire table of the calibration standard Sparameters (See figure 5.17), use the following softkey:
Clear Data
5.3.3.4
Table Format Selecting
To select the format of the table of the calibration
standard S-parameters (See figure 5.17), use the following
softkey:
Format > Real/Imag | Magn/Angle | MLog/Angle
149
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.3.5
Port Reversing
To enable/disable reversing of the ports of a two-port
standard, use the following softkey:
Reverse Ports
5.3.3.6
Data Opening from File
To open the data from Touchstone file, use the following
softkey:
Load Data from Touchstone file…
In the pop-up dialog select the file type (s1p or s2p) and
specify the file name.
150
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.4
Calibration Standard Class Assignment
The assignment of classes to the standards of the selected calibration kit is made in the
table of standard classes (See figure 5.18).
Standard labels filled in the table cells by selecting them from the list of calibration kit
standards.
Each row of the table corresponds to the standard class specified in the two left columns
of the table.
If a single standard is assigned to the class then it filled into the "Subclass 1" column.
If several standards are assigned to the class, as described in section 5.2.8, then
"Subclass 2", “Subclass 3”, etc columns are filled in.
Figure 5.18 Table of calibration standard classes
To open the table of calibration standard classes, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit > Specify CLSs
5.3.4.1
Standard Class Table Editing
Moving in the table of calibration standard classes (See figure 5.18) using navigation
keys, click «Enter» in the required cell for the pop-up menu. Select the standard label in
the pop-up menu to assign it the class and port number specified in the left part of the
table.
151
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.3.4.2
Standard Deleting from Standard Class Table
Moving in the table of calibration standard classes (See figure 5.18) using navigation
keys, click «Enter» in the required cell for the pop-up menu. Select the line None in the
pop-up menu to delete the standard contained in the cell.
To delete all the standards in the table of calibration
standard classes, use the following softkey:
Clear All CLSs
5.3.4.3
Strict Class Assigment Function
This function allows for limitation of the one standard type(s) available in each class by
the feature of strict correspondence (See table 5.7). If this function is disabled, any class
can be assigned to the standard.
Table 5.7 Standard class and standard type correspondence
N
Standard Class
Standard Type
1
OPEN
•
•
Open,
Data-Based (One Port)
2
SHORT
•
•
Short,
Data-Based (One Port)
3
LOAD
•
•
•
Load,
Sliding Load,
Data-Based (One Port)
4
THRU
•
•
Thru/Line,
Data-Based (Two Port)
5
TRL THRU
•
•
Thru/Line,
Data-Based (Two Port)
6
TRL REFLECT
•
•
•
Open,
Short,
Data-Based (One Port)
7
TRL LINE/MATCH
•
•
Load,
Thru/Line
152
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To disable/enable the function of strict class
correspondence function, use the following softkey:
Strict Assign
5.3.4.4
Function of Group Assignment of Port Number
This function allows for automatic assignment of one standard to all the ports of a
specific class when assigned to at least one port.
To enable/disable the function of group assignment of
port number, use the following softkey:
Assign Same STDs to All Ports
153
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.4
Power Calibration
The Analyzer ensures steady power level at the test port inputs with the specified
accuracy. The power level is defined by the user from -50 dBm to +5 dBm.
A DUT is connected to the Analyzer by cables, which have some losses. The power
calibration allows the user to maintain a more accurate power level at a DUT input,
adjusted to the use of the cables.
The power calibration is performed by an external power meter connected to the cables’
ends, which will be later connected to the DUT.
After the power calibration is complete, power correction automatically turns on. Later
the user can disable or enable again the power correction function.
The power calibration is performed for each port and each channel individually.
Note
5.4.1
The power correction status is indicated in the trace status
field (See section 4.2.2) and in the channel status bar (See
section 4.2.6).
Loss Compensation Table
The loss compensation function allows the user to apply compensation for unwanted
losses produced between the power meter and the calibrated port in the process of
power calibration. Define the losses, which you need to compensate in the table (See
figure 5.19) specifying frequency and losses.
Figure 5.19 Loss compensation table
Linear interpolation will be applied to the losses in the intermediary frequency points.
The loss compensation table is defined for each port individually.
Note
To have the losses compensated for, you need to enable
this function and fill out the table before you start the
power calibration procedure.
154
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.4.2
Power Calibration Procedure
Perform connection and setting of an external power meter as described in section 8.10.
Connect the sensor to one of the test ports of the Analyzer and perform calibration as
described below. Then repeat the calibration for the other test port.
To select the calibrated port number, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Select Port
To zero power meter, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Power Sensor Zero
Correction
Note
Power meter sensor can be connected to the port, as
during zero setting the output signal of the port is turned
off.
To execute power calibration, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Take Cal Sweep
Note
5.4.3
After the power calibration is complete, power correction
automatically turns on.
Power Correction Setting
To enable/disable power correction, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Correction
5.4.4
Loss Compensation Table Editing
If you need to apply the loss compensation, enable this function and fill out the table
before you start the power calibration procedure. Fill out the table for each port
individually.
155
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To add a new row to the loss compensation table, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Add
A new row will appear under the highlighted one.
To delete a highlighted row, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Delete
To clear all the table, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Clear
Loss Table
To save the table into a *.lct file on the hard, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Export
Loss Table
To open the table from a *.lct file from the hard, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Import
Loss Table
Enter frequency and loss values into the table, scrolling
by navigation keys.
To enable the loss compensation function, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen >
Compensation
156
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.5
Receiver Calibration
When you perform absolute power measurements (See section 4.7.3), the gain of some
receivers are factory calibrated to test port inputs.
In practice, the power is measured at test port inputs made by the fixture producing
losses. The receiver calibration enables the user to measure the power at port inputs
with higher accuracy.
The receiver calibration is performed by sending the calibration signal from the source
port to the calibrated port input. The receiver calibration requires the connection
between the both test ports using THRU line.
To make the receiver calibration most accurate, first perform power calibration on the
source port. If the source power calibration was not performed, to get good results you
need to connect the calibrated port to the source port on the front panel.
After the receiver calibration is complete, receiver correction automatically turns on.
Later the user can disable or enable again the receiver correction function.
The receiver calibration can be performed only for the test signal receivers (A and B) of
each port (See figure 4.11).
The power calibration is performed for each port and each channel individually.
Note
5.5.1
The power correction status is indicated in the trace status
field (See section 4.2.2) and in the channel status bar (See
section 4.2.6).
Receiver Calibration Procedure
Connect a THRU line between the receiver port and the source port.
To select the calibrated port number, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Select Port
To select the source port number, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Source Port
To execute receiver calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Take Cal Sweep
157
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Note
5.5.2
After the receiver calibration is complete, receiver
correction automatically turns on.
Receiver Correction Setting
To enable/disable receiver correction, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Correction
158
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.6
Scalar Mixer Calibration
Scalar mixer calibration is the most accurate method of calibration applied to
measurements of mixers in frequency offset mode.
The scalar mixer calibration requires OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD standards as well as
external power meter (See figure 5.20). The power meter connection and setup is
described in section 8.8.
SHORT
SHORT
Port 1
Port 1
Port 2
OPEN
OPEN
LOAD
LOAD
Port 2
Port 1
Power
Meter
Port 2
Power
Meter
Figure 5.20 Scalar mixer calibration setup
159
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
The scalar mixer calibration allows the following measurements:
•
reflection S11 and S22 parameters in vector form;
•
transmission S21 and S12 parameters in scalar form.
Before you start the calibration, perform the following settings: select active channel
and set its parameters (frequency span, IF bandwidth, etc), and define the calibration
kit. Then enable the frequency offset mode and perform the port settings.
Note
The scalar mixer calibration can be performed without
frequency offset. You can enable the frequency offset
mode later, during mixer measurements. In this case the
basic frequency range should cover the frequency spans of
the ports in offset mode. This procedure is convenient but
less accurate as involves interpolation.
To access the scalar mixer calibration menu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Mixer/Converter Calibration > Scalar Mixer
Calibration
Click Reflection Port 1 softkey.
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to port 1 as
shown in figure 5.20. Perform two measurements over two
frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq 2) for each standard
using the respective standard softkeys.
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement over
one frequency range the result will be automatically saved
for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
160
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Click Reflection Port 2 softkey.
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to port 2 as
shown in figure 5.20. Perform two measurements over two
frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq 2) for each standard
using the respective standard softkeys.
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement over
one frequency range the result will be automatically saved
for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
Click Transmission softkey.
Connect a THRU standards between the test ports. If the
port connectors allow, connect the ports directly together
(through line with zero electrical length). Perform two
measurements over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq
2).
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement over
one frequency range the result will be automatically saved
for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
Click Power softkey.
To zero power meter, click Power Sensor Zero Correction
softkey.
Note
Power meter sensor can be connected to the port, as
during zero setting the output signal of the port is turned
off.
161
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Connect the power meter to port 1. Perform two
measurements over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq
2).
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement over
one frequency range the result will be automatically saved
for the both frequency ranges.
Connect the power meter to port 2. Perform two
measurements over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq
2).
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The error
correction function will also be automatically enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards, click
Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration turn off the error correction
function.
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) or in trace status field (See table 5.6) –
SMC label.
162
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.7
Vector Mixer Calibration
Vector scalar calibration is a calibration method applied for mixer measurements. This
method allows measurement of both reflection and transmission S-parameters in vector
form, including phase and group delay of transmission coefficient.
The vector mixer measurements require an additional mixer with filter, which is called
calibration mixer.
The filter separates the IF, which is the input frequency for the mixer under test:
•
RF + LO
•
RF – LO
•
LO – RF
Both calibration mixer and mixer under test are powered from one LO.
The vector mixer measurement is a combination of a 2-port calibration and a deembedding function (See figure 5.21).
2-Port Calibration
De-embedding
Calibration
Mixer/Filter
Mixer Under
Test
Figure 5.21 Vector mixer measurements
The de-embedding function requires an S-parameter file of the circuit. Acquisition of
such a file for the calibration mixer/filter pair is called vector mixer calibration.
163
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To obtain an S-parameter file of the calibration mixer/filter, you need to use SHORT,
OPEN, and LOAD calibration standards (See figure 5.22).
2-Port Calibration
Vector
Calibration
SHORT
OPEN
LOAD
Calibration
Mixer/Filter
Figure 5.22 Vector Mixer Calibration
5.7.1
Vector Mixer Calibration Procedure
Before you start the calibration, perform the following settings: activate a channel and
set its parameters (frequency span, IF bandwidth, etc), and define the calibration kit.
•
Perform 2-port calibration.
•
Assemble vector calibration setup.
•
Set frequency and power of the external LO.
To access the vector mixer calibration menu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Mixer/Converter Calibration > Vector Mixer
Calibration
To select the number of test port connected to the
calibration mixer, click Select Port.
164
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Enter the LO frequency, using LO Frequency softkey.
Select the frequency to be separated by the filter, using IF
Frequency softkey:
■
RF + LO
■
RF – LO
■
LO – RF
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to IF filter
output as shown in figure 5.22. Perform the measurement
using the respective standard softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will appear
in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Save To
Touchstone File.
This will activate calculation of the calibration
mixer/filter pair S-parameters, and saving those into a
Touchstone file. Enter the file name in the pop-up dialog.
If Setup Option feature is enabled, S-parameter file will
be passed to the de-embedding function and this function
will be activated.
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status bar
(See table 5.5) – F2 и Dmb labels (2-port calibration and
de-embedding function).
165
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.8
Automatic Calibration Module
Automatic calibration module (ACM) is a special device, which allows for automating
of the process of calibration. ACM is shown in figure 5.23.
Figure 5.23 Automatic Calibration Module
ACM offers the following advantages over the traditional SOLT calibration, which uses
a mechanical calibration kit:
•
Reduces the number of connections of standards. Instead of connecting
seven standards, it requires connecting only two ACM connectors;
•
Reduces the calibration time;
•
Reduces human error probability;
•
Provides higher accuracy potentially.
ACM has two RF connectors for connection to the Analyzer test ports and a USB
connector for control. ACM contains electronic switches, which switch between
different reflection and transmission impedance states, as well as memory, which stores
precise S-parameters of these impedance states.
After you connect the ACM to the Analyzer, the Analyzer software performs the
calibration procedure automatically, i.e. switches between different ACM states,
measures them, and computes calibration coefficients using the data stored in the ACM
memory.
166
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.8.1
Automatic Calibration Module Features
Calibration Types:
ACM allows the Analyzer software to perform full two-port or full one-port calibrations
with the click of a button. We recommend that you terminate the unusable ACM port
with a load while performing one-port calibration.
Characterization:
Characterization is a table of S-parameters of all the states of the ACM switches, stored
in the ACM memory. There are two types of characterization: user characterization and
factory characterization. ACM has two memory sections. The first one is writeprotected and contains factory characterization. The second memory section allows you
to store up to three user characterizations. Before calibration you can select the factory
characterization or any of the user characterizations stored in the ACM memory. The
user characterization option is provided for saving new S-parameters of the ACM after
connecting adapters to the ACM ports.
The software enables you to perform a user characterization and save the data to ACM
with the click of a button. To be able to do this, you should first calibrate the Analyzer
test ports in configuration compatible with the ACM ports.
Automatic Orientation:
Orientation means relating the ACM ports to the test ports of the Analyzer. While the
Analyzer test ports are indicated by numbers, the ACM ports are indicated by letters A
and B.
Orientation is defined either manually by the user, or automatically. The user is to select
the manual or automatic orientation method. In case of automatic orientation, the
Analyzer software determines the ACM orientation each time prior to its calibration or
characterization.
Unknown Thru:
The Thru implemented by the electronic switches inside the ACM introduces losses.
That is why you should know the exact parameters of the Thru or use an Unknown Thru
algorithm to achieve the specified calibration accuracy.
The software allows using the both options. ACM memory stores S-parameters of the
Thru, which are used to compute calibration coefficients. In case if an Unknown Thru
algorithm is applied, such parameters are disregarded.
Thermal Compensation:
The most accurate calibration can be achieved if the ACM temperature is equal to the
temperature, at which it was characterized. When this temperature changes, certain
ACM state parameters may deviate from the parameters stored in the memory. This
results in reduction of the ACM calibration accuracy.
167
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To compensate for the thermal error, the ACM features thermal compensation function.
Thermal compensation is a software function of the ACM S-parameter correction based
on its temperature dependence and the data from the temperature sensor inside the
ACM. The temperature dependence of each ACM is determined at the factory and
saved into its memory.
The function of thermal compensation can be enabled or disabled by the user.
Confidence Check:
ACM also implements an additional state – an attenuator, which is not used in
calibration. The attenuator is used to check the current calibration performed by ACM
or any other method. Such test is called a confidence check.
The confidence check consists in simultaneous display of the measured and stored in
memory S-parameters of the attenuator. The measured parameters are shown as the data
trace and the parameters saved in the ACM memory are shown as the memory trace.
You can compare the two traces, evaluate their differences and determine the accuracy
of the calibration performed.
For a detailed comparison you can use the math (division) function for data and
memory.
5.8.2
Automatic Calibration Procedure
Before calibrating the Analyzer with ACM, perform some settings, i.e. activate a
channel and set channel parameters (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc).
Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM to
the USB port of the computer.
To start automatic calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > AutoCal
Select characterization using Characterization softkey.
Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
Enable or disable Unknown Thru algorithm using Unkn.
Thru softkey.
Enable or disable the thermal compensation using
Thermal Compensation softkey.
168
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
To display detailed information on characterization, use
Characterization Info softkey.
To perform full two-port calibration, use 2-Port AutoCal
softkey.
To perform full one-port calibration, use 1-Port AutoCal
softkey.
Then select the port number.
5.8.3
User Characterization Procedure
User characterization of ACM is required in case of ACM connectors modification by
the use of adapters. The characterization is performed for the new ACM configuration,
which includes adapters. To ensure calibration accuracy it is not recommended to
disconnect and reconnect the adapters back.
Before you perform the user characterization of the ACM, perform full two-port
calibration of the Analyzer in configuration of the test ports compatible with the
configuration of ACM ports.
Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM to
the USB port of the computer.
Select user characterization 1 to 3 using Characterization
softkey.
Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
Perform
softkey.
characterization
using
Characterize
ACM
After the ACM measurement is completed, the following dialog box will appear:
169
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Fill in the following fields:
•
User name;
•
Analyzer name;
•
Characterization location;
•
Connectors (types of adapter connectors);
•
Adapter description (description of adapters).
Use Save softkey to complete the user characterization of the ACM.
5.8.4
Confidence Check Procedure
In case you need to verify the reliability of the current calibration, perform the
confidence check. This function can be used to check the accuracy of either calibration
performed with an ACM or with a mechanical calibration kit.
Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM to
the USB port of the computer.
Enable the display of the data trace for the needed parameter, for example S21. It is
possible to enable several data traces simultaneously, for example, S11, S22, S21, S12.
Select characterization using Characterization softkey.
170
5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
Perform confidence check using Confidence Check
softkey.
After the measurement is completed, two traces for each S-parameter will be displayed.
The measured parameters will be shown as the data trace, and the ACM parameters will
be shown as the memory trace.
Compare the data trace and the memory trace of the same parameter, for example S21.
To perform more accurate comparison, enable the function of math operations between
data and memory traces. In the logarithmic magnitude or phase format use the Data /
Memory operation. In the linear magnitude format use the Data – Memory operation.
The conclusion on whether the current calibration provides sufficient accuracy or not is
made by the user.
171
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1
Markers
A marker is a tool for numerical readout of a stimulus value and value of the measured
parameter in a specific point on the trace. You can activate up to 16 markers on each
trace. See a trace with two markers in figure 6.1.
The markers allow the user to perform the following tasks:

Reading absolute values of a stimulus and a measured parameter in
selected points on the trace;

Reading relative values of a stimulus and a measured parameter related
to the reference point;

Search for specific points on the trace (minimum, maximum, target
level, etc);

Determining trace parameters (statistics, bandwidth, etc);

Editing stimulus parameters using markers.
Figure 6.1
Markers can have the following indicators:
1
∇
symbol and number of the active marker on a trace,
∆
2
symbol and number of the inactive marker on a trace,
▲
symbol of the active marker on a stimulus axis,
∆
symbol of the inactive marker on a stimulus axis.
The marker data field contains the marker number, stimulus value, and the measured
parameter value. The number of the active marker is highlighted in inverse color.
172
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The marker data field contents vary depending on the display format (rectangular or
circular).

In rectangular format, the marker shows the measurement parameter
value plotted along Y-axis in the active format (See table 4.8).

In circular format, the marker shows two or three values listed in table
6.1
Table 6.1 Marker readings in circular formats
Label
Marker Readings (Measurement Unit)
Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3
Smith
(Lin)
Linear magnitude
Phase (°)
–
Smith
(Log)
Logarithmic
magnitude (dB)
Phase (°)
–
Smith
(Re/Im)
Real part
Imaginary part
–
Smith
(R + jX)
Resistance (Ω)
Reactance (Ω)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance (F/H)
Smith
(G + jB)
Conductance (S)
Susceptance (S)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance (F/H)
Polar
(Lin)
Linear magnitude
Phase (°)
–
Polar
(Log)
Logarithmic
magnitude (dB)
Phase (°)
–
Polar
(Re/Im)
Real part
Imaginary part
–
173
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.1
Marker Adding
To enable a new marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Add Marker
Note
6.1.2
The new marker appears as the active marker in the
middle of the stimulus axis. The marker stimulus value
entry field activates.
Marker Deleting
To delete a marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Delete Marker
To delete all the markers, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Delete All Markers
6.1.3
Marker Stimulus Value Setting
Before you set the marker stimulus value, you need to select the active marker. You can
set the stimulus value by entering the numerical value from the keyboard, by arrows, or
by dragging the marker using the mouse, or enabling the search function. Drag-anddrop operation is described in section 4.3.12. Marker search function is described in
section 6.1.7.
To set the marker stimulus value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Edit Stimulus
or make a mouse click on the stimulus value field.
Then enter the value using the numerical keys on the
keypad, by «↑», «↓» arrows.
174
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.4
Marker Activating
To activate a marker by its number, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Select > Marker n
...
To activate a marker from the list of markers, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Select Next
Note
You can activate a marker by making a mouse click on it.
175
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.5
Reference Marker Feature
Reference marker feature allows the user to view the data relative to the reference
marker. Other marker readings are represented as delta relative to the reference marker.
The reference marker shows the absolute data. The reference marker is indicated with ∆
symbol instead of a number (See figure 6.2). Enabling of a reference marker turns all
the other markers to relative display mode.
Figure 6.2
Reference marker can be indicated on the trace as follows:
R
∇
symbol of the active reference marker on a trace;
∆
R
symbol of the inactive reference marker on a trace.
The reference marker displays the stimulus and measurement absolute values. All the
rest of the markers display the relative values:

stimulus value — difference between the absolute stimulus values of
this marker and the reference marker;

measured value — difference between the absolute measurement values
of this marker and the reference marker.
To enable/disable the reference marker, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Reference Marker
176
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.6
6.1.6.1
Marker Properties
Marker Coupling Feature
The marker coupling feature enables/disables dependence of the markers of the same
numbers on different traces. If the feature is turned on, the coupled markers (markers
with same numbers) will move along X-axis synchronously on all the traces. If the
coupling feature is off, the position of the markers with same numbers along X-axis will
be independent (See figure 6.3).
Figure 6.3 Marker coupling feature
To enable/disable the marker coupling feature, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Couple
177
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.6.2
Marker Table
The marker table enables you to view the values of the markers of all the traces and all
the channels (See figure 6.4).
Figure 6.4 Marker table
To show/hide the marker table, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Table
178
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.6.3
Marker Value Indication Capacity
By default, the marker stimulus values are displayed with 8 decimal digits and marker
response values are displayed with 5 decimal digits. The user can change these settings.
To set the marker value indication capacity, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Stimulus Digits
Markers > Properties > Response Digits
6.1.6.4
Multi Marker Data Display
If several overlapping traces are displayed in one graph, by default only active marker
data are displayed on the screen. The user can enable display of the marker data of all
the traces simultaneously. The markers of different traces will be distinguished by the
color. Each marker will have same color with its trace.
To enable/disable the multi marker data display, toggle
the softkey:
Markers > Marker Properties > Active Only
Note
When multi marker data display is enabled, to avoid data
overlapping on the screen, arrange the marker data on the
screen (See section 6.1.6.5).
179
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.6.5
Marker Data Arranging
By default, the marker data are displayed in the upper left corner of the screen. The user
can rearrange the marker data display on the screen. The marker data position on the
screen is described by two parameters: relative position on the X and Y axes, in percent.
Zero percent is upper left corner, 100% is lower right corner. Marker data position for
each trace is set separately. This allows the user to avoid data overlapping on the screen.
To arrange the marker data on the screen, enter the
relative position on the X and Y axes, using the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Properties > Data X Position
Markers > Marker Properties > Data Y Position
Note
You can also drag-and-drop the marker data by the
mouse.
6.1.6.6
Marker Data Alignment
By default, the marker data are displayed independently for each trace. The user can
align the marker data display on the screen. The alignment deactivates the independent
marker data layout. In this case, the relative position on the X and Y axes is valid only
for the first trace. The marker data of the other traces become aligned relatively to the
first trace. Two types of alignment are available:

Vertical – marker data of different traces are displayed one under
another;

Horizontal – marker data of different traces are displayed in line.
To set the marker data alignment, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Properties > Align >
Vertical | Horizontal | OFF
180
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.6.7
Memory Trace Value Display
By default, the marker values of the data traces (not memory traces) are displayed on
the screen. The user can enable the display of memory trace maker values, if a memory
trace is available.
To enable/disable the display of memory trace marker
values, toggle the softkey:
Marker > Maker Properties > Memory Value
6.1.7
Marker Position Search Functions
Marker position search function enables you to find on a trace the following values:
6.1.7.1

maximum value;

minimum value;

peak value;

target level.
Search for Maximum and Minimum
Maximum and minimum search functions enable you to determine the maximum and
minimum values of the measured parameter and move the marker to these positions on
the trace (See figure 6.5).
Figure 6.5 Maximum and minimum search
181
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To find the maximum or minimum values on a trace, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Maximum
Markers > Marker Search > Minimum
Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is executed
for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.2
Search for Peak
Peak search function enables you to determine the peak value of the measured
parameter and move the marker to this position on the trace (See figure 6.6).
Peak is a local extremum of the trace.
Peak is called positive if the value in the peak is greater than the values of the adjacent
points.
Peak is called negative if the value in the peak is smaller than the values of the adjacent
points.
Peak excursion is the smallest of the absolute differences between the response values
in the peak point and the two adjoining peaks of the opposite polarity.
Figure 6.6 Positive and negative peaks
The peak search is executed only for the peaks meeting the following conditions:
182
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS

The peaks must have the polarity (positive, negative, or both)
specified by the user;

The peaks must have the peak deviation not less than the value
assigned by the user.
The following options of the peak search are available:
 Search for nearest peak;
 Search for greatest peak;
 Search for left peak;
 Search for right peak.
The nearest peak is a peak, which is located most near to the current position of the
marker along the stimulus axis.
The greatest peak is a peak with maximum or minimum value, depending on the current
polarity settings of the peak.
Note
The search for the greatest peak is deferent from the
search for maximum or minimum as the peak cannot be
located in the limiting points of the trace even if these
points have maximum or minimum values.
To set the polarity of the peak, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Peak Polarity > Positive
| Negative | Both
To enter the peak excursion value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Peak Excursion
Then enter the value using numerical keypad, or «↑», «↓»
arrows.
To activate the nearest peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak
183
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To activate the greatest peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Max Peak
To activate the left peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak Left
To activate the left peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak Right
Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is executed
for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.3
Search for Target Level
Target level search function enables you to locate the marker with the given level of the
measured parameter (See figure 6.7).
The trace can have two types of transition in the points where the target level crosses
the trace:

transition type is positive if the function derivative (trace slope) is
positive at the intersection point with the target level;

transition type is negative if the function derivative (trace slope)
is negative at the intersection point with the target level.
Figure 6.7 Target level search
184
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The target level search is executed only for the intersection points, which have the
specific transition polarity selected by the user (positive, negative, or both).
The following options of the target level search are available:

Search for nearest target;

Search for left target;

Search for right target.
To set the transition polarity, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Transition >
Positive | Negative | Both
To enter the target level value, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Value
Then enter the value using numerical keypad, or «↑», «↓»
arrows.
To activate the nearest target search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target
To activate the left target search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target Left
To activate the right target search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target Right
To enable/disable target level indication on the screen,
use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Line
softkey disables indication of target
level lines of all the markers.
Clear All Target Lines
185
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is executed
for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.4
Search Tracking
The marker position search function by default can be initiated by any search key
pressing. Search tracking mode allows you to perform continuous marker position
search, until this mode is disabled.
To enable/disable search tracking mode, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Tracking
6.1.7.5
Search Range
The user can set the search range for the marker position search by setting the stimulus
limits. This function involves the following additional features:

search range coupling, which allows the user to define the same
search range for all the traces of a channel;

vertical line indication of the search range limits.
To enable/disable the search range, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Range
To set the search range limits, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Start
Markers > Marker Search > Search Stop
To enable/disable search range coupling, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Couple
186
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable search range limits indication, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Range Lines
6.1.8
Marker Math Functions
Marker math functions are the functions, which use markers for calculating of various
trace characteristics. Four marker math functions are available:
6.1.8.1

Statistics;

Bandwidth Search;

Flatness;

RF Filter.
Trace Statistics
The trace statistics feature allows the user to determine and view such trace parameters
as mean, standard deviation, and peak-to-peak. The trace statistics range can be defined
by two markers (See figure 6.8).
Statistic Range: OFF
Statistic Range: ON
Figure 6.8 Trace statistics
Table 6.2 Statistics parameters
Symbol
Definition
mean
Arithmetic mean
s.dev
Standard deviation
p-p
Peak-to-Peak: difference
between the maximum and
minimum values
Formula
M =
1 N
⋅ ∑ xi
N i =1
N
1
⋅ ∑ ( xi − M ) 2
N − 1 i =1
Max – Min
187
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable trace statistics function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistics
To enable/disable trace statistics range, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistic Range
To set the start/stop markers of the statistics range, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistic Start
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Startistic Stop
188
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.8.2
Bandwidth Search
The bandwidth search function allows the user to determine and view the following
parameters of a passband or a stopband: bandwidth, center frequency, lower frequency,
higher frequency, Q value, and insertion loss (See figure 6.9). In the figure, F1 and F2
are the lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the band respectively.
The bandwidth search is executed from the reference point. The user can select as
reference point the active marker or the maximum of the trace. The bandwidth search
function determines the lower and higher cutoff frequencies, which are apart from the
reference point response by bandwidth value defined by the user (usually -3 dB).
Passband
Bandwidth
Value
F1
F2
Stopband
Bandwidth
Value
F1
F2
Figure 6.9 Bandwidth search
189
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 6.3 Bandwidth parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Formula
Bandwidth
BW
The difference between the higher
and lower cutoff frequencies
Center
Frequency
cent
The midpoint between the higher and
lower cutoff frequencies
Lower Cutoff
Frequency
low
The lower frequency point of the
intersection of the bandwidth cutoff
level and the trace
F1
Higher Cutoff
Frequency
high
The higher frequency point of the
intersection of the bandwidth cutoff
level and the trace
F2
Quality Factor
Q
The ratio of the center frequency to
the bandwidth
Cent/BW
Loss
loss
F2 – F1
(F1+F2)/2
The trace measured value in the
reference point of the bandwidth
search
-
To enable/disable bandwidth search function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Bandwidth
Search
Set the bandwidth search type by softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Type
The type and the softkey label toggle between Bandpass
and Notch settings.
To set the search reference point, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Search Ref
To
The type and the softkey label toggle between Max and
Marker settings.
To enter the bandwidth value, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Bandwidth
Value
190
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.8.3
Flatness
The flatness search function allows the user to determine and view the following trace
parameters: gain, slope, and flatness. The user sets two markers to specify the flatness
search range (See figure 6.10).
Flatness
Search Rage
Figure 6.10 Flatness search
Δ
Δ¯max
+
max
Flatness = Δ
+
max
+ Δ¯max
Figure 6.11 Calculation of flatness
Table 6.4 Flatness parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Gain
gain
Marker 1 value
Slope
slope
Difference between marker 2 and marker 1 values.
Flatness
flatness
Sum of “positive” and “negative” peaks of the trace,
which are measured from the line connecting marker
1 and marker 2 (See figure 6.11).
191
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the flatness search function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness
To select the markers specifying the flatness search range,
use softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness Start
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness Stop
6.1.8.4
RF Filter Statistics
The RF filter statistics function allows the user to determine and view the following
filter parameters: loss, peak-to-peak in a passband, and rejection in a stopband. The
passband is specified by the first pair of markers, the stopband is specified by the
second pair of markers (See figure 6.12).
Passband
Stopband
Figure 6.12 RF filter statistics
Table 6.5 RF filter statistics parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Loss in
passband
loss
Minimum value in the passband
Peak-to-peak in
passband
p-p
Difference between maximum and minimum in the
passband
Reject
rej
Difference between maximum in stopband and minimum
in passband
192
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the RF filter statistics function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > RF Filter Stats
To select the markers specifying the passband, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Passband Start
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Passband Stop
To select the markers specifying the stopband, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Stopband Start
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Stopband Stop
6.1.9
Marker Functions
Using the current position of a marker you can perform settings of the following
parameters:

Stimulus start;

Stimulus stop;

Stimulus center;

Reference level;

Electrical delay.
Before performing the settings, first activate the marker.
To set the stimulus start, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Start
To set the stimulus stop, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Stop
To set the stimulus center, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Center
193
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To set the reference level, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Ref Value
To set the electrical delay, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Delay
To set reference marker to the active marker point, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Ref Marker
194
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.2
Memory Trace Function
For each data trace displayed on the screen a so-called memory trace can be created.
The memory trace is displayed in the same color as the main data trace, but its
brightness is twice lower 1.
The data trace shows the currently measured data and is continuously being updated as
the measurement goes on.
The memory trace is a data trace saved into the memory. It is created from the current
measurement when the user is clicking the corresponding softkey. After that, the two
traces become displayed on the screen – the data trace and the memory trace. The user
can customize the trace indication. The trace status field will indicate the following:

D&M

M

OFF

Empty field – only data trace is displayed.
– data trace and memory trace are displayed;
– only memory trace is displayed;
– both traces are not displayed
The memory trace bears the following features of the data trace (which if changed, will
clear the memory):
 frequency range,
 number of points,
 sweep type.
The memory trace has the following settings common with the data trace (which if
changed, modifies the both traces):
 format,
 scale,
 smoothing,
 electrical delay.
The following data trace settings (if changed after the memory trace creation) do not
influence the memory trace:
 power in frequency sweep mode,
 frequency in power sweep mode,
 measured parameter (S-parameter),
 IF bandwidth,
 averaging,
 calibration.
1
The color and brightness of the data and memory traces can be customized by the user (See
section 8.6).
195
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The memory trace can be used for math operations with the data trace. The resulting
trace of such an operation will replace the data trace. The math operations with memory
and data traces are performed in complex values. The following four math operations
are available:
Data / Memory
Divides the measured data by the data in the memory
trace.
The trace status field indicates: D/M.
Data * Memory
Multiplies the measured data by the memory trace.
The trace status field indicates: D*M.
Data – Memory
Subtracts a memory trace from the measured data.
The trace status field indicates: D–M.
Data + Memory
Adds the measured data to the data in the memory trace.
The trace status field indicates: D+M.
6.2.1
Saving Trace into Memory
The memory trace function can be applied to the individual traces of the channel.
Before you enable this function, first activate the trace.
To save a trace into the memory, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Data->Memory
6.2.2
Trace Display Setting
To set the type of data to be displayed on the screen, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Display >
Data | Memory | Data & Memory | OFF
196
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.2.3
Mathematical Operations
To access math operations, use the following softkeys:
Display > Data Math
Data/Mem | Data * Mem | Data – Mem | Data + Mem | OFF
197
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.3
Fixture Simulation
The fixture simulation function enables you to emulate the measurement conditions
other than those of the real setup. The following conditions can be simulated:
 Port Z conversion;
 De-embedding;
 Embedding.
Before starting the fixture simulation, first activate the channel. The simulation function
will affect all the traces of the channel.
To open the fixture simulation menu, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator
Note
The Fixture Simulator softkey label indicates the
following:
– at least one of the fixture simulation functions is
enabled,
ON
OFF
6.3.1
– all fixture simulation functions are disabled.
Port Z Conversion
Port Z conversion is a function of transformation of the S-parameters measured during
port wave impedance change simulation (See figure 6.13).
Note
The value of the test port impedance is defined in the
process of calibration. It is determined by the
characteristic impedance of the calibration kit and the
value is entered by the user as described in section 5.2.12.
198
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Port 1
Port 2
System
impedance
DUT
System
impedance
Z0 = 50 Ω
(S)
Z0 = 50 Ω
Port impedance convesion
Port 1
Arbitrary
impedance
Z1 [Ω]
Port 2
DUT
( S’ )
Arbitrary
impedance
Z2 [Ω]
Figure 6.13 Port Z conversion
To enable/disable the port impedance conversion
function, toggle Port Z Conversion softkey.
To enter the value of the simulated impedance of Port 1,
use Port 1 Z0 softkey.
To enter the value of the simulated impedance of Port 2,
use Port 2 Z0 softkey.
6.3.2
De-embedding
De-embedding is a function of the S-parameter transformation by removing of some
circuit effect from the measurement results.
199
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The circuit being removed should be defined in the data file containing S-parameters of
this circuit. The circuit should be described as a 2-port in Touchstone file (extension
.s2p), which contains the S-parameter table: S11, S21, S12, S22 for a number of
frequencies.
The de-embedding function allows to mathematically exclude from the measurement
results the effect of the fixture circuit existing between the calibration plane and the
DUT in the real network. The fixture is used for the DUTs, which cannot be directly
connected to the test ports.
The de-embedding function shifts the calibration plane closer to the DUT, so as if the
calibration has been executed of the network with this circuit removed (See figure 6.14).
Port 1
Port 2
Circuit 1
Circuit 2
DUT
Touchstone
file
Touchstone
file
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
De-embedding
Port 1
Port 2
DUT
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
Figure 6.14 De-embedding
200
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the de-embedding function for port 1,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Port 1.
To enter the file name of the de-embedded circuit Sparameters of port 1, us the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Sparameters File
To enable/disable the de-embedding function for port 2,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Port 2.
To enter the file name of the de-embedded circuit Sparameters of port 2, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Sparameters File
Note
6.3.3
If S-parameters file is not specified, the softkey of the
function activation will be grayed out.
Embedding
Embedding is a function of the S-parameter transformation by integration of some
virtual circuit into the real network (See figure 6.15). The embedding function is an
inverted de-embedding function.
The circuit being integrated should be defined in the data file containing S-parameters
of this circuit. The circuit should be described as a 2-port in Touchstone file (extension
.s2p), which contains the S-parameter table: S11, S21, S12, S22 for a number of
frequencies.
The embedding function allows to mathematically simulate the DUT parameters after
adding of the fixture circuits.
201
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Port 1
Port 2
DUT
Measured S-parameters
Embedding
Port 1
Port 2
Circuit 1
DUT
Touchstone
file
Circuit 2
Touchstone
file
Simulated S-parameters
Figure 6.15 Embedding
To enable/disable the embedding function for port 1, use
the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > Port 1.
To enter the file name of the embedded circuit Sparameters of port 1, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > S-parameters
File
202
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the embedding function for port 2, use
the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > Port 2.
To enter the file name of the embedded circuit Sparameters of port 2, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > S-parameters
File
Note
If S-parameters file is not specified, the softkey of the
function activation will be grayed out.
203
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.4
Time Domain Transformation
The Analyzer measures and displays parameters of the DUT in frequency domain. Time
domain transformation is a function of mathematical modification of the measured
parameters in order to obtain the time domain representation.
For time domain transformation Z-transformation and frequency domain window
function are applied.
The time domain transformation can be activated for separate traces of a channel. The
current frequency parameters (S11, S21, S12, S22) of the trace will be transformed into the
time domain.
Note
Traces in frequency and time domains can simultaneously
belong to one channel. The stimulus axis label will be
displayed for the active trace, in frequency or time units.
The transformation function allows for setting of the measurement range in time domain
within Z-transformation ambiguity range. The ambiguity range is determined by the
measurement step in the frequency domain:
∆T =
1
F max − F min
; ∆F =
∆F
N −1
The time domain function allows to select the following transformation types:

Bandpass mode simulates the impulse bandpass response. It allows the
user to obtain the response for circuits incapable of direct current
passing. The frequency range is arbitrary in this mode. The time domain
resolution in this mode is twice lower than it is in the lowpass mode;

Lowpass mode simulates lowpass impulse and lowpass step responses.
It is applied to the circuits passing direct current, and the direct
component (in point F=0 Hz) is interpolated from the start frequency
(Fmin) of the range. In this mode the frequency range represents a
harmonic grid where the frequency value at each frequency point is an
integer multiple of the start frequency of the range Fmin. The time
domain resolution is twice higher than it is in the bandpass mode.
The time domain transformation function applies Kaiser window for initial data
processing in frequency domain. The window function allows to reduce the ringing
(side lobes) in the time domain. The ringing is caused by the abrupt change of the data
at the limits of the frequency domain. But while side lobes are reduced, the main pulse
or front edge of the lowpass step becomes wider.
The Kaiser window is described by β parameter, which smoothly fine-tune the window
shape from minimum (rectangular) to maximum. The user can fine-tune the window
shape or select one of the three preprogrammed windows:
204
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
 Minimum (rectangular);
 Normal;
 Maximum.
Table 6.6 Preprogrammed window types
Lowpass Impulse
Window
Lowpass Step
Side Lobes
Level
Pulse Width
Side Lobes
Level
Edge Width
Minimum
– 13 dB
0.6
Fmax − Fmin
– 21 dB
0.45
Fmax − Fmin
Normal
– 44 dB
0.98
Fmax − Fmin
– 60 dB
0.99
Fmax − Fmin
Maximum
– 75 dB
1.39
Fmax − Fmin
– 70 dB
1.48
Fmax − Fmin
6.4.1
Time Domain Transformation Activating
To enable/disable time domain transformation function,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Time Domain
Note
6.4.2
Time domain transformation function is accessible only
in linear frequency sweep mode.
Time Domain Transformation Span
To define the span of time domain representation, you can set its start and stop, or
center and span values.
To set the start and stop limits of the time domain range,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Start
Analysis > Time Domain > Stop
205
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To set the center and span of the time domain, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Center
Analysis > Time Domain > Span
6.4.3
Time Domain Transformation Type
To set the time domain transformation type, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Type >
Bandpass | Lowpass Impulse | Lowpass Step
6.4.4
Time Domain Transformation Window Shape Setting
To set the window shape, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window >
Minimum | Normal | Maximum
To set the window shape for the specific impulse width or
front edge width, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window > Impulse Width
The setting values are limited by the specified frequency
range. The bottom limit corresponds to the value
implemented in the minimum (rectangular) window. The
top limit corresponds to the value implemented in the
maximum window.
206
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To set the window shape for the specific β-parameter of
the Kaiser-Bessel filter, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window > Kaiser Beta
The available β values are from 0 to 13. 0 corresponds to
minimum window, 6 corresponds to normal window, 13
corresponds to maximum widow.
Note
6.4.5
The impulse width and β of the Kaiser-Bessel filter are
the dependent parameters. When you set one of the
parameters the other one will be adjusted automatically.
Frequency Harmonic Grid Setting
If lowpass impulse or lowpass step transformation is enabled, the frequency range will
be represented as a harmonic grid. The frequency values in measurement points are
integer multiples of the start frequency Fmin. The Analyzer is capable of creating a
harmonic grid for the current frequency range automatically.
To create a harmonic grid for the current frequency
range, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Set Frequency Low Pass
Note
The frequency range will be transformed as follows:
Fmax > N x 0.3 MHz
Fmax < N x 0.3 MHz
Fmin = Fmax / N
Fmin = 0.3 MHz,
Fmax = N x 0.3 MHz
207
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.5
Time Domain Gating
Time domain gating is a function, which mathematically removes the unwanted
responses in time domain. The function performs time domain transformation and
applies reverse transformation back to frequency domain to the user-defined span in
time domain. The function allows the user to remove spurious effects of the fixture
devices from the frequency response, if the useful signal and spurious signal are
separable in time domain.
Note
Use time domain function for viewing the layout of useful
and spurious responses. Then enable time domain gating
and set the gate span to remove as much of spurious
response as possible. After that disable the time domain
function and view the response without spurious effects
in frequency domain.
The function involves two types of time domain gating:
 bandpass – removes the response outside the gate span,
 notch – removes the response inside the gate span.
The rectangular window shape in frequency domain leads to spurious sidelobes due to
sharp signal changes at the limits of the window. The following gate shapes are offered
to reduce the sidelobes:
 maximum;
 wide;
 normal;
 minimum.
The minimum window has the shape close to rectangular. The maximum window has
more smoothed shape. From minimum to maximum window shape, the sidelobe level
increases and the gate resolution reduces. The choice of the window shape is always a
trade-off between the gate resolution and the level of spurious sidelobes. The
parameters of different window shapes are represented in table 6.7.
208
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 6.7 Time domain gating window shapes
Window Shape
Bandpass
Sidelobe Level
6.5.1
Gate Resolution (Minimum Gate
Span)
Minimum
– 48 dB
2.8
Fmax − Fmin
Normal
– 68 dB
5.6
Fmax − Fmin
Wide
– 57 dB
8.8
Fmax − Fmin
Maximum
– 70 dB
25.4
Fmax − Fmin
Time Domain Gate Activating
To enable/disable the time domain gating function: toggle
the following softkey:
Analysis > Gating > Gating
Note
6.5.2
Time domain gating function is accessible only in linear
frequency sweep mode.
Time Domain Gate Span
To define the span of time domain gate, you can set its start and stop, or center and span
values.
To the start and stop of the time domain gate, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Start
Analysis > Gating > Stop
To set the center and span of the time domain gate, use
the following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Center
Analysis > Gating > Span
209
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.5.3
Time Domain Gate Type
To select the type of the time domain window, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Type
Toggle the type between Bandpass and Notch.
6.5.4
Time Domain Gate Shape Setting
To set the time domain gate shape, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Shape >
Minimum | Normal | Wide | Maximum
210
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.6
S-Parameter Conversion
S-parameter conversion function allows conversion of the measurement results (Sab) to
the following parameters:

Equivalent impedance (Zr) and equivalent admittance (Yr) in
reflection measurement:
Z r = Z 0a ⋅
Yr =

2 ⋅ Z 0 a ⋅ Z 0b
S ab
Yt =
1
Zt
)
1
S ab
Equivalent impedance (Ztsh) and equivalent admittance (Ytsh) in
transmission shunt measurements:
Z tsh =
Ysht =
1
Ytsh
2 ⋅ Y0 a ⋅ Y0b
Y0 a =

− ( Z 0 a + Z 0b )
Inverse S-parameter:
(

1
Zr
Equivalent impedance (Zt) and equivalent admittance (Yr) in
transmission measurement:
Zt =

1 + S ab
1 − S ab
Yab
1
,
Z 0a
− (Y0 a + Y0b )
Y0b =
1
Z 0b
S-parameter complex conjugate.
Where:
Z0a – characteristic impedance of Port a,
Z0b – characteristic impedance of Port b,
Zab – measured S-parameter (a and b are the port numbers).
211
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
S-parameter conversion function can be applied to an individual trace of a channel.
Before enabling the function, first activate the trace.
To enable/disable the conversion, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Conversion > Conversion
To select the conversion type, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Conversion > Function >
Zr: Reflection |
Zt: Transmission |
Yr: Reflection |
Yt: Transmission |
1/S: Inverse |
Ztsh: Trans-Shunt |
Ytsh: Trans-Shunt |
Conjugation
Note
All conversion types are indicated in the trace status field,
if enabled.
212
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.7
Limit Test
The limit test is a function of automatic pass/fail judgment for the trace of the
measurement result. The judgment is based on the comparison of the trace to the limit
line set by the user.
The limit line can consist of one or several segments (See figure 6.16). Each segment
checks the measurement value for failing whether upper or lower limit. The limit line
segment is defined by specifying the coordinates of the beginning (X0, Y0) and the end
(X1, Y1) of the segment, and type of the limit. The MAX or MIN limit types check if the
trace falls outside of the upper or lower limit respectively.
MIN
MAX
MAX
Figure 6.16 Limit line
The limit line is set by the user in the limit table. Each row in the table describes one
segment of the line. Limit table editing is described below. The table can be saved into a
*.lim file.
The display of the limit lines on the screen can be turned on/off independently of the
status of the limit test function.
The result of the limit test is indicated in the upper right corner of the graph. If the
measurement result passed the limit test, you will see the trace number and the result:
Tr1: Pass.
If the measurement result failed, the result will be indicated in the following ways (See
figure 6.17):
Fail sign

Tr1: Fail

Fail

The points of the trace, which failed the test will be highlighted in red;

You will hear a beep.
will be displayed in upper right corner of the graph;
sign will be displayed in red in the center of the window;
and the beep can be disabled by the user. For beep deactivation see section 8.5.
213
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Figure 6.17 Test fail indication
6.7.1
Limit Line Editing
To access the limit line editing mode, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Edit Limit Line
In the editing mode the limit table will appear in the lower part of the screen (See figure
6.18). The limit table will be hidden when you quit the submenu.
Figure 6.18 Limit line table
To add a new row in the table, click Add. The new row
will appear below the highlighted one.
To delete a row from the table, click Delete. The
highlighted row will be deleted.
214
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To clear the entire table, use Clear Limit Table softkey.
To save the table into *.lim file, use Save Limit Table
softkey.
To open the table from a *.lim file, use Restore Limit
Table softkey.
Navigating in the table to enter the values of the following parameters of a limit test
segment:
Type
Select the segment type among the following:
■
MAX –
■
MIN
– lower limit
■
OFF
— segment not used for the limit test
upper limit
Begin Stimulus
Stimulus value in the beginning point of the segment.
End Stimulus
Stimulus value in the ending point of the segment.
Begin Response
Response value in the beginning point of the segment.
End Response
Response value in the ending point of the segment.
6.7.2
Limit Test Enabling/Disabling
To enable/disable limit test function, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Test
6.7.3
Limit Test Display Management
To enable/disable display of a limit line, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line
215
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable display of Fail sign in the center of the
graph, use Fail Sign softkey.
6.7.4
Limit Line Offset
Limit line offset function allows the user to shift the segments of the limit line by the
specified value along X and Y axes simultaneously.
To define the limit line offset along X-axis, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Stimulus
Offset
To define the limit line offset along Y-axis, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Response
Offset
Response offset can be set to the active marker position,
using the following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Marker
Response Ofs
– >
216
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.8
Ripple Limit Test
Ripple limit test is an automatic pass/fail check of the measured trace data. The trace is
checked against the maximum ripple value (ripple limit) defined by the user. The ripple
value is the difference between the maximum and minimum response of the trace in the
trace frequency band.
The ripple limit can include one or more segments (See figure 6.19). Each segment
provides the ripple limit for the specific frequency band. A segment is set by the
frequency band and the ripple limit value.
Band 1
2 dB
Band 2
1 dB
Band 3
2 dB
Figure 6.19 Ripple limits
The ripple limit settings are performed in the ripple limit table. Each row of the table
describes the frequency band the ripple limit value. The ripple limit table editing is
described below. The table can be saved into a *.lim file.
The display of the limit lines on the screen can be turned on/off by the user.
The result of the ripple limit test is indicated in the upper right corner of the graph. If
the measurement result passed the limit test, you will see the trace number and the
result: Ripl1: Pass.
If the measurement result failed, the result will be indicated in the following ways (See
figure 6.20):
 Ripl1: Fail will be displayed in upper right corner of the graph;
 Fail sign will be displayed in red in the center of the window;
 You will hear a beep.
Fail sign
and the beep can be disabled by the user. For beep deactivation see section 8.5.
217
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Figure 6.20 Test fail indication
The display of the ripple value can be enabled/disabled by the user in the ripple limit
test status line in the upper right corner of the graph (See figure 6.21). The ripple value
is displayed for the band selected by the user. The ripple value can be represented as an
absolute value or as a margin to the limit.
Ripl1: Pass B1 1.0556 dB
Ripple value
Band number
Test result
Test name and trace number
Figure 6.21 Ripple limit test status line
6.8.1
Ripple Limit Editing
To access the ripple limit editing mode, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Edit Ripple Limit
In the editing mode the limit table will appear in the lower part of the screen (See figure
6.22). The limit table will be hidden when you quit the submenu.
218
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Figure 6.22 Ripple limit table
To add a new row in the table, click Add. The new row
will appear below the highlighted one.
To delete a row from the table, click Delete. The
highlighted row will be deleted.
To clear the entire table, use Clear Ripple Limit Table
softkey.
To save the table into *.rlm file, use Save Ripple Limit
Table softkey.
To open the table from a *.rlm file, use Recall Ripple
Limit Table softkey.
Navigating in the table to enter the values of the following parameters of a ripple limit
test segment:
Type
Select the segment type among the following:
■
ON –
■
OFF
band used for the ripple limit test
— band not used for the limit test
Begin Stimulus
Stimulus value in the beginning point of the segment.
End Stimulus
Stimulus value in the ending point of the segment.
Ripple Limit
Ripple limit value.
219
6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.8.2
Ripple Limit Enabling/Disabling
To enable/disable ripple limit test function, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Test
6.8.3
Ripple Limit Test Display Management
To enable/disable display of the ripple limit line, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Limit
To enable/disable display of the Fail sign in the center of
the graph, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Fail Sign.
To enable/disable display of the ripple value, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Value >
OFF | Absolute | Margin
To enter the number of the band, whose ripple value
should be displayed, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Value Band
220
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.1
Analyzer State
The Analyzer state, calibration and measured data can be saved on the hard disk to an
Analyzer state file and later uploaded back into the Analyzer program. The following
four types of saving are available:
State
The Analyzer settings.
State & Cal
The Analyzer settings and the table of calibration
coefficients.
State & Trace
The Analyzer settings and data traces 1.
All
The Analyzer settings, table of calibration coefficients,
and data traces1.
The Analyzer settings that become saved into the Analyzer state file are the parameters,
which can be set in the following submenus of the softkey menu:
 All the parameters in Stimulus submenu;
 All the parameters in Measurement submenu;
 All the parameters in Format submenu;
 All the parameters in Scale submenu;
 All the parameters in Average submenu;
 All the parameters in Display submenu except for Properties;
 All the parameters of Markers submenu;
 All the parameters of Analysis submenu;
 Ref Source and System Correction parameters in System
submenu.
To save and recall a state file, you can use ten softkeys labeled State01, ... State10. Each
of the softkeys correspond to a *.sta file having the same name.
To have the Analyzer state automatically recalled after each start of the instrument use
Autorecall.sta file. Use Autorecall softkey to save the corresponding file and thus enable
this function.
1
When recalling the state with saved data traces, the trigger mode will be automatically set to
«Hold», so that the recalled traces are not erased by the currently measured data.
221
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
To disable the automatic recall of the Analyzer state, delete the Autorecall.sta file using
the specific softkey.
You can save and recall the files with arbitrary names. For this purpose use File...
softkey, which will open the Save as dialog box.
7.1.1
Analyzer State Saving
To set the type of saving, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Type >
State |
State & Cal |
State & Trace |
All
To save the state, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save State
To save a state into one of the ten files, use
State01…State10 softkeys.
…
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates that
the state with the corresponding number is already saved.
To save the state, which will be automatically recalled
after each start of the Analyzer, use Autorecall softkey.
A check mark on the softkey indicates that such a state is
already saved.
To save a state into the file with an arbitrary name use
File... softkey.
222
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.1.2
Analyzer State Recalling
To recall the state from a file of Analyzer state, use the
following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Recall State
Click
required
State01…State10.
…
the
softkey
of
the
available
If the state with some number was not saved the
corresponding softkey will be grayed out.
You can select the state automatic recall file by clicking
Autorecall softkey.
To recall a state from the file with an arbitrary name, use
File... softkey.
223
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.2
Channel State
A channel state can be saved into the Analyzer memory. The channel state saving
procedure is similar to saving of the Analyzer state saving, and the same saving types
(described in section 7.1) are applied to the channel state saving.
Unlike the Analyzer state, the channel state is saved into the Analyzer inner volatile
memory (not to the hard disk) and is cleared when the power to the Analyzer is turned
off. For channel state storage, there are four memory registers A, B, C, D.
The channel state saving allows the user to easily copy the settings of one channel to
another one.
7.2.1
Channel State Saving
To save the active channel state, use the following
softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Channel
To save a state into one of the four memory registers, use
State A…State D softkeys.
…
7.2.2
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates that
the state with the corresponding number is already saved.
Channel State Recalling
To recall the active channel state, use the following
softkeys:
Save/Recall > Recall Channel
Click the required softkey of the available State A…State
D.
…
If the state with some number was not saved the
corresponding softkey will be grayed out.
224
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.3
Trace Data CSV File
The Analyzer allows the use to save an individual trace data as a CSV file (comma
separated values). The *.CSV file contains digital data separated by commas. The active
trace stimulus and response values in current format are saved to *.CSV file.
Only one (active) trace data are saved to the file.
The trace data are saved to *.CSV in the following format:
F[0],
Data1,
Data2
F[1],
Data1,
Data2
. . .
F[N],
Data1,
Data2
F[n] –
frequency at measurement point n;
Data1 –
trace response in rectangular format, real part in Smith chart and polar format;
Data2 –
zero in rectangular format, imaginary part in Smith chart and polar format.
7.3.1
CSV File Saving/Recalling
To save the trace data, first activate the trace.
To save the trace data, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Trace Data
Enter the file name in the dialog that appears.
225
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.4
Trace Data Touchstone File
The Analyzer allows the user to save S-parameters to a Touchstone file. The
Touchstone file contains the frequency values and S-parameters. The files of this format
are typical for most of circuit simulator programs.
The *.s2p files are used for saving all the four S-parameters of a 2-port device.
The *.s1p files are used for saving S11 and S22 parameters of a 1-port device.
Only one (active) trace data are saved to the file.
Note
If a channel does not have all the S-parameter traces, only
available S-parameter responses will be represented. For
example, if one S11 trace is enabled, S21 response will be
represented, and S12 and S22 will not be represented. The
missing S-parameters are displayed as zeroes in the file.
If full 2-port calibration is active, all the four Sparameters in a channel are measured, independently of
the number of the traces.
The Touchstone file saving function is applied to individual channels. To use this
function, first activate the channel.
226
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
The Touchstone file contains comments, header, and trace data lines. Comments start
from «!» symbol. Header starts from «#» symbol.
The *.s1p Touchstone file for 1-port measurements:
! Comments
# Hz S FMT R Z0
F[0]
{S11}’
{S11}”
F[1]
{S11}’
{S11}”
. . .
F[N]
{S11}’
{S11}”
The *.s2p Touchstone file for 2-port measurements:
! Comments
# Hz S FMT R Z0
F[0]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
F[1]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
. . .
F[N]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
Hz – frequency measurement units (kHz, MHz, GHz)
FMT – data format:
 RI – real and imaginary parts,
 MA – linear magnitude and phase in degrees,
 DB – logarithmic magnitude in dB and phase in degrees.
Z0 – reference impedance value
F[n] – frequency at measurement point n
{…}’ – {real part (RI) | linear magnitude (MA) | logarithmic magnitude (DB)}
{…}” – {imaginary part (RI) | phase in degrees (MA) | phase in degrees (DB)}
7.4.1
Touchstone File Saving/Recalling
To select the saving type, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Type > 1Port (s1p) | 2-Port (s2p)
227
7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
For 1-port saving type select the port number using the
following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Select Port
(s1p).
To select the data format, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Format > RI
| MA | DB
To save file to the hard disk, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Save File…
Enter the file name in the dialog that appears.
228
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.1
Analyzer Presetting
Analyzer presetting feature allows the user to restore the default settings of the
Analyzer.
The default settings of your Analyzer are specified in Appendix 1.
To preset the Analyzer, use the following softkeys:
System > Preset > OK
8.2
Graph Printing
This section describes the print/save procedures for the graph data.
The print function is provided with the preview feature, which allows the user to view
the image to be printed on the screen, and/or save it to a file.
You can print out the graphs using three different applications:
 MS Word;
 Image Viewer for Windows;
 Print Wizard of the Analyzer.
Note
MS Word application must be installed in Windows
system.
Note
The Print Wizard requires at least one printer to be
installed in Windows.
You can select the print color before the image is transferred to the printing application:
 Color (no changes);
 Gray Scale;
 Black & White.
You can invert the image before it is transferred to the printing application.
You can add current date and time before the image is transferred to the printing
application.
229
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To print a graph, use the following softkeys:
System > Print
Select the print color, using Print Color softkey:
■
Color
■
Gray Scale
■
Black & White
If necessary, invert the image by Invert Image softkey.
If necessary, select printing of date and time by Print Date
& Time softkey.
Then select the printing application, using one of the
following softkeys:
8.3
■
Print: MS Word
■
Print: Windows
■
Print: Embedded
Reference Frequency Oscillator Selection
The Analyzer can operate either with internal or with external reference frequency (10
MHz) oscillator. Initially the Analyzer is set to operation with the internal source of the
reference frequency.
You can switch between these two modes in the softkey menu.
To select the reference frequency oscillator, use the
following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Ref Source
230
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.4
System Correction Setting
The Analyzer is supplied from the manufacturer calibrated with the calibration
coefficients stored in its non-volatile memory. The factory calibration is used by default
for initial correction of the measured S-parameters. Such calibration is referred to as
system calibration, and the error correction is referred to as system correction.
The system correction ensures initial values of the measured S-parameters before the
Analyzer is calibrated by the user. The system calibration is performed at the plane of
the port physical connectors and leaves out of account the cables and other fixture used
to connect the DUT. The measurement accuracy of the Analyzer without its calibration
with the user setup is not rated.
Normally, the disabling of the system correction is not required for a calibration and
further measurements.
The system correction can be disabled only in case the user provided a proper
calibration for the Analyzer. The measurement accuracy is determined by user
calibration and does not depend on the system correction status. The only rule that
should be observes is to disable/enable the system correction before the user calibration,
so that the calibration and further measurement could be performed under the same
conditions.
If the system correction is disabled by the user, this is indicated in the instrument status
bar.
Note
TRL calibration is not compatible with system correction.
The system correction will be automatically turned off
when TRL calibration is performed.
To disable/enable the system correction, use the following
softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > System Correction
231
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.5
Beeper Setting
The Analyzer features two settings of the beeper, which can be toggled on/off
independently from each other:
 operation complete beeper – informs the user about normal
completion of standard measurements during calibration;
 warning beeper – informs the user about an error or a fail limit
test result.
To toggle the beeper, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Beep Complete
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Beep Warning
To test the beeper, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Test Beep Complete
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Test Beep Warning
232
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.6
User Interface Setting
The Analyzer enables you to make the following user interface settings:

Toggle between full screen and window display

Set color of:


Note

Data traces

Memory traces

Background and grid of graph

Background and font of menu bar
Style and width of:

Data traces

Memory traces

Graph grid
Font size of:

Softkeys

Channel window

Channel status bar

Instrument status bar

Invert color of graph area

Hide/show menu bar

Hide/show stimulus graticule (X axis)

Set response graticule mode (Y axis)

off

on for active trace

on for all traces
The user interface settings are automatically saved and
will restore when you next time turn the Analyzer on. No
particular saving procedure is required. There is a button
for restoration of the default factory settings for the user
interface.
233
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To toggle between full screen and window display, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Full Screen
To change the color of the active data trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Data Trace
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color components.
The changes made to the color of the active data traces
will affect all the traces with the same number in other
channels.
To change the color of the active memory trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Memory Trace
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color components.
The changes made to the color of the active memory
traces will affect all the traces with the same number in
other channels.
To change the color of the background of the graph, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Background
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color components.
234
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To change the color of the grid of the graph, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color >Grid
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color components.
To change the style and width of a data trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Data Trace Style
Display > Properties > Lines > Data Trace Width
To change the style and width of a memory trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Mem Trace Style
Display > Properties > Lines > Mem Trace Width
To change the grid style, the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Grid Style
To change the font size on the softkeys, in the channel
window, in the channel status bar, or the instrument status
bar, use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Font Size > Softkeys
Display > Properties > Font Size > Window Channel
Display > Properties > Font Size > Channel State
Display > Properties > Font Size > Instr State
Then select the font size from 10 to 13.
235
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To invert the color of the graph area, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Properties > Invert Color
To hide/show the menu bar, use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Menu Bar
To hide/show stimulus graticule (X axis), use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Frequency Label
To set the response graticule label mode (Y axis), use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Graticule Label>
OFF | Active Trace | All Traces
To restore the default factory settings, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Properties > Set Defaults
236
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.7
Screen Update Setting
Screen updating can be disabled to reduce the sweep time. This function can be useful
during remote control over the Analyzer via COM/DCOM interfaces.
To disable the screen updating, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Update
Note
If the screen updating is off, this will be indicated in the
instrument status bar Update Off.
237
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.8
Power Meter Setting
An external power meter can be connected to the Analyzer to perform power calibration
of the test ports. Connect the power meter to PC directly to USB port or via USB/GPIB
adapter. Then install the power meter software. The list of the power meters supported
by the Analyzer is shown in table 8.1.
Sensor
238
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
Sensor
Power
Meter
Figure 8.1 Power meter setup example
Table 8.1 Supported power meters
Power Meter
Name in
Analyzer
Program
USB
Connection
Type
Rohde&Schwarz
NRP-Z series
Sensors (without
Power Meter)
R&S NRP-Z
sensors
R&S NRP-Z4
Adapter
Additional Software

Rohde&Schwarz NRP-Toolkit

Rohde&Schwarz RSNRPZ
Instrument driver
239
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
NRP-Z51
(recommended)
Rohde&Schwarz
NRVS Power
Meter and NRVZ51 or NRV-Z4
Sensors
R&S NRVS
GPIB/USB
Adapter

GPIB/USB Adapter driver

VISA visa32.dll Library
To select the power meter, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup > Power Meter
> R&S NRP-Z sensors (USB) | R&S NRVS (GPIB)
If the power meter has GPIB interface, set the GPIB
board address and the power meter address in the bus,
using the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup > GPIB Board
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup >
Address
GPIB
softkey checks the connection and settings
of the power meter. It provides sensor type, if the
communication between the Analyzer and the power
meter has been successfully established.
Sensor Info…
240
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.9
Stimulus Frequency Adjustment
This function provides fine adjustment of the stimulus frequency by means of an
external frequency counter. By setting the stimulus frequency adjustment coefficient
from -128 to +127, you can perform relative adjustment of the frequency within
±0.001% (typical value). This setting will be saved in the nonvolatile memory of the
Analyzer. The function adjusts the frequency of the internal reference frequency
oscillator, so to adjust the frequency over all the operating frequency range, it is
sufficient to perform the adjustment in one frequency point.
To adjust the stimulus frequency, proceed as follows:
Switch the Analyzer on and warm it up to the operating temperature for 40 minutes;
Connect the frequency counter to the external reference (10 MHz) frequency connector
oscillator or to one of the Analyzer test ports;
If you connect the frequency meter to a test port of the Analyzer, set this test port to the
CW-frequency output operation.
To access the stimulus frequency adjustment function,
use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Frequency Adjustment…
In the pop-up dialog, set the stimulus frequency adjustment coefficient, which ensures
the value measured by the frequency meter being closest to the output frequency of the
Analyzer. Save this coefficient to the nonvolatile memory by clicking Save softkey.
241
9 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE
9.1
Maintenance Procedures
This section describes the guidelines and procedures of maintenance, which will ensure
fault-free operation of your Analyzer.
The maintenance of the Analyzer consists in cleaning of the instrument, factory
calibrations, and regular performance tests.
9.1.1
Instrument Cleaning
This section provides the cleaning instructions required for maintaining the proper
operation of your Analyzer.
To remove contamination from parts other than test ports and any connectors of the
Analyzer, wipe them gently with a soft cloth that is dry or wetted with a small amount
of water and wrung tightly.
It is essential to keep the test ports always clean as any dust or stains on them can
significantly affect the measurement capabilities of the instrument. To clean the test
ports (as well as other connectors of the Analyzer), use the following procedure:
– using compressed air remove or loosen the contamination particles;
– clean the connectors using a lint-free cleaning cloth wetted with a small amount of
ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (when cleaning a female connector, avoid snagging
the cloth on the center conductor contact fingers by using short strokes);
– dry the connector with low-pressure compressed air.
Always completely dry a connector before using it.
Never use water or abrasives for cleaning any connectors of the Analyzer.
Do not allow contact of alcohol to the surface of the insulators of the connectors.
When connecting male-female coaxial connectors always use a calibrated wrench.
Never perform cleaning of the instrument if the power
cable is connected to the power outlet.
WARNING
9.1.2
Never clean the internal components of the
instrument.
Factory Calibration
Factory calibration is a regular calibration performed by the manufacturer or an
authorized service center. We recommend you to send your Analyzer for factory
calibration every three years.
242
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
9.1.3
Performance Test
Performance test is the procedure of the Analyzer performance verification by
confirming that the behavior of the instrument meets the published specifications.
Performance test of the Analyzer should be performed in accordance with Performance
Test Instructions.
The Analyzer software is provided with System > Performance Test submenu for
automatic verification execution.
Performance test period is one year.
9.2
Storage Instructions
Before first use store your Analyzer in the factory package at environment temperature
from 0 to +40 ºС and relative humidity up to 80% (at 25 ºС).
After you have removed the factory package store the Analyzer at environment
temperature from +10 to +35 ºС and relative humidity up to 80% (at 25 ºС).
Ensure to keep the storage facilities free from dust, fumes of acids and alkalies,
aggressive gases, and other chemicals, which can cause corrosion.
243
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
10 WARRANTY INFORMATION
1. The manufacturer warrants the Network Analyzer to conform to the specifications of
this Manual when used in accordance with the regulations of operation detailed in this
Manual.
2. The manufacturer will repair or replace without charge, at its option, any Analyzer
found defective in manufacture within the warranty period, which is twelve (12) months
from the date of purchase. Should the user fail to submit the warranty card appropriately
certified by the seller with its stamp and date of purchase the warranty period will be
determined by the date of manufacture.
3. The warranty is considered void if:
a) the defect or damage is caused by improper storage, misuse, neglect, inadequate
maintenance, or accident;
b) the product is tampered with, modified or repaired by an unauthorized party;
c) the product's seals are tampered with;
d) the product has mechanical damage.
4. The batteries are not included or covered by this warranty.
5. Transport risks and costs to and from the manufacturer or the authorized service
centers are sustained by the buyer.
6. The manufacturer is not liable for direct or indirect damage of any kind to people or
goods caused by the use of the product and/or suspension of use due to eventual repairs.
7. When returning the faulty product please include the accurate details of this product
and clear description of the fault. The manufacturer reserves the right to check the
product in its laboratories to verify the foundation of the claim.
Manufacturer's contact information:
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
244
Appendix 1 — Default Settings Table
Default values defined in the process of the initial factory setup.
Parameter Description
Data Saving Type
Touchstone Data Format
Default Setting
Parameter Setting
Object
State and
Calibration
Analyzer
Real-Imaginary
Analyzer
Allocation of Channels
Active Channel Number
Analyzer
1
Analyzer
Marker Value Identification Capacity
(Stimulus)
7 digits
Analyzer
Marker Value Identification Capacity
(Response)
4 digits
Analyzer
OFF
Analyzer
Reference Frequency Source
Internal
Analyzer
Trigger Signal Source
Internal
Analyzer
Reference Channel Error Correction
ON
Analyzer
System Correction
ON
Analyzer
Marker Table
Allocation of Traces
Channel
Vertical Divisions
10
Channel
Channel Title Bar
OFF
Channel
Empty
Channel
OFF
Channel
Frequency Order
Channel
Traces per Channel
1
Channel
Active Trace Number
1
Channel
ON
Channel
Linear Frequency
Channel
Number of Sweep Points
201
Channel
Stimulus Start Frequency
20 kHz
Channel
Stimulus Stop Frequency
Maximum
Analyzer
frequency
Channel
Stimulus CW Frequency
20 kHz
Channel
-50 dBm
Channel
Channel Title
«FAIL» Label Display (Limit Test)
Segment Sweep Frequency Axis Display
Marker Coupling
Sweep Type
Stimulus Start Power Level
245
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
Stimulus Stop Power Level
5 dBm
Channel
Stimulus Power Level
0 dBm
Channel
Stimulus Power Slope
0 dBm
Channel
Stimulus IF Bandwidth
10 kHz
Channel
0 sec.
Channel
Sweep Range Setting
Start / Stop
Channel
Number of Segments
1
Channel
Points per Segment
2
Channel
Segment Start Frequency
20 kHz
Channel
Segment Stop Frequency
20 kHz
Channel
Segment Sweep Power Level
0 dBm
Channel
Segment Sweep IF Bandwidth
10 kHz
Channel
Segment Sweep Measurement Delay
0 sec.
Channel
Segment Sweep Power Level (Table Display)
OFF
Channel
Segment Sweep IF Bandwidth (Table Display)
OFF
Channel
Segment Sweep Measurement Delay (Table
Display)
OFF
Channel
Start / Stop
Channel
OFF
Channel
10
Channel
Continuous
Channel
Empty
Channel
Error Correction
OFF
Channel
Port Z Conversion
OFF
Channel
Port 1 Simulated Impedance
50 Ω/75 Ω
Channel
Port 2 Simulated Impedance
50 Ω/75 Ω
Channel
Port 1 De-embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 2 De-embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 1 De-embedding S-parameter File
Empty
Channel
Port 2 De-embedding S-parameter File
Empty
Channel
Port 1 Embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 2 Embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 1 Embedding User File
Empty
Channel
Port 2 Embedding User File
Empty
Channel
S11
Trace
10 dB / Div.
Trace
0 dB
Trace
Sweep Measurement Delay
Segment Sweep Range Setting
Averaging
Averaging Factor
Trigger Mode
Table of Calibration Coefficients
Measurement Parameter
Trace Scale
Reference Level Value
246
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
Reference Level Position
5 Div.
Trace
OFF
Trace
0°
Trace
Electrical Delay
0 sec.
Trace
S-parameter Conversion
OFF
Trace
Z: Reflection
Trace
Logarithmic
Magnitude (dB)
Trace
OFF
Trace
Time Domain Transformation Start
–10 nsec.
Trace
Time Domain Transformation Stop
10 nsec.
Trace
6
Trace
Bandpass
Trace
ON
Trace
Time Domain Gate Start
–10 ns
Trace
Time Domain Gate Stop
10 ns
Trace
Time Domain Gate Type
Bandpass
Trace
Time Domain Gate Shape
Normal
Trace
Smoothing
OFF
Trace
Smoothing Aperture
1%
Trace
Trace Display Mode
Data
Trace
Limit Test
OFF
Trace
Limit Line Display
OFF
Trace
Defined Limit Lines
Empty
Trace
Number of Markers
0
Trace
Marker Position
20 kHz
Trace
Marker Search
Maximum
Trace
Marker Tracking
OFF
Trace
Marker Search Target
0 dB
Trace
Marker Search Target Transition
Both
Trace
Positive
Trace
Marker Search Peak Excursion
3 dB
Trace
Bandwidth Parameter Search
OFF
Trace
Marker Search Bandwidth Value
-3 dB
Trace
Marker Search Range
OFF
Trace
Marker Search Start
0
Trace
Marker Search Stop
0
Trace
Data Math
Phase Offset
S-parameter Conversion Function
Trace Display Format
Time Domain Transformation
Time Domain Kaiser-Beta
Time Domain Transformation Type
Time Domain Gate
Marker Search Peak Polarity
247
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
248
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement